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Sample records for versatile viral system

  1. A versatile viral system for expression and depletion of proteins in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Campeau

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to express or deplete proteins in living cells is crucial for the study of biological processes. Viral vectors are often useful to deliver DNA constructs to cells that are difficult to transfect by other methods. Lentiviruses have the additional advantage of being able to integrate into the genomes of non-dividing mammalian cells. However, existing viral expression systems generally require different vector backbones for expression of cDNA, small hairpin RNA (shRNA or microRNA (miRNA and provide limited drug selection markers. Furthermore, viral backbones are often recombinogenic in bacteria, complicating the generation and maintenance of desired clones. Here, we describe a collection of 59 vectors that comprise an integrated system for constitutive or inducible expression of cDNAs, shRNAs or miRNAs, and use a wide variety of drug selection markers. These vectors are based on the Gateway technology (Invitrogen whereby the cDNA, shRNA or miRNA of interest is cloned into an Entry vector and then recombined into a Destination vector that carries the chosen viral backbone and drug selection marker. This recombination reaction generates the desired product with >95% efficiency and greatly reduces the frequency of unwanted recombination in bacteria. We generated Destination vectors for the production of both retroviruses and lentiviruses. Further, we characterized each vector for its viral titer production as well as its efficiency in expressing or depleting proteins of interest. We also generated multiple types of vectors for the production of fusion proteins and confirmed expression of each. We demonstrated the utility of these vectors in a variety of functional studies. First, we show that the FKBP12 Destabilization Domain system can be used to either express or deplete the protein of interest in mitotically-arrested cells. Also, we generate primary fibroblasts that can be induced to senesce in the presence or absence of DNA damage

  2. Holographic versatile disc system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tan, Xiaodi

    2005-09-01

    A Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) system, using Collinear Technologies for a high capacity and high data transfer rates storage system, is proposed. With its unique configuration the optical pickup can be designed as small as a DVD's, and can be placed on one side of the disc. With the HVD's special structure, the system can servo the focus/track and locate reading/writing address. A unique selectable capacity recording format of HVD and its standardization activity are also introduced. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the tilt, wavelength, defocus and de-track margins are wide enough to miniaturize the HVD system at a low cost. HVD systems using Collinear Technologies will be compatible with existing disc storage systems, like CD and DVD, and will enable us to expand its applications into other optical information storage systems.

  3. The Ly49 natural killer cell receptors: a versatile tool for viral self-discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Richard; Rossjohn, Jamie; Brooks, Andrew G

    2014-03-01

    The activation of murine and human natural killer (NK) cells is regulated by families of receptors including the Ly49 and Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors, respectively, both of which contain activating and inhibitory members. The archetypal role of inhibitory Ly49 receptors is to attenuate NK cell responses to normal cells that express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-I molecules, in essence allowing for more robust responses to infected or cancerous cells that lack MHC-I on their cell surface. However, it is now evident that Ly49 receptors have an appreciably more sophisticated array of functions. In particular, some activating Ly49 receptors can bind directly to MHC-I-like viral gene products such as m157, whereas others recognize self-MHC-I but only in the presence of viral chaperones. Although Ly49 receptor recognition is centred on the MHC-I-like fold, these NK cell receptors can also engage related ligands in unexpected ways. Herein we review the varied strategies employed by Ly49 receptors to recognize both self and viral ligands, with particular emphasis on the recently determined mode of Ly49-m157 ligation, and highlight the versatile nature of this family in the control of viral infections.

  4. The Q-System: A Versatile Expression System for Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riabinina, Olena; Potter, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Binary expression systems are flexible and versatile genetic tools in Drosophila. The Q-system is a recently developed repressible binary expression system that offers new possibilities for transgene expression and genetic manipulations. In this review chapter, we focus on current state-of-the-art Q-system tools and reagents. We also discuss in vivo applications of the Q-system, together with GAL4/UAS and LexA/LexAop systems, for simultaneous expression of multiple effectors, intersectional labeling, and clonal analysis.

  5. Viral Evasion and Subversion Mechanisms of the Host Immune System

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    Mehran Ghaemi-Bafghi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the most abundant and versatile pathogens which challenge the immune system and cause major threats to human health. Viruses employ differ¬ent mechanisms to evade host immune responses that we describe them under the following headings: Inhibition of humoral responses, Interference with interferons, Inhibition and modulation of cytokines and chemokines, Inhibitors of apoptosis, Evading CTLs and NKs, and modulating MHC function.Viruses inhibit humoral immunity in different ways which contains change of viral antigens, production of regulatory proteins of complement system and receptors of the Fc part of antibodies. Viruses block interferon production and function via interruption of cell signaling JAK/STAT pathway, Inhibition of eIF-2α phosphorylation and translational arrest and 2'5'OS/RNAse L system. Also, Poxviruses produce soluble versions of receptors for interferons. One of the most important ways of viral evasion is inhibition and manipulation of cytokines; for example, Herpsviruses and Poxviruses produce viral cytokines (virokines and cytokine receptors (viroceptors. In addition, viruses change maturation and expression of MHC I and MHC II molecules to interrupt viral antigens presentation and hide them from immune system recognition. Also, they inhibit NK cell functions.In this review, we provide an overview of the viral evasion mechanisms of immune system. Since most viruses have developed strategies for evasion of immune system, if we know these mechanisms in detail we can fight them more successfully.

  6. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems

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    Villarreal, Luis P.

    2011-01-01

    All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features. PMID:22069523

  7. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis P. Villarreal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  8. Viral ancestors of antiviral systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Luis P

    2011-10-01

    All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the 'Big Bang' theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  9. A Versatile Prototyping System for Capacitive Sensing

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    Daniel HRACH

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-purpose and easy to handle rapid prototyping platform that has been designed for capacitive measurement systems. The core of the prototype platform is a Digital Signal Processor board that allows for the entire data acquisition, data (pre- processing and storage, and communication with any host computer. The platform is running on uCLinux operating system and features the possibility of a fast design and evaluation of capacitive sensor developments. To show the practical benefit of the prototyping platform, three exemplary applications are presented. For all applications, the platform is just plugged to the electrode structure of the sensor front-end without the need for analogue signal pre-conditioning.

  10. CORRTEX: a compact and versatile system for time domain reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deupree, R.G.; Eilers, D.D.; McKown, T.O.; Storey, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    The CORRTEX (COntinuous Reflectometry for Radius versus Time EXperiments) system was designed to be an adaptable and versatile unit for performing time domain reflectometry (TDR). The system consists of a coaxial cable, a digital TDR, which uses a Motorola 6800 microprocessor, a power source or battery pack, and an output terminal or recording driver. Desirable criteria for the system are discussed as well as the operation of the CORRTEX system. The types of present applications of the CORRTEX system are summarized and data presented.

  11. Read-only holographic versatile disc system using laser diode

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    Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tan, Xiaodi

    2006-05-01

    A Read-only Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD-ROM) system, using a laser diode for high capacity and high data transfer rates storage system, is proposed. With the collinear technologies' unique configuration the optical pickup can be designed as small as a DVD's, and can be placed on one side of the disc. With the HVD's special structure, the system can servo the focus/tracking and locate reading/writing address. The experiments and theoretical studies suggest that a laser diode is very suitable as a light source of our HVD-ROM system.

  12. PDZ Domains and Viral Infection: Versatile Potentials of HPV-PDZ Interactions in relation to Malignancy

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    Kazunori Nagasaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is caused by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs, and a unique characteristic of these is a PDZ (P̲SD-95/D̲lg/Z̲O-1-binding motif in their E6 proteins. Through this motif HPV E6 interacts with a variety of PDZ domain-containing proteins and targets them mainly for degradation. These E6-PDZ interactions exhibit extraordinarily different functions in relation to HPV-induced malignancy, depending upon various cellular contexts; for example, Dlg and Scrib show different distribution patterns from what is seen in normal epithelium, both in localization and in amount, and their loss may be a late-stage marker in malignant progression. Recent studies show that interactions with specific forms of the proteins may have oncogenic potential. In addition, it is interesting that PDZ proteins make a contribution to the stabilization of E6 and viral episomal maintenance during the course of HPV life cycle. Various posttranslational modifications also greatly affect their functions. Phosphorylation of hDlg and hScrib by certain kinases regulates several important signaling cascades, and E6-PDZ interactions themselves are regulated through PKA-dependent phosphorylation. Thus these interactions naturally have great potential for both predictive and therapeutic applications, and, with development of screening tools for identifying novel targets of their interactions, comprehensive spatiotemporal analysis is currently underway.

  13. Microscale Symmetrical Electroporator Array as a Versatile Molecular Delivery System

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    Ouyang, Mengxing; Hill, Winfield; Lee, Jung Hyun; Hur, Soojung Claire

    2017-03-01

    Successful developments of new therapeutic strategies often rely on the ability to deliver exogenous molecules into cytosol. We have developed a versatile on-chip vortex-assisted electroporation system, engineered to conduct sequential intracellular delivery of multiple molecules into various cell types at low voltage in a dosage-controlled manner. Micro-patterned planar electrodes permit substantial reduction in operational voltages and seamless integration with an existing microfluidic technology. Equipped with real-time process visualization functionality, the system enables on-chip optimization of electroporation parameters for cells with varying properties. Moreover, the system’s dosage control and multi-molecular delivery capabilities facilitate intracellular delivery of various molecules as a single agent or in combination and its utility in biological research has been demonstrated by conducting RNA interference assays. We envision the system to be a powerful tool, aiding a wide range of applications, requiring single-cell level co-administrations of multiple molecules with controlled dosages.

  14. A new versatile in-process monitoring system for milling

    CERN Document Server

    Ritou, Mathieu; Furet, Benoît; Hascoët, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Tool condition monitoring (TCM) systems can improve productivity and ensure workpiece quality, yet, there is a lack of reliable TCM solutions for small-batch or one-off manufacturing of industrial parts. TCM methods which include the characteristics of the cut seem to be particularly suitable for these demanding applications. In the first section of this paper, three process-based indicators have been retrieved from literature dealing with TCM. They are analysed using a cutting force model and experiments are carried out in industrial conditions. Specific transient cuttings encountered during the machining of the test part reveal the indicators to be unreliable. Consequently, in the second section, a versatile in-process monitoring method is suggested. Based on experiments carried out under a range of different cutting conditions, an adequate indicator is proposed: the relative radial eccentricity of the cutters is estimated at each instant and characterizes the tool state. It is then compared with the previo...

  15. A versatile computer-controlled high-resolution LBIC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.; Fernandez-Lorenzo, C.; Poce-Fatou, J.A.; Alcantara, R. [Facultad de Ciencias, Cadiz (Spain). Dpto. de Quimica Fisica

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the design of versatile equipment for obtaining laser-beam-induced current (LBIC) images which allows the study of large surfaces as well as conversion areas of a few micrometers. The modular optomechanical design enables the user to modify the size of the irradiation spot by simply changing the microscope objective used as focal lens, albeit within the limits set by the wavelength. The use of an appropriate calculation algorithm makes it possible to rely on a computerized system to adjust the distance at which the focusing lens must be placed with respect to the sample plane. The possibility of working at micrometer resolution allows one to obtain very significant information for the study of irregularities, manufacturing defects, impurities, grain boundaries, dislocations, recombination centers, etc. in photovoltaic wafers. (author)

  16. Versatile RNA interference nanoplatform for systemic delivery of RNAs.

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    Choi, Ki Young; Silvestre, Oscar F; Huang, Xinglu; Min, Kyung Hyun; Howard, Gregory P; Hida, Naoki; Jin, Albert J; Carvajal, Nicole; Lee, Sang Wook; Hong, Jong-In; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-05-27

    Development of nontoxic, tumor-targetable, and potent in vivo RNA delivery systems remains an arduous challenge for clinical application of RNAi therapeutics. Herein, we report a versatile RNAi nanoplatform based on tumor-targeted and pH-responsive nanoformulas (NFs). The NF was engineered by combination of an artificial RNA receptor, Zn(II)-DPA, with a tumor-targetable and drug-loadable hyaluronic acid nanoparticle, which was further modified with a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating by in situ mineralization. The NF can encapsulate small-molecule drugs within its hydrophobic inner core and strongly secure various RNA molecules (siRNAs, miRNAs, and oligonucleotides) by utilizing Zn(II)-DPA and a robust CaP coating. We substantiated the versatility of the RNAi nanoplatform by demonstrating effective delivery of siRNA and miRNA for gene silencing or miRNA replacement into different human types of cancer cells in vitro and into tumor-bearing mice in vivo by intravenous administration. The therapeutic potential of NFs coloaded with an anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) and multidrug resistance 1 gene target siRNA (siMDR) was also demonstrated in this study. NFs loaded with Dox and siMDR could successfully sensitize drug-resistant OVCAR8/ADR cells to Dox and suppress OVCAR8/ADR tumor cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. This gene/drug delivery system appears to be a highly effective nonviral method to deliver chemo- and RNAi therapeutics into host cells.

  17. Collinear technology for holographic versatile disc (HVD) system

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    Tan, Xiaodi; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Shimura, Tsutomu; Ichimura, Shotaro; Fujimura, Ryushi; Kuroda, Kazuo

    2006-09-01

    Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD TM) using Collinear TM Technologies is proposed by OPTWARE Corporation, in which the information and reference beams are displayed co-axially by the same SLM. With this unique configuration the optical pickup can be designed as small as the DVD's, and can be placed on one side of the recording disc. In HVD TM structure, the pre-formatted meta-data reflective layer is used for the focus/tracking servo and reading address information, and the dichroic mirror layer is used for detecting holographic recording information without interfering with the preformatted information. A 2-dimensional digital page data format is used and the shift-multiplexing method is employed to increased recording density of HVD TM. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the holographic material is very effective to increased recording density of the system. As the servo technology is being introduced to control the objective lens to be maintained precisely to the disc in the recording and the reconstructing process, a vibration isolator is no longer necessary. HVD TM will be compatible with existing disc storage systems, like CD and DVD, and enable us to expand its applications into other optical information storage systems.

  18. Versatility of cyclodextrins in self-assembly systems of amphiphiles.

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    Jiang, Lingxiang; Yan, Yun; Huang, Jianbin

    2011-11-14

    Recently, cyclodextrins (CDs) were found to play important yet complicated (or even apparently opposite sometimes) roles in self-assembly systems of amphiphiles or surfactants. Herein, we try to review and clarify the versatility of CDs in surfactant assembly systems by 1) classifying the roles played by CDs into two groups (modulator and building unit) and four subgroups (destructive and constructive modulators, amphiphilic and unamphiphilic building units), 2) comparing these subgroups, and 3) analyzing mechanisms. As a modulator, although CDs by themselves do not participate into the final surfactant aggregates, they can greatly affect the aggregates in two ways. In most cases CDs will destroy the aggregates by depleting surfactant molecules from the aggregates (destructive), or in certain cases CDs can promote the aggregates to grow by selectively removing the less-aggregatable surfactant molecules from the aggregates (constructive). As an amphiphilic building unit, CDs can be chemically (by chemical bonds) or physically (by host-guest interaction) attached to a hydrophobic moiety, and the resultant compounds act as classic amphiphiles. As an unamphiphilic building unit, CD/surfactant complexes or even CDs on their own can assemble into aggregates in an unconventional, unamphiphilic manner driven by CD-CD H-bonds. Moreover, special emphasis is put on two recently appeared aspects: the constructive modulator and unamphiphilic building unit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a versatile eukaryotic system in virology

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    Breinig Tanja

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a well-established model system for understanding fundamental cellular processes relevant to higher eukaryotic organisms. Less known is its value for virus research, an area in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be very fruitful as well. The present review will discuss the main achievements of yeast-based studies in basic and applied virus research. These include the analysis of the function of individual proteins from important pathogenic viruses, the elucidation of key processes in viral replication through the development of systems that allow the replication of higher eukayotic viruses in yeast, and the use of yeast in antiviral drug development and vaccine production.

  20. Versatile rogue waves in scalar, vector, and multidimensional nonlinear systems

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    Chen, Shihua; Baronio, Fabio; Soto-Crespo, Jose M.; Grelu, Philippe; Mihalache, Dumitru

    2017-11-01

    This review is dedicated to recent progress in the active field of rogue waves, with an emphasis on the analytical prediction of versatile rogue wave structures in scalar, vector, and multidimensional integrable nonlinear systems. We first give a brief outline of the historical background of the rogue wave research, including referring to relevant up-to-date experimental results. Then we present an in-depth discussion of the scalar rogue waves within two different integrable frameworks—the infinite nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) hierarchy and the general cubic-quintic NLS equation, considering both the self-focusing and self-defocusing Kerr nonlinearities. We highlight the concept of chirped Peregrine solitons, the baseband modulation instability as an origin of rogue waves, and the relation between integrable turbulence and rogue waves, each with illuminating examples confirmed by numerical simulations. Later, we recur to the vector rogue waves in diverse coupled multicomponent systems such as the long-wave short-wave equations, the three-wave resonant interaction equations, and the vector NLS equations (alias Manakov system). In addition to their intriguing bright–dark dynamics, a series of other peculiar structures, such as coexisting rogue waves, watch-hand-like rogue waves, complementary rogue waves, and vector dark three sisters, are reviewed. Finally, for practical considerations, we also remark on higher-dimensional rogue waves occurring in three closely-related (2  +  1)D nonlinear systems, namely, the Davey–Stewartson equation, the composite (2  +  1)D NLS equation, and the Kadomtsev–Petviashvili I equation. As an interesting contrast to the peculiar X-shaped light bullets, a concept of rogue wave bullets intended for high-dimensional systems is particularly put forward by combining contexts in nonlinear optics.

  1. HVJ envelope vector, a versatile delivery system: its development, application, and perspectives.

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    Zhang, Qingxian; Li, Ying; Shi, Yonghong; Zhang, Yanling

    2008-08-29

    An efficient and minimally invasive vector system is the "bottle neck" of both gene transfer and drug delivery. Numerous viral and non-viral (synthetic) delivery systems have been developed and improved. Hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ, Sendai virus) envelope vector is a novel and unique system which combined the advantages of viral and non-viral vectors with the following features and advantages: (1) safe and easy as a "non-viral" transfection reagent; (2) delivery of various molecules including plasmid DNA, siRNA, protein, antisense oligonucleotide; (3) wide usability from in vitro to in vivo. In this review, the development, application, and perspectives of the HVJ envelope vector will be discussed.

  2. Origami: A Versatile Modeling System for Visualising Chemical Structure and Exploring Molecular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James; Leslie, Ray; Billington, Susan; Slater, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of "Origami" is presented as an accessible and transferable modeling system through which to convey the intricacies of molecular shape and highlight structure-function relationships. The implementation of origami has been found to be a versatile alternative to conventional ball-and-stick models, possessing the key advantages of being both…

  3. Quantum Dot Systems : A versatile platform for quantum simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthelemy, P.J.C.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum mechanics often results in extremely complex phenomena, especially when the quantum system under consideration is composed of many interacting particles. The states of these many-body systems live in a space so large that classical numerical calculations cannot compute them. Quantum

  4. Merlin: a fast versatile readout system for Medipix3

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    Plackett, R.; Horswell, I.; Gimenez, E. N.; Marchal, J.; Omar, D.; Tartoni, N.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports on the development of a new high rate readout system for the Medipix3 hybrid pixel ASIC developed by the Detector Group at Diamond Light Source. It details the current functionality of the system and initial results from tests on Diamond's B16 beamline. The Merlin system is based on a National Instruments PXI/FlexRIO system running a Xilinx Virtex5 FPGA. It is capable of recording Medipix3 256 by 256 by 12 bit data frames at over 1 kHz in bursts of 1200 frames and running at over 100 Hz continuously to disk or over a TCP/IP link. It is compatible with the standard Medipix3 single chipboards developed at CERN and is capable of driving them over cable lengths of up to 10 m depending on the data rate required. In addition to a standalone graphical interface, a system of remote TCP/IP control and data transfer has been developed to allow easy integration with third party control systems and scripting languages. Two Merlin systems are being deployed on the B16 and I16 beamlines at Diamond and the system has been integrated with the EPICS/GDA control systems used. Results from trigger synchronisation, fast burst and high rate tests made on B16 in March are reported and demonstrate an encouraging reliability and timing accuracy. In addition to normal high resolution imaging applications of Medipix3, the results indicate the system could profitably be used in `pump and probe' style experiments, where a very accurate, high frame rate is especially beneficial. In addition to these two systems, Merlin is being used by the Detector Group to test the Excalibur 16 chip hybrid modules, and by the LHCb VELO Pixel Upgrade group in their forthcoming testbeams. Additionally the contribution looks forward to further developments and improvements in the system, including full rate quad chip readout capability, multi-FPGA support, long distance optical communication and further functionality enhancements built on the capabilities of the Medipix3 chips.

  5. Versatile Friction Stir Welding/Friction Plug Welding System

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    Carter, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A proposed system of tooling, machinery, and control equipment would be capable of performing any of several friction stir welding (FSW) and friction plug welding (FPW) operations. These operations would include the following: Basic FSW; FSW with automated manipulation of the length of the pin tool in real time [the so-called auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability]; Self-reacting FSW (SRFSW); SR-FSW with APT capability and/or real-time adjustment of the distance between the front and back shoulders; and Friction plug welding (FPW) [more specifically, friction push plug welding] or friction pull plug welding (FPPW) to close out the keyhole of, or to repair, an FSW or SR-FSW weld. Prior FSW and FPW systems have been capable of performing one or two of these operations, but none has thus far been capable of performing all of them. The proposed system would include a common tool that would have APT capability for both basic FSW and SR-FSW. Such a tool was described in Tool for Two Types of Friction Stir Welding (MFS- 31647-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 10 (October 2006), page 70. Going beyond what was reported in the cited previous article, the common tool could be used in conjunction with a plug welding head to perform FPW or FPPW. Alternatively, the plug welding head could be integrated, along with the common tool, into a FSW head that would be capable of all of the aforementioned FSW and FPW operations. Any FSW or FPW operation could be performed under any combination of position and/or force control.

  6. Acidic phospholipid bicelles: a versatile model membrane system.

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    Struppe, J; Whiles, J A; Vold, R R

    2000-01-01

    With the aim of establishing acidic bicellar solutions as a useful membrane model system, we have used deuterium NMR spectroscopy to investigate the properties of dimyristoyl/dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC/DHPC) bicelles containing 25% (w/w in H(2)O) of either dimyristoylphosphatidylserine (DMPS) or dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG). The addition of the acidic lipid component to this lyotropic liquid crystalline system reduces its range of stability because of poor miscibility of the two dimyristoylated phospholipids. Compared to the neutral bicelles, which are stable at pH 4 to pH 7, acidic bicelles are stable only from pH 5.5 to pH 7. Solid-state deuterium NMR analysis of d(54)-DMPC showed similar ordering in neutral and acidic bicelles. Fully deuterated DMPS or DMPG is ordered in a way similar to that of DMPC. Study of the binding of the myristoylated N-terminal 14-residue peptide mu-GSSKSKPKDPSQRR from pp60(nu-src) to both neutral and acidic bicelles shows the utility of these novel membrane mimetics. PMID:10620292

  7. A versatile low-cost Czochralski crystal growth system for nonlinear optical organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, M. D.; Wang, W. S.; Shields, Angela W.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Frazier, Donald O.

    1992-01-01

    A versatile low-cost Czochralski system for pulling crystals from melt has been described. It is designed for low melting, transparent, and nonlinear optical materials. One of the most important novel feature of this crystal growth system is that the entire growth process including the solid-liquid interface can be viewed from any direction. Another is the use of an after-heater to reduce excess heat loss from the surface of the melt.

  8. A Versatile Beam Loss Monitoring System for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Kastriotou, Maria; Farabolini, Wilfrid; Holzer, Eva Barbara; Nebot Del Busto, Eduardo; Tecker, Frank; Welsch, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The design of a potential CLIC beam loss monitoring (BLM) system presents multiple challenges. To successfully cover the 48 km of beamline, ionisation chambers and optical fibre BLMs are under investigation. The former fulfils all CLIC requirements but would need more than 40000 monitors to protect the whole facility. For the latter, the capability of reconstructing the original loss position with a multi-bunch beam pulse and multiple loss locations still needs to be quantified. Two main sources of background for beam loss measurements are identified for CLIC. The two-beam accelerator scheme introduces so-called crosstalk, i.e. detection of losses originating in one beam line by the monitors protecting the other. Moreover, electrons emitted from the inner surface of RF cavities and boosted by the high RF gradients may produce signals in neighbouring BLMs, limiting their ability to detect real beam losses. This contribution presents the results of dedicated experiments performed in the CLIC Test Facility to qu...

  9. Versatile, low-cost, computer-controlled, sample positioning system for vacuum applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Aburto, Carlos; Liff, Dale R.

    1991-01-01

    A versatile, low-cost, easy to implement, microprocessor-based motorized positioning system (MPS) suitable for accurate sample manipulation in a Second Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) system, and for other ultra-high vacuum (UHV) applications was designed and built at NASA LeRC. The system can be operated manually or under computer control. In the latter case, local, as well as remote operation is possible via the IEEE-488 bus. The position of the sample can be controlled in three linear orthogonal and one angular coordinates.

  10. A versatile stereoscopic visual display system for vestibular and oculomotor research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, P D; Roberts, D C; Shelhamer, M; Zee, D S

    1998-01-01

    Testing of the vestibular system requires a vestibular stimulus (motion) and/or a visual stimulus. We have developed a versatile, low cost, stereoscopic visual display system, using "virtual reality" (VR) technology. The display system can produce images for each eye that correspond to targets at any virtual distance relative to the subject, and so require the appropriate ocular vergence. We elicited smooth pursuit, "stare" optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and after-nystagmus (OKAN), vergence for targets at various distances, and short-term adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), using both conventional methods and the stereoscopic display. Pursuit, OKN, and OKAN were comparable with both methods. When used with a vestibular stimulus, VR induced appropriate adaptive changes of the phase and gain of the angular VOR. In addition, using the VR display system and a human linear acceleration sled, we adapted the phase of the linear VOR. The VR-based stimulus system not only offers an alternative to more cumbersome means of stimulating the visual system in vestibular experiments, it also can produce visual stimuli that would otherwise be impractical or impossible. Our techniques provide images without the latencies encountered in most VR systems. Its inherent versatility allows it to be useful in several different types of experiments, and because it is software driven it can be quickly adapted to provide a new stimulus. These two factors allow VR to provide considerable savings in time and money, as well as flexibility in developing experimental paradigms.

  11. Adenoviral and adeno-associated viral transfer of genes to the peripheral nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzel, Markus; Flechsig, Eckhard; Navarro, Beatriz; Klein, Michael A.; Paterna, Jean C.; Büeler, Hansruedi; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2000-01-01

    Targeted expression of foreign genes to the peripheral nervous system is interesting for many applications, including gene therapy of neuromuscular diseases, neuroanatomical studies, and elucidation of mechanisms of axonal flow. Here we describe a microneurosurgical technique for injection of replication-defective viral vectors into dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Adenovirus- and adeno-associated virus-based vectors with transcriptional competence for DRG neurons led to expression of the gene of interest throughout the first neuron of the sensory system, from the distal portions of the respective sensory nerve to the ipsilateral nucleus gracilis and cuneatus, which contains the synapses to the spinothalamic tracts. Use of Rag-1 ablated mice, which lack all B and T lymphocytes, allowed for sustained expression for periods exceeding 100 days. In immunocompetent mice, long-term (52 days) expression was achieved with similar efficiency by using adeno-associated viral vectors. DRG injection was vastly superior to intraneural injection into the sciatic nerve, which mainly transduced Schwann cells in the vicinity of the site of inoculation site but only inefficiently transduced nerve fibers, whereas i.m. injection did not lead to any significant expression of the reporter gene in nerve fibers. The versatile and efficient transduction of genes of interest should enable a wide variety of functional studies of peripheral nervous system pathophysiology. PMID:10618437

  12. Viral mimicry of the complement system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    et al 2002), hepatitis C virus (Ishii et al 2001) and HIV. (Ezekowitz et al 1989; Saifuddin et al 2000). Activation of the complement system in the absence of proper regulation can lead to virus neutralization. The various mechanisms which are known to inactivate viruses are: (i) neutralization by complement dependant ...

  13. Viral mimicry of the complement system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The complement system is a potent innate immune mechanism consisting of cascades of proteins which are designed to fight against and annul intrusion of all the foreign pathogens. Although viruses are smaller in size and have relatively simple structure, they are not immune to complement attack. Thus, activation of the ...

  14. A Versatile System for USER Cloning-Based Assembly of Expression Vectors for Mammalian Cell Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Petersen, Maja Borup Kjær

    2014-01-01

    A new versatile mammalian vector system for protein production, cell biology analyses, and cell factory engineering was developed. The vector system applies the ligation-free uracil-excision based technique – USER cloning – to rapidly construct mammalian expression vectors of multiple DNA fragments...... efficiency above 90%. The functionality of basic vectors for FAST assembly was tested and validated by transient expression of fluorescent model proteins in CHO, U-2-OS and HEK293 cell lines. In this test, we included many of the most common vector elements for heterologous gene expression in mammalian cells......, in addition the system is fully extendable by other users. The vector system is designed to facilitate high-throughput genome-scale studies of mammalian cells, such as the newly sequenced CHO cell lines, through the ability to rapidly generate high-fidelity assembly of customizable gene expression vectors....

  15. A versatile PCR-based tandem epitope tagging system for Streptomyces coelicolor genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Nu; Yi, Jeong Sang; Lee, Bo-Rahm; Kim, Eun-Jung; Kim, Min Woo; Song, Yoseb; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2012-07-20

    Epitope tagging approaches have been widely used for the analysis of functions, interactions and subcellular distributions of proteins. However, incorporating epitope sequence into protein loci in Streptomyces is time-consuming procedure due to the absence of the versatile tagging methods. Here, we developed a versatile PCR-based tandem epitope tagging tool for the Streptomyces genome engineering. We constructed a series of template plasmids that carry repeated sequence of c-myc epitope, Flp recombinase target (FRT) sites, and apramycin resistance marker to insert epitope tags into any desired spot of the chromosomal loci. A DNA module which includes the tandem epitope-encoding sequence and a selectable marker was amplified by PCR with primers that carry homologous extensions to the last portion and downstream region of the targeted gene. We fused the epitope tags at the 3' region of global transcription factors of Streptomyces coelicolor to test the validity of this system. The proper insertion of the epitope tag was confirmed by PCR and western blot analysis. The recombinants showed the identical phenotype to the wild-type that proved the conservation of in vivo function of the tagged proteins. Finally, the direct binding targets were successfully detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation with the increase in the signal-to-noise ratio. The epitope tagging system describes here would provide wide applications to study the protein functions in S. coelicolor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Implementation of a versatile research data acquisition system using a commercially available medical ultrasound scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Pedersen, Mads Møller

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a versatile, open-architecture research data acquisition system using a commercially available medical ultrasound scanner. The open architecture will allow researchers and clinicians to rapidly develop applications and move them relatively easy...... to the clinic. The system consists of a standard PC equipped with a camera link and an ultrasound scanner equipped with a research interface. The ultrasound scanner is an easy-to-use imaging device that is capable of generating high-quality images. In addition to supporting the acquisition of multiple data...... to give researchers and clinicians the ability to utilize third-party software for data analysis and flexible manipulation of control parameters. Because of the advantages of speed of acquisition and clinical benefit, research projects have successfully used the system to test and implement...

  17. Viral hepatitis and immigration: A challenge for the healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-Gómez, J A; Salas-Coronas, J; Soriano-Pérez, M J; Vázquez-Villegas, J; Lozano-Serrano, A B; Cabezas-Fernández, M T

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a significant health problem in African countries. The increase in the immigrant population from this continent represents a challenge for the Spanish healthcare system. A descriptive study was conducted on the prevalence of the serological markers of hepatitis B (HBV), C (HCV) and D (HDV) in African immigrants treated in a specialised doctor's office. The study included 2518 patients (87.7% Sub-Saharan natives), with a mean age of 31.3 years. Some 78.8% of the patients had a positive infection marker for HBV, and 638 patients (25.3%) were diagnosed with active hepatitis B (HBsAg +). In 19 cases, antibodies against HDV were detected (4 cases with detection of the viral genome). Sixty-eight patients had antibodies against HCV, 26 of whom had a positive viral load. The high prevalence of viral hepatitis in immigrants, especially HBV infection, represents a significant change in the profile of patients treated in Spain and requires measures aimed at early diagnosis and transmission prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  18. Versatile microwave-driven trapped ion spin system for quantum information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltz, Christian; Sriarunothai, Theeraphot; Ivanov, Svetoslav S; Wölk, Sabine; Wunderlich, Christof

    2016-07-01

    Using trapped atomic ions, we demonstrate a tailored and versatile effective spin system suitable for quantum simulations and universal quantum computation. By simply applying microwave pulses, selected spins can be decoupled from the remaining system and, thus, can serve as a quantum memory, while simultaneously, other coupled spins perform conditional quantum dynamics. Also, microwave pulses can change the sign of spin-spin couplings, as well as their effective strength, even during the course of a quantum algorithm. Taking advantage of the simultaneous long-range coupling between three spins, a coherent quantum Fourier transform-an essential building block for many quantum algorithms-is efficiently realized. This approach, which is based on microwave-driven trapped ions and is complementary to laser-based methods, opens a new route to overcoming technical and physical challenges in the quest for a quantum simulator and a quantum computer.

  19. A Versatile Multiple Target Detection System Based on DNA Nano-assembled Linear FRET Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yansheng; Du, Hongwu; Wang, Wenqian; Zhang, Peixun; Xu, Liping; Wen, Yongqiang; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-05-27

    DNA molecules have been utilized both as powerful synthetic building blocks to create nanoscale architectures and as inconstant programmable templates for assembly of biosensors. In this paper, a versatile, scalable and multiplex detection system is reported based on an extending fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) cascades on a linear DNA assemblies. Seven combinations of three kinds of targets are successfully detected through the changes of fluorescence spectra because of the three-steps FRET or non-FRET continuity mechanisms. This nano-assembled FRET-based nanowire is extremely significant for the development of rapid, simple and sensitive detection system. The method used here could be extended to a general platform for multiplex detection through more-step FRET process.

  20. Aberrant Epstein–Barr viral infection in systemic lupus erythematosus☆

    OpenAIRE

    Poole, Brian D.; Templeton, Amanda K.; Guthridge, Joel M.; Brown, Eric J.; Harley, John B.; James, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    Serologic association, cross-reactivity of select EBV-specific antibodies with SLE autoantigens, SLE-like autoimmunity after immunization with EBV peptides, increased EB viral load in SLE patients, and SLE-specific alterations in EBV humoral and cellular immunity implicate Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To investigate SLE-specific differences in EBV gene expression, levels of eight EBV genes were compared between SLE patients and controls by...

  1. Viral infections and malformations of the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R T

    1971-02-01

    Experimental viral infections are described which cause malformations of the developing nervous system. These include influenza virus infection of chick embryos causing defects in neural tube closure and flexion, parvovirus infections of rodents and cats resulting in a granuloprival cerebellar malformation, and myxovirus infections of rodents inducing stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius. In each experimental model the pathogenesis of the malformation is different, but in each the resultant noninflammatory malformation bears resemblances to malformations in man considered to have a genetic basis.

  2. Versatile dual-technology system for markerless allele replacement in Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carolina M; Rholl, Drew A; Trunck, Lily A; Schweizer, Herbert P

    2009-10-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiologic agent of melioidosis, a rare but serious tropical disease. In the United States, genetic research with this select agent bacterium is strictly regulated. Although several select agent compliant methods have been developed for allelic replacement, all of them suffer from some drawbacks, such as a need for specific host backgrounds or use of minimal media. Here we describe a versatile select agent compliant allele replacement system for B. pseudomallei based on a mobilizable vector, pEXKm5, which contains (i) a multiple cloning site within a lacZalpha gene for facile cloning of recombinant DNA fragments, (ii) a constitutively expressed gusA indicator gene for visual detection of merodiploid formation and resolution, and (iii) elements required for resolution of merodiploids using either I-SceI homing endonuclease-stimulated recombination or sacB-based counterselection. The homing endonuclease-based allele replacement system is completed by pBADSce, which contains an araC-P(BAD)-I-sceI expression cassette for arabinose-inducible I-SceI expression and a temperature-sensitive pRO1600 replicon for facile plasmid curing. Complementing these systems is the improved Deltaasd Escherichia coli mobilizer strain RHO3. This strain is susceptible to commonly used antibiotics and allows nutritional counterselection on rich media because of its diaminopimelic acid auxotrophy. The versatility of the I-SceI- and sacB-based methods afforded by pEXKm5 in conjunction with E. coli RHO3 was demonstrated by isolation of diverse deletion mutants in several clinical, environmental, and laboratory B. pseudomallei strains. Finally, sacB-based counterselection was employed to isolate a defined chromosomal fabD(Ts) allele that causes synthesis of a temperature-sensitive FabD, an essential fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme.

  3. EEI`s wafer-cell bipolar battery: Versatile technology for a variety of military systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.T.; Klein, M.G.; Reisner, D.E. [Electro Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-11-01

    A new versatile cell design based on stackable wafer cells is described which forms the unit building block of a new generation of bipolar battery systems for a wide variety of military applications. Current is transported across an outer envelope of conductive plastic film. This innovative bipolar design approach offers improved energy density based on more efficient packaging in prismatic containers as well as elimination of cell hardware. Higher power capability is achieved from the intrinsic low resistance operation in a bipolar mode. These performance improvements are achieved in a low-cost package by virtue of the design simplicity and use of non-graphitic plastic-bonded electrodes. EEI has demonstrated the viability of the wafer cell approach in Ni-MH with sealed cell cycle life in excess of 2,000 cycles. Results are also reported for Ag-MH.

  4. Viral and nonviral delivery systems for gene delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouri Nayerossadat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is the process of introducing foreign genomic materials into host cells to elicit a therapeutic benefit. Although initially the main focus of gene therapy was on special genetic disorders, now diverse diseases with different patterns of inheritance and acquired diseases are targets of gene therapy. There are 2 major categories of gene therapy, including germline gene therapy and somatic gene therapy. Although germline gene therapy may have great potential, because it is currently ethically forbidden, it cannot be used; however, to date human gene therapy has been limited to somatic cells. Although numerous viral and nonviral gene delivery systems have been developed in the last 3 decades, no delivery system has been designed that can be applied in gene therapy of all kinds of cell types in vitro and in vivo with no limitation and side effects. In this review we explain about the history of gene therapy, all types of gene delivery systems for germline (nuclei, egg cells, embryonic stem cells, pronuclear, microinjection, sperm cells and somatic cells by viral [retroviral, adenoviral, adeno association, helper-dependent adenoviral systems, hybrid adenoviral systems, herpes simplex, pox virus, lentivirus, Epstein-Barr virus] and nonviral systems (physical: Naked DNA, DNA bombardant, electroporation, hydrodynamic, ultrasound, magnetofection and (chemical: Cationic lipids, different cationic polymers, lipid polymers. In addition to the above-mentioned, advantages, disadvantages, and practical use of each system are discussed.

  5. A Versatile and Reproducible Multi-Frequency Electrical Impedance Tomography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Avery

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly versatile Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT system, nicknamed the ScouseTom, has been developed. The system allows control over current amplitude, frequency, number of electrodes, injection protocol and data processing. Current is injected using a Keithley 6221 current source, and voltages are recorded with a 24-bit EEG system with minimum bandwidth of 3.2 kHz. Custom PCBs interface with a PC to control the measurement process, electrode addressing and triggering of external stimuli. The performance of the system was characterised using resistor phantoms to represent human scalp recordings, with an SNR of 77.5 dB, stable across a four hour recording and 20 Hz to 20 kHz. In studies of both haeomorrhage using scalp electrodes, and evoked activity using epicortical electrode mats in rats, it was possible to reconstruct images matching established literature at known areas of onset. Data collected using scalp electrode in humans matched known tissue impedance spectra and was stable over frequency. The experimental procedure is software controlled and is readily adaptable to new paradigms. Where possible, commercial or open-source components were used, to minimise the complexity in reproduction. The hardware designs and software for the system have been released under an open source licence, encouraging contributions and allowing for rapid replication.

  6. Versatile dual reporter gene systems for investigating stop codon readthrough in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nga T Lao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Translation is most often terminated when a ribosome encounters the first in-frame stop codon (UAA, UAG or UGA in an mRNA. However, many viruses (and some cellular mRNAs contain "stop" codons that cause a proportion of ribosomes to terminate and others to incorporate an amino acid and continue to synthesize a "readthrough", or C-terminally extended, protein. This dynamic redefinition of codon meaning is dependent on specific sequence context.We describe two versatile dual reporter systems which facilitate investigation of stop codon readthrough in vivo in intact plants, and identification of the amino acid incorporated at the decoded stop codon. The first is based on the reporter enzymes NAN and GUS for which sensitive fluorogenic and histochemical substrates are available; the second on GST and GFP.We show that the NAN-GUS system can be used for direct in planta measurements of readthrough efficiency following transient expression of reporter constructs in leaves, and moreover, that the system is sufficiently sensitive to permit measurement of readthrough in stably transformed plants. We further show that the GST-GFP system can be used to affinity purify readthrough products for mass spectrometric analysis and provide the first definitive evidence that tyrosine alone is specified in vivo by a 'leaky' UAG codon, and tyrosine and tryptophan, respectively, at decoded UAA, and UGA codons in the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV readthrough context.

  7. A Viral Noncoding RNA Complements a Weakened Viral RNA Silencing Suppressor and Promotes Efficient Systemic Host Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Flobinus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Systemic movement of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV in Beta macrocarpa depends on viral RNA3, whereas in Nicotiana benthamiana this RNA is dispensable. RNA3 contains a coremin motif of 20 nucleotides essential for the stabilization of noncoding RNA3 (ncRNA3 and for long‐distance movement in Beta species. Coremin mutants that are unable to accumulate ncRNA3 also do not achieve systemic movement in Beta species. A mutant virus carrying a mutation in the p14 viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR, unable to move long distances, can be complemented with the ncRNA3 in the lesion phenotype, viral RNA accumulation, and systemic spread. Analyses of the BNYVV VSR mechanism of action led to the identification of the RNA‐dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6 pathway as a target of the virus VSR and the assignment of a VSR function to the ncRNA3.

  8. Fast, versatile, and non-destructive biscuit inspection system using spectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2017-01-01

    A fast, versatile, and non-destructive method for assessing biscuit quality is presented. The method integrates color (or browning) measurement, moisture assessment, compositional and dimensional measurements on a spectral imaging platform using the silicon range 400–1000 nm.......A fast, versatile, and non-destructive method for assessing biscuit quality is presented. The method integrates color (or browning) measurement, moisture assessment, compositional and dimensional measurements on a spectral imaging platform using the silicon range 400–1000 nm....

  9. An aerogel obtained from chemo-enzymatically oxidized fenugreek galactomannans as a versatile delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Bianca; Campia, Paola; Merlini, Luca; Brasca, Milena; Pastori, Nadia; Farris, Stefano; Melone, Lucio; Punta, Carlo; Galante, Yves M

    2016-06-25

    We describe a new aerogel obtained from laccase-oxidized galactomannans of the leguminous plant fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and suggest its potential practical use. Laccase/TEMPO oxidation of fenugreek in aqueous solution caused a viscosity increase of over 15-fold. A structured, elastic, stable hydrogel was generated, due to formation of carbonyl groups from primary OH of galactose side units and subsequent establishment of hemiacetalic bonds with available free hydroxyl groups. Upon lyophilization of this hydrogel, a water-insoluble aerogel was obtained (EOLFG), capable of uptaking aqueous or organic solvents over 20 times its own weight. The material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR, elemental analysis and (13)C CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy and its mechanical properties were investigated. To test the EOLFG as a delivery system, the anti-microbial enzyme lysozyme was used as model active principle. Lysozyme was added before or after formation of the aerogel, entrapped or absorbed in the gel, retained and released in active form, as proven by its hydrolytic glycosidase activity on lyophilized Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells wall peptidoglycans. This new biomaterial, composed of a chemo-enzymatically modified plant polysaccharide, might represent a versatile, biocompatible "delivery system" of active principles in food and non-food products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. BioMEA: a versatile high-density 3D microelectrode array system using integrated electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Guillaume; Rousseau, Lionel; Billoint, Olivier; Gharbi, Sadok; Rostaing, Jean-Pierre; Joucla, Sébastien; Trevisiol, Michel; Bourgerette, Alain; Chauvet, Philippe; Moulin, Céline; Goy, François; Mercier, Bruno; Colin, Mikael; Spirkovitch, Serge; Fanet, Hervé; Meyrand, Pierre; Guillemaud, Régis; Yvert, Blaise

    2010-04-15

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) offer a powerful tool to both record activity and deliver electrical microstimulations to neural networks either in vitro or in vivo. Microelectronics microfabrication technologies now allow building high-density MEAs containing several hundreds of microelectrodes. However, dense arrays of 3D micro-needle electrodes, providing closer contact with the neural tissue than planar electrodes, are not achievable using conventional isotropic etching processes. Moreover, increasing the number of electrodes using conventional electronics is difficult to achieve into compact devices addressing all channels independently for simultaneous recording and stimulation. Here, we present a full modular and versatile 256-channel MEA system based on integrated electronics. First, transparent high-density arrays of 3D-shaped microelectrodes were realized by deep reactive ion etching techniques of a silicon substrate reported on glass. This approach allowed achieving high electrode aspect ratios, and different shapes of tip electrodes. Next, we developed a dedicated analog 64-channel Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) including one amplification stage and one current generator per channel, and analog output multiplexing. A full modular system, called BIOMEA, has been designed, allowing connecting different types of MEAs (64, 128, or 256 electrodes) to different numbers of ASICs for simultaneous recording and/or stimulation on all channels. Finally, this system has been validated experimentally by recording and electrically eliciting low-amplitude spontaneous rhythmic activity (both LFPs and spikes) in the developing mouse CNS. The availability of high-density MEA systems with integrated electronics will offer new possibilities for both in vitro and in vivo studies of large neural networks. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Implementation of a versatile research data acquisition system using a commercially available medical ultrasound scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a versatile, open-architecture research data acquisition system using a commercially available medical ultrasound scanner. The open architecture will allow researchers and clinicians to rapidly develop applications and move them relatively easy to the clinic. The system consists of a standard PC equipped with a camera link and an ultrasound scanner equipped with a research interface. The ultrasound scanner is an easy-to-use imaging device that is capable of generating high-quality images. In addition to supporting the acquisition of multiple data types, such as B-mode, M-mode, pulsed Doppler, and color flow imaging, the machine provides users with full control over imaging parameters such as transmit level, excitation waveform, beam angle, and focal depth. Beamformed RF data can be acquired from regions of interest throughout the image plane and stored to a file with a simple button press. For clinical trials and investigational purposes, when an identical image plane is desired for both an experimental and a reference data set, interleaved data can be captured. This form of data acquisition allows switching between multiple setups while maintaining identical transducer, scanner, region of interest, and recording time. Data acquisition is controlled through a graphical user interface running on the PC. This program implements an interface for third-party software to interact with the application. A software development toolkit is developed to give researchers and clinicians the ability to utilize third-party software for data analysis and flexible manipulation of control parameters. Because of the advantages of speed of acquisition and clinical benefit, research projects have successfully used the system to test and implement their customized solutions for different applications. Three examples of system use are presented in this paper: evaluation of synthetic aperture sequential beamformation, transverse

  12. Versatile optical manipulation system for inspection, laser processing, and isolation of individual living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhrmann, B.; Jahnke, H.-G.; Schmidt, M.; Jähn, K.; Betz, T.; Müller, K.; Rothermel, A.; Käs, J.; Robitzki, A. A.

    2006-06-01

    Isolation of individual cells from a heterogeneous cell population is an invaluable step in the analysis of single cell properties. The demands in molecular and cellular biology as well as molecular medicine are the selection, isolation, and monitoring of single cells and cell clusters of biopsy material. Of particular interest are methods which complement a passive optical or spectroscopic selection with a variety of active single cell processing techniques such as mechanical, biochemical, or genetic manipulation prior to isolation. Sophisticated laser-based cell processing systems are available which can perform single cell processing in a contact-free and sterile manner. Until now, however, these multipurpose turnkey systems offer only basic micromanipulation and are not easily modified or upgraded, whereas laboratory situations often demand simple but versatile and adaptable solutions. We built a flexible laser micromanipulation platform combining contact-free microdissection and catapulting capabilities using a pulsed ultraviolet (337nm) laser with simultaneous generation of optical tweezing forces using a continuous wave infrared (1064nm) laser. The potential of our platform is exemplified with techniques such as local laser-induced injection of biomolecules into individual living cells, laser surgery, isolation of single cells by laser catapulting, and control of neuronal growth using optical gradient forces. Arbitrary dynamic optical force patterns can be created by fast laser scanning with acousto-optical deflectors and galvanometer mirrors, allowing multibeam contact-free micromanipulation, a prerequisite for reliable handling of material in laboratory-on-a-chip applications. All common microscopy techniques can be used simultaneously with the offered palette of micromanipulation methods. Taken together, we show that advanced optical micromanipulation systems can be designed which combine quality, cost efficiency, and adaptability.

  13. CRISPR-Cas9 systems: versatile cancer modelling platforms and promising therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wan-Shun; Yuan, Zhi-Min; Ma, Shi-Jie; Xu, Jiang; Yuan, Dong-Tang

    2016-03-15

    The RNA-guided nuclease CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated nuclease 9) and its variants such as nickase Cas9, dead Cas9, guide RNA scaffolds and RNA-targeting Cas9 are convenient and versatile platforms for site-specific genome editing and epigenome modulation. They are easy-to-use, simple-to-design and capable of targeting multiple loci simultaneously. Given that cancer develops from cumulative genetic and epigenetic alterations, CRISPR-Cas9 and its variants (hereafter referred to as CRISPR-Cas9 systems) hold extensive application potentials in cancer modeling and therapy. To date, they have already been applied to model oncogenic mutations in cell lines (e.g., Choi and Meyerson, Nat Commun 2014;5:3728) and in adult animals (e.g., Xue et al., Nature 2014;514:380-4), as well as to combat cancer by disabling oncogenic viruses (e.g., Hu et al., Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:612823) or by manipulating cancer genome (e.g., Liu et al., Nat Commun 2014;5:5393). Given the importance of epigenome and transcriptome in tumourigenesis, manipulation of cancer epigenome and transcriptome for cancer modeling and therapy is a promising area in the future. Whereas (epi)genetic modifications of cancer microenvironment with CRISPR-Cas9 systems for therapeutic purposes represent another promising area in cancer research. Herein, we introduce the functions and mechanisms of CRISPR-Cas9 systems in genome editing and epigenome modulation, retrospect their applications in cancer modelling and therapy, discuss limitations and possible solutions and propose future directions, in hope of providing concise and enlightening information for readers interested in this area. © 2015 UICC.

  14. Innate immune system activation by viral RNA: How to predict it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondili, M; Roux, M; Vabret, N; Bailly-Bechet, M

    2016-01-15

    The immune system is able to identify foreign pathogens via different pathways. In the case of viral infection, recognition of the viral RNA is a crucial step, and many efforts have been made to understand which features of viral RNA are detected by the immune system. The biased viral RNA composition, measured as host-virus nucleotidic divergence, or CpG enrichment, has been proposed as salient signal. Peculiar structural features of these RNA could also be related to the immune system activation. Here, we gather multiple datasets and proceed to a meta-analysis to uncover the best predictors of immune system activation by viral RNA. "A" nucleotide content and Minimum Folding Energy are good predictors, and are more easily generalized than more complex indicators suggested previously. As RNA composition and structure are highly correlated, we suggest further experiments on synthetic sequences to identify the viral RNA sensing mechanisms by immune system receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Viral encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Tulius T Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available While systemic viral infections are exceptionally common, symptomatic viral infections of the brain parenchyma itself are very rare, but a serious neurologic condition. It is estimated that viral encephalitis occurs at a rate of 1.4 cases per 100.000 inhabitants. Geography is a major determinant of encephalitis caused by vector-borne pathogens. A diagnosis of viral encephalitis could be a challenge to the clinician, since almost 70% of viral encephalitis cases are left without an etiologic agent identified. In this review, the most common viral encephalitis will be discussed, with focus on ecology, diagnosis, and clinical management.

  16. Spin-Projected Matrix Product States: Versatile Tool for Strongly Correlated Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhendong; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2017-06-13

    We present a new wave function ansatz that combines the strengths of spin projection with the language of matrix product states (MPS) and matrix product operators (MPO) as used in the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG). Specifically, spin-projected matrix product states (SP-MPS) are constructed as [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the spin projector for total spin S and |ΨMPS(N,M)⟩ is an MPS wave function with a given particle number N and spin projection M. This new ansatz possesses several attractive features: (1) It provides a much simpler route to achieve spin adaptation (i.e., to create eigenfunctions of Ŝ2) compared to explicitly incorporating the non-Abelian SU(2) symmetry into the MPS. In particular, since the underlying state |ΨMPS(N,M)⟩ in the SP-MPS uses only Abelian symmetries, one does not need the singlet embedding scheme for nonsinglet states, as normally employed in spin-adapted DMRG, to achieve a single consistent variationally optimized state. (2) Due to the use of |ΨMPS(N,M)⟩ as its underlying state, the SP-MPS can be closely connected to broken-symmetry mean-field states. This allows one to straightforwardly generate the large number of broken-symmetry guesses needed to explore complex electronic landscapes in magnetic systems. Further, this connection can be exploited in the future development of quantum embedding theories for open-shell systems. (3) The sum of MPOs representation for the Hamiltonian and spin projector [Formula: see text] naturally leads to an embarrassingly parallel algorithm for computing expectation values and optimizing SP-MPS. (4) Optimizing SP-MPS belongs to the variation-after-projection (VAP) class of spin-projected theories. Unlike usual spin-projected theories based on determinants, the SP-MPS ansatz can be made essentially exact simply by increasing the bond dimensions in |ΨMPS(N,M)⟩. Computing excited states is also simple by imposing orthogonality constraints, which are simple

  17. Evolving lessons on nanomaterial-coated viral vectors for local and systemic gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasala, Dayananda; Yoon, A-Rum; Hong, Jinwoo; Kim, Sung Wan; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2016-07-01

    Viral vectors are promising gene carriers for cancer therapy. However, virus-mediated gene therapies have demonstrated insufficient therapeutic efficacy in clinical trials due to rapid dissemination to nontarget tissues and to the immunogenicity of viral vectors, resulting in poor retention at the disease locus and induction of adverse inflammatory responses in patients. Further, the limited tropism of viral vectors prevents efficient gene delivery to target tissues. In this regard, modification of the viral surface with nanomaterials is a promising strategy to augment vector accumulation at the target tissue, circumvent the host immune response, and avoid nonspecific interactions with the reticuloendothelial system or serum complement. In the present review, we discuss various chemical modification strategies to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of viral vectors delivered either locally or systemically. We conclude by highlighting the salient features of various nanomaterial-coated viral vectors and their prospects and directions for future research.

  18. A Versatile Laser-Induced Incandescence System for Non-Intrusive Measurements of Particle Size and Mass in Aircraft Emissions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a versatile and affordable system to measure the average diameter of primary soot particles along with their mass concentration in aircraft...

  19. Novel non-viral gene delivery systems composed of carbosilane dendron functionalized nanoparticles prepared from nano-emulsions as non-viral carriers for antisense oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaguera, Cristina; Grijalvo, Santiago; Galán, Marta; Fuentes-Paniagua, Elena; de la Mata, Francisco Javier; Gómez, Rafael; Eritja, Ramon; Calderó, Gabriela; Solans, Conxita

    2015-01-15

    The development of novel and efficient delivery systems is often the limiting step in fields such as antisense therapies. In this context, poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles have been obtained by a versatile and simple technology based on nano-emulsion templating and low-energy emulsification methods, performed in mild conditions, providing good size control. O/W polymeric nano-emulsions were prepared by the phase inversion composition method at 25°C using the aqueous solution/polysorbate80/[4 wt% PLGA in ethyl acetate] system. Nano-emulsions formed at oil-to-surfactant (O/S) ratios between 10/90-90/10 and aqueous contents above 70 wt%. Nano-emulsion with 90 wt% of aqueous solution and O/S ratio of 70/30 was chosen for further studies, since they showed the appropriate characteristics to be used as nanoparticle template: hydrodynamic radii lower than 50 nm and enough kinetic stability. Nanoparticles, prepared from nano-emulsions by solvent evaporation, showed spherical shape, sizes about 40 nm, negative surface charges and high stability. The as-prepared nanoparticles were functionalized with carbosilane cationic dendrons through a carbodiimide-mediated reaction achieving positively charged surfaces. Antisense oligonucleotides were electrostatically attached to nanoparticles surface to perform gene-silencing studies. These complexes were non-haemolytic and non-cytotoxic at the concentrations required. The ability of the complexes to impart cellular uptake was also promising. Therefore, these novel nanoparticulate complexes might be considered as potential non-viral carriers in antisense therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-viral and viral delivery systems for CRISPR-Cas9 technology in the biomedical field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhi-Yao; Men, Ke; Qin, Zhou; Yang, Yang; Xu, Ting; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2017-05-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system provides a novel genome editing technology that can precisely target a genomic site to disrupt or repair a specific gene. Some CRISPR-Cas9 systems from different bacteria or artificial variants have been discovered or constructed by biologists, and Cas9 nucleases and single guide RNAs (sgRNA) are the major components of the CRISPR-Cas9 system. These Cas9 systems have been extensively applied for identifying therapeutic targets, identifying gene functions, generating animal models, and developing gene therapies. Moreover, CRISPR-Cas9 systems have been used to partially or completely alleviate disease symptoms by mutating or correcting related genes. However, the efficient transfer of CRISPR-Cas9 system into cells and target organs remains a challenge that affects the robust and precise genome editing activity. The current review focuses on delivery systems for Cas9 mRNA, Cas9 protein, or vectors encoding the Cas9 gene and corresponding sgRNA. Non-viral delivery of Cas9 appears to help Cas9 maintain its on-target effect and reduce off-target effects, and viral vectors for sgRNA and donor template can improve the efficacy of genome editing and homology-directed repair. Safe, efficient, and producible delivery systems will promote the application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology in human gene therapy.

  1. Kinetics of viral replication and local and systemic immune responses in experimental rotavirus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Eydelloth, R S; Vonderfecht, S L; Sheridan, J F; Enders, L D; Yolken, R H

    1984-01-01

    Rotavirus-seronegative mice were orally inoculated with murine rotavirus in order to study the kinetics of rotavirus replication and the relationship of viral replication to immunity and disease and to assess the effects of local and systemic antibodies on viral clearance and disease resolution.

  2. Kinetics of viral replication and local and systemic immune responses in experimental rotavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eydelloth, R S; Vonderfecht, S L; Sheridan, J F; Enders, L D; Yolken, R H

    1984-06-01

    Rotavirus-seronegative mice were orally inoculated with murine rotavirus in order to study the kinetics of rotavirus replication and the relationship of viral replication to immunity and disease and to assess the effects of local and systemic antibodies on viral clearance and disease resolution.

  3. Aberrant Epstein–Barr viral infection in systemic lupus erythematosus☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Brian D.; Templeton, Amanda K.; Guthridge, Joel M.; Brown, Eric J.; Harley, John B.; James, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    Serologic association, cross-reactivity of select EBV-specific antibodies with SLE autoantigens, SLE-like autoimmunity after immunization with EBV peptides, increased EB viral load in SLE patients, and SLE-specific alterations in EBV humoral and cellular immunity implicate Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To investigate SLE-specific differences in EBV gene expression, levels of eight EBV genes were compared between SLE patients and controls by using both ex vivo-infected and un-manipulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Expression levels of mRNA were significantly greater by Wilcoxen signed rank test in the ex vivo-infected SLE patient-derived cells for 4 of 8 EBV genes, including BLLF1, 3.2-fold (p<0.004); LMP-2, 1.7-fold (p<0.008); EBNA-1, 1.7-fold (p<0.01); and BcRF1, a proposed DNA binding protein, 1.7-fold (p<0.02). The frequency of LMP-1 gene expression was significantly greater by Chi square analysis in the peripheral blood from SLE patients than controls (44% of patients, 10% of controls p<0.05). PBMCs from SLE patients had greater expression of latent genes as well as increased expression of both latent and lytic genes after infection, suggesting that EBV may participate in SLE etiology through several mechanisms. Such altered infection patterns may contribute to the increased levels of EBV and the molecular mimicry seen in sera from SLE patients. PMID:19167523

  4. Global analysis of viral infection in an archaeal model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid S. Maaty

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The origin and evolutionary relationship of viruses is poorly understood. This makes archaeal virus-host of particular interest because the hosts generally root near the base of phylogenetic trees, while some of the viruses have clear structural similarities to those that infect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Despite the advantageous position for use in evolutionary studies, little is known about archaeal viruses or how they interact with their hosts, compared to viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes. In addition, many archaeal viruses have been isolated from extreme environments and present a unique opportunity for elucidating factors that are important for existence at the extremes.. In this article we focus on virus-host interactions using a proteomics approach to study Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus (STIV infection of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2. Using cultures grown from the ATCC cell stock, a single cycle of STIV infection was sampled 6 times over a 72 hr period. More than 700 proteins were identified throughout the course of the experiments. Seventy one host proteins were found to change by nearly two-fold (p<0.05 with 40 becoming more abundant and 31 less abundant. The modulated proteins represent 30 different cell pathways and 14 COG groups. 2D gel analysis showed that changes in post translational modifications were a common feature of the affected proteins. The results from these studies showed that the prokaryotic antiviral adaptive immune system CRISPR associated proteins (CAS proteins were regulated in response to the virus infection. It was found that regulated proteins come from mRNAs with a shorter than average half-life. In addition, activity-based protein profiling (ABPP profiling on 2D gels showed caspase, hydrolase and tyrosine phosphatase enzyme activity labeling at the protein isoform level. Together, this data provides a more detailed global view of archaeal cellular responses to viral infection, demonstrates the

  5. A new versatile electrochemical etching chamber (VECEC) system for multi-size and multi-shape detector processing

    CERN Document Server

    Sohrabi, M

    1999-01-01

    A new versatile electrochemical etching ECE chamber (VECE) system is introduced in which the effective electrochemically etched area can have variable sizes and/or shapes required using templet etching. The flat rubber washers act as templets and holders of the etchant, and control the size and shape of the effective etched area of the detector which can be of various shapes and sizes desired. The system was operated in two operation modes A and B in which the both sides and one side of the detector were etched respectively. Detectors with etched areas having diameters from 1 to 18 cm have also been successfully etched by this system. Multi-chambers have been also designed using this principle for larger-scale multi-detector processing. The effects of etching area and time on the current through the detector have also been studied.

  6. Molecular Characterization of Adenylyl Cyclase Complex Proteins Using Versatile Protein-Tagging Plasmid Systems in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Yee-Seul; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Jung, Kwang-Woo; Huh, Won-Ki; Bahn, Yong-Sun

    2017-02-28

    In this study, we aimed to generate a series of versatile tagging plasmids that can be used in diverse molecular biological studies of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. We constructed 12 plasmids that can be used to tag a protein of interest with a GFP, mCherry, 4×FLAG, or 6×HA, along with nourseothricin-, neomycin-, or hygromycin-resistant selection markers. Using this tagging plasmid set, we explored the adenylyl cyclase complex (ACC), consisting of adenylyl cyclase (Cac1) and its associated protein Aca1, in the cAMP-signaling pathway, which is critical for the pathogenicity of C. neoformans. We found that Cac1-mCherry and Aca1-GFP were mainly colocalized as punctate forms in the cell membrane and nonnuclear cellular organelles. We also demonstrated that Cac1 and Aca1 interacted in vivo by coimmunoprecipitation, using Cac1-6×HA and Aca1-4×FLAG tagging strains. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation further confirmed the in vivo interaction of Cac1 and Aca1 in live cells. Finally, protein pull-down experiments using aca1Δ::ACA1-GFP and aca1Δ::ACA1- GFP cac1Δ strains and comparative mass spectrometry analysis identified Cac1 and a number of other novel ACC-interacting proteins. Thus, this versatile tagging plasmid system will facilitate diverse mechanistic studies in C. neoformans and further our understanding of its biology.

  7. A KDEL Retrieval System for ER-Golgi Transport of Japanese Encephalitis Viral Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Robert Y L; Wu, Yu-Jen; Chen, Han-Shan; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2016-02-05

    Evidence has emerged that RNA viruses utilize the host secretory pathway for processing and trafficking mature viral particles and for exiting the infected cells. Upon completing the complex assembly process, the viral particles take advantage of the cellular secretory trafficking machinery for their intracellular trafficking toward the Golgi organelle and budding or export of virions. In this study, we showed that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-induced extracellular GRP78 contains no KDEL motif using an anti-KDEL-specific antibody. Overexpression of the KDEL-truncated GRP78 in the GPR78 knocked down cells significantly reduced JEV infectivity, suggesting that the KDEL motif is required for GRP78 function in the release of JE viral particles. In addition, we demonstrated the KDELR protein, an ER-Golgi retrieval system component, is associated with viral envelope proteins and is engaged in the subcellular localization of viral particles in Golgi. More importantly, accumulation of intracellular virions was observed in the KDELR knocked down cells, indicating that the KDELR protein mediated the intracellular trafficking of JE viral particles. Altogether, we demonstrated that intracellular trafficking of JE assembled viral particles was mediated by the host ER-Golgi retrieval system prior to exit by the secretory pathway.

  8. INTEGRAL EVALUATION OF THE CYTOKINE SYSTEM IN VIRAL MYOCARDITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peremot S. D.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for an individual approach in the choice of means for the prevention of complications in inflammatory processes in cardiomyocytes, the course of which unfolds against a persistent viral infection, dictates the need to determine the general mechanisms for maintaining and progressing of the pathological process and an objective evaluation of immunological changes. The aim of the study was to determine changes in the system of inflammatory mediators in patients with subacute and chronic herpesviral infectious myocarditis on the basis of an integral assessment of the levels of opposing groups of cytokines. Materials & methods. To achieve this goal, we conducted a determination and analysis of changes in the cytokine profile in 87 patients with subacute (from 2 to 6 months and chronic (more than 6 months myocarditis due to an integral assessment of the mediator levels of inflammation of opposing groups in patients with herpesviral myocarditis on treatment in medical institutions of the Kharkov city. The average age of the patients was (27 ± 7.4 years. The control group was attracted to 40 people without clinical manifestations of cardiovascular diseases and in whose anamnesis there were no data on the transferred inflammatory diseases of the myocardium. Both groups of subjects were comparable in age and gender. The main group of subjects was divided into two subgroups. The first was 44 patients with subacute flow, the second - 43 patients with chronic infectious myocarditis. The diagnosis was established in accordance with the recommendations of the Association of Cardiologists of Ukraine and experts of the European Society of Cardiology, according to the formation of definitions of diseases in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10 of the tenth revision. The removal of material from patients was carried out according to the rules for the collection of infectious material. The concentration of cytokines: IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL

  9. A unique nickel system having versatile catalytic activity of biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanmay; Mukherjee, Madhuparna; Mondal, Arindam; Maiti, Pali; Banerjee, Arpita; Banu, Kazi Sabnam; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Roy, Bappaditya; Chattopadhyay, D J; Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Nethaji, Munirathinam; Zangrando, Ennio; Das, Debasis

    2010-04-05

    A new dinuclear nickel(II) complex, [Ni(2)(LH(2))(H(2)O)(2)(OH)(NO(3))](NO(3))(3) (1), of an "end-off" compartmental ligand 2,6-bis(N-ethylpiperazine-iminomethyl)-4-methyl-phenolato, has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The X-ray single crystal structure analysis shows that the piperazine moieties assume the expected chair conformation and are protonated. The complex 1 exhibits versatile catalytic activities of biological significance, viz. catecholase, phosphatase, and DNA cleavage activities, etc. The catecholase activity of the complex observed is very dependent on the nature of the solvent. In acetonitrile medium, the complex is inactive to exhibit catecholase activity. On the other hand, in methanol, it catalyzes not only the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) but also tetrachlorocatechol (TCC), a catechol which is very difficult to oxidize, under aerobic conditions. UV-vis spectroscopic investigation shows that TCC oxidation proceeds through the formation of an intermediate. The intermediate has been characterized by an electron spray ionizaton-mass spectrometry study, which suggests a bidentate rather than a monodentate mode of TCC coordination in that intermediate, and this proposition have been verified by density functional theory calculation. The complex also exhibits phosphatase (with substrate p-nitrophenylphosphate) and DNA cleavage activities. The DNA cleavage activity exhibited by complex 1 most probably proceeds through a hydroxyl radical pathway. The bioactivity study suggests the possible applications of complex 1 as a site specific recognition of DNA and/or as an anticancer agent.

  10. Development of a versatile readout and test system and characterization of a capacitively coupled active pixel sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Jens; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hirono, Toko; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Peric, Ivan [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany); Collaboration: ATLAS-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    With the availability of high voltage and high resistivity CMOS processes, active pixel sensors are becoming increasingly interesting for radiation detection in high energy physics experiments. Although the pixel signal-to-noise ratio and the sensor radiation tolerance were improved, active pixel sensors cannot yet compete with state-of-the-art hybrid pixel detector in a high radiation environment. Hence, active pixel sensors are possible candidates for the outer tracking detector in HEP experiments where production cost plays a role. The investigation of numerous prototyping steps and different technologies is still ongoing and requires a versatile test and readout system, which will be presented in this talk. A capacitively coupled active pixel sensor fabricated in AMS 180 nm high voltage CMOS process is investigated. The sensor is designed to be glued to existing front-end pixel readout chips. Results from the characterization are presented in this talk.

  11. Bring your own camera to the trap: An inexpensive, versatile, and portable triggering system tested on wild hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Mickley, James

    2017-07-01

    The study of animals in the wild offers opportunities to collect relevant information on their natural behavior and abilities to perform ecologically relevant tasks. However, it also poses challenges such as accounting for observer effects, human sensory limitations, and the time intensiveness of this type of research. To meet these challenges, field biologists have deployed camera traps to remotely record animal behavior in the wild. Despite their ubiquity in research, many commercial camera traps have limitations, and the species and behavior of interest may present unique challenges. For example, no camera traps support high-speed video recording. We present a new and inexpensive camera trap system that increases versatility by separating the camera from the triggering mechanism. Our system design can pair with virtually any camera and allows for independent positioning of a variety of sensors, all while being low-cost, lightweight, weatherproof, and energy efficient. By using our specialized trigger and customized sensor configurations, many limitations of commercial camera traps can be overcome. We use this system to study hummingbird feeding behavior using high-speed video cameras to capture fast movements and multiple sensors placed away from the camera to detect small body sizes. While designed for hummingbirds, our application can be extended to any system where specialized camera or sensor features are required, or commercial camera traps are cost-prohibitive, allowing camera trap use in more research avenues and by more researchers.

  12. Versatile Padding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Dynamic Systems, Inc. started after NASA-Ames scientists began work on a padding concept in 1968. They were looking for a better airplane seat. They found a new foam material that today has all kinds of additional applications including wheelchairs, x-ray table pads, off road vehicle seats, ski boots, and football helmet liners. Temper foam exhibits about 340% less shock from impact. Material is an open-cell polyurethane silicone plastic foam that takes shape of impressed objects but returns to its original shape even after 90% compression.

  13. CRISPR-Cas systems exploit viral DNA injection to establish and maintain adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Joshua W; Jiang, Wenyan; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2017-04-06

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas systems provide protection against viral and plasmid infection by capturing short DNA sequences from these invaders and integrating them into the CRISPR locus of the prokaryotic host. These sequences, known as spacers, are transcribed into short CRISPR RNA guides that specify the cleavage site of Cas nucleases in the genome of the invader. It is not known when spacer sequences are acquired during viral infection. Here, to investigate this, we tracked spacer acquisition in Staphylococcus aureus cells harbouring a type II CRISPR-Cas9 system after infection with the staphylococcal bacteriophage ϕ12. We found that new spacers were acquired immediately after infection preferentially from the cos site, the viral free DNA end that is first injected into the cell. Analysis of spacer acquisition after infection with mutant phages demonstrated that most spacers are acquired during DNA injection, but not during other stages of the viral cycle that produce free DNA ends, such as DNA replication or packaging. Finally, we showed that spacers acquired from early-injected genomic regions, which direct Cas9 cleavage of the viral DNA immediately after infection, provide better immunity than spacers acquired from late-injected regions. Our results reveal that CRISPR-Cas systems exploit the phage life cycle to generate a pattern of spacer acquisition that ensures a successful CRISPR immune response.

  14. A versatile low-cost Automation System for an Electroionization Experiment.

    OpenAIRE

    Servais, Christian; Locht, Robert; Momigny, J.

    1986-01-01

    A cheap complete automation system designed for an electoionization experiment is described. This system is based on a Sinclair ZX Spectrum computer and a modular architecture. The control program and general building blocks diagrams are discussed and give a general idea of how to build modules or procedures adapted to different applications. Peer reviewed

  15. A versatile selection system for folding competent proteins using genetic complementation in a eukaryotic host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, C.; Kjaerulff, S.; Muller, S.

    2010-01-01

    -control systems to retain misfolded proteins in the ER and redirect them for cytosolic degradation, thereby only allowing folded proteins to reach the cell surface. Accordingly, the folding potential of the tested protein determines the ability of autotrophic colony growth. This system was successfully......Recombinant expression of native or modified eukaryotic proteins is pivotal for structural and functional studies and for industrial and pharmaceutical production of proteins. However, it is often impeded by the lack of proper folding. Here, we present a stringent and broadly applicable eukaryotic...... in vivo selection system for folded proteins. It is based on genetic complementation of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe growth marker gene invertase fused C-terminally to a protein library. The fusion proteins are directed to the secretion system, utilizing the ability of the eukaryotic protein quality...

  16. Directly Transforming PCR-Amplified DNA Fragments into Plant Cells Is a Versatile System That Facilitates the Transient Expression Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuming; Chen, Xi; Wu, Yuxuan; Wang, Yanping; He, Yuqing; Wu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    A circular plasmid containing a gene coding sequence has been broadly used for studying gene regulation in cells. However, to accommodate a quick screen plasmid construction and preparation can be time consuming. Here we report a PCR amplified dsDNA fragments (PCR-fragments) based transient expression system (PCR-TES) for suiting in the study of gene regulation in plant cells. Instead of transforming plasmids into plant cells, transient expression of PCR-fragments can be applicable. The transformation efficiency and expression property of PCR-fragments are comparable to transformation using plasmids. We analyzed the transformation efficiency in PCR-TES at transcription and protein levels. Our results indicate that the PCR-TES is as versatile as the conventional transformation system using plasmid DNA. Through reconstituting PYR1-mediated ABA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts, we were not only validating the practicality of PCR-TES but also screening potential candidates of CDPK family members which might be involved in the ABA signaling. Moreover, we determined that phosphorylation of ABF2 by CPK4 could be mediated by ABA-induced PYR1 and ABI1, demonstrating a crucial role of CDPKs in the ABA signaling. In summary, PCR-TES can be applicable to facilitate analyzing gene regulation and for the screen of putative regulatory molecules at the high throughput level in plant cells. PMID:23468926

  17. Evaluation of environmental filtration control of engineered nanoparticles using the Harvard Versatile Engineered Nanomaterial Generation System (VENGES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Candace S.-J.; Echevarría-Vega, Manuel E.; Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Santeufemio, Christopher; Schmidt, Daniel; Demokritou, Philip; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Applying engineering controls to airborne engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is critical to prevent environmental releases and worker exposure. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two air sampling and six air cleaning fabric filters at collecting ENPs using industrially relevant flame-made engineered nanoparticles generated using a versatile engineered nanomaterial generation system (VENGES), recently designed and constructed at Harvard University. VENGES has the ability to generate metal and metal oxide exposure atmospheres while controlling important particle properties such as primary particle size, aerosol size distribution, and agglomeration state. For this study, amorphous SiO2 ENPs with a 15.4 nm primary particle size were generated and diluted with HEPA-filtered air. The aerosol was passed through the filter samples at two different filtration face velocities (2.3 and 3.5 m/min). Particle concentrations as a function of particle size were measured upstream and downstream of the filters using a specially designed filter test system to evaluate filtration efficiency. Real time instruments (FMPS and APS) were used to measure particle concentration for diameters from 5 to 20,000 nm. Membrane-coated fabric filters were found to have enhanced nanoparticle collection efficiency by 20-46 % points compared to non-coated fabric and could provide collection efficiency above 95 %.

  18. Evaluation of environmental filtration control of engineered nanoparticles using the Harvard Versatile Engineered Nanomaterial Generation System (VENGES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría-Vega, Manuel E.; Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Santeufemio, Christopher; Schmidt, Daniel; Demokritou, Philip; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Applying engineering controls to airborne engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is critical to prevent environmental releases and worker exposure. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two air sampling and six air cleaning fabric filters at collecting ENPs using industrially relevant flame-made engineered nanoparticles generated using a versatile engineered nanomaterial generation system (VENGES), recently designed and constructed at Harvard University. VENGES has the ability to generate metal and metal oxide exposure atmospheres while controlling important particle properties such as primary particle size, aerosol size distribution, and agglomeration state. For this study, amorphous SiO2 ENPs with a 15.4 nm primary particle size were generated and diluted with HEPA-filtered air. The aerosol was passed through the filter samples at two different filtration face velocities (2.3 and 3.5 m/min). Particle concentrations as a function of particle size were measured upstream and downstream of the filters using a specially designed filter test system to evaluate filtration efficiency. Real time instruments (FMPS and APS) were used to measure particle concentration for diameters from 5 to 20,000 nm. Membrane-coated fabric filters were found to have enhanced nanoparticle collection efficiency by 20–46 % points compared to non-coated fabric and could provide collection efficiency above 95 %. PMID:23412707

  19. Directly transforming PCR-amplified DNA fragments into plant cells is a versatile system that facilitates the transient expression assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuming Lu

    Full Text Available A circular plasmid containing a gene coding sequence has been broadly used for studying gene regulation in cells. However, to accommodate a quick screen plasmid construction and preparation can be time consuming. Here we report a PCR amplified dsDNA fragments (PCR-fragments based transient expression system (PCR-TES for suiting in the study of gene regulation in plant cells. Instead of transforming plasmids into plant cells, transient expression of PCR-fragments can be applicable. The transformation efficiency and expression property of PCR-fragments are comparable to transformation using plasmids. We analyzed the transformation efficiency in PCR-TES at transcription and protein levels. Our results indicate that the PCR-TES is as versatile as the conventional transformation system using plasmid DNA. Through reconstituting PYR1-mediated ABA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts, we were not only validating the practicality of PCR-TES but also screening potential candidates of CDPK family members which might be involved in the ABA signaling. Moreover, we determined that phosphorylation of ABF2 by CPK4 could be mediated by ABA-induced PYR1 and ABI1, demonstrating a crucial role of CDPKs in the ABA signaling. In summary, PCR-TES can be applicable to facilitate analyzing gene regulation and for the screen of putative regulatory molecules at the high throughput level in plant cells.

  20. Structural Versatility of Bicellar Systems and Their Possibilities as Colloidal Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Olga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bicellar systems are lipid nanostructures formed by long- and short-chained phospholipids dispersed in aqueous solution. The morphological transitions of bicellar aggregates due to temperature, composition and time variations have been revised in this work. To this end, two bicellar systems have been considered; one formed by dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC and dihexanoyl- phosphatidylcholine (DHPC and another formed by dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC and DHPC. The relationship between the magnetic alignment, the morphology of the aggregates and the phase transition temperature (Tm of lipids is discussed. In general terms, the non-alignable samples present rounded objects at temperature below the Tm. Above this temperature, an increase of viscosity is followed by the formation of large elongated aggregates. Alignable samples presented discoidal objects below the Tm. The best alignment was achieved above this temperature with large areas of lamellar stacked bilayers and some multilamellar vesicles. The effect of the inclusion of ceramides with different chain lengths in the structure of bicelles is also revised in the present article. A number of physical techniques show that the bicellar structures are affected by both the concentration and the type of ceramide. Systems are able to incorporate 10% mol of ceramides that probably are organized forming domains. The addition of 20% mol of ceramides promotes destabilization of bicelles, promoting the formation of mixed systems that include large structures. Bicellar systems have demonstrated to be morphologically stable with time, able to encapsulate different actives and to induce specific effects on the skin. These facts make bicellar systems good candidates as colloidal carriers for dermal delivery. However, water dilution induces structural changes and formation of vesicular structures in the systems; stabilization strategies have been been explored in recent works and are also

  1. A Versatile Readout System for Small to Medium Scale Gaseous and Silicon Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Denis

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the design and performance of a readout system for gaseous and silicon detectors built for the Minos nuclear physics experiment. A major constraint was to provide a multi-thousand channel, high performance readout system with low manpower effort and tight cost. This was achieved by the re-use of some earlier ASIC and front-end card (FEC) developments, the design of a new digital readout card, called the Feminos, and the use of commercial off-the-shelf components. The proposed system fully exploits the capability of the existing 72-channel AFTER chip designed for the T2K experiment and allows seamless migration to the 64-channel AGET chip, a pin-compatible evolution under production by the GET collaboration. The Feminos is a low complexity card designed to read out a FEC equipped with four AFTER chips (T2K model) or a newly assembled FEC populated with four AGET chips. The trigger clock module (TCM) is a synchronization board that allows system scaling up to 6912 channels with 24 Feminos and FECs, a commercial Gigabit Ethernet switch, and a data acquisition PC. The design of the Feminos hardware, firmware and embedded software are detailed and it is explained how high performance, rapid development and low cost were reached. System operation and data acquisition throughput scaling with multiple Feminos are investigated.

  2. RehaMovePro: A versatile mobile stimulation system for transcutaneous FES applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Valtin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional Electrical Stimulation is a commonly used method in clinical rehabilitation and research to trigger useful muscle contractions by electrical stimuli. In this work, we present a stimulation system for transcutaneous electrical stimulation that gives extensive control over the stimulation waveform and the stimulation timing. The system supports electrode arrays, which have been suggested to achieve better selectivity and to simplify electrode placement. Electromyography (EMG measurements are obtained from the active stimulation electrodes (between the stimulation pulses or from separate surface EMG electrodes. The modular design enables the implementation of sophisticated stimulation control systems including external triggers or wireless sensors. This is demonstrated by the standalone implementation of a feedback-controlled drop foot neuroprosthesis, which uses a wireless inertial sensor for real-time gait phase detection and foot orientation measurement.

  3. HYBRID2: A versatile model of the performance of hybrid power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H. James; Manwell, James

    1995-04-01

    In 1993, the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) made an assessment of the available tools from the United States and Europe for predicting the long-term performance of hybrid power systems. By hybrid power the authors mean combinations of two or more power sources wind turbines, photovoltaics (PV), diesel gensets, or other generators into integrated systems for electric power generation in remote locations. Their conclusion was that there was no single, user-friendly tool capable of modeling the full range of hybrid power technologies being considered for the 1990s and beyond. The existing tools were, in particular, lacking flexibility in system configuration and in dispatch of components. As a result, NREL developed a specification for a model, called HYBRID2, for making comparisons of competing technology options on a level playing field. This specification was prepared with a range of potential users in mind including not only the US Department of Energy (DOE) renewable energy programs, but also the US wind industry, technical consultants, international development institutions/banks, and rural electrification programs in developing countries. During 1994, NREL and subcontractor, the University of Massachusetts (UMass), began development of HYBRID2 with funding from the DOE Wind Energy Program. It builds on the wind/diesel model, HYBRID1, developed previously by UMass, and expands that model to accommodate the wider array of technologies used in hybrid power systems. This paper will provide an overview of the model's features, functions, and status.

  4. A versatile class of prototype dynamical systems for complex bifurcation cascades of limit cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Gros, Claudius

    2015-07-01

    A general class of prototype dynamical systems is introduced, which allows to study the generation of complex bifurcation cascades of limit cycles, including bifurcations breaking spontaneously a symmetry of the system, period doubling and homoclinic bifurcations, and transitions to chaos induced by sequences of limit cycle bifurcations. The prototype systems are adaptive, with friction forces f(V(x)) being functionally dependent exclusively on the mechanical potential V(x), characterized in turn by a finite number of local minima. We discuss several low-dimensional systems, with friction forces f(V) which are linear, quadratic or cubic polynomials in the potential V. We point out that the zeros of f(V) regulate both the relative importance of energy uptake and dissipation respectively, serving at the same time as bifurcation parameters, hence allowing for an intuitive interpretation of the overall dynamical behavior. Starting from simple Hopf- and homoclinic bifurcations, complex sequences of limit cycle bifurcations are observed when the energy uptake gains progressively in importance.

  5. Versatile recombinant SUMOylation system for the production of SUMO-modified protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain R Weber

    Full Text Available Posttranslational modification by small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO is being associated with a growing number of regulatory functions in diverse cellular processes. The biochemical investigation into the underlying molecular mechanisms, however, has been lagging behind due to the difficulty to generate sufficient amounts of recombinant SUMOylated proteins. Here, we present two newly designed two-component vector systems for the expression and purification of SUMO-modified target proteins in Escherichia coli. One system consists of a vector for SUMO conjugation, expressing human SUMO-activating (SAE1/SAE2 and conjugating (Ubc9 enzymes together with His6-tagged SUMO1, 2 or 3, that can be combined with commonly used expression constructs for any gene of interest. To facilitate SUMOylation of targets normally requiring a SUMO-E3 ligase for efficient modification, a second system is designed to express the target protein as a fusion with the human SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9, thus compensating the absence of a potential SUMO ligase. We demonstrate the proficiency of these systems by SUMOylation of two DNA repair proteins, the thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG and XRCC1, and describe purification schemes for SUMOylated proteins in native and active form. This SUMO toolbox facilitates "in-cell" and "in-extract" production and purification of recombinant SUMO-modified target proteins for functional and structural analysis.

  6. An Efficient and Versatile System for Visualization and Genetic Modification of Dopaminergic Neurons in Transgenic Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Tillack

    Full Text Available The brain dopaminergic (DA system is involved in fine tuning many behaviors and several human diseases are associated with pathological alterations of the DA system such as Parkinson's disease (PD and drug addiction. Because of its complex network integration, detailed analyses of physiological and pathophysiological conditions are only possible in a whole organism with a sophisticated tool box for visualization and functional modification.Here, we have generated transgenic mice expressing the tetracycline-regulated transactivator (tTA or the reverse tetracycline-regulated transactivator (rtTA under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH promoter, TH-tTA (tet-OFF and TH-rtTA (tet-ON mice, to visualize and genetically modify DA neurons. We show their tight regulation and efficient use to overexpress proteins under the control of tet-responsive elements or to delete genes of interest with tet-responsive Cre. In combination with mice encoding tet-responsive luciferase, we visualized the DA system in living mice progressively over time.These experiments establish TH-tTA and TH-rtTA mice as a powerful tool to generate and monitor mouse models for DA system diseases.

  7. A versatile and light-weight slow control system for small-scale applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, P.; Bütikofer, L.; Coderre, D.; Kaminsky, B.; Schumann, M.; von Sivers, M.

    2016-09-01

    We present an open source slow control system for small and medium scale projects. Thanks to its modular and flexible design, where the various instruments are read and controlled by independent plugins, Doberman (Detector OBsERving and Monitoring ApplicatioN) can be quickly adapted for many applications, also making use of existing code or proprietary components. The system uses a SQL database to store the data from the instruments and provides an online application to display and browse through the data. It allows the modification of device settings while the program is running and features a protocol to handle exceptions, including the automated distribution of alarm messages. We present two case studies from astroparticle physics, on which Doberman is successfully deployed: a low-background screening facility installed in a remote underground laboratory and a detector R&D platform using cryogenic liquid xenon.

  8. CRISPR-Cas9 System as a Versatile Tool for Genome Engineering in Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted nucleases are influential instruments for intervening in genome revision with great accuracy. RNA-guided Cas9 nucleases produced from clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-Cas systems have noticeably altered the means to modify the genomes of distinct organisms. They can be notably used to facilitate effective genome manipulation in eukaryotic cells by clearly detailing a 20-nt targeting sequence inside its directed RNA. We discuss the most recent advancements in the molecular basis of the type II CRISPR/Cas system and encapsulate applications and elements affecting its use in human cells. We also propose possible applications covering its uses ranging from basic science to implementation in the clinic.

  9. CRISPR-Cas9 System as a Versatile Tool for Genome Engineering in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuelian; Huang, Xiumin; Fang, Xiuli; Zhang, Youzhong; Wang, Wanpeng

    2016-11-15

    Targeted nucleases are influential instruments for intervening in genome revision with great accuracy. RNA-guided Cas9 nucleases produced from clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas systems have noticeably altered the means to modify the genomes of distinct organisms. They can be notably used to facilitate effective genome manipulation in eukaryotic cells by clearly detailing a 20-nt targeting sequence inside its directed RNA. We discuss the most recent advancements in the molecular basis of the type II CRISPR/Cas system and encapsulate applications and elements affecting its use in human cells. We also propose possible applications covering its uses ranging from basic science to implementation in the clinic.

  10. A Versatile Molecular Beam Epitaxy System for Low-Temperature STM: Instrument Design and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Adam; Ding, Hao; Jeon, Sangjun; Yazdani, Ali

    Efficient combination of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is essential for engineering and studying new materials with topological and superconducting properties. Particularly valuable are the capabilities to grow clean material interfaces, single monolayer films, and 2D systems with proximitized superconductivity. A new MBE system designed for STM was constructed to allow reliable ultra-high vacuum sample transfer, growth between 77 K and 1500 K, direct current sample flashing, and RHEED surface monitoring. Six Knudsen cells and electron beam evaporators allow growth of a variety of superconducting, topological, and metallic films. UHV transfer from the MBE via a vacuum suitcase can be accomplished within an hour to preserve clean surfaces. Initial low-temperature STM results on bismuth and monolayer iron selenide (FeSe) films will be presented. This work is supported by the Moore Foundation, ONR, and NSF.

  11. GreenGate---a novel, versatile, and efficient cloning system for plant transgenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Lampropoulos

    Full Text Available Building expression constructs for transgenesis is one of the fundamental day-to-day tasks in modern biology. Traditionally it is based on a multitude of type II restriction endonucleases and T4 DNA ligase. Especially in case of long inserts and applications requiring high-throughput, this approach is limited by the number of available unique restriction sites and the need for designing individual cloning strategies for each project. Several alternative cloning systems have been developed in recent years to overcome these issues, including the type IIS enzyme based Golden Gate technique. Here we introduce our GreenGate system for rapidly assembling plant transformation constructs, which is based on the Golden Gate method. GreenGate cloning is simple and efficient since it uses only one type IIS restriction endonuclease, depends on only six types of insert modules (plant promoter, N-terminal tag, coding sequence, C-terminal tag, plant terminator and plant resistance cassette, but at the same time allows assembling several expression cassettes in one binary destination vector from a collection of pre-cloned building blocks. The system is cheap and reliable and when combined with a library of modules considerably speeds up cloning and transgene stacking for plant transformation.

  12. GreenGate---a novel, versatile, and efficient cloning system for plant transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampropoulos, Athanasios; Sutikovic, Zoran; Wenzl, Christian; Maegele, Ira; Lohmann, Jan U; Forner, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Building expression constructs for transgenesis is one of the fundamental day-to-day tasks in modern biology. Traditionally it is based on a multitude of type II restriction endonucleases and T4 DNA ligase. Especially in case of long inserts and applications requiring high-throughput, this approach is limited by the number of available unique restriction sites and the need for designing individual cloning strategies for each project. Several alternative cloning systems have been developed in recent years to overcome these issues, including the type IIS enzyme based Golden Gate technique. Here we introduce our GreenGate system for rapidly assembling plant transformation constructs, which is based on the Golden Gate method. GreenGate cloning is simple and efficient since it uses only one type IIS restriction endonuclease, depends on only six types of insert modules (plant promoter, N-terminal tag, coding sequence, C-terminal tag, plant terminator and plant resistance cassette), but at the same time allows assembling several expression cassettes in one binary destination vector from a collection of pre-cloned building blocks. The system is cheap and reliable and when combined with a library of modules considerably speeds up cloning and transgene stacking for plant transformation.

  13. JobCenter: an open source, cross-platform, and distributed job queue management system optimized for scalability and versatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschob, Daniel; Riffle, Michael

    2012-07-30

    Laboratories engaged in computational biology or bioinformatics frequently need to run lengthy, multistep, and user-driven computational jobs. Each job can tie up a computer for a few minutes to several days, and many laboratories lack the expertise or resources to build and maintain a dedicated computer cluster. JobCenter is a client-server application and framework for job management and distributed job execution. The client and server components are both written in Java and are cross-platform and relatively easy to install. All communication with the server is client-driven, which allows worker nodes to run anywhere (even behind external firewalls or "in the cloud") and provides inherent load balancing. Adding a worker node to the worker pool is as simple as dropping the JobCenter client files onto any computer and performing basic configuration, which provides tremendous ease-of-use, flexibility, and limitless horizontal scalability. Each worker installation may be independently configured, including the types of jobs it is able to run. Executed jobs may be written in any language and may include multistep workflows. JobCenter is a versatile and scalable distributed job management system that allows laboratories to very efficiently distribute all computational work among available resources. JobCenter is freely available at http://code.google.com/p/jobcenter/.

  14. A highly controllable protein self-assembly system with morphological versatility induced by reengineered host-guest interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiumei; Bai, Yushi; Huang, Zupeng; Si, Chengye; Dong, Zeyuan; Luo, Quan; Liu, Junqiu

    2017-06-14

    Manipulating proteins to self-assemble into highly ordered nanostructures not only provides insights into the natural protein assembly process but also allows access to advanced biomaterials. Host-guest interactions have been widely used in the construction of artificial protein assemblies in recent years. CB[8] can selectively associate with two tripeptide Phe-Gly-Gly (FGG) tags with an extraordinarily high binding affinity (Kter = 1.5 × 10(11) M(-2)). However, the FGG tags utilized before are all fixed to the N-termini via genetic fusion; this spatial limitation greatly confined the availability of the CB[8]/FGG pair in the construction of more sophisticated protein nanostructures. Here we first designed and synthesized a maleimide-functionalized Phe-Gly-Gly tag as a versatile site-specific protein modification tool; this designed tag can site-selectively introduce desired guest moieties onto protein surfaces for host-guest driven protein assembly. When regulating the self-assembly process of proteins and CB[8], the constructed protein nanosystem can exhibit distinctive morphological diversities ranging from nanorings, nanospirals, nanowires to superwires. This work developed a new strategy for site-specific protein modification of the CB[8] binding tag and provides a possible direction for the construction of 'smart', dynamic self-assembly systems.

  15. JobCenter: an open source, cross-platform, and distributed job queue management system optimized for scalability and versatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaschob Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratories engaged in computational biology or bioinformatics frequently need to run lengthy, multistep, and user-driven computational jobs. Each job can tie up a computer for a few minutes to several days, and many laboratories lack the expertise or resources to build and maintain a dedicated computer cluster. Results JobCenter is a client–server application and framework for job management and distributed job execution. The client and server components are both written in Java and are cross-platform and relatively easy to install. All communication with the server is client-driven, which allows worker nodes to run anywhere (even behind external firewalls or “in the cloud” and provides inherent load balancing. Adding a worker node to the worker pool is as simple as dropping the JobCenter client files onto any computer and performing basic configuration, which provides tremendous ease-of-use, flexibility, and limitless horizontal scalability. Each worker installation may be independently configured, including the types of jobs it is able to run. Executed jobs may be written in any language and may include multistep workflows. Conclusions JobCenter is a versatile and scalable distributed job management system that allows laboratories to very efficiently distribute all computational work among available resources. JobCenter is freely available at http://code.google.com/p/jobcenter/.

  16. A retrospective study of viral central nervous system infections: relationship amongst aetiology, clinical course and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleri, Guido; Libanore, Valentina; Corcione, Silvia; De Rosa, Francesco G; Caramello, Pietro

    2017-04-01

    To describe the clinical pattern of viral central nervous system (CNS) infections and compare meningitis and encephalitis. This is a retrospective study reporting the clinical characteristics and outcome of 138 cases of viral meningitis and meningoencephalitis in a real life experience at a referral centre in Turin, Northern Italy. Enteroviruses were predominant in younger patients who were mainly presenting with signs of meningitis, had shorter hospital admission and absence of complications, whereas herpesviruses had more often signs of encephalitis, were more frequent in elderly patients, had longer hospital admission and frequent complications and sequelae. Two main clinical entities with different epidemiology, clinical aspects and prognosis may be identified within the group of viral CNS inefctions.

  17. Acute viral infections of the central nervous system, 2014-2016, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Papadopoulou, Elpida

    2017-11-23

    In order to investigate the viral etiology of acute infections of central nervous system (CNS), multiplex and single PCRs combined with serology for arboviruses were applied on samples from 132 hospitalized patients in Greece during May 2014-December 2016. A viral pathogen was detected in 52 of 132 (39.4%) cases with acute CNS infection. Enteroviruses predominated (15/52, 28.8%), followed by West Nile virus (9/52, 17.3%). Phleboviruses, varicella-zoster virus, and Epstein-Barr virus accounted for 15.4%, 13.5%, and 11.5% of the cases, respectively. The study gives an insight into the etiology of viral CNS infections in a Mediterranean country, where arboviruses should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute CNS infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Role of toll like receptors in bacterial and viral diseases – A systemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Toll like receptors are key-receptors of the innate immune system, but their role against bacterial and viral infections are yet to be understood. Aim: The present study is aimed to investigate the diversity and frequency distribution of 10 TLR genes among typhoid fever and HIV+ patients. In this study, 44 samples ...

  19. A Versatile High-Vacuum Cryo-transfer System for Cryo-microscopy and Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacke, Sebastian; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Nüsse, Harald; Wepf, Roger Albert; Klingauf, Jürgen; Reichelt, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic microscopy methods have gained increasing popularity, as they offer an unaltered view on the architecture of biological specimens. As a prerequisite, samples must be handled under cryogenic conditions below their recrystallization temperature, and contamination during sample transfer and handling must be prevented. We present a high-vacuum cryo-transfer system that streamlines the entire handling of frozen-hydrated samples from the vitrification process to low temperature imaging for scanning transmission electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A template for cryo-electron microscopy and multimodal cryo-imaging approaches with numerous sample transfer steps is presented. PMID:26910419

  20. Essential Oils Against Pathogen and Spoilage Microorganisms of Fruit Juices: Use of Versatile Antimicrobial Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinetta, Valentina; Morgan, Mark T; Coupland, John N; Yucel, Umut

    2017-02-01

    Essential oils (EO) are increasingly used as natural antimicrobial compounds, however the effect of delivery system to enhance their antimicrobial activity has not been widely studied. Limonene (0 to 10 μL/mL) was added to microbial suspensions (∼10 5 CFU/mL) of selected foodborne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus), and spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus plantarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans). S. aureus was found to be the most sensitive foodborne pathogen while Salmonella enterica showed continued growth under all concentrations. Stable nanoemulsions and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) (d ∼ 170 nm) were prepared using an alkane carrier oil (n-tetradecane and n-eicosane, respectively). Interfacial effects and homogenous distribution of limonene in nanoemulsions improved its (8 and 12 μL/mL) antimicrobial effect against S. aureus. Higher aqueous concentrations as a result of expulsion from SLN further enhanced the antimicrobial activity pronounced at higher limonene concentrations. Therefore, our findings confirm that the emulsion-based delivery systems are able to effectively distribute limonene inside a microbial suspension to improve its antimicrobial activity. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. HaloTag: a new versatile reporter gene system in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Christina; Schulze, Jutta; Mendel, Ralf-R; Hänsch, Robert

    2006-01-01

    HaloTag Interchangeable Labeling Technology (HaloTag) was originally developed for mammalian cell analysis. In this report, the use of HaloTag is demonstrated in plant cells for the first time. This system allows different fluorescent colours to be used to visualize the localization of the non-fluorescent HaloTag protein within living cells. A vector was constructed which expresses the HaloTag protein under the control of the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus. The functionality of the HaloTag construct was tested in transient assays by (i) transforming tobacco protoplasts and (ii) using biolistic transformation of intact leaf cells of tobacco and poplar plants. Two to fourteen days after transformation, the plant material was incubated with ligands specific for labelling the HaloTag protein, and fluorescence was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results demonstrate that HaloTag technology is a flexible system which generates efficient fluorescence in different types of plant cells. The ligand-specific labelling of HaloTag protein was not hampered by the plant cell wall.

  2. Antigen 43-mediated autotransporter display, a versatile bacterial cell surface presentation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Kristian; Hasman, Henrik; Schembri, Mark

    2002-01-01

    to the outer membrane and secretion through the cell envelope is contained within the protein itself. Ag43 consists of two subunits (alpha and beta), where the beta-subunit forms an integral outer membrane translocator to which the alpha-subunit is noncovalently attached. The simplicity of the Ag43 system...... makes it ideally suited as a surface display scaffold. Here we demonstrate that the Ag43 alpha-module can accommodate and display correctly folded inserts and has the ability to display entire functional protein domains, exemplified by the FimH lectin domain. The presence of heterologous cysteine...... bridges does not interfere with surface display, and Ag43 chimeras are correctly processed into alpha- and beta-modules, offering optional and easy release of the chimeric alpha-subunits. Furthermore, Ag43 can be displayed in many gram-negative bacteria. This feature is exploited for display of our...

  3. 1997 to Present: Quality and Versatile Access to the Deep Biosphere with Coupled Advanced CORKs and Fluid Pumping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, J. P.; Lin, H.; Jungbluth, S.; Hsieh, C.; Rappe, M.; Glazer, B. T.; Matzinger, M.; Becker, K.; Fisher, A. T.; Amend, J. P.; Johnson, H. P.

    2011-12-01

    In 1997, a simple 'BioColumn' sampler was coupled to the CORK observatory at borehole 1026B to sample fluid chemistry, biomass and microbial community diversity (16S rRNA). The results demonstrated that the 65oC fluids from the 3.5 My old sediment-buried ocean basement support a diverse Bacteria and Archaea community (Cowen et al. 2003, Science 299, 120-123). The large bore of the overpressured CORK body provided high unassisted flow rates through the BioColumn, but possessed the disadvantage of the unknown extent to which the basement fluids were altered by the chemically and biologically (e.g., biofilm community) reactive surface of CORK's steel pipe. Subsequently, new generations of CORKs have incorporated less reactive materials in the CORK body, the use of stainless steel or inert PVDF (Teflon-like) 0.5" ID fluid delivery lines (FDL) running continuously from basement depths to accessible ports at the seafloor, and multiple FDLs from distinct depth horizons within basement. Simultaneously, we have developed increasingly capable fluid sensor and sampling systems for both real-time (Mobile Pumping and Sampling System-MPSS) and long-term autonomous applications (GeoMICROBE sleds). Both incorporate strong efficient pumps to overcome the drag inherent in the 0.5" or smaller bore FDL, multiple sensors (e.g., flow rate, temperature, O2, pH and redox-voltametry chemistry), versatile multi-port large volume fluid collection and/or in situ filtration systems, integrating computer controller/software and non-contaminating (inert) plumbing. These combined developments now provide unparalleled opportunities for access to large volumes of pristine basement samples for geochemical and microbial ecology studies. The MPSS and GeoMICROBE will be described. The multi-year results of organic geochemical and microbial community studies from recent studies at CORK observatories (boreholes 1301A, 1362A 1362B) on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank will be summarized.

  4. RandaDB: a versatile management system for landslide movement monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, P.; Rouiller, J.-D.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2003-04-01

    Areas affected by landslides cover about 6 to 8% of the Swiss territory. In 1989, a preliminary inventory compiled in the canton of Valais has enumerated more than 200 slope instabilities. For more than 10 years in Valais, slope movements over sites likely to induce potential damage over inhabited areas and/or facilities, have been continuously or regularly monitored. This monitoring generates large volumes of data, especially following the use of automatic measurement devices (e.g. extensometer, GPS, weather station, etc.). The management of monitoring data, as well as dynamic information relative to monitoring network configurations, leads to the need for an efficient, structured and flexible data storage system. RandaDB is an original software application that has been designed and implemented to meet this need. It integrates a relational database with a suitable data model for the storage of 1-D and 3-D geodetic measurements, as well as descriptive data on monitoring network and other related information that are useful for data analysis (measurement campaigns, network maintenance, field observations, data corrections, pictures, maps, etc.). In addition to these functions, RandaDB offers a set of functionalities for the handling of data, including the tabulation of measurements, displacements plotting as graphs (1-D data) or stereographic representation (3-D data), and basic statistical and regression tools for checking the consistency of data. Furthermore, the integration of GIS and mapping components to the system allows dynamic and interactive map representations of 1-D and 3-D movements. The RandaDB application has been developed using the WinDev 5.5 development environment and MapObjects software. This tool is used since 2000 to insure the management of geodetics data related to the monitoring of the Randa site in the Mattertal valley (Valais, CH), where there occurred in April-May of 1991 one of the largest rockfalls recorded in Europe during the 20th

  5. Optimization of a Biomimetic Apatite Nanoparticle Delivery System for Non-viral Gene Transfection---a Simulated Body Fluid Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debobrato

    Current methods for gene delivery utilize nanocarriers such as liposomes and viral vectors that may produce in vivo toxicity, immunogenicity, or mutagenesis. Moreover, these common high-cost systems have a low efficacy of gene-vehicle transport across the cell plasma membrane followed by inadequate release and weak intracellular stability of the genetic sequence. Thus, this study aims to maximize gene transfection while minimizing cytotoxicity by utilizing supersaturated blood-plasma ions derived from simulated body fluids (SBF). With favorable electrostatic interactions to create biocompatible calcium-phosphate nanoparticles (NPs) derived from biomimetic apatite (BA), results suggest that the SBF system, though naturally sensitive to reaction conditions, after optimization can serve as a tunable and versatile platform for the delivery of various types of nucleic acids. From a systematic exploration of the effects of nucleation pH, incubation temperature, and time on transfection efficiency, the study proposes distinct characteristic trends in SBF BA-NP morphology, cellular uptake, cell viability, and gene modulation. Specifically, with aggressive nucleation and growth of BA-NPs in solution (observed via scanning electron microscopy), the ensuing microenvironment imposes a more toxic cellular interaction (indicated by alamarBlue and BCA assays), limiting particle uptake (fluorescence experiments) and subsequent gene knockdown (quantitative loss of function assays). Controlled precipitation of BA-NPs function to increase particle accessibility by surrounding cells, and subsequently enhance uptake and transfection efficiency. By closely examining such trends, an optimal fabrication condition of pH 6.5-37C can be observed where particle growth is more tamed and less chaotic, providing improved, favorable cellular interactions that increase cell uptake and consequently maximize gene transfection, without compromising cellular viability.

  6. Systems-biology approaches to discover anti-viral effectors of the human innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münk, Carsten; Sommer, Andreas F R; König, Renate

    2011-07-01

    Virus infections elicit an immediate innate response involving antiviral factors. The activities of some of these factors are, in turn, blocked by viral countermeasures. The ensuing battle between the host and the viruses is crucial for determining whether the virus establishes a foothold and/or induces adaptive immune responses. A comprehensive systems-level understanding of the repertoire of anti-viral effectors in the context of these immediate virus-host responses would provide significant advantages in devising novel strategies to interfere with the initial establishment of infections. Recent efforts to identify cellular factors in a comprehensive and unbiased manner, using genome-wide siRNA screens and other systems biology "omics" methodologies, have revealed several potential anti-viral effectors for viruses like Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), West Nile virus (WNV), and influenza virus. This review describes the discovery of novel viral restriction factors and discusses how the integration of different methods in systems biology can be used to more comprehensively identify the intimate interactions of viruses and the cellular innate resistance.

  7. A Narcissus mosaic viral vector system for protein expression and flavonoid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background With the explosive numbers of sequences generated by next generation sequencing, the demand for high throughput screening to understand gene function has grown. Plant viral vectors have been widely used as tools in down-regulating plant gene expression. However, plant viral vectors can also express proteins in a very efficient manner and, therefore, can also serve as a valuable tool for characterizing proteins and their functions in metabolic pathways in planta. Results In this study, we have developed a Gateway®-based high throughput viral vector cloning system from Narcissus Mosaic Virus (NMV). Using the reporter genes of GFP and GUS, and the plant genes PAP1 (an R2R3 MYB which activates the anthocyanin pathway) and selenium-binding protein 1 (SeBP), we show that NMV vectors and the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana can be used for efficient protein expression, protein subcellular localization and secondary metabolite production. Conclusions Our results suggest that not only can the plant viral vector system be employed for protein work but also can potentially be amenable to producing valuable secondary metabolites on a large scale, as the system does not require plant regeneration from seed or calli, which are stages where certain secondary metabolites can interfere with development. PMID:23849589

  8. Perinatal systemic gene delivery using adeno-associated viral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajvinder eKarda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative monogenic diseases can also affect a broad range of tissues and organs throughout the body. An effective treatment would require a systemic approach. The intravenous administration of novel therapies is ideal but is hampered by the inability of such drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier and precludes efficacy in the central nervous system. A number of these early lethal intractable diseases also present devastating irreversible pathology at birth or soon after. Therefore, any therapy would ideally be administered during the perinatal period to prevent, stop or ameliorate disease progression. The concept of perinatal gene therapy has moved a step further towards being a feasible approach to treating such disorders. This has primarily been driven by the recent discoveries that particular serotypes of adeno-associated virus (AAV gene delivery vectors have the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier following intravenous administration. Furthermore, this has been safely demonstrated in perinatal mice and non-human primates. This review focuses on the progress made in using AAV to achieve systemic transduction and what this means for developing perinatal gene therapy for early lethal neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. A versatile, quantitative analytical method for pharmaceutical relevant lipids in drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschek, Dominik; Lhota, Gabriele; Wallner, Jakob; Vorauer-Uhl, Karola

    2016-02-05

    Over the past few years, liposomal formulations as drug carrier systems have markedly advanced in pharmaceutical research and development. Therefore, analytical methods to characterize liposome-based formulations are required. One particular issue in liposome analysis is the imbalance of lipid ratios within the vesicle formulations and the detectability of degradation products such as lysophospholipids and fatty acids caused by hydrolysis, especially in low molar ranges. Here, a highly sensitive and selective reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (rp-HPLC) method is described by the combination of an organic solvent/trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) triggered gradient and the application of an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD). Gain setting adjustments of the ELSD were applied to obtain an optimal detection profile of the analyzed substances. This optimization provides simultaneous separation and quantification of 16 components, including different phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylglycerols and their degradation products, as well as cholesterol. Parameters such as limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were determined for each of the components and had ranges from 0.25-1.00mg/mL (LOD) and 0.50-2.50μg/mL (LOQ), respectively. The intra-day precision for all analytes is less than 3% (RSD) and inter-day precision is about 8%. The applicability of the method was verified by analyzing two different liposome formulations consisting of DSPC:DPPC:DSPG:Chol (35:35:20:10) and DSPC:DPPC:DSPG (38:38:24). For degradation studies, both formulations were stored at 4°C and at ambient temperature. Additionally, forced degradation experiments were performed to determine hydrolysis mass balances. A total recovery of 96-102% for phospholipid compounds was found. Analytical data revealed that the sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, and resolution are appropriate for the detection and quantification of phospholipids and their hydrolysis products

  10. V-stand--a versatile surgical platform for oromandibular reconstruction using a 3-dimensional virtual modeling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Vadim; Alterman, Michael; Shuster, Amir; Kleinman, Shlomi; Shlomi, Benjamin; Yanko-Arzi, Ravit; Zaretski, Arik; Amir, Aharon; Fliss, Dan M

    2015-06-01

    The challenge of oromandibular reconstruction (OMR) after oncologic resections has been repeatedly addressed in the literature. Although final oncologic margins can be decided only during surgery, various attempts have been made to create an ideal and accurate platform for OMR. The purpose of this article is to present the V-stand, a versatile surgical platform for OMR using a 3-dimensional (3D) virtual modeling system. Seventeen patients requiring an OMR were included in the study. A presurgical computed tomogram was obtained and virtual resection and reconstruction with a free fibular flap were planned using 3D virtual surgery software. The mandible was reconstructed intraoperatively using the V-stand, which served as a template for the lower border of the mandible and the lateral aspects of the stand were fixed to the proximal mandibular segments using 2-mm titanium screws. Patients' average age was 53 years (5 to 72 yr). Median follow-up was 19 months (2 to 35 months). All reconstructed mandibles resulted in good function and esthetics. The V-stand offers a safe and time-efficient method for OMR. It provides an excellent means for accurate spatial positioning of a fibular free flap. The V-stand preserves the original dimensions of the reconstructed mandible and can overcome surgical ablation modifications because it is not dependent on the precision of the resection, but rather provides a mold for the entire mandible. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Versatile quantitative phase imaging system applied to high-speed, low noise and multimodal imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Antoine; Aknoun, Sherazade; Savatier, Julien; Wattellier, Benoit F.

    2017-02-01

    Quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry (QWLSI) is a well-established quantitative phase imaging (QPI) technique based on the analysis of interference patterns of four diffraction orders by an optical grating set in front of an array detector [1]. As a QPI modality, this is a non-invasive imaging technique which allow to measure the optical path difference (OPD) of semi-transparent samples. We present a system enabling QWLSI with high-performance sCMOS cameras [2] and apply it to perform high-speed imaging, low noise as well as multimodal imaging. This modified QWLSI system contains a versatile optomechanical device which images the optical grating near the detector plane. Such a device is coupled with any kind of camera by varying its magnification. In this paper, we study the use of a sCMOS Zyla5.5 camera from Andor along with our modified QWLSI system. We will present high-speed live cell imaging, up to 200Hz frame rate, in order to follow intracellular fast motions while measuring the quantitative phase information. The structural and density information extracted from the OPD signal is complementary to the specific and localized fluorescence signal [2]. In addition, QPI detects cells even when the fluorophore is not expressed. This is very useful to follow a protein expression with time. The 10 µm spatial pixel resolution of our modified QWLSI associated to the high sensitivity of the Zyla5.5 enabling to perform high quality fluorescence imaging, we have carried out multimodal imaging revealing fine structures cells, like actin filaments, merged with the morphological information of the phase. References [1]. P. Bon, G. Maucort, B. Wattellier, and S. Monneret, "Quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry for quantitative phase microscopy of living cells," Opt. Express, vol. 17, pp. 13080-13094, 2009. [2] P. Bon, S. Lécart, E. Fort and S. Lévêque-Fort, "Fast label-free cytoskeletal network imaging in living mammalian cells," Biophysical journal, 106

  12. [Autochthonous acute viral and bacterial infections of the central nervous system (meningitis and encephalitis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Vicente, Diego; Navarro-Marí, José María

    2008-07-01

    Rapid diagnosis of acute viral and bacterial infections of the central nervous system (meningitis and encephalitis) is highly important for the clinical management of the patient and helps to establish early therapy that may solve life-threatening situations, to avoid unnecessary empirical treatments, to reduce hospital stay, and to facilitate appropriate interventions in the context of public health. Molecular techniques, especially real-time polymerase chain reaction, have become the fastest and most sensitive diagnostic procedures for autochthonous viral meningitis and encephalitis, and their role is becoming increasingly important for the diagnosis and control of most frequent acute bacterial meningitides. Automatic and closed systems may encourage the widespread and systematic use of molecular techniques for the diagnosis of these neurological syndromes in most laboratories.

  13. Viral-induced systemic necrosis in plants involves both programmed cell death and the inhibition of viral multiplication, which are regulated by independent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Ken; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Ozeki, Johji; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Maejima, Kensaku; Senshu, Hiroko; Himeno, Misako; Okano, Yukari; Kagiwada, Satoshi; Namba, Shigetou

    2010-03-01

    Resistant plants respond rapidly to invading avirulent plant viruses by triggering a hypersensitive response (HR). An HR is accompanied by a restraint of virus multiplication and programmed cell death (PCD), both of which have been observed in systemic necrosis triggered by a successful viral infection. Here, we analyzed signaling pathways underlying the HR in resistance genotype plants and those leading to systemic necrosis. We show that systemic necrosis in Nicotiana benthamiana, induced by Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV) infection, was associated with PCD, biochemical features, and gene expression patterns that are characteristic of HR. The induction of necrosis caused by PlAMV infection was dependent on SGT1, RAR1, and the downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade involving MAPKKKalpha and MEK2. However, although SGT1 and RAR1 silencing led to an increased accumulation of PlAMV, silencing of the MAPKKKalpha-MEK2 cascade did not. This observation indicates that viral multiplication is partly restrained even in systemic necrosis induced by viral infection, and that this restraint requires SGT1 and RAR1 but not the MAPKKKalpha-MEK2 cascade. Similarly, although both SGT1 and MAPKKKalpha were essential for the Rx-mediated HR to Potato virus X (PVX), SGT1 but not MAPKKKalpha was involved in the restraint of PVX multiplication. These results suggest that systemic necrosis and HR consist of PCD and a restraint of virus multiplication, and that the latter is induced through unknown pathways independent from the former.

  14. Visualizing viral dissemination in the mouse nervous system, using a green fluorescent protein-expressing Borna disease virus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Andreas; Guelzow, Timo; Staeheli, Peter; Schneider, Urs; Heimrich, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) frequently persists in the brain of infected animals. To analyze viral dissemination in the mouse nervous system, we generated a mouse-adapted virus that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP). This viral vector supported GFP expression for up to 150 days and possessed an extraordinary staining capacity, visualizing complete dendritic arbors as well as individual axonal fibers of infected neurons. GFP-positive cells were first detected in cortical areas from where the virus disseminated through the entire central nervous system (CNS). Late in infection, GFP expression was found in the sciatic nerve, demonstrating viral spread from the central to the peripheral nervous system.

  15. Versatility of the Novalis system to deliver image-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for various anatomical sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Bin S; Paulino, Arnold C; Lu, Hsin H; Chiu, J Kam; Richardson, Susan; Chiang, Stephen; Amato, Robert; Butler, E Brian; Bloch, Charles

    2007-08-01

    data obtained using 4D-CT while the patient is immobilized in the body cast aids in planning treatment margin and determining the need for respiratory motion control, e.g., abdominal compressor, gating, or active breathing control. The inclusion of PET/CT to the Brainlab treatment planning system further refines the target delineation and possibly guides differential fraction size prescription and delivery. The majority of the patients tolerated the SBRT treatment well despite the longer daily treatment time when compared to that of conventional treatment. All patients achieved good pain relief after SBRT. Compared to conventional standard radiotherapy of lower daily fraction size, we observed that the patients achieved faster pain relief and possibly more durable symptom control. Very high local control with stable disease on imaging was observed post SBRT. Our initial experience shows that the Brainlab Novalis system is very versatile in delivering image-guided SBRT to various anatomical sites. This SBRT approach can be applied to either primary or metastatic lesions in the primary, "boost," or re-irradiation settings. The understanding of fraction size, total dose, BED, and DVH of normal tissues is very important in the treatment planning. Appropriate use of immobilization devices, radio-opaque markers for image-guidance, 4D-CT for tumor/organ motion estimates, and fusion of planning CT scans with biological/functional imaging will further improve the planning and delivery of SBRT, hopefully leading to better treatment outcome.

  16. Viral Gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help relieve the symptoms of viral gastroenteritis in adults: drinking plenty of liquids such as fruit juices, sports ... as the child is hungry giving infants breast milk or full strength ... solutions Older adults and adults with weak immune systems should also ...

  17. Immune System Dysregulation, Viral Reactivation and Stress During Short-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a study that was conducted to ascertain if the immune system dysregulation, viral reactivation and stress from short duration space flight were a result of the stress of landing and readjustment to gravity. The objectives of the study were to replace several recent immune studies with one comprehensive study that will include in-flight sampling; address lack of in-flight data: (i.e., determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation); determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight; and determine the appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures.

  18. Gene Expression Profiles from Disease Discordant Twins Suggest Shared Antiviral Pathways and Viral Exposures among Multiple Systemic Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lu; O'Hanlon, Terrance P; Lai, Zhennan; Fannin, Rick; Weller, Melodie L; Rider, Lisa G; Chiorini, John A; Miller, Frederick W

    2015-01-01

    Viral agents are of interest as possible autoimmune triggers due to prior reported associations and widely studied molecular mechanisms of antiviral immune responses in autoimmunity. Here we examined new viral candidates for the initiation and/or promotion of systemic autoimmune diseases (SAID), as well as possible related signaling pathways shared in the pathogenesis of those disorders. RNA isolated from peripheral blood samples from 33 twins discordant for SAID and 33 matched, unrelated healthy controls was analyzed using a custom viral-human gene microarray. Paired comparisons were made among three study groups-probands with SAID, their unaffected twins, and matched, unrelated healthy controls-using statistical and molecular pathway analyses. Probands and unaffected twins differed significantly in the expression of 537 human genes, and 107 of those were associated with viral infections. These 537 differentially expressed human genes participate in overlapping networks of several canonical, biologic pathways relating to antiviral responses and inflammation. Moreover, certain viral genes were expressed at higher levels in probands compared to either unaffected twins or unrelated, healthy controls. Interestingly, viral gene expression levels in unaffected twins appeared intermediate between those of probands and the matched, unrelated healthy controls. Of the viruses with overexpressed viral genes, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) was the only human viral pathogen identified using four distinct oligonucleotide probes corresponding to three HSV-2 genes associated with different stages of viral infection. Although the effects from immunosuppressive therapy on viral gene expression remain unclear, this exploratory study suggests a new approach to evaluate shared viral agents and antiviral immune responses that may be involved in the development of SAID.

  19. Two-dimensional flow-through microcosms - Versatile test systems to study biodegradation processes in porous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert D.; Rolle, Massimo; Kürzinger, Petra; Grathwohl, Peter; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Griebler, Christian

    2009-05-01

    SummaryA fundamental prerequisite of any remedial activity is a sound knowledge of both the biotic and abiotic processes involved in transport and degradation of contaminants. Investigations of these aspects in situ often seem infeasible due to the complexity of interacting processes. A simplified portrayal of nature can be facilitated in laboratory-based two-dimensional (2D) sediment flow-through microcosms. This paper describes the versatility of such simple aquifer model systems with respect to biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e. toluene and ethylbenzene, under various environmental conditions. Initially constructed to study non-reactive and bioreactive transport of organic contaminants in homogeneous porous media under steady state hydraulic conditions, experimental setups developed towards more realistic heterogeneous sediment packing and transient hydraulic conditions. High-resolution spatial and temporal sampling allowed to obtain new insights on the distribution of bioactivities in contaminant plumes and associated controlling and limiting factors. Major biodegradation activities in saturated porous sediments are located at the fringes of contaminant plumes and are driven by dispersive mixing. These hot-spots of contaminant biotransformation are characterized by steep physical-chemical gradients in the millimeter to centimeter range. Sediment heterogeneity, i.e. high-conductivity zones, was shown to significantly enhance transverse mixing and subsequently biodegradation. On the contrary, transient hydraulic conditions may generate intermediate disturbances to biodegrader populations and thus may interfere with optimized contaminant conversion. However, a bacterial strain aerobically degrading toluene, i.e. Pseudomonas putida F1, was shown to adapt to vertically moving contaminant plumes, in the way that it regained full biodegradation potential two-times faster in areas with a mid-term (days to weeks) contamination history than in areas not

  20. Viral load affects the immune response to HBV in mice with humanized immune system and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusséaux, Mathilde; Masse-Ranson, Guillemette; Darche, Sylvie; Ahodantin, James; Li, Yan; Fiquet, Oriane; Beaumont, Elodie; Moreau, Pierrick; Rivière, Lise; Neuveut, Christine; Soussan, Patrick; Roingeard, Philippe; Kremsdorf, Dina; Di Santo, James P; Strick-Marchand, Helene

    2017-08-26

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects hepatocytes, but the mechanisms of the immune response against the virus, and how it affects disease progression, are unclear. We performed studies with BALB/c Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-)Sirpa(NOD)Alb-uPA(tg/tg) mice, stably engrafted with human hepatocytes (HUHEP) with or without a human immune system (HIS). HUHEP and HIS-HUHEP mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of HBV. Mononuclear cells were isolated from spleen and liver for analysis by flow cytometry. Liver was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and mRNA levels were measured by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Plasma levels of HBV DNA was quantified by quantitative PCR, and antigen-specific antibodies were detected by immunocytochemistry of HBV transfected BHK-21 cells. Following HBV infection, a complete viral life cycle, with production of HBV DNA, hepatitis B e, core (HBc) and surface (HBs) antigens, and covalently closed circular DNA, was observed in HUHEP and HIS-HUHEP mice. HBV replicated unrestricted in HUHEP mice resulting in high viral titers without pathologic effects. In contrast, HBV-infected HIS-HUHEP mice developed chronic hepatitis with 10-fold lower titers and antigen-specific IgGs, (anti-HBs, anti-HBc), consistent with partial immune control. HBV-infected HIS-HUHEP livers contained infiltrating Kupffer cells, mature activated natural killer cells (CD69+), and PD-1+ effector memory T cells (CD45RO+). Reducing the viral inoculum resulted in more efficient immune control. Plasma from HBV-infected HIS-HUHEP mice had increased levels of inflammatory and immune-suppressive cytokines (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 and interleukin 10), which correlated with populations of intrahepatic CD4+ T cells (CD45RO+PD-1+). Mice with high levels of viremia had HBV-infected liver progenitor cells. Giving the mice the nucleoside analogue entecavir reduced viral loads and decreased liver inflammation. In HIS-HUHEP mice, HBV infection completes a full life cycle and

  1. Characterization and calibration of gas sensor systems at ppb level—a versatile test gas generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, Martin; Schultealbert, Caroline; Neu, Julian; Schütze, Andreas; Sauerwald, Tilman

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a test gas generation system designed to generate ppb level gas concentrations from gas cylinders. The focus is on permanent gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for applications like indoor and outdoor air quality monitoring or breath analysis. In the design and the setup of the system, several issues regarding handling of trace gas concentrations have been considered, addressed and tested. This concerns not only the active fluidic components (flow controllers, valves), which have been chosen specifically for the task, but also the design of the fluidic tubing regarding dead volumes and delay times, which have been simulated for the chosen setup. Different tubing materials have been tested for their adsorption/desorption characteristics regarding naphthalene, a highly relevant gas for indoor air quality monitoring, which has generated high gas exchange times in a previous gas mixing system due to long time adsorption/desorption effects. Residual gas contaminations of the system and the selected carrier air supply have been detected and quantified using both an analytical method (GC-MS analysis according to ISO 16000-6) and a metal oxide semiconductor gas sensor, which detected a maximum contamination equivalent to 28 ppb of carbon monoxide. A measurement strategy for suppressing even this contamination has been devised, which allows the system to be used for gas sensor and gas sensor system characterization and calibration in the low ppb concentration range.

  2. Viral lysis of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lønborg, C.; Middelboe, M.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2013-01-01

    The viral mediated transformation of phytoplankton organic carbon to dissolved forms (“viral shunt”) has been suggested as a major source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in marine systems. Despite the potential implications of viral activity on the global carbon fluxes, studies investigating

  3. Viral Predation and Host Immunity Structure Microbial Communities in a Terrestrial Deep Subsurface, Hydraulically Fractured Shale System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, R. A.; Mouser, P. J.; Trexler, R.; Wrighton, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Despite a growing appreciation for the ecological role of viruses in marine and gut systems, little is known about their role in the terrestrial deep (> 2000 m) subsurface. We used assembly-based metagenomics to examine the viral component in fluids from hydraulically fractured Marcellus shale gas wells. Here we reconstructed microbial and viral genomes from samples collected 7, 82, and 328 days post fracturing. Viruses accounted for 4.14%, 0.92% and 0.59% of the sample reads that mapped to the assembly. We identified 6 complete, circularized viral genomes and an additional 92 viral contigs > 5 kb with a maximum contig size of 73.6 kb. A BLAST comparison to NCBI viral genomes revealed that 85% of viral contigs had significant hits to the viral order Caudovirales, with 43% of sequences belonging to the family Siphoviridae, 38% to Myoviridae, and 12% to Podoviridae. Enrichment of Caudovirales viruses was supported by a large number of predicted proteins characteristic of tailed viruses including terminases (TerL), tape measure, tail formation, and baseplate related proteins. The viral contigs included evidence of lytic and temperate lifestyles, with the 7 day sample having the greatest number of detected lytic viruses. Notably in this sample, the most abundant virus was lytic and its inferred host, a member of the Vibrionaceae, was not detected at later time points. Analyses of CRISPR sequences (a viral and foreign DNA immune system in bacteria and archaea), linked 18 viral contigs to hosts. CRISPR linkages increased through time and all bacterial and archaeal genomes recovered in the final time point had genes for CRISPR-mediated viral defense. The majority of CRISPR sequences linked phage genomes to several Halanaerobium strains, which are the dominant and persisting members of the community inferred to be responsible for carbon and sulfur cycling in these shales. Network analysis revealed that several viruses were present in the 82 and 328 day samples; this viral

  4. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  5. Viral RNA silencing suppressors (RSS): novel strategy of viruses to ablate the host RNA interference (RNAi) defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivalkar-Mehla, Shalmali; Vakharia, Janaki; Mehla, Rajeev; Abreha, Measho; Kanwar, Jagat Rakesh; Tikoo, Akshay; Chauhan, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenic viruses have developed a molecular defense arsenal for their survival by counteracting the host anti-viral system known as RNA interference (RNAi). Cellular RNAi, in addition to regulating gene expression through microRNAs, also serves as a barrier against invasive foreign nucleic acids. RNAi is conserved across the biological species, including plants, animals and invertebrates. Viruses in turn, have evolved mechanisms that can counteract this anti-viral defense of the host. Recent studies of mammalian viruses exhibiting RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) activity have further advanced our understanding of RNAi in terms of host-virus interactions. Viral proteins and non-coding viral RNAs can inhibit the RNAi (miRNA/siRNA) pathway through different mechanisms. Mammalian viruses having dsRNA-binding regions and GW/WG motifs appear to have a high chance of conferring RSS activity. Although, RSSs of plant and invertebrate viruses have been well characterized, mammalian viral RSSs still need in-depth investigations to present the concrete evidences supporting their RNAi ablation characteristics. The information presented in this review together with any perspective research should help to predict and identify the RSS activity-endowed new viral proteins that could be the potential targets for designing novel anti-viral therapeutics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction of extremophilic archaeal viruses with human and mouse complement system and viral biodistribution in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linping; Uldahl, Kristine Buch; Chen, Fangfang; Benasutti, Halli; Logvinski, Deborah; Vu, Vivian; Banda, Nirmal K; Peng, Xu; Simberg, Dmitri; Moghimi, Seyed Moein

    2017-10-01

    Archaeal viruses offer exceptional biophysical properties for modification and exploration of their potential in bionanotechnology, bioengineering and nanotherapeutic developments. However, the interaction of archaeal viruses with elements of the innate immune system has not been explored, which is a necessary prerequisite if their potential for biomedical applications to be realized. Here we show complement activation through lectin (via direct binding of MBL/MASPs) and alternative pathways by two extremophilic archaeal viruses (Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1 and Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 2) in human serum. We further show some differences in initiation of complement activation pathways between these viruses. Since, Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1 was capable of directly triggering the alternative pathway, we also demonstrate that the complement regulator factor H has no affinity for the viral surface, but factor H deposition is purely C3-dependent. This suggests that unlike some virulent pathogens Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1 does not acquire factor H for protection. Complement activation with Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1 also proceeds in murine sera through MBL-A/C as well as factor D-dependent manner, but C3 deficiency has no overall effect on viral clearance by organs of the reticuloendothelial system on intravenous injection. However, splenic deposition was significantly higher in C3 knockout animals compared with the corresponding wild type mice. We discuss the potential application of these viruses in biomedicine in relation to their complement activating properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CCR5 limits cortical viral loads during West Nile virus infection of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Douglas M; Daniels, Brian P; Pasieka, TracyJo; Dorsey, Denise; Klein, Robyn S

    2015-12-15

    Cell-mediated immunity is critical for clearance of central nervous system (CNS) infection with the encephalitic flavivirus, West Nile virus (WNV). Prior studies from our laboratory have shown that WNV-infected neurons express chemoattractants that mediate recruitment of antiviral leukocytes into the CNS. Although the chemokine receptor, CCR5, has been shown to play an important role in CNS host defense during WNV infection, regional effects of its activity within the infected brain have not been defined. We used CCR5-deficient mice and an established murine model of WNV encephalitis to determine whether CCR5 activity impacts on WNV levels within the CNS in a region-specific fashion. Statistical comparisons between groups were made with one- or two-way analysis of variance; Bonferroni's post hoc test was subsequently used to compare individual means. Survival was analyzed by the log-rank test. Analyses were conducted using Prism software (GraphPad Prism). All data were expressed as means ± SEM. Differences were considered significant if P ≤ 0.05. As previously shown, lack of CCR5 activity led to increased symptomatic disease and mortality in mice after subcutaneous infection with WNV. Evaluation of viral burden in the footpad, draining lymph nodes, spleen, olfactory bulb, and cerebellum derived from WNV-infected wild-type, and CCR5(-/-) mice showed no differences between the genotypes. In contrast, WNV-infected, CCR5(-/-) mice exhibited significantly increased viral burden in cortical tissues, including the hippocampus, at day 8 post-infection. CNS regional studies of chemokine expression via luminex analysis revealed significantly increased expression of CCR5 ligands, CCL4 and CCL5, within the cortices of WNV-infected, CCR5(-/-) mice compared with those of similarly infected WT animals. Cortical elevations in viral loads and CCR5 ligands in WNV-infected, CCR5(-/-) mice, however, were associated with decreased numbers of infiltrating mononuclear cells

  8. Evaluation of temporal surveillance system sensitivity and freedom from bovine viral diarrhea in Danish dairy herds using scenario tree modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Stockmarr, Anders; Boklund, Anette

    2016-01-01

    The temporal sensitivity of the surveillance system (TemSSe) for Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in Danish dairy herds was evaluated. Currently, the Danish antibody blocking ELISA is used to test quarterly bulk tank milk (BTM). To optimize the surveillance system as an early warning system, we...

  9. Toscana meningoencephalitis: a comparison to other viral central nervous system infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaijakul, Siraya; Arias, Cesar A.; Hossein, Monir; Arduino, Roberto C.; Wootton, Susan H.; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Background Toscana virus (TOSV) is an emerging pathogen causing central nervous system (CNS) infection in Mediterranean countries, mostly during summer season. Objectives To compare the clinical and laboratory characteristics of Toscana CNS infections to the most common viral pathogens seen in the United States. Study Design We performed a case series of patients with 41 TOSV infection and compared the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, imaging results and clinical outcomes to the most commonly recognized viral causes of meningoencephalitis in the US (enterovirus (n=60), herpes simplex virus (n=48), and west nile virus (n=30) from our multi-center study of patients with aseptic meningoencephalitis syndromes in the Greater Houston area. Results TOSV infection occurs in different age groups compared to enterovirus, HSV, and WNV. All infections most frequently occur during summer-fall except HSV which distributes throughout the year. All patients with TOSV had history of travel to endemic areas. There are differences in clinical presentation and CSF findings comparing TOSV and enterovirus, HSV, and WNV infection. There are no significant differences in outcomes of each infection except WNV meningoencephalitis which had a poorer outcome compared to TOSV infection. Conclusions TOSV is an emerging pathogen that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with CNS infections and a recent travel history to endemic areas. PMID:22867730

  10. Management of Viral Central Nervous System Infections: A Primer for Clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Brandon Bookstaver

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are a common cause of central nervous system (CNS infections with many host, agent, and environmental factors influencing the expression of viral diseases. Viruses can be responsible for CNS disease through a variety of mechanisms including direct infection and replication within the CNS resulting in encephalitis, infection limited to the meninges, or immune-related processes such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Common pathogens including herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster, and enterovirus are responsible for the greatest number of cases in immunocompetent hosts. Other herpes viruses (eg, cytomegalovirus, John Cunningham virus are more common in immunocompromised hosts. Arboviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus and Zika virus are important pathogens globally, but the prevalence varies significantly by geographic region and often season. Early diagnosis from radiographic evidence and molecular (eg, rapid diagnostics is important for targeted therapy. Antivirals may be used effectively against some pathogens, although several viruses have no effective treatment. This article provides a review of epidemiology, diagnostics, and management of common viral pathogens in CNS disease.

  11. Viral pre-challenge increases central nervous system inflammation after intracranial interleukin-1β injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Yvonne; Davis, Andrew E; Sá-Pereira, Inês; Campbell, Sandra J; Anthony, Daniel C

    2014-10-17

    Systemic inflammation has been shown to significantly worsen the outcome of neurological disease. However, after acute injuries to the brain both pre- and post-conditioning with bacterial endotoxin has been shown to reduce leukocyte recruitment to the CNS. Here, we sought to determine whether viral pre-challenge would have an effect on the outcome of acute CNS inflammation that was distinct from endotoxin. Animals received a single intracranial microinjection of IL-1β in the presence or absence of a viral pre-challenge 24 hours prior to surgery. Liver and brain tissue were analysed for chemokine expression by qRT-PCR and leukocyte and monocyte infiltration 12 hours, 3 days and 7 days after the IL-1β injection. Here, a single injection of adenovirus prior to IL-1β injection resulted in adhesion molecule expression, chemokine expression and the recruitment of neutrophils to the injured CNS in significantly higher numbers than in IL-1β injected animals. The distribution and persistence of leukocytes within the CNS was also greater after pre-challenge, with neutrophils being found in both the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres. Thus, despite the absence of virus within the CNS, the presence of virus within the periphery was sufficient to exacerbate CNS disease. These data suggest that the effect of a peripheral inflammatory challenge on the outcome of CNS injury or disease is not generic and will be highly dependent on the nature of the pathogen.

  12. FRNA Bacteriophages as Viral Indicators of Faecal Contamination in Mexican Tropical Aquatic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Avalos, Carlos; Lopez-Vidal, Yolanda; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    A particular challenge to water safety in populous intertropical regions is the lack of reliable faecal indicators to detect microbiological contamination of water, while the numerical relationships of specific viral indicators remain largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the numerical relationships of FRNA-bacteriophage genotypes, adenovirus 41, and human adenoviruses (HADV) in Mexican surface water systems to assess sewage contamination. We studied the presence of HADV, HADV41 and FRNA bacteriophage genotypes in water samples and quantified by qPCR and RT-qPCR. Virus and water quality indicator variances, as analyzed by principal component analysis and partial least squared regression, followed along the major percentiles of water faecal enterococci. FRNA bacteriophages adequately deciphered viral and point source water contamination. The strongest correlation for HADV was with FRNA bacteriophage type II, in water samples higher than the 50th percentiles of faecal enterococci, thus indicating urban pollution. FRNA bacteriophage genotypes I and III virus indicator performances were assisted by their associations with electrical conductivity and faecal enterococci. In combination, our methods are useful for inferring water quality degradation caused by sewage contamination. The methods used have potential for determining source contamination in water and, specifically, the presence of enteric viruses where clean and contaminated water have mixed. PMID:28114378

  13. FRNA Bacteriophages as Viral Indicators of Faecal Contamination in Mexican Tropical Aquatic Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Jose Rene Arredondo-Hernandez

    Full Text Available A particular challenge to water safety in populous intertropical regions is the lack of reliable faecal indicators to detect microbiological contamination of water, while the numerical relationships of specific viral indicators remain largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the numerical relationships of FRNA-bacteriophage genotypes, adenovirus 41, and human adenoviruses (HADV in Mexican surface water systems to assess sewage contamination. We studied the presence of HADV, HADV41 and FRNA bacteriophage genotypes in water samples and quantified by qPCR and RT-qPCR. Virus and water quality indicator variances, as analyzed by principal component analysis and partial least squared regression, followed along the major percentiles of water faecal enterococci. FRNA bacteriophages adequately deciphered viral and point source water contamination. The strongest correlation for HADV was with FRNA bacteriophage type II, in water samples higher than the 50th percentiles of faecal enterococci, thus indicating urban pollution. FRNA bacteriophage genotypes I and III virus indicator performances were assisted by their associations with electrical conductivity and faecal enterococci. In combination, our methods are useful for inferring water quality degradation caused by sewage contamination. The methods used have potential for determining source contamination in water and, specifically, the presence of enteric viruses where clean and contaminated water have mixed.

  14. Role of metabolism during viral infections, and crosstalk with the innate immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Plaza, Juan José; Hulak, Nataša; Kausova, Galina; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Akilzhanova, Ainur

    2016-05-01

    Viruses have been for long polemic biological particles which stand in the twilight of being living entities or not. As their genome is reduced, they rely on the metabolic machinery of their host in order to replicate and be able to continue with their infection process. The understanding of their metabolic requirements is thus of paramount importance in order to develop tailored drugs to control their population, without affecting the normal functioning of their host. New advancements in high throughput technologies, especially metabolomics are allowing researchers to uncover the metabolic mechanisms of viral replication. In this short review, we present the latest discoveries that have been made in the field and an overview of the intrinsic relationship between metabolism and innate immunity as an important part of the immune system.

  15. ZCURVE_V: a new self-training system for recognizing protein-coding genes in viral and phage genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chun-Ting

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It necessary to use highly accurate and statistics-based systems for viral and phage genome annotations. The GeneMark systems for gene-finding in virus and phage genomes suffer from some basic drawbacks. This paper puts forward an alternative approach for viral and phage gene-finding to improve the quality of annotations, particularly for newly sequenced genomes. Results The new system ZCURVE_V has been run for 979 viral and 212 phage genomes, respectively, and satisfactory results are obtained. To have a fair comparison with the currently available software of similar function, GeneMark, a total of 30 viral genomes that have not been annotated by GeneMark are selected to be tested. Consequently, the average specificity of both systems is well matched, however the average sensitivity of ZCURVE_V for smaller viral genomes (Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus, probably with the lowest genomic GC content among the sequenced organisms, the accuracy of ZCURVE_V is much better than that of GeneMark, because the later predicts hundreds of false-positive genes. ZCURVE_V is also used to analyze well-studied genomes, such as HIV-1, HBV and SARS-CoV. Accordingly, the performance of ZCURVE_V is generally better than that of GeneMark. Finally, ZCURVE_V may be downloaded and run locally, particularly facilitating its utilization, whereas GeneMark is not downloadable. Based on the above comparison, it is suggested that ZCURVE_V may serve as a preferred gene-finding tool for viral and phage genomes newly sequenced. However, it is also shown that the joint application of both systems, ZCURVE_V and GeneMark, leads to better gene-finding results. The system ZCURVE_V is freely available at: http://tubic.tju.edu.cn/Zcurve_V/. Conclusion ZCURVE_V may serve as a preferred gene-finding tool used for viral and phage genomes, especially for anonymous viral and phage genomes newly sequenced.

  16. Regional differences in viral growth and central nervous system injury correlate with apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson-Burns, Sarah M; Tyler, Kenneth L

    2004-05-01

    Infection of neonatal mice with reovirus T3 Dearing (T3D), the prototypic neurotropic reovirus, causes fatal encephalitis associated with neuronal injury and virus-induced apoptosis throughout the brain. T3D variant K (VarK) is an antigenic variant that has a nearly 1 million-fold reduction in neurovirulence following intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation compared to T3D and a restricted pattern of central nervous system injury with damage limited to the hippocampus, sparing other brain regions. We wished to determine whether the restricted pattern of VarK-induced injury was due to a reduced capacity to replicate in or injure cortical, as opposed to hippocampal, tissue. We found that following i.c. inoculation, VarK grew to similar titers as T3D in the hippocampus but had significantly lower titers in the cortex. Both viruses grew to identical titers and infected the same percentage of cells in mouse primary hippocampal cultures (MHC). In mouse primary cortical cultures (MCC) both the number of infected cells and the viral yield per infected cell were significantly lower for VarK than T3D. VarK-induced apoptosis was limited to the hippocampus in vivo, and in vitro both viruses induced apoptosis equally in MHC but VarK induced significantly less apoptosis than T3D in MCC. Growth of T3D in MCC was reduced to levels comparable to those of VarK following treatment of MCC with caspase inhibitors. Conversely, induction of apoptosis in VarK-infected MCC with fatty acid synthase-activating antibody significantly enhanced viral yield. These results suggest that the decreased neurovirulence of VarK may be due to its failure to efficiently induce apoptosis in cortical neurons.

  17. Optogenetic dissection of neuronal circuits in zebrafish using viral gene transfer and the Tet system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixin Zhu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The conditional expression of transgenes at high levels in sparse and specific populations of neurons is important for high-resolution optogenetic analyses of neuronal circuits. We explored two complementary methods, viral gene delivery and the iTet-Off system, to express transgenes in the brain of zebrafish. High-level gene expression in neurons was achieved by Sindbis and Rabies viruses. The Tet system produced strong and specific gene expression that could be modulated conveniently by doxycycline. Moreover, transgenic lines showed expression in distinct, sparse and stable populations of neurons that appeared to be subsets of the neurons targeted by the promoter driving the Tet activator. The Tet system therefore provides the opportunity to generate libraries of diverse expression patterns similar to gene trap approaches or the thy-1 promoter in mice, but with the additional possibility to pre-select cell types of interest. In transgenic lines expressing channelrhodopsin-2, action potential firing could be precisely controlled by two-photon stimulation at low laser power, presumably because the expression levels of the Tet-controlled genes were high even in adults. In channelrhodopsin-2-expressing larvae, optical stimulation with a single blue LED evoked distinct swimming behaviors including backward swimming. These approaches provide new opportunities for the optogenetic dissection of neuronal circuit structure and function.

  18. Viral evasion of a bacterial suicide system by RNA-based molecular mimicry enables infectious altruism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim R Blower

    Full Text Available Abortive infection, during which an infected bacterial cell commits altruistic suicide to destroy the replicating bacteriophage and protect the clonal population, can be mediated by toxin-antitoxin systems such as the Type III protein-RNA toxin-antitoxin system, ToxIN. A flagellum-dependent bacteriophage of the Myoviridae, ΦTE, evolved rare mutants that "escaped" ToxIN-mediated abortive infection within Pectobacterium atrosepticum. Wild-type ΦTE encoded a short sequence similar to the repetitive nucleotide sequence of the RNA antitoxin, ToxI, from ToxIN. The ΦTE escape mutants had expanded the number of these "pseudo-ToxI" genetic repeats and, in one case, an escape phage had "hijacked" ToxI from the plasmid-borne toxIN locus, through recombination. Expression of the pseudo-ToxI repeats during ΦTE infection allowed the phage to replicate, unaffected by ToxIN, through RNA-based molecular mimicry. This is the first example of a non-coding RNA encoded by a phage that evolves by selective expansion and recombination to enable viral suppression of a defensive bacterial suicide system. Furthermore, the ΦTE escape phages had evolved enhanced capacity to transduce replicons expressing ToxIN, demonstrating virus-mediated horizontal transfer of genetic altruism.

  19. Imaging in viral infections of the central nervous system: can images speak for an acutely ill brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maller, Vijetha Vinod; Bathla, Girish; Moritani, Toshio; Helton, Kathleen J

    2017-06-01

    Viral infections involving the central nervous system (CNS) may result from a wide variety of agents and have clinically overlapping manifestations. The diagnosis is often made based on a combination of the clinical exam, local epidemiology, imaging, and biochemical findings. Despite the advances in medicine and imaging, the diagnosis often remains elusive. Imaging, however, still plays a vital role in suggesting the diagnosis in typical cases, excluding potential mimics, and in evaluating changes with therapy. Herein, the authors present a review of various common and rare viral encephalitides with emphasis on the imaging literature.

  20. Viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Bláhová, Adéla

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my thesis is to provide a comprehensive overview of the viral marketing and to analyze selected viral campaigns. There is a description of advantages and disadvantages of this marketing tool. In the end I suggest for which companies viral marketing is an appropriate form of the promotion.

  1. Viral phylodynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik M Volz

    Full Text Available Viral phylodynamics is defined as the study of how epidemiological, immunological, and evolutionary processes act and potentially interact to shape viralphylogenies. Since the coining of the term in 2004, research on viral phylodynamics has focused on transmission dynamics in an effort to shed light on how these dynamics impact viral genetic variation. Transmission dynamics can be considered at the level of cells within an infected host, individual hosts within a population, or entire populations of hosts. Many viruses, especially RNA viruses, rapidly accumulate genetic variation because of short generation times and high mutation rates. Patterns of viral genetic variation are therefore heavily influenced by how quickly transmission occurs and by which entities transmit to one another. Patterns of viral genetic variation will also be affected by selection acting on viral phenotypes. Although viruses can differ with respect to many phenotypes, phylodynamic studies have to date tended to focus on a limited number of viral phenotypes. These include virulence phenotypes, phenotypes associated with viral transmissibility, cell or tissue tropism phenotypes, and antigenic phenotypes that can facilitate escape from host immunity. Due to the impact that transmission dynamics and selection can have on viral genetic variation, viral phylogenies can therefore be used to investigate important epidemiological, immunological, and evolutionary processes, such as epidemic spread[2], spatio-temporal dynamics including metapopulation dynamics[3], zoonotic transmission, tissue tropism[4], and antigenic drift[5]. The quantitative investigation of these processes through the consideration of viral phylogenies is the central aim of viral phylodynamics.

  2. Comparison of two broadly multiplexed PCR systems for viral detection in clinical respiratory tract specimens from immunocompromised children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Randall T; Gu, Zhengming; Rodriguez, Alicia; Tanioka, Lisa; Ying, Claire; Morgenstern, Markus; Bankowski, Matthew J

    2012-04-01

    The detection of viral respiratory tract infections has evolved greatly with the development of PCR based commercial systems capable of simultaneously detecting a wide variety of pathogens. Evaluate the relative performance of two commercial broad range systems for the detection of viral agents in clinical respiratory tract specimens from immunocompromised children. A total of 176 patient samples were included in the analysis, representing only the first sample collected for each patient, and excluding failed reactions. Samples were de-identified and assayed in parallel using two different, broadly multiplexed PCR systems: ResPlex™ II Panel v2.0 (ResPlex), Qiagen, Hilden, Germany and FilmArray(®) Respiratory Panel (FilmArray), Idaho Technology Inc., Salt Lake City, UT. Method comparison was based upon pair-wise concordance of results according to patient age, viral target and number of targets detected. The two systems showed an overall concordance, by patient, of 83.8% (p=0.0001). FilmArray detected at least one target in 68.8% of samples, while ResPlex detected at least one target in 56.8%. ResPlex failed to detect 20.7% of FilmArray positives, and FilmArray failed to detect 4% of ResPlex positives. The relative performance of each system (including which system detected a higher number of positive samples) varied when stratified by target viral pathogen. Broadly multiplexed PCR is an effective means of detecting large numbers of clinically relevant respiratory viral pathogens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic manipulation of specific neural circuits by use of a viral vector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kenta; Kato, Shigeki; Kobayashi, Kazuto

    2017-01-05

    To understand the mechanisms underlying higher brain functions, we need to analyze the roles of specific neuronal pathways or cell types forming the complex neural networks. In the neuroscience field, the transgenic approach has provided a useful gene engineering tool for experimental studies of neural functions. The conventional transgenic technique requires the appropriate promoter regions that drive a neuronal type-specific gene expression, but the promoter sequences specifically functioning in each neuronal type are limited. Previously, we developed novel types of lentiviral vectors showing high efficiency of retrograde gene transfer in the central nervous system, termed highly efficient retrograde gene transfer (HiRet) vector and neuron-specific retrograde gene transfer (NeuRet) vector. The HiRet and NeuRet vectors enable genetical manipulation of specific neural pathways in diverse model animals in combination with conditional cell targeting, synaptic transmission silencing, and gene expression systems. These newly developed vectors provide powerful experimental strategies to investigate, more precisely, the machineries exerting various neural functions. In this review, we give an outline of the HiRet and NeuRet vectors and describe recent representative applications of these viral vectors for studies on neural circuits.

  4. DVD - digital versatile disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, R.

    1997-05-01

    An international standard has emerged for the first true multimedia format. Digital Versatile Disk (by its official name), you may know it as Digital Video Disks. DVD has applications in movies, music, games, information CD-ROMS, and many other areas where massive amounts of digital information is needed. Did I say massive amounts of data? Would you believe over 17 gigabytes on a single piece of plastic the size of an audio-CD? That`s the promise, at least, by the group of nine electronics manufacturers who have agreed to the format specification, and who hope to make this goal a reality by 1998. In this major agreement, which didn`t come easily, the manufacturers will combine Sony and Phillip`s one side double-layer NMCD format with Toshiba and Matsushita`s double sided Super-Density disk. By Spring of this year, they plan to market the first 4.7 gigabyte units. The question is: Will DVD take off? Some believe that read-only disks recorded with movies will be about as popular as video laser disks. They say that until the eraseable/writable DVD arrives, the consumer will most likely not buy it. Also, DVD has a good market for replacement of CD- Roms. Back in the early 80`s, the international committee deciding the format of the audio compact disk decided its length would be 73 minutes. This, they declared, would allow Beethoven`s 9th Symphony to be contained entirely on a single CD. Similarly, today it was agreed that playback length of a single sided, single layer DVD would be 133 minutes, long enough to hold 94% of all feature-length movies. Further, audio can be in Dolby`s AC-3 stereo or 5.1 tracks of surround sound, better than CD-quality audio (16-bits at 48kHz). In addition, there are three to five language tracks, copy protection and parental ``locks`` for R rated movies. DVD will be backwards compatible with current CD-ROM and audio CD formats. Added versatility comes by way of multiple aspect rations: 4:3 pan-scan, 4:3 letterbox, and 16:9 widescreen. MPEG

  5. Versatility of microbial transglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strop, Pavel

    2014-05-21

    Although microbial transglutaminases (mTGs) were initially discovered to offset the cost of producing mammalian transglutaminases for food applications, they have quickly become important tools in research and biotechnology. Today, mTGs are utilized for a large number of applications to conjugate proteins and peptides to small molecules, polymers, surfaces, and DNA, as well as to other proteins. It is important to know how to maximize the advantages of the enzymatic approach and avoid undesired cross-linking. This review focuses on the versatility of transglutaminases in the field of bioconjugation and covers recent developments in utilizing mTG for generating antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) for therapeutic applications.

  6. Cryptic etiopathological conditions of equine nervous system with special emphasis on viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of horse (Equus caballus to equine practitioners and researchers cannot be ignored. An unevenly distributed population of equids harbors numerous diseases, which can affect horses of any age and breed. Among these, the affections of nervous system are potent reason for death and euthanasia in equids. Many episodes associated with the emergence of equine encephalitic conditions have also pose a threat to human population as well, which signifies their pathogenic zoonotic potential. Intensification of most of the arboviruses is associated with sophisticated interaction between vectors and hosts, which supports their transmission. The alphaviruses, bunyaviruses, and flaviviruses are the major implicated groups of viruses involved with equines/humans epizootic/epidemic. In recent years, many outbreaks of deadly zoonotic diseases such as Nipah virus, Hendra virus, and Japanese encephalitis in many parts of the globe addresses their alarming significance. The equine encephalitic viruses differ in their global distribution, transmission and main vector species involved, as discussed in this article. The current review summarizes the status, pathogenesis, pathology, and impact of equine neuro-invasive conditions of viral origin. A greater understanding of these aspects might be able to provide development of advances in neuro-protective strategies in equine population.

  7. Viral IRES prediction system - a web server for prediction of the IRES secondary structure in silico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Hong

    Full Text Available The internal ribosomal entry site (IRES functions as cap-independent translation initiation sites in eukaryotic cells. IRES elements have been applied as useful tools for bi-cistronic expression vectors. Current RNA structure prediction programs are unable to predict precisely the potential IRES element. We have designed a viral IRES prediction system (VIPS to perform the IRES secondary structure prediction. In order to obtain better results for the IRES prediction, the VIPS can evaluate and predict for all four different groups of IRESs with a higher accuracy. RNA secondary structure prediction, comparison, and pseudoknot prediction programs were implemented to form the three-stage procedure for the VIPS. The backbone of VIPS includes: the RNAL fold program, aimed to predict local RNA secondary structures by minimum free energy method; the RNA Align program, intended to compare predicted structures; and pknotsRG program, used to calculate the pseudoknot structure. VIPS was evaluated by using UTR database, IRES database and Virus database, and the accuracy rate of VIPS was assessed as 98.53%, 90.80%, 82.36% and 80.41% for IRES groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. This advance useful search approach for IRES structures will facilitate IRES related studies. The VIPS on-line website service is available at http://140.135.61.250/vips/.

  8. The Ubiquitin-Conjugating System: Multiple Roles in Viral Replication and Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Calistri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Through the combined action of ubiquitinating and deubiquitinating enzymes, conjugation of ubiquitin to a target protein acts as a reversible post-translational modification functionally similar to phosphorylation. Indeed, ubiquitination is more and more recognized as a central process for the fine regulation of many cellular pathways. Due to their nature as obligate intracellular parasites, viruses rely on the most conserved host cell machineries for their own replication. Thus, it is not surprising that members from almost every viral family are challenged by ubiquitin mediated mechanisms in different steps of their life cycle and have evolved in order to by-pass or exploit the cellular ubiquitin conjugating system to maximize their chance to establish a successful infection. In this review we will present several examples of the complex interplay that links viruses and the ubiquitin conjugation machinery, with a special focus on the mechanisms evolved by the human immunodeficiency virus to escape from cellular restriction factors and to exit from infected cells.

  9. LoMA-B: a simple and versatile lab-on-a-chip system based on single-channel bisulfite conversion for DNA methylation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jaeyun; Park, Mi Kyoung; Lee, Tae Yoon; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Shin, Yong

    2015-09-07

    Miniaturized lab-on-a-chip (LOC) systems have been developed for genetic and epigenetic analyses in clinical applications because of advantages such as reduced sample size and reagent consumption, rapid processing speed, simplicity, and enhanced sensitivity. Despite tremendous efforts made towards developing LOC systems for use in the clinical setting, the development of LOC systems to analyze DNA methylation, which is an emerging epigenetic marker causing the abnormal silencing of genes including tumor suppressor genes, is still challenging because of the gold standard methods involving a bisulfite conversion step. Existing bisulfite conversion-based techniques are not suitable for clinical use due to their long processing time, labor intensiveness, and the purification steps involved. Here, we present a lab-on-a-chip system for DNA methylation analysis based on bisulfite conversion (LoMA-B), which couples a sample pre-processing module for on-chip bisulfite conversion and a label-free, real-time detection module for rapid analysis of DNA methylation status using an isothermal DNA amplification/detection technique. The methylation status of the RARβ gene in human genomic DNA extracted from MCF-7 cells was analyzed by the LoMA-B system within 80 min (except 16 h for sensor preparation) compared to conventional MS-PCR within 24 h. Furthermore, the LoMA-B system is highly sensitive and can detect as little as 1% methylated DNA in a methylated/unmethylated cell mixture. Therefore, the LoMA-B system is an efficient diagnostic tool for the simple, versatile, and quantitative evaluation of DNA methylation patterns for clinical applications.

  10. A versatile fibre optic sensor interrogation system for the Ariane Launcher based on an electro-optically tuneable laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, M. P.; Hirth, F.; Müller, M. S.; Hoffmann, L.; Buck, T. C.; Koch, A. W.

    2017-11-01

    Availability of reliable flight sensor data and knowledge of the structural behaviour are essential for safe operation of the Ariane launcher. The Ariane launcher is currently monitored by hundreds of electric sensors during test and qualification. Fibre optic sensors are regarded as a potential technique to overcome limitations of recent monitoring systems for the Ariane launcher [1]. These limitations include cumbersome application of sensors and harness as well as a very limited degree of distributed sensing capability. But, in order to exploit the various advantages of fibre optic sensors (high degree of multiplexing, distributed sensing capability, lower mass impact, etc.) dedicated measurement systems have to be developed and investigated. State-of-the-art fibre optic measurement systems often use free beam setups making them bulky and sensitive to vibration impact. Therefore a new measurement system is developed as part of the ESAstudy [2].

  11. Hydroponics: A Versatile System to Study Nutrient Allocation and Plant Responses to Nutrient Availability and Exposure to Toxic Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga T; McInturf, Samuel A; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G

    2016-07-13

    Hydroponic systems have been utilized as one of the standard methods for plant biology research and are also used in commercial production for several crops, including lettuce and tomato. Within the plant research community, numerous hydroponic systems have been designed to study plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we present a hydroponic protocol that can be easily implemented in laboratories interested in pursuing studies on plant mineral nutrition. This protocol describes the hydroponic system set up in detail and the preparation of plant material for successful experiments. Most of the materials described in this protocol can be found outside scientific supply companies, making the set up for hydroponic experiments less expensive and convenient. The use of a hydroponic growth system is most advantageous in situations where the nutrient media need to be well controlled and when intact roots need to be harvested for downstream applications. We also demonstrate how nutrient concentrations can be modified to induce plant responses to both essential nutrients and toxic non-essential elements.

  12. Hydroponics: A Versatile System to Study Nutrient Allocation and Plant Responses to Nutrient Availability and Exposure to Toxic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga T.; McInturf, Samuel A.; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Hydroponic systems have been utilized as one of the standard methods for plant biology research and are also used in commercial production for several crops, including lettuce and tomato. Within the plant research community, numerous hydroponic systems have been designed to study plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we present a hydroponic protocol that can be easily implemented in laboratories interested in pursuing studies on plant mineral nutrition. This protocol describes the hydroponic system set up in detail and the preparation of plant material for successful experiments. Most of the materials described in this protocol can be found outside scientific supply companies, making the set up for hydroponic experiments less expensive and convenient. The use of a hydroponic growth system is most advantageous in situations where the nutrient media need to be well controlled and when intact roots need to be harvested for downstream applications. We also demonstrate how nutrient concentrations can be modified to induce plant responses to both essential nutrients and toxic non-essential elements. PMID:27500800

  13. LCR/MEL: A versatile system for high-level expression of heterologous proteins in erythroid cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Needham; C. Gooding; K. Hudson; M. Antoniou (Michael); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); M. Hollis

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWe have used the human globin locus control region (LCR) to assemble an expression system capable of high-level, integration position-independent expression of heterologous genes and cDNAs in murine erythroleukaemia (MEL) cells. The cDNAs are inserted between the human beta-globin

  14. Anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism for an astigmatic atomic force microscope system based on a digital versatile disk optical head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, E-T; Illers, H; Wang, W-M; Hwang, I-S; Jusko, L; Danzebrink, H-U

    2012-01-01

    In this work, an anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism is applied to an astigmatic detection system (ADS)-based atomic force microscope (AFM) for drift compensation and cantilever alignment. The optical path of the ADS adopts a commercial digital versatile disc (DVD) optical head using the astigmatic focus error signal. The ADS-based astigmatic AFM is lightweight, compact size, low priced, and easy to use. Furthermore, the optical head is capable of measuring sub-atomic displacements of high-frequency AFM probes with a sub-micron laser spot (~570 nm, FWHM) and a high-working bandwidth (80 MHz). Nevertheless, conventional DVD optical heads suffer from signal drift problems. In a previous setup, signal drifts of even thousands of nanometers had been measured. With the anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism, the signal drift is compensated by actuating a voice coil motor of the DVD optical head. A nearly zero signal drift was achieved. Additional benefits of this mechanism are automatic cantilever alignment and simplified design.

  15. The Study of Non-Viral Nanoscale Delivery Systems for Islet Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Diana

    Due to safety concerns associated with using viral systems clinically to expand islet cells and make them available to many more patients, significant emphasis has been placed on producing a safe and effective non-viral delivery system for biological research and gene therapy. To obtain this goal, we propose the use of an innovative technology that utilizes gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a non-viral method of delivery. Our laboratory was one of the first to describe the use of AuNPs in human islets and observe AuNPs can penetrate into the core of islets to deliver a gene to the vast majority of the cells, without damaging the cell. Gold nanoparticles proved to be a biocompatible delivery system both in vitro and in vivo. Thus far, gene therapy and molecular biology have focused primarily on delivering DNA of a specific gene into cells. The risk of this approach is that the DNA can be permanently incorporated into the genome and lead to damages in the cell that could result in overexpression of cancerous tumor cells. This risk does not exist with the use of mRNA. Many researchers believe mRNA is too unstable to be used as a molecular tool to overexpress specific proteins. With advances in nanotechnology, and better understanding of the translation process, methods have been developed that allow for expression of specific proteins by intracellular delivery of protein-encoding mRNA. We used AuNPs conjugated to mCherry mRNA to establish a proof of concept of the feasibility of using AuNP-mRNA to achieve increased expression of a specific protein within cells. To do this, we conjugated mCherry mRNA to AuNPs and tested the feasibility for increasing delivery efficacy and preserve functionality of human pancreatic islets. We believe that with this novel technology we can create AuNPs that allow specific mRNA to enter islets and lead to the production of a specific protein within the cell, with the aim to induce beta cell proliferation. In a previous experiment with single

  16. Applying technical versatility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1970-01-01

    The breadth and depth of the diversified technical programs at Mound Laboratory since its inception are characterized by a record of competence and versatility during the past generation. A spectrum of mission assignments has been completed successfully in such diverse technical areas as process development and manufacturing of explosive components, research on fuels for the Civilian Power Reactor Program, separation of radioactive materials, fabrication of radioisotopic heat sources, stable gaseous isotope separation and purification, and many other areas. Mound Laboratory is one of the key U.S. Atomic Energy Commission sites that has demonstrated its technical competence in both weapons and non-weapons activities. This report has been prepared to complement the AEC’s vigorous program of scientific information dissemination. Three broad areas of technical competence are highlighted here: explosive technology, radionuclide technology, and stable gaseous isotope separation, which encompass a broad variety of techniques and supporting disciplines.

  17. Versatile by design

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    CHARM (CERN High energy AcceleRator Mixed field) is a new and unique testing facility that will complete CERN's radiation testing installations. Located in the East Area, CHARM will provide teams with a venue to test their equipment in radiation environments similar to those found in the accelerator chain.   Team at work in the irradiation zone of the CHARM facility. First envisaged in 2007, the CHARM facility fulfils a growing demand for a large-scale tailor-made radiation testing facility. Unlike commercial facilities, CHARM features a wide spectrum of radiation types and energies (called mixed-field radiation environments), the space to test large equipment and even the possibility to adjust the environment using mobile shielding. "CHARM is versatile by design, allowing us to recreate any of the radiation environments found in the accelerator chain," says Markus Brugger, head of the R2E (Radiation to Electronics) project team that developed the CHARM facility. &a...

  18. Pemasaran ViralViral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Situmorang, James Rianto

    2010-01-01

    Viral marketing is an extremely powerful and effective form of internet marketing. Itis a new form of word-of-mouth through internet. In viral marketing, someone passeson a marketing message to someone else and so on. Viral marketing proposes thatmessages can be rapidly disseminated from consumer to consumer leading to largescale market acceptance. The analogy of a virus is used to described the exponentialdiffusion of information in an electronic environment and should not be confusedwith th...

  19. When the human viral infectome and diseasome networks collide: towards a systems biology platform for the aetiology of human diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Chassey Benoit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying viral infection is a major challenge towards the discovery of new antiviral drugs and susceptibility factors of human diseases. New advances in the field are expected from systems-level modelling and integration of the incessant torrent of high-throughput "-omics" data. Results Here, we describe the Human Infectome protein interaction Network, a novel systems virology model of a virtual virus-infected human cell concerning 110 viruses. This in silico model was applied to comprehensively explore the molecular relationships between viruses and their associated diseases. This was done by merging virus-host and host-host physical protein-protein interactomes with the set of genes essential for viral replication and involved in human genetic diseases. This systems-level approach provides strong evidence that viral proteomes target a wide range of functional and inter-connected modules of proteins as well as highly central and bridging proteins within the human interactome. The high centrality of targeted proteins was correlated to their essentiality for viruses' lifecycle, using functional genomic RNAi data. A stealth-attack of viruses on proteins bridging cellular functions was demonstrated by simulation of cellular network perturbations, a property that could be essential in the molecular aetiology of some human diseases. Networking the Human Infectome and Diseasome unravels the connectivity of viruses to a wide range of diseases and profiled molecular basis of Hepatitis C Virus-induced diseases as well as 38 new candidate genetic predisposition factors involved in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusions The Human Infectome and Diseasome Networks described here provide a unique gateway towards the comprehensive modelling and analysis of the systems level properties associated to viral infection as well as candidate genes potentially involved in the molecular aetiology

  20. When the human viral infectome and diseasome networks collide: towards a systems biology platform for the aetiology of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratil, Vincent; de Chassey, Benoit; Combe, Chantal Rabourdin; Lotteau, Vincent

    2011-01-21

    Comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying viral infection is a major challenge towards the discovery of new antiviral drugs and susceptibility factors of human diseases. New advances in the field are expected from systems-level modelling and integration of the incessant torrent of high-throughput "-omics" data. Here, we describe the Human Infectome protein interaction Network, a novel systems virology model of a virtual virus-infected human cell concerning 110 viruses. This in silico model was applied to comprehensively explore the molecular relationships between viruses and their associated diseases. This was done by merging virus-host and host-host physical protein-protein interactomes with the set of genes essential for viral replication and involved in human genetic diseases. This systems-level approach provides strong evidence that viral proteomes target a wide range of functional and inter-connected modules of proteins as well as highly central and bridging proteins within the human interactome. The high centrality of targeted proteins was correlated to their essentiality for viruses' lifecycle, using functional genomic RNAi data. A stealth-attack of viruses on proteins bridging cellular functions was demonstrated by simulation of cellular network perturbations, a property that could be essential in the molecular aetiology of some human diseases. Networking the Human Infectome and Diseasome unravels the connectivity of viruses to a wide range of diseases and profiled molecular basis of Hepatitis C Virus-induced diseases as well as 38 new candidate genetic predisposition factors involved in type 1 diabetes mellitus. The Human Infectome and Diseasome Networks described here provide a unique gateway towards the comprehensive modelling and analysis of the systems level properties associated to viral infection as well as candidate genes potentially involved in the molecular aetiology of human diseases.

  1. LIBS: a new versatile field-deployable real-time detector system with potential for landmine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Russell S.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Winkel, Raymond J., Jr.; LaPointe, Aaron; Grossman, Scott L.; McNesby, Kevin L.; Miziolek, Andrzej W.

    2003-09-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an atomic emission spectroscopic technique that utilizes a pulsed laser to create a microplasma on the target together with an array spectrometer to capture the transient light for elemental identification and quantification. LIBS has certain important characteristics that make it a very attractive sensor technology for military uses. Such attributes include that facts that LIBS (1) is relatively simple and straightforward, (2) requires no sample preparation, (3) generates a real-time response, and (4) only engages a very small sample (pg-ng) of matter in each laser shot and microplasma event, (5) has inherent high sensitivity, and (6) responds to all forms of unknowns, and, therefore, is particularly suited for the sensing of dangerous materials. Additionally, a LIBS sensor system can be inexpensive, configured to be man-portable, and designed for both in-situ point sensing and remote stand-off detection with distances of up to 20-25 meters. Broadband LIBS results covering the spectral region from 200-970 nm acquired at the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) under laboratory conditions for a variety of landmine casings and explosive materials. This data will illustrate the potential that LIBS has to be developed into a hand-deployable device that could be utilized as a confirmatory sensor in landmine detection. The concept envisioned is a backpack-size system in which an eyesafe micro-laser is contained in the handle of a deminer's probe and light is delivered and collected through an optical fiber in the tapered tip of the probe. In such a configuration, analyses can be made readily by touching the buried object that one is interested in identifying.

  2. SWUIS-A: A Versatile, Low-Cost UV/VIS/IR Imaging System for Airborne Astronomy and Aeronomy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durda, Daniel D.; Stern, S. Alan; Tomlinson, William; Slater, David C.; Vilas, Faith

    2001-01-01

    We have developed and successfully flight-tested on 14 different airborne missions the hardware and techniques for routinely conducting valuable astronomical and aeronomical observations from high-performance, two-seater military-type aircraft. The SWUIS-A (Southwest Universal Imaging System - Airborne) system consists of an image-intensified CCD camera with broad band response from the near-UV to the near IR, high-quality foreoptics, a miniaturized video recorder, an aircraft-to-camera power and telemetry interface with associated camera controls, and associated cables, filters, and other minor equipment. SWUIS-A's suite of high-quality foreoptics gives it selectable, variable focal length/variable field-of-view capabilities. The SWUIS-A camera frames at 60 Hz video rates, which is a key requirement for both jitter compensation and high time resolution (useful for occultation, lightning, and auroral studies). Broadband SWUIS-A image coadds can exceed a limiting magnitude of V = 10.5 in research done on each research mission. Key advantages of the small, high-performance aircraft on which we can fly SWUIS-A include significant cost savings over larger, more conventional airborne platforms, worldwide basing obviating the need for expensive, campaign-style movement of specialized large aircraft and their logistics support teams, and ultimately faster reaction times to transient events. Compared to ground-based instruments, airborne research platforms offer superior atmospheric transmission, the mobility to reach remote and often-times otherwise unreachable locations over the Earth, and virtually-guaranteed good weather for observing the sky. Compared to space-based instruments, airborne platforms typically offer substantial cost advantages and the freedom to fly along nearly any groundtrack route for transient event tracking such as occultations and eclipses.

  3. Predominance of a versatile-peroxidase-encoding gene, mnp4, as demonstrated by gene replacement via a gene targeting system for Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salame, Tomer M; Knop, Doriv; Tal, Dana; Levinson, Dana; Yarden, Oded; Hadar, Yitzhak

    2012-08-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus (the oyster mushroom) and other white rot filamentous basidiomycetes are key players in the global carbon cycle. P. ostreatus is also a commercially important edible fungus with medicinal properties and is important for biotechnological and environmental applications. Efficient gene targeting via homologous recombination (HR) is a fundamental tool for facilitating comprehensive gene function studies. Since the natural HR frequency in Pleurotus transformations is low (2.3%), transformed DNA is predominantly integrated ectopically. To overcome this limitation, a general gene targeting system was developed by producing a P. ostreatus PC9 homokaryon Δku80 strain, using carboxin resistance complemented by the development of a protocol for hygromycin B resistance protoplast-based DNA transformation and homokaryon isolation. The Δku80 strain exhibited exclusive (100%) HR in the integration of transforming DNA, providing a high efficiency of gene targeting. Furthermore, the Δku80 strains produced showed a phenotype similar to that of the wild-type PC9 strain, with similar growth fitness, ligninolytic functionality, and capability of mating with the incompatible strain PC15 to produce a dikaryon which retained its resistance to the corresponding selection and was capable of producing typical fruiting bodies. The applicability of this system is demonstrated by inactivation of the versatile peroxidase (VP) encoded by mnp4. This enzyme is part of the ligninolytic system of P. ostreatus, being one of the nine members of the manganese-peroxidase (MnP) gene family, and is the predominantly expressed VP in Mn(2+)-deficient media. mnp4 inactivation provided a direct proof that mnp4 encodes a key VP responsible for the Mn(2+)-dependent and Mn(2+)-independent peroxidase activity under Mn(2+)-deficient culture conditions.

  4. Predominance of a Versatile-Peroxidase-Encoding Gene, mnp4, as Demonstrated by Gene Replacement via a Gene Targeting System for Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salame, Tomer M.; Knop, Doriv; Tal, Dana; Levinson, Dana; Yarden, Oded

    2012-01-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus (the oyster mushroom) and other white rot filamentous basidiomycetes are key players in the global carbon cycle. P. ostreatus is also a commercially important edible fungus with medicinal properties and is important for biotechnological and environmental applications. Efficient gene targeting via homologous recombination (HR) is a fundamental tool for facilitating comprehensive gene function studies. Since the natural HR frequency in Pleurotus transformations is low (2.3%), transformed DNA is predominantly integrated ectopically. To overcome this limitation, a general gene targeting system was developed by producing a P. ostreatus PC9 homokaryon Δku80 strain, using carboxin resistance complemented by the development of a protocol for hygromycin B resistance protoplast-based DNA transformation and homokaryon isolation. The Δku80 strain exhibited exclusive (100%) HR in the integration of transforming DNA, providing a high efficiency of gene targeting. Furthermore, the Δku80 strains produced showed a phenotype similar to that of the wild-type PC9 strain, with similar growth fitness, ligninolytic functionality, and capability of mating with the incompatible strain PC15 to produce a dikaryon which retained its resistance to the corresponding selection and was capable of producing typical fruiting bodies. The applicability of this system is demonstrated by inactivation of the versatile peroxidase (VP) encoded by mnp4. This enzyme is part of the ligninolytic system of P. ostreatus, being one of the nine members of the manganese-peroxidase (MnP) gene family, and is the predominantly expressed VP in Mn2+-deficient media. mnp4 inactivation provided a direct proof that mnp4 encodes a key VP responsible for the Mn2+-dependent and Mn2+-independent peroxidase activity under Mn2+-deficient culture conditions. PMID:22636004

  5. Improving Performance and Versatility of Systems Based on Single-Frequency DFT Detectors Such as AD5933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Matsiev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Turning grand concepts such as the Internet of Things (IoT and Smart Cities into reality requires the development and deployment of a wide variety of computing devices incorporated into the Internet infrastructure. Unsupervised sensing is the cornerstone capability that these devices must have to perform useful functions, while also having low cost of acquisition and ownership, little energy consumption and a small footprint. Impedimetric sensing systems based on the so-called single-frequency DFT detectors possess many of these desirable attributes and are often introduced in remote monitoring and wearable devices. This study presents new methods of improving performance of such detectors. It demonstrates that the main source of systematic errors is the discontinuous test phasor causing the crosstalk between the in-phase and quadrature outputs and the leakage of the input signal. The study derives expressions for these errors as a function of the number of samples and operating frequency, and provides methods for correction. The proposed methods are applied to the operation of a practical device—a network analyzer integrated circuit AD5933—and discussed in detail. These methods achieve complete elimination of leakage errors and expansion of the low limit of the operation frequency range by nearly two decades without additional hardware.

  6. Sustainable and Continuous Synthesis of Enantiopure l-Amino Acids by Using a Versatile Immobilised Multienzyme System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Lozano, Susana; da Silva, Eunice S; Llop, Jordi; López-Gallego, Fernando

    2017-10-09

    The enzymatic synthesis of α-amino acids is a sustainable and efficient alternative to chemical processes, through which achieving enantiopure products is difficult. To more address this synthesis efficiently, a hierarchical architecture that irreversibly co-immobilises an amino acid dehydrogenase with polyethyleneimine on porous agarose beads has been designed and fabricated. The cationic polymer acts as an irreversible anchoring layer for the formate dehydrogenase. In this architecture, the two enzymes and polymer colocalise across the whole microstructure of the porous carrier. This multifunctional heterogeneous biocatalyst was kinetically characterised and applied to the enantioselective synthesis of a variety of canonical and noncanonical α-amino acids in both discontinuous (batch) and continuous modes. The co-immobilised bienzymatic system conserves more than 50 % of its initial effectiveness after five batch cycles and 8 days of continuous operation. Additionally, the environmental impact of this process has been semiquantitatively calculated and compared with the state of the art. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. [Management of patients with viral hemorrhagic fever in Germany a comparison with the current Japanese system based on the who guidelines on emerging viral diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takeshi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Takaaki; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Uchida, Yukinori

    2002-06-01

    We investigated the German system for managing patients with viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in comparing with the current Japanese system. In Germany, we visited the Robert Koch Institute and the isolation centers in Berlin and Leipzig. In Japan, we visited the isolation wards in the Narita Red Cross Hospital and the Rinku General Medical Center in Izumi-Sano, Osaka, to allow determination of differences in the systems. In terms of the "WHO program on emerging virus diseases, 1994", we then evaluated the two countries' systems. In Germany, the finding of a suspected case with VHF is promptly reported to the competent authorities at the local level. Public health physicians on 24-hour duty declare a quarantine alert and the case is transferred to one of five isolation centers not by plane but by ambulance car. The isolation rooms in Berlin, constructed some 20 years ago, are enclosed with plastic film and kept under negative pressure and this hinders it difficult to perform intensive care in the small space available. In contrast, intensive care and routine clinical tests can be readily conducted in the isolation facilities in Leipzig installed in 2000, since the rooms are spacious and kept under negative pressure. It is also noteworthy that the same ward is utilized for patients with drug-resistant infectious diseases to train medical staff. With 3 of the 4 goals in the WHO program, establishing efficient surveillance of infectious diseases, provision of a qualified national laboratory and performance on practical research on infectious diseases, there are no large differences, between the two countries, in continuous efforts in line with recently-modified infectious disease laws. However, we found differences with regard to an effective strategy to circumvent VHF, 1) local government has a main role against VHF and control team is promptly designated in Germany, 2) only 10 beds are equipped to deal with VHF in Germany, 3) management of air-droplet infection seems

  8. Trypanosomes - versatile microswimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Timothy; Engstler, Markus

    2016-11-01

    Evolution has generated a plethora of flagellate microswimmers. They populate all natural waters, from the deep sea to the ponds in our neighbourhood. But flagellates also thrive in the bodies of higher organisms, where they mostly remain undetected, but can also become pathogenic. Trypanosomes comprise a large group of mostly parasitic flagellates that cause many diseases, such as human sleeping sickness or the cattle plague nagana. We consider African trypanosomes as extremely versatile microswimmers, as they have to adapt to very diverse microenvironments. They swim efficiently in the blood of their mammalian hosts, but also in various tissue spaces and even in the human brain. Furthermore, in the transmitting tsetse fly, trypanosomes undergo characteristic morphological changes that are accompanied by amazing transitions between solitary and collective types of motion. In this review, we provide a basic introduction to trypanosome biology and then focus on the complex type of rotational movement that trypanosomes display. We relate their swimming performance to morphological parameters and the respective microenvironment, developing a contemporary view on the physics of trypanosome motility. The genetically programmed successions of life style-dependent motion patterns provide challenges and opportunities for interdisciplinary studies of microswimmers.

  9. A simplified and versatile system for the simultaneous expression of multiple siRNAs in mammalian cells using Gibson DNA Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fang; Chen, Xiang; Liao, Zhan; Yan, Zhengjian; Wang, Zhongliang; Deng, Youlin; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Zhonglin; Ye, Jixing; Qiao, Min; Li, Ruifang; Denduluri, Sahitya; Wang, Jing; Wei, Qiang; Li, Melissa; Geng, Nisha; Zhao, Lianggong; Zhou, Guolin; Zhang, Penghui; Luu, Hue H; Haydon, Rex C; Reid, Russell R; Yang, Tian; He, Tong-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) denotes sequence-specific mRNA degradation induced by short interfering double-stranded RNA (siRNA) and has become a revolutionary tool for functional annotation of mammalian genes, as well as for development of novel therapeutics. The practical applications of RNAi are usually achieved by expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) or siRNAs in cells. However, a major technical challenge is to simultaneously express multiple siRNAs to silence one or more genes. We previously developed pSOS system, in which siRNA duplexes are made from oligo templates driven by opposing U6 and H1 promoters. While effective, it is not equipped to express multiple siRNAs in a single vector. Gibson DNA Assembly (GDA) is an in vitro recombination system that has the capacity to assemble multiple overlapping DNA molecules in a single isothermal step. Here, we developed a GDA-based pSOK assembly system for constructing single vectors that express multiple siRNA sites. The assembly fragments were generated by PCR amplifications from the U6-H1 template vector pB2B. GDA assembly specificity was conferred by the overlapping unique siRNA sequences of insert fragments. To prove the technical feasibility, we constructed pSOK vectors that contain four siRNA sites and three siRNA sites targeting human and mouse β-catenin, respectively. The assembly reactions were efficient, and candidate clones were readily identified by PCR screening. Multiple β-catenin siRNAs effectively silenced endogenous β-catenin expression, inhibited Wnt3A-induced β-catenin/Tcf4 reporter activity and expression of Wnt/β-catenin downstream genes. Silencing β-catenin in mesenchymal stem cells inhibited Wnt3A-induced early osteogenic differentiation and significantly diminished synergistic osteogenic activity between BMP9 and Wnt3A in vitro and in vivo. These findings demonstrate that the GDA-based pSOK system has been proven simplistic, effective and versatile for simultaneous expression of multiple

  10. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us FAQs Ask a Question Toll Free Numbers Homeless Veterans Chat VA » Health Care » Viral Hepatitis » Veterans and ... Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning Service Members Rural Veterans Seniors & Aging Veterans ...

  11. Treatment of viral encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Renan Barros

    2009-03-01

    Several viruses may cause central nervous system diseases with a broad range of clinical manifestations. The time course of the viral encephalitis can be acute, subacute, or chronic. Pathologically there are encephalitis with direct viral entry into the CNS in which brain parenchyma exhibits neuronal damaging and viral antigens and there are postinfectious autoimmune encephalitis associated with systemic viral infections with brain tissue presenting perivascular aggregation of immune cells and myelin damaging. Some virus affect previously healthy individuals while others produce encephalitis among imunocompromised ones. Factors such evolving lifestyles and ecological changes have had a considerable impact on the epidemiology of some viral encephalitis [e.g. West-Nile virus, and Japanese B virus]. Citomegalovirus and JC virus are examples of infections of the brain that have been seen more frequently because they occur in immunocompromised patients. In the other hand many scientific achievements in neuroimaging, molecular diagnosis, antiviral therapy, immunomodulatory treatments, and neurointensive care have allowed more precise and earlier diagnoses and more efficient treatments, resulting in improved outcomes. In this article, we will present the current drug options in the management of the main acute and chronic viral infection of the central nervous system of immunocompetent and immunocompromised adults, focusing on drugs mechanisms of action, efficacy, and side effects. The early diagnosis and correct management of such diseases can reduce mortality and neurological sequelae; however, even with recent treatment advances, potentially devastating outcomes are still possible.

  12. Versatile Wireless Data Net Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed R&D is to develop a wireless data networking capability. A prototype capability will result from the Phase 1 and 2 contracts. The Versatile Wireless...

  13. Neisseria gonorrhoeae co-infection exacerbates vaginal HIV shedding without affecting systemic viral loads in human CD34+ engrafted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Stacey X; Leontyev, Danila; Kaul, Rupert; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2018-01-01

    HIV synergy with sexually transmitted co-infections is well-documented in the clinic. Co-infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae in particular, increases genital HIV shedding and mucosal transmission. However, no animal model of co-infection currently exists to directly explore this relationship or to bridge the gap in understanding between clinical and in vitro studies of this interaction. This study aims to test the feasibility of using a humanized mouse model to overcome this barrier. Combining recent in vivo modelling advancements in both HIV and gonococcal research, we developed a co-infection model by engrafting immunodeficient NSG mice with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells to generate humanized mice that permit both systemic HIV infection and genital N. gonorrhoeae infection. Systemic plasma and vaginal lavage titres of HIV were measured in order to assess the impact of gonococcal challenge on viral plasma titres and genital shedding. Engrafted mice showed human CD45+ leukocyte repopulation in blood and mucosal tissues. Systemic HIV challenge resulted in 104-105 copies/mL of viral RNA in blood by week 4 post-infection, as well as vaginal shedding of virus. Subsequent gonococcal challenge resulted in unchanged plasma HIV levels but higher viral shedding in the genital tract, which reflects published clinical observations. Thus, human CD34+ stem cell-transplanted NSG mice represent an experimentally tractable animal model in which to study HIV shedding during gonococcal co-infection, allowing dissection of molecular and immunological interactions between these pathogens, and providing a platform to assess future therapeutics aimed at reducing HIV transmission.

  14. Transduction of the central nervous system after intracerebroventricular injection of adeno-associated viral vectors in neonatal and juvenile mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Shervin; Tharmalingam, Sujeenthar; Macaldaz, Margarita E; Hampson, David R

    2013-08-01

    Several neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders affecting the central nervous system are potentially treatable via viral vector-mediated gene transfer. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have been used in clinical trials because of their desirable properties including a high degree of safety, efficacy, and stability. Major factors affecting tropism, expression level, and cell type specificity of AAV-mediated transgenes include encapsidation of different AAV serotypes, promoter selection, and the timing of vector administration. In this study, we evaluated the ability of single-stranded AAV2 vectors pseudotyped with viral capsids from serotype 9 (AAV2/9) to transduce the brain and target gene expression to specific cell types after intracerebroventricular injection into mice. Titer-matched AAV2/9 vectors encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter, driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, or the neuron-specific synapsin-1 promoter, were injected bilaterally into the lateral ventricles of C57/BL6 mice on postnatal day 5 (neonatal) or 21 (juvenile). Brain sections were analyzed 25 days after injection, using immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. eGFP immunohistochemistry after neonatal and juvenile administration of viral vectors revealed transduction throughout the brain including the striatum, hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum, but with different patterns of cell-specific gene expression. eGFP expression was seen in astrocytes after treatment on postnatal day 5 with vectors carrying the CMV promoter, expanding the usefulness of AAVs for modeling and treating diseases involving glial cell pathology. In contrast, injection of AAV2/9-CMV-eGFP on postnatal day 21 resulted in preferential transduction of neurons. Administration of AAV2/9-eGFP with the synapsin-1 promoter on either postnatal day 5 or 21 resulted in widespread neuronal transduction. These results outline efficient methods and tools for gene delivery

  15. Valuable Virality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpinar, E.; Berger, Jonah

    2017-01-01

    Given recent interest in social media, many brands now create content that they hope consumers will view and share with peers. While some campaigns indeed go “viral,” their value to the brand is limited if they do not boost brand evaluation or increase purchase. Consequently, a key question is how

  16. Inducible Expression of CXCL1 within the Central Nervous System Amplifies Viral-Induced Demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marro, Brett S; Grist, Jonathan J; Lane, Thomas E

    2016-02-15

    The functional role of the ELR(+) chemokine CXCL1 in host defense and disease following infection of the CNS with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) was examined. Mice in which expression of CXCL1 is under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter active within glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells were generated and this allowed for selectively increasing CNS expression of CXCL1 in response to JHMV infection and evaluating the effects on neuroinflammation, control of viral replication, and demyelination. Inducible expression of CNS-derived CXCL1 resulted in increased levels of CXCL1 protein within the serum, brain, and spinal cord that correlated with increased frequency of Ly6G(+)CD11b(+) neutrophils present within the CNS. Elevated levels of CXCL1 did not influence the generation of virus-specific T cells, and there was no difference in control of JHMV replication compared with control mice, indicating that T cell infiltration into the CNS is CXCL1-independent. Sustained CXCL1 expression within the CNS resulted in increased mortality that correlated with elevated neutrophil infiltration, diminished numbers of mature oligodendrocytes, and an increase in the severity of demyelination. Neutrophil ablation in CXCL1-transgenic mice reduced the severity of demyelination in mice, arguing for a role for these cells in white matter damage. Collectively, these findings illustrate that sustained CXCL1 expression amplifies the severity of white matter damage and that neutrophils can contribute to this process in a model of viral-induced neurologic disease. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. The Versatile Link Demo Board (VLDB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Lesma, R.; Alessio, F.; Barbosa, J.; Baron, S.; Caplan, C.; Leitao, P.; Pecoraro, C.; Porret, D.; Wyllie, K.

    2017-02-01

    The Versatile Link Demonstrator Board (VLDB) is the evaluation kit for the radiation-hard Optical Link ecosystem, which provides a 4.8 Gbps data transfer link for communication between front-end (FE) and back-end (BE) of the High Energy Physics experiments. It gathers the Versatile link main radiation-hard custom Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and modules: GBTx, GBT-SCA and VTRx/VTTx plus the FeastMP, a radiation-hard in-house designed DC-DC converter. This board is the first design allowing system-level tests of the Link with a complete interconnection of the constitutive components, allowing data acquisition, control and monitoring of FE devices with the GBT-SCA pair.

  18. Viral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, M V; Sherman, K E; Jordan, J A

    2010-07-01

    Despite continuous improvement in safety and purity of blood products for individuals with haemophilia, transmissible agents continue to affect individuals with haemophilia. This chapter addresses three viral pathogens with significant clinical impact: HIV, hepatitis C and parvovirus B19. Hepatitis C is the leading cause of chronic hepatitis and the major co-morbid complication of haemophilia treatment. Clinically, asymptomatic intermittent alanine aminotransferase elevation is typical, with biopsy evidence of advanced fibrosis currently in 25%. Current treatment is effective in up to 70%, and many new agents are in development. For those progressing to end-stage liver disease, liver transplantation outcomes are similar to those in non-haemophilia subjects, although pretransplant mortality is higher. HIV infection, the second leading co-morbid condition in haemophilia, is managed as a chronic infection with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HAART also slows hepatitis C virus (HCV) progression in those with HIV/HCV co-infection. Viral inactivation and recombinant technologies have effectively prevented transfusion-transmitted viral pathogens in haemophilia. Human parvovirus B19 infection, typically associated with anaemia or, rarely severe aplastic crisis, is a non-lipid enveloped virus, for which standard inactivation techniques are ineffective. Thus, nucleic acid testing (NAT) to screen the blood supply for B19 DNA is currently under consideration by the Food and Drug Administration. To the extent, viral inactivation, recombinant, and NAT technologies are available worldwide, and the lifespan for those with haemophilia is approaching that of the normal population. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an update on three clinically significant transfusion-transmitted viral pathogens.

  19. Analysis of viral (zucchini yellow mosaic virus) genetic diversity during systemic movement through a Cucurbita pepo vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J P; Simmons, H E; Holmes, E C; Stephenson, A G

    2014-10-13

    Determining the extent and structure of intra-host genetic diversity and the magnitude and impact of population bottlenecks is central to understanding the mechanisms of viral evolution. To determine the nature of viral evolution following systemic movement through a plant, we performed deep sequencing of 23 leaves that grew sequentially along a single Cucurbita pepo vine that was infected with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and on a leaf that grew in on a side branch. Strikingly, of 112 genetic (i.e. sub-consensus) variants observed in the data set as a whole, only 22 were found in multiple leaves. Similarly, only three of the 13 variants present in the inoculating population were found in the subsequent leaves on the vine. Hence, it appears that systemic movement is characterized by sequential population bottlenecks, although not sufficient to reduce the population to a single virion as multiple variants were consistently transmitted between leaves. In addition, the number of variants within a leaf increases as a function of distance from the inoculated (source) leaf, suggesting that the circulating sap may serve as a continual source of virus. Notably, multiple mutational variants were observed in the cylindrical inclusion (CI) protein (known to be involved in both cell-to-cell and systemic movement of the virus) that were present in multiple (19/24) leaf samples. These mutations resulted in a conformational change, suggesting that they might confer a selective advantage in systemic movement within the vine. Overall, these data reveal that bottlenecks occur during systemic movement, that variants circulate in the phloem sap throughout the infection process, and that important conformational changes in CI protein may arise during individual infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Temperature characterization of versatile transceivers

    CERN Document Server

    Olanterä, L.; Storey, S; Sigaud, C; Soos, C; Troska, J; Vasey, F

    2013-01-01

    The Versatile Transceiver is a part of the Versatile Link project, which is developing optical link architectures and components for future HL-LHC experiments. While having considerable size and weight constraints, Versatile Transceivers must work under severe environmental conditions. One such environmental parameter is the temperature: the operating temperature range is specified to be from -30 to +60°C. In this contribution we present the results of the temperature characterization of the VTRx transmitter and receiver. Several transmitter candidates from three different manufacturers have been characterized: multi-mode Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers and a single-mode Edge-Emitter Laser. Also both single- and multi-mode receivers have been tested.

  1. Temporal order of evolution of DNA replication systems inferred by comparison of cellular and viral DNA polymerases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The core enzymes of the DNA replication systems show striking diversity among cellular life forms and more so among viruses. In particular, and counter-intuitively, given the central role of DNA in all cells and the mechanistic uniformity of replication, the core enzymes of the replication systems of bacteria and archaea (as well as eukaryotes are unrelated or extremely distantly related. Viruses and plasmids, in addition, possess at least two unique DNA replication systems, namely, the protein-primed and rolling circle modalities of replication. This unexpected diversity makes the origin and evolution of DNA replication systems a particularly challenging and intriguing problem in evolutionary biology. Results I propose a specific succession for the emergence of different DNA replication systems, drawing argument from the differences in their representation among viruses and other selfish replicating elements. In a striking pattern, the DNA replication systems of viruses infecting bacteria and eukaryotes are dominated by the archaeal-type B-family DNA polymerase (PolB whereas the bacterial replicative DNA polymerase (PolC is present only in a handful of bacteriophage genomes. There is no apparent mechanistic impediment to the involvement of the bacterial-type replication machinery in viral DNA replication. Therefore, I hypothesize that the observed, markedly unequal distribution of the replicative DNA polymerases among the known cellular and viral replication systems has a historical explanation. I propose that, among the two types of DNA replication machineries that are found in extant life forms, the archaeal-type, PolB-based system evolved first and had already given rise to a variety of diverse viruses and other selfish elements before the advent of the bacterial, PolC-based machinery. Conceivably, at that stage of evolution, the niches for DNA-viral reproduction have been already filled with viruses replicating with the

  2. Purification and characterization of enterovirus 71 viral particles produced from vero cells grown in a serum-free microcarrier bioreactor system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chyi Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 infections manifest most commonly as a childhood exanthema known as hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD and can cause neurological disease during acute infection. PRINCIPAL FINDING: In this study, we describe the production, purification and characterization of EV71 virus produced from Vero cells grown in a five-liter serum-free bioreactor system containing 5 g/L Cytodex 1 microcarrier. The viral titer was >10(6 TCID(50/mL by 6 days post infection when a MOI of 10(-5 was used at the initial infection. Two EV71 virus fractions were separated and detected when the harvested EV71 virus concentrate was purified by sucrose gradient zonal ultracentrifugation. The EV71 viral particles detected in the 24-28% sucrose fractions had an icosahedral structure 30-31 nm in diameter and had low viral infectivity and RNA content. Three major viral proteins (VP0, VP1 and VP3 were observed by SDS-PAGE. The EV71 viral particles detected in the fractions containing 35-38% sucrose were 33-35 nm in size, had high viral infectivity and RNA content, and were composed of four viral proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4, as shown by SDS-PAGE analyses. The two virus fractions were formalin-inactivated and induced high virus neutralizing antibody responses in mouse immunogenicity studies. Both mouse antisera recognized the immunodominant linear neutralization epitope of VP1 (residues 211-225. CONCLUSION: These results provide important information for cell-based EV71 vaccine development, particularly for the preparation of working standards for viral antigen quantification.

  3. Xanthan-A Versatile Gum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 10. Xanthan – A Versatile Gum. Anil Lachke. General Article Volume 9 Issue 10 October 2004 pp 25-33. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/10/0025-0033. Keywords. Xanthan ...

  4. The HIV-1 Rev/RRE system is required for HIV-1 5' UTR cis elements to augment encapsidation of heterologous RNA into HIV-1 viral particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA encapsidation is governed by a number of viral encoded components, most notably the Gag protein and gRNA cis elements in the canonical packaging signal (ψ. Also implicated in encapsidation are cis determinants in the R, U5, and PBS (primer binding site from the 5' untranslated region (UTR. Although conventionally associated with nuclear export of HIV-1 RNA, there is a burgeoning role for the Rev/RRE in the encapsidation process. Pleiotropic effects exhibited by these cis and trans viral components may confound the ability to examine their independent, and combined, impact on encapsidation of RNA into HIV-1 viral particles in their innate viral context. We systematically reconstructed the HIV-1 packaging system in the context of a heterologous murine leukemia virus (MLV vector RNA to elucidate a mechanism in which the Rev/RRE system is central to achieving efficient and specific encapsidation into HIV-1 viral particles. Results We show for the first time that the Rev/RRE system can augment RNA encapsidation independent of all cis elements from the 5' UTR (R, U5, PBS, and ψ. Incorporation of all the 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance RNA encapsidation in the absence of the Rev/RRE system. In fact, we demonstrate that the Rev/RRE system is required for specific and efficient encapsidation commonly associated with the canonical packaging signal. The mechanism of Rev/RRE-mediated encapsidation is not a general phenomenon, since the combination of the Rev/RRE system and 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance encapsidation into MLV-derived viral particles. Lastly, we show that heterologous MLV RNAs conform to transduction properties commonly associated with HIV-1 viral particles, including in vivo transduction of non-dividing cells (i.e. mouse neurons; however, the cDNA forms are episomes predominantly in the 1-LTR circle form. Conclusions Premised on encapsidation of a heterologous RNA into

  5. Use of the hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ) envelope as a versatile delivery system for nucleic acids and proteins to leukocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yoshitaka; Miyata, Keizo; Kato, Fuminori

    2010-04-01

    The hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ; also called the Sendai virus) envelope has been developed as a safe and efficient non-viral vector. Because replication and transcription of genomic RNA is inactivated by beta-propiolactone treatment or UV-irradiation, the HVJ envelope is extremely safe. This unit describes the method of transfection of siRNA and protein with the HVJ envelope. (c) 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Viral epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milavetz, Barry I; Balakrishnan, Lata

    2015-01-01

    DNA tumor viruses including members of the polyomavirus, adenovirus, papillomavirus, and herpes virus families are presently the subject of intense interest with respect to the role that epigenetics plays in control of the virus life cycle and the transformation of a normal cell to a cancer cell. To date, these studies have primarily focused on the role of histone modification, nucleosome location, and DNA methylation in regulating the biological consequences of infection. Using a wide variety of strategies and techniques ranging from simple ChIP to ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq to identify histone modifications, nuclease digestion to genome wide next generation sequencing to identify nucleosome location, and bisulfite treatment to MeDIP to identify DNA methylation sites, the epigenetic regulation of these viruses is slowly becoming better understood. While the viruses may differ in significant ways from each other and cellular chromatin, the role of epigenetics appears to be relatively similar. Within the viral genome nucleosomes are organized for the expression of appropriate genes with relevant histone modifications particularly histone acetylation. DNA methylation occurs as part of the typical gene silencing during latent infection by herpesviruses. In the simple tumor viruses like the polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, and papillomaviruses, transformation of the cell occurs via integration of the virus genome such that the virus's normal regulation is disrupted. This results in the unregulated expression of critical viral genes capable of redirecting cellular gene expression. The redirected cellular expression is a consequence of either indirect epigenetic regulation where cellular signaling or transcriptional dysregulation occurs or direct epigenetic regulation where epigenetic cofactors such as histone deacetylases are targeted. In the more complex herpersviruses transformation is a consequence of the expression of the viral latency proteins and RNAs which again can

  7. How to use a very simple microcomputing system for a dynamical conformational analysis of versatile molecules. The case of some anticancer inorganic ring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahana, Roger; Labarre, Jean-Francois

    A very simple use of a suitable microcomputing system allows discrimination of a set of X-ray structures of anticancer drugs which (i) are the "natural" preferred conformations and (ii) are the direct relationships logically linking these conformations together. Such an approach appears the main interest for a deep understanding of the relative antitumour activities of drugs, whatever the target may be.

  8. An automatic versatile system integrating solid-phase extraction with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a dual-dilution strategy for direct analysis of auxins in plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qisheng; Qiu, Xiongxiong; Lin, Caiyong; Shen, Lingling; Huo, Yin; Zhan, Song; Yao, Jinting; Huang, Taohong; Kawano, Shin-ichi; Hashi, Yuki; Xiao, Langtao; Zhou, Ting

    2014-09-12

    An automatic versatile system which integrated solid phase extraction (SPE) with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed. Diverse commercial SPE columns can be used under an ambient pressure in this online system realized by a dual-dilution strategy. The first dilution enabled the direct injection of complex samples with minimal pretreatment, and the second dilution realized direct introduction of large volume of strong eluent into the UHPLC column without causing peak broadening or distortion. In addition, a post-column compensation mode was also designed for the matrix-effects evaluation. The features of the online system were systematically investigated, including the dilution effect, the capture of desorption solution, the column-head stacking effect and the system recovery. Compared with the offline UHPLC system, this online system showed significant advantages such as larger injection volume, higher sensitivity, shorter analysis time and better repeatability. The feasibility of the system was demonstrated by the direct analysis of three auxins from different plant tissues, including leaves of Dracaena sanderiana, buds and petals of Bauhinia. Under the optimized conditions, the whole analysis procedure took only 7min. All the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.9987, the limits of detection and the limits of quantitation were in the range of 0.560-0.800ng/g and 1.80-2.60ng/g, respectively. The recoveries of the real samples ranged from 61.0 to 117%. Finally, the post-column compensation mode was applied and no matrix-effects were observed under the analysis conditions. The automatic versatile system was rapid, sensitive and reliable. We expect this system could be extended to other target analytes in complex samples utilizing diverse SPE columns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Viral bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin, Todd A; Plint, Amy C; Zorc, Joseph J

    2017-01-14

    Viral bronchiolitis is a common clinical syndrome affecting infants and young children. Concern about its associated morbidity and cost has led to a large body of research that has been summarised in systematic reviews and integrated into clinical practice guidelines in several countries. The evidence and guideline recommendations consistently support a clinical diagnosis with the limited role for diagnostic testing for children presenting with the typical clinical syndrome of viral upper respiratory infection progressing to the lower respiratory tract. Management is largely supportive, focusing on maintaining oxygenation and hydration of the patient. Evidence suggests no benefit from bronchodilator or corticosteroid use in infants with a first episode of bronchiolitis. Evidence for other treatments such as hypertonic saline is evolving but not clearly defined yet. For infants with severe disease, the insufficient available data suggest a role for high-flow nasal cannula and continuous positive airway pressure use in a monitored setting to prevent respiratory failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Dual Role for Corneal Dendritic Cells in Herpes Simplex Keratitis: Local Suppression of Corneal Damage and Promotion of Systemic Viral Dissemination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Hu

    Full Text Available The cornea is the shield to the foreign world and thus, a primary site for peripheral infections. However, transparency and vision are incompatible with inflammation and scarring that may result from infections. Thus, the cornea is required to perform a delicate balance between fighting infections and preserving vision. To date, little is known about the specific role of antigen-presenting cells in viral keratitis. In this study, utilizing an established murine model of primary acute herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 keratitis, we demonstrate that primary HSV keratitis results in increased conventional dendritic cells (cDCs and macrophages within 24 hours after infection. Local depletion of cDCs in CD11c-DTR mice by subconjuntival diphtheria toxin injections, led to increased viral proliferation, and influx of inflammatory cells, resulting in increased scarring and clinical keratitis. In addition, while HSV infection resulted in significant corneal nerve destruction, local depletion of cDCs resulted in a much more severe loss of corneal nerves. Further, local cDC depletion resulted in decreased corneal nerve infection, and subsequently decreased and delayed systemic viral transmission in the trigeminal ganglion and draining lymph node, resulting in decreased mortality of mice. In contrast, sham depletion or depletion of macrophages through local injection of clodronate liposomes had neither a significant impact on the cornea, nor an effect on systemic viral transmission. In conclusion, we demonstrate that corneal cDCs may play a primary role in local corneal defense during viral keratitis and preserve vision, at the cost of inducing systemic viral dissemination, leading to increased mortality.

  11. A Dual Role for Corneal Dendritic Cells in Herpes Simplex Keratitis: Local Suppression of Corneal Damage and Promotion of Systemic Viral Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai; Harris, Deshea L.; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Hamrah, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    The cornea is the shield to the foreign world and thus, a primary site for peripheral infections. However, transparency and vision are incompatible with inflammation and scarring that may result from infections. Thus, the cornea is required to perform a delicate balance between fighting infections and preserving vision. To date, little is known about the specific role of antigen-presenting cells in viral keratitis. In this study, utilizing an established murine model of primary acute herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 keratitis, we demonstrate that primary HSV keratitis results in increased conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and macrophages within 24 hours after infection. Local depletion of cDCs in CD11c-DTR mice by subconjuntival diphtheria toxin injections, led to increased viral proliferation, and influx of inflammatory cells, resulting in increased scarring and clinical keratitis. In addition, while HSV infection resulted in significant corneal nerve destruction, local depletion of cDCs resulted in a much more severe loss of corneal nerves. Further, local cDC depletion resulted in decreased corneal nerve infection, and subsequently decreased and delayed systemic viral transmission in the trigeminal ganglion and draining lymph node, resulting in decreased mortality of mice. In contrast, sham depletion or depletion of macrophages through local injection of clodronate liposomes had neither a significant impact on the cornea, nor an effect on systemic viral transmission. In conclusion, we demonstrate that corneal cDCs may play a primary role in local corneal defense during viral keratitis and preserve vision, at the cost of inducing systemic viral dissemination, leading to increased mortality. PMID:26332302

  12. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Kunjin virus replicons: an RNA-based, non-cytopathic viral vector system for protein production, vaccine and gene therapy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijlman, G.P.; Suhrbier, A.; Khromykh, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    The application of viral vectors for gene expression and delivery is rapidly evolving, with several entering clinical trials. However, a number of issues, including safety, gene expression levels, cell selectivity and antivector immunity, are driving the search for new vector systems. A number of

  14. Local Nitric Oxide Production in Viral and Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, D. Craig; Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, S.; Kean, Rhonda; Numagami, Yoshihiro; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Koprowski, Hilary

    1995-06-01

    Because of the short half-life of NO, previous studies implicating NO in central nervous system pathology during infection had to rely on the demonstration of elevated levels of NO synthase mRNA or enzyme expression or NO metabolites such as nitrate and nitrite in the infected brain. To more definitively investigate the potential causative role of NO in lesions of the central nervous system in animals infected with neurotropic viruses or suffering from experimental allergic encephalitis, we have determined directly the levels of NO present in the central nervous system of such animals. Using spin trapping of NO and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we confirm here that copious amounts of NO (up to 30-fold more than control) are elaborated in the brains of rats infected with rabies virus or borna disease virus, as well as in the spinal cords of rats that had received myelin basic protein-specific T cells.

  15. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoguang [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Department of Medical Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Qian, Hua [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Miyamoto, Fusako [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Naito, Takeshi [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kawaji, Kumi [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kajiwara, Kazumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); JST Innovation Plaza Kyoto, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Nishigyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8245 (Japan); Hattori, Toshio [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Matsuoka, Masao [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Watanabe, Kentaro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); and others

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviral activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1{sub IIIB} and HIV-1{sub BaL} as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} and anti-HIV-1{sub BaL} activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, 'phenotypic drug evaluation', may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.

  16. Cellular processing and nuclear targeting of non-viral gene delivery systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aa, M.A.E.M. van der

    2005-01-01

    Gene therapy utilizes genetic material in order to cure patients either by DNA vaccines or by replacement of a defective gene with a normal one. For successful gene therapy certain elements are required: gene delivery systems with low toxicity and immunity, with efficient gene transfer and high gene

  17. Development of a novel fusogenic viral liposome system (HVJ-liposomes) and its applications to the treatment of acquired diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Y

    1999-01-01

    Toward human gene therapy and gene analysis in vivo, a novel hybrid vector based on liposome has been developed for more efficient gene delivery and gene expression. The liposome was decorated with HVJ (Sendal virus) envelope fusion proteins to introduce DNA directly into the cytoplasm, and contained DNA and DNA-binding nuclear protein to enhance expression of the gene. Recently, several types of HVJ-liposomes were developed by altering the lipid components of the liposomes. HVJ-cationic liposomes increased gene delivery 100-800 times more efficiently in vitro than the conventional HVJ-anionic liposomes. HVJ-cationic liposomes were also more useful for gene expression in restricted portions of organs and for gene therapy of disseminated cancers. It was further discovered that the use of anionic liposomes with a virus-mimicking lipid composition (HVJ-AVE liposomes) increased transfection efficiency by several fold in vivo, especially in liver and muscle. By coupling the Epstein-Barr (EB) virus replicon apparatus to HVJ-liposomes, transgene expression was sustained in vitro and in vivo. Most animal organs were found to be suitable targets for the fusigenic-viral liposome system, and numerous gene therapy strategies using this system were successful in animals.

  18. Viral warfare! Front-line defence and arming the immune system against cancer using oncolytic vaccinia and other viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, R V; Jebar, A H S; Jennings, V A; Adair, R A; West, E J; Errington-Mais, F; Toogood, G J; Melcher, A A

    2014-08-01

    Despite mankind's many achievements, we are yet to find a cure for cancer. We are now approaching a new era which recognises the promise of harnessing the immune system for anti-cancer therapy. Pathogens have been implicated for decades as potential anti-cancer agents, but implementation into clinical therapy has been plagued with significant drawbacks. Newer 'designer' agents have addressed some of these concerns, in particular, a new breed of oncolytic virus: JX-594, a genetically engineered pox virus, is showing promise. To review the current literature on the use of oncolytic viruses in the treatment of cancer; both by direct oncolysis and stimulation of the immune system. The review will provide a background and historical progression for the surgeon on tumour immunology, and the interplay between oncolytic viruses, immune cells, inflammation on tumourigenesis. A literature review was performed using the Medline database. Viral therapeutics hold promise as a novel treatment modality for the treatment of disseminated malignancy. It provides a multi-pronged attack against tumour burden; direct tumour cell lysis, exposure of tumour-associated antigens (TAA), induction of immune danger signals, and recognition by immune effector cells. Copyright © 2014 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Collinear technology for a holographic versatile disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tan, Xiaodi

    2006-02-01

    A novel reading and writing technology for a holographic versatile disk (HVD) system called collinear technology is developed. With this method a two-dimensional data page can be recorded as volumetric holograms generated by a reference beam and a signal beam that are bundled on the same axis and that are irradiated on the recording medium through a single objective lens. The multiplex recording and reconstruction process is demonstrated, and it is shown that the optical configuration and the dichroic medium disk structure are suitable for a compact system. With the HVD's special structure, the system can use a servo to focus, track, and locate the reading and writing addresses. A unique selectable-capacity recording format of a HVD and its standardization activity are also introduced. This method will enable us to construct a small HVD system with CD and DVD upper compatibilities.

  20. A Versatile System for High-Throughput In Situ X-ray Screening and Data Collection of Soluble and Membrane-Protein Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broecker, Jana; Klingel, Viviane; Ou, Wei-Lin; Balo, Aidin R.; Kissick, David J.; Ogata, Craig M.; Kuo, Anling; Ernst, Oliver P.

    2016-10-12

    In recent years, in situ data collection has been a major focus of progress in protein crystallography. Here, we introduce the Mylar in situ method using Mylar-based sandwich plates that are inexpensive, easy to make and handle, and show significantly less background scattering than other setups. A variety of cognate holders for patches of Mylar in situ sandwich films corresponding to one or more wells makes the method robust and versatile, allows for storage and shipping of entire wells, and enables automated crystal imaging, screening, and goniometerbased X-ray diffraction data-collection at room temperature and under cryogenic conditions for soluble and membrane-protein crystals grown in or transferred to these plates. We validated the Mylar in situ method using crystals of the water-soluble proteins hen egg-white lysozyme and sperm whale myoglobin as well as the 7-transmembrane protein bacteriorhodopsin from Haloquadratum walsbyi. In conjunction with current developments at synchrotrons, this approach promises high-resolution structural studies of membrane proteins to become faster and more routine.

  1. The Therapeutic Potential of CRISPR/Cas9 Systems in Oncogene-Addicted Cancer Types: Virally Driven Cancers as a Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Jubair

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of gene editing is undergoing unprecedented growth. The first ex vivo human clinical trial in China started in 2016, more than 1000 US patents have been filed, and there is exponential growth in publications. The ability to edit genes with high fidelity is promising for the development of new treatments for a range of diseases, particularly inherited conditions, infectious diseases, and cancers. For cancer, a major issue is the identification of driver mutations and oncogenes to target for therapeutic effect, and this requires the development of robust models with which to prove their efficacy. The challenge is that there is rarely a single critical gene. However, virally driven cancers, in which cells are addicted to the expression of a single viral oncogene in some cases, may serve as model systems for CRISPR/Cas therapies, as they did for RNAi. These models and systems offer an excellent opportunity to test both preclinical models and clinical conditions to examine the effectiveness of gene editing, and here we review the options and offer a way forward.

  2. Regional Differences in Viral Growth and Central Nervous System Injury Correlate with Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson-Burns, Sarah M.; Tyler, Kenneth L.

    2004-01-01

    Infection of neonatal mice with reovirus T3 Dearing (T3D), the prototypic neurotropic reovirus, causes fatal encephalitis associated with neuronal injury and virus-induced apoptosis throughout the brain. T3D variant K (VarK) is an antigenic variant that has a nearly 1 million-fold reduction in neurovirulence following intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation compared to T3D and a restricted pattern of central nervous system injury with damage limited to the hippocampus, sparing other brain regions. W...

  3. Evaluation of cell population data on the UniCel DxH 800 Coulter Cellular Analysis system as a screening for viral infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Y-J; Kim, J-H; Park, Y-J; Kahng, J; Lee, H; Lee, K-Y; Kim, M Y; Han, K; Lee, W

    2012-06-01

    The utility of WBC cell population data (CPD) for the differential diagnosis of viral infection from normal control, bacterial infection, and tuberculosis in children was investigated. A data set of 602 total whole-blood samples were analyzed on the DxH 800 System for complete blood cell count (CBC) with leukocyte differential from children with the following sample breakdown: 77 confirmed diagnoses of viral infections (Epstein-Barr virus; 30, influenza A; 19, rota virus; 11, other viruses;17), 54 normal control, 71 bacterial infection, 17 TB patients, and 383 with various diseases. The mean (MN) and standard deviation (SD) of the volume (V), conductivity (C), five light-scatter measurements, and 14 calculated parameters were obtained for the leukocytes. Using a combination of the CBC and CPD parameter values, a decision rule, composed of 21 parameters, for the screening of viral infection in children was developed. Using this decision rule, 74 of 77 (96.1%) viral infections, two of 54 (3.7%) normal samples, one of 17 (5.9%) TB, and six of 71 (8.5%) bacterial infection samples were identified. The sensitivity was 96.1%, and specificity for normal control was 96.3% with an overall specificity of 93.7%. Fifty-nine samples of 383 samples (15.4%) collected from in-patient children with various diseases without confirmation of viral infection were included in this decision rule. In conclusion, the implementation of leukocytes CPD parameters can be useful in the detection of viral infection in children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Versatile Supramolecular Gene Vector Based on Host-Guest Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Jia; Hennink, Wim E.; Van Steenbergen, Mies J.; Zhuo, Renxi; Jiang, Xulin

    2016-01-01

    It is a great challenge to arrange multiple functional components into one gene vector system to overcome the extra- and intracellular obstacles for gene therapy. In this study, we developed a supramolecular approach for constructing a versatile gene delivery system composed of adamantyl-terminated

  5. Impact of a Pharmacist-Driven Respiratory Viral Panel Stewardship Program on Antibiotic Exposure Within a Multicenter Community Health System

    OpenAIRE

    Cubillos, Ashley; Estrada, Sandy; Bachmeier, Harrison; Turner, Edgar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Strategies to ensure optimal use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) testing results for antimicrobial stewardship in acute respiratory infections remain to be elucidated. This study sought to assess the impact of pharmacist intervention (by means of prospective feedback to prescribers) on overall antibiotic exposure in patients with viral-positive mPCR Respiratory Viral Panel (RVP) laboratory test results. Methods This retrospective cohort study included patient...

  6. Biology of Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhar eMurlidharan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is a promising approach for treating a spectrum of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders by delivering corrective genes to the central nervous system (CNS. In particular, Adeno-Associated Viruses (AAV have emerged as promising tools for clinical gene transfer in a broad range of genetic disorders with neurological manifestations. In the current review, we have attempted to bridge our understanding of the biology of different AAV strains with their transduction profiles, cellular tropisms and transport mechanisms within the CNS. Continued efforts to dissect AAV-host interactions within the brain are likely to aid in the development of improved vectors for CNS-directed gene transfer applications in the clinic.

  7. Role of very late antigen-1 in T-cell-mediated immunity to systemic viral infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Kauffmann, Susanne; Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard

    2006-01-01

    The T-cell response to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was studied in mice lacking very late antigen-1 (VLA-1). The generation of virus-specific effector T cells was unimpaired in VLA-1(-/-) mice. In the memory phase, VLA-1 deficiency did not influence the number of memory CD8(+) T cells...... significant differences between the two strains. Expression of VLA-1 was also found to be redundant regarding the ability of effector T cells to eliminate virus from internal organs of i.v. infected mice. Using delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) assays to evaluate subdermal CD8(+) T......, the current findings indicate that the expression of VLA-1 is not pivotal for T-cell-mediated antiviral immunity to a systemic infection....

  8. Viral Infection of the Central Nervous System and Neuroinflammation Precede Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption during Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Wang, Yueyun; Yu, Lan; Cao, Shengbo; Wang, Ke; Yuan, Jiaolong; Wang, Chong; Wang, Kunlun; Cui, Min; Fu, Zhen F

    2015-05-01

    Japanese encephalitis is an acute zoonotic, mosquito-borne disease caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Japanese encephalitis is characterized by extensive inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, the pathogenic mechanisms contributing to the BBB disruption are not known. Here, using a mouse model of intravenous JEV infection, we show that virus titers increased exponentially in the brain from 2 to 5 days postinfection. This was accompanied by an early, dramatic increase in the level of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the brain. Enhancement of BBB permeability, however, was not observed until day 4, suggesting that viral entry and the onset of inflammation in the CNS occurred prior to BBB damage. In vitro studies revealed that direct infection with JEV could not induce changes in the permeability of brain microvascular endothelial cell monolayers. However, brain extracts derived from symptomatic JEV-infected mice, but not from mock-infected mice, induced significant permeability of the endothelial monolayer. Consistent with a role for inflammatory mediators in BBB disruption, the administration of gamma interferon-neutralizing antibody ameliorated the enhancement of BBB permeability in JEV-infected mice. Taken together, our data suggest that JEV enters the CNS, propagates in neurons, and induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which result in the disruption of the BBB. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, resulting in 70,000 cases each year, in which approximately 20 to 30% of cases are fatal, and a high proportion of patients survive with serious neurological and psychiatric sequelae. Pathologically, JEV infection causes an acute encephalopathy accompanied by BBB dysfunction; however, the mechanism is not clear. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of BBB disruption in JEV infection is important. Our data demonstrate

  9. Induction of systemic IFITM3 expression does not effectively control foot-and-mouth disease viral infection in transgenic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huawei; Zheng, Haixue; Qian, Ping; Xu, Jinfang; Yang, Xi; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-08-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, and can cause severe economic loss. Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins constitute a family of viral restriction factors that can inhibit the replication of several types of viruses. Our previous study showed that overexpression of swine IFITM3 (sIFITM3) impeded replication of the FMD virus (FMDV) in BHK-21 cells and mice. In this study, sIFITM3-transgenic (TG) pigs were produced by handmade cloning. Results showed that sIFITM3 was highly overexpressed in many organs of sIFITM3-TG pigs compared to wild-type pigs. After a virulent FMDV strain (O/ES/2001) was intramuscularly inoculated, the sIFITM3-TG pigs showed slightly higher susceptibility to FMDV infection than wild-type pigs. Both groups displayed comparable degrees of clinical symptoms throughout the 14-day observation period. Therefore, the induction of systemic sIFITM3 expression does not protect pigs against FMDV infection. Based on these observations, we propose that a combination of interferons and vaccines be used to control FMDV infections and subsequent FMD outbreaks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Systemic Immunization with Papillomavirus L1 Protein Completely Prevents the Development of Viral Mucosal Papillomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzich, Joann A.; Ghim, Shin-Je; Palmer-Hill, Frances J.; White, Wendy I.; Tamura, James K.; Bell, Judith A.; Newsome, Joseph A.; Bennett Jenson, A.; Schlegel, Richard

    1995-12-01

    Infection of mucosal epithelium by papillomaviruses is responsible for the induction of genital and oral warts and plays a critical role in the development of human cervical and oropharyngeal cancer. We have employed a canine model to develop a systemic vaccine that completely protects against experimentally induced oral mucosal papillomas. The major capsid protein, L1, of canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) was expressed in Sf9 insect cells in native conformation. L1 protein, which self-assembled into virus-like particles, was purified on CsCl gradients and injected intradermally into the foot pad of beagles. Vaccinated animals developed circulating antibodies against COPV and became completely resistant to experimental challenge with COPV. Successful immunization was strictly dependent upon native L1 protein conformation and L1 type. Partial protection was achieved with as little as 0.125 ng of L1 protein, and adjuvants appeared useful for prolonging the host immune response. Serum immunoglobulins passively transferred from COPV L1-immunized beagles to naive beagles conferred protection from experimental infection with COPV. Our results indicate the feasibility of developing a human vaccine to prevent mucosal papillomas, which can progress to malignancy.

  11. Sine systemate chaos? A versatile tool for earthworm taxonomy: non-destructive imaging of freshly fixed and museum specimens using micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rosa; Kvist, Sebastian; Lenihan, Jennifer; Giribet, Gonzalo; Ziegler, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the high relevance of lumbricid earthworms ('Oligochaeta': Lumbricidae) for soil structure and functioning, the taxonomy of this group of terrestrial invertebrates remains in a quasi-chaotic state. Earthworm taxonomy traditionally relies on the interpretation of external and internal morphological characters, but the acquisition of these data is often hampered by tedious dissections or restricted access to valuable and rare museum specimens. The present state of affairs, in conjunction with the difficulty of establishing primary homologies for multiple morphological features, has led to an almost unrivaled instability in the taxonomy and systematics of certain earthworm groups, including Lumbricidae. As a potential remedy, we apply for the first time a non-destructive imaging technique to lumbricids and explore the future application of this approach to earthworm taxonomy. High-resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT) scanning of freshly fixed and museum specimens was carried out using two cosmopolitan species, Aporrectodea caliginosa and A. trapezoides. By combining two-dimensional and three-dimensional dataset visualization techniques, we demonstrate that the morphological features commonly used in earthworm taxonomy can now be analyzed without the need for dissection, whether freshly fixed or museum specimens collected more than 60 years ago are studied. Our analyses show that μCT in combination with soft tissue staining can be successfully applied to lumbricid earthworms. An extension of the approach to other families is poised to strengthen earthworm taxonomy by providing a versatile tool to resolve the taxonomic chaos currently present in this ecologically important, but taxonomically neglected group of terrestrial invertebrates.

  12. A reverse genetics system for the Great Lakes strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus: the NV gene is required for pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammayappan, Arun; Kurath, Gael; Thompson, Tarin M.; Vakharia, Vikram N.

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), belonging to the genus Novirhabdovirus in the family of Rhabdoviridae, causes a highly contagious disease of fresh and saltwater fish worldwide. Recently, a novel genotype of VHSV, designated IVb, has invaded the Great Lakes in North America, causing large-scale epidemics in wild fish. An efficient reverse genetics system was developed to generate a recombinant VHSV of genotype IVb from cloned cDNA. The recombinant VHSV (rVHSV) was comparable to the parental wild-type strain both in vitro and in vivo, causing high mortality in yellow perch (Perca flavescens). A modified recombinant VHSV was generated in which the NV gene was substituted with an enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP), and another recombinant was made by inserting the EGFP gene into the full-length viral clone between the P and M genes (rVHSV-EGFP). The in vitro replication kinetics of rVHSV-EGFP was similar to rVHSV; however, the rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP grew 2 logs lower. In yellow perch challenges, wtVHSV and rVHSV induced 82-100% cumulative per cent mortality (CPM), respectively, whereas rVHSV-EGFP produced 62% CPM and rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP caused only 15% CPM. No reversion of mutation was detected in the recovered viruses and the recombinant viruses stably maintained the foreign gene after several passages. These results indicate that the NV gene of VHSV is not essential for viral replication in vitro and in vivo, but it plays an important role in viral replication efficiency and pathogenicity. This system will facilitate studies of VHSV replication, virulence, and production of viral vectored vaccines.

  13. Aseptic meningitis and viral myelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, David N

    2008-08-01

    Meningitis and myelitis represent common and very infrequent viral infections of the central nervous system, respectively. The number of cases of viral meningitis that occurs annually exceeds the total number of meningitis cases caused by all other etiologies combined. Focal central nervous system infections, such as occur in the spinal cord with viral myelitis, are much less common and may be confused with noninfectious disorders that cause acute flaccid paralysis. This article reviews some of the important clinical features, epidemiology, diagnostic approaches, and management strategies for patients with aseptic meningitis and viral myelitis. Particular focus is placed on the diseases caused by enteroviruses, which as a group account for most aseptic meningitis cases and many focal infections of the spinal cord.

  14. Modeling Viral Infectious Diseases and Development of Antiviral Therapies Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Trevisan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent biotechnology breakthrough of cell reprogramming and generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, which has revolutionized the approaches to study the mechanisms of human diseases and to test new drugs, can be exploited to generate patient-specific models for the investigation of host–pathogen interactions and to develop new antimicrobial and antiviral therapies. Applications of iPSC technology to the study of viral infections in humans have included in vitro modeling of viral infections of neural, liver, and cardiac cells; modeling of human genetic susceptibility to severe viral infectious diseases, such as encephalitis and severe influenza; genetic engineering and genome editing of patient-specific iPSC-derived cells to confer antiviral resistance.

  15. Modeling Viral Infectious Diseases and Development of Antiviral Therapies Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Marta; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Desole, Giovanna; Berto, Alessandro; Pacenti, Monia; Palù, Giorgio; Barzon, Luisa

    2015-07-13

    The recent biotechnology breakthrough of cell reprogramming and generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which has revolutionized the approaches to study the mechanisms of human diseases and to test new drugs, can be exploited to generate patient-specific models for the investigation of host-pathogen interactions and to develop new antimicrobial and antiviral therapies. Applications of iPSC technology to the study of viral infections in humans have included in vitro modeling of viral infections of neural, liver, and cardiac cells; modeling of human genetic susceptibility to severe viral infectious diseases, such as encephalitis and severe influenza; genetic engineering and genome editing of patient-specific iPSC-derived cells to confer antiviral resistance.

  16. Patterns of oligonucleotide sequences in viral and host cell RNA identify mediators of the host innate immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Greenbaum

    Full Text Available The innate immune response provides a first line of defense against pathogens by targeting generic differential features that are present in foreign organisms but not in the host. These innate responses generate selection forces acting both in pathogens and hosts that further determine their co-evolution. Here we analyze the nucleic acid sequence fingerprints of these selection forces acting in parallel on both host innate immune genes and ssRNA viral genomes. We do this by identifying dinucleotide biases in the coding regions of innate immune response genes in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and then use this signal to identify other significant host innate immune genes. The persistence of these biases in the orthologous groups of genes in humans and chickens is also examined. We then compare the significant motifs in highly expressed genes of the innate immune system to those in ssRNA viruses and study the evolution of these motifs in the H1N1 influenza genome. We argue that the significant under-represented motif pattern of CpG in an AU context--which is found in both the ssRNA viruses and innate genes, and has decreased throughout the history of H1N1 influenza replication in humans--is immunostimulatory and has been selected against during the co-evolution of viruses and host innate immune genes. This shows how differences in host immune biology can drive the evolution of viruses that jump into species with different immune priorities than the original host.

  17. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  18. Versatile Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) on Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerick, Adrienne R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a new Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) engineered for a chemical engineering junior-level Heat Transfer course. This new DEMo learning tool is versatile, fairly inexpensive, and portable such that it can be positioned on student desks throughout a classroom. The DEMo system can illustrate conduction of various materials,…

  19. Differential Regulation of Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF)-7 and IRF-9 Gene Expression in the Central Nervous System during Viral Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ousman, Shalina S.; Wang, Jianping; Campbell, Iain L

    2005-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are a family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of the interferons (IFNs) and other genes that may have an essential role in antiviral defense in the central nervous system, although this is currently not well defined. Therefore, we examined the regulation of IRF gene expression in the brain during viral infection. Several IRF genes (IRF-2, -3, -5, -7, and -9) were expressed at low levels in the brain of uninfected mice. Following intracra...

  20. Type III CRISPR-Cas systems can provide redundancy to counteract viral escape from type I systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silas, Sukrit; Lucas-Elio, Patricia; Jackson, Simon A; Aroca-Crevillén, Alejandra; Hansen, Loren L; Fineran, Peter C

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas-mediated defense utilizes information stored as spacers in CRISPR arrays to defend against genetic invaders. We define the mode of target interference and role in antiviral defense for two CRISPR-Cas systems in Marinomonas mediterranea. One system (type I-F) targets DNA. A second system (type III-B) is broadly capable of acquiring spacers in either orientation from RNA and DNA, and exhibits transcription-dependent DNA interference. Examining resistance to phages isolated from Mediterranean seagrass meadows, we found that the type III-B machinery co-opts type I-F CRISPR-RNAs. Sequencing and infectivity assessments of related bacterial and phage strains suggests an ‘arms race’ in which phage escape from the type I-F system can be overcome through use of type I-F spacers by a horizontally-acquired type III-B system. We propose that the phage-host arms race can drive selection for horizontal uptake and maintenance of promiscuous type III interference modules that supplement existing host type I CRISPR-Cas systems. PMID:28826484

  1. Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... change the cells and make you sick. Different viruses attack certain cells in your body such as your liver, respiratory system, or blood. When you get a virus, you may not always get sick from it. ...

  2. [Viral superantigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Us, Dürdal

    2016-07-01

    , expression of endogenous SAgs leads to thymic deletion of responding T cells (bearing Vβ6-9+ TCR) due to self-tolerance induction during the fetal life, and protects the host against future exogenous MMTV infections. The SAg of rabies virus is the N protein found in nucleocapsid structure and stimulates Vβ8+TCR-bearing T cells. The SAg-induced polyclonal activation of T cells leads to turn-off the specific immune response, to enhance the immunopathogenesis and facilitates viral transmission from the initial site of infection (the muscle tissue) to the nerve endings. In case of EBV-associated SAg that activates Vβ13+TCR-bearing T cells, it was detected that the SAg activity was not encoded by EBV itself, but instead was due to the transactivation of HERV-K18 by EBV latent membrane proteins, whose env gene encodes the SAg (Sutkowski, et al. 2001). It has been denoted that EBV-induced SAg expression plays a role in the long-term persistence and latency of virus in memory B cells, in the development of autoimmune diseases and in the oncogenesis mechanisms. The proteins which are identified as SAgs of HIV are Nef and gp120. It is believed that, the massive activation of CD4+ T cells (selectively with Vβ-12+, Vβ-5.3+ and Vβ-18+ TCRs) in early stages of infection and clonal deletion, anergy and apoptosis of bystander T cells in the late stages may be due to SAg property of Nef protein, as well as the other mechanisms. However there are some studies indicating that Nef does not act as a SAg (Lapatschek, et al. 2001). HIV gp120 glycoprotein is a B-cell SAg that binds to VH3-expressing B cell receptors and causes polyclonal B cell activation. In addition, binding of gp120 to IgE on the surface of basophiles and mast cells causes activation of those cells, secretion of high level proinflammatory mediators leading to allergic reactions and tissue damage. In a recent study, the depletion (anergy or deletion) of T cell populations bearing Vβ12+, Vβ13+ and Vβ17+ TCR have been

  3. Immunohistochemical analysis of MMP-9, MMP-2 and TIMP-1, TIMP-2 expression in the central nervous system following infection with viral and bacterial meningitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Chyczewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are capable of degrading components of the basal lamina of cerebral vessels, thereby disrupting the blood-brain barrier and inducing leukocyte recruitment. This study provides comprehensive information regarding the cell specificity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9 and their binding tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1, TIMP-2 in the central nervous system during viral and bacterial meningitis. Specifically, we evaluated the immunoreactivity of MMPs and TIMPs in various cell types in brain parenchyma and meninges obtained from autopsy tissues. We found that a higher proportion of endothelial cells were positive for MMP-9 during meningitis when compared to controls. In addition, the immunoreactivity of MMP-9 decreased and the immunoreactivity of TIMP-1 increased in astrocytes upon infection. Furthermore, the results of this study revealed that mononuclear cells were highly immunoreactive for TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and MMP-9 during viral meningitis and that the expression of TIMPs in polymorphonuclear cells was even higher during bacterial meningitis. Taken together the results of this study indicated that the central nervous system resident cells and inflammatory infiltrates contribute to MMPs activity and that the expression patterns vary between cell types and in response to viral and bacterial meningitis.

  4. [Respiratory viral diagnosis by using an automated system of multiplex PCR (FilmArray) compared to conventional methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcone, Débora N; Carballal, Guadalupe; Ricarte, Carmen; Echavarria, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections, which are commonly caused by viruses, are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. In Argentina, national surveillance programs for the detection of respiratory viruses are usually performed by using immunofluorescence (IF) assays, although it is well known that molecular methods are more sensitive. An automated multiplex PCR device, the FilmArray-Respiratory Panel (FilmArray-RP), can detect 17 viral and 3 bacterial pathogens in a closed system that requires only 5 min of hands-on time and 1h of instrumentation time. A total of 315 respiratory samples from children under 6 years of age suffering from acute respiratory infections, were studied by IF for 8 respiratory viruses and by RT-PCR for rhinoviruses. Later, these samples were tested by the FilmArray-RP. The positivity frequency obtained for the 9 viruses tested was 75% by IF/RT-PCR and 92% by the FilmArray-RP. The positive and negative percent agreement between both methods was 70.5% whereas the negative percent agreement was 99.6% (95% confidence interval:65.5-75.1 and 99.2-99.8 respectively). The FilmArray-RP allowed a higher positive diagnosis (97%) and detected other viruses such as coronavirus NL63, 229E, OC43, HKU1 (10%) and bocavirus (18%). In addition, this method identified multiple coinfections (39%) with 2, 3, 4 and up to 5 different viruses. At present, IF is still the most frequently used method in most Latin American countries for respiratory viruses diagnosis due to its low cost, its capability to process a high number of samples simultaneously and the fast determination of results for the most frequent viruses, which are available within 5h. However, the coming incorporation of molecular methods in routine procedures will significantly increase the diagnostic yield of these infections. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a Versatile Laser-Ultrasonic System and Application to the Online Measurement for Process Control of Wall Thickness and Eccentricity of Seamless Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert V. Kolarik II

    2002-10-23

    A system for the online, non-contact measurement of wall thickness in steel seamless mechanical tubing has been developed and demonstrated at a tubing production line at the Timken Company in Canton, Ohio. The system utilizes laser-generation of ultrasound and laser-detection of time of flight with interferometry, laser-doppler velocimetry and pyrometry, all with fiber coupling. Accuracy (<1% error) and precision (1.5%) are at targeted levels. Cost and energy savings have exceeded estimates. The system has shown good reliability in measuring over 200,000 tubes in its first six months of deployment.

  6. Viral Skin Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Glycodendrimers: versatile tools for nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Roy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining nanotechnology with glycobiology has triggered an exponential growth of research activities in the design of novel functional bionanomaterials (glyconanotechnology. More specifically, recent synthetic advances towards the tailored and versatile design of glycosylated nanoparticles namely glyconanoparticles, considered as synthetic mimetics of natural glycoconjugates, paved the way toward diverse biomedical applications. The accessibility of a wide variety of these structured nanosystems, in terms of shapes, sizes, and organized around stable nanoparticles have readily contributed to their development and applications in nanomedicine. In this context, glycosylated gold-nanoparticles (GNPs, glycosylated quantum dots (QDs, fullerenes, single-wall natotubes (SWNTs, and self-assembled glycononanoparticles using amphiphilic glycopolymers or glycodendrimers have received considerable attention to afford powerful imaging, therapeutic, and biodiagnostic devices. This review will provide an overview of the most recent syntheses and applications of glycodendrimers in glycoscience that have permitted to deepen our understanding of multivalent carbohydrate-protein interactions. Together with synthetic breast cancer vaccines, inhibitors of bacterial adhesions to host tissues including sensitive detection devices, these novel bionanomaterials are finding extensive relevance.

  8. Imidazole: Having Versatile Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Imidazoles have occupied a unique position in heterocyclic chemistry, and its derivatives have attracted considerable interests in recent years for their versatile properties in chemistry and pharmacology. Imidazole is nitrogen-containing heterocyclic ring which possesses biological and pharmaceutical importance. Thus, imidazole compounds have been an interesting source for researchers for more than a century. The imidazole ring is a constituent of several important natural products, including purine, histamine, histidine, and nucleic acid. Being a polar and ionisable aromatic compound, it improves pharmacokinetic characteristics of lead molecules and thus is used as a remedy to optimize solubility and bioavailability parameters of proposed poorly soluble lead molecules. There are several methods used for the synthesis of imidazole-containing compounds, and also their various structure reactions offer enormous scope in the field of medicinal chemistry. The imidazole derivatives possess extensive spectrum of biological activities such as antibacterial, anticancer, antitubercular, antifungal, analgesic, and anti-HIV activities. This paper aims to review the biological activities of imidazole during the past years.

  9. TRIM68 negatively regulates IFN-β production by degrading TRK fused gene, a novel driver of IFN-β downstream of anti-viral detection systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Wynne

    Full Text Available In recent years members of the tripartite motif-containing (TRIM family of E3 ubiquitin ligases have been shown to both positively and negatively regulate viral defence and as such are emerging as compelling targets for modulating the anti-viral immune response. In this study we identify TRIM68, a close homologue of TRIM21, as a novel regulator of Toll-like receptor (TLR- and RIG-I-like receptor (RLR-driven type I IFN production. Proteomic analysis of TRIM68-containing complexes identified TRK-fused gene (TFG as a potential TRIM68 target. Overexpression of TRIM68 and TFG confirmed their ability to associate, with TLR3 stimulation appearing to enhance the interaction. TFG is a known activator of NF-κB via its ability to interact with inhibitor of NF-κB kinase subunit gamma (IKK-γ and TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK. Our data identifies a novel role for TFG as a positive regulator of type I IFN production and suggests that TRIM68 targets TFG for lysosomal degradation, thus turning off TFG-mediated IFN-β production. Knockdown of TRIM68 in primary human monocytes resulted in enhanced levels of type I IFN and TFG following poly(I:C treatment. Thus TRIM68 targets TFG, a novel regulator of IFN production, and in doing so turns off and limits type I IFN production in response to anti-viral detection systems.

  10. Viral aetiology of central nervous system infections in adults admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in southern Vietnam over 12 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Van Tan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS infections are important diseases in both children and adults worldwide. The spectrum of infections is broad, encompassing bacterial/aseptic meningitis and encephalitis. Viruses are regarded as the most common causes of encephalitis and aseptic meningitis. Better understanding of the viral causes of the diseases is of public health importance, in order to better inform immunization policy, and may influence clinical management.Study was conducted at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City, a primary, secondary, and tertiary referral hospital for all southern provinces of Vietnam. Between December 1996 and May 2008, patients with CNS infections of presumed viral origin were enrolled. Laboratory diagnostics consisted of molecular and serological tests targeted at 14 meningitis/encephalitis-associated viruses. Of 291 enrolled patients, fatal outcome and neurological sequelae were recorded in 10% (28/291 and 27% (78/291, respectively. Mortality was especially high (9/19, 47% amongst those with confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis which is attributed to the limited availability of intravenous acyclovir/valacyclovir. Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, herpes simplex virus, and enteroviruses were the most common viruses detected, responsible for 36 (12%, 19 (6.5%, 19 (6.5% and 8 (2.7% respectively, followed by rubella virus (6, 2%, varicella zoster virus (5, 1.7%, mumps virus (2, 0.7%, cytomegalovirus (1, 0.3%, and rabies virus (1, 0.3%.Viral infections of the CNS in adults in Vietnam are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite extensive laboratory testing, 68% of the patients remain undiagnosed. Together with our previous reports, the data confirm that Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, herpes simplex virus, and enteroviruses are the leading identified causes of CNS viral infections in Vietnam, suggest that the majority of morbidity/mortality amongst patients with a confirmed

  11. Comparative analysis of viral shedding in pediatric and adult subjects with central nervous system-associated enterovirus infections from 2013 to 2015 in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordey, S; Schibler, M; L'Huillier, A G; Wagner, N; Gonçalves, A R; Ambrosioni, J; Asner, S; Turin, L; Posfay-Barbe, K M; Kaiser, L

    2017-04-01

    Several enterovirus (EV) genotypes can result in aseptic meningitis, but their routes of access to the central nervous system remain to be elucidated and may differ between the pediatric and adult populations. To assess the pattern of viral shedding in pediatric and adult subjects with acute EV meningitis and to generate EV surveillance data for Switzerland. All pediatric and adult subjects admitted to the University Hospitals of Geneva with a diagnosis of EV meningitis between 2013 and 2015 were enrolled. A quantitative EV real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT)-PCR was performed on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, stool, urine and respiratory specimens to assess viral shedding and provide a comparative analysis of pediatric and adult populations. EV genotyping was systematically performed. EV positivity rates differed significantly between pediatric and adult subjects; 62.5% of pediatric cases (no adult case) were EV-positive in stool and blood for subjects for whom these samples were all collected. Similarly, the EV viral load in blood was significantly higher in pediatric subjects. Blood C-reactive protein levels were lower and the number of leucocytes/mm3 in the CSF were higher in non-viremic than in viremic pediatric subjects, respectively. A greater diversity of EV genotypes was observed in pediatric cases, with a predominance of echovirus 30 in children ≥3 years old and adults. In contrast to adults, EV-disseminated infections are predominant in pediatric subjects and show different patterns of EV viral shedding. This observation may be useful for clinicians and contribute to modify current practices of patient care. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A versatile-deployable bacterial detection system for food and environmental safety based on LabTube-automated DNA purification, LabReader-integrated amplification, readout and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehl, Melanie M; Bocholt, Eva Schulte; Kloke, Arne; Paust, Nils; von Stetten, Felix; Zengerle, Roland; Steigert, Juergen; Slocum, Alexander H

    2014-06-07

    Contamination of foods is a public health hazard that episodically causes thousands of deaths and sickens millions worldwide. To ensure food safety and quality, rapid, low-cost and easy-to-use detection methods are desirable. Here, the LabSystem is introduced for integrated, automated DNA purification, amplification and detection. It consists of a disposable, centrifugally driven DNA purification platform (LabTube) and a low-cost UV/vis-reader (LabReader). For demonstration of the LabSystem in the context of food safety, purification of Escherichia coli (non-pathogenic E. coli and pathogenic verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC)) in water and milk and the product-spoiler Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris (A. acidoterrestris) in apple juice was integrated and optimized in the LabTube. Inside the LabReader, the purified DNA was amplified, readout and analyzed using both qualitative isothermal loop-mediated DNA amplification (LAMP) and quantitative real-time PCR. For the LAMP-LabSystem, the combined detection limits for purification and amplification of externally lysed VTEC and A. acidoterrestris are 10(2)-10(3) cell-equivalents. In the PCR-LabSystem for E. coli cells, the quantification limit is 10(2) cell-equivalents including LabTube-integrated lysis. The demonstrated LabSystem only requires a laboratory centrifuge (to operate the disposable, fully closed LabTube) and a low-cost LabReader for DNA amplification, readout and analysis. Compared with commercial DNA amplification devices, the LabReader improves sensitivity and specificity by the simultaneous readout of four wavelengths and the continuous readout during temperature cycling. The use of a detachable eluate tube as an interface affords semi-automation of the LabSystem, which does not require specialized training. It reduces the hands-on time from about 50 to 3 min with only two handling steps: sample input and transfer of the detachable detection tube.

  13. Recent Developments of Versatile Photoinitiating Systems for Cationic Ring Opening Polymerization Operating at Any Wavelengths and under Low Light Intensity Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Lalevée; Haifaa Mokbel; Jean-Pierre Fouassier

    2015-01-01

    Photoinitiators (PI) or photoinitiating systems (PIS) usable in light induced cationic polymerization (CP) and free radical promoted cationic polymerization (FRPCP) reactions (more specifically for cationic ring opening polymerization (ROP)) together with the involved mechanisms are briefly reviewed. The recent developments of novel two- and three-component PISs for CP and FRPCP upon exposure to low intensity blue to red lights is emphasized in details. Examples of such reactions under vario...

  14. Recent Developments of Versatile Photoinitiating Systems for Cationic Ring Opening Polymerization Operating at Any Wavelengths and under Low Light Intensity Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalevée, Jacques; Mokbel, Haifaa; Fouassier, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-20

    Photoinitiators (PI) or photoinitiating systems (PIS) usable in light induced cationic polymerization (CP) and free radical promoted cationic polymerization (FRPCP) reactions (more specifically for cationic ring opening polymerization (ROP)) together with the involved mechanisms are briefly reviewed. The recent developments of novel two- and three-component PISs for CP and FRPCP upon exposure to low intensity blue to red lights is emphasized in details. Examples of such reactions under various experimental conditions are provided.

  15. Recent Developments of Versatile Photoinitiating Systems for Cationic Ring Opening Polymerization Operating at Any Wavelengths and under Low Light Intensity Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lalevée

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Photoinitiators (PI or photoinitiating systems (PIS usable in light induced cationic polymerization (CP and free radical promoted cationic polymerization (FRPCP reactions (more specifically for cationic ring opening polymerization (ROP together with the involved mechanisms are briefly reviewed. The recent developments of novel two- and three-component PISs for CP and FRPCP upon exposure to low intensity blue to red lights is emphasized in details. Examples of such reactions under various experimental conditions are provided.

  16. Pogostick: a new versatile piggyBac vector for inducible gene over-expression and down-regulation in emerging model systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-traditional model systems need new tools that will enable them to enter the field of functional genetics. These tools should enable the exploration of gene function, via knock-downs of endogenous genes, as well as over-expression and ectopic expression of transgenes.We constructed a new vector called Pogostick that can be used to over-express or down-regulate genes in organisms amenable to germ line transformation by the piggyBac transposable element. Pogostick can be found at www.addgene.org, a non-profit plasmid repository. The vector currently uses the heat-shock promoter Hsp70 from Drosophila to drive transgene expression and, as such, will have immediate applicability to organisms that can correctly interpret this promotor sequence. We detail how to clone candidate genes into this vector and test its functionality in Drosophila by targeting a gene coding for the fluorescent protein DsRed. By cloning a single DsRed copy into the vector, and generating transgenic lines, we show that DsRed mRNA and protein levels are elevated following heat-shock. When cloning a second copy of DsRed in reverse orientation into a flanking site, and transforming flies constitutively expressing DsRed in the eyes, we show that endogenous mRNA and protein levels drop following heat-shock. We then test the over-expression vector, containing the complete cDNA of Ultrabithorax (Ubx gene, in an emerging model system, Bicyclus anynana. We produce a transgenic line and show that levels of Ubx mRNA expression rise significantly following a heat-shock. Finally, we show how to obtain genomic sequence adjacent to the Pogostick insertion site and to estimate transgene copy number in genomes of transformed individuals.This new vector will allow emerging model systems to enter the field of functional genetics with few hurdles.

  17. Versatile high-repetition-rate phase-locked chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray spectral region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plogmaker, Stefan; Linusson, Per; Eland, John H D; Baker, Neville; Johansson, Erik M J; Rensmo, Håkan; Feifel, Raimund; Siegbahn, Hans

    2012-01-01

    A novel light chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and x-ray spectral region has been developed. It can be phase-locked and synchronized with a synchrotron radiation storage ring, accommodating repetition rates in the range of ~8 to ~120 kHz by choosing different sets of apertures and subharmonics of the ring frequency (MHz range). Also the opening time of the system can be varied from some nanoseconds to several microseconds to meet the needs of a broad range of applications. Adjusting these parameters, the device can be used either for the generation of single light pulses or pulse packages from a microwave driven, continuous He gas discharge lamp or from storage rings which are otherwise often considered as quasi-continuous light sources. This chopper can be utilized for many different kinds of experiments enabling, for example, unambiguous time-of-flight (TOF) multi-electron coincidence studies of atoms and molecules excited by a single light pulse as well as time-resolved visible laser pump x-ray probe electron spectroscopy of condensed matter in the valence and core level region.

  18. Versatile high-repetition-rate phase-locked chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray spectral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plogmaker, Stefan; Johansson, Erik M. J.; Rensmo, Haakan; Feifel, Raimund; Siegbahn, Hans [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Linusson, Per [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Eland, John H. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Baker, Neville [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    A novel light chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and x-ray spectral region has been developed. It can be phase-locked and synchronized with a synchrotron radiation storage ring, accommodating repetition rates in the range of {approx}8 to {approx}120 kHz by choosing different sets of apertures and subharmonics of the ring frequency (MHz range). Also the opening time of the system can be varied from some nanoseconds to several microseconds to meet the needs of a broad range of applications. Adjusting these parameters, the device can be used either for the generation of single light pulses or pulse packages from a microwave driven, continuous He gas discharge lamp or from storage rings which are otherwise often considered as quasi-continuous light sources. This chopper can be utilized for many different kinds of experiments enabling, for example, unambiguous time-of-flight (TOF) multi-electron coincidence studies of atoms and molecules excited by a single light pulse as well as time-resolved visible laser pump x-ray probe electron spectroscopy of condensed matter in the valence and core level region.

  19. CRISPR/Cas9 delivery with one single adenoviral vector devoid of all viral genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrke-Schulz, Eric; Schiwon, Maren; Leitner, Theo; Dávid, Stephan; Bergmann, Thorsten; Liu, Jing; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2017-12-07

    The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system revolutionized the field of gene editing but viral delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 system has not been fully explored. Here we adapted clinically relevant high-capacity adenoviral vectors (HCAdV) devoid of all viral genes for the delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 machinery using a single viral vector. We present a platform enabling fast transfer of the Cas9 gene and gRNA expression units into the HCAdV genome including the option to choose between constitutive or inducible Cas9 expression and gRNA multiplexing. Efficacy and versatility of this pipeline was exemplified by producing different CRISPR/Cas9-HCAdV targeting the human papillomavirus (HPV) 18 oncogene E6, the dystrophin gene causing Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and the HIV co-receptor C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5). All CRISPR/Cas9-HCAdV proved to be efficient to deliver the respective CRISPR/Cas9 expression units and to introduce the desired DNA double strand breaks at their intended target sites in immortalized and primary cells.

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid ferritin and albumin index: potential candidates for scoring system to differentiate between bacterial and viral meningitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebamalar, Angelin A; Prabhat; Balakrishnapillai, Agiesh K; Parmeswaran, Narayanan; Dhiman, Pooja; Rajendiran, Soundravally

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ferritin and albumin index (AI = CSF albumin/serum albumin × 1000) in differentiating acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) from acute viral meningitis (AVM) in children. The study included 42 cases each of ABM and AVM in pediatric age group. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out for CSF ferritin and AI. Binary logistic regression was also done. CSF ferritin and AI were found significantly higher in ABM compared to AVM. Model obtained using AI and CSF ferritin along with conventional criteria is better than existing models.

  1. Non-Viral, Lipid-Mediated DNA and mRNA Gene Therapy of the Central Nervous System (CNS): Chemical-Based Transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, James G

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate gene delivery systems are essential for successful gene therapy in clinical medicine. Cationic lipid-mediated delivery is an alternative to viral vector-mediated gene delivery. Lipid-mediated delivery of DNA or mRNA is usually more rapid than viral-mediated delivery, offers a larger payload, and has a nearly zero risk of incorporation. Lipid-mediated delivery of DNA or RNA is therefore preferable to viral DNA delivery in those clinical applications that do not require long-term expression for chronic conditions. Delivery of RNA may be preferable to non-viral DNA delivery in some clinical applications, because transit across the nuclear membrane is not necessary and onset of expression with RNA is therefore even faster than with DNA, although both are faster than most viral vectors. Here, we describe techniques for cationic lipid-mediated delivery of nucleic acids encoding reporter genes in a variety of cell lines. We describe optimized formulations and transfection procedures that we previously assessed by bioluminescence and flow cytometry. RNA transfection demonstrates increased efficiency relative to DNA transfection in non-dividing cells. Delivery of mRNA results in onset of expression within 1 h after transfection and a peak in expression 5-7 h after transfection. Duration of expression in eukaryotic cells after mRNA transcript delivery depends on multiple factors, including transcript stability, protein turnover, and cell type. Delivery of DNA results in onset of expression within 5 h after transfection, a peak in expression 24-48 h after transfection, and a return to baseline that can be as long as several weeks after transfection. In vitro results are consistent with our in vivo delivery results, techniques for which are described as well. RNA delivery is suitable for short-term transient gene expression due to its rapid onset, short duration of expression and greater efficiency, particularly in non-dividing cells, while the longer duration and

  2. Methanol: A Versatile Fuel for Immediate Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, T. B.; Lerner, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Advocates the large-scale production and use of methanol as a substitute for the diminishing reserves of low-cost petroleum resources. Describes the manufacturing process and advantages of the versatile fuel. (JR)

  3. Design of a Versatile and Low Cost μVolt Level A to D Conversion System for Use in Medical Instrumentation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Robinson

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern medical facilities place considerable reliance on electronic instrumentation for purposes of calibration and monitoring of therapeutic processes, many of which employ electrical and electronic apparatus that itself generates considerable levels of interference in the form of background electromagnetic radiation (EMR. Additionally diverse ambient conditions in the clinical environment such as uncontrolled temperature, humidity, noise, and vibration place added stress on sensitive instrumentation. In order to obtain accurate, repeatable, and reliable data in such environments, instrumentation used must be largely immune to these factors. Analogue instrumentation is particularly susceptible to unstable environmental conditions. Sensors typically output an analogue current or voltage and it can be demonstrated that considerable overall benefit to the measuring process would result if sensor outputs could be converted to a robust digital format at the earliest possible stage. A practical and low cost system for A to D conversion at μVolt signal levels is described in this work. It has been successfully employed in portable radiation dosimetry instrumentation and used under diverse clinical conditions and it affords an improvement in signal resolution in excess of an order of magnitude over commonly used analogue techniques.

  4. Low-cost, in-liquid measuring system using a novel compact oscillation circuit and quartz-crystal microbalances (QCMs as a versatile biosensor platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beißner

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quartz-crystal microbalances (QCMs are commercially available mass sensors which mainly consist of a quartz resonator that oscillates at a characteristic frequency, which shifts when mass changes due to surface binding of molecules. In addition to mass changes, the viscosity of gases or liquids in contact with the sensor also shifts the resonance but also influences the quality factor (Q-factor. Typical biosensor applications demand operation in liquid environments leading to viscous damping strongly lowering Q-factors. For obtaining reliable measurements in liquid environments, excellent resonator control and signal processing are essential but standard resonator circuits like the Pierce and Colpitts oscillator fail to establish stable resonances. Here we present a low-cost, compact and robust oscillator circuit comprising of state-of-the-art commercially available surface-mount technology components which stimulates the QCMs oscillation, while it also establishes a control loop regulating the applied voltage. Thereby an increased energy dissipation by strong viscous damping in liquid solutions can be compensated and oscillations are stabilized. The presented circuit is suitable to be used in compact biosensor systems using custom-made miniaturized QCMs in microfluidic environments. As a proof of concept we used this circuit in combination with a customized microfabricated QCM in a microfluidic environment to measure the concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP in buffer (PBS down to concentrations as low as 5 µg mL−1.

  5. On the Versatility of Rheoreversible, Stimuli-responsive Hydraulic-Fracturing Fluids for Enhanced Geothermal Systems: Effect of Reservoir pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Carlos A.; Shao, Hongbo; Bonneville, Alain; Varga, Tamas; Zhong, Lirong

    2016-04-25

    Abstract The primary challenge for the feasibility of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is to cost-effectively create high-permeability reservoirs inside deep crystalline bedrock. Although fracturing fluids are commonly used for oil/gas, standard fracturing methods are not developed or proven for EGS temperatures and pressures. Furthermore, the environmental impacts of currently used fracturing methods are only recently being determined. These authors recently reported an environmentally benign, CO2-activated, rheoreversible fracturing fluid that enhances permeability through fracturing due to in situ volume expansion and gel formation. The potential of this novel fracturing fluid is evaluated in this work towards its application at geothermal sites under different pH conditions. Laboratory-scale fracturing experiments using Coso Geothermal rock cores under different pH environments were performed followed by X-ray microtomography characterization. The results demonstrate that CO2-reactive aqueous solutions of environmentally amenable polyallylamine (PAA) consistently and reproducibly creates/propagates fracture networks through highly impermeable crystalline rock from Coso EGS sites at considerably lower effective stress as compared to conventional fracturing fluids. In addition, permeability was significantly enhanced in a wide range of formation-water pH values. This effective, and environmentally-friendly fracturing fluid technology represents a potential alternative to conventional fracturing fluids.

  6. Development of versatile multiaperture negative ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavenago, M.; Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; De Muri, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Barbisan, M.; Baseggio, L.; Cervaro, V.; Cazzador, M.; Degli Agostini, F.; Franchin, L.; Kulevoy, T.; Laterza, B.; Mimo, A.; Minarello, A.; Petrenko, S.; Ravarotto, D.; Rossetto, F.; Sattin, M.; Zaniol, B.; Zucchetti, S.

    2015-04-01

    Enhancement of negative ion sources for production of large ion beams is a very active research field nowadays, driven from demand of plasma heating in nuclear fusion devices and accelerator applications. As a versatile test bench, the ion source NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is being commissioned by Consorzio RFX and INFN. The nominal beam current of 135 mA at -60 kV is divided into 9 beamlets, with multiaperture extraction electrodes. The plasma is sustained by a 2 MHz radiofrequency power supply, with a standard matching box. A High Voltage Deck (HVD) placed inside the lead shielding surrounding NIO1 contains the radiofrequency generator, the gas control, electronics and power supplies for the ion source. An autonomous closed circuit water cooling system was installed for the whole system, with a branch towards the HVD, using carefully optimized helical tubing. Insulation transformer is installed in a nearby box. Tests of several magnetic configurations can be performed. Status of experiments, measured spectra and plasma luminosity are described. Upgrades of magnetic filter, beam calorimeter and extraction grid and related theoretical issues are reviewed.

  7. Flow cytometry as the spearhead for delivering sustainable and versatile laboratory services to HIV-burdened health care systems of the developing world: a Caribbean model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayomi, E Akinola; Landis, R Clive

    2008-01-01

    HIV is targeting the developing nations of the world, threatening their economic development, overwhelming public health systems, and depleting human capital. The Caribbean is no exception, with the second highest incidence of HIV/AIDS outside Sub-Saharan Africa, sharing similar mixed fortunes from a postcolonial heritage, limited resources, and an HIV population dispersed in small population centers. Here we share the experience of Barbados, an island state of 280,000 people, in mounting a holistic and sustainable program against HIV/AIDS. At the forefront of this response has been the growth in clinical flow cytometry used for CD4 monitoring, which has prompted a welcome expansion in diagnostic capacity even beyond HIV/AIDS. A pan-Caribbean extension to Barbados' program has been the founding of the Caribbean Cytometry & Analytical Society (CCAS), which acts as a regional forum to accelerate technology transfer and develop the human resources needed to mount an effective response against HIV/AIDS. The 4th CCAS workshop in 2007 produced a consensus statement on the desirable characteristics for a "diagnostic dream machine": a simple-to-use, rugged flow cytometer capable of carrying out multiple diagnostic functions at the point of patient care in rural or island settings of the developing world, including CD4 count, blood count, and opportunistic infections, without the need for a supply cold-chain or dependable power source. It is our ambitious vision that the spread of flow cytometry, primarily to monitor CD4 in HIV/AIDS, can act as a Trojan horse to deliver better general and specialized diagnostic services to the developing world. Copyright 2008 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  8. Viral Marketing Past Present Future

    OpenAIRE

    Nessipbekova, Zarina

    2010-01-01

    The work studies the viral marketing. These are past viral campaigns, viral campaigns today, and evaluates their actuality. The work tries to predict the development of viral marketing on the basis of the research done by the author.

  9. Development of a Versatile Laser Ultrasonic System and Application to On-Line Measurement for Process Control of Wall Thickness and Eccentrictiy of Steel Seamless Mechanical Tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisner, R.A.; Kercel, S.W.; Damiano, B.; Bingham, P.R.; Gee, T.F.; Tucker, R.W.; Moore, M.R.; Hileman, M.; Emery, M.; Lenarduzzi, R.; Hardy, J.E.; Weaver, K.; Crutcher, R.; Kolarik, R.V., II; Vandervaart, R.H.

    2002-04-24

    Researchers at the Timken Company conceived a project to develop an on-line instrument for wall thickness measurement of steel seamless mechanical tubing based on laser ultrasonic technology. The instrument, which has been installed and tested at a piercing mill, provides data on tube eccentricity and concentricity. Such measurements permit fine-tuning of manufacturing processes to eliminate excess material in the tube wall and therefore provide a more precisely dimensioned product for their customers. The resulting process energy savings are substantial, as is lowered environmental burden. The expected savings are $85.8 million per year in seamless mechanical tube piercing alone. Applied across the industry, this measurement has a potential of reducing energy consumption by 6 x 10{sup 12} BTU per year, greenhouse gas emissions by 0.3 million metric tons carbon equivalent per year, and toxic waste by 0.255 million pounds per year. The principal technical contributors to the project were the Timken Company, Industrial Materials Institute (IMI, a contractor to Timken), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Timken provided mill access as well as process and metallurgical understanding. Timken researchers had previously developed fundamental ultrasonic analysis methods on which this project is based. IMI developed and fabricated the laser ultrasonic generation and receiver systems. ORNL developed Bayesian and wavelet based real-time signal processing, spread-spectrum wireless communication, and explored feature extraction and pattern recognition methods. The resulting instrument has successfully measured production tubes at one of Timken's piercing mills. This report concentrates on ORNL's contribution through the CRADA mechanism. The three components of ORNL's contribution were met with mixed success. The real-time signal-processing task accomplished its goal of improvement in detecting time of flight information with a minimum of false data. The

  10. Versatile composite resins simplifying the practice of restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margeas, Robert

    2014-01-01

    After decades of technical development and refinement, composite resins continue to simplify the practice of restorative dentistry, offering clinicians versatility, predictability, and enhanced physical properties. With a wide range of products available today, composite resins are a reliable, conservative, multi-functional restorative material option. As manufacturers strive to improve such properties as compression strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, water sorption, and wear resistance, several classification systems of composite resins have been developed.

  11. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  12. Production and Titering of Recombinant Adeno-associated Viral Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, Christina; Cole, Katy L. H.; Wulff, Peer; Klugmann, Matthias; Murray, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) have become increasingly valuable for in vivo studies in animals, and are also currently being tested in human clinical trials. Wild-type AAV is a non-pathogenic member of the parvoviridae family and inherently replication-deficient. The broad transduction profile, low immune response as well as the strong and persistent transgene expression achieved with these vectors has made them a popular and versatile tool for in vitro and ...

  13. Viral gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancheño-Corvo, P; Martín-Duque, P

    2006-12-01

    Cancer is a multigenic disorder involving mutations of both tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. A large body of preclinical data, however, has suggested that cancer growth can be arrested or reversed by treatment with gene transfer vectors that carry a single growth inhibitory or pro-apoptotic gene or a gene that can recruit immune responses against the tumor. Many of these gene transfer vectors are modified viruses. The ability for the delivery of therapeutic genes, made them desirable for engineering virus vector systems. The viral vectors recently in laboratory and clinical use are based on RNA and DNA viruses processing very different genomic structures and host ranges. Particular viruses have been selected as gene delivery vehicles because of their capacities to carry foreign genes and their ability to efficiently deliver these genes associated with efficient gene expression. These are the major reasons why viral vectors derived from retroviruses, adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, herpesvirus and poxvirus are employed in more than 70% of clinical gene therapy trials worldwide. Because these vector systems have unique advantages and limitations, each has applications for which it is best suited. Retroviral vectors can permanently integrate into the genome of the infected cell, but require mitotic cell division for transduction. Adenoviral vectors can efficiently deliver genes to a wide variety of dividing and nondividing cell types, but immune elimination of infected cells often limits gene expression in vivo. Herpes simplex virus can deliver large amounts of exogenous DNA; however, cytotoxicity and maintenance of transgene expression remain as obstacles. AAV also infects many non-dividing and dividing cell types, but has a limited DNA capacity. This review discusses current and emerging virusbased genetic engineering strategies for the delivery of therapeutic molecules or several approaches for cancer treatment.

  14. A CASE OF EPSTEIN-BARR VIRAL INFECTION PROCEEDED UNDER THE MASK OF THE SYSTEMIC VARIANT OF THE JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Bzarova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the treatment of Epstein–Barr viral infection under the mask of the systemic variant of the juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The clinical presentations of the disease included fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, polyarticular syndrome and high lab activity indices. the serologic research uncovered the antibodies to the Epstein–Barr virus in diagnostic titers, which allowed the researchers to verify the diagnosis. A child underwent the treatment with the immunoglobulin of a man with the high concentration of antibodies to cytomegalovirus, which induced the remission of the systemic representations, articular syndrome accompanied B normalization of the lab activity indices and reduction of the antibody titers towards the Epstein–Barr virus.Key words: children, treatment, immune globulin intravenous, septic syndrome, epstein–barr virus.

  15. Viral Entry into Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R.

    2010-09-01

    Successful viral infection of a healthy cell requires complex host-pathogen interactions. In this talk we focus on the dynamics specific to the HIV virus entering a eucaryotic cell. We model viral entry as a stochastic engagement of receptors and coreceptors on the cell surface. We also consider the transport of virus material to the cell nucleus by coupling microtubular motion to the concurrent biochemical transformations that render the viral material competent for nuclear entry. We discuss both mathematical and biological consequences of our model, such as the formulation of an effective integrodifferential boundary condition embodying a memory kernel and optimal timing in maximizing viral probabilities.

  16. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  17. Novel viral translation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Hilda H T; Jan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Viral genomes are compact and encode a limited number of proteins. Because they do not encode components of the translational machinery, viruses exhibit an absolute dependence on the host ribosome and factors for viral messenger RNA (mRNA) translation. In order to recruit the host ribosome, viruses have evolved unique strategies to either outcompete cellular transcripts that are efficiently translated by the canonical translation pathway or to reroute translation factors and ribosomes to the viral genome. Furthermore, viruses must evade host antiviral responses and escape immune surveillance. This review focuses on some recent major findings that have revealed unconventional strategies that viruses utilize, which include usurping the host translational machinery, modulating canonical translation initiation factors to specifically enhance or repress overall translation for the purpose of viral production, and increasing viral coding capacity. The discovery of these diverse viral strategies has provided insights into additional translational control mechanisms and into the viral host interactions that ensure viral protein synthesis and replication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The Development of a Viral Mediated CRISPR/Cas9 System with Doxycycline Dependent gRNA Expression for Inducible In vitro and In vivo Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solis, Christopher A; Ho, Anthony; Holehonnur, Roopashri; Ploski, Jonathan E

    2016-01-01

    The RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease, from the type II prokaryotic Clustered Regularly Interspersed Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) adaptive immune system, has been adapted and utilized by scientists to edit the genomes of eukaryotic cells. Here, we report the development of a viral mediated CRISPR/Cas9 system that can be rendered inducible utilizing doxycycline (Dox) and can be delivered to cells in vitro and in vivo utilizing adeno-associated virus (AAV). Specifically, we developed an inducible gRNA (gRNAi) AAV vector that is designed to express the gRNA from a H1/TO promoter. This AAV vector is also designed to express the Tet repressor (TetR) to regulate the expression of the gRNAi in a Dox dependent manner. We show that H1/TO promoters of varying length and a U6/TO promoter can edit DNA with similar efficiency in vitro, in a Dox dependent manner. We also demonstrate that our inducible gRNAi vector can be used to edit the genomes of neurons in vivo within the mouse brain in a Dox dependent manner. Genome editing can be induced in vivo with this system by supplying animals Dox containing food for as little as 1 day. This system might be cross compatible with many existing S. pyogenes Cas9 systems (i.e., Cas9 mouse, CRISPRi, etc.), and therefore it likely can be used to render these systems inducible as well.

  19. The development of a viral mediated CRISPR/Cas9 system with doxycycline dependent gRNA expression for inducible in vitro and in vivo genome editing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. de Solis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease, from the type II prokaryotic Clustered Regularly Interspersed Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR adaptive immune system, has been adapted and utilized by scientists to edit the genomes of eukaryotic cells. Here, we report the development of a viral mediated CRISPR/Cas9 system that can be rendered inducible utilizing doxycycline (Dox and can be delivered to cells in vitro and in vivo utilizing adeno-associated virus (AAV. Specifically, we developed an inducible gRNA (gRNAi AAV vector that is designed to express the gRNA from a H1/TO promoter. This AAV vector is also designed to express the Tet repressor (TetR to regulate the expression of the gRNAi in a Dox dependent manner. We show that H1/TO promoters of varying length and a U6/TO promoter can edit DNA with similar efficiency in vitro, in a Dox dependent manner. We also demonstrate that our inducible gRNAi vector can be used to edit the genomes of neurons in vivo within the mouse brain in a Dox dependent manner. Genome editing can be induced in vivo with this system by supplying animals Dox containing food for as little as one day. This system might be cross compatible with many existing S. pyogenes Cas9 systems (i.e. Cas9 mouse, CRISPRi, etc., and therefore it likely can be used to render these systems inducible as well.

  20. Discovering hidden viral piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eddo; Kliger, Yossef

    2005-12-01

    Viruses and developers of anti-inflammatory therapies share a common interest in proteins that manipulate the immune response. Large double-stranded DNA viruses acquire host proteins to evade host defense mechanisms. Hence, viral pirated proteins may have a therapeutic potential. Although dozens of viral piracy events have already been identified, we hypothesized that sequence divergence impedes the discovery of many others. We developed a method to assess the number of viral/human homologs and discovered that at least 917 highly diverged homologs are hidden in low-similarity alignment hits that are usually ignored. However, these low-similarity homologs are masked by many false alignment hits. We therefore applied a filtering method to increase the proportion of viral/human homologous proteins. The homologous proteins we found may facilitate functional annotation of viral and human proteins. Furthermore, some of these proteins play a key role in immune modulation and are therefore therapeutic protein candidates.

  1. Cellular toxicity following application of adeno-associated viral vector-mediated RNA interference in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Erich M; Eggers, Ruben; Niclou, Simone P; Verhaagen, Joost

    2010-02-18

    After a spinal cord lesion, axon regeneration is inhibited by the presence of a diversity of inhibitory molecules in the lesion environment. At and around the lesion site myelin-associated inhibitors, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and several axon guidance molecules, including all members of the secreted (class 3) Semaphorins, are expressed. Interfering with multiple inhibitory signals could potentially enhance the previously reported beneficial effects of blocking single molecules. RNA interference (RNAi) is a tool that can be used to simultaneously silence expression of multiple genes. In this study we aimed to employ adeno-associated virus (AAV) mediated expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to target all Semaphorin class 3 signaling by knocking down its receptors, Neuropilin 1 (Npn-1) and Neuropilin 2 (Npn-2). We have successfully generated shRNAs that knock down Npn-1 and Npn-2 in a neuronal cell line. We detected substantial knockdown of Npn-2 mRNA when AAV5 viral vector particles expressing Npn-2 specific shRNAs were injected in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of the rat. Unexpectedly however, AAV1-mediated expression of Npn-2 shRNAs and a control shRNA in the red nucleus resulted in an adverse tissue response and neuronal degeneration. The observed toxicity was dose dependent and was not seen with control GFP expressing AAV vectors, implicating the shRNAs as the causative toxic agents. RNAi is a powerful tool to knock down Semaphorin receptor expression in neuronal cells in vitro and in vivo. However, when shRNAs are expressed at high levels in CNS neurons, they trigger an adverse tissue response leading to neuronal degradation.

  2. Cellular toxicity following application of adeno-associated viral vector-mediated RNA interference in the nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhaagen Joost

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a spinal cord lesion, axon regeneration is inhibited by the presence of a diversity of inhibitory molecules in the lesion environment. At and around the lesion site myelin-associated inhibitors, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs and several axon guidance molecules, including all members of the secreted (class 3 Semaphorins, are expressed. Interfering with multiple inhibitory signals could potentially enhance the previously reported beneficial effects of blocking single molecules. RNA interference (RNAi is a tool that can be used to simultaneously silence expression of multiple genes. In this study we aimed to employ adeno-associated virus (AAV mediated expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs to target all Semaphorin class 3 signaling by knocking down its receptors, Neuropilin 1 (Npn-1 and Neuropilin 2 (Npn-2. Results We have successfully generated shRNAs that knock down Npn-1 and Npn-2 in a neuronal cell line. We detected substantial knockdown of Npn-2 mRNA when AAV5 viral vector particles expressing Npn-2 specific shRNAs were injected in dorsal root ganglia (DRG of the rat. Unexpectedly however, AAV1-mediated expression of Npn-2 shRNAs and a control shRNA in the red nucleus resulted in an adverse tissue response and neuronal degeneration. The observed toxicity was dose dependent and was not seen with control GFP expressing AAV vectors, implicating the shRNAs as the causative toxic agents. Conclusions RNAi is a powerful tool to knock down Semaphorin receptor expression in neuronal cells in vitro and in vivo. However, when shRNAs are expressed at high levels in CNS neurons, they trigger an adverse tissue response leading to neuronal degradation.

  3. Influence of dendritic cells on viral pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Giulia; Matteucci, Donatella

    2009-07-01

    Although most viral infections cause minor, if any, symptoms, a certain number result in serious illness. Viral disease symptoms result both from direct viral replication within host cells and from indirect immunopathological consequences. Dendritic cells (DCs) are key determinants of viral disease outcome; they activate immune responses during viral infection and direct T cells toward distinct T helper type responses. Certain viruses are able to skew cytokine secretion by DCs inducing and/or downregulating the immune system with the aim of facilitating and prolonging release of progeny. Thus, the interaction of DCs with viruses most often results in the absence of disease or complete recovery when natural functions of DCs prevail, but may lead to chronic illness or death when these functions are outmanoeuvred by viruses in the exploitation of DCs.

  4. Influence of dendritic cells on viral pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Freer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Although most viral infections cause minor, if any, symptoms, a certain number result in serious illness. Viral disease symptoms result both from direct viral replication within host cells and from indirect immunopathological consequences. Dendritic cells (DCs are key determinants of viral disease outcome; they activate immune responses during viral infection and direct T cells toward distinct T helper type responses. Certain viruses are able to skew cytokine secretion by DCs inducing and/or downregulating the immune system with the aim of facilitating and prolonging release of progeny. Thus, the interaction of DCs with viruses most often results in the absence of disease or complete recovery when natural functions of DCs prevail, but may lead to chronic illness or death when these functions are outmanoeuvred by viruses in the exploitation of DCs.

  5. Dynamic properties of the Sulfolobus CRISPR/Cas and CRISPR/Cmr systems when challenged with vector-borne viral and plasmid genes and protospacers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðbergsdóttir, Sóley Ruth; Deng, Ling; Chen, Zhengjun

    2011-01-01

    The adaptive immune CRISPR/Cas and CRISPR/Cmr systems of the crenarchaeal thermoacidophile Sulfolobus were challenged by a variety of viral and plasmid genes, and protospacers preceded by different dinucleotide motifs. The genes and protospacers were constructed to carry sequences matching...... individual spacers of CRISPR loci, and a range of mismatches were introduced. Constructs were cloned into vectors carrying pyrE/pyrF genes and transformed into uracil auxotrophic hosts derived from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 or Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A. Most constructs, including those carrying different...... protospacer mismatches, yielded few viable transformants. These were shown to carry either partial deletions of CRISPR loci, covering a broad spectrum of sizes and including the matching spacer, or deletions of whole CRISPR/Cas modules. The deletions occurred independently of whether genes or protospacers...

  6. TMAP - A Versatile Mobile Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Joel A.; Simmons, Richard K.

    1989-03-01

    TMAP, the Teleoperated Mobile All-purpose Platform, provides the Army with a low cost, light weight, flexibly designed, modularly expandable platform for support of maneuver forces and light infantry units. The highly mobile, four wheel drive, diesel-hydraulic platform is controllable at distances of up to 4km from a portable operator control unit using either fiber optic or RF control links. The Martin Marietta TMAP system is based on a hierarchical task decomposition Real-time Control System architecture that readily supports interchange of mission packages and provides the capability for simple incorporation of supervisory control concepts leading to increased system autonomy and resulting force multiplication. TMAP has been designed to support a variety of missions including target designation, anti-armor, anti-air, countermine, and reconnaissance/surveillance. As a target designation system TMAP will provide the soldier with increased survivability and effectiveness by providing substantial combat standoff, and the firepower effectiveness of several manual designator operators. Force-on-force analysis of simulated TMAP engagements indicate that TMAP should provide significant force multiplication for the Army in Air-Land Battle 2000.

  7. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  8. A Versatile Technique for Solving Quintic Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Raghavendra G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a versatile technique to solve several types of solvable quintic equations. In the technique described here, the given quintic is first converted to a sextic equation by adding a root, and the resulting sextic equation is decomposed into two cubic polynomials as factors in a novel fashion. The resultant cubic equations are…

  9. Versatility of nodal affiliation to communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Maxwell; Romero-Garcia, Rafael; Seidlitz, Jakob; Váša, František; Vértes, Petra E; Bullmore, Edward

    2017-06-27

    Graph theoretical analysis of the community structure of networks attempts to identify the communities (or modules) to which each node affiliates. However, this is in most cases an ill-posed problem, as the affiliation of a node to a single community is often ambiguous. Previous solutions have attempted to identify all of the communities to which each node affiliates. Instead of taking this approach, we introduce versatility, V, as a novel metric of nodal affiliation: V ≈ 0 means that a node is consistently assigned to a specific community; V > 0 means it is inconsistently assigned to different communities. Versatility works in conjunction with existing community detection algorithms, and it satisfies many theoretically desirable properties in idealised networks designed to maximise ambiguity of modular decomposition. The local minima of global mean versatility identified the resolution parameters of a hierarchical community detection algorithm that least ambiguously decomposed the community structure of a social (karate club) network and the mouse brain connectome. Our results suggest that nodal versatility is useful in quantifying the inherent ambiguity of modular decomposition.

  10. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus by the CRISPR/Cas9 system via targeting the conserved regions of the viral genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Hao, Ruidong; Chen, Shuliang; Guo, Deyin; Chen, Yu

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a global health threat as chronic HBV infection may lead to liver cirrhosis or cancer. Current antiviral therapies with nucleoside analogues can inhibit the replication of HBV, but do not disrupt the already existing HBV covalently closed circular DNA. The newly developed CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated 9) system is a powerful tool to target cellular genome DNA for gene editing. In order to investigate the possibility of using the CRISPR/Cas9 system to disrupt the HBV DNA templates, we designed eight guide RNAs (gRNAs) that targeted the conserved regions of different HBV genotypes, which could significantly inhibit HBV replication both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the HBV-specific gRNA/Cas9 system could inhibit the replication of HBV of different genotypes in cells, and the viral DNA was significantly reduced by a single gRNA/Cas9 system and cleared by a combination of different gRNA/Cas9 systems.

  11. Autistic disorder and viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbey, Jane E; Sweeten, Thayne L; McMahon, William M; Fujinami, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Autistic disorder (autism) is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder with a wide range of behaviors. Although the etiology of autism is unknown, data suggest that autism results from multiple etiologies with both genetic and environmental contributions, which may explain the spectrum of behaviors seen in this disorder. One proposed etiology for autism is viral infection very early in development. The mechanism, by which viral infection may lead to autism, be it through direct infection of the central nervous system (CNS), through infection elsewhere in the body acting as a trigger for disease in the CNS, through alteration of the immune response of the mother or offspring, or through a combination of these, is not yet known. Animal models in which early viral infection results in behavioral changes later in life include the influenza virus model in pregnant mice and the Borna disease virus model in newborn Lewis rats. Many studies over the years have presented evidence both for and against the association of autism with various viral infections. The best association to date has been made between congenital rubella and autism; however, members of the herpes virus family may also have a role in autism. Recently, controversy has arisen as to the involvement of measles virus and/or the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in the development of autism. Biological assays lend support to the association between measles virus or MMR and autism whereas epidemiologic studies show no association between MMR and autism. Further research is needed to clarify both the mechanisms whereby viral infection early in development may lead to autism and the possible involvement of the MMR vaccine in the development of autism.

  12. Viral marketing on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Štverák, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Thesis provides an overview of viral marketing. It describes the process by which you can be inspired to implement viral campaign. The thesis includes analysis of specific viral Web project. The aim of this thesis is to create a breakdown of the various components of viral marketing, to establish conditions that should be satisfied for the viral marketing to success, suggesting how to use viral marketing on social network Facebook and evaluate the various components of this service for the pr...

  13. Differential regulation of self-reactive CD4 T cells in cervical lymph nodes and central nervous system during viral encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Savarin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections have long been implicated as triggers of autoimmune diseases, including Multiple Sclerosis (MS, a central nervous system (CNS inflammatory demyelinating disorder. Epitope spreading, molecular mimicry, cryptic antigen and bystander activation have been implicated as mechanisms responsible for activating self-reactive (SR immune cells, ultimately leading to organ-specific autoimmune disease. Taking advantage of coronavirus JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV induced demyelination, this study demonstrates that the host also mounts counteractive measures to specifically limit expansion of endogenous SR T cells. In this model, immune mediated demyelination is associated with induction of SR T cells after viral control. However, their decline during persisting infection, despite ongoing demyelination, suggests an active control mechanism.Antigen-specific IL-10 secreting CD4+ T cells (Tr1 and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs, both known to control autoimmunity and induced following JHMV infection, were assessed for their relative in vivo suppressive function of SR T cells. Ablation of Foxp3+ Tregs in chronically infected DEREG mice significantly increased SR CD4+ T cells within cervical lymph nodes (CLN, albeit without affecting their numbers or activation within the CNS compared to controls. In contrast, infected IL-27 receptor deficient (IL-27R-/- mice, characterized by a drastic reduction of Tr1 cells, revealed that SR CD4+ T cells in CLN remained unchanged, but were specifically increased within the CNS. These results suggest that distinct regulatory T cell subsets limit SR T cells in the draining lymph nodes and CNS to maximize suppression of SR T cell mediated autoimmune pathology. The JHMV model is thus valuable to decipher tissue specific mechanisms preventing autoimmunity.

  14. Simultaneous detection of viral and bacterial enteric pathogens using the Seeplex® Diarrhea ACE detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupland, L J; McElarney, I; Meader, E; Cowley, K; Alcock, L; Naunton, J; Gray, J

    2013-10-01

    A panel of 223 faecal samples was analysed to determine the clinical utility of the Seeplex® Diarrhea ACE Detection multiplex PCR system (Seeplex system; Seegene, Korea), a qualitative multiplexing PCR technology that enables simultaneous multi-pathogen detection of four viruses and/or ten bacteria associated with acute gastroenteritis. Conventional diagnostic methods and a norovirus-specific multiplex real-time RT–PCR detected 98 pathogens in 96 samples. The Seeplex system detected 81 pathogens in 75 samples. All samples positive for adenovirus, norovirus, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157, Shigella spp. or Vibrio spp. were detected by the Seeplex system. Rotavirus, Clostridium difficile toxin B, and Salmonella spp. were not detected in 12.5%, 50% and 15.8% of samples, respectively. Additional multiple infections were detected in 19 samples by the Seeplex system. The Seeplex system provides significant additional diagnostic capability for the syndromic diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis with increased sensitivity for the majority of pathogens.

  15. A versatile molecular tagging method for targeting proteins to avian reovirus muNS inclusions. Use in protein immobilization and purification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Brandariz-Nuñez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Avian reoviruses replicate in viral factories, which are dense cytoplasmic compartments established by protein-protein interactions. The non-structural protein muNS forms the factory scaffold that attracts other viral components in a controlled fashion. To create such a three-dimensional network, muNS uses several different self-interacting domains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we have devised a strategy to identify muNS regions containing self-interacting domains, based on the capacity of muNS-derived inclusions to recruit muNS fragments. The results revealed that the muNS region consisting of residues 477-542 was recruited with the best efficiency, and this raised the idea of using this fragment as a molecular tag for delivering foreign proteins to muNS inclusions. By combining such tagging system with our previously established method for purifying muNS inclusions from baculovirus-infected insect cells, we have developed a novel protein purification protocol. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that our tagging and inclusion-targeting system can be a simple, versatile and efficient method for immobilizing and purifying active proteins expressed in baculovirus-infected cells. We also demonstrate that muNS inclusions can simultaneously recruit several tagged proteins, a finding which may be used to generate protein complexes and create multiepitope particulate material for immunization purposes.

  16. A versatile molecular tagging method for targeting proteins to avian reovirus muNS inclusions. Use in protein immobilization and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandariz-Nuñez, Alberto; Menaya-Vargas, Rebeca; Benavente, Javier; Martinez-Costas, Jose

    2010-11-12

    Avian reoviruses replicate in viral factories, which are dense cytoplasmic compartments established by protein-protein interactions. The non-structural protein muNS forms the factory scaffold that attracts other viral components in a controlled fashion. To create such a three-dimensional network, muNS uses several different self-interacting domains. In this study we have devised a strategy to identify muNS regions containing self-interacting domains, based on the capacity of muNS-derived inclusions to recruit muNS fragments. The results revealed that the muNS region consisting of residues 477-542 was recruited with the best efficiency, and this raised the idea of using this fragment as a molecular tag for delivering foreign proteins to muNS inclusions. By combining such tagging system with our previously established method for purifying muNS inclusions from baculovirus-infected insect cells, we have developed a novel protein purification protocol. We show that our tagging and inclusion-targeting system can be a simple, versatile and efficient method for immobilizing and purifying active proteins expressed in baculovirus-infected cells. We also demonstrate that muNS inclusions can simultaneously recruit several tagged proteins, a finding which may be used to generate protein complexes and create multiepitope particulate material for immunization purposes.

  17. Viral pathogenesis in diagrams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay, Michel; Berthiaume, Laurent; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    .... The 268 diagrams in Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams were selected from over 800 diagrams of English and French virological literature, including one derived from a famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci...

  18. Viral Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu) Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  19. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is one of the most important viral diseases of finfish worldwide. In the past, VHS was thought to affect mainly rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared at freshwater facilities in Western Europe where it was known by various names including Egtved disease and infectious kidney swelling and liver degeneration (Wolf 1988). Today, VHS is known as an important source of mortality for cultured and wild fish in freshwater and marine environments in several regions of the northern hemisphere (Dixon 1999; Gagné et al. 2007; Kim and Faisal 2011; Lumsden et al. 2007; Marty et al. 1998, 2003; Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005b; Smail 1999; Takano et al. 2001). Viral hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by the fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae

  20. HIV Viral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle ... used each time. Will exercise, nutrition, and other lifestyle modifications help decrease my HIV viral load? There ...

  1. A pox on thee! Manipulation of the host immune system by myxoma virus and implications for viral-host co-adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Martha C

    2002-09-01

    The poxviruses have evolved a diverse array of proteins which serve to subvert innate and adaptive host responses that abort or at least limit viral infections. Myxoma virus and its rabbit host are considered to represent an ideal poxvirus-host system in which to study the effects of these immunomodulatory proteins. Studies of laboratory rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) infected with gene knockout variants of myxoma virus have provided compelling evidence that several myxoma virus gene products contribute to the pathogenic condition known as myxomatosis. However, myxomatosis, which is characterized by skin lesions, systemic immunosuppression, and a high mortality rate, does not occur in the virus' natural South American host, Sylvilogus brasiliensis. Moreover, in Australia where myxoma virus was willfully introduced to control populations of O. cuniculus, myxomatosis-resistant rabbits emerged within a year of myxoma virus introduction into the field. In this review I discuss the characterized immunomodulatory proteins of myxoma virus, their biochemical properties, their pathogenic effects in laboratory rabbits, the role of the host immune system in the susceptibility or resistance to myxomatosis, and the evidence that immunomodulatory genes may have been attenuated during the co-adaptation of myxoma virus and O. cuniculus in Australia.

  2. Versatile supramolecular organogel with outstanding stability toward aqueous interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Evelyn L; Edelsztein, Valeria C; Menéndez, Guillermo O; Samaniego López, Cecilia; Spagnuolo, Carla C; Di Chenna, Pablo H

    2014-06-25

    In this communication, we report on a novel and versatile low-molecular-weight organogelator. The methanolic gel exhibits an exceptional water-enhanced stability as evidenced by a 30 °C increase in Tg with up to 10%v/v of water. This atypical property not observed with other solvents makes of this supramolecular gel a highly stable matrix compatible with aqueous interfaces. As a proof of principle we present the sensing performance of a symmetric tricarbocyanine fluorophore bearing a Zn(II)chelator unit. The system retained its remarkable physical integrity for a long period of time opening new possibilities for other organic-aqueous interface applications.

  3. How versatile are inositol phosphate kinases?

    OpenAIRE

    Shears, Stephen B.

    2004-01-01

    This review assesses the extent and the significance of catalytic versatility shown by several inositol phosphate kinases: the inositol phosphate multikinase, the reversible Ins(1,3,4) P (3)/Ins(3,4,5,6) P (4) kinase, and the kinases that synthesize diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. Particular emphasis is placed upon data that are relevant to the situation in vivo. It will be shown that catalytic promiscuity towards different inositol phosphates is not typically an evolutionary compromise, bu...

  4. Isatin, a versatile molecule: studies in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.iq@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-05-15

    Isatin is a small, versatile and widely applicable pharmacological molecule. These characteristics make isatin and its derivatives attractive to many research groups as resources for chemical and pharmacological studies. Although it has a relatively simple structure, isatin is a useful chemical scaffold for a variety of chemical transformations. This article discusses several studies performed by Brazilian groups, including investigations of its structural changes, biological assay designs and new methods for the synthesis of isatin. (author)

  5. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  6. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eNassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist's toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic

  7. Design of a Compact and Versatile Bench Scale Tubular Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A compact and versatile laboratory tubular reactor has been designed and fabricated keeping in view of reducing capital cost and minimising energy consumption for gas/vapor-phase heterogeneous catalytic reactions. The reactor is consisted of two coaxial corning glass tubes with a helical coil of glass tube in between the coaxial tubes serving as vaporiser and pre-heater, the catalyst bed is in the inner tube. A schematic diagram of the reactor with detailed dimensions and working principles are described. The attractive feature of the reactor is that the vaporiser, pre-heater and fixed bed reactor are merged in a single compact unit. Thus, the unit minimises separate vaporiser and pre-heater, also avoids separate furnaces used for them and eliminate auxiliary instrumentation such as temperature controller etc. To demonstrate the system operation and illustrate the key features, catalyst screening data and the efficient collection of complete, and accurate intrinsic kinetic data are provided for oxidation of CO over copper chromite catalyst. CO oxidation is an important reaction for auto-exhaust pollution control. The suitability of the versatile nature of the reactor has been ascertained for catalytic reactions where either volatile or vaporizable feeds can be introduced to the reaction zone, e.g. oxidation of iso-octane, reduction of nitric oxide, dehydrogenation of methanol, ethanol and iso-propanol, hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline, etc. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 February 2009, Accepted: 9 May 2009][How to Cite: R. Prasad, G. Rattan. (2009. Design of a Compact and Versatile Bench Scale Tubular Reactor. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 5-9.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.1250.5-9][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.1250.5-9

  8. Submicron Lipid Emulsions: A Versatile Platform for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingwang; Wu, Baojian

    2015-01-01

    Lipid emulsions have turned out to be a versatile tool for systemic delivery of poorly soluble drugs and cytotoxic drugs. Currently, the majority of marketed or developing drugs are recognized as BCS II and IV ones. How to solve the solubility and systemic administration that enables them access to clinical application is arising a great challenge in drug delivery systems. The key considerations for lipid emulsions are how to enhance the drug load, stability and reproducibility. Formulation and manufacture technique play the leading role in development of lipid emulsions. Understanding the biofate and characterization in vitro/vivo is suggestive to exploit the potential of lipid emulsions. This review discussed the manufacture techniques and in vivo behavior of lipid emulsions. Momentous interests were focused on their applications in drug delivery as well as the future evolution. Finally, we appreciated the methodologies of quality control and systemic risks associated with lipid emulsions.

  9. VIRAL DISEASES IN SEA FISH

    OpenAIRE

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović; Mato Hacmanjek; Rozelinda Čož-Rakovac; Emin Teskeredžić

    1996-01-01

    Adequate knowledge on fish diseases caused by viruses is still lacking. Up until now, in fish which live their entire life cycle or part of it in the sea, some viral diseases have been determined (lymphoeytis, viral necrosis of crythrocytes, ciravosti cod syndrome, encephalitis, viral hemoragic septichemistry, viral hematopoetic necrosis, viral gusteraca necrosis, chum renviral infection, branchionephritis, rabdociral eel infection). Some of these diseases primarily occur in the freshwater ph...

  10. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Vale-Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral–host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC, and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  11. Treatment of Acute Viral Bronchiolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eber, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis represents the most common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequently identified virus, but many other viruses may also cause acute bronchiolitis. There is no common definition of acute viral bronchiolitis used internationally, and this may explain part of the confusion in the literature. Most children with bronchiolitis have a self limiting mild disease and can be safely managed at home with careful attention to feeding and respiratory status. Criteria for referral and admission vary between hospitals as do clinical practice in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, and there is confusion and lack of evidence over the best treatment for this condition. Supportive care, including administration of oxygen and fluids, is the cornerstone of current treatment. The majority of infants and children with bronchiolitis do not require specific measures. Bronchodilators should not be routinely used in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, but may be effective in some patients. Most of the commonly used management modalities have not been shown to have a clear beneficial effect on the course of the disease. For example, inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies, antibiotics, antiviral therapy, and chest physiotherapy should not be used routinely in the management of bronchiolitis. The potential effect of hypertonic saline on the course of the acute disease is promising, but further studies are required. In critically ill children with bronchiolitis, today there is little justification for the use of surfactant and heliox. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure may be beneficial in children with severe bronchiolitis but a large trial is needed to determine its value. Finally, very little is known on the effect of the various

  12. Viral fitness: definitions, measurement, and current insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Andrew R.; Kurath, Gael

    2012-01-01

    Viral fitness is an active area of research, with recent work involving an expanded number of human, non-human vertebrate, invertebrate, plant, and bacterial viruses. Many publications deal with RNA viruses associated with major disease emergence events, such as HIV-1, influenza virus, and Dengue virus. Study topics include drug resistance, immune escape, viral emergence, host jumps, mutation effects, quasispecies diversity, and mathematical models of viral fitness. Important recent trends include increasing use of in vivo systems to assess vertebrate virus fitness, and a broadening of research beyond replicative fitness to also investigate transmission fitness and epidemiologic fitness. This is essential for a more integrated understanding of overall viral fitness, with implications for disease management in the future.

  13. Controlling DNA compaction with cationic amphiphiles for efficient delivery systems A step forward towards non-viral Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarala, Sushma

    The synthesis of pyridinium cationic lipids, their counter-ion exchange, and the transfection of lipoplexes consisting of these lipids with firefly luciferase plasmid DNA (6.7 KDa), into lung, prostate and breast cancer cell lines was investigated. The transfection ability of these newly synthesized compounds was found to be twice as high as DOTAP/cholesterol and Lipofectamine TM (two commercially available successful transfection agents). The compaction of the DNA onto silica (SiO2) nanoparticles was also investigated. For this purpose, it was necessary to study the stability and fusion studies of colloidal systems composed of DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), a zwitterionic lipid, and mixtures of DMPC with cationic DMTAP (1,2-dimyristoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane).

  14. Utilization of cellulose microcapillary tubes as a model system for culturing and viral infection of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Eudri; Van Der Merwe, Christiaan F; Van Staden, Vida

    2012-10-01

    Cryofixation by high-pressure freezing (HPF) and freeze substitution (FS) gives excellent preservation of intracellular membranous structures, ideal for ultrastructural investigations of virus infected cells. Conventional sample preparation methods of tissue cultured cells can however disrupt the association between neighboring cells or of viruses with the plasma membrane, which impacts upon the effectiveness whereby virus release from cells can be studied. We established a system for virus infection and transmission electron microscopy preparation of mammalian cells that allowed optimal visualization of membrane release events. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is a nonenveloped virus that employs two different release mechanisms from mammalian cells, i.e., lytic release through a disrupted plasma membrane and a nonlytic budding-type release. Cellulose microcapillary tubes were used as support layer for culturing Vero cells. The cells grew to a confluent monolayer along the inside of the tubes and could readily be infected with AHSV. Sections of the microcapillary tubes proved easy to manipulate during the HPF procedure, showed no distortion or compression, and yielded well preserved cells in their native state. There was ample cell surface area available for visualization, which allowed detection of both types of virus release at the plasma membrane at a significantly higher frequency than when utilizing other methods. The consecutive culturing, virus infection and processing of cells within microcapillary tubes therefore represent a novel model system for monitoring intracellular virus life cycle and membrane release events, specifically suited to viruses that do not grow to high titers in tissue culture. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Enhancing the lateral-flow immunoassay for viral detection using an aqueous two-phase micellar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekhi, Foad; Chiu, Ricky Y. T.; Le, Alexander M.; Chao, Felix C.; Wu, Benjamin M.

    2010-01-01

    Availability of a rapid, accurate, and reliable point-of-care (POC) device for detection of infectious agents and pandemic pathogens, such as swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus, is crucial for effective patient management and outbreak prevention. Due to its ease of use, rapid processing, and minimal power and laboratory equipment requirements, the lateral-flow (immuno)assay (LFA) has gained much attention in recent years as a possible solution. However, since the sensitivity of LFA has been shown to be inferior to that of the gold standards of pathogen detection, namely cell culture and real-time PCR, LFA remains an ineffective POC assay for preventing pandemic outbreaks. A practical solution for increasing the sensitivity of LFA is to concentrate the target agent in a solution prior to the detection step. In this study, an aqueous two-phase micellar system comprised of the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114 was investigated for concentrating a model virus, namely bacteriophage M13 (M13), prior to LFA. The volume ratio of the two coexisting micellar phases was manipulated to concentrate M13 in the top, micelle-poor phase. The concentration step effectively improved the M13 detection limit of the assay by tenfold from 5 × 108 plaque forming units (pfu)/mL to 5 × 107 pfu/mL. In the future, the volume ratio can be further manipulated to yield a greater concentration of a target virus and further decrease the detection limits of the LFA. Figure A schematic representation of concentrating viruses with an aqueous two-phase micellar system containing Triton X-114 surfactant prior to the detection of the virus through the lateral-flow immunoassay Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00216-010-4213-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20865404

  16. [Vasculitis and viral infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Aguilar, N E; Guido Bayardo, R; Vargas Camaño, M E; Compañ González, D; Miranda Feria, A J

    1997-01-01

    Viruses have been implicated in vasculitis. To determine activity of viral infection associated with vasculitis. 17 patients with vasculitis had been in immunological and antiviral antibodies evaluation. Twenty five healthy controls sex and age matched with hematic biometry (BH) and AA. All subjects were negative to HIV and HBV. Viral activity was demonstrated in eight patients; vascular purpura (5), Takayasu disease (1), polyarteritis nodosa (1), erythema nodosum (1). None subject of control group had IgM activity. Antibodies response of IgG in patients were of lesser intensity than in control group. 14 abnormalities in BH were found in patients and 4 in control group. Immune response in patients, measured by lymphocyte subpopulations and circulating immune complexes was abnormal. In conclusion 47% showed viral activity, but the dominant feature was abnormal immune response in 82%.

  17. Modeling Viral Capsid Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    I present a review of the theoretical and computational methodologies that have been used to model the assembly of viral capsids. I discuss the capabilities and limitations of approaches ranging from equilibrium continuum theories to molecular dynamics simulations, and I give an overview of some of the important conclusions about virus assembly that have resulted from these modeling efforts. Topics include the assembly of empty viral shells, assembly around single-stranded nucleic acids to form viral particles, and assembly around synthetic polymers or charged nanoparticles for nanotechnology or biomedical applications. I present some examples in which modeling efforts have promoted experimental breakthroughs, as well as directions in which the connection between modeling and experiment can be strengthened. PMID:25663722

  18. [Liver hemosiderosis study in chronic viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocariu, Camelia; Trifan, Anca; Mihailovici, Maria Sultana; Danciu, M; Stanciu, C

    2008-01-01

    In chronic viral hepatitis the histopathological exam can reveal the presence of liver iron deposits in 10 to 73% of patients. Iron deposits are usually found in Kupffer cells, in endothelial cells and portal macrophages, and extremely rarely in hepatocytes. To evaluate the incidence of hepatic hemosiderosis in chronic viral hepatitis. 549 morphopathological features of liver biopsy specimens performed in the Gastroenterology and Hepatology Institute IaSi, between January 1 2003 and December 31 2007 have been analyzed. Semiquantitative assessment of the degree of hepatic iron overload was performed and the localization of haemosiderin deposits: at the level of hepatocytes, the reticuloendothelial system or mixedly. The same anatomopathologist examined the blades and interpreted the results. The medium age of patients who underwent liver biopsy was 45.08 years +/- 10.045. Positive iron staining was found in 22.8% of cases, more frequently in males (31%), and in 91.82% of cases iron deposits were grade 1-2. The association of alcoholic etiology did not influence the incidence of hemosiderosis: 23% in patients with hepatitis and no ethanol exposure vs 25% in cases of strictly viral etiology. Deposits of haemosiderin were more frequent in viral hepatitis B (38.6%) than in viral hepatitis C (26.9%). In 34% of cases stainable iron was found only in reticuloendothelial system and in 46% of cases both in Kupffer cells and hepatocytes. Almost a quarter of chronic viral hepatitis cases are associated with liver deposits of haemosiderin, with features of secondary iron overload (deposits localized in the mesenchymal areas or mixedly). There is a higher risk of hemosiderosis in men, especially for those between 30 and 50. Liver iron overload levels in chronic viral hepatitis are, in most cases, low or medium, and the association with an alcoholic etiology does not influence the incidence of hemosiderosis in chronic viral hepatitis.

  19. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  20. Integrated systems biology analysis of KSHV latent infection reveals viral induction and reliance on peroxisome mediated lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychev, Zoi E; Hu, Alex; DiMaio, Terri A; Gitter, Anthony; Camp, Nathan D; Noble, William S; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Lagunoff, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Kaposi's Sarcoma associated Herpesvirus (KSHV), an oncogenic, human gamma-herpesvirus, is the etiological agent of Kaposi's Sarcoma the most common tumor of AIDS patients world-wide. KSHV is predominantly latent in the main KS tumor cell, the spindle cell, a cell of endothelial origin. KSHV modulates numerous host cell-signaling pathways to activate endothelial cells including major metabolic pathways involved in lipid metabolism. To identify the underlying cellular mechanisms of KSHV alteration of host signaling and endothelial cell activation, we identified changes in the host proteome, phosphoproteome and transcriptome landscape following KSHV infection of endothelial cells. A Steiner forest algorithm was used to integrate the global data sets and, together with transcriptome based predicted transcription factor activity, cellular networks altered by latent KSHV were predicted. Several interesting pathways were identified, including peroxisome biogenesis. To validate the predictions, we showed that KSHV latent infection increases the number of peroxisomes per cell. Additionally, proteins involved in peroxisomal lipid metabolism of very long chain fatty acids, including ABCD3 and ACOX1, are required for the survival of latently infected cells. In summary, novel cellular pathways altered during herpesvirus latency that could not be predicted by a single systems biology platform, were identified by integrated proteomics and transcriptomics data analysis and when correlated with our metabolomics data revealed that peroxisome lipid metabolism is essential for KSHV latent infection of endothelial cells.

  1. Viral meningitis and encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppeny, Misti

    2013-09-01

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, whereas encephalitis is inflammation of the parenchymal brain tissue. The single distinguishing element between the 2 diagnoses is the altered state of consciousness, focal deficits, and seizures found in encephalitis. Consequently meningoencephalitis is a term used when both findings are present in the patient. Viral meningitis is not necessarily reported as it is often underdiagnosed, whereas encephalitis cases are on the increase in various areas of North America. Improved imaging and viral diagnostics, as well as enhanced neurocritical care management, have improved patient outcomes to date. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effective and versatile software beamformation toolbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    aperture to obtain a preferred constant F-number. An effective and versatile software toolbox for off-line beamformation designed to address all of these issues has been developed. It is capable of exploiting parallelization of computations on a Linux cluster and is written in C++ with a MATLAB (Math Works...... and stored in lookup-tables (LUT). Parametric beamforming can also be applied where calculations are done by demand, thus, reducing the storage demand dramatically. On a standard PC with a Pentium 4, 2.66 GHz processor running Linux the toolbox can beamform 100,000 points in lines of various directions in 20...

  3. Versatile aggressive mimicry of cicadas by an Australian predatory katydid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Marshall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In aggressive mimicry, a predator or parasite imitates a signal of another species in order to exploit the recipient of the signal. Some of the most remarkable examples of aggressive mimicry involve exploitation of a complex signal-response system by an unrelated predator species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have found that predatory Chlorobalius leucoviridis katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae can attract male cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae by imitating the species-specific wing-flick replies of sexually receptive female cicadas. This aggressive mimicry is accomplished both acoustically, with tegminal clicks, and visually, with synchronized body jerks. Remarkably, the katydids respond effectively to a variety of complex, species-specific Cicadettini songs, including songs of many cicada species that the predator has never encountered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that the versatility of aggressive mimicry in C. leucoviridis is accomplished by exploiting general design elements common to the songs of many acoustically signaling insects that use duets in pair-formation. Consideration of the mechanism of versatile mimicry in C. leucoviridis may illuminate processes driving the evolution of insect acoustic signals, which play a central role in reproductive isolation of populations and the formation of species.

  4. Haemovigilance data on the use of methylene blue virally inactivated fresh frozen plasma with the Theraflex MB-Plasma System in comparison to quarantine plasma: 11 years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, C; Kavallierou, L; Hantziara, S; Parara, M; Zervou, E; Katsarou, O; Hatzitaki, M; Fountouli, P; Gioka, A; Tzioura, K; Koumarianos, S; Asariotou, M; Richardson, C

    2014-10-01

    Haemovigilance is an effective tool for identifying adverse effects of blood components. We analyse cumulative haemovigilance data in order to compare the two secured therapeutic plasmas that have been in use for more than 11 years in Greece - methylene blue-treated fresh frozen plasma (MB-FFP) and quarantine fresh frozen plasma (Q-FFP) - regarding safety and adverse events. Data from the centralised active haemovigilance system of Greece for the period 2001-2011 were used to examine the association between FFP types and adverse events. Post-transfusion information on infectious and non-infectious adverse events was analysed. Events were examined by reaction type, severity and imputability to transfusion. The incidence of adverse events was higher with Q-FFP (1:3620) than MB-FFP (1 : 24 593) by a factor of 6·79 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·52-27·8]. Allergic adverse events were also commoner with Q-FFP (1 : 7489) than with MB-FFP (1:24 593), by a factor of 3·28 (95% CI 1·17-13·7). All adverse reactions experienced by the MB plasma recipients were considered to be mild. Haemovigilance over 11 years has demonstrated the long-term safety of MB-FFP in comparison to untreated quarantine FFP. In addition to lowering the adverse event rate, implementing the system on a national scale in at-risk countries would presumably reduce the transmission of severe viral infections including emerging infectious diseases by transfusion. © 2014 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  5. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get some forms of viral hepatitis the same way you get HIV—through unprotected sexual contact and injection drug use. HAV, which causes a short-term but occasionally severe illness, is usually spread when the virus is ingested from contact with ...

  6. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sharma (Suraj); M. Carballo (Manuel); J.J. Feld (Jordan J.); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and

  7. VIRAL FEVER WITH THROMBOCYTOPENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpa Anand Hakki

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is an alarming increase in the incidence of fever with thrombocytopenia especially during monsoon and peri-monsoon period. Infections with protozoa, bacteria and viruses can cause thrombocytopenia with or without disseminated intravascular coagulation. Commonly, dengue, malaria, scrub typhus and other rickettsial infections, meningococci, Leptospira and certain viral infections present as fever with thrombocytopenia. Occasionally, these patients can go on to devel...

  8. Viral Metagenomics: MetaView Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, C; Smith, J

    2007-10-22

    The purpose of this report is to design and develop a tool for analysis of raw sequence read data from viral metagenomics experiments. The tool should compare read sequences of known viral nucleic acid sequence data and enable a user to attempt to determine, with some degree of confidence, what virus groups may be present in the sample. This project was conducted in two phases. In phase 1 we surveyed the literature and examined existing metagenomics tools to educate ourselves and to more precisely define the problem of analyzing raw read data from viral metagenomic experiments. In phase 2 we devised an approach and built a prototype code and database. This code takes viral metagenomic read data in fasta format as input and accesses all complete viral genomes from Kpath for sequence comparison. The system executes at the UNIX command line, producing output that is stored in an Oracle relational database. We provide here a description of the approach we came up with for handling un-assembled, short read data sets from viral metagenomics experiments. We include a discussion of the current MetaView code capabilities and additional functionality that we believe should be added, should additional funding be acquired to continue the work.

  9. A versatile apparatus for two-dimensional atomtronic quantum simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, T. A.; White, D. H.; Brown, D. J.; Herrera, I.; Hoogerland, M. D.

    2017-11-01

    We report on the implementation of a novel optical setup for generating high-resolution customizable potentials to address ultracold bosonic atoms in two dimensions. Two key features are developed for this purpose. The customizable potential is produced with a direct image of a spatial light modulator, conducted with an in-vacuum imaging system of high numerical aperture. Custom potentials are drawn over an area of 600 ×400 μ m with a resolution of 0.9 μm. The second development is a two-dimensional planar trap for atoms with an aspect ratio of 900 and spatial extent of Rayleigh range 1.6 × 1.6 mm, providing near-ballistic in-planar movement. We characterize the setup and present a brief catalog of experiments to highlight the versatility of the system.

  10. Molecular mechanisms of neuroinflammation and injury during acute viral encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shives, Katherine D; Tyler, Kenneth L; Beckham, J David

    2017-07-15

    Viral infections in the central nervous system are a major cause of encephalitis. West Nile virus (WNV) and Herpes simplex virus (HSV) are the most common causes of viral encephalitis in the United States. We review the role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of WNV and HSV infections in the central nervous system (CNS). We discuss the role of the innate and cell-mediated immune responses in peripheral control of viral infection, viral invasion of the CNS, and in inflammatory-mediated neuronal injury. By understanding the role of specific inflammatory responses to viral infections in the CNS, targeted therapeutic approaches can be developed to maximize control of acute viral infection while minimizing neuronal injury in the CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Protein X of Borna disease virus inhibits apoptosis and promotes viral persistence in the central nervous systems of newborn-infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poenisch, Marion; Burger, Nils; Staeheli, Peter; Bauer, Georg; Schneider, Urs

    2009-05-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic member of the order Mononegavirales with noncytolytic replication and obligatory persistence in cultured cells and animals. Here we show that the accessory protein X of BDV represents the first mitochondrion-localized protein of an RNA virus that inhibits rather than promotes apoptosis induction. Rat C6 astroglioma cells persistently infected with wild-type BDV were significantly more resistant to death receptor-dependent and -independent apoptotic stimuli than uninfected cells or cells infected with a BDV mutant expressing reduced amounts of X. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that X colocalizes with mitochondria and expression of X from plasmid DNA rendered human 293T and mouse L929 cells resistant to apoptosis induction. A recombinant virus encoding a mutant X protein unable to associate with mitochondria (BDV-X(A6A7)) failed to block apoptosis in C6 cells. Furthermore, Lewis rats neonatally infected with BDV-X(A6A7) developed severe neurological symptoms and died around day 30 postinfection, whereas all animals infected with wild-type BDV remained healthy and became persistently infected. TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling) staining revealed a significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the brain of BDV-X(A6A7)-infected animals, whereas the numbers of CD3(+) T lymphocytes were comparable to those detected in animals infected with wild-type BDV. Our data thus indicate that inhibition of apoptosis by X promotes noncytolytic viral persistence and is required for the survival of cells in the central nervous system of BDV-infected animals.

  12. Optimization of the bioprocessing conditions for scale-up of transient production of a heterologous protein in plants using a chemically inducible viral amplicon expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesha, Michael A; Huang, Ting-Kuo; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Falk, Bryce W; McDonald, Karen A

    2009-01-01

    Use of transient expression for the rapid, large-scale production of recombinant proteins in plants requires optimization of existing methods to facilitate scale-up of the process. We have demonstrated that the techniques used for agroinfiltration and induction greatly impact transient production levels of heterologous protein. A Cucumber mosaic virus inducible viral amplicon (CMViva) expression system was used to transiently produce recombinant alpha-1-antitrypsin (rAAT) by co-infiltrating harvested Nicotiana benthamiana leaves with two Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains, one containing the CMViva expression cassette carrying the AAT gene and the other containing a binary vector carrying the gene silencing suppressor p19. Harvested leaves were both infiltrated and induced by either pressure or vacuum infiltration. Using the vacuum technique for both processes, maximum levels of functional and total rAAT were elevated by (190 +/- 8.7)% and (290 +/- 7.5)%, respectively, over levels achieved when using the pressure technique for both processes. The bioprocessing conditions for vacuum infiltration and induction were optimized and resulted in maximum rAAT production when using an A. tumefaciens concentration at OD(600) of 0.5 and a 0.25-min vacuum infiltration, and multiple 1-min vacuum inductions further increased production 25% and resulted in maximum levels of functional and total rAAT at (2.6 +/- 0.09)% and (4.1 +/- 0.29)% of the total soluble protein, respectively, or (90 +/- 1.7) and (140 +/- 10) mg per kg fresh weight leaf tissue at 6 days post-induction. Use of harvested plant tissue with vacuum infiltration and induction demonstrates a bioprocessing route that is fully amenable to scale-up. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  13. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  14. Versatile and Extensible, Continuous-Thrust Trajectory Optimization Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an innovative, versatile and extensible, continuous-thrust trajectory optimization tool for planetary mission design and optimization of...

  15. Viral Marketing and Academic Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Koktová, Silvie

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis examines modern and constantly developing kind of internet marketing -- the so called viral marketing. It deals with its origin, principle, process, advantages and disadvantages, types of viral marketing and presumptions of creating successful viral campaign. The aim of the theoretical part is especially the understanding of viral marketing as one of the effective instruments of contemporary marketing. In this theoretical part the thesis also elaborates a marketing school...

  16. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...

  17. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such i...

  18. PROFILE OF VIRAL CONJUCTIVITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Kishan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Viral conjunctivitis is most commonly seen in the outpatient department. A variety of viruses which are responsible for conjunctival infection , of which Adenovirus is the most common. It is highly contagious during the first 2 weeks of infection. It can cause corneal involvement within 4 - 5 days after the onset of symptoms. Corneal lesions range from SPK (Superficial Punctat e Keratitis to epithelial defects. These corneal lesions may cause intense photophobia and impairment of vision. AIM : To find out the commonest etiological agent , to study the clinical features and complications related to it. METHODOLOGY : This study was carried out prospectively. 100 patients who came to outpatient department between October 2013 to October 2014 were enrolled in the study. All the age groups and both the genders were included. Patients underwent slit lamp examination and were diagnosed cl inically. 25 cases were submitted for Gram staining and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR study to know the type of virus and serotype . RESULT : 100 patients were diagnosed with viral conjunctivitis and were kept on follow up. 21percent of patients developed SPK. Adenovirus 8 was found to be more common than other viruses. CONCLUSION : The present study showed Adeno virus to be the most common etiological agent causing viral conjunctivitis and complications like subepithelial opacities and diminished vision

  19. Quantification system for the viral dynamics of a highly pathogenic simian/human immunodeficiency virus based on an in vitro experiment and a mathematical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwami Shingo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing a quantitative understanding of viral kinetics is useful for determining the pathogenesis and transmissibility of the virus, predicting the course of disease, and evaluating the effects of antiviral therapy. The availability of data in clinical, animal, and cell culture studies, however, has been quite limited. Many studies of virus infection kinetics have been based solely on measures of total or infectious virus count. Here, we introduce a new mathematical model which tracks both infectious and total viral load, as well as the fraction of infected and uninfected cells within a cell culture, and apply it to analyze time-course data of an SHIV infection in vitro. Results We infected HSC-F cells with SHIV-KS661 and measured the concentration of Nef-negative (target and Nef-positive (infected HSC-F cells, the total viral load, and the infectious viral load daily for nine days. The experiments were repeated at four different MOIs, and the model was fitted to the full dataset simultaneously. Our analysis allowed us to extract an infected cell half-life of 14.1 h, a half-life of SHIV-KS661 infectiousness of 17.9 h, a virus burst size of 22.1 thousand RNA copies or 0.19 TCID50, and a basic reproductive number of 62.8. Furthermore, we calculated that SHIV-KS661 virus-infected cells produce at least 1 infectious virion for every 350 virions produced. Conclusions Our method, combining in vitro experiments and a mathematical model, provides detailed quantitative insights into the kinetics of the SHIV infection which could be used to significantly improve the understanding of SHIV and HIV-1 pathogenesis. The method could also be applied to other viral infections and used to improve the in vitro determination of the effect and efficacy of antiviral compounds.

  20. Molecular piracy: the viral link to carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaitz, C M; Hicks, M J

    1998-11-01

    The vast majority of the human experience with viral infections is associated with acute symptoms, such as malaise, fever, chills, rhinitis and diarrhea. With this acute or lytic phase, the immune system mounts a response and eliminates the viral agent while acquiring antibodies to that specific viral subtype. With latent or chronic infections, the viral agent becomes incorporated into the human genome. Viral agents capable of integration into the host's genetic material are particularly dangerous and may commandeer the host's ability to regulate normal cell growth and proliferation. The oncogenic viruses may immortalize the host cell, and facilitate malignant transformation. Cell growth and proliferation may be enhanced by viral interference with tumor suppressor gene function (p53 and pRb). Viruses may act as vectors for mutated proto-oncogenes (oncogenes). Overexpression of these oncogenes in viral-infected cells interferes with normal cell function and allows unregulated cell growth and proliferation, which may lead to malignant transformation and tumour formation. Development of oral neoplasms, both benign and malignant, has been linked to several viruses. Epstein-Barr virus is associated with oral hairy leukoplakia, lymphoproliferative disease, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, B-cell lymphomas, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Human herpesvirus-8 has been implicated in all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphomas, multiple myeloma, angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, and Castleman's disease. Human herpesvirus-6 has been detected in lymphoproliferative disease, lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. The role of human papillomavirus in benign (squamous papilloma, focal epithelial hyperplasia, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris), premalignant (oral epithelial dysplasia), and malignant (squamous cell carcinoma) neoplasms within the oral cavity is well recognized. Herpes simplex virus may participate as a cofactor in oral squamous

  1. Lactoferrin for prevention of common viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Oda, Hirotsugu; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki

    2014-11-01

    Although lactoferrin has many biological functions, the host-protective effects against pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and viruses are regarded as one of the most important. Here, we review research on the protective role of lactoferrin administration against common viral infections. Many studies have shown the in vitro antiviral activity of lactoferrin against viral pathogens that cause common infections such as the common cold, influenza, gastroenteritis, summer cold, and herpes, where lactoferrin inhibits mainly viral attachment to the target cells. Recently, studies indicating the in vivo protective effects of lactoferrin by oral administration against common viral infections have been increasing. For instance, norovirus is an extremely important emerging human pathogen that causes a majority of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide that may be a target candidate for lactoferrin. Lactoferrin consumption reduced the incidence of noroviral gastroenteritis in children and a similar effect was observed in a wide range of ages in a preliminary survey. A recent in vitro study reported that lactoferrin inhibits both cellular attachment of the murine norovirus, a virus closely-related to the human norovirus, and viral replication in the cells by inducing antiviral cytokines interferon (IFN)-α/β. Lactoferrin administration also enhances NK cell activity and Th1 cytokine responses, which lead to protection against viral infections. In conclusion, lactoferrin consumption may protect the host from viral infections through inhibiting the attachment of a virus to the cells, replication of the virus in the cells, and enhancement of systemic immune functions. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of cannabinoids and their receptors on viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahamtan, Alireza; Tavakoli-Yaraki, Masoumeh; Rygiel, Tomasz P; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat; Salimi, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Cannabinoids, the active ingredient in marijuana, and their derivatives have received remarkable attention in the last two decades because they can affect tumor growth and metastasis. There is a large body of evidence from in vivo and in vitro models showing that cannabinoids and their receptors influence the immune system, viral pathogenesis, and viral replication. The present study reviews current insights into the role of cannabinoids and their receptors on viral infections. The results reported here indicate that cannabinoids and their receptors have different sequels for viral infection. Although activation or inhibition of cannabinoid receptors in the majority of viral infections are proper targets for development of safe and effective treatments, caution is required before using pharmaceutical cannabinoids as a treatment agent for patients with viral infections. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Extracellular vesicles are the Trojan horses of viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan-Bonnet, Nihal

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular vesicles have recently emerged as a novel mode of viral propagation exploited by both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. In particular non-enveloped viruses utilize the hosts' production of extracellular vesicles to exit from cells non-lytically and to hide and manipulate the immune system. Moreover, challenging the long held idea that viruses behave as independent genetic units, extracellular vesicles enable multiple viral particles and genomes to collectively traffic in and out of cells, which can promote genetic cooperativity among viral quasispecies and enhance the fitness of the overall viral population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Effect of radiation on normal hematopoiesis and on viral induced cancers of the hematopoietic system. Three-year technical progress report, August 1, 1973--April 30, 1976. [X radiation, mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OKunewick, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    In studies conducted during the first three-year segment of this contract, it was observed that in the process of viral leukemogenesis the affected animals became more radioresistant than normal. Initial studies into the reason for the enhanced radioresistance implicated an increase in the number of pluripotent stem cells as one possible cause. During the current period, studies were carried out to further define the effect of the virus on stem cells and their kinetics using exposure to tritiated thymidine (/sup 3/HTdR) in vivo and in vitro. In addition, separate studies were initiated in an attempt to determine if the immune system played a part in the radioresistance, as well as what the effects might be of immune manipulations on the disease during the oncogenic period. Finally, studies were also undertaken to assess the sensitivity of the virus itself to radiation in vitro and in vivo to radiation and treatment with cells transplanted from viral resistant mice.

  5. Sequencing Needs for Viral Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S N; Lam, M; Mulakken, N J; Torres, C L; Smith, J R; Slezak, T

    2004-01-26

    We built a system to guide decisions regarding the amount of genomic sequencing required to develop diagnostic DNA signatures, which are short sequences that are sufficient to uniquely identify a viral species. We used our existing DNA diagnostic signature prediction pipeline, which selects regions of a target species genome that are conserved among strains of the target (for reliability, to prevent false negatives) and unique relative to other species (for specificity, to avoid false positives). We performed simulations, based on existing sequence data, to assess the number of genome sequences of a target species and of close phylogenetic relatives (''near neighbors'') that are required to predict diagnostic signature regions that are conserved among strains of the target species and unique relative to other bacterial and viral species. For DNA viruses such as variola (smallpox), three target genomes provide sufficient guidance for selecting species-wide signatures. Three near neighbor genomes are critical for species specificity. In contrast, most RNA viruses require four target genomes and no near neighbor genomes, since lack of conservation among strains is more limiting than uniqueness. SARS and Ebola Zaire are exceptional, as additional target genomes currently do not improve predictions, but near neighbor sequences are urgently needed. Our results also indicate that double stranded DNA viruses are more conserved among strains than are RNA viruses, since in most cases there was at least one conserved signature candidate for the DNA viruses and zero conserved signature candidates for the RNA viruses.

  6. Viral vector-based influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rory D.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses and the occasional introduction of influenza viruses of novel subtypes into the human population complicate the timely production of effective vaccines that antigenically match the virus strains that cause epidemic or pandemic outbreaks. The development of game-changing vaccines that induce broadly protective immunity against a wide variety of influenza viruses is an unmet need, in which recombinant viral vectors may provide. Use of viral vectors allows the delivery of any influenza virus antigen, or derivative thereof, to the immune system, resulting in the optimal induction of virus-specific B- and T-cell responses against this antigen of choice. This systematic review discusses results obtained with vectored influenza virus vaccines and advantages and disadvantages of the currently available viral vectors. PMID:27455345

  7. [Promotion of Porphyromonas gingivalis to viral disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiantian, Meng; Xin, Li

    2016-08-01

    Chronic periodontitis is one of the most common oral diseases in humans, the main recognized pathogenic bac-terium of which is the Porphyromonas gingivalis. Various types of viruses have been detected in periodontal disease in situ, and the joint action of viral and bacterial pathogens infection mechanism are complicated. Porphyromonas gingivalis has the characteristics resulting from the interaction with a variety of bacterium viruses, which may be the reason for chronic perio-dontitis being a protracted disease associated with a variety of systemic diseases. In this paper, we reviewed the relationship between Porphyromonas gingivalis and viral diseases to provide a new idea for the treatment of patients with periodontal disease and viral infections.

  8. Viral load: Roche applies for marketing approval for ultrasensitive test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-07

    Roche Molecular Systems has applied for FDA permission to market a more sensitive viral load test. The Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor UltraSensitive Method tests viral load as low as 50 copies; current tests are only accurate to 400 copies. There is a widespread consensus among physicians that testing below 400 copies would be a valuable treatment tool.

  9. Clinical and biochemical features of acute viral hepatitis | Spearman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viral hepatitis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Acute viral hepatitis, although a generalised systemic infection, presents with clinical manifestations relating directly to inflammation of the liver with hepatocellular dysfunction and jaundice. The most important causes of acute and chronic hepatitis are the ...

  10. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J.; Janssen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly or...

  11. Understanding Image Virality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-08

    of images that is most similar to ours is the concurrently introduced viral meme generator of Wang et al., that combines NLP and Computer Vision (low...from what we might expect at a first glance. An analogous scenario researched in NLP is understanding the semantics of “That’s what she said!” jokes...and will require NLP and Computer Vision for understanding. 4.1. Intrinsic context We first examine whether humans and machines can pre- dict just by

  12. Comparative clinical sample preparation of DNA and RNA viral nucleic acids for a commercial deep sequencing system (Illumina MiSeq(®)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; de Camargo Tozato, Claudia; Malossi, Camila Dantas; da Cruz, Tais Fukuta; Cavalcante, Raíssa Vasconcelos; Kurissio, Jacqueline Kazue; Cagnini, Didier Quevedo; Rodrigues, Marianna Vaz; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Araujo, João Pessoa

    2015-08-01

    Sequence-independent methods for viral discovery have been widely used for whole genome sequencing of viruses. Different protocols for viral enrichment, library preparation and sequencing have increasingly been more available and at lower costs. However, no study to date has focused on optimization of viral sample preparation for commercial deep sequencing. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate an In-House enzymatic protocol for double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) synthesis and also compare the use of a commercially available kit protocol (Nextera XT, Illumina Inc, San Diego, CA, USA) and its combination with a library quantitation kit (Kapa, Kapa Biosystems, Wilmington, MA, USA) for deep sequencing (Illumina Miseq). Two RNA viruses (canine distemper virus and dengue virus) and one ssDNA virus (porcine circovirus type 2) were tested with the optimized protocols. The tested method for dsDNA synthesis has shown satisfactory results and may be used in laboratory setting, particularly when enzymes are already available. Library preparation combining commercial kits (Nextera XT and Kapa) has yielded more reads and genome coverage, probably due to a lack of small fragment recovering at the normalization step of Nextera XT. In addition, libraries may be diluted or concentrated to provide increase on genome coverage with Kapa quantitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H2O, and CO2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  14. Plasmonic Biofoam: A Versatile Optically Active Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Limei; Luan, Jingyi; Liu, Keng-Ku; Jiang, Qisheng; Tadepalli, Sirimuvva; Gupta, Maneesh K; Naik, Rajesh R; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2016-01-13

    Owing to their ability to confine and manipulate light at the nanoscale, plasmonic nanostructures are highly attractive for a broad range of applications. While tremendous progress has been made in the synthesis of size- and shape-controlled plasmonic nanostructures, their integration with other materials and application in solid-state is primarily through their assembly on rigid two-dimensional (2D) substrates, which limits the plasmonically active space to a few nanometers above the substrate. In this work, we demonstrate a simple method to create plasmonically active three-dimensional biofoams by integrating plasmonic nanostructures with highly porous biomaterial aerogels. We demonstrate that plasmonic biofoam is a versatile optically active platform that can be harnessed for numerous applications including (i) ultrasensitive chemical detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering; (ii) highly efficient energy harvesting and steam generation through plasmonic photothermal heating; and (iii) optical control of enzymatic activity by triggered release of biomolecules encapsulated within the aerogel. Our results demonstrate that 3D plasmonic biofoam exhibits significantly higher sensing, photothermal, and loading efficiency compared to conventional 2D counterparts. The design principles and processing methodology of plasmonic aerogels demonstrated here can be broadly applied in the fabrication of other functional foams.

  15. Recombinant viruses as vaccines against viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.D. Souza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine approaches to infectious diseases are widely applied and appreciated. Amongst them, vectors based on recombinant viruses have shown great promise and play an important role in the development of new vaccines. Many viruses have been investigated for their ability to express proteins from foreign pathogens and induce specific immunological responses against these antigens in vivo. Generally, gene-based vaccines can stimulate potent humoral and cellular immune responses and viral vectors might be an effective strategy for both the delivery of antigen-encoding genes and the facilitation and enhancement of antigen presentation. In order to be utilized as a vaccine carrier, the ideal viral vector should be safe and enable efficient presentation of required pathogen-specific antigens to the immune system. It should also exhibit low intrinsic immunogenicity to allow for its re-administration in order to boost relevant specific immune responses. Furthermore, the vector system must meet criteria that enable its production on a large-scale basis. Several viral vaccine vectors have thus emerged to date, all of them having relative advantages and limits depending on the proposed application, and thus far none of them have proven to be ideal vaccine carriers. In this review we describe the potential, as well as some of the foreseeable obstacles associated with viral vaccine vectors and their use in preventive medicine.

  16. Equine viral arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine viral arteritis (EVA is a contagious disease of equids caused by equine artheritis virus (EAV, widespread in most countries in the world, where patients are diagnosed. The infection usually starts asymptomatic. Clinical signs indicate respiratory infection of different intensity and also abortions are present at different stages of gestation. Large prevalence of this disease in the world has become a growing economic problem. The disease is specific to a particular kind of animals, and it affects only equids (horses, donkeys, mules, mule and zebras. In countries where the infection has been confirmed, the percentage of positive animals differ. Likewise, there is difference in percentage among certain animal kinds. The highest percentage of positive animals has been found in totters and the lowest in cold-blooded.

  17. Recombinant AAV viral vectors pseudotyped with viral capsids from serotypes 1, 2, and 5 display differential efficiency and cell tropism after delivery to different regions of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Corinna; Gorbatyuk, Oleg S; Velardo, Margaret J; Peden, Carmen S; Williams, Philip; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Reier, Paul J; Mandel, Ronald J; Muzyczka, Nicholas

    2004-08-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (rAAV2) has been shown to deliver genes to neurons effectively in the brain, retina, and spinal cord. The characterization of new AAV serotypes has revealed that they have different patterns of transduction in diverse tissues. We have investigated the tropism and transduction frequency in the central nervous system (CNS) of three different rAAV vector serotypes. The vectors contained AAV2 terminal repeats flanking a green fluorescent protein expression cassette under the control of the synthetic CBA promoter, in AAV1, AAV2, or AAV5 capsids, producing the pseudotypes rAAV2/1, rAAV2/2, and rAAV2/5. Rats were injected with rAAV2/1, rAAV2/2, or rAAV2/5 into selected regions of the CNS, including the hippocampus (HPC), substantia nigra (SN), striatum, globus pallidus, and spinal cord. In all regions injected, the three vectors transduced neurons almost exclusively. All three vectors transduced the SN pars compacta with high efficiency, but rAAV2/1 and rAAV2/5 also transduced the pars reticulata. Moreover, rAAV2/1 showed widespread distribution throughout the entire midbrain. In the HPC, rAAV2/1 and rAAV2/5 targeted the pyramidal cell layers in the CA1-CA3 regions, whereas AAV2/2 primarily transduced the hilar region of the dentate gyrus. In general, rAAV2/1 and rAAV2/5 exhibited higher transduction frequencies than rAAV2/2 in all regions injected, although the differences were marginal in some regions. Retrograde transport of rAAV1 and rAAV5 was also observed in particular CNS areas. These results suggest that vectors based on distinct AAV serotypes can be chosen for specific applications in the nervous system. Copyright The American Society of Gene Therapy

  18. Type I interferon production during herpes simplex virus infection is controlled by cell-type-specific viral recognition through Toll-like receptor 9, the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein pathway, and novel recognition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon Brandtoft; Sørensen, Louise Nørgaard; Malmgaard, Lene

    2007-01-01

    Recognition of viruses by germ line-encoded pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system is essential for rapid production of type I interferon (IFN) and early antiviral defense. We investigated the mechanisms of viral recognition governing production of type I IFN during herpes...... simplex virus (HSV) infection. We show that early production of IFN in vivo is mediated through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, whereas the subsequent alpha/beta IFN (IFN-alpha/beta) response is derived from several cell types and induced independently of TLR9...

  19. Underreporting of Viral Encephalitis and Viral Meningitis, Ireland, 2005–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Lorcain, Piaras; Moran, Joanne; Garvey, Patricia; McKeown, Paul; Connell, Jeff; Cotter, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Viral encephalitis (VE) and viral meningitis (VM) have been notifiable infectious diseases under surveillance in the Republic of Ireland since 1981. Laboratories have reported confirmed cases by detection of viral nucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid since 2004. To determine the prevalence of these diseases in Ireland during 2005–2008, we analyzed 3 data sources: Hospital In-patient Enquiry data (from hospitalized following patients discharge) accessed through Health Intelligence Ireland, laboratory confirmations from the National Virus Reference Laboratory, and events from the Computerised Infectious Disease Reporting surveillance system. We found that the national surveillance system underestimates the incidence of these diseases in Ireland with a 10-fold higher VE hospitalization rate and 3-fold higher VM hospitalization rate than the reporting rate. Herpesviruses were responsible for most specified VE and enteroviruses for most specified VM from all 3 sources. Recommendations from this study have been implemented to improve the surveillance of these diseases in Ireland. PMID:23965781

  20. Underreporting of viral encephalitis and viral meningitis, Ireland, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Tara A; O'Lorcain, Piaras; Moran, Joanne; Garvey, Patricia; McKeown, Paul; Connell, Jeff; Cotter, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Viral encephalitis (VE) and viral meningitis (VM) have been notifiable infectious diseases under surveillance in the Republic of Ireland since 1981. Laboratories have reported confirmed cases by detection of viral nucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid since 2004. To determine the prevalence of these diseases in Ireland during 2005-2008, we analyzed 3 data sources: Hospital In-patient Enquiry data (from hospitalized following patients discharge) accessed through Health Intelligence Ireland, laboratory confirmations from the National Virus Reference Laboratory, and events from the Computerised Infectious Disease Reporting surveillance system. We found that the national surveillance system underestimates the incidence of these diseases in Ireland with a 10-fold higher VE hospitalization rate and 3-fold higher VM hospitalization rate than the reporting rate. Herpesviruses were responsible for most specified VE and enteroviruses for most specified VM from all 3 sources. Recommendations from this study have been implemented to improve the surveillance of these diseases in Ireland.

  1. Versatile transmission ellipsometry to study linear ferrofluid magneto-optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Ernst S.; Galca, A.C.; Poelsema, Bene

    2006-01-01

    Linear birefringence and dichroism of magnetite ferrofluids are studied simultaneously using spectroscopic ellipsometry in transmission mode. It is shown that this versatile technique enables highly accurate characterisation of magneto-optical phenomena. Magnetic field-dependent linear birefringence

  2. A versatile hardware platform for brain computer interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Pablo A; Haberman, Marcelo; Spinelli, Enrique M

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the development of a versatile hardware platform for brain computer interfaces (BCI). The aim of this work is to produce a small, autonomous and configurable BCI platform adaptable to the user's needs.

  3. Electrospun nanofibers as versatile interfaces for efficient gene delivery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Slgirim; Jin, Gyuhyung; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    The integration of gene delivery technologies with electrospun nanofibers is a versatile strategy to increase the potential of gene therapy as a key platform technology that can be readily utilized...

  4. VIRAL DISEASES IN SEA FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate knowledge on fish diseases caused by viruses is still lacking. Up until now, in fish which live their entire life cycle or part of it in the sea, some viral diseases have been determined (lymphoeytis, viral necrosis of crythrocytes, ciravosti cod syndrome, encephalitis, viral hemoragic septichemistry, viral hematopoetic necrosis, viral gusteraca necrosis, chum renviral infection, branchionephritis, rabdociral eel infection. Some of these diseases primarily occur in the freshwater phase of host development, although recordings exist that the virus is carried on in surving samples which succeed in making it to the sea. As the number of sea fish species increases in controlled culture a increasing number of pathological cases are observed, which is caused by viruses. Therefore, in this area it is necessary to emphasize future investigations.

  5. Medicine, material science and security: the versatility of the coded-aperture approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, P R T; Endrizzi, M; Diemoz, P C; Hagen, C K; Szafraniec, M B; Millard, T P; Zapata, C E; Speller, R D; Olivo, A

    2014-03-06

    The principal limitation to the widespread deployment of X-ray phase imaging in a variety of applications is probably versatility. A versatile X-ray phase imaging system must be able to work with polychromatic and non-microfocus sources (for example, those currently used in medical and industrial applications), have physical dimensions sufficiently large to accommodate samples of interest, be insensitive to environmental disturbances (such as vibrations and temperature variations), require only simple system set-up and maintenance, and be able to perform quantitative imaging. The coded-aperture technique, based upon the edge illumination principle, satisfies each of these criteria. To date, we have applied the technique to mammography, materials science, small-animal imaging, non-destructive testing and security. In this paper, we outline the theory of coded-aperture phase imaging and show an example of how the technique may be applied to imaging samples with a practically important scale.

  6. Adhesion Receptors Mediate Efficient Non-viral Gene Delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuhorn, Inge S.; Kalicharan, Dharamdajal; Robillard, George T.; Hoekstra, Dick

    2007-01-01

    For a variety of reasons, including production limitations, potential unanticipated side effects, and an immunological response upon repeated systemic administration, virus-based vectors are as yet not ideal gene delivery vehicles, justifying further research into alternatives. Unlike viral vectors,

  7. FIA versatile system for spectrophotometric determinations of vanadium and molybdenum exploring the catalytic activities of V(V) and Mo(VI); Sistema FIA polivalente para determinacoes espectrofotometricas de vanadio e molibdenio explorando as atividades cataliticas de V(V) e Mo(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca, Gilmara Caseri de

    1996-02-01

    A versatile system for chemical analysis by flow injection analysis was developed and applied for catalytic spectrophotometric determination of vanadium or molybdenum in metallic alloys. The selected methods were based upon indicator reactions chromotropic (CS)-bromate acid or hydrogen iodide-peroxide, respectively. Initially, a model system was proposed, in which common parameters for methods were studied. This included a re-sampling process in which high degrees of samples dilution were obtained. Other parameters such as concentrations and reagents addition order, reaction medium Ph, temperature and ionic power, as well as procedures for sample solubilization, were studied relating to each method. A mini-column with cationic exchanger resin (Dowex 50W-X8, 50-100 mesh, H{sup +} form) was used. The system for vanadium determination processes 120 samples by hour, consuming 2,0 mg CS and 10 mg K Br O{sub 3b}y determination. Concerning the method for molybdenum, the reagents consumption was 2,0 mg KI and 1,0 {mu}L of solution 30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by determination, since the analytic velocity was the same, in relation to vanadium.

  8. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Diana L.; Collins, Casey P.; Hocum, Jonah D.; Leap, David J.; Rae, Dustin T.; Trobridge, Grant D.

    2016-01-01

    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34+ cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244

  9. Tight Junctions Go Viral!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Torres-Flores

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tight junctions (TJs are highly specialized membrane domains involved in many important cellular processes such as the regulation of the passage of ions and macromolecules across the paracellular space and the establishment of cell polarity in epithelial cells. Over the past few years there has been increasing evidence that different components of the TJs can be hijacked by viruses in order to complete their infectious cycle. Viruses from at least nine different families of DNA and RNA viruses have been reported to use TJ proteins in their benefit. For example, TJ proteins such as JAM-A or some members of the claudin family of proteins are used by members of the Reoviridae family and hepatitis C virus as receptors or co-receptors during their entry into their host cells. Reovirus, in addition, takes advantage of the TJ protein Junction Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A to achieve its hematogenous dissemination. Some other viruses are capable of regulating the expression or the localization of TJ proteins to induce cell transformation or to improve the efficiency of their exit process. This review encompasses the importance of TJs for viral entry, replication, dissemination, and egress, and makes a clear statement of the importance of studying these proteins to gain a better understanding of the replication strategies used by viruses that infect epithelial and/or endothelial cells.

  10. The p22 RNA Silencing Suppressor of the Crinivirus Tomato chlorosis virus is Dispensable for Local Viral Replication but Important for Counteracting an Antiviral RDR6-Mediated Response during Systemic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmín Landeo-Ríos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the components of the RNA silencing pathway in plants, RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs play fundamental roles in antiviral defence. Here, we demonstrate that the Nicotiana benthamiana RDR6 is involved in defence against the bipartite crinivirus (genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV. Additionally, by producing a p22-deficient ToCV infectious mutant clone (ToCVΔp22, we studied the role of this viral suppressor of RNA silencing in viral infection in both wild-type and RDR6-silenced N. benthamiana (NbRDR6i plants. We demonstrate that p22 is dispensable for the replication of ToCV, where RDR6 appears not to have any effect. Furthermore, the finding that ToCV∆p22 systemic accumulation was impaired in wild-type N. benthamiana but not in NbRDR6i plants suggests a role for p22 in counteracting an RDR6-mediated antiviral response of the plant during systemic infection.

  11. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused ...

  12. A Versatile Software Program for Sampling Sferics and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, M. A.; Lyons, W. A.; Cummer, S. A.; Jaugey, N.

    2008-12-01

    In 2004, a data acquisition program was written to sample and store sferic waveforms for the upgraded Los Alamos Sferic Array (LASA). The program acquired data using the 20MHz PCI-DAS4020/12 Measurement Computing (MC) board on the stable Linux operating system. The capabilities of this original program have been described elsewhere [Stanley et al., 2004; Shao et al., 2006]. Starting in 2006, this program was modified and enhanced to support data acquisition for a new Charge Moment Change Network (CMCN) which detects and quantifies impulsive charge moment changes of potential sprite-producing lightning discharges in near real-time. Some of the more notable modifications included the addition of low-pass filtered continuous data output capabilities as well as support for National Instruments (NI) boards. The continuous data output was particularly well suited for the unambiguous detection of sferics with slow tails which are often found around the time of sprites and especially sprite halos. The program also utilizes a shared memory architecture which gives it even more versatility in real-time processing as well as enables other modes of data acquisition. In 2008, the program was updated to utilize the Linux Comedi drivers in place of the previous MC and NI drivers. With this modification, the program now supports an even wider variety of data acquisition boards and also runs on the latest Linux distributions.

  13. Sapporo2: a versatile direct N-body library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédorf, Jeroen; Gaburov, Evghenii; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2015-10-01

    Astrophysical direct N-body methods have been one of the first production algorithms to be implemented using NVIDIA's CUDA architecture. Now, almost seven years later, the GPU is the most used accelerator device in astronomy for simulating stellar systems. In this paper we present the implementation of the Sapporo2 N-body library, which allows researchers to use the GPU for N-body simulations with little to no effort. The first version, released five years ago, is actively used, but lacks advanced features and versatility in numerical precision and support for higher order integrators. In this updated version we have rebuilt the code from scratch and added support for OpenCL, multi-precision and higher order integrators. We show how to tune these codes for different GPU architectures and present how to continue utilizing the GPU optimal even when only a small number of particles (N < 100) is integrated. This careful tuning allows Sapporo2 to be faster than Sapporo1 even with the added options and double precision data loads. The code runs on a range of NVIDIA and AMD GPUs in single and double precision accuracy. With the addition of OpenCL support the library is also able to run on CPUs and other accelerators that support OpenCL.

  14. Versatile genetic tool box for the crenarchaeote Sulfolobus acidocaldarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela eWagner

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For reverse genetic approaches inactivation or selective modification of genes are required to elucidate their putative function. Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is a thermoacidophilic Crenarchaeon which grows optimally at 76 °C and pH 3. As many antibiotics do not withstand these conditions the development of a genetic system in this organism is dependent on auxotrophies. Therefore we constructed a pyrE deletion mutant of S. acidocaldarius wild type strain DSM639 missing 322 bp called MW001. Using this strain as the base, we describe here different methods using single as well as double crossover events to obtain markerless deletion mutants, tag genes genomically and ectopically integrate foreign DNA into MW001. These methods enable us to construct single, double and triple deletions strains that can still be complemented with the pRN1 based expression vector. Taken together we have developed a versatile and robust genetic tool box for the crenarchaeote Sulfolobus acidocaldarius that will promote the study of unknown gene functions in this organism and makes this organism a suitable host for synthetic biology approaches.

  15. Zebrafish: A Versatile Animal Model for Fertility Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ying Hoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of zebrafish in biomedical research is very common in the research world nowadays. Today, it has emerged as a favored vertebrate organism for the research in science of reproduction. There is a significant growth in amount numbers of scientific literature pertaining to research discoveries in reproductive sciences in zebrafish. It has implied the importance of zebrafish in this particular field of research. In essence, the current available literature has covered from the very specific brain region or neurons of zebrafish, which are responsible for reproductive regulation, until the gonadal level of the animal. The discoveries and findings have proven that this small animal is sharing a very close/similar reproductive system with mammals. More interestingly, the behavioral characteristics and along with the establishment of animal courtship behavior categorization in zebrafish have laid an even stronger foundation and firmer reason on the suitability of zebrafish utilization in research of reproductive sciences. In view of the immense importance of this small animal for the development of reproductive sciences, this review aimed at compiling and describing the proximate close similarity of reproductive regulation on zebrafish and human along with factors contributing to the infertility, showing its versatility and its potential usage for fertility research.

  16. Mucosal Vaccine for Prevention of Viral Disease in Animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarisman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The major obstacle in combating infectious viral diseases in animals is the lack of effective vaccines . A large number of viral pathogens are mucosaly transmitted and must cross mucosal barriers to infect the host . The mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts represent the principal portals of entry for most animal viral pathogens . Current inactivated viral vaccines administered by intramuscular injection elicit primarily circulating antibodies . The best defense against these predominantly mucosal viral pathogens would be vaccines capable inducing both systemic and mucosal immunity which is a cost effective disease prevention tool . For most viral pathogens, induction of mucosal immunity appears most appropriate based on the routes of infection . The effectiveness of vaccine delivery to mucosal surfaces including respiratory tract may be most useful for prevention of the upper ways where secretory antibody is most important for protection against viral infection . Most external mucosal surfaces are replete with organized follicles and scattered antigen-reactive or sensitized lymphoid elements, including B cells, T lymphocytes, T cell subsets . plasma cells and a variety of other cellular elements involved in the induction and maintenance of immune response . Thus, a better understanding of the mucosal immune system is needed before effiective mucosal vaccines can be developed.

  17. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of the critical factors to this communications strategy effectiveness remain largely unknown, the mathematical models in epidemiology are presented in this marketing specific field. In this paper, an epidemiological model SIR (Susceptible- Infected-Recovered) to study the effects of a viral marketing strategy is presented. It is made a comparison between the disease parameters and the marketing application, and simulations using the Matlab software are performed. Finally, some conclusions are given and their marketing impli...

  18. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,239 (2014) Number of new ...

  19. Viral Evolution Core | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon F. Keele, Ph.D. PI/Senior Principal Investigator, Retroviral Evolution Section Head, Viral Evolution Core Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Frederick, MD 21702-1201 Tel: 301-846-173

  20. Viral hepatitis in minority America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Renard A; Vega, Kenneth J

    2005-02-01

    Viral hepatitis continues as an important public health concern in the United States. Available data indicate that acute and chronic viral hepatitis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in this country despite the availability of immunization for hepatitis A and B and pharmacologic therapy for chronic hepatitis B and C. Minority populations within the United States are disproportionately affected by acute and chronic viral hepatitis. Many diseases, for example, Barrett's esophagus, affect ethnic groups differently. Viral hepatitis A, B, and C may demonstrate ethnic variation with regard to their epidemiology, natural history, clinicopatholgic findings, complications, and treatment outcomes. This report will review the literature regarding these areas in hepatitis A, B, and C among the African American, Hispanic American, and Native American populations of the United States.

  1. SCIMPI: A versatile seafloor observatory for changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, K.; Lado Insua, T.; Kulin, I.; Farrington, S.; Newman, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Simple Cabled Instrument for Measuring Parameters In-situ (SCIMPI) is a new seafloor observatory instrument. SCIMPI is designed to take subsurface time series measurements of temperature, pressure and resistivity in the sub-seafloor. This instrument has a battery operational life of approximately two years, which can be replaced with a battery pack using a remotely-operated vehicle, and provides high resolution measurements of physical properties in the sediment. With either periodic battery replacement or connection to a fiber-optic cable, SCIMPI is a long-term observatory for understanding sub-seafloor dynamics. The main advantage of this system is the reduced equipment and installation requirements making this tool an affordable and versatile system for scientific research. The pressure and temperature sensors, integrated into the system, have been successfully used in other marine industrial and scientific applications. Its electrical resistivity sensor, casing, and array assembly are uniquely designed and can be adapted for each mission. SCIMPI is currently in its last phase of testing prior to deployment in an Integrated Ocean Drilling Program borehole. This first SCIMPI is designed for a water depth of 1000 m and a sediment depth up to ~300 m below seafloor. But future assemblies can be tailored for deeper conditions and environments. Here we present the SCIMPI design, deployment options, and its scientific potential in a long-term ocean observatory. Science applications include studies of fluid flow, hydrate formation, and seismically induced pore pressure changes. The cost of this instrument will enable these measurements to become more commonplace, thereby improving our temporal and spatial knowledge of sub-seafloor gas, fluid and pore pressure activity. Most notable of the target deployments for SCIMPI are sub-seafloor gas hydrate sites and sites with biogenic methane. Understanding the dynamics of methane's role in the oceans as climate change

  2. Thousands of Viral Populations Recovered from Peatland Soil Metagenomes Reveal Viral Impacts on Carbon Cycling in Thawing Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, J. B.; Brum, J. R.; Roux, S.; Bolduc, B.; Woodcroft, B. J.; Singleton, C. M.; Boyd, J. A.; Hodgkins, S. B.; Wilson, R.; Trubl, G. G.; Jang, H. B.; Crill, P. M.; Chanton, J.; Saleska, S. R.; Rich, V. I.; Tyson, G. W.; Sullivan, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    Methane and carbon dioxide emissions, which are under significant microbial control, provide positive feedbacks to climate change in thawing permafrost peatlands. Although viruses in marine systems have been shown to impact microbial ecology and biogeochemical cycling through host cell lysis, horizontal gene transfer, and auxiliary metabolic gene expression, viral ecology in permafrost and other soils remains virtually unstudied due to methodological challenges. Here, we identified viral sequences in 208 assembled bulk soil metagenomes derived from a permafrost thaw gradient in Stordalen Mire, northern Sweden, from 2010-2012. 2,048 viral populations were recovered, which genome- and network-based classification revealed to be largely novel, increasing known viral genera globally by 40%. Ecologically, viral communities differed significantly across the thaw gradient and by soil depth. Co-occurring microbial community composition, soil moisture, and pH were predictors of viral community composition, indicative of biological and biogeochemical feedbacks as permafrost thaws. Host prediction—achieved through clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), tetranucleotide frequency patterns, and other sequence similarities to binned microbial population genomes—was able to link 38% of the viral populations to a microbial host. 5% of the implicated hosts were archaea, predominantly methanogens and ammonia-oxidizing Nitrososphaera, 45% were Acidobacteria or Verrucomicrobia (mostly predicted heterotrophic complex carbon degraders), and 21% were Proteobacteria, including methane oxidizers. Recovered viral genome fragments also contained auxiliary metabolic genes involved in carbon and nitrogen cycling. Together, these data reveal multiple levels of previously unknown viral contributions to biogeochemical cycling, including to carbon gas emissions, in peatland soils undergoing and contributing to climate change. This work represents a significant step

  3. EXPERIMENTAL LIPOSOMAL VIRAL VACCINE SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova OA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. With the transport links development there is rather important issue respiratory viral infections spread, especially influenza. The only method controlling influenza is vaccination. Search and development effective and safe vaccines is important. Material and methods. In base SO "Mechnikov Institute Microbiology and Immunology National Ukrainian Academy Medical Sciences" in the scientific theme "Developing new approaches to creating viral vaccines and study specific activity depending of type and degree component`s modification" was created several experimental influenza vaccine with subsequent component`s modification for selecting the most optimal pattern of safety and immunogenicity. In assessing the influenza vaccine safety is using a few criteria, including, reactivity, as measured by the frequency of local and systemic adverse (negative effects, which due to its introduction, and for lipid content drugs, ability to influence oxidation processes. At present study phase was determined: a systemic reaction and local reaction of delayed-type hypersensitivity (foot pad swelling assay;b lipids and proteins peroxidation processes after administration officinal and experimental vaccines (content protein’s carbonyl groups, lipid’s hydroperoxides, activity of glutathione-peroxidase.Study objects were trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine, "Vaxigrip" (Sanofi Pasteur, S.A., France, "Inflexal V" (Biotech Ltd. Berne, Switzerland and experimental vaccine samples. Highest immunogenicity vaccines had undergone improvements and modifications using adjuvant systems and acylation influenza proteins. Liposomes 2 – the experimental influenza vaccine with a liposome negative charge and antigenic composition like split vaccines "Vaksihryp". Liposomes 2.1 - the adjuvantexperimental influenza vaccine with modifications liposomal components (etoniy and chlorophyllipt molecules embedded in liposomal membrane. Liposomes 2.2 - the adjuvant

  4. Neutrophils and viral-induced neurologic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grist, Jonathan J; Marro, Brett; Lane, Thomas E

    2016-06-08

    Infection of the central nervous system (CNS) by neurotropic viruses represents an increasing worldwide problem in terms of morbidity and mortality for people of all ages. Although unique structural features of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) provide a physical and physiological barrier, a number of neurotropic viruses are able to enter the CNS resulting in a variety of pathological outcomes. Nonetheless, antigen-specific lymphocytes are ultimately able to accumulate within the CNS and contribute to defense by reducing or eliminating the invading viral pathogen. Alternatively, infiltration of activated cells of the immune system may be detrimental, as these cells can contribute to neuropathology that may result in long-term cellular damage or death. More recently, myeloid cells e.g. neutrophils have been implicated in contributing to both host defense and disease in response to viral infection of the CNS. This review highlights recent studies using coronavirus-induced neurologic disease as a model to determine how neutrophils affect effective control of viral replication as well as demyelination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanostructures for the Inhibition of Viral Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Szunerits

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multivalent interactions are omnipresent in biology and confer biological systems with dramatically enhanced affinities towards different receptors. Such multivalent binding interactions have lately been considered for the development of new therapeutic strategies against bacterial and viral infections. Multivalent polymers, dendrimers, and liposomes have successfully targeted pathogenic interactions. While a high synthetic effort was often needed for the development of such therapeutics, the integration of multiple ligands onto nanostructures turned to be a viable alternative. Particles modified with multiple ligands have the additional advantage of creating a high local concentration of binding molecules. This review article will summarize the different nanoparticle-based approaches currently available for the treatment of viral infections.

  6. Intraherd correlation coefficients and design effects for bovine viral diarrhoea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in cow-calf system herds in North-eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, J C; Domínguez-Díaz, D; Avalos-Ramírez, R; Argaez-Sosa, J

    2010-09-01

    Knowledge of the intraherd correlation coefficient (ICC) and design (D) effect for infectious diseases could be of interest in sample size calculation and to provide the correct standard errors of prevalence estimates in cluster or two-stage samplings surveys. Information on 813 animals from 48 non-vaccinated cow-calf herds from North-eastern Mexico was used. The ICC for the bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), leptospirosis and neosporosis diseases were calculated using a Bayesian approach adjusting for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic tests. The ICC and D values for BVD, IBR, leptospirosis and neosporosis were 0.31 and 5.91, 0.18 and 3.88, 0.22 and 4.53, and 0.11 and 2.68, respectively. The ICC and D values were different from 0 and D greater than 1, therefore large sample sizes are required to obtain the same precision in prevalence estimates than for a random simple sampling design. The report of ICC and D values is of great help in planning and designing two-stage sampling studies. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A versatile nondestructive evaluation imaging workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, E. James; Butler, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are of the pointwise type evaluation systems that rely on a mechanical scanner to physically maneuver a probe relative to the specimen point by point in order to acquire data and generate images. Since the ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are based on the same mechanical scanning mechanisms, the two systems can be combined using the same PC platform with a common mechanical manipulation subsystem and integrated data acquisition software. Based on this concept, we have developed an IBM PC-based combined ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging system. The system is modularized and provides capacity for future hardware and software expansions. Advantages associated with the combined system are: (1) eliminated duplication of the computer and mechanical hardware, (2) unified data acquisition, processing and storage software, (3) reduced setup time for repetitious ultrasonic and eddy current scans, and (4) improved system efficiency. The concept can be adapted to many engineering systems by integrating related PC-based instruments into one multipurpose workstation such as dispensing, machining, packaging, sorting, and other industrial applications.

  8. Lymphatic Vessels Balance Viral Dissemination and Immune Activation following Cutaneous Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Christopher P; Nelson, Nicholas A; Lane, Ryan S; Booth, Jamie L; Loprinzi Hardin, Sofia C; Thomas, Archana; Slifka, Mark K; Nolz, Jeffrey C; Lund, Amanda W

    2017-09-26

    Lymphatic vessels lie at the interface between peripheral sites of pathogen entry, adaptive immunity, and the systemic host. Though the paradigm is that their open structure allows for passive flow of infectious particles from peripheral tissues to lymphoid organs, virus applied to skin by scarification does not spread to draining lymph nodes. Using cutaneous infection by scarification, we analyzed the effect of viral infection on lymphatic transport and evaluated its role at the host-pathogen interface. We found that, in the absence of lymphatic vessels, canonical lymph-node-dependent immune induction was impaired, resulting in exacerbated pathology and compensatory, systemic priming. Furthermore, lymphatic vessels decouple fluid and cellular transport in an interferon-dependent manner, leading to viral sequestration while maintaining dendritic cell transport for immune induction. In conclusion, we found that lymphatic vessels balance immune activation and viral dissemination and act as an "innate-like" component of tissue host viral defense. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A versatile miniature bioreactor and its application to bioelectrochemistry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloke, A; Rubenwolf, S; Bücking, C; Gescher, J; Kerzenmacher, S; Zengerle, R; von Stetten, F

    2010-08-15

    Often, reproducible investigations on bio-microsystems essentially require a flexible but well-defined experimental setup, which in its features corresponds to a bioreactor. We therefore developed a miniature bioreactor with a volume in the range of a few millilitre that is assembled by alternate stacking of individual polycarbonate elements and silicone gaskets. All the necessary supply pipes are incorporated as bore holes or cavities within the individual elements. Their combination allows for a bioreactor assembly that is easily adaptable in size and functionality to experimental demands. It allows for controlling oxygen transfer as well as the monitoring of dissolved oxygen concentration and pH-value. The system provides access for media exchange or sterile sampling. A mass transfer coefficient for oxygen (k(L)a) of 4.3x10(-3) s(-1) at a flow rate of only 15 ml min(-1) and a mixing time of 1.5s at a flow rate of 11 ml min(-1) were observed for the modular bioreactor. Single reactor chambers can be interconnected via ion-conductive membranes to form a two-chamber test setup for investigations on electrochemical systems such as fuel cells or sensors. The versatile applicability of this modular and flexible bioreactor was demonstrated by recording a growth curve of Escherichia coli (including monitoring of pH and oxygen) saturation, and also as by two bioelectrochemical experiments. In the first electrochemical experiment the use of the bioreactor enabled a direct comparison of electrode materials for a laccase-catalyzed oxygen reduction electrode. In a second experiment, the bioreactor was utilized to characterize the influence of outer membrane cytochromes on the performance of Shewanella oneidensis in a microbial fuel cell. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Phosphatidic acid, a versatile water-stress signal in roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fionn eMcLoughlin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate water supply is of utmost importance for growth and reproduction of plants. In order to cope with water deprivation, plants have to adapt their development and metabolism to ensure survival. To maximize water use efficiency, plants use a large array of signaling mediators such as hormones, protein kinases and phosphatases, Ca2+, reactive oxygen species and low abundant phospholipids that together form complex signaling cascades. Phosphatidic acid (PA is a signaling lipid that rapidly accumulates in response to a wide array of abiotic stress stimuli. PA formation provides the cell with spatial and transient information about the external environment by acting as a protein-docking site in cellular membranes. PA reportedly binds to a number of proteins that play a role during water limiting conditions, such as drought and salinity and has been shown to play an important role in maintaining root system architecture. Members of two osmotic stress-activated protein kinase families, sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2 and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs were recently shown bind PA and are also involved in the maintenance of root system architecture and salinity stress tolerance. In addition, PA regulates several proteins involved in abscisic acid (ABA-signaling. PA-dependent recruitment of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH under water limiting conditions indicates a role in regulating metabolic processes. Finally, a recent study also shows the PA recruits the clathrin heavy chain and a potassium channel subunit, hinting towards additional roles in cellular trafficking and potassium homeostasis. Taken together, the rapidly increasing number of proteins reported to interact with PA implies a broad role for this versatile signaling phospholipid in mediating salt and water stress responses.

  11. [Neuropsychiatric sequelae of viral meningitis in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Jesper; Hjerrild, Simon; Renvillard, Signe Groth; Leutscher, Peter Derek Christian

    2011-10-10

    Viral meningitis is considered to be a benign illness with only mild symptoms. In contrast to viral encephalitis and bacterial meningitis, the prognosis is usually good. However, retrospective studies have demonstrated that patients suffering from viral meningitis may experience cognitive impairment following the acute course of infection. Larger controlled studies are needed to elucidate the potential neuropsychiatric adverse outcome of viral meningitis.

  12. New perspective for phage display as an efficient and versatile technology of functional proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Caberoy, Nora B

    2010-01-01

    Phage display with antibody libraries has been widely used with versatile applications. However, phage display with cDNA libraries is rare and inefficient. Because of uncontrollable reading frames and stop codons in cDNA repertoires, high percentage of phage clones identified from conventional cDNA libraries are non-open reading frames (non-ORFs) encoding unnatural short peptides with minimal implications in protein networks. Consequently, phage display has not been used as a technology of functional proteomics to elucidate protein-protein interactions like yeast two-hybrid system and mass spectrometry-based technologies. Several strategies, including C-terminal display and ORF cDNA libraries, have been explored to circumvent the technical problem. The accumulative endeavors eventually led to the efficient elucidation of a large number of tubby- and phosphatidylserine-binding proteins in recent studies by ORF phage display with minimal reading frame issue. ORF phage display inherits all the versatile applications of antibody phage display, but enables efficient identification of real endogenous proteins with efficiency, sensitivity, and accuracy comparable to other technologies of functional proteomics. Its ELISA-like procedure can be conveniently adapted by individual laboratories or fully automated for high-throughput screening. Thus, ORF phage display is an efficient, sensitive, versatile, and convenient technology of functional proteomics for elucidation of global and pathway-specific protein-protein interactions, disease mechanisms, or therapeutic targets.

  13. De novo assembly of highly diverse viral populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive genetic diversity in viral populations within infected hosts and the divergence of variants from existing reference genomes impede the analysis of deep viral sequencing data. A de novo population consensus assembly is valuable both as a single linear representation of the population and as a backbone on which intra-host variants can be accurately mapped. The availability of consensus assemblies and robustly mapped variants are crucial to the genetic study of viral disease progression, transmission dynamics, and viral evolution. Existing de novo assembly techniques fail to robustly assemble ultra-deep sequence data from genetically heterogeneous populations such as viruses into full-length genomes due to the presence of extensive genetic variability, contaminants, and variable sequence coverage. Results We present VICUNA, a de novo assembly algorithm suitable for generating consensus assemblies from genetically heterogeneous populations. We demonstrate its effectiveness on Dengue, Human Immunodeficiency and West Nile viral populations, representing a range of intra-host diversity. Compared to state-of-the-art assemblers designed for haploid or diploid systems, VICUNA recovers full-length consensus and captures insertion/deletion polymorphisms in diverse samples. Final assemblies maintain a high base calling accuracy. VICUNA program is publicly available at: http://www.broadinstitute.org/scientific-community/science/projects/viral-genomics/ viral-genomics-analysis-software. Conclusions We developed VICUNA, a publicly available software tool, that enables consensus assembly of ultra-deep sequence derived from diverse viral populations. While VICUNA was developed for the analysis of viral populations, its application to other heterogeneous sequence data sets such as metagenomic or tumor cell population samples may prove beneficial in these fields of research.

  14. De novo assembly of highly diverse viral populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Charlebois, Patrick; Gnerre, Sante; Coole, Matthew G; Lennon, Niall J; Levin, Joshua Z; Qu, James; Ryan, Elizabeth M; Zody, Michael C; Henn, Matthew R

    2012-09-13

    Extensive genetic diversity in viral populations within infected hosts and the divergence of variants from existing reference genomes impede the analysis of deep viral sequencing data. A de novo population consensus assembly is valuable both as a single linear representation of the population and as a backbone on which intra-host variants can be accurately mapped. The availability of consensus assemblies and robustly mapped variants are crucial to the genetic study of viral disease progression, transmission dynamics, and viral evolution. Existing de novo assembly techniques fail to robustly assemble ultra-deep sequence data from genetically heterogeneous populations such as viruses into full-length genomes due to the presence of extensive genetic variability, contaminants, and variable sequence coverage. We present VICUNA, a de novo assembly algorithm suitable for generating consensus assemblies from genetically heterogeneous populations. We demonstrate its effectiveness on Dengue, Human Immunodeficiency and West Nile viral populations, representing a range of intra-host diversity. Compared to state-of-the-art assemblers designed for haploid or diploid systems, VICUNA recovers full-length consensus and captures insertion/deletion polymorphisms in diverse samples. Final assemblies maintain a high base calling accuracy. VICUNA program is publicly available at: http://www.broadinstitute.org/scientific-community/science/projects/viral-genomics/ viral-genomics-analysis-software. We developed VICUNA, a publicly available software tool, that enables consensus assembly of ultra-deep sequence derived from diverse viral populations. While VICUNA was developed for the analysis of viral populations, its application to other heterogeneous sequence data sets such as metagenomic or tumor cell population samples may prove beneficial in these fields of research.

  15. [Pathology and viral metagenomics, a recent history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Pauline; Albina, Emmanuel; Eloit, Marc; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    Human, animal and plant viral diseases have greatly benefited from recent metagenomics developments. Viral metagenomics is a culture-independent approach used to investigate the complete viral genetic populations of a sample. During the last decade, metagenomics concepts and techniques that were first used by ecologists progressively spread into the scientific field of viral pathology. The sample, which was first for ecologists a fraction of ecosystem, became for pathologists an organism that hosts millions of microbes and viruses. This new approach, providing without a priori high resolution qualitative and quantitative data on the viral diversity, is now revolutionizing the way pathologists decipher viral diseases. This review describes the very last improvements of the high throughput next generation sequencing methods and discusses the applications of viral metagenomics in viral pathology, including discovery of novel viruses, viral surveillance and diagnostic, large-scale molecular epidemiology, and viral evolution. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  16. Adiponectin: a versatile player of innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan; Liu, Meilian

    2016-04-01

    Adiponectin acts as a key regulator of the innate immune system and plays a major role in the progression of inflammation and metabolic disorders. Macrophages and monocytes are representative components of the innate immune system, and their proliferation, plasticity, and polarization are a key component of metabolic adaption. Innate-like lymphocytes such as group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), natural killer T (NKT) cells, and gamma delta T (γδ T) cells are also members of the innate immune system and play important roles in the development of obesity and its related diseases. Adiponectin senses metabolic stress and modulates metabolic adaption by targeting the innate immune system under physiological and pathological conditions. Defining the mechanisms underlying the role of adiponectin in regulating innate immunity is crucial to adiponectin-based therapeutic intervention. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Design of Versatile Food Extruder Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the need for food processing equipment for crews on long-term Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) missions. It is proposed to design a food...

  18. Viral O-GalNAc peptide epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, Sigvard; Blixt, Klas Ola; Bergström, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Viral envelope glycoproteins are major targets for antibodies that bind to and inactivate viral particles. The capacity of a viral vaccine to induce virus-neutralizing antibodies is often used as a marker for vaccine efficacy. Yet the number of known neutralization target epitopes is restricted...... variations at glycosylation sites. In conclusion, the viral O-glycosyl peptide epitopes may be of relevance for development of subunit vaccines and for improved serodiagnosis of viral diseases. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  19. Versatile microanalytical system with porous polypropylene capillary membrane for calibration gas generation and trace gaseous pollutants sampling applied to the analysis of formaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid and ammonia in outdoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Lúcia H G; Melchert, Wanessa R; Rocha, Flavio R; Rocha, Fábio R P; Gutz, Ivano G R

    2010-11-15

    The analytical determination of atmospheric pollutants still presents challenges due to the low-level concentrations (frequently in the μg m(-3) range) and their variations with sampling site and time. In this work, a capillary membrane diffusion scrubber (CMDS) was scaled down to match with capillary electrophoresis (CE), a quick separation technique that requires nothing more than some nanoliters of sample and, when combined with capacitively coupled contactless conductometric detection (C(4)D), is particularly favorable for ionic species that do not absorb in the UV-vis region, like the target analytes formaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid and ammonium. The CMDS was coaxially assembled inside a PTFE tube and fed with acceptor phase (deionized water for species with a high Henry's constant such as formaldehyde and carboxylic acids, or acidic solution for ammonia sampling with equilibrium displacement to the non-volatile ammonium ion) at a low flow rate (8.3 nL s(-1)), while the sample was aspirated through the annular gap of the concentric tubes at 2.5 mL s(-1). A second unit, in all similar to the CMDS, was operated as a capillary membrane diffusion emitter (CMDE), generating a gas flow with know concentrations of ammonia for the evaluation of the CMDS. The fluids of the system were driven with inexpensive aquarium air pumps, and the collected samples were stored in vials cooled by a Peltier element. Complete protocols were developed for the analysis, in air, of NH(3), CH(3)COOH, HCOOH and, with a derivatization setup, CH(2)O, by associating the CMDS collection with the determination by CE-C(4)D. The ammonia concentrations obtained by electrophoresis were checked against the reference spectrophotometric method based on Berthelot's reaction. Sensitivity enhancements of this reference method were achieved by using a modified Berthelot reaction, solenoid micro-pumps for liquid propulsion and a long optical path cell based on a liquid core waveguide (LCW). All

  20. Lithium: a versatile tool for understanding renal physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecelbarger, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    By virtue of its unique interactions with kidney cells, lithium became an important research tool in renal physiology and pathophysiology. Investigators have uncovered the intricate relationships of lithium with the vasopressin and aldosterone systems, and the membrane channels or transporters regulated by them. While doing so, their work has also led to 1) questioning the role of adenylyl cyclase activity and prostaglandins in lithium-induced suppression of aquaporin-2 gene transcription; 2) unraveling the role of purinergic signaling in lithium-induced polyuria; and 3) highlighting the importance of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Lithium-induced remodeling of the collecting duct has the potential to shed new light on collecting duct remodeling in disease conditions, such as diabetes insipidus. The finding that lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) has opened an avenue for studies on the role of GSK3β in urinary concentration, and GSK isoforms in renal development. Finally, proteomic and metabolomic profiling of the kidney and urine in rats treated with lithium is providing insights into how the kidney adapts its metabolism in conditions such as acquired NDI and the multifactorial nature of lithium-induced NDI. This review provides state-of-the-art knowledge of lithium as a versatile tool for understanding the molecular physiology of the kidney, and a comprehensive view of how this tool is challenging some of our long-standing concepts in renal physiology, often with paradigm shifts, and presenting paradoxical situations in renal pathophysiology. In addition, this review points to future directions in research where lithium can lead the renal community. PMID:23408166

  1. Versatile in situ gas analysis apparatus for nanomaterials reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meysami, Seyyed Shayan; Snoek, Lavina C; Grobert, Nicole

    2014-09-02

    We report a newly developed technique for the in situ real-time gas analysis of reactors commonly used for the production of nanomaterials, by showing case-study results obtained using a dedicated apparatus for measuring the gas composition in reactors operating at high temperature (reactor, while suppressing the thermal decomposition of the analytes. It thus allows a more accurate study of the mechanism of progressive thermocatalytic cracking of precursors compared to previously reported conventional residual gas analyses of the reactor exhaust gas and hence paves the way for the controlled production of novel nanomaterials with tailored properties. Our studies demonstrate that the composition of the precursors dynamically changes as they travel inside of the reactor, causing a nonuniform growth of nanomaterials. Moreover, mapping of the nanomaterials reactor using quantitative gas analysis revealed the actual contribution of thermocatalytic cracking and a quantification of individual precursor fragments. This information is particularly important for quality control of the produced nanomaterials and for the recycling of exhaust residues, ultimately leading toward a more cost-effective continuous production of nanomaterials in large quantities. Our case study of multiwall carbon nanotube synthesis was conducted using the probe in conjunction with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. Given the similarities of this particular CVD setup to other CVD reactors and high-temperature setups generally used for nanomaterials synthesis, the concept and methodology of in situ gas analysis presented here does also apply to other systems, making it a versatile and widely applicable method across a wide range of materials/manufacturing methods, catalysis, as well as reactor design and engineering.

  2. Development of oral microencapsulated forms for delivering viral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaeva, Elena

    2002-10-01

    Rapid development in biotechnology during the last decade has allowed novel ideas in the development of antiviral vaccines to be considered and provides interesting technological approaches to their realization. Designing of microencapsulated forms for delivering bacterial and viral antigens or antigenic complexes using biodegradable biopolymers is an important novel direction. This approach involves the production of polymeric spherical particles with a diameter of 1 microm to 3 mm, containing isolated viral antigens or whole viral particles. Microencapsulated antigens administered orally are protected from low pH values of the gastric juice, bile acids, their salts and proteolytic enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract. The ability to drastically potentiate the immune response to encapsulated antigens, together with the ability to penetrate into the intestinal and respiratory mucosae upon oral and tracheal administrations, respectively, with induction of local and systemic immune reactions are the special merits of such polymers. However, the majority of data on microencapsulated viral vaccines has so far been obtained in animal models, as well as a limited number of studies on the protective effect they elicit. Certain success in the development of vaccines against a number of human viral infections, such as hepatitis B, cytomegalovirus and rotavirus, gives hope to successful completion of this research. Presumably, such vaccines will be safe and innocuous, simple in administration and capable of inducing both the systemic and local immune responses at the primary portal of viral infection.

  3. Versatile architectures for onboard payload signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, K.H.G.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes a system-on-chip (SoC) architecture for future space mis- sions. The SoC market for deep-space missions develops slowly and is limited in features compared to the market of consumer electronics. Where consumers of- ten cannot keep up with the features which are offered to them

  4. Polylactic acid organogel as versatile scaffolding technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punet, Xavier; Levato, Riccardo; Bataille, Isabelle; Letourneur, Didier; Engel, Elisabeth; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A

    2017-01-01

    Tissue engineering requires scaffolding techniques based on non-toxic processes that permits the fabrication of constructs with tailored properties. Here, a two-step methodology based on the gelation and precipitation of the poly(lactic) acid/ethyl lactate organogel system is presented. With this

  5. Versatile Affordable Advanced Fuels and Combustion Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    the study of biocorrosion e an overview. Revista de Microbiologia 30, 177e190. Bull, A., Goodfellow, M., Slater, J., 1992. Biodiversity as a source of...and fungi in an aviation fuel handling system and its relationship with fuel fouling. Revista Argentina de Microbiologia 30, 105e114. Good, I., 1953

  6. Versatile Hydrogen-Hydrogen Bond with a Difference

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 6. Versatile Hydrogen-Hydrogen Bond with a Difference. A G Samuelson. Research News Volume 1 Issue 6 June 1996 pp 87-89. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/06/0087-0089 ...

  7. Flexible macrocycles as versatile supports for catalytically active metal clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, JD; Gagnon, KJ; Teat, SJ; McIntosh, RD

    2016-02-12

    Here we present three structurally diverse clusters stabilised by the same macrocyclic polyphenol; t-butylcalix[8]arene. This work demonstrates the range of conformations the flexible ligand is capable of adopting, highlighting its versatility in metal coordination. In addition, a Ti complex displays activity for the ring-opening polymerisation of lactide

  8. A versatile route to benzodiazocine and spiropyran derivatives ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    125, No. 3, May 2013, pp. 517–524. c Indian Academy of Sciences. A versatile route to benzodiazocine and spiropyran derivatives through chalcones. JOHNSON GEORGEa, SAURABH SINGHa,. RAHUL JOSHIa and RAMCHAND T PARDASANIb,∗. aDepartment of Chemistry, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 055, India.

  9. Propeller Flap for Complex Distal Leg Reconstruction: A Versatile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Versatile Alternative when Reverse Sural Artery Flap is. Not Feasible. Samuel A. Ademola, Afieharo I. Michael, Femi .... flaps that were raised in the patient and the logistics of limb positioning after application of external fixators for bone ... Financial support and sponsorship. Nil. Conflicts of interest. There are no conflicts of ...

  10. Soybean ( Glycine max ) as a versatile biocatalyst for organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean ( Glycine max ) as a versatile biocatalyst for organic synthesis. ... Most of the obtained alcohols have commercial value as cosmetic fragrances. Although, the enzymes present in soybean (reductase/lipase) has not been defined, the reaction is an important route for the preparation of pure alcohols and carboxylic ...

  11. Propeller Flap for Complex Distal Leg Reconstruction: A Versatile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reverse sural artery fasciocutaneous flap has become a workhorse for the reconstruction of distal leg soft ... A Versatile Alternative when Reverse Sural Artery Flap is. Not Feasible. Samuel A. Ademola, Afieharo I. .... flaps that were raised in the patient and the logistics of limb positioning after application of external fixators ...

  12. Viral diseases affecting the pleura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Jennings; Huggins, Terrill; Kummerfeldt, Carlos; DiVietro, Matthew; Walters, Kenneth; Sahn, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Viruses affect the human body in multiple ways producing various disease states. The infections of the pulmonary parenchyma have been well described. However, there has been no current review of the literature pertaining to the pleura. To review the available literature pertaining to diseases of the pleura that are caused by viral infections. A Medline search was performed and available research and review articles relating to viral infections that resulted in pleural effusions, pleural masses, pleural thickening, and pleural nodularity were reviewed. There are numerous viruses that cause diseases of the pleura. Pleural effusions and lesions within the pleura are the most common presentation of the disease state. Polymerase chain reaction has the potential to further diagnose viral infections and expand our knowledge base in this field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute bacterial and viral meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartt, Russell

    2012-12-01

    Most cases of acute meningitis are infectious and result from a potentially wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. The organized approach to the patient with suspected meningitis enables the prompt administration of antibiotics, possibly corticosteroids, and diagnostic testing with neuroimaging and spinal fluid analysis. Acute meningitis is infectious in most cases and caused by a potentially wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. Shifts in the epidemiology of bacterial pathogens have been influenced by changes in vaccines and their implementation. Seasonal and environmental changes influence the likely viral and rickettsial pathogens. The organized approach to the patient with suspected meningitis enables the prompt administration of antibiotics, possibly corticosteroids, and diagnostic testing with neuroimaging and spinal fluid analysis. Pertinent testing and treatment can vary with the clinical presentation, season, and possible exposures. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of acute meningitis.

  14. Icosahedral plant viral nanoparticles - bioinspired synthesis of nanomaterials/nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Han, Sung Soo

    2017-10-01

    Viral nanotechnology utilizes virus nanoparticles (VNPs) and virus-like nanoparticles (VLPs) of plant viruses as highly versatile platforms for materials synthesis and molecular entrapment that can be used in the nanotechnological fields, such as in next-generation nanoelectronics, nanocatalysis, biosensing and optics, and biomedical applications, such as for targeting, therapeutic delivery, and non-invasive in vivo imaging with high specificity and selectivity. In particular, plant virus capsids provide biotemplates for the production of novel nanostructured materials with organic/inorganic moieties incorporated in a very precise and controlled manner. Interestingly, capsid proteins of spherical plant viruses can self-assemble into well-organized icosahedral three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale multivalent architectures with high monodispersity and structural symmetry. Using viral genetic and protein engineering of icosahedral viruses with a variety of sizes, the interior, exterior and the interfaces between coat protein (CP) subunits can be manipulated to fabricate materials with a wide range of desirable properties allowing for biomineralization, encapsulation, infusion, controlled self-assembly, and multivalent ligand display of nanoparticles or molecules for varied applications. In this review, we discuss the various functional nanomaterials/nanostructures developed using the VNPs and VLPs of different icosahedral plant viruses and their nano(bio)technological and nanomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Myeloid C-Type Lectin Receptors in Viral Recognition and Antiviral Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, João T; Lepenies, Bernd

    2017-03-22

    Recognition of viral glycans by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in innate immunity contributes to antiviral immune responses. C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are PRRs capable of sensing glycans present in viral pathogens to activate antiviral immune responses such as phagocytosis, antigen processing and presentation, and subsequent T cell activation. The ability of CLRs to elicit and shape adaptive immunity plays a critical role in the inhibition of viral spread within the host. However, certain viruses exploit CLRs for viral entry into host cells to avoid immune recognition. To block CLR interactions with viral glycoproteins, antiviral strategies may involve the use of multivalent glycan carrier systems. In this review, we describe the role of CLRs in antiviral immunity and we highlight their dual function in viral clearance and exploitation by viral pathogens.

  16. VIRAL PATTERN OF RESPIRATORY DISEASES AMONG PILGRIMS OF HAJJ, SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar Panahi, Sajjad Panahi, Arezoo Sabbagh Hadi, Mohamad Reza Havasian*

    2017-01-01

    The respiratory system infections have been one of the biggest problems for the pilgrims and the medical organizations of hajj in the recent years. Viral agents play an important role in these diseases; more than 200 viral agents can cause infection in the respiratory system. This research aimed to study of viral pattern of respiratory diseases among pilgrims of hajj- Mecca. A comprehensive review of all studies conducted on respiratory diseases among Hajj pilgrims from 2000 to 2017 was carri...

  17. SPACEWAY: Providing affordable and versatile communication solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, E. J.

    1995-08-01

    By the end of this decade, Hughes' SPACEWAY network will provide the first interactive 'bandwidth on demand' communication services for a variety of applications. High quality digital voice, interactive video, global access to multimedia databases, and transborder workgroup computing will make SPACEWAY an essential component of the computer-based workplace of the 21st century. With relatively few satellites to construct, insure, and launch -- plus extensive use of cost-effective, tightly focused spot beams on the world's most populated areas -- the high capacity SPACEWAY system can pass its significant cost savings onto its customers. The SPACEWAY network is different from other proposed global networks in that its geostationary orbit location makes it a truly market driven system: each satellite will make available extensive telecom services to hundreds of millions of people within the continuous view of that satellite, providing immediate capacity within a specific region of the world.

  18. Versatile Density Functionals for Computational Surface Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorff, Jess

    Density functional theory (DFT) emerged almost 50 years ago. Since then DFT has established itself as the central electronic structure methodology for simulating atomicscale systems from a few atoms to a few hundred atoms. This success of DFT is due to a very favorable accuracy-to-computational c......Density functional theory (DFT) emerged almost 50 years ago. Since then DFT has established itself as the central electronic structure methodology for simulating atomicscale systems from a few atoms to a few hundred atoms. This success of DFT is due to a very favorable accuracy...... resampling techniques, thereby systematically avoiding problems with overfitting. The first ever density functional presenting both reliable accuracy and convincing error estimation is generated. The methodology is general enough to be applied to more complex functional forms with higher-dimensional fitting...

  19. Versatility of peroxisomes: An evolving concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Rachayeeta; Nagotu, Shirisha

    2017-04-01

    Research spanning almost 50 years has highlighted unique characteristics and irreplaceable list of diverse functions performed by peroxisomes in various model systems. Peroxisomes are single membrane bound highly dynamic organelles ubiquitous to most eukaryotic cells. Proliferation by division of pre-existing organelles and the role of endoplasmic reticulum in the biogenesis of these organelles is now well established. The earliest identified conserved functions of peroxisomes are β-oxidation of fatty acids and reactive oxygen species metabolism. Several studies over the last few decades have reported the importance of this organelle and its numerous cell type, tissue and environment-dependent functions. Their role in several aspects of human health and disease is now under investigation. Studies related to peroxisome biology and functions are now also extended to diverse model systems like Drosophila melanogaster, trypanosomatids, etc. Peroxisomes also intricately collaborate and carry out these functions together with several other organelles in a cell. In this review, we aim to present an overview of our current knowledge of the repertoire of functions of peroxisomes in various model systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Versatile Formal Methods Applied to Quantum Information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzel, Wayne [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudinger, Kenneth Michael [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sarovar, Mohan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Using a novel formal methods approach, we have generated computer-veri ed proofs of major theorems pertinent to the quantum phase estimation algorithm. This was accomplished using our Prove-It software package in Python. While many formal methods tools are available, their practical utility is limited. Translating a problem of interest into these systems and working through the steps of a proof is an art form that requires much expertise. One must surrender to the preferences and restrictions of the tool regarding how mathematical notions are expressed and what deductions are allowed. Automation is a major driver that forces restrictions. Our focus, on the other hand, is to produce a tool that allows users the ability to con rm proofs that are essentially known already. This goal is valuable in itself. We demonstrate the viability of our approach that allows the user great exibility in expressing state- ments and composing derivations. There were no major obstacles in following a textbook proof of the quantum phase estimation algorithm. There were tedious details of algebraic manipulations that we needed to implement (and a few that we did not have time to enter into our system) and some basic components that we needed to rethink, but there were no serious roadblocks. In the process, we made a number of convenient additions to our Prove-It package that will make certain algebraic manipulations easier to perform in the future. In fact, our intent is for our system to build upon itself in this manner.

  1. Using Participatory System Dynamics Modeling to Examine the Local HIV Test and Treatment Care Continuum in Order to Reduce Community Viral Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Margaret R; Li, Jianghong; Lounsbury, David; Green, Helena Danielle; Abbott, Maryann; Berman, Marcie; Rohena, Lucy; Gonzalez, Rosely; Lang, Shawn; Mosher, Heather

    2017-12-01

    Achieving community-level goals to eliminate the HIV epidemic requires coordinated efforts through community consortia with a common purpose to examine and critique their own HIV testing and treatment (T&T) care system and build effective tools to guide their efforts to improve it. Participatory system dynamics (SD) modeling offers conceptual, methodological, and analytical tools to engage diverse stakeholders in systems conceptualization and visual mapping of dynamics that undermine community-level health outcomes and identify those that can be leveraged for systems improvement. We recruited and engaged a 25-member multi-stakeholder Task Force, whose members provide or utilize HIV-related services, to participate in SD modeling to examine and address problems of their local HIV T&T service system. Findings from the iterative model building sessions indicated Task Force members' increasingly complex understanding of the local HIV care system and demonstrated their improved capacity to visualize and critique multiple models of the HIV T&T service system and identify areas of potential leverage. Findings also showed members' enhanced communication and consensus in seeking deeper systems understanding and options for solutions. We discuss implications of using these visual SD models for subsequent simulation modeling of the T&T system and for other community applications to improve system effectiveness. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  2. Versatile Fiber Optic 6-Component Force Measurement System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The mission of NASA's ATP is to maintain and advance the testing capabilities of the United States' extensive infrastructure of aerospace research facilities. One...

  3. Production and titering of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Christina; Cole, Katy L H; Wulff, Peer; Klugmann, Matthias; Murray, Andrew J

    2011-11-27

    In recent years recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) have become increasingly valuable for in vivo studies in animals, and are also currently being tested in human clinical trials. Wild-type AAV is a non-pathogenic member of the parvoviridae family and inherently replication-deficient. The broad transduction profile, low immune response as well as the strong and persistent transgene expression achieved with these vectors has made them a popular and versatile tool for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. rAAVs can be easily and cheaply produced in the laboratory and, based on their favourable safety profile, are generally given a low safety classification. Here, we describe a method for the production and titering of chimeric rAAVs containing the capsid proteins of both AAV1 and AAV2. The use of these so-called chimeric vectors combines the benefits of both parental serotypes such as high titres stocks (AAV1) and purification by affinity chromatography (AAV2). These AAV serotypes are the best studied of all AAV serotypes, and individually have a broad infectivity pattern. The chimeric vectors described here should have the infectious properties of AAV1 and AAV2 and can thus be expected to infect a large range of tissues, including neurons, skeletal muscle, pancreas, kidney among others. The method described here uses heparin column purification, a method believed to give a higher viral titer and cleaner viral preparation than other purification methods, such as centrifugation through a caesium chloride gradient. Additionally, we describe how these vectors can be quickly and easily titered to give accurate reading of the number of infectious particles produced.

  4. Versatile spin-polarized electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, Chris; Park, Cheol -Hwan; Gotlieb, Kenneth; Louie, Steven G.; Hussain, Zahid; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2015-09-22

    One or more embodiments relate generally to the field of photoelectron spin and, more specifically, to a method and system for creating a controllable spin-polarized electron source. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for creating a controllable spin-polarized electron source comprising the following steps: providing one or more materials, the one or more materials having at least one surface and a material layer adjacent to said surface, wherein said surface comprises highly spin-polarized surface electrons, wherein the direction and spin of the surface electrons are locked together; providing at least one incident light capable of stimulating photoemission of said surface electrons; wherein the photon polarization of said incident light is tunable; and inducing photoemission of the surface electron states.

  5. Viral Infections and Febrile Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of febrile seizures (FS in a cohort of children, ages 3 months to 5 years, living in a Netherlands province was compared with the incidence of common viral infections reported to a national registry and the results reported from the Department of Medical Microbiology, Public Health Laboratory Friesland, Leeuwarden, The Netherlands.

  6. Viral Infection and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Li (Juan)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractMuch of liver pathology is related to infection with HBV and HCV and it is important to define factors associated with clinical behavior of disease following infection with these viruses. Thus in this thesis I first focus on the natural history of chronic viral diseases associated

  7. Viral hepatitis B- an overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-08-08

    Aug 8, 1994 ... Hepatitis B e antigen. (HBeAg) is a soluble non-structural, enigmatic antigen which is often detected in the blood of patients infected with replicating HBV which results in massive viral load in the blood. Both HBe and HBc are derived from the same section of HBV DNA but the HBe transcript contains an.

  8. Autoimmune disease: A role for new anti-viral therapies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, David H

    2011-12-01

    Many chronic human diseases may have an underlying autoimmune mechanism. In this review, the author presents a case of autoimmune CIU (chronic idiopathic urticaria) in stable remission after therapy with a retroviral integrase inhibitor, raltegravir (Isentress). Previous reports located using the search terms "autoimmunity" and "anti-viral" and related topics in the pubmed data-base are reviewed suggesting that novel anti-viral agents such as retroviral integrase inhibitors, gene silencing therapies and eventually vaccines may provide new options for anti-viral therapy of autoimmune diseases. Cited epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests that increased replication of epigenomic viral pathogens such as Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in chronic human autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus Erythematosus (SLE), and multiple sclerosis (MS) may activate endogenous human retroviruses (HERV) as a pathologic mechanism. Memory B cells are the reservoir of infection of EBV and also express endogenous retroviruses, thus depletion of memory b-lymphocytes by monoclonal antibodies (Rituximab) may have therapeutic anti-viral effects in addition to effects on B-lymphocyte presentation of both EBV and HERV superantigens. Other novel anti-viral therapies of chronic autoimmune diseases, such as retroviral integrase inhibitors, could be effective, although not without risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A SNAP-tagged derivative of HIV-1--a versatile tool to study virus-cell interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon Eckhardt

    Full Text Available Fluorescently labeled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV derivatives, combined with the use of advanced fluorescence microscopy techniques, allow the direct visualization of dynamic events and individual steps in the viral life cycle. HIV proteins tagged with fluorescent proteins (FPs have been successfully used for live-cell imaging analyses of HIV-cell interactions. However, FPs display limitations with respect to their physicochemical properties, and their maturation kinetics. Furthermore, several independent FP-tagged constructs have to be cloned and characterized in order to obtain spectral variations suitable for multi-color imaging setups. In contrast, the so-called SNAP-tag represents a genetically encoded non-fluorescent tag which mediates specific covalent coupling to fluorescent substrate molecules in a self-labeling reaction. Fusion of the SNAP-tag to the protein of interest allows specific labeling of the fusion protein with a variety of synthetic dyes, thereby offering enhanced flexibility for fluorescence imaging approaches.Here we describe the construction and characterization of the HIV derivative HIV(SNAP, which carries the SNAP-tag as an additional domain within the viral structural polyprotein Gag. Introduction of the tag close to the C-terminus of the matrix domain of Gag did not interfere with particle assembly, release or proteolytic virus maturation. The modified virions were infectious and could be propagated in tissue culture, albeit with reduced replication capacity. Insertion of the SNAP domain within Gag allowed specific staining of the viral polyprotein in the context of virus producing cells using a SNAP reactive dye as well as the visualization of individual virions and viral budding sites by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. Thus, HIV(SNAP represents a versatile tool which expands the possibilities for the analysis of HIV-cell interactions using live cell imaging and sub-diffraction fluorescence

  10. A versatile gas interface for routine radiocarbon analysis with a gas ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, L., E-mail: wacker@phys.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Fahrni, S.M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, 3012 Berne (Switzerland); Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, 3012 Berne (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Hajdas, I. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Molnar, M. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Synal, H.-A. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Szidat, S. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, 3012 Berne (Switzerland); Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, 3012 Berne (Switzerland); Zhang, Y.L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, 3012 Berne (Switzerland); Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, 3012 Berne (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15

    In 2010 more than 600 radiocarbon samples were measured with the gas ion source at the MIni CArbon DAting System (MICADAS) at ETH Zurich and the number of measurements is rising quickly. While most samples contain less than 50 {mu}g C at present, the gas ion source is attractive as well for larger samples because the time-consuming graphitization is omitted. Additionally, modern samples are now measured down to 5 per-mill counting statistics in less than 30 min with the recently improved gas ion source. In the versatile gas handling system, a stepping-motor-driven syringe presses a mixture of helium and sample CO{sub 2} into the gas ion source, allowing continuous and stable measurements of different kinds of samples. CO{sub 2} can be provided in four different ways to the versatile gas interface. As a primary method, CO{sub 2} is delivered in glass or quartz ampoules. In this case, the CO{sub 2} is released in an automated ampoule cracker with 8 positions for individual samples. Secondly, OX-1 and blank gas in helium can be provided to the syringe by directly connecting gas bottles to the gas interface at the stage of the cracker. Thirdly, solid samples can be combusted in an elemental analyzer or in a thermo-optical OC/EC aerosol analyzer where the produced CO{sub 2} is transferred to the syringe via a zeolite trap for gas concentration. As a fourth method, CO{sub 2} is released from carbonates with phosphoric acid in septum-sealed vials and loaded onto the same trap used for the elemental analyzer. All four methods allow complete automation of the measurement, even though minor user input is presently still required. Details on the setup, versatility and applications of the gas handling system are given.

  11. Mast cells in viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Witczak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  There are some premises suggesting that mast cells are involved in the mechanisms of anti-virus defense and in viral disease pathomechanisms. Mast cells are particularly numerous at the portals of infections and thus may have immediate and easy contact with the external environment and invading pathogens. These cells express receptors responsible for recognition of virus-derived PAMP molecules, mainly Toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9, but also RIG-I-like and NOD-like molecules. Furthermore, mast cells generate various mediators, cytokines and chemokines which modulate the intensity of inflammation and regulate the course of innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity. Indirect evidence for the role of mast cells in viral infections is also provided by clinical observations and results of animal studies. Currently, more and more data indicate that mast cells can be infected by some viruses (dengue virus, adenoviruses, hantaviruses, cytomegaloviruses, reoviruses, HIV-1 virus. It is also demonstrated that mast cells can release pre formed mediators as well as synthesize de novo eicosanoids in response to stimulation by viruses. Several data indicate that virus-stimulated mast cells secrete cytokines and chemokines, including interferons as well as chemokines with a key role in NK and Tc lymphocyte influx. Moreover, some information indicates that mast cell stimulation via TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9 can affect their adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and chemotaxis, and influence expression of some membrane molecules. Critical analysis of current data leads to the conclusion that it is not yet possible to make definitive statements about the role of mast cells in innate and acquired defense mechanisms developing in the course of viral infection and/or pathomechanisms of viral diseases.

  12. Rapid multiplex PCR assay to identify respiratory viral pathogens: moving forward diagnosing the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layman, Clifton P; Gordon, Sarah M; Elegino-Steffens, Diane U; Agee, Willie; Barnhill, Jason; Hsue, Gunther

    2013-09-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) can be a serious burden to the healthcare system. The majority of URIs are viral in etiology, but definitive diagnosis can prove difficult due to frequently overlapping clinical presentations of viral and bacterial infections, and the variable sensitivity, and lengthy turn-around time of viral culture. We tested new automated nested multiplex PCR technology, the FilmArray(®) system, in the TAMC department of clinical investigations, to determine the feasibility of replacing the standard viral culture with a rapid turn-around system. We conducted a feasibility study using a single-blinded comparison study, comparing PCR results with archived viral culture results from a convenience sample of cryopreserved archived nasopharyngeal swabs from acutely ill ED patients who presented with complaints of URI symptoms. A total of 61 archived samples were processed. Viral culture had previously identified 31 positive specimens from these samples. The automated nested multiplex PCR detected 38 positive samples. In total, PCR was 94.5% concordant with the previously positive viral culture results. However, PCR was only 63.4% concordant with the negative viral culture results, owing to PCR detection of 11 additional viral pathogens not recovered on viral culture. The average time to process a sample was 75 minutes. We determined that an automated nested multiplex PCR is a feasible alternative to viral culture in an acute clinical setting. We were able to detect at least 94.5% as many viral pathogens as viral culture is able to identify, with a faster turn-around time.

  13. Porous Silicon—A Versatile Host Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemens Rumpf

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews the use of porous silicon (PS as a nanomaterial which is extensively investigated and utilized for various applications, e.g., in the fields of optics, sensor technology and biomedicine. Furthermore the combination of PS with one or more materials which are also nanostructured due to their deposition within the porous matrix is discussed. Such nanocompounds offer a broad avenue of new and interesting properties depending on the kind of involved materials as well as on their morphology. The filling of the pores performed by electroless or electrochemical deposition is described, whereas different morphologies, reaching from micro- to macro pores are utilized as host material which can be self-organized or fabricated by prestructuring. For metal-deposition within the porous structures, both ferromagnetic and non-magnetic metals are used. Emphasis will be put on self-arranged mesoporous silicon, offering a quasi-regular pore arrangement, employed as template for filling with ferromagnetic metals. By varying the deposition parameters the precipitation of the metal structures within the pores can be tuned in geometry and spatial distribution leading to samples with desired magnetic properties. The correlation between morphology and magnetic behaviour of such semiconducting/magnetic systems will be determined. Porous silicon and its combination with a variety of filling materials leads to nanocomposites with specific physical properties caused by the nanometric size and give rise to a multiplicity of potential applications in spintronics, magnetic and magneto-optic devices, nutritional food additives as well as drug delivery.

  14. Environmental versatility promotes modularity in genome-scale metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Areejit; Wagner, Andreas; Martin, Olivier C

    2011-08-24

    The ubiquity of modules in biological networks may result from an evolutionary benefit of a modular organization. For instance, modularity may increase the rate of adaptive evolution, because modules can be easily combined into new arrangements that may benefit their carrier. Conversely, modularity may emerge as a by-product of some trait. We here ask whether this last scenario may play a role in genome-scale metabolic networks that need to sustain life in one or more chemical environments. For such networks, we define a network module as a maximal set of reactions that are fully coupled, i.e., whose fluxes can only vary in fixed proportions. This definition overcomes limitations of purely graph based analyses of metabolism by exploiting the functional links between reactions. We call a metabolic network viable in a given chemical environment if it can synthesize all of an organism's biomass compounds from nutrients in this environment. An organism's metabolism is highly versatile if it can sustain life in many different chemical environments. We here ask whether versatility affects the modularity of metabolic networks. Using recently developed techniques to randomly sample large numbers of viable metabolic networks from a vast space of metabolic networks, we use flux balance analysis to study in silico metabolic networks that differ in their versatility. We find that highly versatile networks are also highly modular. They contain more modules and more reactions that are organized into modules. Most or all reactions in a module are associated with the same biochemical pathways. Modules that arise in highly versatile networks generally involve reactions that process nutrients or closely related chemicals. We also observe that the metabolism of E. coli is significantly more modular than even our most versatile networks. Our work shows that modularity in metabolic networks can be a by-product of functional constraints, e.g., the need to sustain life in multiple

  15. Environmental versatility promotes modularity in genome-scale metabolic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The ubiquity of modules in biological networks may result from an evolutionary benefit of a modular organization. For instance, modularity may increase the rate of adaptive evolution, because modules can be easily combined into new arrangements that may benefit their carrier. Conversely, modularity may emerge as a by-product of some trait. We here ask whether this last scenario may play a role in genome-scale metabolic networks that need to sustain life in one or more chemical environments. For such networks, we define a network module as a maximal set of reactions that are fully coupled, i.e., whose fluxes can only vary in fixed proportions. This definition overcomes limitations of purely graph based analyses of metabolism by exploiting the functional links between reactions. We call a metabolic network viable in a given chemical environment if it can synthesize all of an organism's biomass compounds from nutrients in this environment. An organism's metabolism is highly versatile if it can sustain life in many different chemical environments. We here ask whether versatility affects the modularity of metabolic networks. Results Using recently developed techniques to randomly sample large numbers of viable metabolic networks from a vast space of metabolic networks, we use flux balance analysis to study in silico metabolic networks that differ in their versatility. We find that highly versatile networks are also highly modular. They contain more modules and more reactions that are organized into modules. Most or all reactions in a module are associated with the same biochemical pathways. Modules that arise in highly versatile networks generally involve reactions that process nutrients or closely related chemicals. We also observe that the metabolism of E. coli is significantly more modular than even our most versatile networks. Conclusions Our work shows that modularity in metabolic networks can be a by-product of functional constraints, e.g., the need to

  16. Environmental versatility promotes modularity in genome-scale metabolic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Andreas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ubiquity of modules in biological networks may result from an evolutionary benefit of a modular organization. For instance, modularity may increase the rate of adaptive evolution, because modules can be easily combined into new arrangements that may benefit their carrier. Conversely, modularity may emerge as a by-product of some trait. We here ask whether this last scenario may play a role in genome-scale metabolic networks that need to sustain life in one or more chemical environments. For such networks, we define a network module as a maximal set of reactions that are fully coupled, i.e., whose fluxes can only vary in fixed proportions. This definition overcomes limitations of purely graph based analyses of metabolism by exploiting the functional links between reactions. We call a metabolic network viable in a given chemical environment if it can synthesize all of an organism's biomass compounds from nutrients in this environment. An organism's metabolism is highly versatile if it can sustain life in many different chemical environments. We here ask whether versatility affects the modularity of metabolic networks. Results Using recently developed techniques to randomly sample large numbers of viable metabolic networks from a vast space of metabolic networks, we use flux balance analysis to study in silico metabolic networks that differ in their versatility. We find that highly versatile networks are also highly modular. They contain more modules and more reactions that are organized into modules. Most or all reactions in a module are associated with the same biochemical pathways. Modules that arise in highly versatile networks generally involve reactions that process nutrients or closely related chemicals. We also observe that the metabolism of E. coli is significantly more modular than even our most versatile networks. Conclusions Our work shows that modularity in metabolic networks can be a by-product of functional

  17. [Oral viral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Exclude herpes infection in the presence of acute oral ulcers of unknown origin, particularly in patients in poor general condition. Remember that asymptomatic HSV-1 shedding in saliva may result in an oral-genital transmission. Perform an anogenital examination and a screening for other sexually transmitted diseases when oral warts are diagnosed. Search for immunosuppression and monitor the patient (screening for a potential associated carcinoma) when there is rapid growth of oral warts. Consider all the clinical signs (systemic, skin, other mucosa, immunity...) when a patient has an enanthem or oral ulcerations. Ask for a HIV test when an oral Kaposi's sarcoma, a hairy leukoplakia or major aphthae are diagnosed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. A direct and versatile assay measuring membrane penetration of adenovirus in single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomalainen, Maarit; Luisoni, Stefania; Boucke, Karin; Bianchi, Sarah; Engel, Daniel A; Greber, Urs F

    2013-11-01

    Endocytosis is the most prevalent entry port for viruses into cells, but viruses must escape from the lumen of endosomes to ensure that viral genomes reach a site for replication and progeny formation. Endosomal escape also helps viruses bypass endolysosomal degradation and presentation to certain Toll-like intrinsic immunity receptors. The mechanisms for cytosolic delivery of nonenveloped viruses or nucleocapsids from enveloped viruses are poorly understood, in part because no quantitative assays are readily available which directly measure the penetration of viruses into the cytosol. Following uptake by clathrin-mediated endocytosis or macropinocytosis, the nonenveloped adenoviruses penetrate from endosomes to the cytosol, and they traffic with cellular motors on microtubules to the nucleus for replication. In this report, we present a novel single-cell imaging assay which quantitatively measures individual cytosolic viruses and distinguishes them from endosomal viruses or viruses at the plasma membrane. Using this assay, we showed that the penetration of human adenoviruses of the species C and B occurs rapidly after virus uptake. Efficient penetration does not require acidic pH in endosomes. This assay is versatile and can be adapted to other adenoviruses and members of other nonenveloped and enveloped virus families.

  19. A Direct and Versatile Assay Measuring Membrane Penetration of Adenovirus in Single Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomalainen, Maarit; Luisoni, Stefania; Boucke, Karin; Bianchi, Sarah; Engel, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Endocytosis is the most prevalent entry port for viruses into cells, but viruses must escape from the lumen of endosomes to ensure that viral genomes reach a site for replication and progeny formation. Endosomal escape also helps viruses bypass endolysosomal degradation and presentation to certain Toll-like intrinsic immunity receptors. The mechanisms for cytosolic delivery of nonenveloped viruses or nucleocapsids from enveloped viruses are poorly understood, in part because no quantitative assays are readily available which directly measure the penetration of viruses into the cytosol. Following uptake by clathrin-mediated endocytosis or macropinocytosis, the nonenveloped adenoviruses penetrate from endosomes to the cytosol, and they traffic with cellular motors on microtubules to the nucleus for replication. In this report, we present a novel single-cell imaging assay which quantitatively measures individual cytosolic viruses and distinguishes them from endosomal viruses or viruses at the plasma membrane. Using this assay, we showed that the penetration of human adenoviruses of the species C and B occurs rapidly after virus uptake. Efficient penetration does not require acidic pH in endosomes. This assay is versatile and can be adapted to other adenoviruses and members of other nonenveloped and enveloped virus families. PMID:24027314

  20. Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Viral Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A Jones

    Full Text Available This paper uses methods drawn from physics to study the life cycle of viruses. The paper analyzes a model of viral infection and evolution using the "grand canonical ensemble" and formalisms from statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. Using this approach we enumerate all possible genetic states of a model virus and host as a function of two independent pressures-immune response and system temperature. We prove the system has a real thermodynamic temperature, and discover a new phase transition between a positive temperature regime of normal replication and a negative temperature "disordered" phase of the virus. We distinguish this from previous observations of a phase transition that arises as a function of mutation rate. From an evolutionary biology point of view, at steady state the viruses naturally evolve to distinct quasispecies. This paper also reveals a universal relationship that relates the order parameter (as a measure of mutational robustness to evolvability in agreement with recent experimental and theoretical work. Given that real viruses have finite length RNA segments that encode proteins which determine virus fitness, the approach used here could be refined to apply to real biological systems, perhaps providing insight into immune escape, the emergence of novel pathogens and other results of viral evolution.

  1. Vaccines for viral diseases with dermatologic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentjens, Mathijs H; Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2003-04-01

    Vaccines against infectious diseases have been available since the 1800s, when an immunization strategy against smallpox developed by Jenner gained wide acceptance. Until recently, the only vaccination strategies available involved the use of protein-based, whole killed, and attenuated live virus vaccines. These strategies have led to the development of effective vaccines against a variety of diseases with primary or prominent cutaneous manifestations. Effective and safe vaccines now used worldwide include those directed against measles and rubella (now commonly used together with a mumps vaccine as the trivalent MMR), chickenpox, and hepatitis B. The eradication of naturally occurring smallpox remains one of the greatest successes in the history of modern medicine, but stockpiles of live smallpox exist in the United States and Russia. Renewed interest in the smallpox vaccine reflects concerns about a possible bioterrorist threat using this virus. Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic virus endemic to tropical areas of South America and Africa. An effective vaccine for this virus has existed since 1937, and it is used widely in endemic areas of South America, and to a lesser extent in Africa. This vaccine is recommended once every 10 years for people who are traveling to endemic areas. Advances in immunology have led to a greater understanding of immune system function in viral diseases. Progress in genetics and molecular biology has allowed researchers to design vaccines with novel mechanisms of action (eg, DNA, vector, and VLP vaccines). Vaccines have also been designed to specifically target particular viral components, allowing for stimulation of various arms of the immune system as desired. Ongoing research shows promise in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination for viral infections with cutaneous manifestations. Further studies are necessary before vaccines for HSV, HPV, and HIV become commercially available.

  2. A versatile and interoperable network sensors for water resources monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, Alberto; Brandini, Carlo; Costantini, Roberto; Costanza, Letizia; Innocenti, Lucia; Sabatini, Francesco; Gozzini, Bernardo

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring systems to assess water resources quantity and quality require extensive use of in-situ measurements, that have great limitations like difficulties to access and share data, and to customise and easy reconfigure sensors network to fulfil end-users needs during monitoring or crisis phases. In order to address such limitations Sensor Web Enablement technologies for sensors management have been developed and applied to different environmental context under the EU-funded OSIRIS project (Open architecture for Smart and Interoperable networks in Risk management based on In-situ Sensors, www.osiris-fp6.eu). The main objective of OSIRIS was to create a monitoring system to manage different environmental crisis situations, through an efficient data processing chain where in-situ sensors are connected via an intelligent and versatile network infrastructure (based on web technologies) that enables end-users to remotely access multi-domain sensors information. Among the project application, one was focused on underground fresh-water monitoring and management. With this aim a monitoring system to continuously and automatically check water quality and quantity has been designed and built in a pilot test, identified as a portion of the Amiata aquifer feeding the Santa Fiora springs (Grosseto, Italy). This aquifer present some characteristics that make it greatly vulnerable under some conditions. It is a volcanic aquifer with a fractured structure. The volcanic nature in Santa Fiora causes levels of arsenic concentrations that normally are very close to the threshold stated by law, but that sometimes overpass such threshold for reasons still not fully understood. The presence of fractures makes the infiltration rate very inhomogeneous from place to place and very high in correspondence of big fractures. In case of liquid-pollutant spills (typically hydrocarbons spills from tanker accidents or leakage from house tanks containing fuel for heating), these fractures can act

  3. Extracellular Vesicles and Their Convergence with Viral Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wurdinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (microvesicles, such as exosomes and shed microvesicles, contain a variety of molecules including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Microvesicles appear mostly to originate from multivesicular bodies or to bud from the plasma membrane. Here, we review the convergence of microvesicle biogenesis and aspects of viral assembly and release pathways. Herpesviruses and retroviruses, amongst others, recruit several elements from the microvesicle biogenesis pathways for functional virus release. In addition, noninfectious pleiotropic virus-like vesicles can be released, containing viral and cellular components. We highlight the heterogeneity of microvesicle function during viral infection, addressing microvesicles that can either block or enhance infection, or cause immune dysregulation through bystander action in the immune system. Finally, endogenous retrovirus and retrotransposon elements deposited in our genomes millions of years ago can be released from cells within microvesicles, suggestive of a viral origin of the microvesicle system or perhaps of an evolutionary conserved system of virus-vesicle codependence. More research is needed to further elucidate the complex function of the various microvesicles produced during viral infection, possibly revealing new therapeutic intervention strategies.

  4. Non-random patterns in viral diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthony, Simon J.; Islam, Ariful; Johnson, Christine

    2015-01-01

    It is currently unclear whether changes in viral communities will ever be predictable. Here we investigate whether viral communities in wildlife are inherently structured (inferring predictability) by looking at whether communities are assembled through deterministic (often predictable) or stocha...

  5. Versatile module for experiments with focussing neutron guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, T.; Pfleiderer, C.; Böni, P. [Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Brandl, G.; Chacon, A.; Wagner, J. N.; Rahn, M.; Mühlbauer, S.; Georgii, R. [Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum, FRM II, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-09-22

    We report the development of a versatile module that permits fast and reliable use of focussing neutron guides under varying scattering angles. A simple procedure for setting up the module and neutron guides is illustrated by typical intensity patterns to highlight operational aspects as well as typical parasitic artefacts. Combining a high-precision alignment table with separate housings for the neutron guides on kinematic mounts, the change-over between neutron guides with different focussing characteristics requires no readjustments of the experimental setup. Exploiting substantial gain factors, we demonstrate the performance of this versatile neutron scattering module in a study of the effects of uniaxial stress on the domain populations in the transverse spin density wave phase of single crystal Cr.

  6. Research and development of a versatile portable speech prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The Versatile Portable Speech Prosthesis (VPSP), a synthetic speech output communication aid for non-speaking people is described. It was intended initially for severely physically limited people with cerebral palsy who are in electric wheelchairs. Hence, it was designed to be placed on a wheelchair and powered from a wheelchair battery. It can easily be separated from the wheelchair. The VPSP is versatile because it is designed to accept any means of single switch, multiple switch, or keyboard control which physically limited people have the ability to use. It is portable because it is mounted on and can go with the electric wheelchair. It is a speech prosthesis, obviously, because it speaks with a synthetic voice for people unable to speak with their own voices. Both hardware and software are described.

  7. Genotyping system of GBV-C/HGV type 1 to type 4 by the polymerase chain reaction using type-specific primers and geographical distribution of viral genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, H; Abe, K

    2001-01-01

    Based on variation in nucleotide sequence of 5'-untranslated region, GB virus type C (GBV-C) and hepatitis G virus (HGV) can be classified into three major genotypes. In addition to this classification, a novel genotype of GBV-C/HGV was identified and designated type 4. However, genotyping of GBV-C/HGV has been hampered by the lack of suitable assays. In this study, a simple and precise genotyping system based on PCR using the type-specific primers was developed for the determination of genotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 of GBV-C/HGV. A total of 235 serum samples obtained from 11 different countries were tested by our PCR genotyping system of GBV-C/HGV. The results revealed that type 1 was prevalent mainly in Ghana, type 2 was prevalent in the USA, Spain, Egypt, Nepal and Myanmar, type 3 was prevalent in Japan and Bolivia, and type 4 was prevalent in Vietnam and Myanmar among the countries investigated in the present study. To confirm the specificity of the results of genotyping by PCR, phylogenetic analysis in the 5'-untranslated region of GBV-C/HGV was undertaken in 99 serum samples. By this analysis, the specificity of the genotyping system by PCR was confirmed. This assay system may be useful for rapid typing of GBV-C/HGV RNA when either epidemiological or transmission studies of this agent are carried out.

  8. Vero cells as a model to study the effects of adenoviral gene delivery vectors on the RNAi system in context of viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matskevich, Alexey A; Jung, Jiun-Shan; Schümann, Michael; Cascallo, Manel; Moelling, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Technology based on RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising source for new antiviral therapies. Although the application of RNAi has been studied extensively, significant problems with using RNAi remain. Very few studies have specifically assessed model systems for testing the effects of viruses or gene delivery vectors on the RNAi system. Since viruses have developed efficient strategies to circumvent the interferon (IFN) response, an IFN-deficient model system should be considered. Here we show that in Vero cells, which lack IFN-alpha and IFN-beta genes, knockdown of Dicer, a key RNAi component, led to accelerated death of cells infected with other evolutionary distinct viruses: influenza A virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and poliovirus. We also demonstrate that transduction of Vero cells with adenoviral vector with subsequent infection with influenza A virus also resulted in increased mortality of infected cells. These effects were much weaker in IFN-producing A549 and Hela cell lines. Thus, the Vero cell line could serve as an interesting model for studying the effects of gene delivery vectors on the RNAi system in the context of virus-related disorders. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Viral aetiology of central nervous system infections in adults admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in southern Vietnam over 12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Le Van; Thai, Le Hong; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Chuong, Ly Van; Sinh, Dinh Xuan; Phong, Nguyen Duy; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Man, Dinh Nguyen Huy; Hien, Vo Minh; Vinh, Nguyen Thanh; Day, Jeremy; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.; Thwaites, Guy; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Chau, Tran Thi Hong

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infections are important diseases in both children and adults worldwide. The spectrum of infections is broad, encompassing bacterial/aseptic meningitis and encephalitis. Viruses are regarded as the most common causes of encephalitis and aseptic meningitis. Better

  10. Electrospun nanofibers as versatile interfaces for efficient gene delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Slgirim; Jin, Gyuhyung; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    The integration of gene delivery technologies with electrospun nanofibers is a versatile strategy to increase the potential of gene therapy as a key platform technology that can be readily utilized for numerous biomedical applications, including cancer therapy, stem cell therapy, and tissue engineering. As a spatial template for gene delivery, electrospun nanofibers possess highly advantageous characteristics, such as their ease of production, their ECM-analogue nature, the broad range of cho...

  11. Connecting leadership and learning: Do versatile learners make connective leaders?

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jill L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent failures in leadership, suggest that creating better-quality leadership development programs is critical. In moving from theory to practice, this paper examined the relationship between learning style and leadership style which may enable us to move away from one-size-fits-all leadership development programs. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model and Connective Leadership theory, approximately 3600 college students were analyzed to discover whether versatility in learning styles...

  12. Connecting Leadership and Learning: Do Versatile Learners make Connective Leaders?

    OpenAIRE

    Jill L. Robinson

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent failures in leadership, suggest that creating better-quality leadership development programs is critical. In moving from theory to practice, this paper examined the relationship between learning style and leadership style which may enable us to move away from one-size-fits-all leadership development programs. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model and Connective Leadership theory, approximately 3600 college students were analyzed to discover whether versatility in le...

  13. Faktor Risiko Non Viral Pada Karsinoma Nasofaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukri Rahman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak           Latar belakang: Karsinoma nasofaring adalah tumor ganas epitel nasofaring yang sampai saat ini penyebabnya belum diketahui, infeksi virus Epstein Barr dilaporkan sebagai faktor dominan terjadinya karsinoma nasofaring tetapi faktor non viral juga berperan untuk timbulnya keganasan nasofaring. Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui faktor non viral  yang dapat meningkatkan kejadian karsinoma nasofaring sehingga dapat mencegah dan menghindari faktor-faktor non viral tersebut. Tinjauan Pustaka: Karsinoma nasofaring merupakan tumor ganas epitel nasofaring yang penyebabnya berhubungan dengan faktor viral dan non viral diantaranya asap rokok, ikan asin, formaldehid, genetik, asap kayu bakar , debu kayu, infeksi kronik telinga hidung tenggorok, alkohol dan obat tradisional. Kesimpulan: Pembuktian secara klinis dan ilmiah terhadap faktor non viral sebagai penyebab timbulnya karsinoma nasofaring masih belum dapat dijelaskan secara pasti. Faktor non viral merupakan salah satu faktor risiko yang dapat meningkatkan angka kejadian timbulnya keganasan nasofaring Kata kunci: karsinoma nasofaring, faktor risiko, non viral AbstractBackground: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a malignant epithelial nasopharyngeal tumor that until now the cause still unknown, Epstein barr virus infection had reported as predominant occurance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma but non viral factors may also contribute to the onset of the incidence of nasopharyngeal malignancy. Purpose: To find non viral factors that may increase the incidence of nasopharyngel carcinoma in order to prevent and avoid non-viral factors Literature: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a malignant tumor that causes nasopharyngeal epithelium associated with viral and non-viral factors such as cigarette smoke, salt fish, formaldehyde, genetic, wood smoke ,wood dust, ear nose throat chronic infections, alcohol, and traditional medicine. Conclusion: Clinically and scientifically proving the non-viral factors as

  14. Viral infection and host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W A; De Clercq, E

    1974-12-27

    Double-stranded RNA, made as an intermediary substance in the replication of most, if not all, viruses, may play a much more important role in the pathogenesis and the recovery from virus infections than has hitherto been suspected. Apparently, dsRNA is used by both the challenge virus and the host cell in an attempt to gain "molecular control." Double-stranded RNA exerts a set of effects, which may be well balanced, not only at the level of the individual cell but also at the complex assemblage of these cells termed the organism (Fig. 1). In the cell, interferon synthesis is triggered, although interferon mRNA translation may not occur if dsRNA shuts off protein synthesis too quickly. In the whole organism, the disease severity will depend on how certain toxic reactions evoked by infection (such as cell necrosis and fever) are counterbalanced by an increase in the host defense mechanisms (for example, immune responsiveness and interferon production). Many aspects of the response, relating to either progress of, or recovery from, the disease, can be explained on the basis of a dsRNA. In addition to drawing attention to the biodynamic role of dsRNA, our hypothesis suggests specific experimental vectors designed to enhance our information on the molecular basis of the morbid process which occurs with viral infection. Finally, we suggest that, although the dsRNA molecule may be viewed as a rather simple unit structure, the opportunity for further diversity in the biological activity of a given dsRNA molecule always exists. Namely, each deviation from a perfectly double-helical arrangement introduces the possibility for emphasizing one biological reactivity at the expense of another. This latter structure-activity property may partially account for the extreme apparent diversity, commonly encountered, in the presentations of virologic illness. Appendix note added in proof. Subsequent to submission of this text, we have found that the potent mitogen effect of dsRNA for

  15. A Combinatorial Auction among Versatile Experts and Amateurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takayuki; Yokoo, Makoto; Matsubara, Shigeo

    Auctions have become an integral part of electronic commerce and a promising field for applying multi-agent technologies. Correctly judging the quality of auctioned goods is often difficult for amateurs, in particular, in Internet auctions. However, experts can correctly judge the quality of goods. In this situation, it is difficult to make experts tell the truth and attain an efficient allocation, since experts have a clear advantage over amateurs and they would not reveal their valuable information without some reward. In our previous work, we have succeeded in developing such auction protocols under the following two cases: (1) the case of a single-unit auction among experts and amateurs, and (2) the case of a combinatorial auction among single-skilled experts and amateurs. In this paper, we focus on versatile experts. Versatile experts have an interest in, and expert knowledge on the qualities of several goods. In the case of versatile experts, there would be several problems, e.g., free riding problems, if we simply extended the previous VCG-style auction protocol. Thus, in this paper, we employ PORF (price-oriented, rationing-free) protocol for designing our new protocol to realize a strategy-proof auction protocol for experts. In the protocol, the dominant strategy for experts is truth-telling. Also, for amateurs, truth-telling is the best response when two or more experts select the dominant strategy. Furthermore, the protocol is false-name-proof.

  16. Connecting Leadership and Learning: Do Versatile Learners make Connective Leaders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill L. Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent failures in leadership, suggest that creating better-quality leadership development programs is critical. In moving from theory to practice, this paper examined the relationship between learning style and leadership style which may enable us to move away from one-size-fits-all leadership development programs. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model and Connective Leadership theory, approximately 3600 college students were analyzed to discover whether versatility in learning styles translates into versatility in leadership styles. One group of versatile learners reported using a wider range of leadership styles suggesting that learning flexibility may transfer to leadership flexibility. Surprisingly, learners of all types reported utilizing Power and Intrinsic styles of leadership above all others. Implications for leadership development include considering individual differences when crafting leadership programs, matching learning styles to leader training, and the need to move beyond one set of leadership behaviors to increase flexibility in dealing with complex situations. Using a large sample rarely seen in management studies, this paper makes key contributions to the literature. 

  17. Coupled transcriptome and proteome analysis of human lymphotropic tumor viruses: insights on the detection and discovery of viral genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dresang Lindsay R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV are related human tumor viruses that cause primary effusion lymphomas (PEL and Burkitt's lymphomas (BL, respectively. Viral genes expressed in naturally-infected cancer cells contribute to disease pathogenesis; knowing which viral genes are expressed is critical in understanding how these viruses cause cancer. To evaluate the expression of viral genes, we used high-resolution separation and mass spectrometry coupled with custom tiling arrays to align the viral proteomes and transcriptomes of three PEL and two BL cell lines under latent and lytic culture conditions. Results The majority of viral genes were efficiently detected at the transcript and/or protein level on manipulating the viral life cycle. Overall the correlation of expressed viral proteins and transcripts was highly complementary in both validating and providing orthogonal data with latent/lytic viral gene expression. Our approach also identified novel viral genes in both KSHV and EBV, and extends viral genome annotation. Several previously uncharacterized genes were validated at both transcript and protein levels. Conclusions This systems biology approach coupling proteome and transcriptome measurements provides a comprehensive view of viral gene expression that could not have been attained using each methodology independently. Detection of viral proteins in combination with viral transcripts is a potentially powerful method for establishing virus-disease relationships.

  18. Coupled Transcriptome and Proteome Analysis of Human Lymphotropic Tumor Viruses: Insights on the Detection and Discovery of Viral Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresang, Lindsay R.; Teuton, Jeremy R.; Feng, Huichen; Jacobs, Jon M.; Camp, David G.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Li, Zhihua; Smith, Richard D.; Sugden, Bill; Moore, Patrick S.; Chang, Yuan

    2011-12-20

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are related human tumor viruses that cause primary effusion lymphomas (PEL) and Burkitt's lymphomas (BL), respectively. Viral genes expressed in naturally-infected cancer cells contribute to disease pathogenesis; knowing which viral genes are expressed is critical in understanding how these viruses cause cancer. To evaluate the expression of viral genes, we used high-resolution separation and mass spectrometry coupled with custom tiling arrays to align the viral proteomes and transcriptomes of three PEL and two BL cell lines under latent and lytic culture conditions. Results The majority of viral genes were efficiently detected at the transcript and/or protein level on manipulating the viral life cycle. Overall the correlation of expressed viral proteins and transcripts was highly complementary in both validating and providing orthogonal data with latent/lytic viral gene expression. Our approach also identified novel viral genes in both KSHV and EBV, and extends viral genome annotation. Several previously uncharacterized genes were validated at both transcript and protein levels. Conclusions This systems biology approach coupling proteome and transcriptome measurements provides a comprehensive view of viral gene expression that could not have been attained using each methodology independently. Detection of viral proteins in combination with viral transcripts is a potentially powerful method for establishing virus-disease relationships.

  19. Mechanisms of influenza viral membrane fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijleven, Jelle S; Boonstra, Sander; Onck, Patrick R; van der Giessen, Erik; van Oijen, Antoine M

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viral particles are enveloped by a lipid bilayer. A major step in infection is fusion of the viral and host cellular membranes, a process with large kinetic barriers. Influenza membrane fusion is catalyzed by hemagglutinin (HA), a class I viral fusion protein activated by low pH. The exact

  20. Viral commercials: the consumer as marketeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,

  1. Virale commercials: De consument als marketeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,

  2. Viral ecology of a shallow eutrophic lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis aims to give an insight into the ecology of the viral community in a shallow eutrophic lake. To achieve this, the population dynamics, diversity and control of the viral community in Lake Loosdrecht were studied, as well as the impact of the viral community on plankton mortality and

  3. Carbon Dots as Versatile Photosensitizers for Solar-Driven Catalysis with Redox Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Georgina A M; Reuillard, Bertrand; Martindale, Benjamin C M; Caputo, Christine A; Lockwood, Colin W J; Butt, Julea N; Reisner, Erwin

    2016-12-28

    Light-driven enzymatic catalysis is enabled by the productive coupling of a protein to a photosensitizer. Photosensitizers used in such hybrid systems are typically costly, toxic, and/or fragile, with limited chemical versatility. Carbon dots (CDs) are low-cost, nanosized light-harvesters that are attractive photosensitizers for biological systems as they are water-soluble, photostable, nontoxic, and their surface chemistry can be easily modified. We demonstrate here that CDs act as excellent light-absorbers in two semibiological photosynthetic systems utilizing either a fumarate reductase (FccA) for the solar-driven hydrogenation of fumarate to succinate or a hydrogenase (H2ase) for reduction of protons to H2. The tunable surface chemistry of the CDs was exploited to synthesize positively charged ammonium-terminated CDs (CD-NHMe2+), which were capable of transferring photoexcited electrons directly to the negatively charged enzymes with high efficiency and stability. Enzyme-based turnover numbers of 6000 mol succinate (mol FccA)-1 and 43,000 mol H2 (mol H2ase)-1 were reached after 24 h. Negatively charged carboxylate-terminated CDs (CD-CO2-) displayed little or no activity, and the electrostatic interactions at the CD-enzyme interface were determined to be essential to the high photocatalytic activity observed with CD-NHMe2+. The modular surface chemistry of CDs together with their photostability and aqueous solubility make CDs versatile photosensitizers for redox enzymes with great scope for their utilization in photobiocatalysis.

  4. A versatile small form factor twisted-pair TFC FMC for MTCA AMCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meder, L.; Lebedev, J.; Becker, J.

    2017-03-01

    In continuous readout systems of particle physics experiments, the provision of a common clock and time reference and the distribution of critical low latency messages to the processing and fronted layers of the readout are crucial tasks. In the context of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment, a versatile small form factor Timing and Fast-Control (TFC) interfacing FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) was developed, offering bidirectional twisted-pair (TP) links for the communication between TFC nodes. Also a versatile clocking including voltage controlled oscillators and a connection to the telecommunication clock lines of mTCA crates are available. Being designed for both TFC Master and Slaves, the card allows rapid system developments without additional Slave hardware circuits. Measurements show that it is possible to transmit over cable lengths of 25 m at a rate of 240 Mbit/s for all data channels simultaneously. A TFC Master-Slave system using two of these cards can be synchronized with a precision of ±10 ps to an user-defined phase setpoint.

  5. Viral diseases and human evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Élcio de Souza

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of man with viral agents was possibly a key factor shaping human evolution, culture and civilization from its outset. Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. As a consequence different viruses found suitable conditions to thrive and establish long-lasting associations with man. Although not all viral agents cause disease and some may in fact be considered beneficial, the present situation of overpopulation, poverty and ecological inbalance may have devastating effets on human progress. Recently emerged diseases causing massive pandemics (eg., HIV-1 and HCV, dengue, etc. are becoming formidable challenges, which may have a direct impact on the fate of our species.

  6. APLASTIC ANEMIA AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cudillo

    2009-11-01

    Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis. Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic  and blood lymphocytes with  T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia.

  7. Viral exanthems in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Sueli Coelho da Silva; Cestari, Tania; Allen, Samuel H; Ramos e-Silva, Marcia

    2007-01-01

    Viral exanthems are a common problem in tropical regions, particularly affecting children. Most exanthems are transient and harmless, but some are potentially very dangerous. Pregnant women and malnourished or immunocompromised infants carry the greatest risk of adverse outcome. In this article, parvovirus B19; dengue and yellow fever; West Nile, Barmah Forest, Marburg, and Ebola viruses, and human herpesviruses; asymmetric periflexural exanthema of childhood; measles; rubella; enteroviruses; Lassa fever; and South American hemorrhagic fevers will be discussed.

  8. Hybrid viral vectors for vaccine and antibody production in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Streatfield, Stephen J; Kushnir, Natasha; Roy, Gourgopal; Padmanaban, Annamalai

    2013-01-01

    Plants have a demonstrated potential for large-scale, rapid production of recombinant proteins for diverse product applications, including subunit vaccines and monoclonal antibodies. In this field, the accent has recently shifted from the engineering of "edible" vaccines based on stable expression of target protein in transgenic or transplastomic plants to the development of purified formulated vaccines that are delivered via injection. The injectable vaccines are commonly produced using transient expression of target gene delivered into genetically unmodified plant host via viral or bacterial vectors. Most viral vectors are based on plant RNA viruses, where nonessential sequences are replaced with the gene of interest. Utilization of viral hybrids that consist of genes and regulatory elements of different virus species, or transcomplementation systems (vector/transgene) had a substantial impact on the level of target protein expression. Development and introduction of agroviral hybrid vectors that combine genetic elements of bacterial binary plasmids and plant viral vectors, and agroinfiltration as a tool of the vector delivery have resulted in significant progress in large-scale production of recombinant vaccines and monoclonal antibodies in plants. This article presents an overview of plant hybrid viral vector expression systems developed so far.

  9. Maternal immunization against viral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, J; Glezen, W P; Piedra, P A

    1998-01-01

    The protective effect of maternal antibody against many viral diseases has been recognized. The use of maternal immunization has been considered as a means to augment this protection in the young infant against disease. Advantages of maternal immunization include the fact that young infants are most susceptible to infections but least responsive to vaccines, that pregnant women are accessible to medical care and respond well to vaccines, that IgG antibodies cross the placenta well during the third trimester, and that immunization of the pregnant woman has the potential to benefit both the mother and the infant. Disadvantages include the potential inhibition of an infant's response to active immunization or natural infection and liability issues with pharmaceutical companies and physicians. Immunization of pregnant women with viral vaccines for poliovirus, influenza viruses, and rubella has been described and maternal vaccination with these vaccines has been found to be safe for both the mother and the fetus. An open-label study of post-partum women immunized with the purified fusion protein of RSV (PFP-2, Wyeth-Lederle Pediatrics and Vaccines, Inc., Pearl River, NY) demonstrated that the vaccine was non-reactogenic and immunogenic; RSV-specific antibody was detected in breast milk. Immunization of pregnant women with purified protein or subunit vaccines could be considered against neonatal viral pathogens, such as respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, herpes group viruses, and human immunodeficiency virus. Further studies are needed to define the safety and efficacy of maternal immunization.

  10. Pediatric Asthma and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, M Luz; Calvo Rey, Cristina; Del Rosal Rabes, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Respiratory viral infections, particularly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus, are the most importance risk factors for the onset of wheezing in infants and small children. Bronchiolitis is the most common acute respiratory infection in children under 1year of age, and the most common cause of hospitalization in this age group. RSV accounts for approximately 70% of all these cases, followed by rhinovirus, adenovirus, metapneumovirus and bocavirus. The association between bronchiolitis caused by RSV and the development of recurrent wheezing and/or asthma was first described more than 40years ago, but it is still unclear whether bronchiolitis causes chronic respiratory symptoms, or if it is a marker for children with a genetic predisposition for developing asthma in the medium or long term. In any case, sufficient evidence is available to corroborate the existence of this association, which is particularly strong when the causative agent of bronchiolitis is rhinovirus. The pathogenic role of respiratory viruses as triggers for exacerbations in asthmatic patients has not been fully characterized. However, it is clear that respiratory viruses, and in particular rhinovirus, are the most common causes of exacerbation in children, and some type of respiratory virus has been identified in over 90% of children hospitalized for an episode of wheezing. Changes in the immune response to viral infections in genetically predisposed individuals are very likely to be the main factors involved in the association between viral infection and asthma. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. VirSorter: mining viral signal from microbial genomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Roux

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Viruses of microbes impact all ecosystems where microbes drive key energy and substrate transformations including the oceans, humans and industrial fermenters. However, despite this recognized importance, our understanding of viral diversity and impacts remains limited by too few model systems and reference genomes. One way to fill these gaps in our knowledge of viral diversity is through the detection of viral signal in microbial genomic data. While multiple approaches have been developed and applied for the detection of prophages (viral genomes integrated in a microbial genome, new types of microbial genomic data are emerging that are more fragmented and larger scale, such as Single-cell Amplified Genomes (SAGs of uncultivated organisms or genomic fragments assembled from metagenomic sequencing. Here, we present VirSorter, a tool designed to detect viral signal in these different types of microbial sequence data in both a reference-dependent and reference-independent manner, leveraging probabilistic models and extensive virome data to maximize detection of novel viruses. Performance testing shows that VirSorter’s prophage prediction capability compares to that of available prophage predictors for complete genomes, but is superior in predicting viral sequences outside of a host genome (i.e., from extrachromosomal prophages, lytic infections, or partially assembled prophages. Furthermore, VirSorter outperforms existing tools for fragmented genomic and metagenomic datasets, and can identify viral signal in assembled sequence (contigs as short as 3kb, while providing near-perfect identification (>95% Recall and 100% Precision on contigs of at least 10kb. Because VirSorter scales to large datasets, it can also be used in “reverse” to more confidently identify viral sequence in viral metagenomes by sorting away cellular DNA whether derived from gene transfer agents, generalized transduction or contamination. Finally, VirSorter is made

  12. FEATURES OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE DURING VIRAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Borisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to select using cluster analysis and comparatively characterize immune disorders types in acute and chronic viral infections. Patients with acute and chronic viral infections (n = 896 were examined: 77 patients with acute viral hepatitis B, 94 — chronic viral hepatitis B, 119 — chronic hepatitis C, 531 — recurrent herpes, 75 — human papillomavirus infection. Healthy persons (n = 466 were examined as control. The research of blood lymphocyte phenotype was performed by flow cytometry. Four-color immunophenotyping were used in the following panels: Т-lymphocytes (CD3+CD19–CD16/56–CD45+, Т-helpers (CD3+CD4+CD45+, cytotoxic Т-cells (CD3+CD8+CD45+, NKcells (CD3–CD16/56+CD45+, B-lymphocytes (CD3–CD19+CD16/56+CD45+. Absolute values were obtained on a dualplatform technology using the results of haematological analysis. The immunoglobulin concentrations were determined by ELISA. The clustering was performed by a single linkage method. The number of clusters was determined on the basis of calculating the values of the Euclidean distance between the mean group values. It was found that the parameters, characterizing the functional state of the various parts of the immune system in acute and chronic viral infections, considerable diversity values. Custer analysis allows to allocate 6 immunotypes defined different states of innate and adaptive immunity: characterized by activation of the innate (increasing the number of neutrophils and NK-cells and adaptive immunity humoral response (increasing the concentration of IgG, characterized by hyperreaction of adaptive immunity (a significant increase in the concentration of IgG, discoordinated (multidirectional changes in the values of immunological parameters, immunodeficiency and unresponsiveness (did not differ from the control parameters immunotypes. It is proved that in patients with viral infections most often determined by the

  13. New strategies for immune-mediated anti-viral drug and vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiann-Chyi; Ron, Yacov

    2006-01-01

    Substantial progress in the development of new anti-viral drugs has taken place in recent years. Most of these new drugs belong to three groups of compounds, nucleoside analogs, thymidine kinase-dependent nucleotide analogs and specific viral enzyme inhibitors. Although these drugs revolutionized the treatment of several viral diseases, the involvement of the immune system is crucial for complete recovery and prevention of re-infection. New advances in the understanding of immune regulation mechanisms, mainly the role of cytokines, led to the development of several new immunologically-based anti-viral drugs and treatments. The most studied group of immunomodulators is the cytokines, some of which were shown to act as potent stimulators of immune responses. Other, non-cytokine immune modulators have also been successfully employed in both humans and experimental animals as anti-viral drugs of which several are currently in clinical trials. Advances in genetic engineering and transgenic mouse technologies facilitated the production of humanized as well as authentic human anti-viral monoclonal antibodies. Some of these antibodies proved to be clinically efficacious and are commercially produced as anti-viral drugs. As is often the case in anti-viral treatments, a combination of conventional and an immune-mediated anti-viral drugs or a combination therapy involving immunomodulators, therapeutic vaccines, immune intervention and even gene therapy might prove most efficacious as a treatment for a particular virus. Most of the advances made in anti-viral treatments have also been applied to the development of new vaccines. Some of the classical attenuated viruses are being replaced by recombinant attenuated viruses. Recombinant viral vaccines containing genes encoding other viral antigens and/or cytokines are being tested as new vaccines. Several chimeric viral vaccines have proven efficacious in experimental animals and are now in different phases of clinical trials

  14. Viral Hepatitis: Information for Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    VIRAL HEPATITIS Information for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by ... United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. ...

  15. Human Papilloma Viral DNA Replicates as a Stable Episome in Cultured Epidermal Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Robert F.; Taichman, Lorne B.

    1982-06-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is poorly understood because systems for its growth in tissue culture have not been developed. We report here that cultured human epidermal keratinocytes could be infected with HPV from plantar warts and that the viral DNA persisted and replicated as a stable episome. There were 50-200 copies of viral DNA per cell and there was no evidence to indicate integration of viral DNA into the cellular genome. There was also no evidence to suggest that viral DNA underwent productive replication. We conclude that cultured human epidermal keratinocytes may be a model for the study of certain aspects of HPV biology.

  16. Viral tropism and pathology associated with viral hemorrhagic septicemia in larval and juvenile Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovy, Jan; Lewis, N.L.; Hershberger, P.K.; Bennett, W.; Meyers, T.R.; Garver, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa causes mass mortality in wild Pacific herring, a species of economic value, in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Young of the year herring are particularly susceptible and can be carriers of the virus. To understand its pathogenesis, tissue and cellular tropisms of VHSV in larval and juvenile Pacific herring were investigated with immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and viral tissue titer. In larval herring, early viral tropism for epithelial tissues (6d post-exposure) was indicated by foci of epidermal thickening that contained heavy concentrations of virus. This was followed by a cellular tropism for fibroblasts within the fin bases and the dermis, but expanded to cells of the kidney, liver, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract and meninges in the brain. Among wild juvenile herring that underwent a VHS epizootic in the laboratory, the disease was characterized by acute and chronic phases of death. Fish that died during the acute phase had systemic infections in tissues including the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, kidney, liver, and meninges. The disease then transitioned into a chronic phase that was characterized by the appearance of neurological signs including erratic and corkscrew swimming and darkening of the dorsal skin. During the chronic phase viral persistence occurred in nervous tissues including meninges and brain parenchymal cells and in one case in peripheral nerves, while virus was mostly cleared from the other tissues. The results demonstrate the varying VHSV tropisms dependent on the timing of infection and the importance of neural tissues for the persistence and perpetuation of chronic infections in Pacific herring.

  17. Efficient gene transfer from innervated muscle into rat peripheral and central nervous systems using a non-viral haemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ)-liposome method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Naoki; Nakanishi, Kuniaki; Nemoto, Koichi; Morishita, Ryuichi; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Uenoyama, Maki; Ikeda, Tomosumi; Fujikawa, Kyosuke

    2003-05-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of gene delivery into the peripheral and central nervous systems via retrograde axonal transport following injection of a haemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ)-liposome-DNA complex vector into an innervated muscle. Transfection efficiency was assessed by measuring luciferase activity, and was compared statistically with that achieved using a liposome-DNA control vector. High luciferase activity was observed in the injected muscle, the ipsilateral sciatic nerve, and the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia on day 1 after gene transfer. The spinal cord also showed luciferase activity, although this was lower than in the other tissues. However, no activity was observed in the contralateral sciatic nerve or the contralateral dorsal root ganglia. In addition, we performed gene transfer twice, with a 1-week interval, to evaluate the feasibility of repeated therapeutic gene delivery. Again, a high transfection efficiency was observed immediately, even after the second gene transfer, and transfection efficiency was significantly higher at each defined time-point using the HVJ-liposome complex vector than using a control vector. These results indicate that this method could be used for repeated therapeutic gene delivery into muscle, nerve, dorsal root ganglia, and possibly spinal cord, without the need for a surgical approach, making it well suited to clinical applications.

  18. Toll-like receptors in viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kozłowska

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are part of the innate immune system. They recognize some protein, lipid, and nucleic structures that are common in microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses but not present in the human body. The stimulation of TLRs initiates the activation of an intracellular signaling network which results in the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, mainly type I interferons, TNF-α, and IL-6. TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR8, and TLR9 take part in the recognition of viral infections, four of them by discerning nucleic acids, with TLR3 recognizing dsRNA, TLR7 and TLR8-ssRNA, and TLR9-DNA. The role of TLRs in the development of infections and other inflammatory states, neoplasms, and autoimmune disorders is under investigation. The importance of TLRs in the natural course of hepatitis B and C and in the treatment of these diseases are the subject of particular interest. Attempts to apply TLR7 and TLR9 agonists in the treatment of chronic hepatitis type C are underway. A better understanding of the role of TLRs in the complex immunological phenomena accompanying viral hepatitis might put the therapeutic possibilities in these infections into a new perspective.

  19. Conditions for Viral Influence Spreading through Multiplex Correlated Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanqing; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-04-01

    A fundamental problem in network science is to predict how certain individuals are able to initiate new networks to spring up "new ideas." Frequently, these changes in trends are triggered by a few innovators who rapidly impose their ideas through "viral" influence spreading, producing cascades of followers and fragmenting an old network to create a new one. Typical examples include the rise of scientific ideas or abrupt changes in social media, like the rise of Facebook to the detriment of Myspace. How this process arises in practice has not been conclusively demonstrated. Here, we show that a condition for sustaining a viral spreading process is the existence of a multiplex-correlated graph with hidden "influence links." Analytical solutions predict percolation-phase transitions, either abrupt or continuous, where networks are disintegrated through viral cascades of followers, as in empirical data. Our modeling predicts the strict conditions to sustain a large viral spreading via a scaling form of the local correlation function between multilayers, which we also confirm empirically. Ultimately, the theory predicts the conditions for viral cascading in a large class of multiplex networks ranging from social to financial systems and markets.

  20. Stormwater runoff drives viral community composition changes in inland freshwaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt E. Williamson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Storm events impact freshwater microbial communities by transporting terrestrial viruses and other microbes to freshwater systems, and by potentially resuspending microbes from bottom sediments. The magnitude of these impacts on freshwater ecosystems is unknown and largely unexplored. Field studies carried out at two discrete sites in coastal Virginia (USA were used to characterize the viral load carried by runoff and to test the hypothesis that terrestrial viruses introduced through stormwater runoff change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Field data gathered from an agricultural watershed indicated that primary runoff can contain viral densities approximating those of receiving waters. Furthermore, viruses attached to suspended colloids made up a large fraction of the total load, particularly in early stages of the storm. At a second field site (stormwater retention pond, RAPD-PCR profiling showed that the viral community of the pond changed dramatically over the course of two intense storms while relatively little change was observed over similar time scales in the absence of disturbance. Comparisons of planktonic and particle-associated viral communities revealed two completely distinct communities, suggesting that particle-associated viruses represent a potentially large and overlooked portion of aquatic viral abundance and diversity. Our findings show that stormwater runoff can quickly change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Based on these findings, increased storms in the coastal mid-Atlantic region predicted by most climate change models will likely have important impacts on the structure and function of local freshwater microbial communities.

  1. Cell-to-Cell Spread of HIV and Viral Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, K M; Satija, N; Esposito, A M; Chen, B K

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gives rise to a chronic infection that progressively depletes CD4(+) T lymphocytes. CD4(+) T lymphocytes play a central coordinating role in adaptive cellular and humoral immune responses, and to do so they migrate and interact within lymphoid compartments and at effector sites to mount immune responses. While cell-free virus serves as an excellent prognostic indicator for patient survival, interactions of infected T cells or virus-scavenging immune cells with uninfected T cells can greatly enhance viral spread. HIV can induce interactions between infected and uninfected T cells that are triggered by cell surface expression of viral Env, which serves as a cell adhesion molecule that interacts with CD4 on the target cell, before it acts as the viral membrane fusion protein. These interactions are called virological synapses and promote replication in the face of selective pressure of humoral immune responses and antiretroviral therapy. Other infection-enhancing cell-cell interactions occur between virus-concentrating antigen-presenting cells and recipient T cells, called infectious synapses. The exact roles that these cell-cell interactions play in each stage of infection, from viral acquisition, systemic dissemination, to chronic persistence are still being determined. Infection-promoting immune cell interactions are likely to contribute to viral persistence and enhance the ability of HIV-1 to evade adaptive immune responses. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Architecture and regulation of negative-strand viral enzymatic machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzusch, Philip J; Whelan, Sean P J

    2012-07-01

    Negative-strand (NS) RNA viruses initiate infection with a unique polymerase complex that mediates both mRNA transcription and subsequent genomic RNA replication. For nearly all NS RNA viruses, distinct enzymatic domains catalyzing RNA polymerization and multiple steps of 5' mRNA cap formation are contained within a single large polymerase protein (L). While NS RNA viruses include a variety of emerging human and agricultural pathogens, the enzymatic machinery driving viral replication and gene expression remains poorly understood. Recent insights with Machupo virus and vesicular stomatitis virus have provided the first structural information of viral L proteins, and revealed how the various enzymatic domains are arranged into a conserved architecture shared by both segmented and nonsegmented NS RNA viruses. In vitro systems reconstituting RNA synthesis from purified components provide new tools to understand the viral replicative machinery, and demonstrate the arenavirus matrix protein regulates RNA synthesis by locking a polymerase-template complex. Inhibition of gene expression by the viral matrix protein is a distinctive feature also shared with influenza A virus and nonsegmented NS RNA viruses, possibly illuminating a conserved mechanism for coordination of viral transcription and polymerase packaging.

  3. Stormwater runoff drives viral community composition changes in inland freshwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kurt E.; Harris, Jamie V.; Green, Jasmin C.; Rahman, Faraz; Chambers, Randolph M.

    2014-01-01

    Storm events impact freshwater microbial communities by transporting terrestrial viruses and other microbes to freshwater systems, and by potentially resuspending microbes from bottom sediments. The magnitude of these impacts on freshwater ecosystems is unknown and largely unexplored. Field studies carried out at two discrete sites in coastal Virginia (USA) were used to characterize the viral load carried by runoff and to test the hypothesis that terrestrial viruses introduced through stormwater runoff change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Field data gathered from an agricultural watershed indicated that primary runoff can contain viral densities approximating those of receiving waters. Furthermore, viruses attached to suspended colloids made up a large fraction of the total load, particularly in early stages of the storm. At a second field site (stormwater retention pond), RAPD-PCR profiling showed that the viral community of the pond changed dramatically over the course of two intense storms while relatively little change was observed over similar time scales in the absence of disturbance. Comparisons of planktonic and particle-associated viral communities revealed two completely distinct communities, suggesting that particle-associated viruses represent a potentially large and overlooked portion of aquatic viral abundance and diversity. Our findings show that stormwater runoff can quickly change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Based on these findings, increased storms in the coastal mid-Atlantic region predicted by most climate change models will likely have important impacts on the structure and function of local freshwater microbial communities. PMID:24672520

  4. Two-Dimensional Stoichiometric Boron Oxides as a Versatile Platform for Electronic Structure Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiqi; Li, Zhenyu; Yang, Jinlong

    2017-09-21

    Oxides of two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals have been widely studied due to their unique properties. In most 2D oxides, oxygen acts as a functional group, which makes it difficult to control the degree of oxidation. Because borophene is an electron-deficient system, it is expected that oxygen will be intrinsically incorporated into the basal plane of borophene, forming stoichiometric 2D boron oxide (BO) structures. By using first-principles global optimization, we systematically explore structures and properties of 2D BO systems with well-defined degrees of oxidation. Stable B-O-B and OB3 tetrahedron structure motifs are identified in these structures. Interesting properties, such as strong linear dichroism, Dirac node-line (DNL) semimetallicity, and negative differential resistance, have been predicted for these systems. Our results demonstrate that 2D BO represents a versatile platform for electronic structure engineering via tuning the stoichiometric degree of oxidation, which leads to various technological applications.

  5. Measles viral load may reflect SSPE disease progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a rare, slowly progressive neurological disorder caused by the persistent infection with measles virus (MV. Despite much research into SSPE, its pathology remains obscure. We examined autopsy tissues of eight SSPE patients by real time quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting to determine viral load. MV N, M and H gene RNA could be detected in the central nervous system (CNS of all patients and in two non-CNS tissues of one patient. The viral burden between patients differed up to four-fold by quantitative PCR and corresponded with detection of MV protein. The level of both viral RNA and antigen in the brain may correlate with disease progression.

  6. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model for viral marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Siti Suhaila; Akil, Ku Azlina Ku; Chulan, Majdah; Sharif, Noorzila

    2017-11-01

    Viral marketing is a marketing strategy utilizes social media to spread information about a product or services provided. It is the most powerful way to share information in a short amount of time. The objective of this study is to investigate the dynamic of viral marketing within a time duration in the point of view of mathematics. This study used the epidemiological model known as Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR). The model consists of a system of three differential equations with three state variables namely susceptible (S), infected (I) and recovered (R). It considers a case of SIR model with demography. Numerical experiments have been performed. The results show that viral marketing reaches its peak within two days. The online messages shared will become higher if the initial number of the infected individual has been increased.

  7. Core Gene Expression and Association of Genotypes with Viral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Lahore, Pakistan. 3Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 4Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of the ... tested by type-specific genotyping assay, viral load, by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and. HCV core protein was ... RT-PCR of HCV RNA was performed using Mini. OpticonTM System ...

  8. COLIPHAGES AS POTENTIAL VIRAL INDICATORS OF FECAL POLLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Stephanie D. In press. Coliphages as Potential Viral Indicators of Fecal Pollution (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems of the Gulf of Mexico and Southeastern United States, 6-9 October ...

  9. Encefalitis virales en la infancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat Téllez de Meneses

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La encefalitis viral es una enfermedad grave que implica el compromiso inflamatorio del parénquima cerebral. Las infecciones virales del SNC ocurren con frecuencia como complicación de infecciones virales sistémicas. Más de 100 virus están implicados como agentes causales, entre los cuales el virus Herpes simplex tipo I, es el agente causal más frecuente de encefalitis no epidémica en todos los grupos poblacionales del mundo; es el responsable de los casos más graves en todas las edades. Muchos de los virus para los cuales existe vacunas también pueden causar encefalitis como: sarampión, paperas, polio, rabia, rubéola, varicela. El virus produce una inflamación del tejido cerebral, la cual puede evolucionar a una destrucción de neuronas, provocar hemorragia y daño cerebral, dando lugar a encefalitis graves, como la encefalitis necrotizante o hemorrágica, con mucho peor pronóstico, produciendo secuelas graves, incluso la muerte. El cuadro clínico, incluye la presencia de cefalea, fiebre y alteración de la conciencia, de rápida progresión. El pronóstico de las encefalitis víricas es variable, algunos casos son leves, con recuperación completa, sin embargo existen casos graves que pueden ocasionar secuelas importantes a nivel cerebral. Es fundamental realizar un diagnóstico lo antes posible, a través de pruebas de laboratorio (bioquímica, PCR, cultivos y de neuroimagen (TAC, RM y ante todo, la instauración de un tratamiento precoz para evitar la evolución del proceso y sus posibles complicaciones. El pronóstico empeora si se retrasa la instauración del tratamiento.

  10. Evaluation of Viral Meningoencephalitis Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Ilhan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate retrospectively adult cases of viral encephalitis. METHOD: Fifteen patients described viral encephalitis hospitalized between the years 2006-2011 follow-up and treatment at the infectious diseases clinic were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Most of the patients (%60 had applied in the spring. Fever (87%, confusion (73%, neck stiffness (73%, headache (73%, nausea-vomiting (33%, loss of consciousness (33%, amnesia (33%, agitation (20%, convulsion (%20, focal neurological signs (13%, Brudzinski-sign (13% were most frequently encountered findings. Electroencephalography test was applied to 13 of 14 patients, and pathological findings compatible with encephalitis have been found. Radiological imaging methods such as CT and MRI were performed in 9 of the 14 patients, and findings consistent with encephalitis were reported. All of initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples were abnormal. The domination of the first examples was lymphocytes in 14 patients; only one patient had an increase in neutrophilic cells have been found. CSF protein level was high in nine patients, and low glucose level was detected in two patients. Herpes simplex virus polymerized chain reaction (PCR analyze was performed to fourteen patients CSF. Only two of them (14% were found positive. One of the patients sample selectively examined was found to be Parvovirus B19 (+, the other patient urine sample Jacobs-creutzfeld virus PCR was found to be positively. Empiric acyclovir therapy was given to all patients. Neuropsychiatric squeal developed at the one patient. CONCLUSION: The cases in the forefront of change in mental status viral meningoencephalitis should be considered and empirical treatment with acyclovir should be started. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 447-452

  11. Probing the biophysical interplay between a viral genome and its capsid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, J.; Uetrecht, C.; Rose, R.J.; Sanchez-Eugenia, R.; Marti, G.A.; Agirre, J.; Guérin, D.M.A.; Wuite, G.J.L.; Heck, A.J.R.; Roos, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between a viral capsid and its genome governs crucial steps in the life cycle of a virus, such as assembly and genome uncoating. Tuning cargo–capsid interactions is also essential for successful design and cargo delivery in engineered viral systems. Here we investigate the interplay

  12. Probing the biophysical interplay between a viral genome and its capsid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, J.; Uetrecht, C.; Rose, R. J.; Sanchez-Eugenia, R.; Marti, G. A.; Agirre, J.; Guerin, D. M. A.; Wuite, G. J. L.; Heck, A. J. R.; Roos, W. H.

    The interaction between a viral capsid and its genome governs crucial steps in the life cycle of a virus, such as assembly and genome uncoating. Tuning cargo-capsid interactions is also essential for successful design and cargo delivery in engineered viral systems. Here we investigate the interplay

  13. Probing the biophysical interplay between a viral genome and its capsid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, J.; Uetrecht, C.; Rose, R.J.; Sanchez-Eugenia, R.; Marti, G.A.; Agirre, J.; Guérin, D.M.A.; Wuite, G.J.L.; Heck, A.J.R.; Roos, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between a viral capsid and its genome governs crucial steps in the life cycle of a virus, such as assembly and genome uncoating. Tuning cargo-capsid interactions is also essential for successful design and cargo delivery in engineered viral systems. Here we investigate the interplay

  14. Liver monocytes and kupffer cells remain transcriptionally distinct during chronic viral infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D.B. van de Garde (Martijn D.B.); D. Movita (Dowty); Van Der Heide, M. (Marieke); F. Herschke (Florence); De Jonghe, S. (Sandra); L. Gama (Lucio); P.A. Boonstra (André); T. Vanwolleghem (Thomas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDue to the scarcity of immunocompetent animal models for chronic viral hepatitis, little is known about the role of the innate intrahepatic immune system during viral replication in the liver. These insights are however fundamental for the understanding of the inappropriate adaptive

  15. Non-Viral Deoxyribonucleoside Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Louise Slot; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    to be valuable in studying the evolution of enzymes. Some of these newly discovered enzymes have been useful in numerous practical applications in medicine and biotechnology, and have contributed to our understanding of the structural basis of nucleoside and nucleoside analogue activation....... of great medical interest. However, during the last 20 years, research on dNKs has gone into non-mammalian organisms. In this review, we focus on non-viral dNKs, in particular their diversity and their practical applications. The diversity of this enzyme family in different organisms has proven...

  16. Versatile transmission ellipsometry to study linear ferrofluid magneto-optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooij, E S; Gâlcă, A C; Poelsema, B

    2006-12-01

    Linear birefringence and dichroism of magnetite ferrofluids are studied simultaneously using spectroscopic ellipsometry in transmission mode. It is shown that this versatile technique enables highly accurate characterisation of magneto-optical phenomena. Magnetic field-dependent linear birefringence and dichroism as well as the spectral dependence are shown to be in line with previous results. Despite the qualitative agreement with established models for magneto-optical phenomena, these fail to provide an accurate, quantitative description of our experimental results using the bulk dielectric function of magnetite. We discuss the results in relation to these models, and indicate how the modified dielectric function of the magnetite nanoparticles can be obtained.

  17. A Versatile Glass Processor for High-Performance Photonic Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-08

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: With the DURIP fund, we acquire a glass processing station to enhance our capabilities to achieve ultra-high performance...funded by PECASE (supported by DoD-ARO under the contract/grant number W911NF-12-1-0026) on high performance optical sensors. The multipurpose glass ...Distribution Unlimited UU UU UU UU 08-12-2016 1-Aug-2014 31-Jul-2015 Final Report: A Versatile Glass Processor for High-Performance Photonic Platforms The views

  18. Versatile test rig for the evaluation of thermionic electron guns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, H.; Cleaver, J.R.A. (Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Engineering); Catto, C.J.D. (Cambridge Sanning Ltd. (UK)); Kanitkar, P.L. (Poona Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics); Smith, D.J. (Cambridge Univ. (UK). High Resolution Electron Microscope)

    1982-12-01

    Measurements of the brightness and the electron energy distribution for high-performance electron guns for electron-optical instruments must take account of the small effective size of the electron source and the directional dependence of the emission from it. A versatile electron gun test rig has been developed to enable measurements to be made under realistic operating conditions. Energy distribution can be determined with a hemispherical cup retarding-field analyser, and brightness can be measured at up to 100 kV by both two-aperture and crossover-projection methods. Some measured characteristics of lanthanum hexaboride cathodes are given, with measurements of conventional tungsten cathodes for comparison.

  19. Effect of cell culture system on the production of human viral antigens Efeito do sistema de cultura celular na produção de antígenos virais humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Zucatelli Mendonça

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was performed in the production of different viral antigens by using microcarrier systems and traditional systems. Vero, BHK and MA 104 cells were cultivated in microcarriers (2mg/ml using a bioreactor with a working capacity of 3.7 liters, in parallel with conventional Roux bottles. After four days (BHK cells, and seven days of culture (Vero and MA-104 cells, the cells were infected with 0.1 MOI (multiplicity of infection of rabies virus, measles virus, poliovirus and rotavirus. The yields of the cells and virus in microcarriers and in the conventional system were determined. It was observed that in the microcarrier system, an average increase of twenty-fold more cells/ml was obtained in relation to the conventional monolayer culture, using Roux bottle. On the other hand, cells grown in Roux bottles presented 1.3 to 6.7 more viruses/ml culture than those in the microcarrier systems. However, the overall data showed that yieldings, in terms of viruses per batch, were statistically similar for both systems (p > 0.05. The amount of viral antigen production seems to depend not only on cell concentration, but also on other culture factors such as the characteristic of the cell-growth surface. Thus, the present findings provide a baseline for further improvements and strategies to be established for a scaling-up virus production since depending on the type of virus the optimal conditions found for a small-scale virus production seem unsuitable for large-scale production, requiring new standardization and evaluation.Foi realizado estudo comparativo na produção de diferentes antígenos virais usando sistema de microcarregador e sistema tradicional. Células Vero, BHK e MA-104 foram cultivadas em microcarregadores (2mg/ml utilizando-se biorreatores com capacidade de 3,7 litros e, em paralelo, no sistema convencional com garrafas Roux. Após quatro dias de cultura para as células BHK e sete dias para as células Vero e MA-104, as c

  20. ANTI-VIRAL ACTIVITY OF GLYCIRRHETINIC AND GLYCIRRHIZIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zarubaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a highly contagious human disease. In the course of use of antiviral drugs drug-resistant strains of the virus are formed, resulting in reduced efficiency of the chemotherapy. The review describes the biological activity of glycirrhetinic (GLA and glycirrhizic (GA acids in terms of their use as a therapeutic agent for viral infections. So, these compounds are against a broad spectrum of viruses, including herpes, corona-, alphaand flaviviruses, human immunodeficiency virus, vaccinia virus, poliovirus type I, vesicular stomatitis virus and influenza A virus. These data indicate that anti-viral effect of these compounds is due to several types of activity — direct antiviral effects, effects on cellular proand anti-viral and immunomodulating pathways, in particular by activation of innate immunity system. GA interferes with early steps of the viral reproductive cycle such as virus binding to its receptor, the absorption of the virus by endocytosis or virus decapsidation in the cytoplasm. This is due to the effect of GA-induced reduction of membrane fluidity. Thus, one mechanism for the antiviral activity of GA is that GA molecule increases the rigidity of cellular and viral membranes after incorporation in there. This results in increasing of energy threshold required for the formation of negative curvature at the fusion zones, as well as difficult lateral migration of the virus-receptor complexes. In addition, glycyrrhizin prevents interaction of viral nucleoprotein with cellular protein HMGB1, which is necessary for the viral life cycle. Glycyrrhizin also inhibits the induction of oxidative stress during influenza infection, exhibiting antioxidant properties, which leads to a reduction of virus-induced production of cytokines/chemokines, without affecting the replication of the virus. A wide spectrum of biological activity and effect on various aspects of the viral pathogenesis substantiate the effect of GA and GLA as a component

  1. Diagnostic imaging of viral encephalitis; Bildgebende Diagnostik der Virusenzephalitiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.; Henkes, H.; Kuehne, D. [Alfried-Krupp-Krankenhaus Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Felber, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Innsbruck (Austria). Klinische Abt. der Radiologie I; Jaenisch, W. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuropathologie; Schaper, J. [Klinikum der Univ. Essen (Germany). Zentralinst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    2000-11-01

    The diagnostic procedure in viral encephalitis is based on the synopsis of clinical signs and symptoms, serological data, CSF analysis and diagnostic imaging findings. This article summarizes the findings of those viral encephalitides most frequently encountered in Western Europe. MRI is more sensitive than CT for the detection of inflammatory brain lesions due to the higher contrast resolution. The pattern of parenchymal damage is highly specific in only some viral encephalitides (e.g., the frequently hemorrhagic lesions of structures of the limbic system in herpes simples virus type I encephalitis; the symmetric and confluent lesions of the frontal white matter of progressive diffuse leukoencephalopathy in AIDS). In the majority of viral encephalitides MRI demonstrates the location and extension of parenchymal damage. The specific diagnosis in terms of the causative agent is based on serological studies. (orig.) [German] Die Diagnostik viraler Enzephalitiden basiert auf der synoptischen Auswertung klinischer, serologischer, liquoranalytischer und bildgebend erhobener Befunde. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden die entsprechenden Befunde der haeufigsten in Westeuropa viral verursachten Enzephalitiden dargestellt. Generell ist bei entzuendlichen Laesionen des Hirnparenchyms die Kernspintomographie (MRT) aufgrund ihrer hohen Weichteilkontrastaufloesung der Computertomographie (CT) hinsichtlich der Nachweissensitivitaet ueberlegen. Bei einigen viralen Enzephalitiden ist das kernspintomographisch erfassbare Schaedigungsmuster hochspezifisch. Die gilt z.B. fuer die haeufig haemorrhagischen Laesionen der Strukturen des limbischen Systems bei der Herpes-simplex-Virus-Typ-1-Enzephalitis und fuer die flaechenhaft symmetrischen Marklagerlaesionen bei der progressiven diffusen Leukenzephalopathie bei AIDS-Patienten. Bei der Mehrzahl der viralen Enzephalitiden weist die MRT zwar die Lokalisation und Ausdehnung der Parenchymschaedigung nach, erlaubt jedoch keine sichere

  2. Polydopamine Nanoparticles as a Versatile Molecular Loading Platform to Enable Imaging-guided Cancer Combination Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ziliang; Gong, Hua; Gao, Min; Zhu, Wenwen; Sun, Xiaoqi; Feng, Liangzhu; Fu, Tingting; Li, Yonggang; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    Cancer combination therapy to treat tumors with different therapeutic approaches can efficiently improve treatment efficacy and reduce side effects. Herein, we develop a theranostic nano-platform based on polydopamine (PDA) nanoparticles, which then are exploited as a versatile carrier to allow simultaneous loading of indocyanine green (ICG), doxorubicin (DOX) and manganese ions (PDA-ICG-PEG/DOX(Mn)), to enable imaging-guided chemo & photothermal cancer therapy. In this system, ICG acts as a photothermal agent, which shows red-shifted near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and enhanced photostability compared with free ICG. DOX, a model chemotherapy drug, is then loaded onto the surface of PDA-ICG-PEG with high efficiency. With Mn(2+) ions intrinsically chelated, PDA-ICG-PEG/DOX(Mn) is able to offer contrast under T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In a mouse tumor model, the MR imaging-guided combined chemo- & photothermal therapy achieves a remarkable synergistic therapeutic effect compared with the respective single treatment modality. This work demonstrates that PDA nanoparticles could serve as a versatile molecular loading platform for MR imaging guided combined chemo- & photothermal therapy with minimal side effects, showing great potential for cancer theranostics.

  3. Possible Relevance of Receptor-Receptor Interactions between Viral- and Host-Coded Receptors for Viral-Induced Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi F. Agnati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that some viruses, such as the cytomegalovirus, code for G-protein coupled receptors not only to elude the immune system, but also to redirect cellular signaling in the receptor networks of the host cells. In view of the existence of receptor-receptor interactions, the hypothesis is introduced that these viral-coded receptors not only operate as constitutively active monomers, but also can affect other receptor function by interacting with receptors of the host cell. Furthermore, it is suggested that viruses could also insert not single receptors (monomers, but clusters of receptors (receptor mosaics, altering the cell metabolism in a profound way. The prevention of viral receptor-induced changes in host receptor networks may give rise to novel antiviral drugs that counteract viral-induced disease.

  4. Viral organization of human proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wuchty

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Although maps of intracellular interactions are increasingly well characterized, little is known about large-scale maps of host-pathogen protein interactions. The investigation of host-pathogen interactions can reveal features of pathogenesis and provide a foundation for the development of drugs and disease prevention strategies. A compilation of experimentally verified interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins and a set of HIV-dependency factors (HDF allowed insights into the topology and intricate interplay between viral and host proteins on a large scale. We found that targeted and HDF proteins appear predominantly in rich-clubs, groups of human proteins that are strongly intertwined among each other. These assemblies of proteins may serve as an infection gateway, allowing the virus to take control of the human host by reaching protein pathways and diversified cellular functions in a pronounced and focused way. Particular transcription factors and protein kinases facilitate indirect interactions between HDFs and viral proteins. Discerning the entanglement of directly targeted and indirectly interacting proteins may uncover molecular and functional sites that can provide novel perspectives on the progression of HIV infection and highlight new avenues to fight this virus.

  5. Novel Viral Vector Systems for Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stone

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, interest in the field of gene therapy seems to have fluctuated between hot and cold. Encouraging pre-clinical and clinical data has demonstrated the potential of genetic therapies and yet setbacks in clinical trials have cast doubts in some minds over the clinical future of gene therapy [1-3]. In the last two years, a number of studies have demonstrated therapeutic benefits in clinical trials aimed towards specific monogenetic disorders [4-6], and this has brought renewed optimism to the field. [...

  6. viral infections of the central nervous system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, can restore this pathway. Shyam Biswal at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, and colleagues, exposed defective macrophages from the lungs of 43 people with COPD to two bacterial strains that are common causes of COPD-associated infections. In the presence of.

  7. T Cell Exhaustion During Persistent Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Shannon M.; Wherry, E. John; Zajac, Allan J.

    2015-01-01

    Although robust and highly effective anti-viral T cells contribute to the clearance of many acute infections, viral persistence is associated with the development of functionally inferior, exhausted, T cell responses. Exhaustion develops in a step-wise and progressive manner, ranges in severity, and can culminate in the deletion of the anti-viral T cells. This disarming of the response is consequential as it compromises viral control and potentially serves to dampen immune-mediated damage. Exhausted T cells are unable to elaborate typical anti-viral effector functions. They are characterized by the sustained upregulation of inhibitory receptors and display a gene expression profile that distinguishes them from prototypic effector and memory T cell populations. In this review we discuss the properties of exhausted T cells; the virological and immunological conditions that favor their development; the cellular and molecular signals that sustain the exhausted state; and strategies for preventing and reversing exhaustion to favor viral control. PMID:25620767

  8. Viral Infection in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Cukuranovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are among the most common causes of opportunistic infection after transplantation. The risk for viral infection is a function of the specific virus encountered, the intensity of immune suppression used to prevent graft rejection, and other host factors governing susceptibility. Although cytomegalovirus is the most common opportunistic pathogen seen in transplant recipients, numerous other viruses have also affected outcomes. In some cases, preventive measures such as pretransplant screening, prophylactic antiviral therapy, or posttransplant viral monitoring may limit the impact of these infections. Recent advances in laboratory monitoring and antiviral therapy have improved outcomes. Studies of viral latency, reactivation, and the cellular effects of viral infection will provide clues for future strategies in prevention and treatment of viral infections. This paper will summarize the major viral infections seen following transplant and discuss strategies for prevention and management of these potential pathogens.

  9. Iron: a versatile element to produce materials for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Ana Paula C.; Araujo, Maria H.; Oliveira, Luiz C.A.; Moura, Flavia C.C.; Lago, Rochel M., E-mail: rochel@ufmg.br, E-mail: anapct@ufmg.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Tristao, Juliana C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Florestal, MG (Brazil); Ardisson, Jose D. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica Aplicada; Amorim, Camila C., E-mail: juliana@ufv.br [Departamento de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Iron is a versatile element forming several phases with different oxidation states and {sup s}tructures, such as Fe{sup 0}, FeO, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and FeOOH. All these phases have unique physicochemical properties which can be used for different applications. In this work, it is described the use of different iron compounds, synthetic and also from natural and waste sources, in environmental and technological applications. Two main research areas are described. The first one is related to strategies to increase the reactivity of Fe phases, mainly by the formation of Fe{sup 0}/iron oxide composites and by the introduction of new metals in the iron oxide structure to promote new surface reactions. The second area is the use of the magnetic properties of some iron phases to produce versatile magnetic materials with focus in adsorption, catalysis and emulsions. (author)

  10. Versatile equipment for mechanical testing of active materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, Johannes; Heimgartner, Peter

    2005-01-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) 3 different project groups presently perform aging research on active materials. The research fields are fusion, high neutron flux targets and LWR relevant components. Up to now mechanical testing has been performed with small, low dose rate samples behind local shielding, not appropriate for highly activated material. To overcome this situation, a cell concept for active mechanical testing was elaborated and has been erected in PSI's Hotlab. It consists of 4 shielded cells. 3 connected cells are versatile and independently operable for highly beta/gamma active samples. One cell is an alpha/beta/gamma-box which will be realized in a second phase. This paper presents the versatility especially of the beta/gamma-cells: The different user groups perform experiments in these cells, whereas different machines can be placed into the cells. As consequence of the need of heavily shielded cell doors, a special strengthening and levelling of the floor has been required. In all cells the relevant media are installed. Besides the performance of the cells, the project progress as the difficulties and their solutions are described. (Author)

  11. Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brullot, W., E-mail: ward.brullot@fys.kuleuven.be [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Reddy, N.K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Wouters, J.; Valev, V.K.; Goderis, B. [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Vermant, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Verbiest, T. [Department of Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-06-15

    Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a facile protocol and thoroughly characterized. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized using a modified forced hydrolysis method were functionalized with polyethylene glycol silane (PEG silane), precipitated and dried. These functionalized particles are dispersable in a range of solvents and concentrations depending on the desired properties. Examples of tunable properties are magnetic behavior, optical and magneto-optical response, thermal features and rheological behavior. As such, PEG silane functionalized particles represent a platform for the development of new materials that have broad applicability in e.g. biomedical, industrial or photonic environments. Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological properties of several ferrofluids based on PEG coated particles with different concentrations of particles dispersed in low molecular mass polyethylene glycol were investigated, establishing the applicability of such materials. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological characterization of ferrofluids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tunable properties of versatile polyethylene glycol stabilized ferrofluids.

  12. A versatile patterning process based on easily soluble sacrificial bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Takayuki; Tsukazaki, Atsushi

    2017-08-01

    Development of a microfabrication process is essential to embed fascinating physical properties of functional materials into mesoscopic devices. Different from well-investigated materials with established microfabrication process, newly-discovered materials often meet difficulty when scaling down into a mesoscopic size, because process damages cause serious deterioration of their functionalities. Here, we demonstrate a versatile lift-off method using a carefully designed sacrificial bilayer, composed of an easily soluble layer and a thermally stable rigid layer. In this method, the target films can be grown in optimum conditions, such as high temperature and high oxygen partial pressure, on the stable pre-patterned substrate with the inorganic sacrificial bilayer. After film deposition, measurable patterned devices can be obtained just by a short-time lift-off in a mild chemical solution. We carried out micron-scale patterning and electrical measurements by applying this technique to one of perovskite oxides, SrRuO3, and Fe-based chalcogenide superconductors, FeSe, both of which are incompatible with conventional photolithography and dry-etching processes. The demonstrated narrowest line width of 5 μm is successfully patterned with maintaining the almost identical properties of the pristine films, exemplifying that process damage is minimized. The demonstrated versatile patterning process expands the range of application of emerging functional materials in thin film devices.

  13. Development of a versatile and conventional technique for gene disruption in filamentous fungi based on CRISPR-Cas9 technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan-Mei; Lin, Fu-Long; Gao, Hao; Zou, Gen; Zhang, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Gao-Qian; Chen, Guo-Dong; Zhou, Zhi-Hua; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Hu, Dan

    2017-08-23

    Filamentous fungi represent an invaluable source of pharmaceutically active compounds. The development of versatile methods to genetically manipulate filamentous fungi is of great value for improving the low yields of bioactive metabolites and expanding chemical diversity. The CRISPR-Cas9-based system has become a common platform for genome editing in a variety of organisms. However, recent application of this technology in filamentous fungi is limited to model strains, a versatile method for efficient gene disruption in different fungi is lacking. Here, we investigated the utility of the CRISPR-Cas9 system in a less-studied fungus Nodulisporium sp. (No. 65-12-7-1), and we have developed an efficient CRISPR-Cas9-based gene disruption strategy by simultaneous transformation of in vitro transcriptional gRNA and the linear maker gene cassette into the Cas9-expressing fungi. We found that the linear marker gene cassette could not only allow for selection of transformants, but also significantly enhance the gene disruption efficiency by inserting itself into the Cas9 cut site. Moreover, the above approach also demonstrated its efficiency in two other phylogenetically distinct strains Aspergillus oryzae NSAR1 and Sporormiella minima (No. 40-1-4-1) from two different classes of Ascomycota. These results suggested that a versatile CRISPR-Cas9-based gene disruption method in filamentous fungi was established.

  14. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and chronic viral encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlar, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic infection of the central nervous system associated with the presence of mutant measles virus in the brain. It presents as a progressive, usually fatal disease. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and an elevated titer of measles antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Electroencephalography and imaging studies provide supportive laboratory data. A brain biopsy is indicated only when CSF serology is negative or equivocal in a suspected case to assess the presence of inclusion bodies, measles virus antigens, or viral RNA. Among many drugs and methods tried in the treatment, the highest rate of stabilization or improvement was obtained with intraventricular human lymphoblastoid interferon-α and oral inosiplex. Further research for more available and efficient therapeutic regimens is warranted. Measles and SSPE are preventable by maintenance of high rates of immunization in the population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Confirmed viral meningitis with normal CSF findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Naghum; Desjobert, Edouard; Lumley, Janine; Webster, Daniel; Jacobs, Michael

    2014-07-17

    An 18-year-old woman presented with a progressively worsening headache, photophobia feverishness and vomiting. Three weeks previously she had returned to the UK from a trip to Peru. At presentation, she had clinical signs of meningism. On admission, blood tests showed a mild lymphopenia, with a normal C reactive protein and white cell count. Chest X-ray and CT of the head were normal. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy was normal. CSF protein and glucose were in the normal range. MRI of the head and cerebral angiography were also normal. Subsequent molecular testing of CSF detected enterovirus RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR. The patient's clinical syndrome correlated with her virological diagnosis and no other cause of her symptoms was found. Her symptoms were self-limiting and improved with supportive management. This case illustrates an important example of viral central nervous system infection presenting clinically as meningitis but with normal CSF microscopy. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Virion-targeted viral inactivation: new therapy against viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okui, N; Kitamura, Y; Kobayashi, N; Sakuma, R; Ishikawa, T; Kitamura, T

    2001-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is resistant to all current therapy. Gene therapy is an attractive alternative or additive to current, unsatisfactory AIDS therapy. To develop an antiviral molecule targeting viral integrase (HIV IN), we generated a single-chain antibody, termed scAb, which interacted with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) IN and inhibited virus replication at the integration step when expressed intracellularly. To reduce infectivity from within the virus particles, we made expression plasmids (pC-scAbE-Vpr, pC-scAbE-CA, and pC-scAbE-WXXF), which expressed the anti-HIV IN scAb fused to the N-terminus of HIV-1-associated accessory protein R (Vpr), capsid protein (CA), and specific binding motif to Vpr (WXXF), respectively. All fusion proteins were tagged with a nine-amino acid peptide derived from influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) at the C terminus. The fusion molecules, termed scAbE-Vpr, scAbE-CA, and scAbE-WXXF, interacted specifically with HIV IN immobilized on a nitrocellulose membrane. Immunoblot analysis showed that scAbE-Vpr, scAbE-CA, and scAbE-WXXF were incorporated into the virions produced by cotransfection of 293T cells with HIV-1 infectious clone DNA (pLAI) and pC-scAbE-Vpr, pC-scAbE-WXXF. A multinuclear activation galactosidase indicator (MAGI) assay revealed that the virions released from 293T cells cotransfected with pLAI and pC-scAbE-Vpr, pC-scAbE-WXXF had as little 1000-fold of the infectivity of the control wild-type virions, which were produced from the 293T cells transfected with pLAI alone. Furthermore, the virions produced from the 293T cells cotransfected with pLAI and an scAb expression vector (pC-scAb) showed only 1% of the infectivity of the control HIV-1 in a MAGI assay, although scAb was not incorporated into the virions. In either instance, the total quantity of the progeny virions released from the transfected 293T cells and the patterns of the virion proteins were hardly affected by the presence of

  17. Mapping dynamic branch displacements: A versatile method to quantify spatiotemporal neurite dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki eHiramoto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractQuantification of the movement of axons and dendrites is essential to study circuit formation. Several methods have been developed to quantify the movement of neurites in simplified systems, however these quantification methods are specialized for a limited type of predicted movements in the particular assay systems. The movement of neurites in vivo includes many unexpected rearrangements. Establishment of a method that can detect and quantify a variety of patterning events will reveal novel phenomena in circuit formation and make it possible to conduct deeper investigation of the molecular and cellular bases of these events. Here we present a versatile method that represents a quantitative analysis of the integrated movement of neurites on a spatial map. We show that the method is useful to analyze several types of neurite behaviors, such as changes in the directionality of neurite movements, fasciculation of axons or changes in territories of dendritic fields.

  18. Visualizing viral transport and host infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kwangmin; Guasto, Jeffrey; Cubillos-Ruiz, Andres; Sullivan, Matthew; Stocker, Roman; MIT Team

    2013-11-01

    A virus is a non-motile infectious agent that can only replicate inside a living host. They consist of a virus-host encounter/adsorption dynamics and subsequently the effectiveness of various tail morphologies for viral infection. Viral transport and the role of viral morphology in host-virus interactions are critical to our understanding of both ecosystem dynamics and human health, as well as to the evolution of virus morphology.

  19. Viral Advertising on Facebook in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore which factors affect the effectiveness of viral advertising on Facebook in Vietnam. The quantitative research method is applied in this research and the sample is Vietnamese Facebook users. After the data analysis stage using SPSS, it became clear that weak ties, perceptual affinity and emotions have an impact on the effectiveness of viral advertising. The results provide a pratical implication of how to make an Ad which can go viral on Facebook. Moreo...

  20. Viral Advertising: Branding Effects from Consumers’ Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yueqing

    2012-01-01

    Viral advertising is popular for its high viral transmission results online. Its increased impacts on the social media users have been noticed by the author. At the same time, viewers’ negative attitudes toward traditional advertisements become obvious which can be regarded as the phenomenon of advertisement avoidance. It arouses author’s interests to know how the viral advertising reduces the viewers’ negative emotions and its performances in branding online. This paper is going to look into...