WorldWideScience

Sample records for versatile viral system

  1. Versatile radiation gaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The attributes of computerized versatile radiation gaging systems are described. The gages are used to measure plating thicknesses and material characteristics that can be determined from radiation attenuation and/or x-ray fluorescence measurements

  2. ViralORFeome: an integrated database to generate a versatile collection of viral ORFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellet, J; Tafforeau, L; Lucas-Hourani, M; Navratil, V; Meyniel, L; Achaz, G; Guironnet-Paquet, A; Aublin-Gex, A; Caignard, G; Cassonnet, P; Chaboud, A; Chantier, T; Deloire, A; Demeret, C; Le Breton, M; Neveu, G; Jacotot, L; Vaglio, P; Delmotte, S; Gautier, C; Combet, C; Deleage, G; Favre, M; Tangy, F; Jacob, Y; Andre, P; Lotteau, V; Rabourdin-Combe, C; Vidalain, P O

    2010-01-01

    Large collections of protein-encoding open reading frames (ORFs) established in a versatile recombination-based cloning system have been instrumental to study protein functions in high-throughput assays. Such 'ORFeome' resources have been developed for several organisms but in virology, plasmid collections covering a significant fraction of the virosphere are still needed. In this perspective, we present ViralORFeome 1.0 (http://www.viralorfeome.com), an open-access database and management system that provides an integrated set of bioinformatic tools to clone viral ORFs in the Gateway(R) system. ViralORFeome provides a convenient interface to navigate through virus genome sequences, to design ORF-specific cloning primers, to validate the sequence of generated constructs and to browse established collections of virus ORFs. Most importantly, ViralORFeome has been designed to manage all possible variants or mutants of a given ORF so that the cloning procedure can be applied to any emerging virus strain. A subset of plasmid constructs generated with ViralORFeome platform has been tested with success for heterologous protein expression in different expression systems at proteome scale. ViralORFeome should provide our community with a framework to establish a large collection of virus ORF clones, an instrumental resource to determine functions, activities and binding partners of viral proteins.

  3. A versatile fast coincidence system with memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouthas, J.

    1976-01-01

    A versatile fast coincidence system has been studied for experiments using several detectors. In this system, all the coincidence events are produced with an associated code, and thus, different kinds of events can be processed with the same experimental set-up. Also, the classification of the logical pulses gives the possibility of using a large number of ways (30 in this system). The setting of the system is very simple: there are only two time windows to adjust. (Auth.)

  4. A versatile scalable PET processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, H.; Weisenberger, A.; McKisson, J.; Wenze, Xi; Cuevas, C.; Wilson, J.; Zukerman, L.

    2011-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) historically has major clinical and preclinical applications in cancerous oncology, neurology, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, in a new direction, an application specific PET system is being developed at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with Duke University, University of Maryland at Baltimore (UMAB), and West Virginia University (WVU) targeted for plant eco-physiology research. The new plant imaging PET system is versatile and scalable such that it could adapt to several plant imaging needs - imaging many important plant organs including leaves, roots, and stems. The mechanical arrangement of the detectors is designed to accommodate the unpredictable and random distribution in space of the plant organs without requiring the plant be disturbed. Prototyping such a system requires a new data acquisition system (DAQ) and data processing system which are adaptable to the requirements of these unique and versatile detectors.

  5. Versatile timing system for MFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, N.H.C.

    1981-01-01

    This System consists of the Master Timing Transmitter and the Local Timing Receivers. The Master Timing Transmitter located in the control room initiates timing messages, abort messages and precise delay messages. A sync message is sent when one of the other three is not being sent. The Local Timing Receiver, located in the equipment area, decodes the incoming messages and generates 6 MHz, 3MHz and 1 MHz continuous clocks. A 250 KHz sync clock is derived from the sync messages, to which all pulse outputs are synchronized. The Local Timing Receiver also provides two ON-OFF delay counters of 64 bits each, and one OFF delay counter of 32 bits. Detection of abort messages and an out-of-sync signal will automatically disable all outputs

  6. Analysis of IAV Replication and Co-infection Dynamics by a Versatile RNA Viral Genome Labeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Dou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Genome delivery to the proper cellular compartment for transcription and replication is a primary goal of viruses. However, methods for analyzing viral genome localization and differentiating genomes with high identity are lacking, making it difficult to investigate entry-related processes and co-examine heterogeneous RNA viral populations. Here, we present an RNA labeling approach for single-cell analysis of RNA viral replication and co-infection dynamics in situ, which uses the versatility of padlock probes. We applied this method to identify influenza A virus (IAV infections in cells and lung tissue with single-nucleotide specificity and to classify entry and replication stages by gene segment localization. Extending the classification strategy to co-infections of IAVs with single-nucleotide variations, we found that the dependence on intracellular trafficking places a time restriction on secondary co-infections necessary for genome reassortment. Altogether, these data demonstrate how RNA viral genome labeling can help dissect entry and co-infections.

  7. Viral ancestors of antiviral systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Luis P

    2011-10-01

    All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the 'Big Bang' theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  8. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis P. Villarreal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  9. Neuronal chemokines : Versatile messengers in central nervous system cell interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, A. H.; van Weering, H. R. J.; de Jong, E. K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Biber, K. P. H.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas chemokines are well known for their ability to induce cell migration, only recently it became evident that chemokines also control a variety of other cell functions and are versatile messengers in the interaction between a diversity of cell types. In the central nervous system (CNS),

  10. A versatile Czochralski crystal growth system with automatic diameter control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, M. D.; Metzl, R.; Wang, W. S.; Choi, J.

    1995-07-01

    A versatile Czochralski crystal pulling system with automatic diameter control for the growth of nonlinear optical oxide crystals is discussed. Pure and doped bulk single crystals of bismuth silicon oxide (Bi12SiO20) have been successfully grown using this system. The system consists of a regular Czochralski type pulling system with provision for continuous weighing of the growing crystal to provide feedback for power control.

  11. Versatile H+ beam chopper system at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunsford, J.S.; Lawrence, G.P.; Bentley, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    The H + chopper system at LAMPF provides two modes (A and B) of beam chopping. Mode A provides single micropulses separated by 1 μs or more. Mode B provides a single pulse 50-ns to 10-μs long at the LAMPF repetition rate of 12 Hz. The mode of operation is selected with coaxial relays which can switch during the dead time between LAMPF macropulses. The chopper consists of 1-m-long push-pull helical-wound slow-wave deflecting structures having an axial pulse velocity of 0.04c, which matches the velocity of the proton beam. The helix ground-planes are biased by a pulser providing push-pull 500-V pulses to deflect the H + beam from the injection channel. In chopping mode A, the helical windings are driven by push-pull, 1000-V, 5-ns pulses delivered by a circuit utilizing avalanche transistors and planar triodes. In mode B, the helical windings are driven by push-pull, 1000-V, 50-ns to 10-μs long pulses, produced by a circuit utilizing beam-power tetrodes and fast SCRs. In both modes, these pulses cancel the ground-plane bias and permit beam pulses to be delivered to the linac

  12. CORRTEX: a compact and versatile system for time domain reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deupree, R.G.; Eilers, D.D.; McKown, T.O.; Storey, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    The CORRTEX (COntinuous Reflectometry for Radius versus Time EXperiments) system was designed to be an adaptable and versatile unit for performing time domain reflectometry (TDR). The system consists of a coaxial cable, a digital TDR, which uses a Motorola 6800 microprocessor, a power source or battery pack, and an output terminal or recording driver. Desirable criteria for the system are discussed as well as the operation of the CORRTEX system. The types of present applications of the CORRTEX system are summarized and data presented

  13. A versatile stepping motor controller for systems with many motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, S.K.; Siddons, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A versatile system for controlling beamlines or complex experimental setups is described. The system as currently configured can control up to 32 motors, with all motors capable of full speed operation concurrently. There are 2 limit switch inputs for each motor, and a further input to accept a reference position marker. The motors can be controlled via a front panel keyboard with display, or by a host computer over an IEEE-488 interface. Both methods can be used together if required. There is an ''emergency stop'' key on the front panel keyboard to stop the motion of all motors without losing track of the motors' position. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. VISION: a Versatile and Innovative SIlicOn tracking system

    CERN Document Server

    Lietti, Daniela; Vallazza, Erik

    This thesis work focuses on the study of the performance of different tracking and profilometry systems (the so-called INSULAB, INSUbria LABoratory, and VISION, Versatile and Innovative SIlicON, Telescopes) used in the last years by the NTA-HCCC, the COHERENT (COHERENT effects in crystals for the physics of accelerators), ICE-RAD (Interaction in Crystals for Emission of RADiation) and CHANEL (CHAnneling of NEgative Leptons) experiments, four collaborations of the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) dedicated to the research in the crystals physics field.

  15. Versatile Dual Photoresponsive System for Precise Control of Chemical Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Can; Bing, Wei; Wang, Faming; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2017-08-22

    A versatile method for photoregulation of chemical reactions was developed through a combination of near-infrared (NIR) and ultraviolet (UV) light sensitive materials. This regulatory effect was achieved through photoresponsive modulation of reaction temperature and pH values, two prominent factors influencing reaction kinetics. Photothermal nanomaterial graphene oxide (GO) and photobase reagent malachite green carbinol base (MGCB) were selected for temperature and pH regulation, respectively. Using nanocatalyst- and enzyme-mediated chemical reactions as model systems, we demonstrated the feasibility and high efficiency of this method. In addition, a photoresponsive, multifunctional "Band-aid"-like hydrogel platform was presented for programmable wound healing. Overall, this simple, efficient, and reversible system was found to be effective for controlling a wide variety of chemical reactions. Our work may provide a method for remote and sustainable control over chemical reactions for industrial and biomedical applications.

  16. Versatile secondary trigger for a multi-detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouimette, D.; Porat, D.; Tilghman, A.; Young, C.

    1982-10-01

    The electronics of a secondary trigger for particle physics is described. The system has several desirable features that solve track recognition problems in situations where several subsystems of various cell configurations participate in the decision making. Track curvature and multiplicity are the criteria used. Versatility is attained through the use of programmable Array Logic (PAL) and a 48-bit wide ROM-based sequencer that determines, with the resolution of a cell, the participation of each element in the decision process. Data from layers with arbitrary numbers of cells are shifted in a progammable manner through a PROM mask containing eight different track definitions. The results of any one of the eight triggering criteria are available 5.6 μs after the end of drift interval

  17. Quantum Dot Systems: a versatile platform for quantum simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelemy, Pierre; Vandersypen, Lieven M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum mechanics often results in extremely complex phenomena, especially when the quantum system under consideration is composed of many interacting particles. The states of these many-body systems live in a space so large that classical numerical calculations cannot compute them. Quantum simulations can be used to overcome this problem: complex quantum problems can be solved by studying experimentally an artificial quantum system operated to simulate the desired hamiltonian. Quantum dot systems have shown to be widely tunable quantum systems, that can be efficiently controlled electrically. This tunability and the versatility of their design makes them very promising quantum simulators. This paper reviews the progress towards digital quantum simulations with individually controlled quantum dots, as well as the analog quantum simulations that have been performed with these systems. The possibility to use large arrays of quantum dots to simulate the low-temperature Hubbard model is also discussed. The main issues along that path are presented and new ideas to overcome them are proposed. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. A highly versatile and easily configurable system for plant electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsé, Benet; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Rankl, Simone; Schröeder, Peter; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Barceló, Juan

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present a highly versatile and easily configurable system for measuring plant electrophysiological parameters and ionic flow rates, connected to a computer-controlled highly accurate positioning device. The modular software used allows easy customizable configurations for the measurement of electrophysiological parameters. Both the operational tests and the experiments already performed have been fully successful and rendered a low noise and highly stable signal. Assembly, programming and configuration examples are discussed. The system is a powerful technique that not only gives precise measuring of plant electrophysiological status, but also allows easy development of ad hoc configurations that are not constrained to plant studies. •We developed a highly modular system for electrophysiology measurements that can be used either in organs or cells and performs either steady or dynamic intra- and extracellular measurements that takes advantage of the easiness of visual object-oriented programming.•High precision accuracy in data acquisition under electrical noisy environments that allows it to run even in a laboratory close to electrical equipment that produce electrical noise.•The system makes an improvement of the currently used systems for monitoring and controlling high precision measurements and micromanipulation systems providing an open and customizable environment for multiple experimental needs.

  19. Viral subversion of the immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, L.; Vanderplasschen, A.

    2005-01-01

    The continuous interactions between host and viruses during their co-evolution have shaped not only the immune system but also the countermeasures used by viruses. Studies in the last decade have described the diverse arrays of pathways and molecular targets that are used by viruses to elude immune detection or destruction, or both. These include targeting of pathways for major histocompatibility complex class I and class II antigen presentation, natural killer cell recognition, apoptosis, cytokine signalling, and complement activation. This paper provides an overview of the viral immune-evasion mechanisms described to date. It highlights the contribution of this field to our understanding of the immune system, and the importance of understanding this aspect of the biology of viral infection to develop efficacious and safe vaccines. (author)

  20. Development of the versatile reactor analysis code system, MARBLE2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenji; Jin, Tomoyuki; Hazama, Taira; Hirai, Yasushi

    2015-07-01

    The second version of the versatile reactor analysis code system, MARBLE2, has been developed. A lot of new functions have been added in MARBLE2 by using the base technology developed in the first version (MARBLE1). Introducing the remaining functions of the conventional code system (JOINT-FR and SAGEP-FR), MARBLE2 enables one to execute almost all analysis functions of the conventional code system with the unified user interfaces of its subsystem, SCHEME. In particular, the sensitivity analysis functionality is available in MARBLE2. On the other hand, new built-in solvers have been developed, and existing ones have been upgraded. Furthermore, some other analysis codes and libraries developed in JAEA have been consolidated and prepared in SCHEME. In addition, several analysis codes developed in the other institutes have been additionally introduced as plug-in solvers. Consequently, gamma-ray transport calculation and heating evaluation become available. As for another subsystem, ORPHEUS, various functionality updates and speed-up techniques have been applied based on user experience of MARBLE1 to enhance its usability. (author)

  1. Versatile data acquisition system and the ISOL facility TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.L.; Stelts, M.L.; Chrien, R.E.; Manzella, V.; Liou, H.I.; Shostak, S.

    1980-01-01

    The on-line mass separator, TRISTAN, is located at Brookhaven's High Flux Beam Reactor. A Nielsen-type ion source, which can contain up to 8g. of 235 U in an external beam with a flux of approx. 2 x 10 9 n/cm 2 /sec is used to generate short-lived fission products. A Users Group has been formed to coordinate research between University groups and BNL. Developments planned for TRISTAN include FEBIAD, surface ionization and negative-surface ionization-type ion sources, and a He-jet system as well as construction of new experimental facilities. An off-line separator, ISTU, is available for the development program. A versatile, modular data acquisition system to service experiments on TRISTAN and other nuclear research facilities at the HFBR using Camac interfacing is described. Standard, commercially-available electronic instruments and computer programs, such as FORTRAN and system routines, are used throughout. Simple interfaces have been built to adapt non-Camac equipment to Camac input registers

  2. A versatile data acquisition system and the ISOL facility TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.L.; Stelts, M.L.; Chrien, R.E.; Manzella, V.; Liou, H.; Shostak, S.

    1981-01-01

    We have constructed a versatile, modular data acquisition system to service experiments on TRISTAN and other nuclear research facilities at the HFBR using CAMAC interfacing. Standard, commercially-available electronic instruments and computer programs, such as FORTRAN and system routines, are used throughout. Simple interfaces have been built to adapt non-CAMAC equipment to CAMAC input registers. Up to eight different experiments can be multiplexed on the branch highway by a fast microprogrammed branch driver with a 4096 word memory. The branch driver delivers pre-processed data to a bus which links devices such as a central processor, 1 megaword core memory, tape drives, discs, display processor and terminal. The following features are offered: two 8192 channel pulse height analyzers, a 3-parameter coincidence unit, 4 multiscalers, a timed sequence of delayed γ-ray spectra (33 spectra of 4096 channels each), a 2-parameter (pulse height versus time-of-flight) analyzer, 16 scalers and 24 experimental interlocks. Up to 100 different spectra are available to users for display during an experiment. (orig./RW)

  3. ATROPOS: a versatile data acquisition and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logg, C.A.; Cottrell, R.L.A.

    1978-10-01

    Versatile, portable, rugged, and compact test and control modules for use in the development and testing of detection equipment for high-energy physics experiments are frequently needed at SLAC. The basic system developed is based on an LSI-11 microcomputer with 24K RAM, 4K ROM, 2 serial interfaces (one to the console terminal, the other to the large SLAC IBM computer complex (the TRIPLEX)), a programable clock, and a CAMAC crate controller. Data logging support is provided for magnetic tape, floppy disk, and an interactive program (ACQUIRE) which runs on the TRIPLEX under the timesharing system ORVYL. Data are read from various CAMAC modules, collected, buffered, and optionally logged. At a lower priority, the data read are sampled and analyzed in real-time on the LSI-11 to produce various histograms and tables. Concurrently, a more extensive analysis can be performed by the TRIPLEX program on the data which are logged to it. Interactive facilities provided by the microcomputer operating system enable the user to change CAMAC module addresses and the function codes used with them, specify various data cuts and transformations that are to be performed on the sample data, and specify new histogram limits and titles. Results of the real-time analysis, by both the microcomputer and the TRIPLEX program (if it is attached), may be displayed in graphical or tabular form on the console terminal. The basic system hardware cost (exclusive of the magnetic tape drive and floppy disk drive) is around $7000. The software is written in a modular fashion so that the user can supply his own data reading and analysis routines. This system has been in use for two years by various groups on several LSI-11s at SLAC. 3 figures

  4. MUMmer4: A fast and versatile genome alignment system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Marçais

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The MUMmer system and the genome sequence aligner nucmer included within it are among the most widely used alignment packages in genomics. Since the last major release of MUMmer version 3 in 2004, it has been applied to many types of problems including aligning whole genome sequences, aligning reads to a reference genome, and comparing different assemblies of the same genome. Despite its broad utility, MUMmer3 has limitations that can make it difficult to use for large genomes and for the very large sequence data sets that are common today. In this paper we describe MUMmer4, a substantially improved version of MUMmer that addresses genome size constraints by changing the 32-bit suffix tree data structure at the core of MUMmer to a 48-bit suffix array, and that offers improved speed through parallel processing of input query sequences. With a theoretical limit on the input size of 141Tbp, MUMmer4 can now work with input sequences of any biologically realistic length. We show that as a result of these enhancements, the nucmer program in MUMmer4 is easily able to handle alignments of large genomes; we illustrate this with an alignment of the human and chimpanzee genomes, which allows us to compute that the two species are 98% identical across 96% of their length. With the enhancements described here, MUMmer4 can also be used to efficiently align reads to reference genomes, although it is less sensitive and accurate than the dedicated read aligners. The nucmer aligner in MUMmer4 can now be called from scripting languages such as Perl, Python and Ruby. These improvements make MUMer4 one the most versatile genome alignment packages available.

  5. A versatile family of degradable non-viral gene carriers based on hyperbranched poly(ester amine)s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, Zhiyuan; Song, Y.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Lok, Martin C.; Hennink, Wim E.; Feijen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    A variety of degradable hyperbranched poly(ester amine)s containing primary, secondary and tertiary amino groups, were synthesized and evaluated as non-viral gene carriers. The polymers were obtained in high yields through a Michael-type conjugate addition of diacrylate monomers with trifunctional

  6. Driverless transport systems. Globally and versatility in operation; Fahrerlose Transportsysteme. Global und vielseitig im Einsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrgang Reinhard

    2013-05-10

    Driverless transport systems enjoy a strong international demand and just versatile applications. The application possibilities are across all industries and include applications in the automotive industry, the pharmaceutical industry as well as banks, clinics and mechanical engineering.

  7. Hemostatic System in Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Borisova

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemostasis is balanced by pro- and anticoagulant and pro- and antifibrinolytic factors, most of these being synthesized by the liver. Advanced liver disease is associated with perturbations in the level of these factors due to secretory deficiencies. Thrombocytopenia, reduced levels of factor II-VII-X, and anti-fibrinolytic factors are all features of CHC infection, suggesting hypocoagulability. However, higher concentrations of VWF and factor VIII, as well as lower concentrations of anticoagulant factors including protein C and S, have also been reported in CHC infections, suggesting hypercoagulability. Thus, the hemostatic balance in the patient with liver disease is relatively unstable as evidenced by the occurrence of both bleeding and thrombotic complications in a significant proportion of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. In patients with chronic liver disease (CLD, in whom extremely complex alterations of hemostasis occur, one cannot rely on levels of individual coagulation factors, or on simplified tests of hemostasis such as the PT or APTT to predict the hemostatic status. To determine the hemostatic status in these patients, more complex tests and a more comprehensive overview of the hemostatic changes are required. In connection with the latest studies, a revision of the methods for correction of hemostatic system disorders in patients with acute and chronic liver diseases becomes urgent.

  8. True-slime-mould-inspired hydrostatically coupled oscillator system exhibiting versatile behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umedachi, Takuya; Ito, Kentaro; Idei, Ryo; Ishiguro, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural diversity is an indispensable attribute of living systems, which makes them intrinsically adaptive and responsive to the demands of a dynamically changing environment. In contrast, conventional engineering approaches struggle to suppress behavioural diversity in artificial systems to reach optimal performance in given environments for desired tasks. The goals of this research include understanding the essential mechanism that endows living systems with behavioural diversity and implementing the mechanism in robots to exhibit adaptive behaviours. For this purpose, we have focused on an amoeba-like unicellular organism: the plasmodium of true slime mould. Despite the absence of a central nervous system, the plasmodium exhibits versatile spatiotemporal oscillatory patterns and switches spontaneously among these patterns. By exploiting this behavioural diversity, it is able to exhibit adaptive behaviour according to the situation encountered. Inspired by this organism, we built a real physical robot using hydrostatically coupled oscillators that produce versatile oscillatory patterns and spontaneous transitions among the patterns. The experimental results show that exploiting physical hydrostatic interplay—the physical dynamics of the robot—allows simple phase oscillators to promote versatile behaviours. The results can contribute to an understanding of how a living system generates versatile and adaptive behaviours with physical interplays among body parts. (paper)

  9. Origami: A Versatile Modeling System for Visualising Chemical Structure and Exploring Molecular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James; Leslie, Ray; Billington, Susan; Slater, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of "Origami" is presented as an accessible and transferable modeling system through which to convey the intricacies of molecular shape and highlight structure-function relationships. The implementation of origami has been found to be a versatile alternative to conventional ball-and-stick models, possessing the key advantages of being both…

  10. Quantum Dot Systems : A versatile platform for quantum simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthelemy, P.J.C.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum mechanics often results in extremely complex phenomena, especially when the quantum system under consideration is composed of many interacting particles. The states of these many-body systems live in a space so large that classical numerical calculations cannot compute them. Quantum

  11. Merlin: a fast versatile readout system for Medipix3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plackett, R; Horswell, I; Gimenez, E N; Marchal, J; Omar, D; Tartoni, N

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports on the development of a new high rate readout system for the Medipix3 hybrid pixel ASIC developed by the Detector Group at Diamond Light Source. It details the current functionality of the system and initial results from tests on Diamond's B16 beamline. The Merlin system is based on a National Instruments PXI/FlexRIO system running a Xilinx Virtex5 FPGA. It is capable of recording Medipix3 256 by 256 by 12 bit data frames at over 1 kHz in bursts of 1200 frames and running at over 100 Hz continuously to disk or over a TCP/IP link. It is compatible with the standard Medipix3 single chipboards developed at CERN and is capable of driving them over cable lengths of up to 10 m depending on the data rate required. In addition to a standalone graphical interface, a system of remote TCP/IP control and data transfer has been developed to allow easy integration with third party control systems and scripting languages. Two Merlin systems are being deployed on the B16 and I16 beamlines at Diamond and the system has been integrated with the EPICS/GDA control systems used. Results from trigger synchronisation, fast burst and high rate tests made on B16 in March are reported and demonstrate an encouraging reliability and timing accuracy. In addition to normal high resolution imaging applications of Medipix3, the results indicate the system could profitably be used in 'pump and probe' style experiments, where a very accurate, high frame rate is especially beneficial. In addition to these two systems, Merlin is being used by the Detector Group to test the Excalibur 16 chip hybrid modules, and by the LHCb VELO Pixel Upgrade group in their forthcoming testbeams. Additionally the contribution looks forward to further developments and improvements in the system, including full rate quad chip readout capability, multi-FPGA support, long distance optical communication and further functionality enhancements built on the capabilities of the Medipix3 chips.

  12. Merlin: a fast versatile readout system for Medipix3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plackett, R.; Horswell, I.; Gimenez, E. N.; Marchal, J.; Omar, D.; Tartoni, N.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports on the development of a new high rate readout system for the Medipix3 hybrid pixel ASIC developed by the Detector Group at Diamond Light Source. It details the current functionality of the system and initial results from tests on Diamond's B16 beamline. The Merlin system is based on a National Instruments PXI/FlexRIO system running a Xilinx Virtex5 FPGA. It is capable of recording Medipix3 256 by 256 by 12 bit data frames at over 1 kHz in bursts of 1200 frames and running at over 100 Hz continuously to disk or over a TCP/IP link. It is compatible with the standard Medipix3 single chipboards developed at CERN and is capable of driving them over cable lengths of up to 10 m depending on the data rate required. In addition to a standalone graphical interface, a system of remote TCP/IP control and data transfer has been developed to allow easy integration with third party control systems and scripting languages. Two Merlin systems are being deployed on the B16 and I16 beamlines at Diamond and the system has been integrated with the EPICS/GDA control systems used. Results from trigger synchronisation, fast burst and high rate tests made on B16 in March are reported and demonstrate an encouraging reliability and timing accuracy. In addition to normal high resolution imaging applications of Medipix3, the results indicate the system could profitably be used in `pump and probe' style experiments, where a very accurate, high frame rate is especially beneficial. In addition to these two systems, Merlin is being used by the Detector Group to test the Excalibur 16 chip hybrid modules, and by the LHCb VELO Pixel Upgrade group in their forthcoming testbeams. Additionally the contribution looks forward to further developments and improvements in the system, including full rate quad chip readout capability, multi-FPGA support, long distance optical communication and further functionality enhancements built on the capabilities of the Medipix3 chips.

  13. Versatile Friction Stir Welding/Friction Plug Welding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A proposed system of tooling, machinery, and control equipment would be capable of performing any of several friction stir welding (FSW) and friction plug welding (FPW) operations. These operations would include the following: Basic FSW; FSW with automated manipulation of the length of the pin tool in real time [the so-called auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability]; Self-reacting FSW (SRFSW); SR-FSW with APT capability and/or real-time adjustment of the distance between the front and back shoulders; and Friction plug welding (FPW) [more specifically, friction push plug welding] or friction pull plug welding (FPPW) to close out the keyhole of, or to repair, an FSW or SR-FSW weld. Prior FSW and FPW systems have been capable of performing one or two of these operations, but none has thus far been capable of performing all of them. The proposed system would include a common tool that would have APT capability for both basic FSW and SR-FSW. Such a tool was described in Tool for Two Types of Friction Stir Welding (MFS- 31647-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 10 (October 2006), page 70. Going beyond what was reported in the cited previous article, the common tool could be used in conjunction with a plug welding head to perform FPW or FPPW. Alternatively, the plug welding head could be integrated, along with the common tool, into a FSW head that would be capable of all of the aforementioned FSW and FPW operations. Any FSW or FPW operation could be performed under any combination of position and/or force control.

  14. A Versatile Beam Loss Monitoring System for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Kastriotou, Maria; Farabolini, Wilfrid; Holzer, Eva Barbara; Nebot Del Busto, Eduardo; Tecker, Frank; Welsch, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The design of a potential CLIC beam loss monitoring (BLM) system presents multiple challenges. To successfully cover the 48 km of beamline, ionisation chambers and optical fibre BLMs are under investigation. The former fulfils all CLIC requirements but would need more than 40000 monitors to protect the whole facility. For the latter, the capability of reconstructing the original loss position with a multi-bunch beam pulse and multiple loss locations still needs to be quantified. Two main sources of background for beam loss measurements are identified for CLIC. The two-beam accelerator scheme introduces so-called crosstalk, i.e. detection of losses originating in one beam line by the monitors protecting the other. Moreover, electrons emitted from the inner surface of RF cavities and boosted by the high RF gradients may produce signals in neighbouring BLMs, limiting their ability to detect real beam losses. This contribution presents the results of dedicated experiments performed in the CLIC Test Facility to qu...

  15. Structural insight into RNA recognition motifs: versatile molecular Lego building blocks for biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2012-01-01

    'RNA recognition motifs (RRMs)' are common domain-folds composed of 80-90 amino-acid residues in eukaryotes, and have been identified in many cellular proteins. At first they were known as RNA binding domains. Through discoveries over the past 20 years, however, the RRMs have been shown to exhibit versatile molecular recognition activities and to behave as molecular Lego building blocks to construct biological systems. Novel RNA/protein recognition modes by RRMs are being identified, and more information about the molecular recognition by RRMs is becoming available. These RNA/protein recognition modes are strongly correlated with their biological significance. In this review, we would like to survey the recent progress on these versatile molecular recognition modules. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Viral mimicry of the complement system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The complement system is a potent innate immune mechanism consisting of cascades of proteins which are designed to fight against and annul intrusion of all the foreign pathogens. Although viruses are smaller in size and have relatively simple structure, they are not immune to complement attack. Thus, activation of the ...

  17. Versatile real-time interferometer phase-detection system using high-speed digital techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendell, D.S.; Willett, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the basic design and philosophy of a versatile real-time interferometer phase-detection system to be used on the 2XIIB and TMX magnetic-fusion experiments at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This diagnostics system is a satellite to a host computer and uses high-speed emitter-coupled logic techniques to derive data on real-time phase relationships. The system's input signals can be derived from interferometer outputs over a wide range of reference frequencies. An LSI-11 microcomputer is the interface between the high-speed phase-detection logic, buffer memory, human interaction, and host computer. Phase data on a storage CRT is immediately displayed after each experimental fusion shot. An operator can interrogate this phase data more closely from an interactive control panel, and the host computer can be simultaneously examining the system's buffer memory or arming the system for the next shot

  18. Solenoid Driven Pressure Valve System: Toward Versatile Fluidic Control in Paper Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taehoon H; Hahn, Young Ki; Lee, Jungmin; van Noort, Danny; Kim, Minseok S

    2018-02-20

    As paper-based diagnostics has become predominantly driven by more advanced microfluidic technology, many of the research efforts are still focused on developing reliable and versatile fluidic control devices, apart from improving sensitivity and reproducibility. In this work, we introduce a novel and robust paper fluidic control system enabling versatile fluidic control. The system comprises a linear push-pull solenoid and an Arduino Uno microcontroller. The precisely controlled pressure exerted on the paper stops the flow. We first determined the stroke distance of the solenoid to obtain a constant pressure while examining the fluidic time delay as a function of the pressure. Results showed that strips of grade 1 chromatography paper had superior reproducibility in fluid transport. Next, we characterized the reproducibility of the fluidic velocity which depends on the type and grade of paper used. As such, we were able to control the flow velocity on the paper and also achieve a complete stop of flow with a pressure over 2.0 MPa. Notably, after the actuation of the pressure driven valve (PDV), the previously pressed area regained its original flow properties. This means that, even on a previously pressed area, multiple valve operations can be successfully conducted. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an active and repetitive valve operation in paper microfluidics. As a proof of concept, we have chosen to perform a multistep detection system in the form of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with mouse IgG as the target analyte.

  19. A versatile system for the rapid collection, handling and graphics analysis of multidimensional data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, P.M.; Moloney, G.; O'Oconnor, A.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses the performances of a versatile computerized system developed at the Microanalytical Research Centre of the Melbourne University, for handling multiparameter data that may arise from a variety of experiments - nuclear, accelerator mass spectrometry, microprobe elemental analysis or 3-D microtomography. Some of the most demanding requirements arise in the application of microprobes to quantitative elemental mapping and to microtomography. A system to handle data from such experiments had been under continuous development. It has been reprogramed to run on a DG DS7540 workstation. The whole system of software has been rewritten, greatly expanded and made much more powerful and faster, by use of modern computer technology - a VME bus computer with a real-time operating system and a RISC workstation running UNIX and the X-window environment

  20. Computerised weld strength testing machine for PHWR fuel elements with a versatile control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, U.C.; Sastry, V.S.; Rasheed, Jawad; Bibawe, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    Spacer pads and bearing pads are resistance spot welded on PHWR fuel elements to ensure inter-element gap for coolant flow. These welds are subjected to destructive tests as per SQC specifications while qualifying a machine and during production. The testing machine used earlier over the years was tedious involving manual operations of clamping, tool actuation, increasing and decreasing the pressure, referring to charts and statistical calculations. To carry out the destructive testing of the welds conveniently and reliably, an automatic machine is developed in-house in which are incorporated a quartz force transducer and a computerized data-acquisition and processing system together with a very versatile electronic control system based on a single-chip microcomputer. This paper describes the salient features of the machine and the control system. (author). 4 figs

  1. Design and implementation of a versatile and variable-frequency piezoelectric coefficient measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J S; Huang, Y K; Wu, F L; Lin, D Y

    2012-08-01

    We present a simple but versatile piezoelectric coefficient measurement system, which can measure the longitudinal and transverse piezoelectric coefficients in the pressing and bending modes, respectively, at different applied forces and a wide range of frequencies. The functionality of this measurement system has been demonstrated on three samples, including a PbZr(0.52)Ti(0.48)O(3) (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic bulk, a ZnO thin film, and a laminated piezoelectric film sensor. The static longitudinal piezoelectric coefficients of the PZT bulk and the ZnO film are estimated to be around 210 and 8.1 pC/N, respectively. The static transverse piezoelectric coefficients of the ZnO film and the piezoelectric film sensor are determined to be, respectively, -0.284 and -0.031 C/m(2).

  2. Development of wall conditioning and impurity monitoring systems in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.Y., E-mail: brbbebbero@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, J.; Kim, Y.G.; Yang, S.M.; Kim, Y.S.; Lee, K.H. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); An, Y.H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K.J.; Na, Y.S. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y.S., E-mail: yhwang@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The baking for partial wall heating and H{sub 2}/He GDC systems are developed in VEST. • The RGA and OES systems for monitoring impurities are constructed in VEST. • The partial baking and He GDC show limited effects on plasma characteristics. • H{sub 2} GDC above 4 h enables the longer plasma current duration up to ∼15 ms. • After H{sub 2} GDC, the discharge should be conducted within 3 h from treatment. - Abstract: Wall conditioning and impurity monitoring systems are developed in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST). As a wall conditioning system, a baking system covering the vacuum vessel wall partially and a glow discharge cleaning (GDC) system using two electrodes with dc and 50 kHz power supplies are installed. The GDC system operates with hydrogen and helium gases for both chemical and physical desorption. The impurity monitoring system with residual gas analyzer (RGA), operating at <10{sup −5} Torr with a differential pumping system, is installed along with the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) system to monitor the hydrogen and impurity radiation lines. Effects of these wall conditioning techniques are investigated with the impurity monitoring system for ohmic discharges of VEST. The partial baking and He GDC show limited effects on plasma characteristics but sufficient H{sub 2} GDC above 4 h enables the longer plasma current duration up to ∼15 ms within 3 h from the end of treatment.

  3. Development of wall conditioning and impurity monitoring systems in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.Y.; Yang, J.; Kim, Y.G.; Yang, S.M.; Kim, Y.S.; Lee, K.H.; An, Y.H.; Chung, K.J.; Na, Y.S.; Hwang, Y.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The baking for partial wall heating and H_2/He GDC systems are developed in VEST. • The RGA and OES systems for monitoring impurities are constructed in VEST. • The partial baking and He GDC show limited effects on plasma characteristics. • H_2 GDC above 4 h enables the longer plasma current duration up to ∼15 ms. • After H_2 GDC, the discharge should be conducted within 3 h from treatment. - Abstract: Wall conditioning and impurity monitoring systems are developed in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST). As a wall conditioning system, a baking system covering the vacuum vessel wall partially and a glow discharge cleaning (GDC) system using two electrodes with dc and 50 kHz power supplies are installed. The GDC system operates with hydrogen and helium gases for both chemical and physical desorption. The impurity monitoring system with residual gas analyzer (RGA), operating at <10"−"5 Torr with a differential pumping system, is installed along with the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) system to monitor the hydrogen and impurity radiation lines. Effects of these wall conditioning techniques are investigated with the impurity monitoring system for ohmic discharges of VEST. The partial baking and He GDC show limited effects on plasma characteristics but sufficient H_2 GDC above 4 h enables the longer plasma current duration up to ∼15 ms within 3 h from the end of treatment.

  4. Development of a Mechanically Versatile Bioreactor System as a Cellular Microgravity Countermeasure for Regenerative Medicine Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective of this research project is to develop a compact, mechanically versatile bioreactor capable of producing desired local mechanical environments...

  5. DEFEAT OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM IN VIRAL INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sharipova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to studying of the submitted epidemiological, clinical, tool, laboratory data on pathology of cardiovascular system at various viral infections. The review is based on results of domestic and foreign researches. At viral infections damage of heart and his carrying-out system perhaps as during the sharp period of a disease, and the period of a convalescence or at the chronic course of virus process. The greatest cardiothrogenism is possessed by enteroviruses, which affect the myocardium in 5–15% of cases. Much attention is paid to herpesviruses, widespread, persistently persistent in the body, as one of the reasons for the development of dilated cardiomyopathy, coronary vasculitis, early atherosclerosis, cardiac rhythm disturbance. Other infections that may affect the cardiovascular system include influenza viruses, adenovirus, poliovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis, mumps, rubella, herpes simplex, varicella, arbovirus, respiratory-syntial virus, yellow fever virus et al. Complications from cardiovascular system can come to light at various age.

  6. Profluorescent PPV-Based Micellar System as a Versatile Probe for Bioimaging and Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaquen, Neomy; Lu, Hongxu; Chang, Teddy; Mamdooh, Russel; Lutsen, Laurence; Vanderzande, Dirk; Stenzel, Martina; Junkers, Thomas

    2016-12-12

    Although micelles are commonly used for drug delivery purposes, their long-term fate is often unknown due to photobleaching of the fluorescent labels or the use of toxic materials. Here, we present a metal-free, nontoxic, nonbleaching, fluorescent micelle that can address these shortcomings. A simple, yet versatile, profluorescent micellar system, built from amphiphilic poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) block copolymers, for use in drug delivery applications is introduced. Polymer micelles made from PPV show excellent stability for up to 1 year and are successfully loaded with anticancer drugs (curcumin or doxorubicin) without requiring introduction of physical or chemical cross-links. The micelles are taken up efficiently by the cells, which triggers disassembly, releasing the encapsulated material. Disassembly of the micelles and drug release is conveniently monitored as fluorescence of the single polymer chains appear, which enables not only to monitor the release of the payload, but in principle also the fate of the polymer over longer periods of time.

  7. Control and data acquisition system for versatile experiment spherical torus at SNU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, YoungHwa [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyoung-Jae, E-mail: jkjlsh1@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Na, DongHyeon; Hwang, Y.S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    A control and data acquisition system for VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus) at Seoul National University (SNU) has been developed to enable remote operation from a central control room. The control and data acquisition system consists of three subsystems; a main control and data acquisition system that triggers each device at the preprogrammed timing and collects various diagnostic signals during discharges, a monitoring system that watches and logs the device status continuously, and a data storage and distribution system that stores collected data and provides data access layer via Ethernet. The system is designed to be cost-effective, extensible and easy to develop by using well-established standard technologies and solutions. Combining broad accessibility with modern information technology, alarm signal can be sent immediately to the registered cell phones when the abnormal status of devices is found, and the web data distribution system enables data access from almost everywhere using smart phones or tablet computers. Since December 2011, VEST is operational and the control and data acquisition system has been successfully used for remote operation of VEST.

  8. Control and data acquisition system for versatile experiment spherical torus at SNU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, YoungHwa; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Na, DongHyeon; Hwang, Y.S.

    2013-01-01

    A control and data acquisition system for VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus) at Seoul National University (SNU) has been developed to enable remote operation from a central control room. The control and data acquisition system consists of three subsystems; a main control and data acquisition system that triggers each device at the preprogrammed timing and collects various diagnostic signals during discharges, a monitoring system that watches and logs the device status continuously, and a data storage and distribution system that stores collected data and provides data access layer via Ethernet. The system is designed to be cost-effective, extensible and easy to develop by using well-established standard technologies and solutions. Combining broad accessibility with modern information technology, alarm signal can be sent immediately to the registered cell phones when the abnormal status of devices is found, and the web data distribution system enables data access from almost everywhere using smart phones or tablet computers. Since December 2011, VEST is operational and the control and data acquisition system has been successfully used for remote operation of VEST

  9. Algevir: An Expression System for Microalgae Based on Viral Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Bañuelos-Hernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of recombinant algae for the production of valuable compounds is opening promising biotechnological applications. However, the development of efficient expression approaches is still needed to expand the exploitation of microalgae in biotechnology. Herein, the concept of using viral expression vectors in microalgae was explored for the first time. An inducible geminiviral vector leading to Rep-mediated replication of the expression cassette allowed the production of antigenic proteins at high levels. This system, called Algevir, allows the production of complex viral proteins (GP1 from Zaire ebolavirus and bacterial toxin subunits (B subunit of the heat-labile Escherichia coli enterotoxin, which retained their antigenic activity. The highest achieved yield was 1.25 mg/g fresh biomass (6 mg/L of culture, which was attained 3 days after transformation. The Algevir system allows for a fast and efficient production of recombinant proteins, overcoming the difficulties imposed by the low yields and unstable expression patterns frequently observed in stably transformed microalgae at the nuclear level; as well as the toxicity of some target proteins.

  10. Algevir: An Expression System for Microalgae Based on Viral Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos-Hernández, Bernardo; Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; González-Ortega, Omar; Angulo, Carlos; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The use of recombinant algae for the production of valuable compounds is opening promising biotechnological applications. However, the development of efficient expression approaches is still needed to expand the exploitation of microalgae in biotechnology. Herein, the concept of using viral expression vectors in microalgae was explored for the first time. An inducible geminiviral vector leading to Rep-mediated replication of the expression cassette allowed the production of antigenic proteins at high levels. This system, called Algevir, allows the production of complex viral proteins (GP1 from Zaire ebolavirus) and bacterial toxin subunits (B subunit of the heat-labile Escherichia coli enterotoxin), which retained their antigenic activity. The highest achieved yield was 1.25 mg/g fresh biomass (6 mg/L of culture), which was attained 3 days after transformation. The Algevir system allows for a fast and efficient production of recombinant proteins, overcoming the difficulties imposed by the low yields and unstable expression patterns frequently observed in stably transformed microalgae at the nuclear level; as well as the toxicity of some target proteins. PMID:28713333

  11. A Versatile and Reproducible Multi-Frequency Electrical Impedance Tomography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Avery

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly versatile Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT system, nicknamed the ScouseTom, has been developed. The system allows control over current amplitude, frequency, number of electrodes, injection protocol and data processing. Current is injected using a Keithley 6221 current source, and voltages are recorded with a 24-bit EEG system with minimum bandwidth of 3.2 kHz. Custom PCBs interface with a PC to control the measurement process, electrode addressing and triggering of external stimuli. The performance of the system was characterised using resistor phantoms to represent human scalp recordings, with an SNR of 77.5 dB, stable across a four hour recording and 20 Hz to 20 kHz. In studies of both haeomorrhage using scalp electrodes, and evoked activity using epicortical electrode mats in rats, it was possible to reconstruct images matching established literature at known areas of onset. Data collected using scalp electrode in humans matched known tissue impedance spectra and was stable over frequency. The experimental procedure is software controlled and is readily adaptable to new paradigms. Where possible, commercial or open-source components were used, to minimise the complexity in reproduction. The hardware designs and software for the system have been released under an open source licence, encouraging contributions and allowing for rapid replication.

  12. Improving the viability and versatility of the E × B probe with an active cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihui; Cai, Guobiao; You, Fengyi; Ren, Xiang; Zheng, Hongru; He, Bijiao

    2018-04-01

    A thermostatic E × B probe is designed to protect the probe body from the thermal effect of the plasma plume that has a significant influence on the resolution of the probe for high-power electric thrusters. An active cooling system, which consists of a cooling panel and carbon fiber felts combined with a recycling system of liquid coolants or an open-type system of gas coolants, is employed to realize the protection of the probe. The threshold for the design parameters for the active cooling system is estimated by deriving the energy transfer of the plasma plume-probe body interaction and the energy taken away by the coolants, and the design details are explained. The diagnostics of the LIPS-300 ion thruster with a power of 3 kW and a screen-grid voltage of 1450 V was implemented by the designed thermostatic E × B probe. The measured spectra illustrate that the thermostatic E × B probe can distinguish the fractions of Xe+ ions and Xe2+ ions without areas of overlap. In addition, the temperature of the probe body was less than 306 K in the beam region of the plasma plume during the 200-min-long continuous test. A thermostatic E × B probe is useful for enhancing the viability and versatility of equipment and for reducing uneconomical and complex test procedures.

  13. A versatile transfection assay system to evaluate the biological effects of diverse industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Shinji; Ohno, Shotaro; Otsuka, Fuminori

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression processes are now recognized as important targets of the toxic effects exerted by industrial chemicals. The transient transfection assay is a powerful tool to evaluate such effects. Thus, we developed a versatile assay system by constructing a basic reporter plasmid in which the regulatory DNA sequence to be studied can easily be substituted. To verify the performance of this system, reporter plasmids carrying any of the three distinct regulatory sequences, estrogen responsive element (ERE), glucocorticoid responsive element (GRE) and xenobiotic responsive element (XRE) were constructed. After transfection of human cells, these plasmids successfully expressed the relevant reporter genes in response to specific inducers, β-estradiol, dexamethasone and 3-methylcholanthrene, respectively. Several industrial chemicals were assayed using these reporter plasmids, and the ability of p-dimethylaminoazobenzene to elevate GRE- and XRE-mediated transcription was detected. α-Naphthylamine and o-tolidine were also observed to increase the XRE-mediated response. The transfection assay system established here will be useful to evaluate the effects of a wide variety of industrial chemicals.

  14. A simple and versatile system for the ATP-dependent assembly of chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuong, Mai T; Fei, Jia; Cruz-Becerra, Grisel; Kadonaga, James T

    2017-11-24

    Chromatin is the natural form of DNA in the eukaryotic nucleus and is the substrate for diverse biological phenomena. The functional analysis of these processes ideally would be carried out with nucleosomal templates that are assembled with customized core histones, DNA sequences, and chromosomal proteins. Here we report a simple, reliable, and versatile method for the ATP-dependent assembly of evenly spaced nucleosome arrays. This minimal chromatin assembly system comprises the Drosophila nucleoplasmin-like protein (dNLP) histone chaperone, the imitation switch (ISWI) ATP-driven motor protein, core histones, template DNA, and ATP. The dNLP and ISWI components were synthesized in bacteria, and each protein could be purified in a single step by affinity chromatography. We show that the dNLP-ISWI system can be used with different DNA sequences, linear or circular DNA, bulk genomic DNA, recombinant or native Drosophila core histones, native human histones, the linker histone H1, the non-histone chromosomal protein HMGN2, and the core histone variants H3.3 and H2A.V. The dNLP-ISWI system should be accessible to a wide range of researchers and enable the assembly of customized chromatin with specifically desired DNA sequences, core histones, and other chromosomal proteins. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Design and development of the helicity injection system in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, JongYoon; An, Younghwa; Jung, Bongki; Lee, Jeongwon; Lee, HyunYoung; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Na, Yong-Su; Hwang, Y.S.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A high current electron gun with single pulse power for both arc and extraction is developed. • The optimal gun operation is confirmed by impedance matching between the PFN and plasma. • The gun injected currents of 0.95 kA with the voltage of ∼410 V for 5 ms with a 1.2 kV PFN. • The helicity injection system using the gun has been developed and tested successfully in VEST. • Toroidal currents of up to 3.8 kA confirm possible relaxation into tokamak-like plasma. - Abstract: A helicity injection system for the Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) has been successfully developed and commissioned. A high current electron gun utilizing hollow cathode and washer stacks has been designed and constructed with a single pulse power system that can provide voltages for both arc discharge and extraction sequentially. Tests for electron gun operation with the single pulse power system have been conducted under various toroidal and poloidal field strengths. The estimated plasma impedance, depending on the injection magnetic field structure, can be utilized for the optimal gun operation by impedance matching between the pulse power system and plasma. With the charging voltage of 1.2 kV, injection current of 0.95 kA has been obtained with the injection voltage of 410 V for about 5 ms. Initial helicity injection experiments have been conducted under various toroidal and poloidal field strengths and a toroidal plasma current of up to 3.8 kA is observed with the current multiplication larger than the geometric stacking ratio, confirming the possibility of relaxation into tokamak-like plasma with closed flux formation.

  16. Design and development of the helicity injection system in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, JongYoon; An, Younghwa; Jung, Bongki; Lee, Jeongwon; Lee, HyunYoung; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Na, Yong-Su; Hwang, Y.S., E-mail: yhwang@snu.ac.kr

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A high current electron gun with single pulse power for both arc and extraction is developed. • The optimal gun operation is confirmed by impedance matching between the PFN and plasma. • The gun injected currents of 0.95 kA with the voltage of ∼410 V for 5 ms with a 1.2 kV PFN. • The helicity injection system using the gun has been developed and tested successfully in VEST. • Toroidal currents of up to 3.8 kA confirm possible relaxation into tokamak-like plasma. - Abstract: A helicity injection system for the Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) has been successfully developed and commissioned. A high current electron gun utilizing hollow cathode and washer stacks has been designed and constructed with a single pulse power system that can provide voltages for both arc discharge and extraction sequentially. Tests for electron gun operation with the single pulse power system have been conducted under various toroidal and poloidal field strengths. The estimated plasma impedance, depending on the injection magnetic field structure, can be utilized for the optimal gun operation by impedance matching between the pulse power system and plasma. With the charging voltage of 1.2 kV, injection current of 0.95 kA has been obtained with the injection voltage of 410 V for about 5 ms. Initial helicity injection experiments have been conducted under various toroidal and poloidal field strengths and a toroidal plasma current of up to 3.8 kA is observed with the current multiplication larger than the geometric stacking ratio, confirming the possibility of relaxation into tokamak-like plasma with closed flux formation.

  17. A versatile system for USER cloning-based assembly of expression vectors for mammalian cell engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mathilde Lund

    Full Text Available A new versatile mammalian vector system for protein production, cell biology analyses, and cell factory engineering was developed. The vector system applies the ligation-free uracil-excision based technique--USER cloning--to rapidly construct mammalian expression vectors of multiple DNA fragments and with maximum flexibility, both for choice of vector backbone and cargo. The vector system includes a set of basic vectors and a toolbox containing a multitude of DNA building blocks including promoters, terminators, selectable marker- and reporter genes, and sequences encoding an internal ribosome entry site, cellular localization signals and epitope- and purification tags. Building blocks in the toolbox can be easily combined as they contain defined and tested Flexible Assembly Sequence Tags, FASTs. USER cloning with FASTs allows rapid swaps of gene, promoter or selection marker in existing plasmids and simple construction of vectors encoding proteins, which are fused to fluorescence-, purification-, localization-, or epitope tags. The mammalian expression vector assembly platform currently allows for the assembly of up to seven fragments in a single cloning step with correct directionality and with a cloning efficiency above 90%. The functionality of basic vectors for FAST assembly was tested and validated by transient expression of fluorescent model proteins in CHO, U-2-OS and HEK293 cell lines. In this test, we included many of the most common vector elements for heterologous gene expression in mammalian cells, in addition the system is fully extendable by other users. The vector system is designed to facilitate high-throughput genome-scale studies of mammalian cells, such as the newly sequenced CHO cell lines, through the ability to rapidly generate high-fidelity assembly of customizable gene expression vectors.

  18. Release of WIMS10: a versatile reactor physics code for thermal and fast systems - 15467

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, B.A.; Newton, T.D.; Hosking, J.G.; Smith, P.N.; Powney, D.J.; Tollit, B.; Smith, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    the WIMS code provides a versatile software package for neutronic calculations, which can be applied to all thermal reactor types including mixed moderator systems. It can provide lattice cell and supercell calculations using a range of flux solutions methods to produce the neutronic libraries for use in PANTHER or other whole core analysis codes. With the release of WIMS10, the range of problems which WIMS can solve has been greatly extended. A WIMS/PANTHER calculation route has been developed and validated for part MOX-fuelled PWRs, with calculations showing excellent agreement with 2D core deterministic and Monte Carlo transport solutions. A flexible geometry 3D method of characteristics transport solver, CACTUS3D has been added to the code. CACTUS3D has been benchmarked for a 3D BWR assembly model, and was in good agreement with a direct 172-group solution in the Monte Carlo code MONK. Fast reactor calculations using the ECCO deterministic calculation route have been validated using experimental data from the ZEBRA reactor. Power deposition can be treated through following neutrons and/or photons to their point of interaction. The improved methodology is shown to give more accurate calculation of heat deposition and improve agreement between calculated and measured detector responses for part MOX-fuelled cores. (authors)

  19. Scoring system in cirrhotics due to viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, A.; Bhutto, A.R.; Butt, N.; Lal, K.; Munir, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of serum cholesterol levels with Child-Pugh class in patients with decompensated chronic liver disease due to viral hepatitis. Methodology: Consecutive patients attending outpatient department or admitted in medical unit III were eligible if they had a diagnosis of cirrhosis secondary to viral hepatitis. Patients were excluded if alcoholic, diabetic, hypertensive, or with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune, metabolic, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular or kidney diseases and recent use of lipid-regulating drugs. Serum lipid profile was determined after an overnight fast of 12 hours. On the basis of serum total cholesterol, patients were divided into four groups; Group I with serum total cholesterol = 100 mg/dl, Group II with level of 101-150 mg/dl, Group III with level of 151-200 mg/dl and Group IV with serum total cholesterol level of > 200 mg/dl. Hepatic dysfunction was categorized according to Child-Pugh scoring system. Chi-square and Spearman's correlation testing with p < 0.05 was accepted as significant. Results: One hundred and fourteen patients met the inclusion criteria with a mean age of 40.32 +- 13.59 years. Among these 32 were females (28.1%) while 82 were males (71.9%). According to Child-Pugh class; 34 patients (29.8%) presented with Child-Pugh class A, 34 (29.8%) in class B and 46 (40.4%) were in class C. Serum cholesterol (total) and triglycerides had significant association with Child-Pugh class (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.004 respectively) suggesting that as severity of liver dysfunction increases; serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels decrease. Results also revealed that males were significantly more hypocholesterolemic than females (p = 0.006). Conclusion: Hypocholesterolemia is a common finding in decompensated chronic liver disease and has got significant association with Child-Pugh class. It may increase the reliability of Child-Pugh classification in assessment of severity and prognosis in

  20. The silicon chip: A versatile micro-scale platform for micro- and nano-scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Edward

    applications above is evaluated. The viability of this approach is not limited to the examples listed in this work, and innovative new methodologies beyond those included here may be developed in the future for other systems which would benefit from the versatility of chip-scale platforms.

  1. Spin-Projected Matrix Product States: Versatile Tool for Strongly Correlated Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhendong; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2017-06-13

    We present a new wave function ansatz that combines the strengths of spin projection with the language of matrix product states (MPS) and matrix product operators (MPO) as used in the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG). Specifically, spin-projected matrix product states (SP-MPS) are constructed as [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the spin projector for total spin S and |Ψ MPS (N,M) ⟩ is an MPS wave function with a given particle number N and spin projection M. This new ansatz possesses several attractive features: (1) It provides a much simpler route to achieve spin adaptation (i.e., to create eigenfunctions of Ŝ 2 ) compared to explicitly incorporating the non-Abelian SU(2) symmetry into the MPS. In particular, since the underlying state |Ψ MPS (N,M) ⟩ in the SP-MPS uses only Abelian symmetries, one does not need the singlet embedding scheme for nonsinglet states, as normally employed in spin-adapted DMRG, to achieve a single consistent variationally optimized state. (2) Due to the use of |Ψ MPS (N,M) ⟩ as its underlying state, the SP-MPS can be closely connected to broken-symmetry mean-field states. This allows one to straightforwardly generate the large number of broken-symmetry guesses needed to explore complex electronic landscapes in magnetic systems. Further, this connection can be exploited in the future development of quantum embedding theories for open-shell systems. (3) The sum of MPOs representation for the Hamiltonian and spin projector [Formula: see text] naturally leads to an embarrassingly parallel algorithm for computing expectation values and optimizing SP-MPS. (4) Optimizing SP-MPS belongs to the variation-after-projection (VAP) class of spin-projected theories. Unlike usual spin-projected theories based on determinants, the SP-MPS ansatz can be made essentially exact simply by increasing the bond dimensions in |Ψ MPS (N,M) ⟩. Computing excited states is also simple by imposing orthogonality constraints

  2. Viral Richness is Positively Related to Group Size, but Not Mating System, in Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Quinn M R; Fletcher, Quinn E; Willis, Craig K R

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing host traits that influence viral richness and diversification is important for understanding wildlife pathogens affecting conservation and/or human health. Behaviors that affect contact rates among hosts could be important for viral diversification because more frequent intra- and inter-specific contacts among hosts should increase the potential for viral diversification within host populations. We used published data on bats to test the contact-rate hypothesis. We predicted that species forming large conspecific groups, that share their range with more heterospecifics (i.e., sympatry), and with mating systems characterized by high contact rates (polygynandry: multi-male/multi-female), would host higher viral richness than species with small group sizes, lower sympatry, or low contact-rate mating systems (polygyny: single male/multi-female). Consistent with our hypothesis and previous research, viral richness was positively correlated with conspecific group size although the relationship plateaued at group sizes of approximately several hundred thousand bats. This pattern supports epidemiological theory that, up to a point, larger groups have higher contact rates, greater likelihood of acquiring and transmitting viruses, and ultimately greater potential for viral diversification. However, contrary to our hypothesis, there was no effect of sympatry on viral richness and no difference in viral richness between mating systems. We also found no residual effect of host phylogeny on viral richness, suggesting that closely related species do not necessarily host similar numbers of viruses. Our results support the contact-rate hypothesis that intra-specific viral transmission can enhance viral diversification within species and highlight the influence of host group size on the potential of viruses to propagate within host populations.

  3. VerSAMI: Versatile and Scalable key management for Smart Grid AMI systems

    OpenAIRE

    Benmalek , Mourad; Challal , Yacine; Derhab , Abdelouahid; Bouabdallah , Abdelmadjid

    2018-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose four new key management schemes for Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) to secure data communications in the Smart Grid (SG). The schemes are based on individual and batch rekeying operations using a novel multi-group key graph structure, are also versatile in the sense that they can support broadcast, unicast, as well as multicast communications. Security analysis shows that our schemes satisfy key management security properties. Furthermo...

  4. Conversational module-based simulation system as a human interface to versatile dynamic simulation of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, H.; Nakaya, K.; Wakabayashi, J.

    1986-01-01

    A new conversational simulation system is proposed which aims at effective re-utilization of software resources as module database, and conducting versatile simulations easily by automatic module integration with the help of user-friendly interfaces. The whole simulation system is composed of the four parts: master module library and pre-compiler system as the core system, while module database management system and simulation execution support system for the user interfaces. Basic methods employed in the system are mentioned with their knowledge representation and the relationship with the human information processing. An example practice of an LMFBR reactor dynamic simulation by the system demonstrated its capability to integrate a large simulation program and the related input/output files automatically by a single user

  5. Progress in developing cationic vectors for non-viral systemic gene therapy against cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morille, Marie; Passirani, Catherine; Vonarbourg, Arnaud; Clavreul, Anne; Benoit, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Initially, gene therapy was viewed as an approach for treating hereditary diseases, but its potential role in the treatment of acquired diseases such as cancer is now widely recognized. The understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in cancer and the development of nucleic acid delivery systems are two concepts that have led to this development. Systemic gene delivery systems are needed for therapeutic application to cells inaccessible by percutaneous injection and for multi-located tumor sites, i.e. metastases. Non-viral vectors based on the use of cationic lipids or polymers appear to have promising potential, given the problems of safety encountered with viral vectors. Using these non-viral vectors, the current challenge is to obtain a similarly effective transfection to viral ones. Based on the advantages and disadvantages of existing vectors and on the hurdles encountered with these carriers, the aim of this review is to describe the "perfect vector" for systemic gene therapy against cancer.

  6. INTEGRAL EVALUATION OF THE CYTOKINE SYSTEM IN VIRAL MYOCARDITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peremot S. D.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for an individual approach in the choice of means for the prevention of complications in inflammatory processes in cardiomyocytes, the course of which unfolds against a persistent viral infection, dictates the need to determine the general mechanisms for maintaining and progressing of the pathological process and an objective evaluation of immunological changes. The aim of the study was to determine changes in the system of inflammatory mediators in patients with subacute and chronic herpesviral infectious myocarditis on the basis of an integral assessment of the levels of opposing groups of cytokines. Materials & methods. To achieve this goal, we conducted a determination and analysis of changes in the cytokine profile in 87 patients with subacute (from 2 to 6 months and chronic (more than 6 months myocarditis due to an integral assessment of the mediator levels of inflammation of opposing groups in patients with herpesviral myocarditis on treatment in medical institutions of the Kharkov city. The average age of the patients was (27 ± 7.4 years. The control group was attracted to 40 people without clinical manifestations of cardiovascular diseases and in whose anamnesis there were no data on the transferred inflammatory diseases of the myocardium. Both groups of subjects were comparable in age and gender. The main group of subjects was divided into two subgroups. The first was 44 patients with subacute flow, the second - 43 patients with chronic infectious myocarditis. The diagnosis was established in accordance with the recommendations of the Association of Cardiologists of Ukraine and experts of the European Society of Cardiology, according to the formation of definitions of diseases in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10 of the tenth revision. The removal of material from patients was carried out according to the rules for the collection of infectious material. The concentration of cytokines: IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL

  7. Non-viral delivery systems for CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Hu, Shuo; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2018-07-01

    In recent years, CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) genome editing systems have become one of the most robust platforms in basic biomedical research and therapeutic applications. To date, efficient in vivo delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to the targeted cells remains a challenge. Although viral vectors have been widely used in the delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in vitro and in vivo, their fundamental shortcomings, such as the risk of carcinogenesis, limited insertion size, immune responses and difficulty in large-scale production, severely limit their further applications. Alternative non-viral delivery systems for CRISPR/Cas9 are urgently needed. With the rapid development of non-viral vectors, lipid- or polymer-based nanocarriers have shown great potential for CRISPR/Cas9 delivery. In this review, we analyze the pros and cons of delivering CRISPR/Cas9 systems in the form of plasmid, mRNA, or protein and then discuss the limitations and challenges of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing. Furthermore, current non-viral vectors that have been applied for CRISPR/Cas9 delivery in vitro and in vivo are outlined in details. Finally, critical obstacles for non-viral delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 system are highlighted and promising strategies to overcome these barriers are proposed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Silica Nanoparticles Functionalized with Zwitterionic Sulfobetaine Siloxane for Application as a Versatile Antifouling Coating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Brianna R; Wagner, Pawel; Maclaughlin, Shane; Higgins, Michael J; Molino, Paul J

    2017-06-07

    The growing need to develop surfaces able to effectively resist biological fouling has resulted in the widespread investigation of nanomaterials with potential antifouling properties. However, the preparation of effective antifouling coatings is limited by the availability of reactive surface functional groups and our ability to carefully control and organize chemistries at a materials' interface. Here, we present two methods of preparing hydrophilic low-fouling surface coatings through reaction of silica-nanoparticle suspensions and predeposited silica-nanoparticle films with zwitterionic sulfobetaine (SB). Silica-nanoparticle suspensions were functionalized with SB across three pH conditions and deposited as thin films via a simple spin-coating process to generate hydrophilic antifouling coatings. In addition, coatings of predeposited silica nanoparticles were surface functionalized via exposure to zwitterionic solutions. Quartz crystal microgravimetry with dissipation monitoring was employed as a high throughput technique for monitoring and optimizing reaction to the silica-nanoparticle surfaces. Functionalization of nanoparticle films was rapid and could be achieved over a wide pH range and at low zwitterion concentrations. All functionalized particle surfaces presented a high degree of wettability and resulted in large reductions in adsorption of bovine serum albumin protein. Particle coatings also showed a reduction in adhesion of fungal spores (Epicoccum nigrum) and bacteria (Escherichia coli) by up to 87 and 96%, respectively. These results indicate the potential for functionalized nanosilicas to be further developed as versatile fouling-resistant coatings for widespread coating applications.

  9. DEEM, a versatile platform of FRD measurement for highly multiplexed fibre systems in astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yunxiang; Yan, Qi; Wang, Gang; Sun, Weimin; Luo, A.-Li; Ma, Zhenyu; Zhang, Qiong; Li, Jian; Wang, Shuqing

    2018-06-01

    We present a new method of DEEM, the direct energy encircling method, for characterizing the performance of fibres in most astronomical spectroscopic applications. It is a versatile platform to measure focal ratio degradation (FRD), throughput, and point spread function. The principle of DEEM and the relation between the encircled energy and the spot size were derived and simulated based on the power distribution model (PDM). We analysed the errors of DEEM and pointed out the major error source for better understanding and optimization. The validation of DEEM has been confirmed by comparing the results with conventional method which shows that DEEM has good robustness with high accuracy in both stable and complex experiment environments. Applications on the integral field unit (IFU) show that the FRD of 50 μm core fibre is substandard for the requirement which requires the output focal ratio to be slower than 4.5. The homogeneity of throughput is acceptable and higher than 85 per cent. The prototype IFU of the first generation helps to find out the imperfections to optimize the new design of the next generation based on the staggered structure with 35 μm core fibres of N.A. = 0.12, which can improve the FRD performance. The FRD dependence on wavelength and core size is revealed that higher output focal ratio occurs at shorter wavelengths for large core fibres, which is in agreement with the prediction of PDM. But the dependence of the observed data is weaker than the prediction.

  10. Non-viral Nucleic Acid Delivery Strategies to the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James-Kevin Tan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With an increased prevalence and understanding of central nervous system injuries and neurological disorders, nucleic acid therapies are gaining promise as a way to regenerate lost neurons or halt disease progression. While more viral vectors have been used clinically as tools for gene delivery, non-viral vectors are gaining interest due to lower safety concerns and the ability to deliver all types of nucleic acids. Nevertheless, there are still a number of barriers to nucleic acid delivery. In this focused review, we explore the in vivo challenges hindering non-viral nucleic acid delivery to the central nervous system and the strategies and vehicles used to overcome them. Advantages and disadvantages of different routes of administration including: systemic injection, cerebrospinal fluid injection, intraparenchymal injection, and peripheral administration are discussed. Non-viral vehicles and treatment strategies that have overcome delivery barriers and demonstrated in vivo gene transfer to the central nervous system are presented. These approaches can be used as guidelines in developing synthetic gene delivery vectors for central nervous system applications and will ultimately bring non-viral vectors closer to clinical application.

  11. Development of a versatile readout and test system and characterization of a capacitively coupled active pixel sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Jens; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hirono, Toko; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Peric, Ivan [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany); Collaboration: ATLAS-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    With the availability of high voltage and high resistivity CMOS processes, active pixel sensors are becoming increasingly interesting for radiation detection in high energy physics experiments. Although the pixel signal-to-noise ratio and the sensor radiation tolerance were improved, active pixel sensors cannot yet compete with state-of-the-art hybrid pixel detector in a high radiation environment. Hence, active pixel sensors are possible candidates for the outer tracking detector in HEP experiments where production cost plays a role. The investigation of numerous prototyping steps and different technologies is still ongoing and requires a versatile test and readout system, which will be presented in this talk. A capacitively coupled active pixel sensor fabricated in AMS 180 nm high voltage CMOS process is investigated. The sensor is designed to be glued to existing front-end pixel readout chips. Results from the characterization are presented in this talk.

  12. CRISPR-Cas systems exploit viral DNA injection to establish and maintain adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Joshua W; Jiang, Wenyan; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2017-04-06

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas systems provide protection against viral and plasmid infection by capturing short DNA sequences from these invaders and integrating them into the CRISPR locus of the prokaryotic host. These sequences, known as spacers, are transcribed into short CRISPR RNA guides that specify the cleavage site of Cas nucleases in the genome of the invader. It is not known when spacer sequences are acquired during viral infection. Here, to investigate this, we tracked spacer acquisition in Staphylococcus aureus cells harbouring a type II CRISPR-Cas9 system after infection with the staphylococcal bacteriophage ϕ12. We found that new spacers were acquired immediately after infection preferentially from the cos site, the viral free DNA end that is first injected into the cell. Analysis of spacer acquisition after infection with mutant phages demonstrated that most spacers are acquired during DNA injection, but not during other stages of the viral cycle that produce free DNA ends, such as DNA replication or packaging. Finally, we showed that spacers acquired from early-injected genomic regions, which direct Cas9 cleavage of the viral DNA immediately after infection, provide better immunity than spacers acquired from late-injected regions. Our results reveal that CRISPR-Cas systems exploit the phage life cycle to generate a pattern of spacer acquisition that ensures a successful CRISPR immune response.

  13. Web-based Distributed Medical Information System for Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Qin, Tuan-fa; Jiang, Jian-ning; Lu, Hui; Ma, Zong-e.; Meng, Hong-chang

    2008-11-01

    To make a long-term dynamic monitoring to the chronically ill, especially patients of HBV A, we build a distributed Medical Information System for Chronic Viral Hepatitis (MISCHV). The Web-based system architecture and its function are described, and the extensive application and important role are also presented.

  14. Light-Weight and Versatile Monitor for a Self-Adaptive Software Framework for IoT Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joo Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, various Internet of Things (IoT devices and applications are being developed. Such IoT devices have different hardware (HW and software (SW capabilities; therefore, most applications require customization when IoT devices are changed or new applications are created. However, the applications executed on these devices are not optimized for power and performance because IoT device systems do not provide suitable static and dynamic information about fast-changing system resources and applications. Therefore, this paper proposes a light-weight and versatile monitor for a self-adaptive software framework to automatically control system resources according to the system status. The monitor helps running applications guarantee low power consumption and high performance for an optimal environment. The proposed monitor has two components: a monitoring component, which provides real-time static and dynamic information about system resources and applications, and a controlling component, which supports real-time control of system resources. For the experimental verification, we created a video transport system based on IoT devices and measured the CPU utilization by dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS for the monitor. The results demonstrate that, for up to 50 monitored processes, the monitor shows an average CPU utilization of approximately 4% in the three DVFS modes and demonstrates maximum optimization in the Performance mode of DVFS.

  15. Application of Viral Systems for Single-Machine Total Weighted Tardiness Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosa, Budi; Affandi, Umar

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a relatively new algorithm inspired by the viral replication system called Viral Systems is used to solve the Single-Machine Total Weighted Tardiness (SMTWTP). SMTWTP is a job scheduling problem which is one of classical combinatorial problems known as np-hard problems. This algorithm makes the process of finding solutions through neighborhood and mutation mechanism. The experiment was conducted to evaluate its performance. There are seven parameters which are required to tune in to find best solution. The experiment was implemented on data sets of 40 jobs, 50 jobs, and 100 jobs. The results show that the algorithm can solve 235 optimally out of 275 problems.

  16. A Versatile Time-Lapse Camera System Developed by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory for Use at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Tim R.; Hoblitt, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Volcanoes can be difficult to study up close. Because it may be days, weeks, or even years between important events, direct observation is often impractical. In addition, volcanoes are often inaccessible due to their remote location and (or) harsh environmental conditions. An eruption adds another level of complexity to what already may be a difficult and dangerous situation. For these reasons, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) have, for years, built camera systems to act as surrogate eyes. With the recent advances in digital-camera technology, these eyes are rapidly improving. One type of photographic monitoring involves the use of near-real-time network-enabled cameras installed at permanent sites (Hoblitt and others, in press). Time-lapse camera-systems, on the other hand, provide an inexpensive, easily transportable monitoring option that offers more versatility in site location. While time-lapse systems lack near-real-time capability, they provide higher image resolution and can be rapidly deployed in areas where the use of sophisticated telemetry required by the networked cameras systems is not practical. This report describes the latest generation (as of 2008) time-lapse camera system used by HVO for photograph acquisition in remote and hazardous sites on Kilauea Volcano.

  17. Bring your own camera to the trap: An inexpensive, versatile, and portable triggering system tested on wild hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Mickley, James

    2017-07-01

    The study of animals in the wild offers opportunities to collect relevant information on their natural behavior and abilities to perform ecologically relevant tasks. However, it also poses challenges such as accounting for observer effects, human sensory limitations, and the time intensiveness of this type of research. To meet these challenges, field biologists have deployed camera traps to remotely record animal behavior in the wild. Despite their ubiquity in research, many commercial camera traps have limitations, and the species and behavior of interest may present unique challenges. For example, no camera traps support high-speed video recording. We present a new and inexpensive camera trap system that increases versatility by separating the camera from the triggering mechanism. Our system design can pair with virtually any camera and allows for independent positioning of a variety of sensors, all while being low-cost, lightweight, weatherproof, and energy efficient. By using our specialized trigger and customized sensor configurations, many limitations of commercial camera traps can be overcome. We use this system to study hummingbird feeding behavior using high-speed video cameras to capture fast movements and multiple sensors placed away from the camera to detect small body sizes. While designed for hummingbirds, our application can be extended to any system where specialized camera or sensor features are required, or commercial camera traps are cost-prohibitive, allowing camera trap use in more research avenues and by more researchers.

  18. Acute viral infections of the central nervous system, 2014-2016, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Papadopoulou, Elpida

    2018-04-01

    In order to investigate the viral etiology of acute infections of central nervous system (CNS), multiplex and single PCRs combined with serology for arboviruses were applied on samples from 132 hospitalized patients in Greece during May 2014-December 2016. A viral pathogen was detected in 52 of 132 (39.4%) cases with acute CNS infection. Enteroviruses predominated (15/52, 28.8%), followed by West Nile virus (9/52, 17.3%). Phleboviruses, varicella-zoster virus, and Epstein-Barr virus accounted for 15.4%, 13.5%, and 11.5% of the cases, respectively. The study gives an insight into the etiology of viral CNS infections in a Mediterranean country, where arboviruses should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute CNS infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Role of toll like receptors in bacterial and viral diseases – A systemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Toll like receptors are key-receptors of the innate immune system, but their role against bacterial and viral infections are yet to be understood. Aim: The present study is aimed to investigate the diversity and frequency distribution of 10 TLR genes among typhoid fever and HIV+ patients. In this study, 44 samples ...

  20. VACOSS 3, a versatile and tamper-resistant electronic sealing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arning, F.; Reuters, H.; Bueker, H.

    1981-01-01

    Seal systems for c/s instrumentation used at present need considerable technical and personal expenditure for installation and verification. This paper describes new electronic seal system VACOSS 3, developed by ProCom GmbH, Aachen, and the Nuclear Research Center Juelich within the frame work of an IAEA research contract. This system allows simple installation, verification, the possibility of remote verification and has high tamper resistance

  1. A versatile computer based system for data acquisition manipulation and presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardsley, D.J.

    1985-12-01

    A data acquisition system based on the Microdata M 1600L data logger and a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VT103 computer system has been set up for use in a wide range of research and development projects in the field of fission detectors and associated technology. The philosophy underlying the system and its important features are described. Operating instructions for the logger are given, and its application to experimental measurements is considered. Observations on whole system performance, and recommendations for improvements are made. (U.K.)

  2. A Versatile System for USER Cloning-Based Assembly of Expression Vectors for Mammalian Cell Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne Mathilde; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Petersen, Maja Borup Kjær

    2014-01-01

    , in addition the system is fully extendable by other users. The vector system is designed to facilitate high-throughput genome-scale studies of mammalian cells, such as the newly sequenced CHO cell lines, through the ability to rapidly generate high-fidelity assembly of customizable gene expression vectors....

  3. Battery Modeling: A Versatile Tool to Design Advanced Battery Management Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, P.H.L.; Danilov, D.L.

    Fundamental physical and (electro) chemical principles of rechargeable battery operation form the basis of the electronic network models developed for Nickel-based aqueous battery systems, including Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH), and non-aqueous battery systems, such as the well-known Li-ion. Refined

  4. A versatile selection system for folding competent proteins using genetic complementation in a eukaryotic host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, C.; Kjaerulff, S.; Muller, S.

    2010-01-01

    in vivo selection system for folded proteins. It is based on genetic complementation of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe growth marker gene invertase fused C-terminally to a protein library. The fusion proteins are directed to the secretion system, utilizing the ability of the eukaryotic protein quality...

  5. The orphee versatile low-cost multiprocessor system for data acquisition and control of neutron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskas, G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the new data acquisition and control system of the neutron scattering instruments at the ORPHEE research reactor. The existing system has undergone a complete change: the original CAMAC system and minicomputer controlling each experiment have given way to commercial CPU boards and microcomputers like the IBM-PC. The communication links between these two components are the IEEE 488 or RS232 standards. Emphasis is placed on the flexibility and modular nature of such a system which makes a maximum use of commercial products thus guaranteeing reliability and ease of use. A study of the requirements and evolutions, technical as well as philosophical, is detailed to demonstrate the motivation of the choice of the system architecture. A survey of the various hardware and software achievements and finally an overview of future improvements is given

  6. Systems-Biology Approaches to Discover Anti-Viral Effectors of the Human Innate Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas F.R. Sommer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Virus infections elicit an immediate innate response involving antiviral factors. The activities of some of these factors are, in turn, blocked by viral countermeasures. The ensuing battle between the host and the viruses is crucial for determining whether the virus establishes a foothold and/or induces adaptive immune responses. A comprehensive systems-level understanding of the repertoire of anti-viral effectors in the context of these immediate virus-host responses would provide significant advantages in devising novel strategies to interfere with the initial establishment of infections. Recent efforts to identify cellular factors in a comprehensive and unbiased manner, using genome-wide siRNA screens and other systems biology “omics” methodologies, have revealed several potential anti-viral effectors for viruses like Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, Hepatitis C virus (HCV, West Nile virus (WNV, and influenza virus. This review describes the discovery of novel viral restriction factors and discusses how the integration of different methods in systems biology can be used to more comprehensively identify the intimate interactions of viruses and the cellular innate resistance.

  7. A fast and versatile quantum key distribution system with hardware key distillation and wavelength multiplexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walenta, N; Gisin, N; Guinnard, O; Houlmann, R; Korzh, B; Lim, C W; Lunghi, T; Portmann, C; Thew, R T; Burg, A; Constantin, J; Caselunghe, D; Kulesza, N; Legré, M; Monat, L; Soucarros, M; Trinkler, P; Junod, P; Trolliet, G; Vannel, F

    2014-01-01

    We present a compactly integrated, 625 MHz clocked coherent one-way quantum key distribution system which continuously distributes secret keys over an optical fibre link. To support high secret key rates, we implemented a fast hardware key distillation engine which allows for key distillation rates up to 4 Mbps in real time. The system employs wavelength multiplexing in order to run over only a single optical fibre. Using fast gated InGaAs single photon detectors, we reliably distribute secret keys with a rate above 21 kbps over 25 km of optical fibre. We optimized the system considering a security analysis that respects finite-key-size effects, authentication costs and system errors for a security parameter of ε QKD  = 4 × 10 −9 . (paper)

  8. Perinatal systemic gene delivery using adeno-associated viral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajvinder eKarda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative monogenic diseases can also affect a broad range of tissues and organs throughout the body. An effective treatment would require a systemic approach. The intravenous administration of novel therapies is ideal but is hampered by the inability of such drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier and precludes efficacy in the central nervous system. A number of these early lethal intractable diseases also present devastating irreversible pathology at birth or soon after. Therefore, any therapy would ideally be administered during the perinatal period to prevent, stop or ameliorate disease progression. The concept of perinatal gene therapy has moved a step further towards being a feasible approach to treating such disorders. This has primarily been driven by the recent discoveries that particular serotypes of adeno-associated virus (AAV gene delivery vectors have the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier following intravenous administration. Furthermore, this has been safely demonstrated in perinatal mice and non-human primates. This review focuses on the progress made in using AAV to achieve systemic transduction and what this means for developing perinatal gene therapy for early lethal neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Lessons learned from designing and commissioning a versatile data acquisiting system for an accelerator development facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlais, C.E.; Watkins, L.M.; Caissie, L.P.; Wachsmann, W.J.; Andison, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    Achieving reliable operation of digital equipment under extreme noise conditions presents special challenges to system designers. Experience with the design and operation of a data acquisition and control system for an accelerator development facility at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories is reviewed. It is concluded that, by adhering to a few rules in developing both the hardware and the software, satisfactory performance can be guaranteed. Methods of producing a reliable design are presented

  10. Directly Transforming PCR-Amplified DNA Fragments into Plant Cells Is a Versatile System That Facilitates the Transient Expression Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuming; Chen, Xi; Wu, Yuxuan; Wang, Yanping; He, Yuqing; Wu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    A circular plasmid containing a gene coding sequence has been broadly used for studying gene regulation in cells. However, to accommodate a quick screen plasmid construction and preparation can be time consuming. Here we report a PCR amplified dsDNA fragments (PCR-fragments) based transient expression system (PCR-TES) for suiting in the study of gene regulation in plant cells. Instead of transforming plasmids into plant cells, transient expression of PCR-fragments can be applicable. The transformation efficiency and expression property of PCR-fragments are comparable to transformation using plasmids. We analyzed the transformation efficiency in PCR-TES at transcription and protein levels. Our results indicate that the PCR-TES is as versatile as the conventional transformation system using plasmid DNA. Through reconstituting PYR1-mediated ABA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts, we were not only validating the practicality of PCR-TES but also screening potential candidates of CDPK family members which might be involved in the ABA signaling. Moreover, we determined that phosphorylation of ABF2 by CPK4 could be mediated by ABA-induced PYR1 and ABI1, demonstrating a crucial role of CDPKs in the ABA signaling. In summary, PCR-TES can be applicable to facilitate analyzing gene regulation and for the screen of putative regulatory molecules at the high throughput level in plant cells. PMID:23468926

  11. Directly transforming PCR-amplified DNA fragments into plant cells is a versatile system that facilitates the transient expression assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuming Lu

    Full Text Available A circular plasmid containing a gene coding sequence has been broadly used for studying gene regulation in cells. However, to accommodate a quick screen plasmid construction and preparation can be time consuming. Here we report a PCR amplified dsDNA fragments (PCR-fragments based transient expression system (PCR-TES for suiting in the study of gene regulation in plant cells. Instead of transforming plasmids into plant cells, transient expression of PCR-fragments can be applicable. The transformation efficiency and expression property of PCR-fragments are comparable to transformation using plasmids. We analyzed the transformation efficiency in PCR-TES at transcription and protein levels. Our results indicate that the PCR-TES is as versatile as the conventional transformation system using plasmid DNA. Through reconstituting PYR1-mediated ABA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts, we were not only validating the practicality of PCR-TES but also screening potential candidates of CDPK family members which might be involved in the ABA signaling. Moreover, we determined that phosphorylation of ABF2 by CPK4 could be mediated by ABA-induced PYR1 and ABI1, demonstrating a crucial role of CDPKs in the ABA signaling. In summary, PCR-TES can be applicable to facilitate analyzing gene regulation and for the screen of putative regulatory molecules at the high throughput level in plant cells.

  12. Evaluation of environmental filtration control of engineered nanoparticles using the Harvard Versatile Engineered Nanomaterial Generation System (VENGES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría-Vega, Manuel E.; Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Santeufemio, Christopher; Schmidt, Daniel; Demokritou, Philip; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Applying engineering controls to airborne engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is critical to prevent environmental releases and worker exposure. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two air sampling and six air cleaning fabric filters at collecting ENPs using industrially relevant flame-made engineered nanoparticles generated using a versatile engineered nanomaterial generation system (VENGES), recently designed and constructed at Harvard University. VENGES has the ability to generate metal and metal oxide exposure atmospheres while controlling important particle properties such as primary particle size, aerosol size distribution, and agglomeration state. For this study, amorphous SiO2 ENPs with a 15.4 nm primary particle size were generated and diluted with HEPA-filtered air. The aerosol was passed through the filter samples at two different filtration face velocities (2.3 and 3.5 m/min). Particle concentrations as a function of particle size were measured upstream and downstream of the filters using a specially designed filter test system to evaluate filtration efficiency. Real time instruments (FMPS and APS) were used to measure particle concentration for diameters from 5 to 20,000 nm. Membrane-coated fabric filters were found to have enhanced nanoparticle collection efficiency by 20–46 % points compared to non-coated fabric and could provide collection efficiency above 95 %. PMID:23412707

  13. AccuRT: A versatile tool for radiative transfer simulations in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamre, Børge; Stamnes, Snorre; Stamnes, Knut; Stamnes, Jakob

    2017-02-01

    Reliable, accurate, and efficient modeling of the transport of electromagnetic radiation in turbid media has important applications in the study of the Earth's climate by remote sensing. For example, such modeling is needed to develop forward-inverse methods used to quantify types and concentrations of aerosol and cloud particles in the atmosphere, the dissolved organic and particulate biogeochemical matter in lakes, rivers, coastal, and open-ocean waters. It is also needed to simulate the performance of remote sensing detectors deployed on aircraft, balloons, and satellites as well as radiometric detectors deployed on buoys, gliders and other aquatic observing systems. Accurate radiative transfer modeling is also required to compute irradiances and scalar irradiances that are used to compute warming/cooling and photolysis rates in the atmosphere and primary production and warming/cooling rates in the water column. AccuRT is a radiative transfer model for the coupled atmosphere-water system that is designed to be a versatile tool for researchers in the ocean optics and remote sensing communities. It addresses the needs of researchers interested in analyzing irradiance and radiance measurements in the field and laboratory as well as those interested in making simulations of the top-of-the-atmosphere radiance in support of remote sensing algorithm development.

  14. Evaluation of environmental filtration control of engineered nanoparticles using the Harvard Versatile Engineered Nanomaterial Generation System (VENGES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Candace S.-J.; Echevarría-Vega, Manuel E.; Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Santeufemio, Christopher; Schmidt, Daniel; Demokritou, Philip; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Applying engineering controls to airborne engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is critical to prevent environmental releases and worker exposure. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two air sampling and six air cleaning fabric filters at collecting ENPs using industrially relevant flame-made engineered nanoparticles generated using a versatile engineered nanomaterial generation system (VENGES), recently designed and constructed at Harvard University. VENGES has the ability to generate metal and metal oxide exposure atmospheres while controlling important particle properties such as primary particle size, aerosol size distribution, and agglomeration state. For this study, amorphous SiO 2 ENPs with a 15.4 nm primary particle size were generated and diluted with HEPA-filtered air. The aerosol was passed through the filter samples at two different filtration face velocities (2.3 and 3.5 m/min). Particle concentrations as a function of particle size were measured upstream and downstream of the filters using a specially designed filter test system to evaluate filtration efficiency. Real time instruments (FMPS and APS) were used to measure particle concentration for diameters from 5 to 20,000 nm. Membrane-coated fabric filters were found to have enhanced nanoparticle collection efficiency by 20–46 % points compared to non-coated fabric and could provide collection efficiency above 95%.

  15. A versatile local control system for the LEIR/AD electron cooler

    CERN Document Server

    MacCaferri, R

    1999-01-01

    With the end of antiproton physics at LEAR in 1996, the electron cooling device was modified in order that it could be used for experiments with lead ions in 1997 in LEIR and then for installation in the AD machine the following year. As a consequence, as well as the mechanical modifications to the cooler, the control system also needed to be upgraded and it was decided to build a system that could run either from a PC or from a Workstation as used in the accelerator control rooms. This turned out to be the most efficient solution as no support was given for the maintenance of the old control system during the experiments with lead ions. The PC system was realised during the shutdown before the machine experiments started, leaving time during the rest of 1997 to build the VME interface for installation in the AD. In this paper the hardware and software implementations of this new control system are described and some ideas for the near future are also presented.

  16. RehaMovePro: A versatile mobile stimulation system for transcutaneous FES applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Valtin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional Electrical Stimulation is a commonly used method in clinical rehabilitation and research to trigger useful muscle contractions by electrical stimuli. In this work, we present a stimulation system for transcutaneous electrical stimulation that gives extensive control over the stimulation waveform and the stimulation timing. The system supports electrode arrays, which have been suggested to achieve better selectivity and to simplify electrode placement. Electromyography (EMG measurements are obtained from the active stimulation electrodes (between the stimulation pulses or from separate surface EMG electrodes. The modular design enables the implementation of sophisticated stimulation control systems including external triggers or wireless sensors. This is demonstrated by the standalone implementation of a feedback-controlled drop foot neuroprosthesis, which uses a wireless inertial sensor for real-time gait phase detection and foot orientation measurement.

  17. Implementation of a versatile research data acquisition system using a commercially available medical ultrasound scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Pedersen, Mads Møller

    2012-01-01

    to the clinic. The system consists of a standard PC equipped with a camera link and an ultrasound scanner equipped with a research interface. The ultrasound scanner is an easy-to-use imaging device that is capable of generating high-quality images. In addition to supporting the acquisition of multiple data...

  18. A versatile hydraulically operated respiratory servo system for ventilation and lung function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M; Slama, H

    1983-09-01

    A description is given of the design and performance of a microcomputer-controlled respiratory servo system that incorporates the characteristics of a mechanical ventilator and also allows the performance of a multitude of test procedures required for assessment of pulmonary function in paralyzed animals. The device consists of a hydraulically operated cylinder-piston assembly and solenoid valves that direct inspiratory and expiratory gas flow and also enable switching to different test gas sources. The system operates as a volume-flow-preset ventilator but may be switched to other operational cycling modes. Gas flow rates may be constant or variable. The system operates as an assister-controller and, combined with a gas analyzer, can function as a "demand" ventilator allowing for set-point control of end-tidal PCO2 and PO2. Complex breathing maneuvers for a variety of single- and multiple-breath lung function tests are automatically performed. Because of the flexibility in selection and timing of respiratory parameters, the system is particularly suitable for respiratory gas studies.

  19. Modular Modeling System (MMS) code: a versatile power plant analysis package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakaruni, S.M.; Wong, F.K.L.

    1987-01-01

    The basic version of the Modular Modeling System (MMS-01), a power plant systems analysis computer code jointly developed by the Nuclear Power and the Coal Combustion Systems Divisions of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has been released to the utility power industry in April 1983 at a code release workshop held in Charlotte, North Carolina. Since then, additional modules have been developed to analyze the Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) and the Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) when the safety systems are activated. Also, a selected number of modules in the MMS-01 library have been modified to allow the code users more flexibility in constructing plant specific systems for analysis. These new PWR and BWR modules constitute the new MMS library, and it includes the modifications to the MMS-01 library. A year and half long extensive code qualification program of this new version of the MMS code at EPRI and the contractor sites, back by further code testing in an user group environment is culminating in the MMS-02 code release announcement seminar. At this seminar, the results of user group efforts and the code qualification program will be presented in a series of technical sessions. A total of forty-nine papers will be presented to describe the new code features and the code qualification efforts. For the sake of completion, an overview of the code is presented to include the history of the code development, description of the MMS code and its structure, utility engineers involvement in MMS-01 and MMS-02 validations, the enhancements made in the last 18 months to the code, and finally the perspective on the code future in the fossil and nuclear industry

  20. Development of a serial powering scheme and a versatile characterization system for the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filimonov, Viacheslav

    2017-08-15

    In order to increase the probability of new discoveries the LHC will be upgraded to the HL-LHC. The upgrade of the ATLAS detector is an essential part of this program. The entire ATLAS tracking system will be replaced by an all-silicon detector called Inner Tracker (ITk) which should be able to withstand the increased luminosity of 5 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The work presented in this thesis is focused on the ATLAS ITk pixel detector upgrade. Advanced silicon pixel detectors will be an essential part of the ITk pixel detector where they will be used for tracking and vertexing. Characterization of the pixel detectors is one of the required tasks for a successful ATLAS tracker upgrade. Therefore, the work presented in this thesis includes the development of a versatile and modular test system for advanced silicon pixel detectors for the HL-LHC. The performance of the system is verified. Single and quad FE-I4 modules functionalities are characterized with the developed system. The reduction of the material budget of the ATLAS ITk pixel detector is essential for a successful operation at high luminosity. Therefore, a low mass, efficient power distribution scheme to power detector modules (serial powering scheme) is investigated as well in the framework of this thesis. A serially powered pixel detector prototype is built with all the components that are needed for current distribution, data transmission, sensor biasing, bypassing and redundancy in order to prove the feasibility of implementing the serial powering scheme in the ITk. Detailed investigations of the electrical performance of the detector prototype equipped with FE-I4 quad modules are made with the help of the developed readout system.

  1. Development of a serial powering scheme and a versatile characterization system for the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filimonov, Viacheslav

    2017-08-01

    In order to increase the probability of new discoveries the LHC will be upgraded to the HL-LHC. The upgrade of the ATLAS detector is an essential part of this program. The entire ATLAS tracking system will be replaced by an all-silicon detector called Inner Tracker (ITk) which should be able to withstand the increased luminosity of 5 x 10 34 cm -2 s -1 . The work presented in this thesis is focused on the ATLAS ITk pixel detector upgrade. Advanced silicon pixel detectors will be an essential part of the ITk pixel detector where they will be used for tracking and vertexing. Characterization of the pixel detectors is one of the required tasks for a successful ATLAS tracker upgrade. Therefore, the work presented in this thesis includes the development of a versatile and modular test system for advanced silicon pixel detectors for the HL-LHC. The performance of the system is verified. Single and quad FE-I4 modules functionalities are characterized with the developed system. The reduction of the material budget of the ATLAS ITk pixel detector is essential for a successful operation at high luminosity. Therefore, a low mass, efficient power distribution scheme to power detector modules (serial powering scheme) is investigated as well in the framework of this thesis. A serially powered pixel detector prototype is built with all the components that are needed for current distribution, data transmission, sensor biasing, bypassing and redundancy in order to prove the feasibility of implementing the serial powering scheme in the ITk. Detailed investigations of the electrical performance of the detector prototype equipped with FE-I4 quad modules are made with the help of the developed readout system.

  2. A versatile and light-weight slow control system for small-scale applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, P.; Bütikofer, L.; Coderre, D.; Kaminsky, B.; Schumann, M.; von Sivers, M.

    2016-09-01

    We present an open source slow control system for small and medium scale projects. Thanks to its modular and flexible design, where the various instruments are read and controlled by independent plugins, Doberman (Detector OBsERving and Monitoring ApplicatioN) can be quickly adapted for many applications, also making use of existing code or proprietary components. The system uses a SQL database to store the data from the instruments and provides an online application to display and browse through the data. It allows the modification of device settings while the program is running and features a protocol to handle exceptions, including the automated distribution of alarm messages. We present two case studies from astroparticle physics, on which Doberman is successfully deployed: a low-background screening facility installed in a remote underground laboratory and a detector R&D platform using cryogenic liquid xenon.

  3. CRISPR-Cas9 System as a Versatile Tool for Genome Engineering in Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted nucleases are influential instruments for intervening in genome revision with great accuracy. RNA-guided Cas9 nucleases produced from clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-Cas systems have noticeably altered the means to modify the genomes of distinct organisms. They can be notably used to facilitate effective genome manipulation in eukaryotic cells by clearly detailing a 20-nt targeting sequence inside its directed RNA. We discuss the most recent advancements in the molecular basis of the type II CRISPR/Cas system and encapsulate applications and elements affecting its use in human cells. We also propose possible applications covering its uses ranging from basic science to implementation in the clinic.

  4. CRISPR-Cas: From the Bacterial Adaptive Immune System to a Versatile Tool for Genome Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Marion; Schneider, Sabine

    2015-11-09

    The field of biology has been revolutionized by the recent advancement of an adaptive bacterial immune system as a universal genome engineering tool. Bacteria and archaea use repetitive genomic elements termed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in combination with an RNA-guided nuclease (CRISPR-associated nuclease: Cas) to target and destroy invading DNA. By choosing the appropriate sequence of the guide RNA, this two-component system can be used to efficiently modify, target, and edit genomic loci of interest in plants, insects, fungi, mammalian cells, and whole organisms. This has opened up new frontiers in genome engineering, including the potential to treat or cure human genetic disorders. Now the potential risks as well as the ethical, social, and legal implications of this powerful new technique move into the limelight. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. An Efficient and Versatile Means for Assembling and Manufacturing Systems in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, William R.; Hafley, Robert A.; Komendera, Erik; Correll, Nikolaus; King, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Within NASA Space Science, Exploration and the Office of Chief Technologist, there are Grand Challenges and advanced future exploration, science and commercial mission applications that could benefit significantly from large-span and large-area structural systems. Of particular and persistent interest to the Space Science community is the desire for large (in the 10- 50 meter range for main aperture diameter) space telescopes that would revolutionize space astronomy. Achieving these systems will likely require on-orbit assembly, but previous approaches for assembling large-scale telescope truss structures and systems in space have been perceived as very costly because they require high precision and custom components. These components rely on a large number of mechanical connections and supporting infrastructure that are unique to each application. In this paper, a new assembly paradigm that mitigates these concerns is proposed and described. A new assembly approach, developed to implement the paradigm, is developed incorporating: Intelligent Precision Jigging Robots, Electron-Beam welding, robotic handling/manipulation, operations assembly sequence and path planning, and low precision weldable structural elements. Key advantages of the new assembly paradigm, as well as concept descriptions and ongoing research and technology development efforts for each of the major elements are summarized.

  6. A versatile triple radiofrequency quadrupole system for cooling, mass separation and bunching of exotic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haettner, Emma; Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Czok, Ulrich; Dickel, Timo; Geissel, Hans; Kinsel, Wadim; Petrick, Martin; Schäfer, Thorsten; Scheidenberger, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    The combination of in-flight separation with a gas-filled stopping cell has opened a new field for experiments with exotic nuclei. For instance, at the SHIP/SHIPTRAP facility at GSI in Darmstadt high-precision mass measurements of rare nuclei have been successfully performed. In order to extend the reach of SHIPTRAP to exotic nuclei that are produced together with high rates of unwanted reaction products, a novel compact radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) system has been developed. It implements ion cooling, identification and separation according to mass numbers and bunching capabilities. The system has a total length of one meter only and consists of an RFQ cooler, an RFQ mass filter and an RFQ buncher. A mass resolving power (FWHM) of 240 at a transmission efficiency of 90% has been achieved. The suppression of contaminants from neighboring masses by more than four orders of magnitude has been demonstrated at rates exceeding 106 ions/s. A longitudinal emittance of 0.45 eV μs has been achieved with the RFQ buncher, which will enable improved time-of-flight mass spectrometry downstream of the device. With this triple RFQ system the measurement of e.g. N= Z nuclides in the region up to tin will become possible at SHIPTRAP. The technology is also well suited for other rare-isotope facilities with experimental setups behind a stopping cell, such as the fragment separator FRS with the FRS Ion Catcher at GSI.

  7. JobCenter: an open source, cross-platform, and distributed job queue management system optimized for scalability and versatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaschob Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratories engaged in computational biology or bioinformatics frequently need to run lengthy, multistep, and user-driven computational jobs. Each job can tie up a computer for a few minutes to several days, and many laboratories lack the expertise or resources to build and maintain a dedicated computer cluster. Results JobCenter is a client–server application and framework for job management and distributed job execution. The client and server components are both written in Java and are cross-platform and relatively easy to install. All communication with the server is client-driven, which allows worker nodes to run anywhere (even behind external firewalls or “in the cloud” and provides inherent load balancing. Adding a worker node to the worker pool is as simple as dropping the JobCenter client files onto any computer and performing basic configuration, which provides tremendous ease-of-use, flexibility, and limitless horizontal scalability. Each worker installation may be independently configured, including the types of jobs it is able to run. Executed jobs may be written in any language and may include multistep workflows. Conclusions JobCenter is a versatile and scalable distributed job management system that allows laboratories to very efficiently distribute all computational work among available resources. JobCenter is freely available at http://code.google.com/p/jobcenter/.

  8. JobCenter: an open source, cross-platform, and distributed job queue management system optimized for scalability and versatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschob, Daniel; Riffle, Michael

    2012-07-30

    Laboratories engaged in computational biology or bioinformatics frequently need to run lengthy, multistep, and user-driven computational jobs. Each job can tie up a computer for a few minutes to several days, and many laboratories lack the expertise or resources to build and maintain a dedicated computer cluster. JobCenter is a client-server application and framework for job management and distributed job execution. The client and server components are both written in Java and are cross-platform and relatively easy to install. All communication with the server is client-driven, which allows worker nodes to run anywhere (even behind external firewalls or "in the cloud") and provides inherent load balancing. Adding a worker node to the worker pool is as simple as dropping the JobCenter client files onto any computer and performing basic configuration, which provides tremendous ease-of-use, flexibility, and limitless horizontal scalability. Each worker installation may be independently configured, including the types of jobs it is able to run. Executed jobs may be written in any language and may include multistep workflows. JobCenter is a versatile and scalable distributed job management system that allows laboratories to very efficiently distribute all computational work among available resources. JobCenter is freely available at http://code.google.com/p/jobcenter/.

  9. Developing a versatile simulation, scheduling and economic model framework for bioenergy production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Matindi

    2019-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling is an effective way of designing, understanding, and analysing bio-refinery supply chain systems. The supply chain is a complex process consisting of many systems interacting with each other. It requires the modelling of the processes in the presence of multiple autonomous entities (i.e. biomass producers, bio-processors and transporters, multiple performance measures and multiple objectives, both local and global, which together constitute very complex interaction effects. In this paper, simulation models for recovering biomass from the field of the biorefinery are developed and validated using some industry data and the minimum biomass recovery cost is established based on different strategies employed for recovering biomass. Energy densification techniques are evaluated for their net present worth and the technologies that offer greater returns for the industry are recommended. In addition, a new scheduling algorithm is also developed to enhance the process flow of the management of resources and the flow of biomass. The primary objective is to investigate different strategies to reach the lowest cost delivery of sugarcane harvest residue to a sugar factory through optimally located bio-refineries. A simulation /optimisation solution approach is also developed to tackle the stochastic variables in the bioenergy production system based on different statistical distributions such as Weibull and Pearson distributions. In this approach, a genetic algorithm is integrated with simulation to improve the initial solution and search the near-optimal solution. A case study is conducted to illustrate the results and to validate the applicability for the real world implementation using ExtendSIM Simulation software using some real data from Australian Mills.

  10. Versatile Photocatalytic Systems for H2 Generation in Water Based on an Efficient DuBois-Type Nickel Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The generation of renewable H2 through an efficient photochemical route requires photoinduced electron transfer (ET) from a light harvester to an efficient electrocatalyst in water. Here, we report on a molecular H2 evolution catalyst (NiP) with a DuBois-type [Ni(P2R′N2R″)2]2+ core (P2R′N2R″ = bis(1,5-R′-diphospha-3,7-R″-diazacyclooctane), which contains an outer coordination sphere with phosphonic acid groups. The latter functionality allows for good solubility in water and immobilization on metal oxide semiconductors. Electrochemical studies confirm that NiP is a highly active electrocatalyst in aqueous electrolyte solution (overpotential of approximately 200 mV at pH 4.5 with a Faradaic yield of 85 ± 4%). Photocatalytic experiments and investigations on the ET kinetics were carried out in combination with a phosphonated Ru(II) tris(bipyridine) dye (RuP) in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. Time-resolved luminescence and transient absorption spectroscopy studies confirmed that directed ET from RuP to NiP occurs efficiently in all systems on the nano- to microsecond time scale, through three distinct routes: reductive quenching of RuP in solution or on the surface of ZrO2 (“on particle” system) or oxidative quenching of RuP when the compounds were immobilized on TiO2 (“through particle” system). Our studies show that NiP can be used in a purely aqueous solution and on a semiconductor surface with a high degree of versatility. A high TOF of 460 ± 60 h–1 with a TON of 723 ± 171 for photocatalytic H2 generation with a molecular Ni catalyst in water and a photon-to-H2 quantum yield of approximately 10% were achieved for the homogeneous system. PMID:24320740

  11. Preliminary biocompatibility investigation of magnetic albumin nanosphere designed as a potential versatile drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevanato L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Luciana Estevanato1, Débora Cintra1, Nayara Baldini1, Flávia Portilho1, Luzirlane Barbosa1, Olímpia Martins2, Bruno Lacava3, Ana Luisa Miranda-Vilela1, Antônio Cláudio Tedesco2, Sônia Báo1, Paulo C Morais4, Zulmira GM Lacava11Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, 2Departamento de Química, Laboratório de Fotobiologia e Fotomedicina, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, 3Instituto de Química, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, 4Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, BrazilBackground: The magnetic albumin nanosphere (MAN, encapsulating maghemite nanoparticles, was designed as a magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS able to perform a variety of biomedical applications. It is noteworthy that MAN was efficient in treating Ehrlich's tumors by the magnetohyperthermia procedure.Methods and materials: In this study, several nanotoxicity tests were systematically carried out in mice from 30 minutes until 30 days after MAN injection to investigate their biocompatibility status. Cytometry analysis, viability tests, micronucleus assay, and histological analysis were performed.Results: Cytometry analysis and viability tests revealed MAN promotes only slight and temporary alterations in the frequency of both leukocyte populations and viable peritoneal cells, respectively. Micronucleus assay showed absolutely no genotoxicity or cytotoxicity effects and histological analysis showed no alterations or even nanoparticle clusters in several investigated organs but, interestingly, revealed the presence of MAN clusters in the central nervous system (CNS.Conclusion: The results showed that MAN has desirable in vivo biocompatibility, presenting potential for use as a MDDS, especially in CNS disease therapy.Keywords: nanotoxicity, nanoparticle, genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, brain

  12. Oncolytic Viral Therapy and the Immune System: A Double-Edged Sword Against Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, Giulia; Howells, Anwen; Lemoine, Nicholas R; Wang, Yaohe

    2018-01-01

    Oncolytic viral therapy is a new promising strategy against cancer. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) can replicate in cancer cells but not in normal cells, leading to lysis of the tumor mass. Beside this primary effect, OVs can also stimulate the immune system. Tumors are an immuno-suppressive environment in which the immune system is silenced in order to avoid the immune response against cancer cells. The delivery of OVs into the tumor wakes up the immune system so that it can facilitate a strong and durable response against the tumor itself. Both innate and adaptive immune responses contribute to this process, producing an immune response against tumor antigens and facilitating immunological memory. However, viruses are recognized by the immune system as pathogens and the consequent anti-viral response could represent a big hurdle for OVs. Finding a balance between anti-tumor and anti-viral immunity is, under this new light, a priority for researchers. In this review, we provide an overview of the various ways in which different components of the immune system can be allied with OVs. We have analyzed the different immune responses in order to highlight the new and promising perspectives leading to increased anti-tumor response and decreased immune reaction to the OVs.

  13. A Versatile Phenotyping System and Analytics Platform Reveals Diverse Temporal Responses to Water Availability in Setaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlgren, Noah; Feldman, Maximilian; Gehan, Malia A; Wilson, Melinda S; Shyu, Christine; Bryant, Douglas W; Hill, Steven T; McEntee, Colton J; Warnasooriya, Sankalpi N; Kumar, Indrajit; Ficor, Tracy; Turnipseed, Stephanie; Gilbert, Kerrigan B; Brutnell, Thomas P; Carrington, James C; Mockler, Todd C; Baxter, Ivan

    2015-10-05

    Phenotyping has become the rate-limiting step in using large-scale genomic data to understand and improve agricultural crops. Here, the Bellwether Phenotyping Platform for controlled-environment plant growth and automated multimodal phenotyping is described. The system has capacity for 1140 plants, which pass daily through stations to record fluorescence, near-infrared, and visible images. Plant Computer Vision (PlantCV) was developed as open-source, hardware platform-independent software for quantitative image analysis. In a 4-week experiment, wild Setaria viridis and domesticated Setaria italica had fundamentally different temporal responses to water availability. While both lines produced similar levels of biomass under limited water conditions, Setaria viridis maintained the same water-use efficiency under water replete conditions, while Setaria italica shifted to less efficient growth. Overall, the Bellwether Phenotyping Platform and PlantCV software detected significant effects of genotype and environment on height, biomass, water-use efficiency, color, plant architecture, and tissue water status traits. All ∼ 79,000 images acquired during the course of the experiment are publicly available. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adeno-associated viral vectors as agents for gene delivery : application in disorders and trauma of the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenberg, Marc J; Eggers, Ruben; Boer, Gerard J; Verhaagen, J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of viral vectors as agents for gene delivery provides a direct approach to manipulate gene expression in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The present article describes in detail the methodology for the injection of viral vectors, in particular adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors,

  15. The application of bacteriophages as novel indicators of viral pathogens in wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Edgard; Ebdon, James; Taylor, Huw

    2018-02-01

    Many wastewater treatment technologies have been shown to remove bacterial pathogens more effectively than viral pathogens and, in aquatic environments, levels of traditional faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) do not appear to correlate consistently with levels of human viral pathogens. There is, therefore, a need for novel viral indicators of faecal pollution and surrogates of viral pathogens, especially given the increasing importance of indirect and direct wastewater reuse. Potential candidates include bacteriophages (phages) and the study described here sought to elucidate the relationship between three groups of phages (somatic coliphages (SOMPH), F-RNA coliphages (F-RNAPH) and human-specific phages infecting B. fragilis (Bf124PH) - enumeration using double layer agar technique) and viral pathogens (human adenovirus (HuAdV) and norovirus (NoV) - enumeration using molecular methods) through full-scale municipal wastewater treatment processes. FIB (faecal coliforms (FC) and intestinal enterococci (ENT) - enumeration using membrane filtration) were also monitored. Samples were collected every fortnight, during a twelve-month period, at each stage of four full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in southern England (two activated sludge (AS) and two trickling filter (TF) plants) (n = 360 samples). FIB and SOMPH were consistently found in all samples tested, whereas F-RNAPH, Bf124PH and HuAdV were less frequently detected, especially following AS treatment. The detection rate of NoV was low and consequently discussion of this group of viruses is limited. Concentrations of SOMPH and FIB were statistically higher (p value F-RNAPH, Bf124PH and HuAdV in raw wastewater. FIB were more effectively removed than phages in both systems. Removal rates of HuAdV were similar to those of phages at the secondary treatment stage of both systems. In TF systems, HuAdV were removed at the same rate as F-RNAPH, but at lower rates than SOMPH and Bf124PH. The findings suggest that

  16. Immune System Dysregulation, Viral Reactivation and Stress During Short-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a study that was conducted to ascertain if the immune system dysregulation, viral reactivation and stress from short duration space flight were a result of the stress of landing and readjustment to gravity. The objectives of the study were to replace several recent immune studies with one comprehensive study that will include in-flight sampling; address lack of in-flight data: (i.e., determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation); determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight; and determine the appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures.

  17. Versatile quantitative phase imaging system applied to high-speed, low noise and multimodal imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Antoine; Aknoun, Sherazade; Savatier, Julien; Wattellier, Benoit F.

    2017-02-01

    Quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry (QWLSI) is a well-established quantitative phase imaging (QPI) technique based on the analysis of interference patterns of four diffraction orders by an optical grating set in front of an array detector [1]. As a QPI modality, this is a non-invasive imaging technique which allow to measure the optical path difference (OPD) of semi-transparent samples. We present a system enabling QWLSI with high-performance sCMOS cameras [2] and apply it to perform high-speed imaging, low noise as well as multimodal imaging. This modified QWLSI system contains a versatile optomechanical device which images the optical grating near the detector plane. Such a device is coupled with any kind of camera by varying its magnification. In this paper, we study the use of a sCMOS Zyla5.5 camera from Andor along with our modified QWLSI system. We will present high-speed live cell imaging, up to 200Hz frame rate, in order to follow intracellular fast motions while measuring the quantitative phase information. The structural and density information extracted from the OPD signal is complementary to the specific and localized fluorescence signal [2]. In addition, QPI detects cells even when the fluorophore is not expressed. This is very useful to follow a protein expression with time. The 10 µm spatial pixel resolution of our modified QWLSI associated to the high sensitivity of the Zyla5.5 enabling to perform high quality fluorescence imaging, we have carried out multimodal imaging revealing fine structures cells, like actin filaments, merged with the morphological information of the phase. References [1]. P. Bon, G. Maucort, B. Wattellier, and S. Monneret, "Quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry for quantitative phase microscopy of living cells," Opt. Express, vol. 17, pp. 13080-13094, 2009. [2] P. Bon, S. Lécart, E. Fort and S. Lévêque-Fort, "Fast label-free cytoskeletal network imaging in living mammalian cells," Biophysical journal, 106

  18. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  19. Bacteriophage Technique for Assessing Viral Removal in Constructed Wetland and Detention Pond Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Yousefi, CM Davies, HJ Bavor

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Constructed wetland and detention pond as a treatment system was applied for stormwater management in two adjacent areas in western Sydney. F-specific RNA and somatic coliphages were used as a model for assessing two systems for removal of viral pollution, fate, behavior and survival of viruses in the sediment. Water samples were collected weekly in sterile containers and sediment samples were collected three times using a box dredge sampler via a boat at the inlet, middle and outlet areas of the systems. F-specific RNA coliphages were enumerated using the double layer plaque assay (ISO 1995 with Salmonella typhimurium WG49 as a host. Survival test continued 28 d for each sub-sample. Viral removal in constructed wetland was more effective than the detention pond system. Survival of somatic coliphages in the inlet and middle of the systems was similar. Slope of declining for outlet of two systems was very slow and completely stable in whole of test duration. Constructed wetland may offer an attractive alternative to stormwater management for reducing the load of disease-causing viruses to the receiving waters.

  20. A Versatile System for the In-Field Non-Destructive Characterization of Radioactive Waste Packages and of Objects in the Defense against Nuclear Threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buecherl, T.; Gostomski, Ch.-Lierse-von

    2013-06-01

    In-filed non-destructive characterization of radioactive waste packages and of objects in the defense of nuclear threats requires purpose-built but similar equipment. Based on commercially available measuring devices like dose-rate and gamma detectors, X-ray and gamma-transmission sources etc. a versatile and mobile mechanical positioning system for these devices is designed, assembled and operated facilitating basic to even complex measuring procedures. Several in-field measuring campaigns resulted in its further optimization. Today an highly mobile and flexible mechanical manipulator system is available supporting nearly all types of required measuring devices thus rising to nearly all occasions. (authors)

  1. Two-dimensional flow-through microcosms - Versatile test systems to study biodegradation processes in porous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert D.; Rolle, Massimo; Kürzinger, Petra; Grathwohl, Peter; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Griebler, Christian

    2009-05-01

    SummaryA fundamental prerequisite of any remedial activity is a sound knowledge of both the biotic and abiotic processes involved in transport and degradation of contaminants. Investigations of these aspects in situ often seem infeasible due to the complexity of interacting processes. A simplified portrayal of nature can be facilitated in laboratory-based two-dimensional (2D) sediment flow-through microcosms. This paper describes the versatility of such simple aquifer model systems with respect to biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e. toluene and ethylbenzene, under various environmental conditions. Initially constructed to study non-reactive and bioreactive transport of organic contaminants in homogeneous porous media under steady state hydraulic conditions, experimental setups developed towards more realistic heterogeneous sediment packing and transient hydraulic conditions. High-resolution spatial and temporal sampling allowed to obtain new insights on the distribution of bioactivities in contaminant plumes and associated controlling and limiting factors. Major biodegradation activities in saturated porous sediments are located at the fringes of contaminant plumes and are driven by dispersive mixing. These hot-spots of contaminant biotransformation are characterized by steep physical-chemical gradients in the millimeter to centimeter range. Sediment heterogeneity, i.e. high-conductivity zones, was shown to significantly enhance transverse mixing and subsequently biodegradation. On the contrary, transient hydraulic conditions may generate intermediate disturbances to biodegrader populations and thus may interfere with optimized contaminant conversion. However, a bacterial strain aerobically degrading toluene, i.e. Pseudomonas putida F1, was shown to adapt to vertically moving contaminant plumes, in the way that it regained full biodegradation potential two-times faster in areas with a mid-term (days to weeks) contamination history than in areas not

  2. An efficient plant viral expression system generating orally immunogenic Norwalk virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Luca; Batchelor, Lance; Huang, Zhong; Hjelm, Brooke; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Arntzen, Charles J; Chen, Qiang; Mason, Hugh S

    2008-03-28

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from enteric pathogens like Norwalk virus (NV) are well suited to study oral immunization. We previously described stable transgenic plants that accumulate recombinant NV-like particles (rNVs) that were orally immunogenic in mice and humans. The transgenic approach suffers from long generation time and modest level of antigen accumulation. We now overcome these constraints with an efficient tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-derived transient expression system using leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. We produced properly assembled rNV at 0.8 mg/g leaf 12 days post-infection (dpi). Oral immunization of CD1 mice with 100 or 250 microg/dose of partially purified rNV elicited systemic and mucosal immune responses. We conclude that the plant viral transient expression system provides a robust research tool to generate abundant quantities of rNV as enriched, concentrated VLP preparations that are orally immunogenic.

  3. Viral immune surveillance: Toward a TH17/TH9 gate to the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Viral cellular immune surveillance is a dynamic and fluid system that is driven by finely regulated cellular processes including cytokines and other factors locally in the microenvironment and systemically throughout the body. It is questionable as to what extent the central nervous system (CNS) is an immune-privileged organ protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Recent evidence suggests converging pathways through which viral infection, and its associated immune surveillance processes, may alter the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, and lead to inflammation, swelling of the brain parenchyma and associated neurological syndromes. Here, we expand upon the recent "gateway theory", by which viral infection and other immune activation states may disrupt the specialized tight junctions of the BBB endothelium making it permeable to immune cells and factors. The model we outline here builds upon the proposition that this process may actually be initiated by cytokines of the IL-17 family, and recognizing the intimate balance between TH17 and TH9 cytokine profiles systemically. We argue that immune surveillance events, in response to viruses such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), cause a TH17/TH9 induced gateway through blood brain barrier, and thus lead to characteristic neuroimmune pathology. It is possible and even probable that the novel TH17/TH9 induced gateway, which we describe here, opens as a consequence of any state of immune activation and sustained chronic inflammation, whether associated with viral infection or any other cause of peripheral or central neuroinflammation. This view could lead to new, timely and critical patient-centered therapies for patients with neuroimmune pathologies across a variety of etiologies. BBB - blood brain barrier, BDV - Borna disease virus, CARD - caspase activation and recruitment domains, CD - clusters of differentiation, CNS - central nervous system, DAMP - damage-associated molecular patterns, DENV - Dengue

  4. Characterization and calibration of gas sensor systems at ppb level—a versatile test gas generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, Martin; Schultealbert, Caroline; Neu, Julian; Schütze, Andreas; Sauerwald, Tilman

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a test gas generation system designed to generate ppb level gas concentrations from gas cylinders. The focus is on permanent gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for applications like indoor and outdoor air quality monitoring or breath analysis. In the design and the setup of the system, several issues regarding handling of trace gas concentrations have been considered, addressed and tested. This concerns not only the active fluidic components (flow controllers, valves), which have been chosen specifically for the task, but also the design of the fluidic tubing regarding dead volumes and delay times, which have been simulated for the chosen setup. Different tubing materials have been tested for their adsorption/desorption characteristics regarding naphthalene, a highly relevant gas for indoor air quality monitoring, which has generated high gas exchange times in a previous gas mixing system due to long time adsorption/desorption effects. Residual gas contaminations of the system and the selected carrier air supply have been detected and quantified using both an analytical method (GC-MS analysis according to ISO 16000-6) and a metal oxide semiconductor gas sensor, which detected a maximum contamination equivalent to 28 ppb of carbon monoxide. A measurement strategy for suppressing even this contamination has been devised, which allows the system to be used for gas sensor and gas sensor system characterization and calibration in the low ppb concentration range.

  5. A modernized and versatile startup reactivity measuring system installed at NPP Paks and its application for subcritical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czibok, T.; Dezso, Z.; Horvath, Cs.; Lipcsei, S.; Vegh, J.; Pos, I.

    2006-01-01

    In 2004 the Hungarian Paks NPP completed a project for upgrading the reactivity measuring system applied during reactor startup experiments. Almost all components of the previous system were replaced, only ex-core ionisation chambers remained unaltered. New hardware and software components were introduced for neutron flux signal handling, for data acquisition, as well as for measurement evaluation and data presentation. High-precision picoamper meters were installed at each reactor unit, current signals are handled by a portable signal processing unit. The system applies an accurate on-line reactivity calculation algorithm based on the point-kinetic model with six delayed neutron groups. Detailed off-line evaluation and analysis of startup measurements can be performed on the portable unit, as well. The paper describes the architecture, data acquisition modules, services and man-machine interface of the new system. Functions and results are illustrated with measured data recorded during a startup of Unit 3. In 2003 and 2004 the RMR was installed and tested at all Paks NPP units successfully and now it is in regular use during unit startups. The second part of the paper illustrates an extension of the new system to perform reactivity measurements using the well-known Rossi-α and Feynman-α statistical methods. The modified system was needed to estimate the reactivity of a subcritical system formed by damaged fuel assemblies stored at the fuel service pit of Paks Unit 2. Theoretical background of the applied algorithms is outlined, then results of validation tests and on site measurements are treated. The measurements have shown that the subcriticality of the damaged fuel was sufficiently deep if the high boron concentration in the fuel service pit was maintained

  6. Management of Viral Central Nervous System Infections: A Primer for Clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Brandon Bookstaver

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are a common cause of central nervous system (CNS infections with many host, agent, and environmental factors influencing the expression of viral diseases. Viruses can be responsible for CNS disease through a variety of mechanisms including direct infection and replication within the CNS resulting in encephalitis, infection limited to the meninges, or immune-related processes such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Common pathogens including herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster, and enterovirus are responsible for the greatest number of cases in immunocompetent hosts. Other herpes viruses (eg, cytomegalovirus, John Cunningham virus are more common in immunocompromised hosts. Arboviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus and Zika virus are important pathogens globally, but the prevalence varies significantly by geographic region and often season. Early diagnosis from radiographic evidence and molecular (eg, rapid diagnostics is important for targeted therapy. Antivirals may be used effectively against some pathogens, although several viruses have no effective treatment. This article provides a review of epidemiology, diagnostics, and management of common viral pathogens in CNS disease.

  7. Interaction of extremophilic archaeal viruses with human and mouse complement system and viral biodistribution in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Linping; Uldahl, Kristine Buch; Chen, Fangfang

    2017-01-01

    -dependent manner, but C3 deficiency has no overall effect on viral clearance by organs of the reticuloendothelial system on intravenous injection. However, splenic deposition was significantly higher in C3 knockout animals compared with the corresponding wild type mice. We discuss the potential application......Archaeal viruses offer exceptional biophysical properties for modification and exploration of their potential in bionanotechnology, bioengineering and nanotherapeutic developments. However, the interaction of archaeal viruses with elements of the innate immune system has not been explored, which...... surface, but factor H deposition is purely C3-dependent. This suggests that unlike some virulent pathogens Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1 does not acquire factor H for protection. Complement activation with Sulfolobus monocaudavirus 1 also proceeds in murine sera through MBL-A/C as well as factor D...

  8. Viral Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... better from treatment such as an antiviral medicine. Antibiotics do not help viral infections, so they are not useful in the treatment of viral meningitis. However, antibiotics do fight bacteria, so they are very important ...

  9. Pharyngitis - viral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... throat is due to a viral infection. The antibiotics will not help. Using them to treat viral infections helps bacteria become resistant to antibiotics. With some sore throats (such as those caused ...

  10. Next Generation Respiratory Viral Vaccine System: Advanced and Emerging Bioengineered Human Lung Epithelia Model (HLEM) Organoid Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.; Schneider, Sandra L.; MacIntosh, Victor; Gibbons, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections, including pneumonia and influenza, are the S t" leading cause of United States and worldwide deaths. Newly emerging pathogens signaled the need for an advanced generation of vaccine technology.. Human bronchial-tracheal epithelial tissue was bioengineered to detect, identify, host and study the pathogenesis of acute respiratory viral disease. The 3-dimensional (3D) human lung epithelio-mesechymal tissue-like assemblies (HLEM TLAs) share characteristics with human respiratory epithelium: tight junctions, desmosomes, microvilli, functional markers villin, keratins and production of tissue mucin. Respiratory Syntial Virus (RSV) studies demonstrate viral growth kinetics and membrane bound glycoproteins up to day 20 post infection in the human lung-orgainoid infected cell system. Peak replication of RSV occurred on day 10 at 7 log10 particles forming units per ml/day. HLEM is an advanced virus vaccine model and biosentinel system for emergent viral infectious diseases to support DoD global surveillance and military readiness.

  11. Delivery of viral vectors to tumor cells: extracellular transport, systemic distribution, and strategies for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yuan, Fan

    2006-01-01

    It is a challenge to deliver therapeutic genes to tumor cells using viral vectors because (i) the size of these vectors are close to or larger than the space between fibers in extracellular matrix and (ii) viral proteins are potentially toxic in normal tissues. In general, gene delivery is hindered by various physiological barriers to virus transport from the site of injection to the nucleus of tumor cells and is limited by normal tissue tolerance of toxicity determined by local concentrations of transgene products and viral proteins. To illustrate the obstacles encountered in the delivery and yet limit the scope of discussion, this review focuses only on extracellular transport in solid tumors and distribution of viral vectors in normal organs after they are injected intravenously or intratumorally. This review also discusses current strategies for improving intratumoral transport and specificity of viral vectors.

  12. Optogenetic dissection of neuronal circuits in zebrafish using viral gene transfer and the Tet system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixin Zhu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The conditional expression of transgenes at high levels in sparse and specific populations of neurons is important for high-resolution optogenetic analyses of neuronal circuits. We explored two complementary methods, viral gene delivery and the iTet-Off system, to express transgenes in the brain of zebrafish. High-level gene expression in neurons was achieved by Sindbis and Rabies viruses. The Tet system produced strong and specific gene expression that could be modulated conveniently by doxycycline. Moreover, transgenic lines showed expression in distinct, sparse and stable populations of neurons that appeared to be subsets of the neurons targeted by the promoter driving the Tet activator. The Tet system therefore provides the opportunity to generate libraries of diverse expression patterns similar to gene trap approaches or the thy-1 promoter in mice, but with the additional possibility to pre-select cell types of interest. In transgenic lines expressing channelrhodopsin-2, action potential firing could be precisely controlled by two-photon stimulation at low laser power, presumably because the expression levels of the Tet-controlled genes were high even in adults. In channelrhodopsin-2-expressing larvae, optical stimulation with a single blue LED evoked distinct swimming behaviors including backward swimming. These approaches provide new opportunities for the optogenetic dissection of neuronal circuit structure and function.

  13. [Investigation of bacterial and viral etiology in community acquired central nervous system infections with molecular methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Hasip; Tünger, Alper; Şenol, Şebnem; Gazi, Hörü; Avcı, Meltem; Örmen, Bahar; Türker, Nesrin; Atalay, Sabri; Köse, Şükran; Ulusoy, Sercan; Işıkgöz Taşbakan, Meltem; Sipahi, Oğuz Reşat; Yamazhan, Tansu; Gülay, Zeynep; Alp Çavuş, Sema; Pullukçu, Hüsnü

    2017-07-01

    In this multicenter prospective cohort study, it was aimed to evaluate the bacterial and viral etiology in community-acquired central nervous system infections by standart bacteriological culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Patients hospitalized with central nervous system infections between April 2012 and February 2014 were enrolled in the study. Demographic and clinical information of the patients were collected prospectively. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of the patients were examined by standart bacteriological culture methods, bacterial multiplex PCR (Seeplex meningitis-B ACE Detection (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Group B streptococci) and viral multiplex PCR (Seeplex meningitis-V1 ACE Detection kits herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and human herpes virus 6 (HHV6)) (Seeplex meningitis-V2 ACE Detection kit (enteroviruses)). Patients were classified as purulent meningitis, aseptic meningitis and encephalitis according to their clinical, CSF (leukocyte level, predominant cell type, protein and glucose (blood/CSF) levels) and cranial imaging results. Patients who were infected with a pathogen other than the detection of the kit or diagnosed as chronic meningitis and other diseases during the follow up, were excluded from the study. A total of 79 patients (28 female, 51 male, aged 42.1 ± 18.5) fulfilled the study inclusion criteria. A total of 46 patients were classified in purulent meningitis group whereas 33 were in aseptic meningitis/encephalitis group. Pathogens were detected by multiplex PCR in 41 patients. CSF cultures were positive in 10 (21.7%) patients (nine S.pneumoniae, one H.influenzae) and PCR were positive for 27 (58.6%) patients in purulent meningitis group. In this group one type of bacteria were detected in 18 patients (14 S.pneumoniae, two N

  14. Reverse Genetics System Demonstrates that Rotavirus Nonstructural Protein NSP6 Is Not Essential for Viral Replication in Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Satoshi; Kanai, Yuta; Fukuda, Saori; Kugita, Masanori; Kawagishi, Takahiro; Ito, Naoto; Sugiyama, Makoto; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Koki

    2017-11-01

    The use of overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) to synthesize more than one unique protein from a single mRNA has been described for several viruses. Segment 11 of the rotavirus genome encodes two nonstructural proteins, NSP5 and NSP6. The NSP6 ORF is present in the vast majority of rotavirus strains, and therefore the NSP6 protein would be expected to have a function in viral replication. However, there is no direct evidence of its function or requirement in the viral replication cycle yet. Here, taking advantage of a recently established plasmid-only-based reverse genetics system that allows rescue of recombinant rotaviruses entirely from cloned cDNAs, we generated NSP6-deficient viruses to directly address its significance in the viral replication cycle. Viable recombinant NSP6-deficient viruses could be engineered. Single-step growth curves and plaque formation of the NSP6-deficient viruses confirmed that NSP6 expression is of limited significance for RVA replication in cell culture, although the NSP6 protein seemed to promote efficient virus growth. IMPORTANCE Rotavirus is one of the most important pathogens of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. The rotavirus genome, consisting of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA, encodes six structural proteins (VP1 to VP4, VP6, and VP7) and six nonstructural proteins (NSP1 to NSP6). Although specific functions have been ascribed to each of the 12 viral proteins, the role of NSP6 in the viral replication cycle remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the NSP6 protein is not essential for viral replication in cell culture by using a recently developed plasmid-only-based reverse genetics system. This reverse genetics approach will be successfully applied to answer questions of great interest regarding the roles of rotaviral proteins in replication and pathogenicity, which can hardly be addressed by conventional approaches. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Viral Disease Networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Vidal, Marc; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2010-03-01

    Viral infections induce multiple perturbations that spread along the links of the biological networks of the host cells. Understanding the impact of these cascading perturbations requires an exhaustive knowledge of the cellular machinery as well as a systems biology approach that reveals how individual components of the cellular system function together. Here we describe an integrative method that provides a new approach to studying virus-human interactions and its correlations with diseases. Our method involves the combined utilization of protein - protein interactions, protein -- DNA interactions, metabolomics and gene - disease associations to build a ``viraldiseasome''. By solely using high-throughput data, we map well-known viral associated diseases and predict new candidate viral diseases. We use microarray data of virus-infected tissues and patient medical history data to further test the implications of the viral diseasome. We apply this method to Epstein-Barr virus and Human Papillomavirus and shed light into molecular development of viral diseases and disease pathways.

  16. Evaluation of the Universal Viral Transport system for long-term storage of virus specimens for microbial forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa-Muto, Junji; Fujinami, Yoshihito; Mizuno, Natsuko

    2015-08-01

    Forensic microbial specimens, including bacteria and viruses, are collected at biocrime and bioterrorism scenes. Although it is preferable that the pathogens in these samples are alive and kept in a steady state, the samples may be stored for prolonged periods before analysis. Therefore, it is important to understand the effects of storage conditions on the pathogens contained within such samples. To evaluate the capacity to preserve viable virus and the viral genome, influenza virus was added to the transport medium of the Universal Viral Transport system and stored for over 3 months at various temperatures, after which virus titrations and quantitative analysis of the influenza hemagglutinin gene were performed. Although viable viruses became undetectable 29 days after the medium was stored at room temperature, viruses in the medium stored at 4°C were viable even after 99 days. A quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the hemagglutinin gene was maintained for 99 days at both 4°C and room temperature. Therefore, long-term storage at 4°C has little effect on viable virus and viral genes, so the Universal Viral Transport system can be useful for microbial forensics. This study provides important information for the handling of forensic virus specimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Cryptic etiopathological conditions of equine nervous system with special emphasis on viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of horse (Equus caballus to equine practitioners and researchers cannot be ignored. An unevenly distributed population of equids harbors numerous diseases, which can affect horses of any age and breed. Among these, the affections of nervous system are potent reason for death and euthanasia in equids. Many episodes associated with the emergence of equine encephalitic conditions have also pose a threat to human population as well, which signifies their pathogenic zoonotic potential. Intensification of most of the arboviruses is associated with sophisticated interaction between vectors and hosts, which supports their transmission. The alphaviruses, bunyaviruses, and flaviviruses are the major implicated groups of viruses involved with equines/humans epizootic/epidemic. In recent years, many outbreaks of deadly zoonotic diseases such as Nipah virus, Hendra virus, and Japanese encephalitis in many parts of the globe addresses their alarming significance. The equine encephalitic viruses differ in their global distribution, transmission and main vector species involved, as discussed in this article. The current review summarizes the status, pathogenesis, pathology, and impact of equine neuro-invasive conditions of viral origin. A greater understanding of these aspects might be able to provide development of advances in neuro-protective strategies in equine population.

  18. Viral IRES prediction system - a web server for prediction of the IRES secondary structure in silico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Hong

    Full Text Available The internal ribosomal entry site (IRES functions as cap-independent translation initiation sites in eukaryotic cells. IRES elements have been applied as useful tools for bi-cistronic expression vectors. Current RNA structure prediction programs are unable to predict precisely the potential IRES element. We have designed a viral IRES prediction system (VIPS to perform the IRES secondary structure prediction. In order to obtain better results for the IRES prediction, the VIPS can evaluate and predict for all four different groups of IRESs with a higher accuracy. RNA secondary structure prediction, comparison, and pseudoknot prediction programs were implemented to form the three-stage procedure for the VIPS. The backbone of VIPS includes: the RNAL fold program, aimed to predict local RNA secondary structures by minimum free energy method; the RNA Align program, intended to compare predicted structures; and pknotsRG program, used to calculate the pseudoknot structure. VIPS was evaluated by using UTR database, IRES database and Virus database, and the accuracy rate of VIPS was assessed as 98.53%, 90.80%, 82.36% and 80.41% for IRES groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. This advance useful search approach for IRES structures will facilitate IRES related studies. The VIPS on-line website service is available at http://140.135.61.250/vips/.

  19. Emerging Viral Infections in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Developing Nervous System: A Mini Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Mohammed, Abdul H; Kristensson, Krister; Juliano, Sharon L; Lutwama, Julius J

    2018-01-01

    The global public health concern is heightened over the increasing number of emerging viruses, i.e., newly discovered or previously known that have expanded into new geographical zones. These viruses challenge the health-care systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries from which several of them have originated and been transmitted by insects worldwide. Some of these viruses are neuroinvasive, but have been relatively neglected by neuroscientists. They may provide experiments by nature to give a time window for exposure to a new virus within sizeable, previously non-infected human populations, which, for instance, enables studies on potential long-term or late-onset effects on the developing nervous system. Here, we briefly summarize studies on the developing brain by West Nile, Zika, and Chikungunya viruses, which are mosquito-borne and have spread worldwide out of SSA. They can all be neuroinvasive, but their effects vary from malformations caused by prenatal infections to cognitive disturbances following perinatal or later infections. We also highlight Ebola virus, which can leave surviving children with psychiatric disturbances and cause persistent infections in the non-human primate brain. Greater awareness within the neuroscience community is needed to emphasize the menace evoked by these emerging viruses to the developing brain. In particular, frontline neuroscience research should include neuropediatric follow-up studies in the field on long-term or late-onset cognitive and behavior disturbances or neuropsychiatric disorders. Studies on pathogenetic mechanisms for viral-induced perturbations of brain maturation should be extended to the vulnerable periods when neurocircuit formations are at peaks during infancy and early childhood.

  20. Rift valley fever virus nonstructural protein NSs promotes viral RNA replication and transcription in a minigenome system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Tetsuro; Peters, C J; Makino, Shinji

    2005-05-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which belongs to the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae, has a tripartite negative-strand genome (S, M, and L segments) and is an important mosquito-borne pathogen for domestic animals and humans. We established an RVFV T7 RNA polymerase-driven minigenome system in which T7 RNA polymerase from an expression plasmid drove expression of RNA transcripts for viral proteins and minigenome RNA transcripts carrying a reporter gene between both termini of the M RNA segment in 293T cells. Like other viruses of the Bunyaviridae family, replication and transcription of the RVFV minigenome required expression of viral N and L proteins. Unexpectedly, the coexpression of an RVFV nonstructural protein, NSs, with N and L proteins resulted in a significant enhancement of minigenome RNA replication. Coexpression of NSs protein with N and L proteins also enhanced minigenome mRNA transcription in the cells expressing viral-sense minigenome RNA transcripts. NSs protein expression increased the RNA replication of minigenomes that originated from S and L RNA segments. Enhancement of minigenome RNA synthesis by NSs protein occurred in cells lacking alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) genes, indicating that the effect of NSs protein on minigenome RNA replication was unrelated to a putative NSs protein-induced inhibition of IFN-alpha/beta production. Our finding that RVFV NSs protein augmented minigenome RNA synthesis was in sharp contrast to reports that Bunyamwera virus (genus Bunyavirus) NSs protein inhibits viral minigenome RNA synthesis, suggesting that RVFV NSs protein and Bunyamwera virus NSs protein have distinctly different biological roles in viral RNA synthesis.

  1. Chitosan nanoparticles as non-viral gene delivery systems: determination of loading efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Carolina; Suñé, Josep Maria; Pérez-Lozano, Pilar; García-Montoya, Encarna; Sarrate, Rocío; Fàbregas, Anna; Miñarro, Montserrat; Ticó, Josep Ramon

    2014-07-01

    Chitosan has been studied for use in particle delivery systems for therapeutic purposes, since one of its most important applications is as a non-viral vector in gene therapy. Due to its positive charge, it is capable of forming DNA complexes (polyplexes) obtained through several methods and with the property of protecting nucleic acids. Two methods for obtaining the nanoparticles of chitosan-nucleic acids are reported in this study: simple complexation (of depolymerized chitosan or of different chitosan salts with plasmid) and ionic gelation (by adsorption of plasmid in the nanoparticles or by encapsulation of plasmid into nanoparticles). The determination of the loading efficiency of chitosan nanoparticles with the plasmid is carried out by electrophoretic mobility of the samples on agarose gel. Furthermore, the nanoparticles have been characterized according to their morphology, size and surface charge using AFM, TEM, laser diffraction and dynamic light scattering techniques. The polyplexes obtained have been found to be spherical and nanometric in size (between 100-230nm) with a zeta potential between 37 and 48mV. Positive results have been obtained by agarose gel electrophoresis for all studied cases: a concentration of between 20 and 30μg/mL of chitosan salts is required while for the remaining chitosan samples studied, 100% loading efficiency does not occur until a concentration equal to 100μg/mL (regardless of previous depolymerisation and the method performed). Chitosan-plasmid nanocapsules have been obtained at the polymer concentrations worked with (between 0.025 and 0.2%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The Study of Non-Viral Nanoscale Delivery Systems for Islet Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Diana

    Due to safety concerns associated with using viral systems clinically to expand islet cells and make them available to many more patients, significant emphasis has been placed on producing a safe and effective non-viral delivery system for biological research and gene therapy. To obtain this goal, we propose the use of an innovative technology that utilizes gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a non-viral method of delivery. Our laboratory was one of the first to describe the use of AuNPs in human islets and observe AuNPs can penetrate into the core of islets to deliver a gene to the vast majority of the cells, without damaging the cell. Gold nanoparticles proved to be a biocompatible delivery system both in vitro and in vivo. Thus far, gene therapy and molecular biology have focused primarily on delivering DNA of a specific gene into cells. The risk of this approach is that the DNA can be permanently incorporated into the genome and lead to damages in the cell that could result in overexpression of cancerous tumor cells. This risk does not exist with the use of mRNA. Many researchers believe mRNA is too unstable to be used as a molecular tool to overexpress specific proteins. With advances in nanotechnology, and better understanding of the translation process, methods have been developed that allow for expression of specific proteins by intracellular delivery of protein-encoding mRNA. We used AuNPs conjugated to mCherry mRNA to establish a proof of concept of the feasibility of using AuNP-mRNA to achieve increased expression of a specific protein within cells. To do this, we conjugated mCherry mRNA to AuNPs and tested the feasibility for increasing delivery efficacy and preserve functionality of human pancreatic islets. We believe that with this novel technology we can create AuNPs that allow specific mRNA to enter islets and lead to the production of a specific protein within the cell, with the aim to induce beta cell proliferation. In a previous experiment with single

  3. A powerful modular versatile and low cost multiprocessor system for data acquisition and control of neutron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskas, G.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes the new data acquisition and control systems of the neutron scattering instruments at the ORPHEE research reactor. The existing system has undergone a complete change: the original CAMAC system and minicomputer controlling each experiment have given way to commercial CPU boards and microcomputers like the IBM PC. The communication links between these 2 components are the IEEE 488 or RS 232 standards. Emphasis is placed on flexibility and modular nature of such a system which makes a maximum use of commercial products thus guaranteeing reliability and ease of use. A study of the requirements and evolutions, technical as well as philosophical, is detailed in order to demonstrate the motivation of the choice of the system architecture. A survey of the various hardware and software achievements and finally an overview on the future improvements is given [fr

  4. Dense range map reconstruction from a versatile robotic sensor system with an active trinocular vision and a passive binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Young; Lee, Hyunkee; Cho, Hyungsuck

    2008-04-10

    One major research issue associated with 3D perception by robotic systems is the creation of efficient sensor systems that can generate dense range maps reliably. A visual sensor system for robotic applications is developed that is inherently equipped with two types of sensor, an active trinocular vision and a passive stereo vision. Unlike in conventional active vision systems that use a large number of images with variations of projected patterns for dense range map acquisition or from conventional passive vision systems that work well on specific environments with sufficient feature information, a cooperative bidirectional sensor fusion method for this visual sensor system enables us to acquire a reliable dense range map using active and passive information simultaneously. The fusion algorithms are composed of two parts, one in which the passive stereo vision helps active vision and the other in which the active trinocular vision helps the passive one. The first part matches the laser patterns in stereo laser images with the help of intensity images; the second part utilizes an information fusion technique using the dynamic programming method in which image regions between laser patterns are matched pixel-by-pixel with help of the fusion results obtained in the first part. To determine how the proposed sensor system and fusion algorithms can work in real applications, the sensor system is implemented on a robotic system, and the proposed algorithms are applied. A series of experimental tests is performed for a variety of configurations of robot and environments. The performance of the sensor system is discussed in detail.

  5. Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Raula Gîrboveanu; Silvia Puiu

    2008-01-01

    With consumers showing increasing resistance to traditional forms of advertising such as TV or newspaper ads, marketers have turned to alternate strategies, including viral marketing. Viral marketing exploits existing social networks by encouraging customers to share product information with their friends.In our study we are able to directly observe the effectiveness of person to person word of mouth advertising for hundreds of thousands of products for the first time

  6. A versatile data handling system for nuclear physics experiments based on PDP 11/03 micro-computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raaf, A.J. de

    1979-01-01

    A reliable and low cost data handling system for nuclear physics experiments is described. It is based on two PDP 11/03 micro-computers together with Gec-Elliott CAMAC equipment. For the acquisition of the experimental data a fast system has been designed. It consists of a controller for four ADCs together with an intelligent 38k MOS memory with a word size of 24 bits. (Auth.)

  7. WaLA, a versatile model for the life cycle assessment of urban water systems: Formalism and framework for a modular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    The emphasis on the sustainable urban water management has increased over the last decades. In this context decision makers need tools to measure and improve the environmental performance of urban water systems (UWS) and their related scenarios. In this paper, we propose a versatile model, named WaLA (Water system Life cycle Assessment), which reduces the complexity of the UWS while ensuring a good representation of water issues and fulfilling life cycle assessment (LCA) requirements. Indeed, LCAs require building UWS models, which can be tedious if several scenarios are to be compared. The WaLA model is based on a framework that uses a "generic component" representing alternately water technology units and water users, with their associated water flows, and the associated impacts due to water deprivation, emissions, operation and infrastructure. UWS scenarios can be built by inter-operating and connecting the technologies and users components in a modular and integrated way. The model calculates life cycle impacts at a monthly temporal resolution for a set of services provided to users, as defined by the scenario. It also provides the ratio of impacts to amount of services provided and useful information for UWS diagnosis or comparison of different scenarios. The model is implemented in a Matlab/Simulink interface thanks to object-oriented programming. The applicability of the model is demonstrated using a virtual case study based on available life cycle inventory data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Versatile by design

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    CHARM (CERN High energy AcceleRator Mixed field) is a new and unique testing facility that will complete CERN's radiation testing installations. Located in the East Area, CHARM will provide teams with a venue to test their equipment in radiation environments similar to those found in the accelerator chain.   Team at work in the irradiation zone of the CHARM facility. First envisaged in 2007, the CHARM facility fulfils a growing demand for a large-scale tailor-made radiation testing facility. Unlike commercial facilities, CHARM features a wide spectrum of radiation types and energies (called mixed-field radiation environments), the space to test large equipment and even the possibility to adjust the environment using mobile shielding. "CHARM is versatile by design, allowing us to recreate any of the radiation environments found in the accelerator chain," says Markus Brugger, head of the R2E (Radiation to Electronics) project team that developed the CHARM facility. &a...

  9. Hydroponics: A Versatile System to Study Nutrient Allocation and Plant Responses to Nutrient Availability and Exposure to Toxic Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga T; McInturf, Samuel A; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G

    2016-07-13

    Hydroponic systems have been utilized as one of the standard methods for plant biology research and are also used in commercial production for several crops, including lettuce and tomato. Within the plant research community, numerous hydroponic systems have been designed to study plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we present a hydroponic protocol that can be easily implemented in laboratories interested in pursuing studies on plant mineral nutrition. This protocol describes the hydroponic system set up in detail and the preparation of plant material for successful experiments. Most of the materials described in this protocol can be found outside scientific supply companies, making the set up for hydroponic experiments less expensive and convenient. The use of a hydroponic growth system is most advantageous in situations where the nutrient media need to be well controlled and when intact roots need to be harvested for downstream applications. We also demonstrate how nutrient concentrations can be modified to induce plant responses to both essential nutrients and toxic non-essential elements.

  10. LCR/MEL: A versatile system for high-level expression of heterologous proteins in erythroid cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Needham; C. Gooding; K. Hudson; M. Antoniou (Michael); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); M. Hollis

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWe have used the human globin locus control region (LCR) to assemble an expression system capable of high-level, integration position-independent expression of heterologous genes and cDNAs in murine erythroleukaemia (MEL) cells. The cDNAs are inserted between the human beta-globin

  11. CLIC-ACM: generic modular rad-hard data acquisition system based on CERN GBT versatile link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielawski, B.; Locci, F.; Magnoni, S.

    2015-01-01

    CLIC is a world-wide collaboration to study the next ''terascale'' lepton collider, relying upon a very innovative concept of two-beam-acceleration. This accelerator, currently under study, will be composed of the subsequence of 21000 two-beam-modules. Each module requires more than 300 analogue and digital signals which need to be acquired and controlled in a synchronous way. CLIC-ACM (Acquisition and Control Module) is the 'generic' control and acquisition module developed to accommodate the controls of all these signals for various sub-systems and related specification in term of data bandwidth, triggering and timing synchronization. This paper describes the system architecture with respect to its radiation-tolerance, power consumption and scalability

  12. Anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism for an astigmatic atomic force microscope system based on a digital versatile disk optical head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, E-T; Illers, H; Wang, W-M; Hwang, I-S; Jusko, L; Danzebrink, H-U

    2012-01-01

    In this work, an anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism is applied to an astigmatic detection system (ADS)-based atomic force microscope (AFM) for drift compensation and cantilever alignment. The optical path of the ADS adopts a commercial digital versatile disc (DVD) optical head using the astigmatic focus error signal. The ADS-based astigmatic AFM is lightweight, compact size, low priced, and easy to use. Furthermore, the optical head is capable of measuring sub-atomic displacements of high-frequency AFM probes with a sub-micron laser spot (~570 nm, FWHM) and a high-working bandwidth (80 MHz). Nevertheless, conventional DVD optical heads suffer from signal drift problems. In a previous setup, signal drifts of even thousands of nanometers had been measured. With the anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism, the signal drift is compensated by actuating a voice coil motor of the DVD optical head. A nearly zero signal drift was achieved. Additional benefits of this mechanism are automatic cantilever alignment and simplified design.

  13. Versatile solvent systems for the separation of betalains from processed Beta vulgaris L. juice using counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spórna-Kucab, Aneta; Ignatova, Svetlana; Garrard, Ian; Wybraniec, Sławomir

    2013-12-15

    Two mixtures of decarboxylated and dehydrogenated betacyanins from processed red beet roots (Beta vulgaris L.) juice were fractionated by high performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC) producing a range of isolated components. Mixture 1 contained mainly betacyanins, 14,15-dehydro-betanin (neobetanin) and their decarboxylated derivatives while mixture 2 consisted of decarboxy- and dehydro-betacyanins. The products of mixture 1 arose during thermal degradation of betanin/isobetanin in mild conditions while the dehydro-betacyanins of mixture 2 appeared after longer heating of the juice from B. vulgaris L. Two solvent systems were found to be effective for the HPCCC. A highly polar, high salt concentration system of 1-PrOH-ACN-(NH4)2SO4 (satd. soln)-water (v/v/v/v, 1:0.5:1.2:1) (tail-to-head mode) enabled the purification of 2-decarboxy-betanin/-isobetanin, 2,17-bidecarboxy-betanin/-isobetanin and neobetanin (all from mixture 1) plus 17-decarboxy-neobetanin, 2,15,17-tridecarboxy-2,3-dehydro-neobetanin, 2-decarboxy-neobetanin and 2,15,17-tridecarboxy-neobetanin (from mixture 2). The other solvent system included heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA) as ion-pair reagent and consisted of tert-butyl methyl ether (TBME)-1-BuOH-ACN-water (acidified with 0.7% HFBA) (2:2:1:5, v/v/v/v) (head-to-tail mode). This system enabled the HPCCC purification of 2,17-bidecarboxy-betanin/-isobetanin and neobetanin (from mixture 1) plus 2,15,17-tridecarboxy-2,3-dehydro-neobetanin, 2,17-bidecarboxy-2,3-dehydro-neobetanin and 2,15,17-tridecarboxy-neobetanin (mixture 2). The results of this research are crucial in finding effective isolation methods of betacyanins and their derivatives which are meaningful compounds due their colorant properties and potential health benefits regarding antioxidant and cancer prevention. The pigments were detected by LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A versatile coupled cell-free transcription-translation system based on tobacco BY-2 cell lysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntru, Matthias; Vogel, Simon; Stoff, Katrin; Spiegel, Holger; Schillberg, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis is a powerful method for the high-throughput production of recombinant proteins, especially proteins that are difficult to express in living cells. Here we describe a coupled cell-free transcription-translation system based on tobacco BY-2 cell lysates (BYLs). Using a combination of fractional factorial designs and response surface models, we developed a cap-independent system that produces more than 250 μg/mL of functional enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) and about 270 μg/mL of firefly luciferase using plasmid templates, and up to 180 μg/mL eYFP using linear templates (PCR products) in 18 h batch reactions. The BYL contains actively-translocating microsomal vesicles derived from the endoplasmic reticulum, promoting the formation of disulfide bonds, glycosylation and the cotranslational integration of membrane proteins. This was demonstrated by expressing a functional full-size antibody (∼ 150 μg/mL), the model enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) (∼ 7.3 U/mL), and a transmembrane growth factor (∼ 25 μg/mL). Subsequent in vitro treatment of GOx with peptide-N-glycosidase F confirmed the presence of N-glycans. Our results show that the BYL can be used as a high-throughput expression and screening platform that is particularly suitable for complex and cytotoxic proteins. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Induction of resistance to viral infections in the domestic cat by stimulation of the immune system

    OpenAIRE

    Robert-Tissot, C

    2011-01-01

    Broadening the understanding of mechanisms linked to innate immunity is of primordial importance in a time of continuous emergence of rapidly spreading viral diseases. The domestic cat represents an ideal model for the study of host-virus interactions, as it is an outbred species naturally susceptible to many viruses sharing biological properties with those affecting humans. Additionally, due to their acquisition of infallible transmission strategies, rapid propagation of ...

  16. A versatile setup for ultrafast broadband optical spectroscopy of coherent collective modes in strongly correlated quantum systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Baldini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A femtosecond pump-probe setup is described that is optimised for broadband transient reflectivity experiments on solid samples over a wide temperature range. By combining high temporal resolution and a broad detection window, this apparatus can investigate the interplay between coherent collective modes and high-energy electronic excitations, which is a distinctive characteristic of correlated electron systems. Using a single-shot readout array detector at frame rates of 10 kHz allows resolving coherent oscillations with amplitudes <10−4. We demonstrate its operation on the charge-transfer insulator La2CuO4, revealing coherent phonons with frequencies up to 13 THz and providing access into their Raman matrix elements.

  17. Upside-Down but Headed in the Right Direction: Review of the Highly Versatile Cassiopea xamachana System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki H. Ohdera

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea xamachana (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae has been predominantly studied to understand its interaction with the endosymbiotic dinoflagellate algae Symbiodinium. As an easily culturable and tractable cnidarian model, it is an attractive alternative to stony corals to understanding the mechanisms driving establishment and maintenance of symbiosis. Cassiopea is also unique in requiring the symbiont in order to complete its transition to the adult stage, thereby providing an excellent model to understand symbiosis-driven development and evolution. Recently, the Cassiopea research system has gained interest beyond symbiosis in fields related to embryology, climate ecology, behavior, and more. With these developments, resources including genomes, transcriptomes, and laboratory protocols are steadily increasing. This review provides an overview of the broad range of interdisciplinary research that has utilized the Cassiopea model and highlights the advantages of using the model for future research.

  18. Relationship between viral and prokaryotic abundance on the Bajo O’Higgins 1 Seamount (Humboldt Current System off Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar E. Chiang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available There is little known about the ecology of microbial communities living in the water column over seamounts. Here, for the first time, the spatial distribution and abundance of virus-like particles (VLP are described over a seamount. The association between VLP distribution, prokaryotic abundance, and environmental variables is also analyzed. Sampling was conducted in December 2004 on the Bajo O’Higgins 1 seamount (32°54’S, 73°53’W located in the Humboldt Current System off Chile. A oxygen minimum layer (OMZ was clearly present between 130 and 280 m in the water column over the seamount. Water samples were taken with Niskin bottles at 10 oceanographic stations over the seamount at depths of 5, 20, 50, 75, 100, and 150 m and at the benthic boundary layer (BBL; 5-12 m over the sediments. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll , and phaeopigments were measured at each station. Viral and prokaryotic abundances were determined with fluorochrome SYBR Green I. Viral abundance ranged from 1.53 x 109 VLP L-1 - 16.48 x 109 VLP L-1, whereas prokaryotic abundance ranged from 1.78 x 10 8 cell L-1 - 14.91 x 108 cell L-1. The virus-like particle/prokaryote ratio varied widely among the analyzed layers (i.e. surface, OMZ, and BBL, probably due to the presence of different prokaryotic and viral assemblages in each layer. Our results indicate that the environmental conditions, mainly the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water column over Bajo O’Higgins 1 seamount, shape the association between viral and prokaryotic abundance.

  19. Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease-Causing Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Maintain an Antibacterial Type VI Secretion System with Versatile Effector Repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Kinch, Lisa N; Ray, Ann; Dalia, Ankur B; Cong, Qian; Nunan, Linda M; Camilli, Andrew; Grishin, Nick V; Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2017-07-01

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a newly emerging shrimp disease that has severely damaged the global shrimp industry. AHPND is caused by toxic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that have acquired a "selfish plasmid" encoding the deadly binary toxins PirA vp /PirB vp To better understand the repertoire of virulence factors in AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus , we conducted a comparative analysis using the genome sequences of the clinical strain RIMD2210633 and of environmental non-AHPND and toxic AHPND isolates of V. parahaemolyticus Interestingly, we found that all of the AHPND strains, but none of the non-AHPND strains, harbor the antibacterial type VI secretion system 1 (T6SS1), which we previously identified and characterized in the clinical isolate RIMD2210633. This finding suggests that the acquisition of this T6SS might confer to AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus a fitness advantage over competing bacteria and facilitate shrimp infection. Additionally, we found highly dynamic effector loci in the T6SS1 of AHPND-causing strains, leading to diverse effector repertoires. Our discovery provides novel insights into AHPND-causing pathogens and reveals a potential target for disease control. IMPORTANCE Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a serious disease that has caused severe damage and significant financial losses to the global shrimp industry. To better understand and prevent this shrimp disease, it is essential to thoroughly characterize its causative agent, Vibrio parahaemolyticus Although the plasmid-encoded binary toxins PirA vp /PirB vp have been shown to be the primary cause of AHPND, it remains unknown whether other virulent factors are commonly present in V. parahaemolyticus and might play important roles during shrimp infection. Here, we analyzed the genome sequences of clinical, non-AHPND, and AHPND strains to characterize their repertoires of key virulence determinants. Our studies reveal that an antibacterial type

  20. Assessment of lung cell toxicity of various gasoline engine exhausts using a versatile in vitro exposure system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisig, Christoph; Comte, Pierre; Güdel, Martin; Czerwinski, Jan; Mayer, Andreas; Müller, Loretta; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Adverse effect studies of gasoline exhaust are scarce, even though gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles can emit a high number of particles. The aim of this study was to conduct an in vitro hazard assessment of different GDI exhausts using two different cell culture models mimicking the human airway. In addition to gasoline particle filters (GPF), the effects of two lubrication oils with low and high ash content were assessed, since it is known that oils are important contributors to exhaust emissions. Complete exhausts from two gasoline driven cars (GDI1 and GDI2) were applied for 6 h (acute exposure) to a multi-cellular human lung model (16HBE14o-cell line, macrophages, and dendritic cells) and a primary human airway model (MucilAir™). GDI1 vehicle was driven unfiltered and filtered with an uncoated and a coated GPF. GDI2 vehicle was driven under four settings with different fuels: normal unleaded gasoline, 2% high and low ash oil in gasoline, and 2% high ash oil in gasoline with a GPF. GDI1 unfiltered was also used for a repeated exposure (3 times 6 h) to assess possible adverse effects. After 6 h exposure, no genes or proteins for oxidative stress or pro-inflammation were upregulated compared to the filtered air control in both cell systems, neither in GDI1 with GPFs nor in GDI2 with the different fuels. However, the repeated exposure led to a significant increase in HMOX1 and TNFa gene expression in the multi-cellular model, showing the responsiveness of the system towards gasoline engine exhaust upon prolonged exposure. The reduction of particles by GPFs is significant and no adverse effects were observed in vitro during a short-term exposure. On the other hand, more data comparing different lubrication oils and their possible adverse effects are needed. Future experiments also should, as shown here, focus on repeated exposures. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. SWUIS-A: A Versatile, Low-Cost UV/VIS/IR Imaging System for Airborne Astronomy and Aeronomy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durda, Daniel D.; Stern, S. Alan; Tomlinson, William; Slater, David C.; Vilas, Faith

    2001-01-01

    We have developed and successfully flight-tested on 14 different airborne missions the hardware and techniques for routinely conducting valuable astronomical and aeronomical observations from high-performance, two-seater military-type aircraft. The SWUIS-A (Southwest Universal Imaging System - Airborne) system consists of an image-intensified CCD camera with broad band response from the near-UV to the near IR, high-quality foreoptics, a miniaturized video recorder, an aircraft-to-camera power and telemetry interface with associated camera controls, and associated cables, filters, and other minor equipment. SWUIS-A's suite of high-quality foreoptics gives it selectable, variable focal length/variable field-of-view capabilities. The SWUIS-A camera frames at 60 Hz video rates, which is a key requirement for both jitter compensation and high time resolution (useful for occultation, lightning, and auroral studies). Broadband SWUIS-A image coadds can exceed a limiting magnitude of V = 10.5 in <1 sec with dark sky conditions. A valuable attribute of SWUIS-A airborne observations is the fact that the astronomer flies with the instrument, thereby providing Space Shuttle-like "payload specialist" capability to "close-the-loop" in real-time on the research done on each research mission. Key advantages of the small, high-performance aircraft on which we can fly SWUIS-A include significant cost savings over larger, more conventional airborne platforms, worldwide basing obviating the need for expensive, campaign-style movement of specialized large aircraft and their logistics support teams, and ultimately faster reaction times to transient events. Compared to ground-based instruments, airborne research platforms offer superior atmospheric transmission, the mobility to reach remote and often-times otherwise unreachable locations over the Earth, and virtually-guaranteed good weather for observing the sky. Compared to space-based instruments, airborne platforms typically offer

  2. Differentiating human NT2/D1 neurospheres as a versatile in vitro 3D model system for developmental neurotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, E.J.; Woehrling, E.K.; Prince, M.; Coleman, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity is a major issue in human health and may have lasting neurological implications. In this preliminary study we exposed differentiating Ntera2/clone D1 (NT2/D1) cell neurospheres to known human teratogens classed as non-embryotoxic (acrylamide), weakly embryotoxic (lithium, valproic acid) and strongly embryotoxic (hydroxyurea) as listed by European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and examined endpoints of cell viability and neuronal protein marker expression specific to the central nervous system, to identify developmental neurotoxins. Following induction of neuronal differentiation, valproic acid had the most significant effect on neurogenesis, in terms of reduced viability and decreased neuronal markers. Lithium had least effect on viability and did not significantly alter the expression of neuronal markers. Hydroxyurea significantly reduced cell viability but did not affect neuronal protein marker expression. Acrylamide reduced neurosphere viability but did not affect neuronal protein marker expression. Overall, this NT2/D1-based neurosphere model of neurogenesis, may provide the basis for a model of developmental neurotoxicity in vitro

  3. Improving Performance and Versatility of Systems Based on Single-Frequency DFT Detectors Such as AD5933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Matsiev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Turning grand concepts such as the Internet of Things (IoT and Smart Cities into reality requires the development and deployment of a wide variety of computing devices incorporated into the Internet infrastructure. Unsupervised sensing is the cornerstone capability that these devices must have to perform useful functions, while also having low cost of acquisition and ownership, little energy consumption and a small footprint. Impedimetric sensing systems based on the so-called single-frequency DFT detectors possess many of these desirable attributes and are often introduced in remote monitoring and wearable devices. This study presents new methods of improving performance of such detectors. It demonstrates that the main source of systematic errors is the discontinuous test phasor causing the crosstalk between the in-phase and quadrature outputs and the leakage of the input signal. The study derives expressions for these errors as a function of the number of samples and operating frequency, and provides methods for correction. The proposed methods are applied to the operation of a practical device—a network analyzer integrated circuit AD5933—and discussed in detail. These methods achieve complete elimination of leakage errors and expansion of the low limit of the operation frequency range by nearly two decades without additional hardware.

  4. Sustainable and Continuous Synthesis of Enantiopure l-Amino Acids by Using a Versatile Immobilised Multienzyme System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Lozano, Susana; da Silva, Eunice S; Llop, Jordi; López-Gallego, Fernando

    2018-02-16

    The enzymatic synthesis of α-amino acids is a sustainable and efficient alternative to chemical processes, through which achieving enantiopure products is difficult. To more address this synthesis efficiently, a hierarchical architecture that irreversibly co-immobilises an amino acid dehydrogenase with polyethyleneimine on porous agarose beads has been designed and fabricated. The cationic polymer acts as an irreversible anchoring layer for the formate dehydrogenase. In this architecture, the two enzymes and polymer colocalise across the whole microstructure of the porous carrier. This multifunctional heterogeneous biocatalyst was kinetically characterised and applied to the enantioselective synthesis of a variety of canonical and noncanonical α-amino acids in both discontinuous (batch) and continuous modes. The co-immobilised bienzymatic system conserves more than 50 % of its initial effectiveness after five batch cycles and 8 days of continuous operation. Additionally, the environmental impact of this process has been semiquantitatively calculated and compared with the state of the art. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Trypanosomes - versatile microswimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Timothy; Engstler, Markus

    2016-11-01

    Evolution has generated a plethora of flagellate microswimmers. They populate all natural waters, from the deep sea to the ponds in our neighbourhood. But flagellates also thrive in the bodies of higher organisms, where they mostly remain undetected, but can also become pathogenic. Trypanosomes comprise a large group of mostly parasitic flagellates that cause many diseases, such as human sleeping sickness or the cattle plague nagana. We consider African trypanosomes as extremely versatile microswimmers, as they have to adapt to very diverse microenvironments. They swim efficiently in the blood of their mammalian hosts, but also in various tissue spaces and even in the human brain. Furthermore, in the transmitting tsetse fly, trypanosomes undergo characteristic morphological changes that are accompanied by amazing transitions between solitary and collective types of motion. In this review, we provide a basic introduction to trypanosome biology and then focus on the complex type of rotational movement that trypanosomes display. We relate their swimming performance to morphological parameters and the respective microenvironment, developing a contemporary view on the physics of trypanosome motility. The genetically programmed successions of life style-dependent motion patterns provide challenges and opportunities for interdisciplinary studies of microswimmers.

  6. Valuable Virality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpinar, E.; Berger, Jonah

    2017-01-01

    Given recent interest in social media, many brands now create content that they hope consumers will view and share with peers. While some campaigns indeed go “viral,” their value to the brand is limited if they do not boost brand evaluation or increase purchase. Consequently, a key question is how

  7. Neisseria gonorrhoeae co-infection exacerbates vaginal HIV shedding without affecting systemic viral loads in human CD34+ engrafted mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey X Xu

    Full Text Available HIV synergy with sexually transmitted co-infections is well-documented in the clinic. Co-infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae in particular, increases genital HIV shedding and mucosal transmission. However, no animal model of co-infection currently exists to directly explore this relationship or to bridge the gap in understanding between clinical and in vitro studies of this interaction. This study aims to test the feasibility of using a humanized mouse model to overcome this barrier. Combining recent in vivo modelling advancements in both HIV and gonococcal research, we developed a co-infection model by engrafting immunodeficient NSG mice with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells to generate humanized mice that permit both systemic HIV infection and genital N. gonorrhoeae infection. Systemic plasma and vaginal lavage titres of HIV were measured in order to assess the impact of gonococcal challenge on viral plasma titres and genital shedding. Engrafted mice showed human CD45+ leukocyte repopulation in blood and mucosal tissues. Systemic HIV challenge resulted in 104-105 copies/mL of viral RNA in blood by week 4 post-infection, as well as vaginal shedding of virus. Subsequent gonococcal challenge resulted in unchanged plasma HIV levels but higher viral shedding in the genital tract, which reflects published clinical observations. Thus, human CD34+ stem cell-transplanted NSG mice represent an experimentally tractable animal model in which to study HIV shedding during gonococcal co-infection, allowing dissection of molecular and immunological interactions between these pathogens, and providing a platform to assess future therapeutics aimed at reducing HIV transmission.

  8. Neisseria gonorrhoeae co-infection exacerbates vaginal HIV shedding without affecting systemic viral loads in human CD34+ engrafted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Stacey X; Leontyev, Danila; Kaul, Rupert; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2018-01-01

    HIV synergy with sexually transmitted co-infections is well-documented in the clinic. Co-infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae in particular, increases genital HIV shedding and mucosal transmission. However, no animal model of co-infection currently exists to directly explore this relationship or to bridge the gap in understanding between clinical and in vitro studies of this interaction. This study aims to test the feasibility of using a humanized mouse model to overcome this barrier. Combining recent in vivo modelling advancements in both HIV and gonococcal research, we developed a co-infection model by engrafting immunodeficient NSG mice with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells to generate humanized mice that permit both systemic HIV infection and genital N. gonorrhoeae infection. Systemic plasma and vaginal lavage titres of HIV were measured in order to assess the impact of gonococcal challenge on viral plasma titres and genital shedding. Engrafted mice showed human CD45+ leukocyte repopulation in blood and mucosal tissues. Systemic HIV challenge resulted in 104-105 copies/mL of viral RNA in blood by week 4 post-infection, as well as vaginal shedding of virus. Subsequent gonococcal challenge resulted in unchanged plasma HIV levels but higher viral shedding in the genital tract, which reflects published clinical observations. Thus, human CD34+ stem cell-transplanted NSG mice represent an experimentally tractable animal model in which to study HIV shedding during gonococcal co-infection, allowing dissection of molecular and immunological interactions between these pathogens, and providing a platform to assess future therapeutics aimed at reducing HIV transmission.

  9. Random Plant Viral Variants Attain Temporal Advantages During Systemic Infections and in Turn Resist other Variants of the Same Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Jiangbo; Zhang, Xiuchun; Meulia, Tea; Paul, Pierce; Madden, Laurence V; Li, Dawei; Qu, Feng

    2015-10-20

    Infection of plants with viruses containing multiple variants frequently leads to dominance by a few random variants in the systemically infected leaves (SLs), for which a plausible explanation is lacking. We show here that SL dominance by a given viral variant is adequately explained by its fortuitous lead in systemic spread, coupled with its resistance to superinfection by other variants. We analyzed the fate of a multi-variant turnip crinkle virus (TCV) population in Arabidopsis and N. benthamiana plants. Both wild-type and RNA silencing-defective plants displayed a similar pattern of random dominance by a few variant genotypes, thus discounting a prominent role for RNA silencing. When introduced to plants sequentially as two subpopulations, a twelve-hour head-start was sufficient for the first set to dominate. Finally, SLs of TCV-infected plants became highly resistant to secondary invasions of another TCV variant. We propose that random distribution of variant foci on inoculated leaves allows different variants to lead systemic movement in different plants. The leading variants then colonize large areas of SLs, and resist the superinfection of lagging variants in the same areas. In conclusion, superinfection resistance is the primary driver of random enrichment of viral variants in systemically infected plants.

  10. Engineered measles virus Edmonston strain used as a novel oncolytic viral system against human hepatoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shu-Cheng; Wang, Wei-Lin; Cai, Wei-Song; Jiang, Kai-Lei; Yuan, Zheng-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common primary, malignant pediatric liver tumor in children. The treatment results for affected children have markedly improved in recent decades. However, the prognosis for high-risk patients who have extrahepatic extensions, invasion of the large hepatic veins, distant metastases and very high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum levels remains poor. There is an urgent need for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. An attenuated strain of measles virus, derived from the Edmonston vaccine lineage, was genetically engineered to produce carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). We investigated the antitumor potential of this novel viral agent against human HB both in vitro and in vivo. Infection of the Hep2G and HUH6 HB cell lines, at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) ranging from 0.01 to 1, resulted in a significant cytopathic effect consisting of extensive syncytia formation and massive cell death at 72–96 h after infection. Both of the HB lines overexpressed the measles virus receptor CD46 and supported robust viral replication, which correlated with CEA production. The efficacy of this approach in vivo was examined in murine Hep2G xenograft models. Flow cytometry assays indicated an apoptotic mechanism of cell death. Intratumoral administration of MV-CEA resulted in statistically significant delay of tumor growth and prolongation of survival. The engineered measles virus Edmonston strain MV-CEA has potent therapeutic efficacy against HB cell lines and xenografts. Trackable measles virus derivatives merit further exploration in HB treatment

  11. Analysis of viral (zucchini yellow mosaic virus) genetic diversity during systemic movement through a Cucurbita pepo vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J P; Simmons, H E; Holmes, E C; Stephenson, A G

    2014-10-13

    Determining the extent and structure of intra-host genetic diversity and the magnitude and impact of population bottlenecks is central to understanding the mechanisms of viral evolution. To determine the nature of viral evolution following systemic movement through a plant, we performed deep sequencing of 23 leaves that grew sequentially along a single Cucurbita pepo vine that was infected with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and on a leaf that grew in on a side branch. Strikingly, of 112 genetic (i.e. sub-consensus) variants observed in the data set as a whole, only 22 were found in multiple leaves. Similarly, only three of the 13 variants present in the inoculating population were found in the subsequent leaves on the vine. Hence, it appears that systemic movement is characterized by sequential population bottlenecks, although not sufficient to reduce the population to a single virion as multiple variants were consistently transmitted between leaves. In addition, the number of variants within a leaf increases as a function of distance from the inoculated (source) leaf, suggesting that the circulating sap may serve as a continual source of virus. Notably, multiple mutational variants were observed in the cylindrical inclusion (CI) protein (known to be involved in both cell-to-cell and systemic movement of the virus) that were present in multiple (19/24) leaf samples. These mutations resulted in a conformational change, suggesting that they might confer a selective advantage in systemic movement within the vine. Overall, these data reveal that bottlenecks occur during systemic movement, that variants circulate in the phloem sap throughout the infection process, and that important conformational changes in CI protein may arise during individual infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. VEGAS: VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussa, Srikanth; VEGAS Development Team

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (NSF-ATI) program is funding a new spectrometer backend for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This spectrometer is being built by the CICADA collaboration - collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California Berkeley.The backend is named as VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) and will replace the capabilities of the existing spectrometers. This backend supports data processing from focal plane array systems. The spectrometer will be capable of processing up to 1.25 GHz bandwidth from 8 dual polarized beams or a bandwidth up to 10 GHz from a dual polarized beam.The spectrometer will be using 8-bit analog to digital converters (ADC), which gives a better dynamic range than existing GBT spectrometers. There will be 8 tunable digital sub-bands within the 1.25 GHz bandwidth, which will enhance the capability of simultaneous observation of multiple spectral transitions. The maximum spectral dump rate to disk will be about 0.5 msec. The vastly enhanced backend capabilities will support several science projects with the GBT. The projects include mapping temperature and density structure of molecular clouds; searches for organic molecules in the interstellar medium; determination of the fundamental constants of our evolving Universe; red-shifted spectral features from galaxies across cosmic time and survey for pulsars in the extreme gravitational environment of the Galactic Center.

  13. Purification and characterization of enterovirus 71 viral particles produced from vero cells grown in a serum-free microcarrier bioreactor system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chyi Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 infections manifest most commonly as a childhood exanthema known as hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD and can cause neurological disease during acute infection. PRINCIPAL FINDING: In this study, we describe the production, purification and characterization of EV71 virus produced from Vero cells grown in a five-liter serum-free bioreactor system containing 5 g/L Cytodex 1 microcarrier. The viral titer was >10(6 TCID(50/mL by 6 days post infection when a MOI of 10(-5 was used at the initial infection. Two EV71 virus fractions were separated and detected when the harvested EV71 virus concentrate was purified by sucrose gradient zonal ultracentrifugation. The EV71 viral particles detected in the 24-28% sucrose fractions had an icosahedral structure 30-31 nm in diameter and had low viral infectivity and RNA content. Three major viral proteins (VP0, VP1 and VP3 were observed by SDS-PAGE. The EV71 viral particles detected in the fractions containing 35-38% sucrose were 33-35 nm in size, had high viral infectivity and RNA content, and were composed of four viral proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4, as shown by SDS-PAGE analyses. The two virus fractions were formalin-inactivated and induced high virus neutralizing antibody responses in mouse immunogenicity studies. Both mouse antisera recognized the immunodominant linear neutralization epitope of VP1 (residues 211-225. CONCLUSION: These results provide important information for cell-based EV71 vaccine development, particularly for the preparation of working standards for viral antigen quantification.

  14. The Versatile Link Demo Board (VLDB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesma, R. Martín; Alessio, F.; Barbosa, J.; Baron, S.; Caplan, C.; Leitao, P.; Porret, D.; Wyllie, K.; Pecoraro, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Versatile Link Demonstrator Board (VLDB) is the evaluation kit for the radiation-hard Optical Link ecosystem, which provides a 4.8 Gbps data transfer link for communication between front-end (FE) and back-end (BE) of the High Energy Physics experiments. It gathers the Versatile link main radiation-hard custom Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and modules: GBTx, GBT-SCA and VTRx/VTTx plus the FeastMP, a radiation-hard in-house designed DC-DC converter. This board is the first design allowing system-level tests of the Link with a complete interconnection of the constitutive components, allowing data acquisition, control and monitoring of FE devices with the GBT-SCA pair.

  15. The Therapeutic Potential of CRISPR/Cas9 Systems in Oncogene-Addicted Cancer Types: Virally Driven Cancers as a Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Jubair

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of gene editing is undergoing unprecedented growth. The first ex vivo human clinical trial in China started in 2016, more than 1000 US patents have been filed, and there is exponential growth in publications. The ability to edit genes with high fidelity is promising for the development of new treatments for a range of diseases, particularly inherited conditions, infectious diseases, and cancers. For cancer, a major issue is the identification of driver mutations and oncogenes to target for therapeutic effect, and this requires the development of robust models with which to prove their efficacy. The challenge is that there is rarely a single critical gene. However, virally driven cancers, in which cells are addicted to the expression of a single viral oncogene in some cases, may serve as model systems for CRISPR/Cas therapies, as they did for RNAi. These models and systems offer an excellent opportunity to test both preclinical models and clinical conditions to examine the effectiveness of gene editing, and here we review the options and offer a way forward. Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9, virally-driven cancers, cervical cancer, oncogene-addiction

  16. The HIV-1 Rev/RRE system is required for HIV-1 5' UTR cis elements to augment encapsidation of heterologous RNA into HIV-1 viral particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA encapsidation is governed by a number of viral encoded components, most notably the Gag protein and gRNA cis elements in the canonical packaging signal (ψ. Also implicated in encapsidation are cis determinants in the R, U5, and PBS (primer binding site from the 5' untranslated region (UTR. Although conventionally associated with nuclear export of HIV-1 RNA, there is a burgeoning role for the Rev/RRE in the encapsidation process. Pleiotropic effects exhibited by these cis and trans viral components may confound the ability to examine their independent, and combined, impact on encapsidation of RNA into HIV-1 viral particles in their innate viral context. We systematically reconstructed the HIV-1 packaging system in the context of a heterologous murine leukemia virus (MLV vector RNA to elucidate a mechanism in which the Rev/RRE system is central to achieving efficient and specific encapsidation into HIV-1 viral particles. Results We show for the first time that the Rev/RRE system can augment RNA encapsidation independent of all cis elements from the 5' UTR (R, U5, PBS, and ψ. Incorporation of all the 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance RNA encapsidation in the absence of the Rev/RRE system. In fact, we demonstrate that the Rev/RRE system is required for specific and efficient encapsidation commonly associated with the canonical packaging signal. The mechanism of Rev/RRE-mediated encapsidation is not a general phenomenon, since the combination of the Rev/RRE system and 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance encapsidation into MLV-derived viral particles. Lastly, we show that heterologous MLV RNAs conform to transduction properties commonly associated with HIV-1 viral particles, including in vivo transduction of non-dividing cells (i.e. mouse neurons; however, the cDNA forms are episomes predominantly in the 1-LTR circle form. Conclusions Premised on encapsidation of a heterologous RNA into

  17. Versatile rf controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.

    1985-05-01

    The low level rf system developed for the new Bevatron local injector provides precise control and regulation of the rf phase and amplitude for three 200 MHz linac cavities. The main features of the system are: extensive use of inexpensive, off-the-shelf components, ease of maintenance, and adaptability to a wide range of operation frequencies. The system utilizes separate function, easily removed rf printed circuit cards interconnected via the edge connectors. Control and monitoring are available both locally and through the computer. This paper will describe these features as well as the few component changes that would be required to adapt the techniques to other operating frequencies. 2 refs

  18. Risk of viral acute gastrointestinal illness from non-disinfected drinking water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) resulting from pathogens directly entering the piping of drinking water distribution systems is insufficiently understood. Here, we estimate AGI incidence attributable to virus intrusions into non-disinfecting municipal distribution systems. Viruses were enumerat...

  19. Evaluation of temporal surveillance system sensitivity and freedom from bovine viral diarrhea in Danish dairy herds using scenario tree modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Stockmarr, Anders; Boklund, Anette

    2016-06-21

    The temporal sensitivity of the surveillance system (TemSSe) for Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in Danish dairy herds was evaluated. Currently, the Danish antibody blocking ELISA is used to test quarterly bulk tank milk (BTM). To optimize the surveillance system as an early warning system, we considered the possibility of using the SVANOVIR ELISA, as this test has been shown to detect BVD-positive herds earlier than the blocking ELISA in BTM tests. Information from data (2010) and outputs from two published stochastic models were fed into a stochastic scenario tree to estimate the TemSSe. For that purpose we considered: the risk of BVD introduction into the dairy population, the ELISA used and the high risk period (HRP) from BVD introduction to testing (at 90 or 365 days). The effect of introducing one persistently infected (PI) calf or one transiently infected (TI) milking cow into 1 (or 8) dairy herd(s) was investigated. Additionally we estimated the confidence in low (PLow) herd prevalence (tree methodology, could be applied to optimize early warning surveillance systems of different animal diseases.

  20. Progress in developing cationic vectors for non-viral systemic gene therapy against cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Morille , Marie; Passirani , Catherine; Vonarbourg , Arnaud; Clavreul , Anne; Benoit , Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Initially, gene therapy was viewed as an approach for treating hereditary diseases, but its potential role in the treatment of acquired diseases such as cancer is now widely recognized. The understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in cancer and the development of nucleic acid delivery systems are two concepts that have led to this development. Systemic gene delivery systems are needed for therapeutic application to cells inaccessible by percutaneous injection...

  1. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoguang [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Department of Medical Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Qian, Hua [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Miyamoto, Fusako [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Naito, Takeshi [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kawaji, Kumi [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kajiwara, Kazumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); JST Innovation Plaza Kyoto, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Nishigyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8245 (Japan); Hattori, Toshio [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Matsuoka, Masao [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Watanabe, Kentaro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); and others

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviral activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1{sub IIIB} and HIV-1{sub BaL} as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} and anti-HIV-1{sub BaL} activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, 'phenotypic drug evaluation', may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.

  2. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoguang; Qian, Hua; Miyamoto, Fusako; Naito, Takeshi; Kawaji, Kumi; Kajiwara, Kazumi; Hattori, Toshio; Matsuoka, Masao; Watanabe, Kentaro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. ► The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. ► In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviral activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1 IIIB and HIV-1 BaL as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1 IIIB activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1 IIIB and anti-HIV-1 BaL activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, “phenotypic drug evaluation”, may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.

  3. Multilayer network decoding versatility and trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Camellia; Yadav, Alok; Jalan, Sarika

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, the multilayer networks have increasingly been realized as a more realistic framework to understand emergent physical phenomena in complex real-world systems. We analyze massive time-varying social data drawn from the largest film industry of the world under a multilayer network framework. The framework enables us to evaluate the versatility of actors, which turns out to be an intrinsic property of lead actors. Versatility in dimers suggests that working with different types of nodes are more beneficial than with similar ones. However, the triangles yield a different relation between type of co-actor and the success of lead nodes indicating the importance of higher-order motifs in understanding the properties of the underlying system. Furthermore, despite the degree-degree correlations of entire networks being neutral, multilayering picks up different values of correlation indicating positive connotations like trust, in the recent years. The analysis of weak ties of the industry uncovers nodes from a lower-degree regime being important in linking Bollywood clusters. The framework and the tools used herein may be used for unraveling the complexity of other real-world systems.

  4. Viral Infection of the Central Nervous System and Neuroinflammation Precede Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption during Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Wang, Yueyun; Yu, Lan; Cao, Shengbo; Wang, Ke; Yuan, Jiaolong; Wang, Chong; Wang, Kunlun; Cui, Min; Fu, Zhen F

    2015-05-01

    Japanese encephalitis is an acute zoonotic, mosquito-borne disease caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Japanese encephalitis is characterized by extensive inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, the pathogenic mechanisms contributing to the BBB disruption are not known. Here, using a mouse model of intravenous JEV infection, we show that virus titers increased exponentially in the brain from 2 to 5 days postinfection. This was accompanied by an early, dramatic increase in the level of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the brain. Enhancement of BBB permeability, however, was not observed until day 4, suggesting that viral entry and the onset of inflammation in the CNS occurred prior to BBB damage. In vitro studies revealed that direct infection with JEV could not induce changes in the permeability of brain microvascular endothelial cell monolayers. However, brain extracts derived from symptomatic JEV-infected mice, but not from mock-infected mice, induced significant permeability of the endothelial monolayer. Consistent with a role for inflammatory mediators in BBB disruption, the administration of gamma interferon-neutralizing antibody ameliorated the enhancement of BBB permeability in JEV-infected mice. Taken together, our data suggest that JEV enters the CNS, propagates in neurons, and induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which result in the disruption of the BBB. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, resulting in 70,000 cases each year, in which approximately 20 to 30% of cases are fatal, and a high proportion of patients survive with serious neurological and psychiatric sequelae. Pathologically, JEV infection causes an acute encephalopathy accompanied by BBB dysfunction; however, the mechanism is not clear. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of BBB disruption in JEV infection is important. Our data demonstrate

  5. A novel systems pharmacology platform to dissect action mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicines for bovine viral diarrhea disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunli; Pei, Tianli; Huang, Chao; Chen, Xuetong; Bai, Yaofei; Xue, Jun; Wu, Ziyin; Mu, Jiexin; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-10-30

    Due to the large direct and indirect productivity losses in the livestock industry caused by bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and the lack of effective pharmacological therapies, developing an efficient treatment is extremely urgent. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) that simultaneously address multiple targets have been proven to be effective therapies for BVD. However, the potential molecular action mechanisms of TCMs have not yet been systematically explored. In this work, take the example of a herbal remedy Huangqin Zhizi (HQZZ) for BVD treatment in China, a systems pharmacology approach combining with the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics evaluation was developed to screen out the active ingredients, predict the targets and analyze the networks and pathways. Results show that 212 active compounds were identified. Utilizing these lead compounds as probes, we predicted 122 BVD related-targets. And in vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the reliability of some vital active compounds and targets. Network and pathway analysis displayed that HQZZ was effective in the treatment of BVD by inhibiting inflammation, enhancing immune responses in hosts toward virus infection. In summary, the analysis of the complete profile of the pharmacological activities, as well as the elucidation of targets, networks and pathways can further elucidate the underlying anti-inflammatory, antiviral and immune regulation mechanisms of HQZZ against BVD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of very late antigen-1 in T-cell-mediated immunity to systemic viral infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Kauffmann, Susanne; Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard

    2006-01-01

    or their distribution between lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs. Regarding a functional role of VLA-1, we found that intracerebral infection of both VLA-1(-/-) and wild-type (wt) mice resulted in lethal T-cell-mediated meningitis, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of the cellular exudate did not reveal any...... significant differences between the two strains. Expression of VLA-1 was also found to be redundant regarding the ability of effector T cells to eliminate virus from internal organs of i.v. infected mice. Using delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) assays to evaluate subdermal CD8(+) T......, the current findings indicate that the expression of VLA-1 is not pivotal for T-cell-mediated antiviral immunity to a systemic infection....

  7. Systemic Immunization with Papillomavirus L1 Protein Completely Prevents the Development of Viral Mucosal Papillomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzich, Joann A.; Ghim, Shin-Je; Palmer-Hill, Frances J.; White, Wendy I.; Tamura, James K.; Bell, Judith A.; Newsome, Joseph A.; Bennett Jenson, A.; Schlegel, Richard

    1995-12-01

    Infection of mucosal epithelium by papillomaviruses is responsible for the induction of genital and oral warts and plays a critical role in the development of human cervical and oropharyngeal cancer. We have employed a canine model to develop a systemic vaccine that completely protects against experimentally induced oral mucosal papillomas. The major capsid protein, L1, of canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) was expressed in Sf9 insect cells in native conformation. L1 protein, which self-assembled into virus-like particles, was purified on CsCl gradients and injected intradermally into the foot pad of beagles. Vaccinated animals developed circulating antibodies against COPV and became completely resistant to experimental challenge with COPV. Successful immunization was strictly dependent upon native L1 protein conformation and L1 type. Partial protection was achieved with as little as 0.125 ng of L1 protein, and adjuvants appeared useful for prolonging the host immune response. Serum immunoglobulins passively transferred from COPV L1-immunized beagles to naive beagles conferred protection from experimental infection with COPV. Our results indicate the feasibility of developing a human vaccine to prevent mucosal papillomas, which can progress to malignancy.

  8. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  9. A reverse genetics system for the Great Lakes strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus: the NV gene is required for pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammayappan, Arun; Kurath, Gael; Thompson, Tarin M.; Vakharia, Vikram N.

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), belonging to the genus Novirhabdovirus in the family of Rhabdoviridae, causes a highly contagious disease of fresh and saltwater fish worldwide. Recently, a novel genotype of VHSV, designated IVb, has invaded the Great Lakes in North America, causing large-scale epidemics in wild fish. An efficient reverse genetics system was developed to generate a recombinant VHSV of genotype IVb from cloned cDNA. The recombinant VHSV (rVHSV) was comparable to the parental wild-type strain both in vitro and in vivo, causing high mortality in yellow perch (Perca flavescens). A modified recombinant VHSV was generated in which the NV gene was substituted with an enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP), and another recombinant was made by inserting the EGFP gene into the full-length viral clone between the P and M genes (rVHSV-EGFP). The in vitro replication kinetics of rVHSV-EGFP was similar to rVHSV; however, the rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP grew 2 logs lower. In yellow perch challenges, wtVHSV and rVHSV induced 82-100% cumulative per cent mortality (CPM), respectively, whereas rVHSV-EGFP produced 62% CPM and rVHSV-ΔNV-EGFP caused only 15% CPM. No reversion of mutation was detected in the recovered viruses and the recombinant viruses stably maintained the foreign gene after several passages. These results indicate that the NV gene of VHSV is not essential for viral replication in vitro and in vivo, but it plays an important role in viral replication efficiency and pathogenicity. This system will facilitate studies of VHSV replication, virulence, and production of viral vectored vaccines.

  10. A Versatile System for High-Throughput In Situ X-ray Screening and Data Collection of Soluble and Membrane-Protein Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broecker, Jana; Klingel, Viviane; Ou, Wei-Lin; Balo, Aidin R.; Kissick, David J.; Ogata, Craig M.; Kuo, Anling; Ernst, Oliver P.

    2016-10-12

    In recent years, in situ data collection has been a major focus of progress in protein crystallography. Here, we introduce the Mylar in situ method using Mylar-based sandwich plates that are inexpensive, easy to make and handle, and show significantly less background scattering than other setups. A variety of cognate holders for patches of Mylar in situ sandwich films corresponding to one or more wells makes the method robust and versatile, allows for storage and shipping of entire wells, and enables automated crystal imaging, screening, and goniometerbased X-ray diffraction data-collection at room temperature and under cryogenic conditions for soluble and membrane-protein crystals grown in or transferred to these plates. We validated the Mylar in situ method using crystals of the water-soluble proteins hen egg-white lysozyme and sperm whale myoglobin as well as the 7-transmembrane protein bacteriorhodopsin from Haloquadratum walsbyi. In conjunction with current developments at synchrotrons, this approach promises high-resolution structural studies of membrane proteins to become faster and more routine.

  11. Versatile Link PLUS transceiver development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soós, C.; Détraz, S.; Olanterä, L.; Sigaud, C.; Troska, J.; Vasey, F.; Zeiler, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Versatile Link PLUS project targets the phase II upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS experiments. It will develop a radiation resistant optical link, operating at up to 10 Gb/s in the upstream and up to 5 Gb/s in the downstream directions with a smaller footprint and higher channel count than its predecessor. A low-profile package is being developed that allows volume production at reduced costs, but which nevertheless can be configured to suit the individual channel count needs of different detectors. This paper describes the development strategies and summarizes the status of the feasibility demonstration phase of the project.

  12. Modeling Viral Infectious Diseases and Development of Antiviral Therapies Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Marta; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Desole, Giovanna; Berto, Alessandro; Pacenti, Monia; Palù, Giorgio; Barzon, Luisa

    2015-07-13

    The recent biotechnology breakthrough of cell reprogramming and generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which has revolutionized the approaches to study the mechanisms of human diseases and to test new drugs, can be exploited to generate patient-specific models for the investigation of host-pathogen interactions and to develop new antimicrobial and antiviral therapies. Applications of iPSC technology to the study of viral infections in humans have included in vitro modeling of viral infections of neural, liver, and cardiac cells; modeling of human genetic susceptibility to severe viral infectious diseases, such as encephalitis and severe influenza; genetic engineering and genome editing of patient-specific iPSC-derived cells to confer antiviral resistance.

  13. Modeling Viral Infectious Diseases and Development of Antiviral Therapies Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Trevisan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent biotechnology breakthrough of cell reprogramming and generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, which has revolutionized the approaches to study the mechanisms of human diseases and to test new drugs, can be exploited to generate patient-specific models for the investigation of host–pathogen interactions and to develop new antimicrobial and antiviral therapies. Applications of iPSC technology to the study of viral infections in humans have included in vitro modeling of viral infections of neural, liver, and cardiac cells; modeling of human genetic susceptibility to severe viral infectious diseases, such as encephalitis and severe influenza; genetic engineering and genome editing of patient-specific iPSC-derived cells to confer antiviral resistance.

  14. [Multicenter investigation of bufavirus in the etiology of viral central nervous system infections of adults and children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay Koçak, Aylin; Öcal, Murat; Polat, Meltem; Kanık Yüksek, Saliha; Aktaş Tapısız, Anıl; Tezer, Hasan; Özkul, Aykut; Ergünay, Koray; Bozdayı, Gülendam; Ahmed, Kamruddin

    2017-04-01

    Bufavirus (BuV) is a newly-identified parvovirus in the family of Parvoviridae. Metagenomic analysis of fecal samples from children in Burkina Faso with acute diarrhea showed a highly divergent parvovirus, which was named bufavirus (BuV). The global distribution, epidemiology and genetic characteristics of BuVs infections are obscure. It was first discovered as an agent causing gastroenteritis but the association of BuV infections with various clinical presentations mostly remain to be explored. The aims of this study were to investigate probable impact of BuV in central nervous system infections in a region where it was previously reported to cause human infections and to detect enteroviruses (EV) which are reported as a cause of central nervous system infections in our country. The study was undertaken in three institutions in Ankara province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. Patients, clinically diagnosed with febrile disease and/or central nervous system infections of presumed viral etiology, were enrolled in the study with informed consent. Cerebrospinal fluid specimens were collected from 93 children attended to Gazi University Hospital and Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Hospital from October 2011-April 2015 and 33 adult patients, attended to Hacettepe University Hospital from June 2012 to March 2013. Clinical history and follow-up, physical examination and standard laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Nucleic acid extraction was performed via commercially available spin-column assays and complementery DNA (cDNA) synthesis was performed by using commercially available cDNA synthesis kit with randomised hexamer primers. BuV detection was carried out by in house nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) utilized with previously-described primers. EV detection was carried out by in house PCR with pan-enterovirus primers. Seventy-four percent (93/126) and 26% (33/126) of the patients were children (0-18) and adults (19-86), respectively. In all patients

  15. Patterns of oligonucleotide sequences in viral and host cell RNA identify mediators of the host innate immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Greenbaum

    Full Text Available The innate immune response provides a first line of defense against pathogens by targeting generic differential features that are present in foreign organisms but not in the host. These innate responses generate selection forces acting both in pathogens and hosts that further determine their co-evolution. Here we analyze the nucleic acid sequence fingerprints of these selection forces acting in parallel on both host innate immune genes and ssRNA viral genomes. We do this by identifying dinucleotide biases in the coding regions of innate immune response genes in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and then use this signal to identify other significant host innate immune genes. The persistence of these biases in the orthologous groups of genes in humans and chickens is also examined. We then compare the significant motifs in highly expressed genes of the innate immune system to those in ssRNA viruses and study the evolution of these motifs in the H1N1 influenza genome. We argue that the significant under-represented motif pattern of CpG in an AU context--which is found in both the ssRNA viruses and innate genes, and has decreased throughout the history of H1N1 influenza replication in humans--is immunostimulatory and has been selected against during the co-evolution of viruses and host innate immune genes. This shows how differences in host immune biology can drive the evolution of viruses that jump into species with different immune priorities than the original host.

  16. Versatile microcomputer-based temperature controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarberry, V.R.

    1980-09-01

    The wide range of thermal responses required in laboratory and scientific equipment requires a temperature controller with a great deal of flexibility. While a number of analog temperature controllers are commercially available, they have certain limitations, such as inflexible parameter control or insufficient precision. Most lack digital interface capabilities--a necessity when the temperature controller is part of a computer-controlled automatic data acquisition system. We have developed an extremely versatile microcomputer-based temperature controller to fulfill this need in a variety of equipment. The control algorithm used allows optimal tailoring of parameters to control overshoot, response time, and accuracy. This microcomputer-based temperature controller can be used as a standalone instrument (with a teletype used to enter para-meters), or it can be integrated into a data acquisition system

  17. The Versatile Link common project: feasibility report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasey, F; Soos, C; Troska, J; Hall, D; Huffman, T; Weidberg, T; Kwan, S; Prosser, A; Xiang, A; Ye, J

    2012-01-01

    The Versatile Link is a bi-directional digital optical data link operating at rates up to 4.8 Gbit/s and featuring radiation-resistant low-power and low-mass front-end components. The system is being developed in multimode or singlemode versions operating at 850 nm or 1310 nm wavelength respectively. It has serial data interfaces and is protocol-agnostic, but is targeted to operate in tandem with the GigaBit Transceiver (GBT) serializer/deserializer chip being designed at CERN. This paper gives an overview of the project status three and a half years after its launch. It describes the challenges encountered and highlights the solutions proposed at the system as well as the component level. It concludes with a positive feasibility assesment and an outlook for future project development directions.

  18. Effect of radiation on normal hematopoiesis and on viral induced cancers of the hematopoietic system. Three-year technical progress report, August 1, 1973--April 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OKunewick, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    In studies conducted during the first three-year segment of this contract, it was observed that in the process of viral leukemogenesis the affected animals became more radioresistant than normal. Initial studies into the reason for the enhanced radioresistance implicated an increase in the number of pluripotent stem cells as one possible cause. During the current period, studies were carried out to further define the effect of the virus on stem cells and their kinetics using exposure to tritiated thymidine ( 3 HTdR) in vivo and in vitro. In addition, separate studies were initiated in an attempt to determine if the immune system played a part in the radioresistance, as well as what the effects might be of immune manipulations on the disease during the oncogenic period. Finally, studies were also undertaken to assess the sensitivity of the virus itself to radiation in vitro and in vivo to radiation and treatment with cells transplanted from viral resistant mice

  19. Immunohistochemical analysis of MMP-9, MMP-2 and TIMP-1, TIMP-2 expression in the central nervous system following infection with viral and bacterial meningitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Chyczewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are capable of degrading components of the basal lamina of cerebral vessels, thereby disrupting the blood-brain barrier and inducing leukocyte recruitment. This study provides comprehensive information regarding the cell specificity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9 and their binding tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1, TIMP-2 in the central nervous system during viral and bacterial meningitis. Specifically, we evaluated the immunoreactivity of MMPs and TIMPs in various cell types in brain parenchyma and meninges obtained from autopsy tissues. We found that a higher proportion of endothelial cells were positive for MMP-9 during meningitis when compared to controls. In addition, the immunoreactivity of MMP-9 decreased and the immunoreactivity of TIMP-1 increased in astrocytes upon infection. Furthermore, the results of this study revealed that mononuclear cells were highly immunoreactive for TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and MMP-9 during viral meningitis and that the expression of TIMPs in polymorphonuclear cells was even higher during bacterial meningitis. Taken together the results of this study indicated that the central nervous system resident cells and inflammatory infiltrates contribute to MMPs activity and that the expression patterns vary between cell types and in response to viral and bacterial meningitis.

  20. The Versatile Modiolus Perforator Flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur; Thomsen, Jorn Bo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perforator flaps are well established, and their usefulness as freestyle island flaps is recognized. The whereabouts of vascular perforators and classification of perforator flaps in the face are a debated subject, despite several anatomical studies showing similar consistency. In our...... experience using freestyle facial perforator flaps, we have located areas where perforators are consistently found. This study is focused on a particular perforator lateral to the angle of the mouth; the modiolus and the versatile modiolus perforator flap. METHODS: A cohort case series of 14 modiolus...... perforator flap reconstructions in 14 patients and a color Doppler ultrasonography localization of the modiolus perforator in 10 volunteers. RESULTS: All 14 flaps were successfully used to reconstruct the defects involved, and the location of the perforator was at the level of the modiolus as predicted...

  1. Type III CRISPR-Cas systems can provide redundancy to counteract viral escape from type I systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silas, Sukrit; Lucas-Elio, Patricia; Jackson, Simon A; Aroca-Crevillén, Alejandra; Hansen, Loren L; Fineran, Peter C; Fire, Andrew Z; Sánchez-Amat, Antonio

    2017-08-17

    CRISPR-Cas-mediated defense utilizes information stored as spacers in CRISPR arrays to defend against genetic invaders. We define the mode of target interference and role in antiviral defense for two CRISPR-Cas systems in Marinomonas mediterranea . One system (type I-F) targets DNA. A second system (type III-B) is broadly capable of acquiring spacers in either orientation from RNA and DNA, and exhibits transcription-dependent DNA interference. Examining resistance to phages isolated from Mediterranean seagrass meadows, we found that the type III-B machinery co-opts type I-F CRISPR-RNAs. Sequencing and infectivity assessments of related bacterial and phage strains suggests an 'arms race' in which phage escape from the type I-F system can be overcome through use of type I-F spacers by a horizontally-acquired type III-B system. We propose that the phage-host arms race can drive selection for horizontal uptake and maintenance of promiscuous type III interference modules that supplement existing host type I CRISPR-Cas systems.

  2. Versatile Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) on Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerick, Adrienne R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a new Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) engineered for a chemical engineering junior-level Heat Transfer course. This new DEMo learning tool is versatile, fairly inexpensive, and portable such that it can be positioned on student desks throughout a classroom. The DEMo system can illustrate conduction of various materials,…

  3. CRISPR/Cas9 delivery with one single adenoviral vector devoid of all viral genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrke-Schulz, Eric; Schiwon, Maren; Leitner, Theo; Dávid, Stephan; Bergmann, Thorsten; Liu, Jing; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2017-12-07

    The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system revolutionized the field of gene editing but viral delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 system has not been fully explored. Here we adapted clinically relevant high-capacity adenoviral vectors (HCAdV) devoid of all viral genes for the delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 machinery using a single viral vector. We present a platform enabling fast transfer of the Cas9 gene and gRNA expression units into the HCAdV genome including the option to choose between constitutive or inducible Cas9 expression and gRNA multiplexing. Efficacy and versatility of this pipeline was exemplified by producing different CRISPR/Cas9-HCAdV targeting the human papillomavirus (HPV) 18 oncogene E6, the dystrophin gene causing Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and the HIV co-receptor C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5). All CRISPR/Cas9-HCAdV proved to be efficient to deliver the respective CRISPR/Cas9 expression units and to introduce the desired DNA double strand breaks at their intended target sites in immortalized and primary cells.

  4. Imidazole: Having Versatile Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Imidazoles have occupied a unique position in heterocyclic chemistry, and its derivatives have attracted considerable interests in recent years for their versatile properties in chemistry and pharmacology. Imidazole is nitrogen-containing heterocyclic ring which possesses biological and pharmaceutical importance. Thus, imidazole compounds have been an interesting source for researchers for more than a century. The imidazole ring is a constituent of several important natural products, including purine, histamine, histidine, and nucleic acid. Being a polar and ionisable aromatic compound, it improves pharmacokinetic characteristics of lead molecules and thus is used as a remedy to optimize solubility and bioavailability parameters of proposed poorly soluble lead molecules. There are several methods used for the synthesis of imidazole-containing compounds, and also their various structure reactions offer enormous scope in the field of medicinal chemistry. The imidazole derivatives possess extensive spectrum of biological activities such as antibacterial, anticancer, antitubercular, antifungal, analgesic, and anti-HIV activities. This paper aims to review the biological activities of imidazole during the past years.

  5. Genome and infection characteristics of human parechovirus type 1: the interplay between viral infection and type I interferon antiviral system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Tzong Chang

    Full Text Available Human parechoviruses (HPeVs, members of the family Picornaviridae, are associated with severe human clinical conditions such as gastrointestinal disease, encephalitis, meningitis, respiratory disease and neonatal sepsis. A new contemporary strain of HPeV1, KVP6 (accession no. KC769584, was isolated from a clinical specimen. Full-genome alignment revealed that HPeV1 KVP6 shares high genome homology with the German strain of HPeV1, 7555312 (accession no. FM178558 and could be classified in the clade 1B group. An intertypic recombination was shown within the P2-P3 genome regions of HPeV1. Cell-type tropism test showed that T84 cells (colon carcinoma cells, A549 cells (lung carcinoma cells and DBTRG-5MG cells (glioblastoma cells were susceptible to HPeV1 infection, which might be relevant clinically. A facilitated cytopathic effect and increased viral titers were reached after serial viral passages in Vero cells, with viral genome mutation found in later passages. HPeV1 is sensitive to elevated temperature because 39C incubation impaired virion production. HPeV1 induced innate immunity with phosphorylation of interferon (IFN regulatory transcription factor 3 and production of type I IFN in A549 but not T84 cells. Furthermore, type I IFN inhibited HPeV1 production in A549 cells but not T84 cells; T84 cells may be less responsive to type I IFN stimulation. Moreover, HPeV1-infected cells showed downregulated type I IFN activation, which indicated a type I IFN evasion mechanism. The characterization of the complete genome and infection features of HPeV1 provide comprehensive information about this newly isolated HPeV1 for further diagnosis, prevention or treatment strategies.

  6. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  7. Emerging Viral Diseases of Tomato Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, I.M.; Lapidot, M.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Viral diseases are an important limiting factor in many crop production systems. Because antiviral products are not available, control strategies rely on genetic resistance or hygienic measures to prevent viral diseases, or on eradication of diseased crops to control such diseases. Increasing

  8. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated viral interference in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Zahir; Abulfaraj, Aala A.; Idris, Ali; Ali, Shawkat; Tashkandi, Manal; Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2015-01-01

    These data establish the efficacy of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for viral interference in plants, thereby extending the utility of this technology and opening the possibility of producing plants resistant to multiple viral infections.

  9. Wide Awake and Ready to Move: 20 Years of Non-Viral Therapeutic Genome Engineering with the Sleeping Beauty Transposon System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Russ; Narayanavari, Suneel A; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán

    2017-10-01

    Gene therapies will only become a widespread tool in the clinical treatment of human diseases with the advent of gene transfer vectors that integrate genetic information stably, safely, effectively, and economically. Two decades after the discovery of the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon, it has been transformed into a vector system that is fulfilling these requirements. SB may well overcome some of the limitations associated with viral gene transfer vectors and transient non-viral gene delivery approaches that are being used in the majority of ongoing clinical trials. The SB system has achieved a high level of stable gene transfer and sustained transgene expression in multiple primary human somatic cell types, representing crucial steps that may permit its clinical use in the near future. This article reviews the most important aspects of SB as a tool for gene therapy, including aspects of its vectorization and genomic integration. As an illustration, the clinical development of the SB system toward gene therapy of age-related macular degeneration and cancer immunotherapy is highlighted.

  10. Mobil Viral Pazarlama

    OpenAIRE

    Barutçu, Süleyman

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mobile Viral Marketing, with using mobile phones, is one of the most importantinnovations after Word of Mouth Marketing performed by face to face amongpeople and Viral Marketing performed in the İnternet. The main objective of thisstudy is to call marketing communicators’ and academicians’ attentions whowant to increase the recognition of companies’ products, services and brands tobecome a current issue in the marketplace using Mobile Viral Marketingapplications by reason of techno...

  11. Viral pathogen discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Charles Y

    2015-01-01

    Viral pathogen discovery is of critical importance to clinical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health. Genomic approaches for pathogen discovery, including consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays, and unbiased next-generation sequencing (NGS), have the capacity to comprehensively identify novel microbes present in clinical samples. Although numerous challenges remain to be addressed, including the bioinformatics analysis and interpretation of large datasets, these technologies have been successful in rapidly identifying emerging outbreak threats, screening vaccines and other biological products for microbial contamination, and discovering novel viruses associated with both acute and chronic illnesses. Downstream studies such as genome assembly, epidemiologic screening, and a culture system or animal model of infection are necessary to establish an association of a candidate pathogen with disease. PMID:23725672

  12. Recent Developments of Versatile Photoinitiating Systems for Cationic Ring Opening Polymerization Operating at Any Wavelengths and under Low Light Intensity Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lalevée

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Photoinitiators (PI or photoinitiating systems (PIS usable in light induced cationic polymerization (CP and free radical promoted cationic polymerization (FRPCP reactions (more specifically for cationic ring opening polymerization (ROP together with the involved mechanisms are briefly reviewed. The recent developments of novel two- and three-component PISs for CP and FRPCP upon exposure to low intensity blue to red lights is emphasized in details. Examples of such reactions under various experimental conditions are provided.

  13. Recent Developments of Versatile Photoinitiating Systems for Cationic Ring Opening Polymerization Operating at Any Wavelengths and under Low Light Intensity Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalevée, Jacques; Mokbel, Haifaa; Fouassier, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-20

    Photoinitiators (PI) or photoinitiating systems (PIS) usable in light induced cationic polymerization (CP) and free radical promoted cationic polymerization (FRPCP) reactions (more specifically for cationic ring opening polymerization (ROP)) together with the involved mechanisms are briefly reviewed. The recent developments of novel two- and three-component PISs for CP and FRPCP upon exposure to low intensity blue to red lights is emphasized in details. Examples of such reactions under various experimental conditions are provided.

  14. Development of versatile multiaperture negative ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavenago, M.; Minarello, A.; Sattin, M. [INFN-LNL, v.le dell' Universita n 2, I-35020, Legnaro (PD) Italy (Italy); Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Barbisan, M.; Baseggio, L.; Cervaro, V.; Degli Agostini, F.; Franchin, L.; Laterza, B.; Ravarotto, D.; Rossetto, F.; Zaniol, B.; Zucchetti, S. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla fusione, c.so S. Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); and others

    2015-04-08

    Enhancement of negative ion sources for production of large ion beams is a very active research field nowadays, driven from demand of plasma heating in nuclear fusion devices and accelerator applications. As a versatile test bench, the ion source NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is being commissioned by Consorzio RFX and INFN. The nominal beam current of 135 mA at −60 kV is divided into 9 beamlets, with multiaperture extraction electrodes. The plasma is sustained by a 2 MHz radiofrequency power supply, with a standard matching box. A High Voltage Deck (HVD) placed inside the lead shielding surrounding NIO1 contains the radiofrequency generator, the gas control, electronics and power supplies for the ion source. An autonomous closed circuit water cooling system was installed for the whole system, with a branch towards the HVD, using carefully optimized helical tubing. Insulation transformer is installed in a nearby box. Tests of several magnetic configurations can be performed. Status of experiments, measured spectra and plasma luminosity are described. Upgrades of magnetic filter, beam calorimeter and extraction grid and related theoretical issues are reviewed.

  15. A Versatile Nonlinear Method for Predictive Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Yao, Weigang

    2015-01-01

    As computational fluid dynamics techniques and tools become widely accepted for realworld practice today, it is intriguing to ask: what areas can it be utilized to its potential in the future. Some promising areas include design optimization and exploration of fluid dynamics phenomena (the concept of numerical wind tunnel), in which both have the common feature where some parameters are varied repeatedly and the computation can be costly. We are especially interested in the need for an accurate and efficient approach for handling these applications: (1) capturing complex nonlinear dynamics inherent in a system under consideration and (2) versatility (robustness) to encompass a range of parametric variations. In our previous paper, we proposed to use first-order Taylor expansion collected at numerous sampling points along a trajectory and assembled together via nonlinear weighting functions. The validity and performance of this approach was demonstrated for a number of problems with a vastly different input functions. In this study, we are especially interested in enhancing the method's accuracy; we extend it to include the second-orer Taylor expansion, which however requires a complicated evaluation of Hessian matrices for a system of equations, like in fluid dynamics. We propose a method to avoid these Hessian matrices, while maintaining the accuracy. Results based on the method are presented to confirm its validity.

  16. Versatile high-repetition-rate phase-locked chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray spectral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plogmaker, Stefan; Johansson, Erik M. J.; Rensmo, Haakan; Feifel, Raimund; Siegbahn, Hans [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Linusson, Per [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Eland, John H. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Baker, Neville [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    A novel light chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and x-ray spectral region has been developed. It can be phase-locked and synchronized with a synchrotron radiation storage ring, accommodating repetition rates in the range of {approx}8 to {approx}120 kHz by choosing different sets of apertures and subharmonics of the ring frequency (MHz range). Also the opening time of the system can be varied from some nanoseconds to several microseconds to meet the needs of a broad range of applications. Adjusting these parameters, the device can be used either for the generation of single light pulses or pulse packages from a microwave driven, continuous He gas discharge lamp or from storage rings which are otherwise often considered as quasi-continuous light sources. This chopper can be utilized for many different kinds of experiments enabling, for example, unambiguous time-of-flight (TOF) multi-electron coincidence studies of atoms and molecules excited by a single light pulse as well as time-resolved visible laser pump x-ray probe electron spectroscopy of condensed matter in the valence and core level region.

  17. Versatile robotic interface to evaluate, enable and train locomotion and balance after neuromotor disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominici, Nadia; Keller, Urs; Vallery, Heike; Friedli, Lucia; van den Brand, Rubia; Starkey, Michelle L; Musienko, Pavel; Riener, Robert; Courtine, Grégoire

    Central nervous system (CNS) disorders distinctly impair locomotor pattern generation and balance, but technical limitations prevent independent assessment and rehabilitation of these subfunctions. Here we introduce a versatile robotic interface to evaluate, enable and train pattern generation and

  18. Design of a Versatile and Low Cost μVolt Level A to D Conversion System for Use in Medical Instrumentation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Robinson

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern medical facilities place considerable reliance on electronic instrumentation for purposes of calibration and monitoring of therapeutic processes, many of which employ electrical and electronic apparatus that itself generates considerable levels of interference in the form of background electromagnetic radiation (EMR. Additionally diverse ambient conditions in the clinical environment such as uncontrolled temperature, humidity, noise, and vibration place added stress on sensitive instrumentation. In order to obtain accurate, repeatable, and reliable data in such environments, instrumentation used must be largely immune to these factors. Analogue instrumentation is particularly susceptible to unstable environmental conditions. Sensors typically output an analogue current or voltage and it can be demonstrated that considerable overall benefit to the measuring process would result if sensor outputs could be converted to a robust digital format at the earliest possible stage. A practical and low cost system for A to D conversion at μVolt signal levels is described in this work. It has been successfully employed in portable radiation dosimetry instrumentation and used under diverse clinical conditions and it affords an improvement in signal resolution in excess of an order of magnitude over commonly used analogue techniques.

  19. On the Versatility of Rheoreversible, Stimuli-responsive Hydraulic-Fracturing Fluids for Enhanced Geothermal Systems: Effect of Reservoir pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Carlos A.; Shao, Hongbo; Bonneville, Alain; Varga, Tamas; Zhong, Lirong

    2016-04-25

    Abstract The primary challenge for the feasibility of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is to cost-effectively create high-permeability reservoirs inside deep crystalline bedrock. Although fracturing fluids are commonly used for oil/gas, standard fracturing methods are not developed or proven for EGS temperatures and pressures. Furthermore, the environmental impacts of currently used fracturing methods are only recently being determined. These authors recently reported an environmentally benign, CO2-activated, rheoreversible fracturing fluid that enhances permeability through fracturing due to in situ volume expansion and gel formation. The potential of this novel fracturing fluid is evaluated in this work towards its application at geothermal sites under different pH conditions. Laboratory-scale fracturing experiments using Coso Geothermal rock cores under different pH environments were performed followed by X-ray microtomography characterization. The results demonstrate that CO2-reactive aqueous solutions of environmentally amenable polyallylamine (PAA) consistently and reproducibly creates/propagates fracture networks through highly impermeable crystalline rock from Coso EGS sites at considerably lower effective stress as compared to conventional fracturing fluids. In addition, permeability was significantly enhanced in a wide range of formation-water pH values. This effective, and environmentally-friendly fracturing fluid technology represents a potential alternative to conventional fracturing fluids.

  20. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic

  1. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  2. Versatile pulse programmer for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adduci, D.J.

    1979-05-01

    A description of the sequence of events and the decisions leading to the design of a versatile pulse programmer for pulsed NMR are presented. Background and application information is discussed in order that the reader might better understand the role of the pulse programmer in a NMR spectrometer. Various other design approaches are presented as a basis for comparison. Specifications for this design are proposed, the hardware implementation of the specifications is discussed, and the software operating system is presented

  3. Versatile pulse programmer for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adduci, D.J.

    1979-05-01

    A description of the sequence of events and the decisions leading to the design of a versatile pulse programmer for pulsed NMR are presented. Background and application information is discussed in order that the reader might better understand the role of the pulse programmer in a NMR spectrometer. Various other design approaches are presented as a basis for comparison. Specifications for this design are proposed, the hardware implementation of the specifications is discussed, and the software operating system is presented.

  4. Versatile composite resins simplifying the practice of restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margeas, Robert

    2014-01-01

    After decades of technical development and refinement, composite resins continue to simplify the practice of restorative dentistry, offering clinicians versatility, predictability, and enhanced physical properties. With a wide range of products available today, composite resins are a reliable, conservative, multi-functional restorative material option. As manufacturers strive to improve such properties as compression strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, water sorption, and wear resistance, several classification systems of composite resins have been developed.

  5. Amino acid substitutions within the heptad repeat domain 1 of murine coronavirus spike protein restrict viral antigen spread in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Jean C.; Groot, Linda de; Pinon, Josefina D.; Iacono, Kathryn T.; Phillips, Joanna J.; Seo, Suhun; Lavi, Ehud; Weiss, Susan R.

    2003-01-01

    Targeted recombination was carried out to select mouse hepatitis viruses (MHVs) in a defined genetic background, containing an MHV-JHM spike gene encoding either three heptad repeat 1 (HR1) substitutions (Q1067H, Q1094H, and L1114R) or L1114R alone. The recombinant virus, which expresses spike with the three substitutions, was nonfusogenic at neutral pH. Its replication was significantly inhibited by lysosomotropic agents, and it was highly neuroattenuated in vivo. In contrast, the recombinant expressing spike with L1114R alone mediated cell-to-cell fusion at neutral pH and replicated efficiently despite the presence of lysosomotropic agents; however, it still caused only subclinical morbidity and no mortality in animals. Thus, both recombinant viruses were highly attenuated and expressed viral antigen which was restricted to the olfactory bulbs and was markedly absent from other regions of the brains at 5 days postinfection. These data demonstrate that amino acid substitutions, in particular L1114R, within HR1 of the JHM spike reduced the ability of MHV to spread in the central nervous system. Furthermore, the requirements for low pH for fusion and viral entry are not prerequisites for the highly attenuated phenotype

  6. Building versatile bipartite probes for quantum metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Alessandro; De Pasquale, Antonella; Adesso, Gerardo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    We consider bipartite systems as versatile probes for the estimation of transformations acting locally on one of the subsystems. We investigate what resources are required for the probes to offer a guaranteed level of metrological performance, when the latter is averaged over specific sets of local transformations. We quantify such a performance via the average skew information (AvSk), a convex quantity which we compute in closed form for bipartite states of arbitrary dimensions, and which is shown to be strongly dependent on the degree of local purity of the probes. Our analysis contrasts and complements the recent series of studies focused on the minimum, rather than the average, performance of bipartite probes in local estimation tasks, which was instead determined by quantum correlations other than entanglement. We provide explicit prescriptions to characterize the most reliable states maximizing the AvSk, and elucidate the role of state purity, separability and correlations in the classification of optimal probes. Our results can help in the identification of useful resources for sensing, estimation and discrimination applications when complete knowledge of the interaction mechanism realizing the local transformation is unavailable, and access to pure entangled probes is technologically limited.

  7. Building versatile bipartite probes for quantum metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farace, Alessandro; Pasquale, Antonella De; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We consider bipartite systems as versatile probes for the estimation of transformations acting locally on one of the subsystems. We investigate what resources are required for the probes to offer a guaranteed level of metrological performance, when the latter is averaged over specific sets of local transformations. We quantify such a performance via the average skew information (AvSk), a convex quantity which we compute in closed form for bipartite states of arbitrary dimensions, and which is shown to be strongly dependent on the degree of local purity of the probes. Our analysis contrasts and complements the recent series of studies focused on the minimum, rather than the average, performance of bipartite probes in local estimation tasks, which was instead determined by quantum correlations other than entanglement. We provide explicit prescriptions to characterize the most reliable states maximizing the AvSk, and elucidate the role of state purity, separability and correlations in the classification of optimal probes. Our results can help in the identification of useful resources for sensing, estimation and discrimination applications when complete knowledge of the interaction mechanism realizing the local transformation is unavailable, and access to pure entangled probes is technologically limited. (paper)

  8. A CASE OF EPSTEIN-BARR VIRAL INFECTION PROCEEDED UNDER THE MASK OF THE SYSTEMIC VARIANT OF THE JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Bzarova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the treatment of Epstein–Barr viral infection under the mask of the systemic variant of the juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The clinical presentations of the disease included fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, polyarticular syndrome and high lab activity indices. the serologic research uncovered the antibodies to the Epstein–Barr virus in diagnostic titers, which allowed the researchers to verify the diagnosis. A child underwent the treatment with the immunoglobulin of a man with the high concentration of antibodies to cytomegalovirus, which induced the remission of the systemic representations, articular syndrome accompanied B normalization of the lab activity indices and reduction of the antibody titers towards the Epstein–Barr virus.Key words: children, treatment, immune globulin intravenous, septic syndrome, epstein–barr virus.

  9. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale-Costa, Sílvia; Amorim, Maria João

    2016-03-08

    Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral-host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab) GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  10. Functional Versatility of AGY Serine Codons in Immunoglobulin Variable Region Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Detanico

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In systemic autoimmunity, autoantibodies directed against nuclear antigens (Ag often arise by somatic hypermutation (SHM that converts AGT and AGC (AGY Ser codons into Arg codons. This can occur by three different single-base changes. Curiously, AGY Ser codons are far more abundant in complementarity-determining regions (CDRs of IgV-region genes than expected for random codon use or from species-specific codon frequency data. CDR AGY codons are also more abundant than TCN Ser codons. We show that these trends hold even in cartilaginous fishes. Because AGC is a preferred target for SHM by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, we asked whether the AGY abundance was solely due to a selection pressure to conserve high mutability in CDRs regardless of codon context but found that this was not the case. Instead, AGY triplets were selectively enriched in the Ser codon reading frame. Motivated by reports implicating a functional role for poly/autoreactive specificities in anti-viral antibodies, we also analyzed mutations at AGY in antibodies directed against a number of different viruses, and found that mutations producing Arg codons in anti-viral antibodies were indeed frequent. Unexpectedly, however, we also found that AGY codons mutated often to encode nearly all of the amino acids that are reported to provide the most frequent contacts with antigen (Ag. In many cases, mutations producing codons for these alternative amino acids in anti-viral antibodies were more frequent than those producing Arg codons. Mutations producing each of these key amino acids required only single-base changes in AGY. AGY is the only codon group in which 2/3rds of random mutations generate codons for these key residues. Finally, by directly analyzing x-ray structures of immune complexes from the RCSB protein database, we found that Ag-contact residues generated via somatic hypermutation occurred more often at AGY than at any other codon group. Thus, preservation of

  11. Supply assurance by versatile energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaek, W.

    1982-01-01

    The scope of future possibilities of covering the energy requirements of the Federal Republic of Germany has been explained in four sessions handling the topics: structure and covering of the primary energy requirements, contributions of fossil and other energy sources, hydrocarbons and nuclear energy as well as perspectives and political reaction. All energy carriers are required in order to guarantee supply safety, but the industrial nations should make greater use of their know-how and capitals in order to meet short supply of raw material with flexibility. (orig.) [de

  12. Understanding Image Virality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Example non-viral images. Figure 1: Top: Images with high viral scores in our dataset depict internet “celebrity” memes ex. “Grumpy Cat”; Bottom: Images...of images that is most similar to ours is the concurrently introduced viral meme generator of Wang et al., that combines NLP and Computer Vision (low...doing any of our tasks. The test included questions about widely spread Reddit memes and jargon so that anyone familiar with Reddit can easily get a high

  13. Cellular toxicity following application of adeno-associated viral vector-mediated RNA interference in the nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhaagen Joost

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a spinal cord lesion, axon regeneration is inhibited by the presence of a diversity of inhibitory molecules in the lesion environment. At and around the lesion site myelin-associated inhibitors, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs and several axon guidance molecules, including all members of the secreted (class 3 Semaphorins, are expressed. Interfering with multiple inhibitory signals could potentially enhance the previously reported beneficial effects of blocking single molecules. RNA interference (RNAi is a tool that can be used to simultaneously silence expression of multiple genes. In this study we aimed to employ adeno-associated virus (AAV mediated expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs to target all Semaphorin class 3 signaling by knocking down its receptors, Neuropilin 1 (Npn-1 and Neuropilin 2 (Npn-2. Results We have successfully generated shRNAs that knock down Npn-1 and Npn-2 in a neuronal cell line. We detected substantial knockdown of Npn-2 mRNA when AAV5 viral vector particles expressing Npn-2 specific shRNAs were injected in dorsal root ganglia (DRG of the rat. Unexpectedly however, AAV1-mediated expression of Npn-2 shRNAs and a control shRNA in the red nucleus resulted in an adverse tissue response and neuronal degeneration. The observed toxicity was dose dependent and was not seen with control GFP expressing AAV vectors, implicating the shRNAs as the causative toxic agents. Conclusions RNAi is a powerful tool to knock down Semaphorin receptor expression in neuronal cells in vitro and in vivo. However, when shRNAs are expressed at high levels in CNS neurons, they trigger an adverse tissue response leading to neuronal degradation.

  14. Dynamic properties of the Sulfolobus CRISPR/Cas and CRISPR/Cmr systems when challenged with vector-borne viral and plasmid genes and protospacers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðbergsdóttir, Sóley Ruth; Deng, Ling; Chen, Zhengjun

    2011-01-01

    The adaptive immune CRISPR/Cas and CRISPR/Cmr systems of the crenarchaeal thermoacidophile Sulfolobus were challenged by a variety of viral and plasmid genes, and protospacers preceded by different dinucleotide motifs. The genes and protospacers were constructed to carry sequences matching...... individual spacers of CRISPR loci, and a range of mismatches were introduced. Constructs were cloned into vectors carrying pyrE/pyrF genes and transformed into uracil auxotrophic hosts derived from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 or Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A. Most constructs, including those carrying different...... protospacer mismatches, yielded few viable transformants. These were shown to carry either partial deletions of CRISPR loci, covering a broad spectrum of sizes and including the matching spacer, or deletions of whole CRISPR/Cas modules. The deletions occurred independently of whether genes or protospacers...

  15. Early Experience With CliniMACS Prodigy CCS (IFN-gamma) System in Selection of Virus-specific T Cells From Third-party Donors for Pediatric Patients With Severe Viral Infections After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kállay, Krisztián; Kassa, Csaba; Réti, Marienn; Karászi, Éva; Sinkó, János; Goda, Vera; Stréhn, Anita; Csordás, Katalin; Horváth, Orsolya; Szederjesi, Attila; Tasnády, Szabolcs; Hardi, Apor; Kriván, Gergely

    2018-04-01

    Viral reactivation is a frequent complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation especially in children. For refractory cases, rapid virus-specific T-cell therapy would be ideally implemented within a few days. Over the course of a year in our pediatric cohort of 43 allogeneic transplantation, 9 patients fulfilled criteria for virus-specific T-cell therapy. Viral infections were due to cytomegalovirus (CMV) in 3, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in 2, and adenovirus (AdV) in 1 case, whereas >1 virus was detected in 3 cases. Viral diseases necessitating a T-cell therapy were CMV pneumonitis and colitis, AdV enteritis and cystitis, and EBV-induced posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease. Cells were produced by the CliniMACS Prodigy CCS (IFN-gamma) System within 24 hours after mononuclear leukapheresis. Eight patients became completely asymptomatic, whereas 7 also cleared the virus. Six patients are alive without viral illness or sequelae demonstrating viral DNA clearance in peripheral blood with a median follow-up of 535 (350-786) days. One patient with CMV pneumonitis died of respiratory insufficiency. In 2 cases the viral illness improved or cleared, however, the patients died of invasive aspergillosis. No cases of graft-versus-host disease, rejection, organ toxicity, or recurrent infection were noticed. Virus-specific T-cell therapy implemented by the CliniMACS Prodigy CCS (IFN-gamma) System is an automated, fast, safe, and probably effective way to control resistant viral diseases after pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  16. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is one of the most important viral diseases of finfish worldwide. In the past, VHS was thought to affect mainly rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared at freshwater facilities in Western Europe where it was known by various names including Egtved disease and infectious kidney swelling and liver degeneration (Wolf 1988). Today, VHS is known as an important source of mortality for cultured and wild fish in freshwater and marine environments in several regions of the northern hemisphere (Dixon 1999; Gagné et al. 2007; Kim and Faisal 2011; Lumsden et al. 2007; Marty et al. 1998, 2003; Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005b; Smail 1999; Takano et al. 2001). Viral hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by the fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae

  17. Hepatitis viral aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, and the complementary examinations with special emphasis on the viral markers and the positive diagnosis were also considered

  18. Wastewater viral community

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset contains the information used to generate the figures in the manuscript. The data describes the viral loss measured at all steps of sample processing,...

  19. Viral pathogenesis in diagrams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay, Michel; Berthiaume, Laurent; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    .... The 268 diagrams in Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams were selected from over 800 diagrams of English and French virological literature, including one derived from a famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci...

  20. Metabolism goes viral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake-Stoner, Shigeki J; O'Shea, Clodagh C

    2014-04-01

    Viral and cellular oncogenes converge in targeting critical protein interaction networks to reprogram the cellular DNA and protein replication machinery for pathological replication. In this issue, Thai et al. (2014) show that adenovirus E4ORF1 activates MYC glycolytic targets to induce a Warburg-like effect that converts glucose into nucleotides for viral replication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Viral induced oxidative and inflammatory response in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis with identification of potential drug candidates: A systematic review using systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Puneet; Gupta, Renu; Kushwaha, Suman; Agarwal, Rachna; Saso, Luciano; Kukreti, Shrikant; Kukreti, Ritushree

    2018-04-19

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is genetically complex with multifactorial etiology. Here, we aim to identify the potential viral pathogens leading to aberrant inflammatory and oxidative stress response in AD along with potential drug candidates using systems biology approach. We retrieved protein interactions of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and tau protein (MAPT) from NCBI and genes for oxidative stress from NetAge, for inflammation from NetAge and InnateDB databases. Genes implicated in aging were retrieved from GenAge database and two GEO expression datasets. These genes were individually used to create protein-protein interaction network using STRING database (score≥0.7). The interactions of candidate genes with known viruses were mapped using virhostnet v2.0 database. Drug molecules targeting candidate genes were retrieved using the Drug-Gene Interaction Database (DGIdb). Data mining resulted in 2095 APP, 116 MAPT, 214 oxidative stress, 1269 inflammatory genes. After STRING PPIN analysis, 404 APP, 109 MAPT, 204 oxidative stress and 1014 inflammation related high confidence proteins were identified. The overlap among all datasets yielded eight common markers (AKT1, GSK3B, APP, APOE, EGFR, PIN1, CASP8 and SNCA). These genes showed association with hepatitis C virus (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpes virus 8 and Human papillomavirus (HPV). Further, screening of drugs targeting candidate genes, and possessing anti-inflammatory property, antiviral activity along with suggested role in AD pathophysiology yielded 12 potential drug candidates. Our study demonstrated the role of viral etiology in AD pathogenesis by elucidating interaction of oxidative stress and inflammation causing candidate genes with common viruses along with the identification of potential AD drug candidates. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. TMAP - A Versatile Mobile Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Joel A.; Simmons, Richard K.

    1989-03-01

    TMAP, the Teleoperated Mobile All-purpose Platform, provides the Army with a low cost, light weight, flexibly designed, modularly expandable platform for support of maneuver forces and light infantry units. The highly mobile, four wheel drive, diesel-hydraulic platform is controllable at distances of up to 4km from a portable operator control unit using either fiber optic or RF control links. The Martin Marietta TMAP system is based on a hierarchical task decomposition Real-time Control System architecture that readily supports interchange of mission packages and provides the capability for simple incorporation of supervisory control concepts leading to increased system autonomy and resulting force multiplication. TMAP has been designed to support a variety of missions including target designation, anti-armor, anti-air, countermine, and reconnaissance/surveillance. As a target designation system TMAP will provide the soldier with increased survivability and effectiveness by providing substantial combat standoff, and the firepower effectiveness of several manual designator operators. Force-on-force analysis of simulated TMAP engagements indicate that TMAP should provide significant force multiplication for the Army in Air-Land Battle 2000.

  3. Imidazolide monolayers for versatile reactive microcontact printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, S.H.; Reinhoudt, David; Huskens, Jurriaan; Velders, Aldrik

    2008-01-01

    Imidazolide monolayers prepared from the reaction of amino SAMs with N,N-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) are used as a versatile platform for surface patterning with amino-, carboxyl- and alcohol-containing compounds through reactive microcontact printing (µCP). To demonstrate the surface reactivity of

  4. Versatile secondary beam for the meson area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, T.

    1982-03-01

    A new secondary beam design is outlined for the Meson M6 Beamline that combines versatility with economy. The beamline described will transport charged particles of either sign to 800 GeV/c and bring the beam to a focus in one of three potential experimental areas. The plan makes maximal use of existing civil construction

  5. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  6. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  7. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eNassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist's toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic

  8. A pox on thee! Manipulation of the host immune system by myxoma virus and implications for viral-host co-adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Martha C

    2002-09-01

    The poxviruses have evolved a diverse array of proteins which serve to subvert innate and adaptive host responses that abort or at least limit viral infections. Myxoma virus and its rabbit host are considered to represent an ideal poxvirus-host system in which to study the effects of these immunomodulatory proteins. Studies of laboratory rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) infected with gene knockout variants of myxoma virus have provided compelling evidence that several myxoma virus gene products contribute to the pathogenic condition known as myxomatosis. However, myxomatosis, which is characterized by skin lesions, systemic immunosuppression, and a high mortality rate, does not occur in the virus' natural South American host, Sylvilogus brasiliensis. Moreover, in Australia where myxoma virus was willfully introduced to control populations of O. cuniculus, myxomatosis-resistant rabbits emerged within a year of myxoma virus introduction into the field. In this review I discuss the characterized immunomodulatory proteins of myxoma virus, their biochemical properties, their pathogenic effects in laboratory rabbits, the role of the host immune system in the susceptibility or resistance to myxomatosis, and the evidence that immunomodulatory genes may have been attenuated during the co-adaptation of myxoma virus and O. cuniculus in Australia.

  9. Contribution of viral recombinants to the study of the immune response against the Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Feederle, Regina; Behrends, Uta; Mautner, Josef

    2008-12-01

    Over the past two decades, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) mutants have become valuable tools for the analysis of viral functions. Several experimental strategies are currently used to generate recombinant mutant genomes that carry alterations in one or several viral genes. The probably most versatile approach utilizes bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) carrying parts or the whole EBV genome, which permits extensive genetic manipulations in Escherichia coli cells. The 'mini-EBVs', for example, which contain roughly half of the wild type viral information, efficiently transform primary B cells and have been used as gene vectors for foreign antigens. After expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), these antigens are efficiently presented on MHC molecules and recognized by antigen-specific T cells. These vectors, however, cannot undergo lytic replication and require a helper cell line for efficient replication and DNA packaging. Further experimental systems include the complete viral genome cloned onto a BAC. These mutants can typically be complemented by expression plasmids, some of which are expressed on EBV-derived vectors and can be propagated without requirement of a helper cell line. Over the last years, these viral recombinants have been utilized increasingly to analyse different aspects of the immune response against EBV. Immunological applications are manifold and steadily growing and include crude screening of T cell clones for their specificity towards latent versus lytic antigens, or more detailed analyses in which the exact specificity of T cells is determined using EBV mutants that lack a single viral antigen. Other applications include detailed analysis of protein domains important for immune recognition, e.g. Gly-Ala repeats in the EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein, expansion of T cell clones directed against virion structures using virus-like particles and phenotypic analysis of virus mutants defective in infection. Future developments might

  10. Physical non-viral gene delivery methods for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Adam J.; Forrest, M. Laird; Detamore, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of gene therapy into tissue engineering to control differentiation and direct tissue formation is not a new concept; however, successful delivery of nucleic acids into primary cells, progenitor cells, and stem cells has proven exceptionally challenging. Viral vectors are generally highly effective at delivering nucleic acids to a variety of cell populations, both dividing and non-dividing, yet these viral vectors are marred by significant safety concerns. Non-viral vectors are preferred for gene therapy, despite lower transfection efficiencies, and possess many customizable attributes that are desirable for tissue engineering applications. However, there is no single non-viral gene delivery strategy that “fits-all” cell types and tissues. Thus, there is a compelling opportunity to examine different non-viral vectors, especially physical vectors, and compare their relative degrees of success. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of physical non-viral methods (i.e., microinjection, ballistic gene delivery, electroporation, sonoporation, laser irradiation, magnetofection, and electric field-induced molecular vibration), with particular attention given to electroporation because of its versatility, with further special emphasis on Nucleofection™. In addition, attributes of cellular character that can be used to improve differentiation strategies are examined for tissue engineering applications. Ultimately, electroporation exhibits a high transfection efficiency in many cell types, which is highly desirable for tissue engineering applications, but electroporation and other physical non-viral gene delivery methods are still limited by poor cell viability. Overcoming the challenge of poor cell viability in highly efficient physical non-viral techniques is the key to using gene delivery to enhance tissue engineering applications. PMID:23099792

  11. Physical non-viral gene delivery methods for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Adam J; Forrest, M Laird; Detamore, Michael S

    2013-03-01

    The integration of gene therapy into tissue engineering to control differentiation and direct tissue formation is not a new concept; however, successful delivery of nucleic acids into primary cells, progenitor cells, and stem cells has proven exceptionally challenging. Viral vectors are generally highly effective at delivering nucleic acids to a variety of cell populations, both dividing and non-dividing, yet these viral vectors are marred by significant safety concerns. Non-viral vectors are preferred for gene therapy, despite lower transfection efficiencies, and possess many customizable attributes that are desirable for tissue engineering applications. However, there is no single non-viral gene delivery strategy that "fits-all" cell types and tissues. Thus, there is a compelling opportunity to examine different non-viral vectors, especially physical vectors, and compare their relative degrees of success. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of physical non-viral methods (i.e., microinjection, ballistic gene delivery, electroporation, sonoporation, laser irradiation, magnetofection, and electric field-induced molecular vibration), with particular attention given to electroporation because of its versatility, with further special emphasis on Nucleofection™. In addition, attributes of cellular character that can be used to improve differentiation strategies are examined for tissue engineering applications. Ultimately, electroporation exhibits a high transfection efficiency in many cell types, which is highly desirable for tissue engineering applications, but electroporation and other physical non-viral gene delivery methods are still limited by poor cell viability. Overcoming the challenge of poor cell viability in highly efficient physical non-viral techniques is the key to using gene delivery to enhance tissue engineering applications.

  12. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  13. The Immune System Out of Shape? : Shaping of adaptive immunity by persistent viral infections in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van den Heuvel (Diana)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractDuring pregnancy, a fetus is protected from a large part of the pathogens of the environment. As a result, a newborn’s immune system is immature and unexperienced, and mainly composed of innate leukocytes and naive lymphocytes. Immunological memory, and concomitant functional

  14. A Stimulator ASIC Featuring Versatile Management for Vestibular Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai Jiang; Demosthenous, Andreas; Perkins, Timothy; Xiao Liu; Donaldson, Nick

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a multichannel stimulator ASIC for an implantable vestibular prosthesis. The system features versatile stimulation management which allows fine setting of the parameters for biphasic stimulation pulses. To address the problem of charge imbalance due to rounding errors, the digital processor can calculate and provide accurate charge correction. A technique to reduce the data rate to the stimulator is described. The stimulator ASIC was implemented in 0.6-μ m high-voltage CMOS technology occupying an area of 2.27 mm(2). The measured performance of the ASIC has been verified using vestibular electrodes in saline.

  15. Isatin, a versatile molecule: studies in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.iq@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-05-15

    Isatin is a small, versatile and widely applicable pharmacological molecule. These characteristics make isatin and its derivatives attractive to many research groups as resources for chemical and pharmacological studies. Although it has a relatively simple structure, isatin is a useful chemical scaffold for a variety of chemical transformations. This article discusses several studies performed by Brazilian groups, including investigations of its structural changes, biological assay designs and new methods for the synthesis of isatin. (author)

  16. Treating viral hemorrhagic fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mairuhu, A.T.; Brandjes, D.P.; Gorp, E. van

    2003-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers are illnesses associated with a number of geographically restricted, mostly tropical areas. Over recent decades a number of new hemorrhagic fever viruses have emerged. Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of these diseases have improved our initial supportive

  17. HIV Viral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  18. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common causes of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV are common ... gov/ mmwr/ preview/ mmwrhtml/ rr5516a1. htm? s_ cid= rr5516a1_ e. The Numbers • • Of people with HIV in the ...

  19. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sharma (Suraj); M. Carballo (Manuel); J.J. Feld (Jordan J.); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and

  20. Viral Metagenomics: MetaView Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, C; Smith, J

    2007-10-22

    The purpose of this report is to design and develop a tool for analysis of raw sequence read data from viral metagenomics experiments. The tool should compare read sequences of known viral nucleic acid sequence data and enable a user to attempt to determine, with some degree of confidence, what virus groups may be present in the sample. This project was conducted in two phases. In phase 1 we surveyed the literature and examined existing metagenomics tools to educate ourselves and to more precisely define the problem of analyzing raw read data from viral metagenomic experiments. In phase 2 we devised an approach and built a prototype code and database. This code takes viral metagenomic read data in fasta format as input and accesses all complete viral genomes from Kpath for sequence comparison. The system executes at the UNIX command line, producing output that is stored in an Oracle relational database. We provide here a description of the approach we came up with for handling un-assembled, short read data sets from viral metagenomics experiments. We include a discussion of the current MetaView code capabilities and additional functionality that we believe should be added, should additional funding be acquired to continue the work.

  1. Virally encoded 7TM receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Waldhoer, M; Lüttichau, H R

    2001-01-01

    expression of this single gene in certain lymphocyte cell lineages leads to the development of lesions which are remarkably similar to Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpesvirus 8 associated disease. Thus, this and other virally encoded 7TM receptors appear to be attractive future drug targets.......A number of herpes- and poxviruses encode 7TM G-protein coupled receptors most of which clearly are derived from their host chemokine system as well as induce high expression of certain 7TM receptors in the infected cells. The receptors appear to be exploited by the virus for either immune evasion...

  2. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  3. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  4. Value of Sharing: Viral Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu Aydın; Aşina Gülerarslan; Süleyman Karaçor; Tarık Doğan

    2013-01-01

    Sharing motivations of viral advertisements by consumers and the impacts of these advertisements on the perceptions for brand will be questioned in this study. Three fundamental questions are answered in the study. These are advertisement watching and sharing motivations of individuals, criteria of liking viral advertisement and the impact of individual attitudes for viral advertisement on brand perception respectively. This study will be carried out via a viral advertise...

  5. Viral Marketing and Academic Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Koktová, Silvie

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis examines modern and constantly developing kind of internet marketing -- the so called viral marketing. It deals with its origin, principle, process, advantages and disadvantages, types of viral marketing and presumptions of creating successful viral campaign. The aim of the theoretical part is especially the understanding of viral marketing as one of the effective instruments of contemporary marketing. In this theoretical part the thesis also elaborates a marketing school...

  6. Viral immune evasion: a masterpiece of evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, Mireille T. M.; Westerhout, Ellen M.; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cécilia; Wiertz, Emmanuel J. H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Coexistence of viruses and their hosts imposes an evolutionary pressure on both the virus and the host immune system. On the one hand, the host has developed an immune system able to attack viruses and virally infected cells, whereas on the other hand, viruses have developed an array of immune

  7. Prolonged Expression of Secreted Enzymes in Dogs After Liver-Directed Delivery of Sleeping Beauty Transposons: Implications for Non-Viral Gene Therapy of Systemic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronovich, Elena L; Hyland, Kendra A; Hall, Bryan C; Bell, Jason B; Olson, Erik R; Rusten, Myra Urness; Hunter, David W; Ellinwood, N Matthew; McIvor, R Scott; Hackett, Perry B

    2017-07-01

    The non-viral, integrating Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system is efficient in treating systemic monogenic disease in mice, including hemophilia A and B caused by deficiency of blood clotting factors and mucopolysaccharidosis types I and VII caused by α-L-iduronidase (IDUA) and β-glucuronidase (GUSB) deficiency, respectively. Modified approaches of the hydrodynamics-based procedure to deliver transposons to the liver in dogs were recently reported. Using the transgenic canine reporter secreted alkaline phosphatase (cSEAP), transgenic protein in the plasma was demonstrated for up to 6 weeks post infusion. This study reports that immunosuppression of dogs with gadolinium chloride (GdCl 3 ) prolonged the presence of cSEAP in the circulation up to 5.5 months after a single vector infusion. Transgene expression declined gradually but appeared to stabilize after about 2 months at approximately fourfold baseline level. Durability of transgenic protein expression in the plasma was inversely associated with transient increase of liver enzymes alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase in response to the plasmid delivery procedure, which suggests a deleterious effect of hepatocellular toxicity on transgene expression. GdCl 3 treatment was ineffective for repeat vector infusions. In parallel studies, dogs were infused with potentially therapeutic transposons. Activities of transgenic IDUA and GUSB in plasma peaked at 50-350% of wildtype, but in the absence of immunosuppression lasted only a few days. Transposition was detectable by excision assay only when the most efficient transposase, SB100X, was used. Dogs infused with transposons encoding canine clotting factor IX (cFIX) were treated with GdCl 3 and showed expression profiles similar to those in cSEAP-infused dogs, with expression peaking at 40% wt (2 μg/mL). It is concluded that GdCl 3 can support extended transgene expression after hydrodynamic introduction of SB transposons in dogs, but that alternative

  8. Effect of radiation on normal hematopoiesis and on viral induced cancers of the hematopoietic system. Technical progress report, August 1, 1974--May 1, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunewick, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Studies carried out during the above period on viral leukemia have conclusively shown that the pluripotent hematopoietic colony forming stem cell (CFU-S) is a target cell for the leukemia virus. Treatment of this cell population with antiserum prepared in syngeneic mice against the disease resulted in inactivation of up to 50 percent of the CFU-S obtained from the spleens of viral leukemic mice. At the same time, normal serum had no effect on these cells, nor did the antiserum have any effect on normal CFU-S. Data indicated that a considerable time delay, on the order of a week, preceded the expression of the viral antigen in the leukemic CFU-S, but that it could be seen at all times after that up to the terminal point of the disease. We examined the effect of the virus on DNA synthesis (S-phase cells) in the CFU-S immediately after virus injection. The results showed that a doubling of the number of cells in S could be seen as early as four hours after introduction of the virus into the animal. Studies with ethidium bromide, an inhibitor of viral reverse transcriptase, were found to be in agreement with this observation. When given to viral leukemic animals in combination with fractionated exposure to x-ray, the data suggested that ethidium bromide did act to extend survival somewhat, but not much over that seen through the use of x-ray alone

  9. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...

  10. Viral membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism

  11. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  12. Viral membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  13. Nucleocapsid-Independent Specific Viral RNA Packaging via Viral Envelope Protein and Viral RNA Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, Krishna; Chen, Chun-Jen; Maeda, Junko; Makino, Shinji

    2003-01-01

    For any of the enveloped RNA viruses studied to date, recognition of a specific RNA packaging signal by the virus's nucleocapsid (N) protein is the first step described in the process of viral RNA packaging. In the murine coronavirus a selective interaction between the viral transmembrane envelope protein M and the viral ribonucleoprotein complex, composed of N protein and viral RNA containing a short cis-acting RNA element, the packaging signal, determines the selective RNA packaging into vi...

  14. Viral haemorrhagic fever and vascular alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrowicz, P; Wolf, K; Falzarano, D; Feldmann, H; Seebach, J; Schnittler, H

    2008-02-01

    Pathogenesis of viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) is closely associated with alterations of the vascular system. Among the virus families causing VHF, filoviruses (Marburg and Ebola) are the most fatal, and will be focused on here. After entering the body, Ebola primarily targets monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. Infected dendritic cells are largely impaired in their activation potency, likely contributing to the immune suppression that occurs during filovirus infection. Monocytes/macrophages, however, immediately activate after viral contact and release reasonable amounts of cytokines that target the vascular system, particularly the endothelial cells. Some underlying molecular mechanisms such as alteration of the vascular endothelial cadherin/catenin complex, tyrosine phosphorylation, expression of cell adhesion molecules, tissue factor and the effect of soluble viral proteins released from infected cells to the blood stream will be discussed.

  15. Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that

  16. Versatile aggressive mimicry of cicadas by an Australian predatory katydid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Marshall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In aggressive mimicry, a predator or parasite imitates a signal of another species in order to exploit the recipient of the signal. Some of the most remarkable examples of aggressive mimicry involve exploitation of a complex signal-response system by an unrelated predator species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have found that predatory Chlorobalius leucoviridis katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae can attract male cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae by imitating the species-specific wing-flick replies of sexually receptive female cicadas. This aggressive mimicry is accomplished both acoustically, with tegminal clicks, and visually, with synchronized body jerks. Remarkably, the katydids respond effectively to a variety of complex, species-specific Cicadettini songs, including songs of many cicada species that the predator has never encountered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that the versatility of aggressive mimicry in C. leucoviridis is accomplished by exploiting general design elements common to the songs of many acoustically signaling insects that use duets in pair-formation. Consideration of the mechanism of versatile mimicry in C. leucoviridis may illuminate processes driving the evolution of insect acoustic signals, which play a central role in reproductive isolation of populations and the formation of species.

  17. Versatile aggressive mimicry of cicadas by an Australian predatory katydid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R

    2009-01-01

    In aggressive mimicry, a predator or parasite imitates a signal of another species in order to exploit the recipient of the signal. Some of the most remarkable examples of aggressive mimicry involve exploitation of a complex signal-response system by an unrelated predator species. We have found that predatory Chlorobalius leucoviridis katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) can attract male cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) by imitating the species-specific wing-flick replies of sexually receptive female cicadas. This aggressive mimicry is accomplished both acoustically, with tegminal clicks, and visually, with synchronized body jerks. Remarkably, the katydids respond effectively to a variety of complex, species-specific Cicadettini songs, including songs of many cicada species that the predator has never encountered. We propose that the versatility of aggressive mimicry in C. leucoviridis is accomplished by exploiting general design elements common to the songs of many acoustically signaling insects that use duets in pair-formation. Consideration of the mechanism of versatile mimicry in C. leucoviridis may illuminate processes driving the evolution of insect acoustic signals, which play a central role in reproductive isolation of populations and the formation of species.

  18. Features of the mental status of patients with community-acquired pneumonia, combined with a chronic pathology of the hepatobiliary system of non-viral genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razumnyi R.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study the characteristics of mental status of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, combined with a chronic pathology of the hepatobiliary system of non-viral genesis. We observed 165 patients with CAP in the age of 25-57 years. All patients were divided into two representative groups: I group (68 patients – CAP was comorbid with hepatic steatosis (HS, II group (96 patients with absence of chronic liver disease. To evaluate the psychological profile of patients’ personality we used a standardized multivariate method of personality research and to evaluate the level of anxiety and depression the scale of Spielberger-Hanin test and Beck’s questionnaire were used. Results of the study revealed that 66.2% of patients with CAP, comorbid with HS, declared the formation of psycho-emotional disorders in the form of neurotic reactions to the disease with prevalence of hypochondria, depression, hysterical manifestations with high psychasthenia, trait anxiety and somatic reactions with prevalence of anxiety and emotional instability, lots of somatic complaints, fixation on their own condition with formation of distinctive thinking mode and behavior by the type of "flight into disease". After completion of the standard treatment of patients with CAP, combined with HS, 42,7% of patients had psycho-emotional disorders, which were moderately expressed. Thus, in the complex of treatment and rehabilitative measures in patients with CAP, combined with HS some characteristics of the psychological profile, in the form of psycho-neurotic reaction to the disease should be considered to take optimal corrective actions.

  19. Viral vector-based influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rory D.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses and the occasional introduction of influenza viruses of novel subtypes into the human population complicate the timely production of effective vaccines that antigenically match the virus strains that cause epidemic or pandemic outbreaks. The development of game-changing vaccines that induce broadly protective immunity against a wide variety of influenza viruses is an unmet need, in which recombinant viral vectors may provide. Use of viral vectors allows the delivery of any influenza virus antigen, or derivative thereof, to the immune system, resulting in the optimal induction of virus-specific B- and T-cell responses against this antigen of choice. This systematic review discusses results obtained with vectored influenza virus vaccines and advantages and disadvantages of the currently available viral vectors. PMID:27455345

  20. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Gurugama Padmalal; Garg Pankaj; Perera Jennifer; Wijewickrama Ananda; Seneviratne Suranjith

    2010-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host...

  1. Injectable nanocomposite cryogels for versatile protein drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Sandeep T; Zhang, David K Y; Grolman, Joshua M; Stafford, Alexander G; Mooney, David J

    2018-01-01

    Sustained, localized protein delivery can enhance the safety and activity of protein drugs in diverse disease settings. While hydrogel systems are widely studied as vehicles for protein delivery, they often suffer from rapid release of encapsulated cargo, leading to a narrow duration of therapy, and protein cargo can be denatured by incompatibility with the hydrogel crosslinking chemistry. In this work, we describe injectable nanocomposite hydrogels that are capable of sustained, bioactive, release of a variety of encapsulated proteins. Injectable and porous cryogels were formed by bio-orthogonal crosslinking of alginate using tetrazine-norbornene coupling. To provide sustained release from these hydrogels, protein cargo was pre-adsorbed to charged Laponite nanoparticles that were incorporated within the walls of the cryogels. The presence of Laponite particles substantially hindered the release of a number of proteins that otherwise showed burst release from these hydrogels. By modifying the Laponite content within the hydrogels, the kinetics of protein release could be precisely tuned. This versatile strategy to control protein release simplifies the design of hydrogel drug delivery systems. Here we present an injectable nanocomposite hydrogel for simple and versatile controlled release of therapeutic proteins. Protein release from hydrogels often requires first entrapping the protein in particles and embedding these particles within the hydrogel to allow controlled protein release. This pre-encapsulation process can be cumbersome, can damage the protein's activity, and must be optimized for each protein of interest. The strategy presented in this work simply premixes the protein with charged nanoparticles that bind strongly with the protein. These protein-laden particles are then placed within a hydrogel and slowly release the protein into the surrounding environment. Using this method, tunable release from an injectable hydrogel can be achieved for a variety of

  2. A versatile programmable CAMAC random pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aal, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    A new technique for generating linear pulses which can be random in both amplitude and time is described. With this technique, desired values for both pulse amplitude and spacing are set for the individual pulses by the software on a pulse-by-pulse basis. The versatility offered by this software programming allows a wide range of distributions to be obtained; with the user having close control on the distribution parameters. A number of such distributions may also be combined into a single output pulse stream. An implementation in a CAMAC module is presented. Both hardware and software aspects are described and typical performance results for amplitude and time distributions of the uniform and Gaussian type are given. Implications of using the pulser in a typical data acquisition environment on both the data acquisition and the pulser performance are considered. Typical applications are discussed together with some of the limitations. (orig.)

  3. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Fonseca, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of...

  4. Development of comprehensive and versatile framework for reactor analysis, MARBLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenji; Hazama, Taira; Numata, Kazuyuki; Jin, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We have developed a neutronics code system for reactor analysis. • The new code system covers all five phases of the core design procedures. • All the functionalities are integrated and validated in the same framework. • The framework supports continuous improvement and extension. • We report results of validation and practical applications. - Abstract: A comprehensive and versatile reactor analysis code system, MARBLE, has been developed. MARBLE is designed as a software development framework for reactor analysis, which offers reusable and extendible functions and data models based on physical concepts, rather than a reactor analysis code system. From a viewpoint of the code system, it provides a set of functionalities utilized in a detailed reactor analysis scheme for fast criticality assemblies and power reactors, and nuclear data related uncertainty quantification such as cross-section adjustment. MARBLE includes five sub-systems named ECRIPSE, BIBLO, SCHEME, UNCERTAINTY and ORPHEUS, which are constructed of the shared functions and data models in the framework. By using these sub-systems, MARBLE covers all phases required in fast reactor core design prediction and improvement procedures, i.e. integral experiment database management, nuclear data processing, fast criticality assembly analysis, uncertainty quantification, and power reactor analysis. In the present paper, these functionalities are summarized and system validation results are described

  5. Evaluation of friction produced by self-ligating, conventional and Barbosa Versatile brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Antonio BARBOSA

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The Barbosa Versatile bracket design may provide lower frictional force and greater sliding. However, no in vitro studies have shown its sliding mechanisms and frictional resistance, particularly in comparison with other self-ligating or conventional brackets. Objective To compare the frictional resistance among self-ligating brackets (EasyClip/ Aditek, Damon MX/ Ormco and In Ovation R/ GAC; conventional brackets (Balance Roth/ GAC, and Roth Monobloc/ Morelli; and Barbosa Versatile bracket (Barbosa Versatile/ GAC with different angles and arch wires. Material and method Brackets were tested with the 0.014", 0.018", 0.019"×0.025" and 0.021"×0.025" stainless steel wires, with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 degree angulations. Tying was performed with elastomeric ligature for conventional and Barbosa Versatile brackets, or with a built-in clip system of the self-ligating brackets. A universal testing machine was used to obtain sliding strength and friction value readouts between brackets and wires. Result Three-way factorial ANOVA 4×5×6 (brackets × angulation × wire and Tukey tests showed statistically significant differences for all factors and all interactions (p<0.0001. Static frictional resistance showed a lower rate for Barbosa Versatile bracket and higher rates for Roth Monobloc and Balance brackets. Conclusion The lowest frictional resistance was obtained with the Barbosa Versatile bracket and self-ligating brackets in comparison with the conventional type. Increasing the diameter of the wires increased the frictional resistance. Smaller angles produced less frictional resistance.

  6. Abalone viral ganglioneuritis: establishment and use of an experimental immersion challenge system for the study of abalone herpes virus infections in Australian abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, Serge; McColl, Kenneth A; Williams, Lynette M; Mohammad, Ilhan; Hyatt, Alexander D; Crameri, Sandra G; Fegan, Mark; Crane, Mark St J

    2012-05-01

    In late 2005, acute mortalities occurred in abalone on farms located in Victoria, Australia. Disease was associated with infection by an abalone herpes virus (AbHV). Subsequently, starting in 2006, the disease (abalone viral ganglioneuritis; AVG) was discovered in wild abalone in Victorian open waters. Currently, it continues to spread, albeit at a slow rate, along the Victorian coast-line. Here, we report on experimental transmission trials that were carried out by immersion using water into which diseased abalone had shed infectious viral particles. At various time points following exposure, naïve abalone were assessed by an AbHV-specific real-time PCR and histological analyses including in situ hybridization (ISH). Results demonstrated that while exposed abalone began displaying clinical signs of the disease from 60 hours post exposure (hpe), they tested positive for the presence of viral DNA at 36 hpe. Of further interest, the AbHV DNA probe used in the ISH assay detected the virus as early as 48 hpe. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Equine viral arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosec Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine viral arteritis (EVA is a contagious disease of equids caused by equine artheritis virus (EAV, widespread in most countries in the world, where patients are diagnosed. The infection usually starts asymptomatic. Clinical signs indicate respiratory infection of different intensity and also abortions are present at different stages of gestation. Large prevalence of this disease in the world has become a growing economic problem. The disease is specific to a particular kind of animals, and it affects only equids (horses, donkeys, mules, mule and zebras. In countries where the infection has been confirmed, the percentage of positive animals differ. Likewise, there is difference in percentage among certain animal kinds. The highest percentage of positive animals has been found in totters and the lowest in cold-blooded.

  8. Recombinant viruses as vaccines against viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.D. Souza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine approaches to infectious diseases are widely applied and appreciated. Amongst them, vectors based on recombinant viruses have shown great promise and play an important role in the development of new vaccines. Many viruses have been investigated for their ability to express proteins from foreign pathogens and induce specific immunological responses against these antigens in vivo. Generally, gene-based vaccines can stimulate potent humoral and cellular immune responses and viral vectors might be an effective strategy for both the delivery of antigen-encoding genes and the facilitation and enhancement of antigen presentation. In order to be utilized as a vaccine carrier, the ideal viral vector should be safe and enable efficient presentation of required pathogen-specific antigens to the immune system. It should also exhibit low intrinsic immunogenicity to allow for its re-administration in order to boost relevant specific immune responses. Furthermore, the vector system must meet criteria that enable its production on a large-scale basis. Several viral vaccine vectors have thus emerged to date, all of them having relative advantages and limits depending on the proposed application, and thus far none of them have proven to be ideal vaccine carriers. In this review we describe the potential, as well as some of the foreseeable obstacles associated with viral vaccine vectors and their use in preventive medicine.

  9. A Versatile Simulation Environment of FTC Architectures for Large Transport Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Ossmann, Daniel; Varga, Andreas; Simon, Hecker

    2010-01-01

    We present a simulation environment with 3-D stereo visualization facilities destined for an easy setup and versatile assessment of fault detection and diagnosis based fault tolerant control systems. This environment has been primarily developed as a technology demonstrator of advanced reconfigurable flight control systems and is based on a realistic six degree of freedom flexible aircraft model. The aircraft control system architecture includes a flexible fault detection and diagnosis syste...

  10. Precise and versatile formula for birefringent filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhongxing

    1996-07-01

    In an investigation of extraordinary-(E-) ray behavior and the index of refraction for E waves in a uniaxial crystal, a precise and versatile formula for birefringent filters, based on the exact construction of the optical path difference, is set up with neither the approximation Delta n = no - ne less than or equals no (or n e), nor the ambiguity sin( theta )/sin(rw) = ne. The exact construction gives the correct variation of the position and the dimension in each path, yielding the path difference while the filter is tuning. The formula is applicable not only to a filter with its optical axis parallel to the entrance surface (FAPS) but also to a filter with its axis inclined to the surface (FAIS). Also, the formula indicates that a FAIS allows laser wavelengths to be tuned over a wider range than does a FAPS. The origin of the wider range is interpreted to be the greater variation in the index for the FAIS while the filter is tuning. With the help of the formula we design a FAIS for tuning a cw 42.25.Lc.

  11. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H 2 O, and CO 2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  12. A Versatile Integrated Ambient Ionization Source Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Wanpeng; Nie, Honggang; Song, Shiyao; Liu, Xiaoyun; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2018-04-01

    The pursuit of high-throughput sample analysis from complex matrix demands development of multiple ionization techniques with complementary specialties. A versatile integrated ambient ionization source (iAmIS) platform is proposed in this work, based on the idea of integrating multiple functions, enhancing the efficiency of current ionization techniques, extending the applications, and decreasing the cost of the instrument. The design of the iAmIS platform combines flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) source/direct analysis in real time (DART), dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI)/low-temperature plasma (LTP), desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), and laser desorption (LD) technique. All individual and combined ionization modes can be easily attained by modulating parameters. In particular, the FAPA/DART&DESI mode can realize the detection of polar and nonpolar compounds at the same time with two different ionization mechanisms: proton transfer and charge transfer. The introduction of LD contributes to the mass spectrometry imaging and the surface-assisted laser desorption (SALDI) under ambient condition. Compared with other individual or multi-mode ion source, the iAmIS platform provides the flexibility of choosing different ionization modes, broadens the scope of the analyte detection, and facilitates the analysis of complex samples. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in West Africa- Lessons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to contain the Ebola epidemic. Key words: Ebola, viral hemorrhagic fever, West Africa, lessons, Uganda .... the corresponding surveillance systems for detecting priority diseases. ... A major outbreak of Yellow Fe- ver was reported in five ...

  14. Viral myositis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Haley; Goldman, Ran D

    2017-05-01

    Question I recently evaluated a child in my clinic after an emergency department visit where she presented having woken up that morning refusing to walk and was crawling around the house. The parents reported she was getting over a cold, and I recall similar cases of myositis during the H1N1 influenza epidemic a few years ago. What are the key features of myositis that I should recognize? Which investigations are needed to confirm the diagnosis and how should affected patients be managed? Answer Benign acute childhood myositis is a mild and self-limited sudden onset of lower extremity pain during or following recovery from a viral illness. Presentation can include tiptoe gait or refusal to walk, secondary to symmetric bilateral lower extremity pain that resolves quickly, usually within 3 days. In general, no investigation is needed except in severe cases for which screening bloodwork and a urine myoglobin test can confirm the diagnosis and rule out complications. Myoglobinuria and highly elevated creatine phosphokinase levels are rare but should be a consideration for admission to hospital. Prognosis is excellent and management might include rest and analgesia. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  15. Dengue viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurugama Padmalal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections.

  16. Emerging zoonotic viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L-F; Crameri, G

    2014-08-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. They are caused by all types of pathogenic agents, including bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses and prions. Although they have been recognised for many centuries, their impact on public health has increased in the last few decades due to a combination of the success in reducing the spread of human infectious diseases through vaccination and effective therapies and the emergence of novel zoonotic diseases. It is being increasingly recognised that a One Health approach at the human-animal-ecosystem interface is needed for effective investigation, prevention and control of any emerging zoonotic disease. Here, the authors will review the drivers for emergence, highlight some of the high-impact emerging zoonotic diseases of the last two decades and provide examples of novel One Health approaches for disease investigation, prevention and control. Although this review focuses on emerging zoonotic viral diseases, the authors consider that the discussions presented in this paper will be equally applicable to emerging zoonotic diseases of other pathogen types.

  17. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by ... and serious. Drugs are available to treat chronic hepatitis. 4 Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond What else ...

  18. Type I interferon production during herpes simplex virus infection is controlled by cell-type-specific viral recognition through Toll-like receptor 9, the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein pathway, and novel recognition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon Brandtoft; Sørensen, Louise Nørgaard; Malmgaard, Lene

    2007-01-01

    Recognition of viruses by germ line-encoded pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system is essential for rapid production of type I interferon (IFN) and early antiviral defense. We investigated the mechanisms of viral recognition governing production of type I IFN during herpes...... simplex virus (HSV) infection. We show that early production of IFN in vivo is mediated through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, whereas the subsequent alpha/beta IFN (IFN-alpha/beta) response is derived from several cell types and induced independently of TLR9...

  19. Immunological features underlying viral hemorrhagic fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoudi, Ilhem; Basler, Christopher F

    2015-10-01

    Several enveloped RNA viruses of the arenavirus, bunyavirus, filovirus and flavivirus families are associated with a syndrome known as viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF). VHF is characterized by fever, vascular leakage, coagulation defects and multi organ system failure. VHF is currently viewed as a disease precipitated by viral suppression of innate immunity, which promotes systemic virus replication and excessive proinflammatory cytokine responses that trigger the manifestations of severe disease. However, the mechanisms by which immune dysregulation contributes to disease remain poorly understood. Infection of nonhuman primates closely recapitulates human VHF, notably Ebola and yellow fever, thereby providing excellent models to better define the immunological basis for this syndrome. Here we review the current state of our knowledge and suggest future directions that will better define the immunological mechanisms underlying VHF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A VERSATILE FAMILY OF GALACTIC WIND MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustard, Chad; Zweibel, Ellen G. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); D’Onghia, Elena, E-mail: bustard@wisc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2535 Sterling Hall, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We present a versatile family of model galactic outflows including non-uniform mass and energy source distributions, a gravitational potential from an extended mass source, and radiative losses. The model easily produces steady-state wind solutions for a range of mass-loading factors, energy-loading factors, galaxy mass, and galaxy radius. We find that, with radiative losses included, highly mass-loaded winds must be driven at high central temperatures, whereas low mass-loaded winds can be driven at low temperatures just above the peak of the cooling curve, meaning radiative losses can drastically affect the wind solution even for low mass-loading factors. By including radiative losses, we are able to show that subsonic flows can be ignored as a possible mechanism for expelling mass and energy from a galaxy compared to the more efficient transonic solutions. Specifically, the transonic solutions with low mass loading and high energy loading are the most efficient. Our model also produces low-temperature, high-velocity winds that could explain the prevalence of low-temperature material in observed outflows. Finally, we show that our model, unlike the well-known Chevalier and Clegg model, can reproduce the observed linear relationship between wind X-ray luminosity and star formation rate (SFR) over a large range of SFR from 1–1000 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} assuming the wind mass-loading factor is higher for low-mass, and hence, low-SFR galaxies. We also constrain the allowed mass-loading factors that can fit the observed X-ray luminosity versus SFR trend, further suggesting an inverse relationship between mass loading and SFR as explored in advanced numerical simulations.

  1. Metadata Authoring with Versatility and Extensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Janine; Olsen, Lola

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) assists the scientific community in the discovery of and linkage to Earth science data sets and related services. The GCMD holds over 13,800 data set descriptions in Directory Interchange Format (DIF) and 700 data service descriptions in Service Entry Resource Format (SERF), encompassing the disciplines of geology, hydrology, oceanography, meteorology, and ecology. Data descriptions also contain geographic coverage information and direct links to the data, thus allowing researchers to discover data pertaining to a geographic location of interest, then quickly acquire those data. The GCMD strives to be the preferred data locator for world-wide directory-level metadata. In this vein, scientists and data providers must have access to intuitive and efficient metadata authoring tools. Existing GCMD tools are attracting widespread usage; however, a need for tools that are portable, customizable and versatile still exists. With tool usage directly influencing metadata population, it has become apparent that new tools are needed to fill these voids. As a result, the GCMD has released a new authoring tool allowing for both web-based and stand-alone authoring of descriptions. Furthermore, this tool incorporates the ability to plug-and-play the metadata format of choice, offering users options of DIF, SERF, FGDC, ISO or any other defined standard. Allowing data holders to work with their preferred format, as well as an option of a stand-alone application or web-based environment, docBUlLDER will assist the scientific community in efficiently creating quality data and services metadata.

  2. Ultrafast and versatile spectroscopy by temporal Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Wei, Xiaoming; Marhic, Michel E.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2014-06-01

    One of the most remarkable and useful properties of a spatially converging lens system is its inherent ability to perform the Fourier transform; the same applies for the time-lens system. At the back focal plane of the time-lens, the spectral information can be instantaneously obtained in the time axis. By implementing temporal Fourier transform for spectroscopy applications, this time-lens-based architecture can provide orders of magnitude improvement over the state-of-art spatial-dispersion-based spectroscopy in terms of the frame rate. On the other hand, in addition to the single-lens structure, the multi-lens structures (e.g. telescope or wide-angle scope) will provide very versatile operating conditions. Leveraging the merit of instantaneous response, as well as the flexible lens structure, here we present a 100-MHz frame rate spectroscopy system - the parametric spectro-temporal analyzer (PASTA), which achieves 17 times zoom in/out ratio for different observation ranges.

  3. Nanosilver: new ageless and versatile biomedical therapeutic scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah Khan, Shahid; Saleh, Tawfik A; Wahab, Abdul; Khan, Muhammad Hafeez Ullah; Khan, Dilfaraz; Ullah Khan, Wasim; Rahim, Abdur; Kamal, Sajid; Ullah Khan, Farman; Fahad, Shah

    2018-01-01

    Silver nanotechnology has received tremendous attention in recent years, owing to its wide range of applications in various fields and its intrinsic therapeutic properties. In this review, an attempt is made to critically evaluate the chemical, physical, and biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as well as their efficacy in the field of theranostics including microbiology and parasitology. Moreover, an outlook is also provided regarding the performance of AgNPs against different biological systems such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites (leishmanial and malarial parasites) in curing certain fatal human diseases, with a special focus on cancer. The mechanism of action of AgNPs in different biological systems still remains enigmatic. Here, due to limited available literature, we only focused on AgNPs mechanism in biological systems including human (wound healing and apoptosis), bacteria, and viruses which may open new windows for future research to ensure the versatile application of AgNPs in cosmetics, electronics, and medical fields.

  4. A comprehensive and quantitative exploration of thousands of viral genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudabadi, Gita

    2018-01-01

    The complete assembly of viral genomes from metagenomic datasets (short genomic sequences gathered from environmental samples) has proven to be challenging, so there are significant blind spots when we view viral genomes through the lens of metagenomics. One approach to overcoming this problem is to leverage the thousands of complete viral genomes that are publicly available. Here we describe our efforts to assemble a comprehensive resource that provides a quantitative snapshot of viral genomic trends – such as gene density, noncoding percentage, and abundances of functional gene categories – across thousands of viral genomes. We have also developed a coarse-grained method for visualizing viral genome organization for hundreds of genomes at once, and have explored the extent of the overlap between bacterial and bacteriophage gene pools. Existing viral classification systems were developed prior to the sequencing era, so we present our analysis in a way that allows us to assess the utility of the different classification systems for capturing genomic trends. PMID:29624169

  5. Viral Evolution Core | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon F. Keele, Ph.D. PI/Senior Principal Investigator, Retroviral Evolution Section Head, Viral Evolution Core Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Frederick, MD 21702-1201 Tel: 301-846-173

  6. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,239 (2014) Number of new ...

  7. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susta, Leonardo; Diel, Diego G; Courtney, Sean; Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Sundick, Roy S; Miller, Patti J; Brown, Corrie C; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-08-08

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens (herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus) by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such it might have the potential to affect replication and pathogenesis of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). To assess the effect of IL-2 during NDV infection in chickens, we produced a recombinant virulent NDV strain expressing chicken IL-2 (rZJ1-IL2). The effects of IL-2 expression were investigated in vivo using the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) in day-old chicks and pathogenesis experiments in 4-week-old chickens. In these studies, rZJ1-IL2 was compared to a control virus expressing the green fluorescent protein (rZJ1-GFP). Assessed parameters included survival curves, detailed histological and immunohistochemical grading of lesions in multiple organs, and virus isolation in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. At the site of infection (eyelid), expression of IL-2 was demonstrated in areas of rZJ-IL2 replication, confirming IL-2 production in vivo. Compared to rZJ1-GFP strain, rZJ1-IL2 caused milder lesions and displayed decreased viral load in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. In the rZJ1-IL2-infected group, virus level in the blood peaked at day 4 post-infection (pi) (10(3.46) EID50 /0.1 ml) and drastically decreased at day 5 pi (10(0.9) EID50/0.1 ml), while in the rZJ1-GFP-infected group virus levels in the blood reached 10(5.35) EID50/0.1 ml at day 5. However, rZJ1-IL2-infected groups presented survival curves similar to control birds infected with rZJ1-GFP, with comparable clinical signs and 100 % mortality. Further, expression of IL-2 did not significantly affect the ICPI scores, compared to rZJ1-GFP strain. Increased

  8. Propeller Flap for Complex Distal Leg Reconstruction: A Versatile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    equipment, cost, steep learning curve, and prolonged operating ... A Versatile Alternative when Reverse Sural Artery Flap is .... He had wound debridement, fracture reduction, and .... flaps that were raised in the patient and the logistics of limb.

  9. Synthesis of tetravalent actinide chlorides. Versatile compounds for actinide chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maerz, Juliane [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2016-07-01

    Anhydrous actinide tetrachlorides (AnCl{sub 4}) were synthesized under mild conditions to provide versatile compounds for actinide chemistry. They enable a direct access to actinide complexes with organic and inorganic ligands.

  10. Viral infections in transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razonable, R R; Eid, A J

    2009-12-01

    Solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are uniquely predisposed to develop clinical illness, often with increased severity, due to a variety of common and opportunistic viruses. Patients may acquire viral infections from the donor (donor-derived infections), from reactivation of endogenous latent virus, or from the community. Herpes viruses, most notably cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus, are the most common among opportunistic viral pathogens that cause infection after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The polyoma BK virus causes opportunistic clinical syndromes predominantly in kidney and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The agents of viral hepatitis B and C present unique challenges particularly among liver transplant recipients. Respiratory viral illnesses due to influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza virus may affect all types of transplant recipients, although severe clinical disease is observed more commonly among lung and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Less common viral infections affecting transplant recipients include those caused by adenoviruses, parvovirus B19, and West Nile virus. Treatment for viruses with proven effective antiviral drug therapies should be complemented by reduction in the degree of immunosuppression. For others with no proven antiviral drugs for therapy, reduction in the degree of immunosuppression remains as the sole effective strategy for management. Prevention of viral infections is therefore of utmost importance, and this may be accomplished through vaccination, antiviral strategies, and aggressive infection control measures.

  11. ASSIST: a fast versatile local structural comparison tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprari, Silvia; Toti, Daniele; Viet Hung, Le; Di Stefano, Maurizio; Polticelli, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    Structural genomics initiatives are increasingly leading to the determination of the 3D structure of target proteins whose catalytic function is not known. The aim of this work was that of developing a novel versatile tool for searching structural similarity, which allows to predict the catalytic function, if any, of these proteins. The algorithm implemented by the tool is based on local structural comparison to find the largest subset of similar residues between an input protein and known functional sites. The method uses a geometric hashing approach where information related to residue pairs from the input structures is stored in a hash table and then is quickly retrieved during the comparison step. Tests on proteins belonging to different functional classes, done using the Catalytic Site Atlas entries as targets, indicate that the algorithm is able to identify the correct functional class of the input protein in the vast majority of the cases. The application was developed in Java SE 6, with a Java Swing Graphic User Interface (GUI). The system can be run locally on any operating system (OS) equipped with a suitable Java Virtual Machine, and is available at the following URL: http://www.computationalbiology.it/software/ASSISTv1.zip.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL LIPOSOMAL VIRAL VACCINE SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova OA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. With the transport links development there is rather important issue respiratory viral infections spread, especially influenza. The only method controlling influenza is vaccination. Search and development effective and safe vaccines is important. Material and methods. In base SO "Mechnikov Institute Microbiology and Immunology National Ukrainian Academy Medical Sciences" in the scientific theme "Developing new approaches to creating viral vaccines and study specific activity depending of type and degree component`s modification" was created several experimental influenza vaccine with subsequent component`s modification for selecting the most optimal pattern of safety and immunogenicity. In assessing the influenza vaccine safety is using a few criteria, including, reactivity, as measured by the frequency of local and systemic adverse (negative effects, which due to its introduction, and for lipid content drugs, ability to influence oxidation processes. At present study phase was determined: a systemic reaction and local reaction of delayed-type hypersensitivity (foot pad swelling assay;b lipids and proteins peroxidation processes after administration officinal and experimental vaccines (content protein’s carbonyl groups, lipid’s hydroperoxides, activity of glutathione-peroxidase.Study objects were trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine, "Vaxigrip" (Sanofi Pasteur, S.A., France, "Inflexal V" (Biotech Ltd. Berne, Switzerland and experimental vaccine samples. Highest immunogenicity vaccines had undergone improvements and modifications using adjuvant systems and acylation influenza proteins. Liposomes 2 – the experimental influenza vaccine with a liposome negative charge and antigenic composition like split vaccines "Vaksihryp". Liposomes 2.1 - the adjuvantexperimental influenza vaccine with modifications liposomal components (etoniy and chlorophyllipt molecules embedded in liposomal membrane. Liposomes 2.2 - the adjuvant

  13. Medicine, material science and security: the versatility of the coded-aperture approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, P R T; Endrizzi, M; Diemoz, P C; Hagen, C K; Szafraniec, M B; Millard, T P; Zapata, C E; Speller, R D; Olivo, A

    2014-03-06

    The principal limitation to the widespread deployment of X-ray phase imaging in a variety of applications is probably versatility. A versatile X-ray phase imaging system must be able to work with polychromatic and non-microfocus sources (for example, those currently used in medical and industrial applications), have physical dimensions sufficiently large to accommodate samples of interest, be insensitive to environmental disturbances (such as vibrations and temperature variations), require only simple system set-up and maintenance, and be able to perform quantitative imaging. The coded-aperture technique, based upon the edge illumination principle, satisfies each of these criteria. To date, we have applied the technique to mammography, materials science, small-animal imaging, non-destructive testing and security. In this paper, we outline the theory of coded-aperture phase imaging and show an example of how the technique may be applied to imaging samples with a practically important scale.

  14. Stochastic Economic Dispatch with Wind using Versatile Probability Distribution and L-BFGS-B Based Dual Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Sun, Yuanzhang; Wu, Qiuwei

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on economic dispatch (ED) in power systems with intermittent wind power, which is a very critical issue in future power systems. A stochastic ED problem is formed based on the recently proposed versatile probability distribution (VPD) of wind power. The problem is then analyzed...

  15. De novo assembly of highly diverse viral populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive genetic diversity in viral populations within infected hosts and the divergence of variants from existing reference genomes impede the analysis of deep viral sequencing data. A de novo population consensus assembly is valuable both as a single linear representation of the population and as a backbone on which intra-host variants can be accurately mapped. The availability of consensus assemblies and robustly mapped variants are crucial to the genetic study of viral disease progression, transmission dynamics, and viral evolution. Existing de novo assembly techniques fail to robustly assemble ultra-deep sequence data from genetically heterogeneous populations such as viruses into full-length genomes due to the presence of extensive genetic variability, contaminants, and variable sequence coverage. Results We present VICUNA, a de novo assembly algorithm suitable for generating consensus assemblies from genetically heterogeneous populations. We demonstrate its effectiveness on Dengue, Human Immunodeficiency and West Nile viral populations, representing a range of intra-host diversity. Compared to state-of-the-art assemblers designed for haploid or diploid systems, VICUNA recovers full-length consensus and captures insertion/deletion polymorphisms in diverse samples. Final assemblies maintain a high base calling accuracy. VICUNA program is publicly available at: http://www.broadinstitute.org/scientific-community/science/projects/viral-genomics/ viral-genomics-analysis-software. Conclusions We developed VICUNA, a publicly available software tool, that enables consensus assembly of ultra-deep sequence derived from diverse viral populations. While VICUNA was developed for the analysis of viral populations, its application to other heterogeneous sequence data sets such as metagenomic or tumor cell population samples may prove beneficial in these fields of research.

  16. Stimulation of poliovirus RNA synthesis and virus maturation in a HeLa cell-free in vitro translation-RNA replication system by viral protein 3CDpro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimmer Eckard

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Poliovirus protein 3CDpro possesses both proteinase and RNA binding activities, which are located in the 3Cpro domain of the protein. The RNA polymerase (3Dpol domain of 3CDpro modulates these activities of the protein. We have recently shown that the level of 3CDpro in HeLa cell-free in vitro translation-RNA replication reactions is suboptimal for efficient virus production. However, the addition of either 3CDpro mRNA or of purified 3CDpro protein to in vitro reactions, programmed with viral RNA, results in a 100-fold increase in virus yield. Mutational analyses of 3CDpro indicated that RNA binding by the 3Cpro domain and the integrity of interface I in the 3Dpol domain of the protein are both required for function. The aim of these studies was to determine the exact step or steps at which 3CDpro enhances virus yield and to determine the mechanism by which this occurs. Our results suggest that the addition of extra 3CDpro to in vitro translation RNA-replication reactions results in a mild enhancement of both minus and plus strand RNA synthesis. By examining the viral particles formed in the in vitro reactions on sucrose gradients we determined that 3CDpro has only a slight stimulating effect on the synthesis of capsid precursors but it strikingly enhances the maturation of virus particles. Both the stimulation of RNA synthesis and the maturation of the virus particles are dependent on the presence of an intact RNA binding site within the 3Cpro domain of 3CDpro. In addition, the integrity of interface I in the 3Dpol domain of 3CDpro is required for efficient production of mature virus. Surprisingly, plus strand RNA synthesis and virus production in in vitro reactions, programmed with full-length transcript RNA, are not enhanced by the addition of extra 3CDpro. Our results indicate that the stimulation of RNA synthesis and virus maturation by 3CDpro in vitro is dependent on the presence of a VPg-linked RNA template.

  17. FIA versatile system for spectrophotometric determinations of vanadium and molybdenum exploring the catalytic activities of V(V) and Mo(VI); Sistema FIA polivalente para determinacoes espectrofotometricas de vanadio e molibdenio explorando as atividades cataliticas de V(V) e Mo(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca, Gilmara Caseri de

    1996-02-01

    A versatile system for chemical analysis by flow injection analysis was developed and applied for catalytic spectrophotometric determination of vanadium or molybdenum in metallic alloys. The selected methods were based upon indicator reactions chromotropic (CS)-bromate acid or hydrogen iodide-peroxide, respectively. Initially, a model system was proposed, in which common parameters for methods were studied. This included a re-sampling process in which high degrees of samples dilution were obtained. Other parameters such as concentrations and reagents addition order, reaction medium Ph, temperature and ionic power, as well as procedures for sample solubilization, were studied relating to each method. A mini-column with cationic exchanger resin (Dowex 50W-X8, 50-100 mesh, H{sup +} form) was used. The system for vanadium determination processes 120 samples by hour, consuming 2,0 mg CS and 10 mg K Br O{sub 3b}y determination. Concerning the method for molybdenum, the reagents consumption was 2,0 mg KI and 1,0 {mu}L of solution 30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by determination, since the analytic velocity was the same, in relation to vanadium.

  18. The versatile link, a common project for super-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Luis; Dris, Stefanos; Gerardin, Alexandre; Huffman, Todd; Issever, Cigdem; Pacheco, Alberto Jimenez; Jones, Mark; Kwan, Simon; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lian, Zhijun; Liu, Tiankuan; /CERN /Oxford U. /Fermilab /Taipei, Computing Ctr. /Southern Methodist U.

    2009-07-01

    Radiation tolerant, high speed optoelectronic data transmission links are fundamental building blocks in today's large scale High Energy Physics (HEP) detectors, as exemplified by the four experiments currently under commissioning at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), see for example. New experiments or upgrades will impose even more stringent demands on these systems from the point of view of performance and radiation tolerance. This can already be seen from the developments underway for the Super Large Hadron Collider (SLHC) project, a proposed upgrade to the LHC aiming at increasing the luminosity of the machine by factor of 10 to 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, and thus providing a better chance to see rare processes and improving statistically marginal measurements. In the past, specific data transmission links have been independently developed by each LHC experiment for data acquisition (DAQ), detector control as well as trigger and timing distribution (TTC). This was justified by the different types of applications being targeted as well as by technological limitations preventing one single solution from fitting all requirements. However with today's maturity of optoelectronic and CMOS technologies it is possible to envisage the development of a general purpose optical link which can cover most transmission applications: a Versatile Link. Such an approach has the clear advantage of concentrating the development effort on one single project targeting an optical link whose final functionality will only result from the topology and configuration settings adopted.

  19. Zebrafish: A Versatile Animal Model for Fertility Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ying Hoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of zebrafish in biomedical research is very common in the research world nowadays. Today, it has emerged as a favored vertebrate organism for the research in science of reproduction. There is a significant growth in amount numbers of scientific literature pertaining to research discoveries in reproductive sciences in zebrafish. It has implied the importance of zebrafish in this particular field of research. In essence, the current available literature has covered from the very specific brain region or neurons of zebrafish, which are responsible for reproductive regulation, until the gonadal level of the animal. The discoveries and findings have proven that this small animal is sharing a very close/similar reproductive system with mammals. More interestingly, the behavioral characteristics and along with the establishment of animal courtship behavior categorization in zebrafish have laid an even stronger foundation and firmer reason on the suitability of zebrafish utilization in research of reproductive sciences. In view of the immense importance of this small animal for the development of reproductive sciences, this review aimed at compiling and describing the proximate close similarity of reproductive regulation on zebrafish and human along with factors contributing to the infertility, showing its versatility and its potential usage for fertility research.

  20. A versatile optical tool for studying synaptic GABAA receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz-Guertin, Joshua M; Wilcox, Madeleine R; Zhang, Ming; Larsen, Mads B; Pilli, Jyotsna; Schmidt, Brigitte F; Bruchez, Marcel P; Johnson, Jon W; Waggoner, Alan S; Watkins, Simon C; Jacob, Tija C

    2017-11-15

    Live-cell imaging methods can provide critical real-time receptor trafficking measurements. Here, we describe an optical tool to study synaptic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor (GABA A R) dynamics through adaptable fluorescent-tracking capabilities. A fluorogen-activating peptide (FAP) was genetically inserted into a GABA A R γ2 subunit tagged with pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein (γ2 pH FAP). The FAP selectively binds and activates Malachite Green (MG) dyes that are otherwise non-fluorescent in solution. γ2 pH FAP GABA A Rs are expressed at the cell surface in transfected cortical neurons, form synaptic clusters and do not perturb neuronal development. Electrophysiological studies show γ2 pH FAP GABA A Rs respond to GABA and exhibit positive modulation upon stimulation with the benzodiazepine diazepam. Imaging studies using γ2 pH FAP-transfected neurons and MG dyes show time-dependent receptor accumulation into intracellular vesicles, revealing constitutive endosomal and lysosomal trafficking. Simultaneous analysis of synaptic, surface and lysosomal receptors using the γ2 pH FAP-MG dye approach reveals enhanced GABA A R turnover following a bicucculine-induced seizure paradigm, a finding not detected by standard surface receptor measurements. To our knowledge, this is the first application of the FAP-MG dye system in neurons, demonstrating the versatility to study nearly all phases of GABA A R trafficking. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Nanostructured silicate substituted calcium phosphate (NanoSiCaPs) nanoparticles — Efficient calcium phosphate based non-viral gene delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhar, Sudhanshu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Center for Complex Engineered Multifunctional Materials, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); McGowan Institute of Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Roy, Abhijit; Hong, Daeho [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Kumta, Prashant N., E-mail: pkumta@pitt.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Center for Complex Engineered Multifunctional Materials, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); McGowan Institute of Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Nanostructured ceramic particles, particularly, nanoparticles of calcium phosphate (CaP) remain an attractive option among the various types of non-viral gene delivery vectors studied because of their safety, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and ease of handling as well as their adsorptive capacity for DNA. We have accordingly developed an enhanced version of nanostructured calcium phosphates (NanoCaPs), by substituting known amounts of silicate for phosphate in the hydroxyapatite (HA) lattice (NanoSiCaPs). Results indicate that in addition to the excellent transfection levels exhibited by un-substituted NanoCaPs alone in vitro, an additional 20–50% increase in transfection is observed for NanoCaPs containing 8.3–50 mol% silicate aptly called NanoSiCaPs, owing to its rapid dissolution properties enabling nanoparticles escaping the lysosomal degradation. However, high silicate substitution (> 50 mol%) resulted in a drastic decline in transfection as the synthesized NanoCaPs deviated far from the characteristic hydroxyapatite phase formed as evidenced by the materials characterization results. - Highlights: • Successful demonstration of nanostructured NanoSiCaPs formation • Demonstration of superior transfection of NanoSiCaPs contrasted to NanoCaPs • Silicate substitution leads to smaller aggregates of nanoparticle complexes. • Enhanced dissolution of NanoSiCaPs demonstrated • Faster NanoSiCaPs dissolution leads to escape of pDNA from lysosomal degradation.

  2. Icosahedral plant viral nanoparticles - bioinspired synthesis of nanomaterials/nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Han, Sung Soo

    2017-10-01

    Viral nanotechnology utilizes virus nanoparticles (VNPs) and virus-like nanoparticles (VLPs) of plant viruses as highly versatile platforms for materials synthesis and molecular entrapment that can be used in the nanotechnological fields, such as in next-generation nanoelectronics, nanocatalysis, biosensing and optics, and biomedical applications, such as for targeting, therapeutic delivery, and non-invasive in vivo imaging with high specificity and selectivity. In particular, plant virus capsids provide biotemplates for the production of novel nanostructured materials with organic/inorganic moieties incorporated in a very precise and controlled manner. Interestingly, capsid proteins of spherical plant viruses can self-assemble into well-organized icosahedral three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale multivalent architectures with high monodispersity and structural symmetry. Using viral genetic and protein engineering of icosahedral viruses with a variety of sizes, the interior, exterior and the interfaces between coat protein (CP) subunits can be manipulated to fabricate materials with a wide range of desirable properties allowing for biomineralization, encapsulation, infusion, controlled self-assembly, and multivalent ligand display of nanoparticles or molecules for varied applications. In this review, we discuss the various functional nanomaterials/nanostructures developed using the VNPs and VLPs of different icosahedral plant viruses and their nano(bio)technological and nanomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A versatile nondestructive evaluation imaging workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, E. James; Butler, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are of the pointwise type evaluation systems that rely on a mechanical scanner to physically maneuver a probe relative to the specimen point by point in order to acquire data and generate images. Since the ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are based on the same mechanical scanning mechanisms, the two systems can be combined using the same PC platform with a common mechanical manipulation subsystem and integrated data acquisition software. Based on this concept, we have developed an IBM PC-based combined ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging system. The system is modularized and provides capacity for future hardware and software expansions. Advantages associated with the combined system are: (1) eliminated duplication of the computer and mechanical hardware, (2) unified data acquisition, processing and storage software, (3) reduced setup time for repetitious ultrasonic and eddy current scans, and (4) improved system efficiency. The concept can be adapted to many engineering systems by integrating related PC-based instruments into one multipurpose workstation such as dispensing, machining, packaging, sorting, and other industrial applications.

  4. Phosphatidic acid, a versatile water-stress signal in roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fionn eMcLoughlin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate water supply is of utmost importance for growth and reproduction of plants. In order to cope with water deprivation, plants have to adapt their development and metabolism to ensure survival. To maximize water use efficiency, plants use a large array of signaling mediators such as hormones, protein kinases and phosphatases, Ca2+, reactive oxygen species and low abundant phospholipids that together form complex signaling cascades. Phosphatidic acid (PA is a signaling lipid that rapidly accumulates in response to a wide array of abiotic stress stimuli. PA formation provides the cell with spatial and transient information about the external environment by acting as a protein-docking site in cellular membranes. PA reportedly binds to a number of proteins that play a role during water limiting conditions, such as drought and salinity and has been shown to play an important role in maintaining root system architecture. Members of two osmotic stress-activated protein kinase families, sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2 and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs were recently shown bind PA and are also involved in the maintenance of root system architecture and salinity stress tolerance. In addition, PA regulates several proteins involved in abscisic acid (ABA-signaling. PA-dependent recruitment of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH under water limiting conditions indicates a role in regulating metabolic processes. Finally, a recent study also shows the PA recruits the clathrin heavy chain and a potassium channel subunit, hinting towards additional roles in cellular trafficking and potassium homeostasis. Taken together, the rapidly increasing number of proteins reported to interact with PA implies a broad role for this versatile signaling phospholipid in mediating salt and water stress responses.

  5. Ventilator and viral induced inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennus, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis expands current knowledge on ventilator induced lung injury and provides insights on the immunological effects of mechanical ventilation during viral respiratory infections. The experimental studies in the first part of this thesis improve our understanding of how mechanical ventilation

  6. Non-Viral Deoxyribonucleoside Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Louise Slot; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) phosphorylate deoxyribonucleosides to their corresponding monophosphate compounds. dNks also phosphorylate deoxyribonucleoside analogues that are used in the treatment of cancer or viral infections. The study of the mammalian dNKs has therefore always been of gr...

  7. Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juei-Low, Sung [ed.; National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei (Republic of China Taiwan). Department of Internal Medicine; Ding-Shinn, Chen [ed.; National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei (Republic of China Taiwan). Hepatitis Research Center National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei (Republic of China Taiwan). Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine

    1990-01-01

    Two papers in this volume are in INIS scope, respectively dealing with MRI in the study of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and The use of {sup 131}I-labeled Lipidol in the diagnosis of hepato-cellular carcinoma. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs.

  8. Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung Juei-Low; Chen Ding-Shinn

    1990-01-01

    Two papers in this volume are in INIS scope, respectively dealing with MRI in the study of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and The use of 131 I-labeled Lipidol in the diagnosis of hepato-cellular carcinoma. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  9. Viral Infections in Pregnancy: A Focus on Ebola Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgun, Nicole S

    2018-01-30

    During gestation, the immune response of the placenta to viruses and other pathogens plays an important role in determining a pregnant woman's vulnerability toward infectious diseases. Located at the maternal- fetal interface, trophoblast cells serve to minimize the spread of viruses between the host and developing fetus through an intricate system of innate antiviral immune signaling. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, ranging from learning disabilities to preterm birth and fetal death, are all documented results of a viral breach in the placental barrier. Viral infections during pregnancy can also be spread through blood and vaginal secretions, and during the post-natal period, via breast milk. Thus, even in the absence of vertical transmission of viral infection to the fetus, maternal health can still be compromised and threaten the pregnancy. The most common viral DNA isolates found in gestation are adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, and enterovirus. However, with the recent pandemic of Ebola virus, and the first documented case of a neonate to survive due to experimental therapies in 2017, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the changing roles and impacts of viral infection during pregnancy needs to be better understood, while strategies to minimize adverse pregnancy outcomes need to be identified. This review focuses on the adverse impacts of viral infection during gestation, with an emphasis on Ebola virus. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Mast cells in viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Witczak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  There are some premises suggesting that mast cells are involved in the mechanisms of anti-virus defense and in viral disease pathomechanisms. Mast cells are particularly numerous at the portals of infections and thus may have immediate and easy contact with the external environment and invading pathogens. These cells express receptors responsible for recognition of virus-derived PAMP molecules, mainly Toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9, but also RIG-I-like and NOD-like molecules. Furthermore, mast cells generate various mediators, cytokines and chemokines which modulate the intensity of inflammation and regulate the course of innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity. Indirect evidence for the role of mast cells in viral infections is also provided by clinical observations and results of animal studies. Currently, more and more data indicate that mast cells can be infected by some viruses (dengue virus, adenoviruses, hantaviruses, cytomegaloviruses, reoviruses, HIV-1 virus. It is also demonstrated that mast cells can release pre formed mediators as well as synthesize de novo eicosanoids in response to stimulation by viruses. Several data indicate that virus-stimulated mast cells secrete cytokines and chemokines, including interferons as well as chemokines with a key role in NK and Tc lymphocyte influx. Moreover, some information indicates that mast cell stimulation via TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9 can affect their adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and chemotaxis, and influence expression of some membrane molecules. Critical analysis of current data leads to the conclusion that it is not yet possible to make definitive statements about the role of mast cells in innate and acquired defense mechanisms developing in the course of viral infection and/or pathomechanisms of viral diseases.

  11. Transmitted drug resistance in the CFAR network of integrated clinical systems cohort: prevalence and effects on pre-therapy CD4 and viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art F Y Poon

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 genomes often carry one or more mutations associated with drug resistance upon transmission into a therapy-naïve individual. We assessed the prevalence and clinical significance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR in chronically-infected therapy-naïve patients enrolled in a multi-center cohort in North America. Pre-therapy clinical significance was quantified by plasma viral load (pVL and CD4+ cell count (CD4 at baseline. Naïve bulk sequences of HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase (RT were screened for resistance mutations as defined by the World Health Organization surveillance list. The overall prevalence of TDR was 14.2%. We used a Bayesian network to identify co-transmission of TDR mutations in clusters associated with specific drugs or drug classes. Aggregate effects of mutations by drug class were estimated by fitting linear models of pVL and CD4 on weighted sums over TDR mutations according to the Stanford HIV Database algorithm. Transmitted resistance to both classes of reverse transcriptase inhibitors was significantly associated with lower CD4, but had opposing effects on pVL. In contrast, position-specific analyses of TDR mutations revealed substantial effects on CD4 and pVL at several residue positions that were being masked in the aggregate analyses, and significant interaction effects as well. Residue positions in RT with predominant effects on CD4 or pVL (D67 and M184 were re-evaluated in causal models using an inverse probability-weighting scheme to address the problem of confounding by other mutations and demographic or risk factors. We found that causal effect estimates of mutations M184V/I (-1.7 log₁₀pVL and D67N/G (-2.1[³√CD4] and 0.4 log₁₀pVL were compensated by K103N/S and K219Q/E/N/R. As TDR becomes an increasing dilemma in this modern era of highly-active antiretroviral therapy, these results have immediate significance for the clinical management of HIV-1

  12. Design of Versatile Food Extruder, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the need for food processing equipment for crews on long-term Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) missions. It is proposed to design a food...

  13. Adult Mouse DRG Explant and Dissociated Cell Models to Investigate Neuroplasticity and Responses to Environmental Insults Including Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Michele; Sharthiya, Harsh; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2018-03-09

    This protocol describes an ex vivo model of mouse-derived dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explant and in vitro DRG-derived co-culture of dissociated sensory neurons and glial satellite cells. These are useful and versatile models to investigate a variety of biological responses associated with physiological and pathological conditions of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) ranging from neuron-glial interaction, neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation, and viral infection. The usage of DRG explant is scientifically advantageous compared to simplistic single cells models for multiple reasons. For instance, as an organotypic culture, the DRG explant allows ex vivo transfer of an entire neuronal network including the extracellular microenvironment that play a significant role in all the neuronal and glial functions. Further, DRG explants can also be maintained ex vivo for several days and the culture conditions can be perturbed as desired. In addition, the harvested DRG can be further dissociated into an in vitro co-culture of primary sensory neurons and satellite glial cells to investigate neuronal-glial interaction, neuritogenesis, axonal cone interaction with the extracellular microenvironment, and more general, any aspect associated with the neuronal metabolism. Therefore, the DRG-explant system offers a great deal of flexibility to study a wide array of events related to biological, physiological, and pathological conditions in a cost-effective manner.

  14. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  15. A Versatile Multichannel Digital Signal Processing Module for Microcalorimeter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, H.; Collins, J. W.; Walby, M.; Hennig, W.; Warburton, W. K.; Grudberg, P.

    2012-06-01

    Different techniques have been developed for reading out microcalorimeter sensor arrays: individual outputs for small arrays, and time-division or frequency-division or code-division multiplexing for large arrays. Typically, raw waveform data are first read out from the arrays using one of these techniques and then stored on computer hard drives for offline optimum filtering, leading not only to requirements for large storage space but also limitations on achievable count rate. Thus, a read-out module that is capable of processing microcalorimeter signals in real time will be highly desirable. We have developed multichannel digital signal processing electronics that are capable of on-board, real time processing of microcalorimeter sensor signals from multiplexed or individual pixel arrays. It is a 3U PXI module consisting of a standardized core processor board and a set of daughter boards. Each daughter board is designed to interface a specific type of microcalorimeter array to the core processor. The combination of the standardized core plus this set of easily designed and modified daughter boards results in a versatile data acquisition module that not only can easily expand to future detector systems, but is also low cost. In this paper, we first present the core processor/daughter board architecture, and then report the performance of an 8-channel daughter board, which digitizes individual pixel outputs at 1 MSPS with 16-bit precision. We will also introduce a time-division multiplexing type daughter board, which takes in time-division multiplexing signals through fiber-optic cables and then processes the digital signals to generate energy spectra in real time.

  16. Versatile Affordable Advanced Fuels and Combustion Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Fuels, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2008 2415 165 elastomer is highly fluorinated and relatively inert, as evident by the very low percentage of volume swell. Previous...decomposition often include gums, varnishes , and coke, which are detrimental because they can foul and plug fuel system components, such as filters

  17. Polylactic acid organogel as versatile scaffolding technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punet, Xavier; Levato, Riccardo; Bataille, Isabelle; Letourneur, Didier; Engel, Elisabeth; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A

    2017-01-01

    Tissue engineering requires scaffolding techniques based on non-toxic processes that permits the fabrication of constructs with tailored properties. Here, a two-step methodology based on the gelation and precipitation of the poly(lactic) acid/ethyl lactate organogel system is presented. With this

  18. Using Participatory System Dynamics Modeling to Examine the Local HIV Test and Treatment Care Continuum in Order to Reduce Community Viral Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Margaret R; Li, Jianghong; Lounsbury, David; Green, Helena Danielle; Abbott, Maryann; Berman, Marcie; Rohena, Lucy; Gonzalez, Rosely; Lang, Shawn; Mosher, Heather

    2017-12-01

    Achieving community-level goals to eliminate the HIV epidemic requires coordinated efforts through community consortia with a common purpose to examine and critique their own HIV testing and treatment (T&T) care system and build effective tools to guide their efforts to improve it. Participatory system dynamics (SD) modeling offers conceptual, methodological, and analytical tools to engage diverse stakeholders in systems conceptualization and visual mapping of dynamics that undermine community-level health outcomes and identify those that can be leveraged for systems improvement. We recruited and engaged a 25-member multi-stakeholder Task Force, whose members provide or utilize HIV-related services, to participate in SD modeling to examine and address problems of their local HIV T&T service system. Findings from the iterative model building sessions indicated Task Force members' increasingly complex understanding of the local HIV care system and demonstrated their improved capacity to visualize and critique multiple models of the HIV T&T service system and identify areas of potential leverage. Findings also showed members' enhanced communication and consensus in seeking deeper systems understanding and options for solutions. We discuss implications of using these visual SD models for subsequent simulation modeling of the T&T system and for other community applications to improve system effectiveness. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  19. Faktor Risiko Non Viral Pada Karsinoma Nasofaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukri Rahman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak           Latar belakang: Karsinoma nasofaring adalah tumor ganas epitel nasofaring yang sampai saat ini penyebabnya belum diketahui, infeksi virus Epstein Barr dilaporkan sebagai faktor dominan terjadinya karsinoma nasofaring tetapi faktor non viral juga berperan untuk timbulnya keganasan nasofaring. Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui faktor non viral  yang dapat meningkatkan kejadian karsinoma nasofaring sehingga dapat mencegah dan menghindari faktor-faktor non viral tersebut. Tinjauan Pustaka: Karsinoma nasofaring merupakan tumor ganas epitel nasofaring yang penyebabnya berhubungan dengan faktor viral dan non viral diantaranya asap rokok, ikan asin, formaldehid, genetik, asap kayu bakar , debu kayu, infeksi kronik telinga hidung tenggorok, alkohol dan obat tradisional. Kesimpulan: Pembuktian secara klinis dan ilmiah terhadap faktor non viral sebagai penyebab timbulnya karsinoma nasofaring masih belum dapat dijelaskan secara pasti. Faktor non viral merupakan salah satu faktor risiko yang dapat meningkatkan angka kejadian timbulnya keganasan nasofaring Kata kunci: karsinoma nasofaring, faktor risiko, non viral AbstractBackground: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a malignant epithelial nasopharyngeal tumor that until now the cause still unknown, Epstein barr virus infection had reported as predominant occurance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma but non viral factors may also contribute to the onset of the incidence of nasopharyngeal malignancy. Purpose: To find non viral factors that may increase the incidence of nasopharyngel carcinoma in order to prevent and avoid non-viral factors Literature: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a malignant tumor that causes nasopharyngeal epithelium associated with viral and non-viral factors such as cigarette smoke, salt fish, formaldehyde, genetic, wood smoke ,wood dust, ear nose throat chronic infections, alcohol, and traditional medicine. Conclusion: Clinically and scientifically proving the non-viral factors as

  20. Promoting versatility in mentor teachers’ use of supervisory skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crasborn, F.J.A.J.; Hennissen, P.P.M.; Korthagen, F.A.J.; Bergen, T.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Mentor teachers need a versatile supervisory skills repertoire. Besides taking the prevalent role of daily advisor and instructor, mentor teachers should also be able to stimulate reflection in student teachers. Video recordings of 60 mentoring dialogues were analysed, both before and after a mentor

  1. Vaccines for viral and parasitic diseases produced with baculovirus vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The baculovirus¿insect cell expression system is an approved system for the production of viral antigens with vaccine potential for humans and animals and has been used for production of subunit vaccines against parasitic diseases as well. Many candidate subunit vaccines have been expressed in this

  2. Assembly of viral genomes from metagenomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Smits (Saskia); R. Bodewes (Rogier); A. Ruiz-Gonzalez (Aritz); V. Baumgärtner (Volkmar); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Schürch (Anita)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractViral infections remain a serious global health issue. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly used in the detection of novel viral pathogens but also to generate complete genomes of uncultivated viruses. In silico identification of complete viral genomes from sequence data would allow

  3. Viral O-GalNAc peptide epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, Sigvard; Blixt, Klas Ola; Bergström, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Viral envelope glycoproteins are major targets for antibodies that bind to and inactivate viral particles. The capacity of a viral vaccine to induce virus-neutralizing antibodies is often used as a marker for vaccine efficacy. Yet the number of known neutralization target epitopes is restricted o...

  4. Viral commercials: the consumer as marketeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,

  5. SPACEWAY: Providing affordable and versatile communication solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, E. J.

    1995-08-01

    By the end of this decade, Hughes' SPACEWAY network will provide the first interactive 'bandwidth on demand' communication services for a variety of applications. High quality digital voice, interactive video, global access to multimedia databases, and transborder workgroup computing will make SPACEWAY an essential component of the computer-based workplace of the 21st century. With relatively few satellites to construct, insure, and launch -- plus extensive use of cost-effective, tightly focused spot beams on the world's most populated areas -- the high capacity SPACEWAY system can pass its significant cost savings onto its customers. The SPACEWAY network is different from other proposed global networks in that its geostationary orbit location makes it a truly market driven system: each satellite will make available extensive telecom services to hundreds of millions of people within the continuous view of that satellite, providing immediate capacity within a specific region of the world.

  6. Versatile Density Functionals for Computational Surface Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorff, Jess

    Density functional theory (DFT) emerged almost 50 years ago. Since then DFT has established itself as the central electronic structure methodology for simulating atomicscale systems from a few atoms to a few hundred atoms. This success of DFT is due to a very favorable accuracy-to-computational c......Density functional theory (DFT) emerged almost 50 years ago. Since then DFT has established itself as the central electronic structure methodology for simulating atomicscale systems from a few atoms to a few hundred atoms. This success of DFT is due to a very favorable accuracy...... resampling techniques, thereby systematically avoiding problems with overfitting. The first ever density functional presenting both reliable accuracy and convincing error estimation is generated. The methodology is general enough to be applied to more complex functional forms with higher-dimensional fitting...

  7. Versatile Formal Methods Applied to Quantum Information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzel, Wayne [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudinger, Kenneth Michael [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sarovar, Mohan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Using a novel formal methods approach, we have generated computer-veri ed proofs of major theorems pertinent to the quantum phase estimation algorithm. This was accomplished using our Prove-It software package in Python. While many formal methods tools are available, their practical utility is limited. Translating a problem of interest into these systems and working through the steps of a proof is an art form that requires much expertise. One must surrender to the preferences and restrictions of the tool regarding how mathematical notions are expressed and what deductions are allowed. Automation is a major driver that forces restrictions. Our focus, on the other hand, is to produce a tool that allows users the ability to con rm proofs that are essentially known already. This goal is valuable in itself. We demonstrate the viability of our approach that allows the user great exibility in expressing state- ments and composing derivations. There were no major obstacles in following a textbook proof of the quantum phase estimation algorithm. There were tedious details of algebraic manipulations that we needed to implement (and a few that we did not have time to enter into our system) and some basic components that we needed to rethink, but there were no serious roadblocks. In the process, we made a number of convenient additions to our Prove-It package that will make certain algebraic manipulations easier to perform in the future. In fact, our intent is for our system to build upon itself in this manner.

  8. Polymer-Silica Nanocomposites: A Versatile Platform for Multifunctional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chi-Kai

    was ground into two different sizes of powder followed by powder pressing, heat-treating and etching. A new robust porous silver foam was then successfully made. By combining the results from room temperature and high temperature processes, we further study the patterned silver nanoparticles arrays in order to examine how mobility of silver can be controlled on a quantifiable scale. Furthermore, we have identified a thiolcontaining sol-gel precursor to control the affinity between silver and silica matrix. Lastly, the effects of interfacial interactions between sol-gel silica and other nanocomposite components and the effect of thickness of the sol-gel layer on mechanical properties were investigated. These studies were applied to the biomimetic hydroxyapatite-gelatin system. We have found that by limiting the thickness while maintaining interfacial interactions of the sol-gel layer, a unique moldable property and short hardening time from these nanocomposites can be achieved without compromising its biocompatibility. Their biocompatibility has been proven based on the in vitro and in vivo testing of these materials. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated that polymer-silica nanocomposite is a versatile platform to carry out applications in nanocrystal growth, nanoporous metals, metal-ceramic composites, nano-imprint thin film, and bone grafts. These important findings not only provide new insights into nanocomposites but also give new meanings to the previously functional-limited sol-gel materials.

  9. Coupled Transcriptome and Proteome Analysis of Human Lymphotropic Tumor Viruses: Insights on the Detection and Discovery of Viral Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresang, Lindsay R.; Teuton, Jeremy R.; Feng, Huichen; Jacobs, Jon M.; Camp, David G.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Li, Zhihua; Smith, Richard D.; Sugden, Bill; Moore, Patrick S.; Chang, Yuan

    2011-12-20

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are related human tumor viruses that cause primary effusion lymphomas (PEL) and Burkitt's lymphomas (BL), respectively. Viral genes expressed in naturally-infected cancer cells contribute to disease pathogenesis; knowing which viral genes are expressed is critical in understanding how these viruses cause cancer. To evaluate the expression of viral genes, we used high-resolution separation and mass spectrometry coupled with custom tiling arrays to align the viral proteomes and transcriptomes of three PEL and two BL cell lines under latent and lytic culture conditions. Results The majority of viral genes were efficiently detected at the transcript and/or protein level on manipulating the viral life cycle. Overall the correlation of expressed viral proteins and transcripts was highly complementary in both validating and providing orthogonal data with latent/lytic viral gene expression. Our approach also identified novel viral genes in both KSHV and EBV, and extends viral genome annotation. Several previously uncharacterized genes were validated at both transcript and protein levels. Conclusions This systems biology approach coupling proteome and transcriptome measurements provides a comprehensive view of viral gene expression that could not have been attained using each methodology independently. Detection of viral proteins in combination with viral transcripts is a potentially powerful method for establishing virus-disease relationships.

  10. Recent Advances in Non-viral Vectors for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xia; Huang, Leaf

    2011-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Non-viral vectors, typically based on cationic lipids or polymers, are preferred due to safety concerns with viral vectors. So far, non-viral vectors can proficiently transfect cells in culture, but obtaining efficient nanomedicines is far from evident. To overcome the hurdles associated with non-viral vectors is significant for improving delivery efficiency and therapeutic effect of nucleic acid. The drawbacks include the strong interaction of cationic delivery vehicles with blood components, uptake by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), toxicity, targeting ability of the carriers to the cells of interest, and so on. PEGylation is the predominant method used to reduce the binding of plasma proteins with non-viral vectors and minimize the clearance by RES after intravenous administration. The nanoparticles that are not rapidly cleared from the circulation accumulate in the tumors due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect, and the targeting ligands attached to the distal end of the PEGylated components allow binding to the receptors on the target cell surface. Neutral or anionic liposomes have been also developed for systemic delivery of nucleic acids in experimental animal model. Designing and synthesizing novel cationic lipids and polymers, and binding nucleic acid with peptides, targeting ligands, polymers, or environmentally sensitive moieties also attract many attentions for resolving the problems encountered by non-viral vectors. The application of inorganic nanoparticles in nucleic acid delivery is an emerging field, too. Recently, different classes of non-viral vectors appear to be converging and the features of different classes of non-viral vectors could be combined in one strategy. More hurdles associated with efficient nucleic acid delivery therefore might be expected to be overcome. In this account, we will focus on these novel non-viral vectors, which are classified into multifunctional hybrid nucleic acid vectors, novel

  11. Viral diseases and human evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Élcio de Souza

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of man with viral agents was possibly a key factor shaping human evolution, culture and civilization from its outset. Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. As a consequence different viruses found suitable conditions to thrive and establish long-lasting associations with man. Although not all viral agents cause disease and some may in fact be considered beneficial, the present situation of overpopulation, poverty and ecological inbalance may have devastating effets on human progress. Recently emerged diseases causing massive pandemics (eg., HIV-1 and HCV, dengue, etc. are becoming formidable challenges, which may have a direct impact on the fate of our species.

  12. APLASTIC ANEMIA AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cudillo

    2009-11-01

    Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis. Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic  and blood lymphocytes with  T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia.

  13. Pipe crawlers: Versatile adaptations for real applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hapstack, M.; Talarek, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A problem at the Savannah River Site requires the unique application of a pipe crawler. A number of stainless steel pipes buried in concrete require ultrasonic inspection of the heat affected zones of the welds for detection of flaws or cracks. The paper describes the utilization of an inch-worm motion pipe crawler which negotiates a 90 degree reducing elbow with significant changes in diameter and vertical sections before entering the area of concern. After a discussion of general considerations and problem description, special requirements to meet the objectives and the design approach regarding the tractor, control system, instrument carriage, and radiation protection are discussed. 2 refs., 11 figs. (MB)

  14. Persistent viral infections and immune aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Stefan; Herndler-Brandstetter, Dietmar; Weinberger, Birgit; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2011-07-01

    Immunosenescence comprises a set of dynamic changes occurring to both, the innate as well as the adaptive immune system that accompany human aging and result in complex manifestations of still poorly defined deficiencies in the elderly population. One of the most prominent alterations during aging is the continuous involution of the thymus gland which is almost complete by the age of 50. Consequently, the output of naïve T cells is greatly diminished in elderly individuals which puts pressure on homeostatic forces to maintain a steady T cell pool for most of adulthood. In a great proportion of the human population, this fragile balance is challenged by persistent viral infections, especially Cytomegalovirus (CMV), that oblige certain T cell clones to monoclonally expand repeatedly over a lifetime which then occupy space within the T cell pool. Eventually, these inflated memory T cell clones become exhausted and their extensive accumulation accelerates the age-dependent decline of the diversity of the T cell pool. As a consequence, infectious diseases are more frequent and severe in elderly persons and immunological protection following vaccination is reduced. This review therefore aims to shed light on how various types of persistent viral infections, especially CMV, influence the aging of the immune system and highlight potential measures to prevent the age-related decline in immune function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A SNAP-tagged derivative of HIV-1--a versatile tool to study virus-cell interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon Eckhardt

    Full Text Available Fluorescently labeled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV derivatives, combined with the use of advanced fluorescence microscopy techniques, allow the direct visualization of dynamic events and individual steps in the viral life cycle. HIV proteins tagged with fluorescent proteins (FPs have been successfully used for live-cell imaging analyses of HIV-cell interactions. However, FPs display limitations with respect to their physicochemical properties, and their maturation kinetics. Furthermore, several independent FP-tagged constructs have to be cloned and characterized in order to obtain spectral variations suitable for multi-color imaging setups. In contrast, the so-called SNAP-tag represents a genetically encoded non-fluorescent tag which mediates specific covalent coupling to fluorescent substrate molecules in a self-labeling reaction. Fusion of the SNAP-tag to the protein of interest allows specific labeling of the fusion protein with a variety of synthetic dyes, thereby offering enhanced flexibility for fluorescence imaging approaches.Here we describe the construction and characterization of the HIV derivative HIV(SNAP, which carries the SNAP-tag as an additional domain within the viral structural polyprotein Gag. Introduction of the tag close to the C-terminus of the matrix domain of Gag did not interfere with particle assembly, release or proteolytic virus maturation. The modified virions were infectious and could be propagated in tissue culture, albeit with reduced replication capacity. Insertion of the SNAP domain within Gag allowed specific staining of the viral polyprotein in the context of virus producing cells using a SNAP reactive dye as well as the visualization of individual virions and viral budding sites by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. Thus, HIV(SNAP represents a versatile tool which expands the possibilities for the analysis of HIV-cell interactions using live cell imaging and sub-diffraction fluorescence

  16. [Immunotherapy for refractory viral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Tomohiro; Fujita, Yuriko; Takahashi, Satoshi

    Various antiviral agents have been developed, which are sometimes associated with toxicity, development of virus-resistant strain, and high cost. Virus-specific T-cell (VST) therapy provides an alternative curative therapy that can be effective for a prolonged time without eliciting drug resistance. VSTs can be directly separated using several types of capture devices and can be obtained by stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with viral antigens (virus, protein, or peptide) loaded on antigen-presenting cells (APC). APC can be transduced with virus-antigen coding plasmid or pulsed with overlapping peptides. VST therapy has been studied in drug non-responsive viral infections after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Several previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of VST therapy without significant severe GVHD. In addition, VSTs from a third-party donor have been prepared and administered for post-HCT viral infection. Although target viruses of VSTs include herpes virus species and polyomavirus species, a wide variety of pathogens, such as papillomavirus, intracellular bacteria, and fungi, can be treated by pathogen-specific T-cells. Perhaps, these specific T-cells could be used for opportunistic infections in other immunocompromised hosts in the near future.

  17. VirSorter: mining viral signal from microbial genomic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Simon; Enault, Francois; Hurwitz, Bonnie L.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses of microbes impact all ecosystems where microbes drive key energy and substrate transformations including the oceans, humans and industrial fermenters. However, despite this recognized importance, our understanding of viral diversity and impacts remains limited by too few model systems and reference genomes. One way to fill these gaps in our knowledge of viral diversity is through the detection of viral signal in microbial genomic data. While multiple approaches have been developed and applied for the detection of prophages (viral genomes integrated in a microbial genome), new types of microbial genomic data are emerging that are more fragmented and larger scale, such as Single-cell Amplified Genomes (SAGs) of uncultivated organisms or genomic fragments assembled from metagenomic sequencing. Here, we present VirSorter, a tool designed to detect viral signal in these different types of microbial sequence data in both a reference-dependent and reference-independent manner, leveraging probabilistic models and extensive virome data to maximize detection of novel viruses. Performance testing shows that VirSorter’s prophage prediction capability compares to that of available prophage predictors for complete genomes, but is superior in predicting viral sequences outside of a host genome (i.e., from extrachromosomal prophages, lytic infections, or partially assembled prophages). Furthermore, VirSorter outperforms existing tools for fragmented genomic and metagenomic datasets, and can identify viral signal in assembled sequence (contigs) as short as 3kb, while providing near-perfect identification (>95% Recall and 100% Precision) on contigs of at least 10kb. Because VirSorter scales to large datasets, it can also be used in “reverse” to more confidently identify viral sequence in viral metagenomes by sorting away cellular DNA whether derived from gene transfer agents, generalized transduction or contamination. Finally, VirSorter is made available through the i

  18. VirSorter: mining viral signal from microbial genomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Roux

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Viruses of microbes impact all ecosystems where microbes drive key energy and substrate transformations including the oceans, humans and industrial fermenters. However, despite this recognized importance, our understanding of viral diversity and impacts remains limited by too few model systems and reference genomes. One way to fill these gaps in our knowledge of viral diversity is through the detection of viral signal in microbial genomic data. While multiple approaches have been developed and applied for the detection of prophages (viral genomes integrated in a microbial genome, new types of microbial genomic data are emerging that are more fragmented and larger scale, such as Single-cell Amplified Genomes (SAGs of uncultivated organisms or genomic fragments assembled from metagenomic sequencing. Here, we present VirSorter, a tool designed to detect viral signal in these different types of microbial sequence data in both a reference-dependent and reference-independent manner, leveraging probabilistic models and extensive virome data to maximize detection of novel viruses. Performance testing shows that VirSorter’s prophage prediction capability compares to that of available prophage predictors for complete genomes, but is superior in predicting viral sequences outside of a host genome (i.e., from extrachromosomal prophages, lytic infections, or partially assembled prophages. Furthermore, VirSorter outperforms existing tools for fragmented genomic and metagenomic datasets, and can identify viral signal in assembled sequence (contigs as short as 3kb, while providing near-perfect identification (>95% Recall and 100% Precision on contigs of at least 10kb. Because VirSorter scales to large datasets, it can also be used in “reverse” to more confidently identify viral sequence in viral metagenomes by sorting away cellular DNA whether derived from gene transfer agents, generalized transduction or contamination. Finally, VirSorter is made

  19. Versatile spin-polarized electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, Chris; Park, Cheol -Hwan; Gotlieb, Kenneth; Louie, Steven G.; Hussain, Zahid; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2015-09-22

    One or more embodiments relate generally to the field of photoelectron spin and, more specifically, to a method and system for creating a controllable spin-polarized electron source. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for creating a controllable spin-polarized electron source comprising the following steps: providing one or more materials, the one or more materials having at least one surface and a material layer adjacent to said surface, wherein said surface comprises highly spin-polarized surface electrons, wherein the direction and spin of the surface electrons are locked together; providing at least one incident light capable of stimulating photoemission of said surface electrons; wherein the photon polarization of said incident light is tunable; and inducing photoemission of the surface electron states.

  20. Versatile intraoperative MRI in neurosurgery and radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yrjänä, S K; Katisko, J P; Ojala, R O; Tervonen, O; Schiffbauer, H; Koivukangas, J

    2002-03-01

    Several models for the application of intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging (IMRI) have recently been reported, most of them unique. Two fundamental issues need to be addressed: optimal use of the scanner to ensure a wide base for research, development and clinical application, and an organisational model that facilitates such use. While in our setting the IMRI project was initiated by the neurosurgeons, the need for wider use of the facilities was recognised since the beginning of the planning phase in 1996. An organisational model was developed that allowed for development of neurosurgical applications, radiological imaging, and radiological interventions and for the research and development work of the vendor. A resistive 0.23 T MR scanner was installed in a dedicated operating room environment. Unique to this scanner is the ability to turn off the magnet, allowing for normal OR activities and devices, and to turn on the magnet as needed with a relatively short six-minute ramp up time. A staged surgical technique was perfected, allowing for transfer of data to the neuronavigator outside the scanner during surgery. In neurosurgery, IMRI was used as one part of a neuronavigational system that included ultrasound imaging, intra-operative cortical stimulation during awake procedures, electrocorticography and two neuronavigators. 34 neurosurgical cases included 27 brain tumour resections, 5 brain tumour biopsies, 1 extirpation of an arterio-venous malformation, and 1 haematoma evacuation. The scanner could also be used for normal clinical imaging where obese patients, children, claustophobic patients and postoperative control examinations were the major groups. The radiologists performed 110 interventions, including bone and abdominal biopsies, nerve root infiltrations and local pain therapies, with the optical needle tracking system under continuous MRI guidance. The organisational model allowed frequent use of the facilities for both neurosurgery and radiology

  1. Laboratory procedures to generate viral metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Rebecca V; Haynes, Matthew; Breitbart, Mya; Wegley, Linda; Rohwer, Forest

    2009-01-01

    This collection of laboratory protocols describes the steps to collect viruses from various samples with the specific aim of generating viral metagenome sequence libraries (viromes). Viral metagenomics, the study of uncultured viral nucleic acid sequences from different biomes, relies on several concentration, purification, extraction, sequencing and heuristic bioinformatic methods. No single technique can provide an all-inclusive approach, and therefore the protocols presented here will be discussed in terms of hypothetical projects. However, care must be taken to individualize each step depending on the source and type of viral-particles. This protocol is a description of the processes we have successfully used to: (i) concentrate viral particles from various types of samples, (ii) eliminate contaminating cells and free nucleic acids and (iii) extract, amplify and purify viral nucleic acids. Overall, a sample can be processed to isolate viral nucleic acids suitable for high-throughput sequencing in approximately 1 week.

  2. Versatile Fiber Optic 6-Component Force Measurement System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The mission of NASA's ATP is to maintain and advance the testing capabilities of the United States' extensive infrastructure of aerospace research facilities. One...

  3. Block copolymer libraries: modular versatility of the macromolecular Lego system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeijer, Bas G G; Wouters, Daan; Yin, Zhihui; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2004-12-21

    The synthesis and characterization of a new 4 x 4 library of block copolymers based on polystyrene and poly(ethylene oxide) connected by an asymmetrical octahedral bis(terpyridine) ruthenium complex at the block junction are described, while initial studies on the thin film morphology of the components of the library are presented by the use of Atomic Force Microscopy, demonstrating the impact of a library approach to derive structure-property relationships.

  4. Versatile PC-logger for radioisotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, L.; Petryka, L.; Przewlocki, K.; Stegowski, Z.; Wierzbicki, A.

    1998-01-01

    The logger, a personal computer and software is all to set up a radioisotope measuring system. It may find numerous applications in a wide range of disciplines: kinetics description of flow process in industry, slip velocity measurements in hydrotransport, flow rates evaluation in waste water treatment plants, nucleonic gauges in industry, ect. Readings from up to 4 scintillation detectors, the user has set to log, are stored in regular intervals. The user can set the logger to start and stop logging manually, with keyboard or from a program running on a connected PC. Stored data can be transferred to any computer with RS232 serial interface. The logger works equally well together with conventional PC's and 'lap-tops' for field work. Its internal program is stored in nonvolatile RAM. This makes it possible to upgrade or change the code by just down loading a new one. The logger is internal rechargeable batteries for measuring off-line; they remain as a back-up in case the external supply is disconnected or fails. (author)

  5. Versatile Gaussian probes for squeezing estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigovacca, Luca; Farace, Alessandro; Souza, Leonardo A. M.; De Pasquale, Antonella; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2017-05-01

    We consider an instance of "black-box" quantum metrology in the Gaussian framework, where we aim to estimate the amount of squeezing applied on an input probe, without previous knowledge on the phase of the applied squeezing. By taking the quantum Fisher information (QFI) as the figure of merit, we evaluate its average and variance with respect to this phase in order to identify probe states that yield good precision for many different squeezing directions. We first consider the case of single-mode Gaussian probes with the same energy, and find that pure squeezed states maximize the average quantum Fisher information (AvQFI) at the cost of a performance that oscillates strongly as the squeezing direction is changed. Although the variance can be brought to zero by correlating the probing system with a reference mode, the maximum AvQFI cannot be increased in the same way. A different scenario opens if one takes into account the effects of photon losses: coherent states represent the optimal single-mode choice when losses exceed a certain threshold and, moreover, correlated probes can now yield larger AvQFI values than all single-mode states, on top of having zero variance.

  6. Environmental versatility promotes modularity in genome-scale metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Areejit; Wagner, Andreas; Martin, Olivier C

    2011-08-24

    The ubiquity of modules in biological networks may result from an evolutionary benefit of a modular organization. For instance, modularity may increase the rate of adaptive evolution, because modules can be easily combined into new arrangements that may benefit their carrier. Conversely, modularity may emerge as a by-product of some trait. We here ask whether this last scenario may play a role in genome-scale metabolic networks that need to sustain life in one or more chemical environments. For such networks, we define a network module as a maximal set of reactions that are fully coupled, i.e., whose fluxes can only vary in fixed proportions. This definition overcomes limitations of purely graph based analyses of metabolism by exploiting the functional links between reactions. We call a metabolic network viable in a given chemical environment if it can synthesize all of an organism's biomass compounds from nutrients in this environment. An organism's metabolism is highly versatile if it can sustain life in many different chemical environments. We here ask whether versatility affects the modularity of metabolic networks. Using recently developed techniques to randomly sample large numbers of viable metabolic networks from a vast space of metabolic networks, we use flux balance analysis to study in silico metabolic networks that differ in their versatility. We find that highly versatile networks are also highly modular. They contain more modules and more reactions that are organized into modules. Most or all reactions in a module are associated with the same biochemical pathways. Modules that arise in highly versatile networks generally involve reactions that process nutrients or closely related chemicals. We also observe that the metabolism of E. coli is significantly more modular than even our most versatile networks. Our work shows that modularity in metabolic networks can be a by-product of functional constraints, e.g., the need to sustain life in multiple

  7. Environmental versatility promotes modularity in genome-scale metabolic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Andreas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ubiquity of modules in biological networks may result from an evolutionary benefit of a modular organization. For instance, modularity may increase the rate of adaptive evolution, because modules can be easily combined into new arrangements that may benefit their carrier. Conversely, modularity may emerge as a by-product of some trait. We here ask whether this last scenario may play a role in genome-scale metabolic networks that need to sustain life in one or more chemical environments. For such networks, we define a network module as a maximal set of reactions that are fully coupled, i.e., whose fluxes can only vary in fixed proportions. This definition overcomes limitations of purely graph based analyses of metabolism by exploiting the functional links between reactions. We call a metabolic network viable in a given chemical environment if it can synthesize all of an organism's biomass compounds from nutrients in this environment. An organism's metabolism is highly versatile if it can sustain life in many different chemical environments. We here ask whether versatility affects the modularity of metabolic networks. Results Using recently developed techniques to randomly sample large numbers of viable metabolic networks from a vast space of metabolic networks, we use flux balance analysis to study in silico metabolic networks that differ in their versatility. We find that highly versatile networks are also highly modular. They contain more modules and more reactions that are organized into modules. Most or all reactions in a module are associated with the same biochemical pathways. Modules that arise in highly versatile networks generally involve reactions that process nutrients or closely related chemicals. We also observe that the metabolism of E. coli is significantly more modular than even our most versatile networks. Conclusions Our work shows that modularity in metabolic networks can be a by-product of functional

  8. Viral tropism and pathology associated with viral hemorrhagic septicemia in larval and juvenile Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovy, Jan; Lewis, N.L.; Hershberger, P.K.; Bennett, W.; Meyers, T.R.; Garver, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa causes mass mortality in wild Pacific herring, a species of economic value, in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Young of the year herring are particularly susceptible and can be carriers of the virus. To understand its pathogenesis, tissue and cellular tropisms of VHSV in larval and juvenile Pacific herring were investigated with immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and viral tissue titer. In larval herring, early viral tropism for epithelial tissues (6d post-exposure) was indicated by foci of epidermal thickening that contained heavy concentrations of virus. This was followed by a cellular tropism for fibroblasts within the fin bases and the dermis, but expanded to cells of the kidney, liver, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract and meninges in the brain. Among wild juvenile herring that underwent a VHS epizootic in the laboratory, the disease was characterized by acute and chronic phases of death. Fish that died during the acute phase had systemic infections in tissues including the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, kidney, liver, and meninges. The disease then transitioned into a chronic phase that was characterized by the appearance of neurological signs including erratic and corkscrew swimming and darkening of the dorsal skin. During the chronic phase viral persistence occurred in nervous tissues including meninges and brain parenchymal cells and in one case in peripheral nerves, while virus was mostly cleared from the other tissues. The results demonstrate the varying VHSV tropisms dependent on the timing of infection and the importance of neural tissues for the persistence and perpetuation of chronic infections in Pacific herring.

  9. Candu 6: versatile and practical fuel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J. M.; Saroudis, J.

    2013-01-01

    CANDU reactor technology was originally developed in Canada as part of the original introduction of peaceful nuclear power in the 1960s and has been continuously evolving and improving ever since. The CANDU reactor system was defined with a requirement to be able to efficiently use natural uranium (NU) without the need for enrichment. This led to the adaptation of the pressure tube approach with heavy water coolant and moderator together with on-power fuelling, all of which contribute to excellent neutron efficiency. Since the beginning, CANDU reactors have used [NU] fuel as the fundamental basis of the design. The standard [NU] fuel bundle for CANDU is a very simple design and the simplicity of the fuel design adds to the cost effectiveness of CANDU fuelling because the fuel is relatively straightforward to manufacture and use. These characteristics -- excellent neutron efficiency and simple, readily-manufactured fuel -- together lead to the unique adaptability of CANDU to alternate fuel types, and advancements in fuel cycles. Europe has been an early pioneer in nuclear power; and over the years has accumulated various waste products from reactor fuelling and fuel reprocessing, all being stored safely but which with passing time and ever increasing stockpiles will become issues for both governments and utilities. Several European countries have also pioneered in fuel reprocessing and recycling (UK, France, Russia) in what can be viewed as a good neighbor policy to make most efficient use of fuel. The fact remains that CANDU is the most fuel efficient thermal reactor available today [NU] more efficient in MW per ton of U compared to LWR's and these same features of CANDU (on-power fuelling, D 2 O, etc) also enable flexibility to adapt to other fuel cycles, particularly recycling. Many years of research (including at ICN Pitesti) have shown CANDU capability: best at Thorium utilization; can use RU without re-enrichment; can readily use MOX. Our premise is that

  10. Human Papilloma Viral DNA Replicates as a Stable Episome in Cultured Epidermal Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Robert F.; Taichman, Lorne B.

    1982-06-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is poorly understood because systems for its growth in tissue culture have not been developed. We report here that cultured human epidermal keratinocytes could be infected with HPV from plantar warts and that the viral DNA persisted and replicated as a stable episome. There were 50-200 copies of viral DNA per cell and there was no evidence to indicate integration of viral DNA into the cellular genome. There was also no evidence to suggest that viral DNA underwent productive replication. We conclude that cultured human epidermal keratinocytes may be a model for the study of certain aspects of HPV biology.

  11. Viral aetiology of central nervous system infections in adults admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in southern Vietnam over 12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Le Van; Thai, Le Hong; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Chuong, Ly Van; Sinh, Dinh Xuan; Phong, Nguyen Duy; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Man, Dinh Nguyen Huy; Hien, Vo Minh; Vinh, Nguyen Thanh; Day, Jeremy; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.; Thwaites, Guy; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Chau, Tran Thi Hong

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infections are important diseases in both children and adults worldwide. The spectrum of infections is broad, encompassing bacterial/aseptic meningitis and encephalitis. Viruses are regarded as the most common causes of encephalitis and aseptic meningitis. Better

  12. A versatile gas interface for routine radiocarbon analysis with a gas ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, L., E-mail: wacker@phys.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Fahrni, S.M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, 3012 Berne (Switzerland); Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, 3012 Berne (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Hajdas, I. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Molnar, M. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Synal, H.-A. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Szidat, S. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, 3012 Berne (Switzerland); Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, 3012 Berne (Switzerland); Zhang, Y.L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, 3012 Berne (Switzerland); Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, 3012 Berne (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15

    In 2010 more than 600 radiocarbon samples were measured with the gas ion source at the MIni CArbon DAting System (MICADAS) at ETH Zurich and the number of measurements is rising quickly. While most samples contain less than 50 {mu}g C at present, the gas ion source is attractive as well for larger samples because the time-consuming graphitization is omitted. Additionally, modern samples are now measured down to 5 per-mill counting statistics in less than 30 min with the recently improved gas ion source. In the versatile gas handling system, a stepping-motor-driven syringe presses a mixture of helium and sample CO{sub 2} into the gas ion source, allowing continuous and stable measurements of different kinds of samples. CO{sub 2} can be provided in four different ways to the versatile gas interface. As a primary method, CO{sub 2} is delivered in glass or quartz ampoules. In this case, the CO{sub 2} is released in an automated ampoule cracker with 8 positions for individual samples. Secondly, OX-1 and blank gas in helium can be provided to the syringe by directly connecting gas bottles to the gas interface at the stage of the cracker. Thirdly, solid samples can be combusted in an elemental analyzer or in a thermo-optical OC/EC aerosol analyzer where the produced CO{sub 2} is transferred to the syringe via a zeolite trap for gas concentration. As a fourth method, CO{sub 2} is released from carbonates with phosphoric acid in septum-sealed vials and loaded onto the same trap used for the elemental analyzer. All four methods allow complete automation of the measurement, even though minor user input is presently still required. Details on the setup, versatility and applications of the gas handling system are given.

  13. A solid phase micro-radioimmunoassay to detect minute amounts of Ig class specific anti-viral antibody in a mouse model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, D.; Blandford, G.; Toronto Univ., Ontario

    1975-01-01

    A simple and rapid micro-radioimmunoassay was developed to detect and quantitate class specific mouse anti-sendai virus antibodies. Two different 125 I-labelled indicator systems were studied. After incubation of test serum with antigen one system used 125 I-rabbit anti-mouse IgG (RIA 1) and the second employed rabbit anti-mouse IgG, IgA or IgM followed by 125 I-sheep anti-rabbit immunoglobulin reagent (RIA 2). The RIA 2 method was adopted for routine use as it was more sensitive, gave better discrimination between sample and back-ground counts and eliminated the need for several labelled rabbit anti-mouse Ig class specific antisera. The technique was found to be about 100 times more sensitive than conventional HI tests, specific, reliable and economical of reagents and time

  14. High variability in viral load in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with herpes simplex and varicella-zoster infections of the central nervous system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Daniel; Piskunova, N.; Žampachová, E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 12 (2007), s. 1217-1219 ISSN 1198-743X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : cerebrospinal fluid, herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus * herpes simplex virus * varicella-zoster virus * central nervous system infections * quantitative real-time PCR Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.980, year: 2007

  15. Versatile, High Quality and Scalable Continuous Flow Production of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Martinez, Marta; Batten, Michael P.; Polyzos, Anastasios; Carey, Keri-Constanti; Mardel, James I.; Lim, Kok-Seng; Hill, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Further deployment of Metal-Organic Frameworks in applied settings requires their ready preparation at scale. Expansion of typical batch processes can lead to unsuccessful or low quality synthesis for some systems. Here we report how continuous flow chemistry can be adapted as a versatile route to a range of MOFs, by emulating conditions of lab-scale batch synthesis. This delivers ready synthesis of three different MOFs, with surface areas that closely match theoretical maxima, with production rates of 60 g/h at extremely high space-time yields. PMID:24962145

  16. Stormwater runoff drives viral community composition changes in inland freshwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kurt E.; Harris, Jamie V.; Green, Jasmin C.; Rahman, Faraz; Chambers, Randolph M.

    2014-01-01

    Storm events impact freshwater microbial communities by transporting terrestrial viruses and other microbes to freshwater systems, and by potentially resuspending microbes from bottom sediments. The magnitude of these impacts on freshwater ecosystems is unknown and largely unexplored. Field studies carried out at two discrete sites in coastal Virginia (USA) were used to characterize the viral load carried by runoff and to test the hypothesis that terrestrial viruses introduced through stormwater runoff change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Field data gathered from an agricultural watershed indicated that primary runoff can contain viral densities approximating those of receiving waters. Furthermore, viruses attached to suspended colloids made up a large fraction of the total load, particularly in early stages of the storm. At a second field site (stormwater retention pond), RAPD-PCR profiling showed that the viral community of the pond changed dramatically over the course of two intense storms while relatively little change was observed over similar time scales in the absence of disturbance. Comparisons of planktonic and particle-associated viral communities revealed two completely distinct communities, suggesting that particle-associated viruses represent a potentially large and overlooked portion of aquatic viral abundance and diversity. Our findings show that stormwater runoff can quickly change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Based on these findings, increased storms in the coastal mid-Atlantic region predicted by most climate change models will likely have important impacts on the structure and function of local freshwater microbial communities. PMID:24672520

  17. Conditions for Viral Influence Spreading through Multiplex Correlated Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanqing; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-04-01

    A fundamental problem in network science is to predict how certain individuals are able to initiate new networks to spring up "new ideas." Frequently, these changes in trends are triggered by a few innovators who rapidly impose their ideas through "viral" influence spreading, producing cascades of followers and fragmenting an old network to create a new one. Typical examples include the rise of scientific ideas or abrupt changes in social media, like the rise of Facebook to the detriment of Myspace. How this process arises in practice has not been conclusively demonstrated. Here, we show that a condition for sustaining a viral spreading process is the existence of a multiplex-correlated graph with hidden "influence links." Analytical solutions predict percolation-phase transitions, either abrupt or continuous, where networks are disintegrated through viral cascades of followers, as in empirical data. Our modeling predicts the strict conditions to sustain a large viral spreading via a scaling form of the local correlation function between multilayers, which we also confirm empirically. Ultimately, the theory predicts the conditions for viral cascading in a large class of multiplex networks ranging from social to financial systems and markets.

  18. A versatile and interoperable network sensors for water resources monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, Alberto; Brandini, Carlo; Costantini, Roberto; Costanza, Letizia; Innocenti, Lucia; Sabatini, Francesco; Gozzini, Bernardo

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring systems to assess water resources quantity and quality require extensive use of in-situ measurements, that have great limitations like difficulties to access and share data, and to customise and easy reconfigure sensors network to fulfil end-users needs during monitoring or crisis phases. In order to address such limitations Sensor Web Enablement technologies for sensors management have been developed and applied to different environmental context under the EU-funded OSIRIS project (Open architecture for Smart and Interoperable networks in Risk management based on In-situ Sensors, www.osiris-fp6.eu). The main objective of OSIRIS was to create a monitoring system to manage different environmental crisis situations, through an efficient data processing chain where in-situ sensors are connected via an intelligent and versatile network infrastructure (based on web technologies) that enables end-users to remotely access multi-domain sensors information. Among the project application, one was focused on underground fresh-water monitoring and management. With this aim a monitoring system to continuously and automatically check water quality and quantity has been designed and built in a pilot test, identified as a portion of the Amiata aquifer feeding the Santa Fiora springs (Grosseto, Italy). This aquifer present some characteristics that make it greatly vulnerable under some conditions. It is a volcanic aquifer with a fractured structure. The volcanic nature in Santa Fiora causes levels of arsenic concentrations that normally are very close to the threshold stated by law, but that sometimes overpass such threshold for reasons still not fully understood. The presence of fractures makes the infiltration rate very inhomogeneous from place to place and very high in correspondence of big fractures. In case of liquid-pollutant spills (typically hydrocarbons spills from tanker accidents or leakage from house tanks containing fuel for heating), these fractures can act

  19. Research and development of a versatile portable speech prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The Versatile Portable Speech Prosthesis (VPSP), a synthetic speech output communication aid for non-speaking people is described. It was intended initially for severely physically limited people with cerebral palsy who are in electric wheelchairs. Hence, it was designed to be placed on a wheelchair and powered from a wheelchair battery. It can easily be separated from the wheelchair. The VPSP is versatile because it is designed to accept any means of single switch, multiple switch, or keyboard control which physically limited people have the ability to use. It is portable because it is mounted on and can go with the electric wheelchair. It is a speech prosthesis, obviously, because it speaks with a synthetic voice for people unable to speak with their own voices. Both hardware and software are described.

  20. A versatile generator of nanoparticle aerosols. A novel tool in environmental and occupational exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Alberto; Lobera, M Pilar; Balas, Francisco; Santamaria, Jesus

    2018-06-01

    The increasing presence of nanotechnology on the market entails a growing probability of finding ENMs in the environment. Nanoparticles aerosols are a yet unknown risk for human and environmental exposure that may normally occur at any point during the nanomaterial lifecycle. There is a research gap in standardized methods to assess the exposure to airborne nanoparticles in different environments. The controllable generation of nanoparticle aerosols has long been a challenging objective for researchers and industries dealing with airborne nanoparticles. In this work, a versatile system to generate nanoparticulate aerosols has been designed. The system allows the production of both i) instantaneous nanoparticle clouds and ii) continuous nanoparticle streams with quasi-stable values of particle concentration and size distribution. This novel device uses a compressed-air pressure pulse to disperse the target material into either the testing environment (instantaneous cloud formation) or a secondary chamber, from which a continuous aerosol stream can be drawn, with a tunable nanoparticle concentration. The system is robust, highly versatile and easy to operate, enabling reproducible generation of aerosols from a variety of sources. The system has been verified with four dry nanomaterials: TiO 2 , ZnO, CuO and CNT bundles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Viral Meningoencephalitis Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Ilhan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate retrospectively adult cases of viral encephalitis. METHOD: Fifteen patients described viral encephalitis hospitalized between the years 2006-2011 follow-up and treatment at the infectious diseases clinic were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Most of the patients (%60 had applied in the spring. Fever (87%, confusion (73%, neck stiffness (73%, headache (73%, nausea-vomiting (33%, loss of consciousness (33%, amnesia (33%, agitation (20%, convulsion (%20, focal neurological signs (13%, Brudzinski-sign (13% were most frequently encountered findings. Electroencephalography test was applied to 13 of 14 patients, and pathological findings compatible with encephalitis have been found. Radiological imaging methods such as CT and MRI were performed in 9 of the 14 patients, and findings consistent with encephalitis were reported. All of initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples were abnormal. The domination of the first examples was lymphocytes in 14 patients; only one patient had an increase in neutrophilic cells have been found. CSF protein level was high in nine patients, and low glucose level was detected in two patients. Herpes simplex virus polymerized chain reaction (PCR analyze was performed to fourteen patients CSF. Only two of them (14% were found positive. One of the patients sample selectively examined was found to be Parvovirus B19 (+, the other patient urine sample Jacobs-creutzfeld virus PCR was found to be positively. Empiric acyclovir therapy was given to all patients. Neuropsychiatric squeal developed at the one patient. CONCLUSION: The cases in the forefront of change in mental status viral meningoencephalitis should be considered and empirical treatment with acyclovir should be started. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 447-452

  2. Encefalitis virales en la infancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat Téllez de Meneses

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La encefalitis viral es una enfermedad grave que implica el compromiso inflamatorio del parénquima cerebral. Las infecciones virales del SNC ocurren con frecuencia como complicación de infecciones virales sistémicas. Más de 100 virus están implicados como agentes causales, entre los cuales el virus Herpes simplex tipo I, es el agente causal más frecuente de encefalitis no epidémica en todos los grupos poblacionales del mundo; es el responsable de los casos más graves en todas las edades. Muchos de los virus para los cuales existe vacunas también pueden causar encefalitis como: sarampión, paperas, polio, rabia, rubéola, varicela. El virus produce una inflamación del tejido cerebral, la cual puede evolucionar a una destrucción de neuronas, provocar hemorragia y daño cerebral, dando lugar a encefalitis graves, como la encefalitis necrotizante o hemorrágica, con mucho peor pronóstico, produciendo secuelas graves, incluso la muerte. El cuadro clínico, incluye la presencia de cefalea, fiebre y alteración de la conciencia, de rápida progresión. El pronóstico de las encefalitis víricas es variable, algunos casos son leves, con recuperación completa, sin embargo existen casos graves que pueden ocasionar secuelas importantes a nivel cerebral. Es fundamental realizar un diagnóstico lo antes posible, a través de pruebas de laboratorio (bioquímica, PCR, cultivos y de neuroimagen (TAC, RM y ante todo, la instauración de un tratamiento precoz para evitar la evolución del proceso y sus posibles complicaciones. El pronóstico empeora si se retrasa la instauración del tratamiento.

  3. Connecting Leadership and Learning: Do Versatile Learners make Connective Leaders?

    OpenAIRE

    Jill L. Robinson

    2016-01-01

    Recent failures in leadership, suggest that creating better-quality leadership development programs is critical. In moving from theory to practice, this paper examined the relationship between learning style and leadership style which may enable us to move away from one-size-fits-all leadership development programs. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model and Connective Leadership theory, approximately 3600 college students were analyzed to discover whether versatility in learning styles...

  4. Connecting leadership and learning: Do versatile learners make connective leaders?

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jill L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent failures in leadership, suggest that creating better-quality leadership development programs is critical. In moving from theory to practice, this paper examined the relationship between learning style and leadership style which may enable us to move away from one-size-fits-all leadership development programs. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model and Connective Leadership theory, approximately 3600 college students were analyzed to discover whether versatility in learning styles...

  5. Connecting Leadership and Learning: Do Versatile Learners make Connective Leaders?

    OpenAIRE

    Jill L. Robinson

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent failures in leadership, suggest that creating better-quality leadership development programs is critical. In moving from theory to practice, this paper examined the relationship between learning style and leadership style which may enable us to move away from one-size-fits-all leadership development programs. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model and Connective Leadership theory, approximately 3600 college students were analyzed to discover whether versatility in le...

  6. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model for viral marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Siti Suhaila; Akil, Ku Azlina Ku; Chulan, Majdah; Sharif, Noorzila

    2017-11-01

    Viral marketing is a marketing strategy utilizes social media to spread information about a product or services provided. It is the most powerful way to share information in a short amount of time. The objective of this study is to investigate the dynamic of viral marketing within a time duration in the point of view of mathematics. This study used the epidemiological model known as Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR). The model consists of a system of three differential equations with three state variables namely susceptible (S), infected (I) and recovered (R). It considers a case of SIR model with demography. Numerical experiments have been performed. The results show that viral marketing reaches its peak within two days. The online messages shared will become higher if the initial number of the infected individual has been increased.

  7. Viral diseases of marine invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. T.

    1984-03-01

    Approximately 40 viruses are known from marine sponges; turbellarian and monogenetic flatworms; cephalopod, bivalve, and gastropod mollusks; nereid polychaetes; and isopod and decapod crustaceans. Most of the viruses can be tentatively assigned to the Herpesviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Reoviridae, “Birnaviridae”, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Picornaviridae. Viruslike particles found in oysters might be representatives of the Togaviridae and Retroviridae. Enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses from crustaceans have developmental and morphological characteristics intermediate between families, and some show evidence of relationships to the Paramyxoviridae as well as the Bunyaviridae or Rhabdoviridae. Certain small viruses of shrimp cannot be assigned, even tentatively, to a particular family. Some viruses cause disease in wild and captive hosts, others are associated with disease states but may not be primary instigators, and many occur in apparently normal animals. The frequency of viral disease in natural populations of marine invertebrates is unknown. Several viruses that cause disease in captive animals, with or without experimental intervention, have also been found in diseased wild hosts, including herpeslike viruses of crabs and oysters, iridovirus of octopus, and reolike and bunyalike viruses of crabs. Iridolike viruses have been implicated in massive mortalities of cultured oysters. Baculoviruses, and IHHN virus, which is of uncertain affinities, cause economically damaging diseases in cultured penaeid shrimp. Double or multiple viral infection is common in crabs. For example, a reolike virus and associated rhabdolike virus act synergistically to cause paralytic and fatal disease in Callinectes sapidus. Information on host range, most susceptible stage, and viral latency is available only for viruses of shrimp. One baculovirus attacks five species of New World penaeid shrimp. IHHN virus infects three species of

  8. Connecting Leadership and Learning: Do Versatile Learners make Connective Leaders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill L. Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent failures in leadership, suggest that creating better-quality leadership development programs is critical. In moving from theory to practice, this paper examined the relationship between learning style and leadership style which may enable us to move away from one-size-fits-all leadership development programs. Utilizing Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model and Connective Leadership theory, approximately 3600 college students were analyzed to discover whether versatility in learning styles translates into versatility in leadership styles. One group of versatile learners reported using a wider range of leadership styles suggesting that learning flexibility may transfer to leadership flexibility. Surprisingly, learners of all types reported utilizing Power and Intrinsic styles of leadership above all others. Implications for leadership development include considering individual differences when crafting leadership programs, matching learning styles to leader training, and the need to move beyond one set of leadership behaviors to increase flexibility in dealing with complex situations. Using a large sample rarely seen in management studies, this paper makes key contributions to the literature. 

  9. Central nervous system immune activation characterizes primary human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection even in participants with minimal cerebrospinal fluid viral burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudich, Serena; Gisslen, Magnus; Hagberg, Lars; Lee, Evelyn; Liegler, Teri; Brew, Bruce; Fuchs, Dietmar; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Cinque, Paola; Hecht, Frederick M; Price, Richard W

    2011-09-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and immune activation lead to brain injury and neurological impairment. Although HIV enters the nervous system soon after transmission, the magnitude of infection and immunoactivation within the CNS during primary HIV infection (PHI) has not been characterized. This cross-sectional study analyzed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood from 96 participants with PHI and compared them with samples from neuroasymptomatic participants with chronic infection and ≥ 200 or < 200 blood CD4 T cells/μL, and with samples from HIV-seronegative participants with respect to CSF and plasma HIV RNA, CSF to serum albumin ratio, and CSF white blood cell counts (WBC), neopterin levels, and concentrations of chemokines CXCL10 and CCL2. The PHI participants (median 77 days post transmission) had CSF HIV RNA, WBC, neopterin, and CXCL10 concentrations similar to the chronic infection participants but uniquely high albumin ratios. 18 participants had ≤ 100 copies/mL CSF HIV RNA, which was associated with low CSF to plasma HIV ratios and levels of CSF inflammation lower than in other PHI participants but higher than in HIV-seronegative controls. Prominent CNS infection and immune activation is evident during the first months after HIV transmission, though a proportion of PHI patients demonstrate relatively reduced CSF HIV RNA and inflammation during this early period.

  10. ANTI-VIRAL ACTIVITY OF GLYCIRRHETINIC AND GLYCIRRHIZIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zarubaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a highly contagious human disease. In the course of use of antiviral drugs drug-resistant strains of the virus are formed, resulting in reduced efficiency of the chemotherapy. The review describes the biological activity of glycirrhetinic (GLA and glycirrhizic (GA acids in terms of their use as a therapeutic agent for viral infections. So, these compounds are against a broad spectrum of viruses, including herpes, corona-, alphaand flaviviruses, human immunodeficiency virus, vaccinia virus, poliovirus type I, vesicular stomatitis virus and influenza A virus. These data indicate that anti-viral effect of these compounds is due to several types of activity — direct antiviral effects, effects on cellular proand anti-viral and immunomodulating pathways, in particular by activation of innate immunity system. GA interferes with early steps of the viral reproductive cycle such as virus binding to its receptor, the absorption of the virus by endocytosis or virus decapsidation in the cytoplasm. This is due to the effect of GA-induced reduction of membrane fluidity. Thus, one mechanism for the antiviral activity of GA is that GA molecule increases the rigidity of cellular and viral membranes after incorporation in there. This results in increasing of energy threshold required for the formation of negative curvature at the fusion zones, as well as difficult lateral migration of the virus-receptor complexes. In addition, glycyrrhizin prevents interaction of viral nucleoprotein with cellular protein HMGB1, which is necessary for the viral life cycle. Glycyrrhizin also inhibits the induction of oxidative stress during influenza infection, exhibiting antioxidant properties, which leads to a reduction of virus-induced production of cytokines/chemokines, without affecting the replication of the virus. A wide spectrum of biological activity and effect on various aspects of the viral pathogenesis substantiate the effect of GA and GLA as a component

  11. Systemic Errors in Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Titration of Self-Complementary Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors and Improved Alternative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagone, Paolo; Wright, J. Fraser; Nathwani, Amit C.; Nienhuis, Arthur W.; Davidoff, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vector genomes contain a covalently closed hairpin derived from a mutated inverted terminal repeat that connects the two monomer single-stranded genomes into a head-to-head or tail-to-tail dimer. We found that during quantitative PCR (qPCR) this structure inhibits the amplification of proximal amplicons and causes the systemic underreporting of copy number by as much as 10-fold. We show that cleavage of scAAV vector genomes with restriction endonuclease to liberate amplicons from the covalently closed terminal hairpin restores quantitative amplification, and we implement this procedure in a simple, modified qPCR titration method for scAAV vectors. In addition, we developed and present an AAV genome titration procedure based on gel electrophoresis that requires minimal sample processing and has low interassay variability, and as such is well suited for the rigorous quality control demands of clinical vector production facilities. PMID:22428975

  12. Optimizing viral and non-viral gene transfer methods for genetic modification of porcine mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiehler, Maik; Duch, Mogens; Mygind, Tina

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) provide an excellent source of pluripotent progenitor cells for tissue-engineering applications due to their proliferation capacity and differentiation potential. Genetic modification of MSCs with genes encoding tissue-specific growth factors...... viral and non-viral ex vivo gene delivery systems with respect to gene transfer efficiency, maintenance of transgene expression, and safety issues using primary porcine MSCs as target cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MSCs were purified from bone marrow aspirates from the proximal tibiae of four 3-month......-old Danish landrace pigs by Ficoll step gradient separation and polystyrene adherence technique. Vectors expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were transferred to the cells by different non-viral methods and by use of recombinant adeno...

  13. Possible Relevance of Receptor-Receptor Interactions between Viral- and Host-Coded Receptors for Viral-Induced Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi F. Agnati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that some viruses, such as the cytomegalovirus, code for G-protein coupled receptors not only to elude the immune system, but also to redirect cellular signaling in the receptor networks of the host cells. In view of the existence of receptor-receptor interactions, the hypothesis is introduced that these viral-coded receptors not only operate as constitutively active monomers, but also can affect other receptor function by interacting with receptors of the host cell. Furthermore, it is suggested that viruses could also insert not single receptors (monomers, but clusters of receptors (receptor mosaics, altering the cell metabolism in a profound way. The prevention of viral receptor-induced changes in host receptor networks may give rise to novel antiviral drugs that counteract viral-induced disease.

  14. Enhancing the versatility of wireless biopotential acquisition for myoelectric prosthetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercich, Rebecca A; Wang, Zhi; Mei, Henry; Hammer, Lauren H; Seburn, Kevin L; Hargrove, Levi J; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2016-08-01

    A significant challenge in rehabilitating upper-limb amputees with sophisticated, electric-powered prostheses is sourcing reliable and independent channels of motor control information sufficient to precisely direct multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously. In response to the expressed needs of clinicians, we have developed a miniature, batteryless recording device that utilizes emerging integrated circuit technology and optimal impedance matching for magnetic resonantly coupled (MRC) wireless power transfer to improve the performance and versatility of wireless electrode interfaces with muscle. In this work we describe the fabrication and performance of a fully wireless and batteryless EMG recording system and use of this system to direct virtual and electric-powered limbs in real-time. The advantage of using MRC to optimize power transfer to a network of wireless devices is exhibited by EMG collected from an array of eight devices placed circumferentially around a human subject's forearm. This is a comprehensive, low-cost, and non-proprietary solution that provides unprecedented versatility of configuration to direct myoelectric prostheses without wired connections to the body. The amenability of MRC to varied coil geometries and arrangements has the potential to improve the efficiency and robustness of wireless power transfer links at all levels of upper-limb amputation. Additionally, the wireless recording device's programmable flash memory and selectable features will grant clinicians the unique ability to adapt and personalize the recording system's functional protocol for patient- or algorithm-specific needs.

  15. Viral Organization of Human Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuchty, Stefan; Siwo, Geoffrey; Ferdig, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Although maps of intracellular interactions are increasingly well characterized, little is known about large-scale maps of host-pathogen protein interactions. The investigation of host-pathogen interactions can reveal features of pathogenesis and provide a foundation for the development of drugs and disease prevention strategies. A compilation of experimentally verified interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins and a set of HIV-dependency factors (HDF) allowed insights into the topology and intricate interplay between viral and host proteins on a large scale. We found that targeted and HDF proteins appear predominantly in rich-clubs, groups of human proteins that are strongly intertwined among each other. These assemblies of proteins may serve as an infection gateway, allowing the virus to take control of the human host by reaching protein pathways and diversified cellular functions in a pronounced and focused way. Particular transcription factors and protein kinases facilitate indirect interactions between HDFs and viral proteins. Discerning the entanglement of directly targeted and indirectly interacting proteins may uncover molecular and functional sites that can provide novel perspectives on the progression of HIV infection and highlight new avenues to fight this virus. PMID:20827298

  16. Expression of tomato yellow leaf curl virus coat protein using baculovirus expression system and evaluation of its utility as a viral antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgaied, Lamiaa; Salem, Reda; Elmenofy, Wael

    2017-08-01

    DNA encoding the coat protein (CP) of an Egyptian isolate of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was inserted into the genome of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcNPV) under the control of polyhedrin promoter. The generated recombinant baculovirus construct harboring the coat protein gene was characterized using PCR analysis. The recombinant coat protein expressed in infected insect cells was used as a coating antigen in an indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dot blot to test its utility for the detection of antibody generated against TYLCV virus particles. The results of ELISA and dot blot showed that the TYLCV-antibodies reacted positively with extracts of infected cells using the recombinant virus as a coating antigen with strong signals as well as the TYLCV infected tomato and beat plant extracts as positive samples. Scanning electron microscope examination showed that the expressed TYLCV coat protein was self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) similar in size and morphology to TYLCV virus particles. These results concluded that, the expressed coat protein of TYLCV using baculovirus vector system is a reliable candidate for generation of anti-CP antibody for inexpensive detection of TYLCV-infected plants using indirect CP-ELISA or dot blot with high specificity.

  17. Viral Infection in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Cukuranovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are among the most common causes of opportunistic infection after transplantation. The risk for viral infection is a function of the specific virus encountered, the intensity of immune suppression used to prevent graft rejection, and other host factors governing susceptibility. Although cytomegalovirus is the most common opportunistic pathogen seen in transplant recipients, numerous other viruses have also affected outcomes. In some cases, preventive measures such as pretransplant screening, prophylactic antiviral therapy, or posttransplant viral monitoring may limit the impact of these infections. Recent advances in laboratory monitoring and antiviral therapy have improved outcomes. Studies of viral latency, reactivation, and the cellular effects of viral infection will provide clues for future strategies in prevention and treatment of viral infections. This paper will summarize the major viral infections seen following transplant and discuss strategies for prevention and management of these potential pathogens.

  18. Viral vectors for production of recombinant proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lico, Chiara; Chen, Qiang; Santi, Luca

    2008-08-01

    Global demand for recombinant proteins has steadily accelerated for the last 20 years. These recombinant proteins have a wide range of important applications, including vaccines and therapeutics for human and animal health, industrial enzymes, new materials and components of novel nano-particles for various applications. The majority of recombinant proteins are produced by traditional biological "factories," that is, predominantly mammalian and microbial cell cultures along with yeast and insect cells. However, these traditional technologies cannot satisfy the increasing market demand due to prohibitive capital investment requirements. During the last two decades, plants have been under intensive investigation to provide an alternative system for cost-effective, highly scalable, and safe production of recombinant proteins. Although the genetic engineering of plant viral vectors for heterologous gene expression can be dated back to the early 1980s, recent understanding of plant virology and technical progress in molecular biology have allowed for significant improvements and fine tuning of these vectors. These breakthroughs enable the flourishing of a variety of new viral-based expression systems and their wide application by academic and industry groups. In this review, we describe the principal plant viral-based production strategies and the latest plant viral expression systems, with a particular focus on the variety of proteins produced and their applications. We will summarize the recent progress in the downstream processing of plant materials for efficient extraction and purification of recombinant proteins. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Viral Advertising: Branding Effects from Consumers’ Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yueqing

    2012-01-01

    Viral advertising is popular for its high viral transmission results online. Its increased impacts on the social media users have been noticed by the author. At the same time, viewers’ negative attitudes toward traditional advertisements become obvious which can be regarded as the phenomenon of advertisement avoidance. It arouses author’s interests to know how the viral advertising reduces the viewers’ negative emotions and its performances in branding online. This paper is going to look into...

  20. Viral Advertising on Facebook in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore which factors affect the effectiveness of viral advertising on Facebook in Vietnam. The quantitative research method is applied in this research and the sample is Vietnamese Facebook users. After the data analysis stage using SPSS, it became clear that weak ties, perceptual affinity and emotions have an impact on the effectiveness of viral advertising. The results provide a pratical implication of how to make an Ad which can go viral on Facebook. Moreo...

  1. Papillomaviruses: Viral evolution, cancer and evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Ignacio G; Félez-Sánchez, Marta

    2015-01-28

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are a numerous family of small dsDNA viruses infecting virtually all mammals. PVs cause infections without triggering a strong immune response, and natural infection provides only limited protection against reinfection. Most PVs are part and parcel of the skin microbiota. In some cases, infections by certain PVs take diverse clinical presentations from highly productive self-limited warts to invasive cancers. We propose PVs as an excellent model system to study the evolutionary interactions between the immune system and pathogens causing chronic infections: genotypically, PVs are very diverse, with hundreds of different genotypes infecting skin and mucosa; phenotypically, they display extremely broad gradients and trade-offs between key phenotypic traits, namely productivity, immunogenicity, prevalence, oncogenicity and clinical presentation. Public health interventions have been launched to decrease the burden of PV-associated cancers, including massive vaccination against the most oncogenic human PVs, as well as systematic screening for PV chronic anogenital infections. Anti-PVs vaccines elicit protection against infection, induce cross-protection against closely related viruses and result in herd immunity. However, our knowledge on the ecological and intrapatient dynamics of PV infections remains fragmentary. We still need to understand how the novel anthropogenic selection pressures posed by vaccination and screening will affect viral circulation and epidemiology. We present here an overview of PV evolution and the connection between PV genotypes and the phenotypic, clinical manifestations of the diseases they cause. This differential link between viral evolution and the gradient cancer-warts-asymptomatic infections makes PVs a privileged playground for evolutionary medicine research. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  2. Viral Inhibition of PRR-Mediated Innate Immune Response: Learning from KSHV Evasion Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Ra; Choi, Un Yung; Hwang, Sung-Woo; Kim, Stephanie; Jung, Jae U

    2016-11-30

    The innate immune system has evolved to detect and destroy invading pathogens before they can establish systemic infection. To successfully eradicate pathogens, including viruses, host innate immunity is activated through diverse pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) which detect conserved viral signatures and trigger the production of type I interferon (IFN) and pro-inflammatory cytokines to mediate viral clearance. Viral persistence requires that viruses co-opt cellular pathways and activities for their benefit. In particular, due to the potent antiviral activities of IFN and cytokines, viruses have developed various strategies to meticulously modulate intracellular innate immune sensing mechanisms to facilitate efficient viral replication and persistence. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the study of viral immune evasion strategies with a specific focus on how Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) effectively targets host PRR signaling pathways.

  3. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus, Dall sheep (Ovis dalli, chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra, muskox {Ovibos moschatus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces, designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably

  4. Viral Diversity Threshold for Adaptive Immunity in Prokaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Ariel D.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Lobkovsky, Alexander E.; Gilmore, Michael S.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria and archaea face continual onslaughts of rapidly diversifying viruses and plasmids. Many prokaryotes maintain adaptive immune systems known as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated genes (Cas). CRISPR-Cas systems are genomic sensors that serially acquire viral and plasmid DNA fragments (spacers) that are utilized to target and cleave matching viral and plasmid DNA in subsequent genomic invasions, offering critical immunological memory. Only 50% of sequenced bacteria possess CRISPR-Cas immunity, in contrast to over 90% of sequenced archaea. To probe why half of bacteria lack CRISPR-Cas immunity, we combined comparative genomics and mathematical modeling. Analysis of hundreds of diverse prokaryotic genomes shows that CRISPR-Cas systems are substantially more prevalent in thermophiles than in mesophiles. With sequenced bacteria disproportionately mesophilic and sequenced archaea mostly thermophilic, the presence of CRISPR-Cas appears to depend more on environmental temperature than on bacterial-archaeal taxonomy. Mutation rates are typically severalfold higher in mesophilic prokaryotes than in thermophilic prokaryotes. To quantitatively test whether accelerated viral mutation leads microbes to lose CRISPR-Cas systems, we developed a stochastic model of virus-CRISPR coevolution. The model competes CRISPR-Cas-positive (CRISPR-Cas+) prokaryotes against CRISPR-Cas-negative (CRISPR-Cas−) prokaryotes, continually weighing the antiviral benefits conferred by CRISPR-Cas immunity against its fitness costs. Tracking this cost-benefit analysis across parameter space reveals viral mutation rate thresholds beyond which CRISPR-Cas cannot provide sufficient immunity and is purged from host populations. These results offer a simple, testable viral diversity hypothesis to explain why mesophilic bacteria disproportionately lack CRISPR-Cas immunity. More generally, fundamental limits on the adaptability of biological

  5. Enhancing the versatility of wireless biopotential acquisition for myoelectric prosthetic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercich, Rebecca A.; Wang, Zhi; Mei, Henry; Hammer, Lauren H.; Seburn, Kevin L.; Hargrove, Levi J.; Irazoqui, Pedro P.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. A significant challenge in rehabilitating upper-limb amputees with sophisticated, electric-powered prostheses is sourcing reliable and independent channels of motor control information sufficient to precisely direct multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously. Approach. In response to the expressed needs of clinicians, we have developed a miniature, batteryless recording device that utilizes emerging integrated circuit technology and optimal impedance matching for magnetic resonantly coupled (MRC) wireless power transfer to improve the performance and versatility of wireless electrode interfaces with muscle. Main results. In this work we describe the fabrication and performance of a fully wireless and batteryless EMG recording system and use of this system to direct virtual and electric-powered limbs in real-time. The advantage of using MRC to optimize power transfer to a network of wireless devices is exhibited by EMG collected from an array of eight devices placed circumferentially around a human subject’s forearm. Significance. This is a comprehensive, low-cost, and non-proprietary solution that provides unprecedented versatility of configuration to direct myoelectric prostheses without wired connections to the body. The amenability of MRC to varied coil geometries and arrangements has the potential to improve the efficiency and robustness of wireless power transfer links at all levels of upper-limb amputation. Additionally, the wireless recording device’s programmable flash memory and selectable features will grant clinicians the unique ability to adapt and personalize the recording system’s functional protocol for patient- or algorithm-specific needs.

  6. Effect of cell culture system on the production of human viral antigens Efeito do sistema de cultura celular na produção de antígenos virais humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Zucatelli Mendonça

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was performed in the production of different viral antigens by using microcarrier systems and traditional systems. Vero, BHK and MA 104 cells were cultivated in microcarriers (2mg/ml using a bioreactor with a working capacity of 3.7 liters, in parallel with conventional Roux bottles. After four days (BHK cells, and seven days of culture (Vero and MA-104 cells, the cells were infected with 0.1 MOI (multiplicity of infection of rabies virus, measles virus, poliovirus and rotavirus. The yields of the cells and virus in microcarriers and in the conventional system were determined. It was observed that in the microcarrier system, an average increase of twenty-fold more cells/ml was obtained in relation to the conventional monolayer culture, using Roux bottle. On the other hand, cells grown in Roux bottles presented 1.3 to 6.7 more viruses/ml culture than those in the microcarrier systems. However, the overall data showed that yieldings, in terms of viruses per batch, were statistically similar for both systems (p > 0.05. The amount of viral antigen production seems to depend not only on cell concentration, but also on other culture factors such as the characteristic of the cell-growth surface. Thus, the present findings provide a baseline for further improvements and strategies to be established for a scaling-up virus production since depending on the type of virus the optimal conditions found for a small-scale virus production seem unsuitable for large-scale production, requiring new standardization and evaluation.Foi realizado estudo comparativo na produção de diferentes antígenos virais usando sistema de microcarregador e sistema tradicional. Células Vero, BHK e MA-104 foram cultivadas em microcarregadores (2mg/ml utilizando-se biorreatores com capacidade de 3,7 litros e, em paralelo, no sistema convencional com garrafas Roux. Após quatro dias de cultura para as células BHK e sete dias para as células Vero e MA-104, as c

  7. Viral hepatitis in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Andres F; Martin, Paul

    2012-05-01

    As life expectancy continues to rise, elderly adults represent a rapidly growing proportion of the population. The likelihood of complications of acute and chronic liver disease and overall mortality are higher in elderly populations. Several physiological changes associated with aging, greater prevalence of co-morbid conditions, and cumulative exposure to hepatotropic viruses and environmental hepatotoxins may contribute to worse outcomes of viral hepatitis in the elderly. Although pharmacotherapy for hepatitis B and C continues to evolve, the efficacy, tolerability, and side effects of these agents have not been studied extensively in elderly adults. Immunization against hepatitis A and B in naïve elderly adults is an important public health intervention that needs to be revised and broadened.

  8. Viral hepatitis vaccination during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yueyuan; Jin, Hui; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Bei; Liu, Pei

    2016-04-02

    Viral hepatitis is a serious global public health problem. It is also a common cause of jaundice and gestational complications in pregnant women. Moreover, infected mothers can transmit the virus to their fetus or neonate, which may increase disease burden and decrease quality of life. To date, commercial vaccines have been developed for hepatitis A, B, and E and are available to the general population. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices currently accepts emergency vaccination against hepatitis A and B during pregnancy due to benefits that overweight the potential risks. While there are limited data from trials with limited numbers of samples that suggest the efficacy or safety of hepatitis B and E vaccines in pregnant women, additional data are necessary to provide evidence of vaccination during pregnancy.

  9. Phage and Nucleocytoplasmic Large Viral Sequences Dominate Coral Viromes from the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Huda; Jose, Liny

    2017-01-01

    Corals that naturally thrive under extreme conditions are gaining increasing attention due to their importance as living models to understand the impact of global warming on world corals. Here, we present the first metagenomic study of viral communities in corals thriving in a thermally variable water body in which the temperature fluctuates between 11 and 39°C in different seasons. The viral assemblages of two of the most abundant massive ( Porites harrisoni ) and branching ( Acropora downingi ) corals in offshore and inshore reef systems in the northern Arabian Gulf were investigated. Samples were collected from five reef systems during summer, autumn and winter of 2011/2012. The two coral viromes contain 12 viral families, including 10 dsDNA viral families [Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Myoviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Baculoviridae, Herpesviridae, Adenoviridae, Alloherpesviridae, Mimiviridae and one unclassified family], one-ssDNA viral family (Microviridae) and one RNA viral family (Retroviridae). Overall, sequences significantly similar to Podoviridae were the most abundant in the P. harrisoni and A. downingi viromes. Various morphological types of virus-like particles (VLPs) were confirmed in the healthy coral tissue by transmission electron microscopy, including large tailless VLPs and electron-dense core VLPs. Tailed bacteriophages were isolated from coral tissue using a plaque assay. Higher functional gene diversity was recorded in A. downingi than in P. harrisoni , and comparative metagenomics revealed that the Gulf viral assemblages are functionally distinct from Pacific Ocean coral viral communities.

  10. Phage and Nucleocytoplasmic Large Viral Sequences Dominate Coral Viromes from the Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Mahmoud

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corals that naturally thrive under extreme conditions are gaining increasing attention due to their importance as living models to understand the impact of global warming on world corals. Here, we present the first metagenomic study of viral communities in corals thriving in a thermally variable water body in which the temperature fluctuates between 11 and 39°C in different seasons. The viral assemblages of two of the most abundant massive (Porites harrisoni and branching (Acropora downingi corals in offshore and inshore reef systems in the northern Arabian Gulf were investigated. Samples were collected from five reef systems during summer, autumn and winter of 2011/2012. The two coral viromes contain 12 viral families, including 10 dsDNA viral families [Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Myoviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Baculoviridae, Herpesviridae, Adenoviridae, Alloherpesviridae, Mimiviridae and one unclassified family], one-ssDNA viral family (Microviridae and one RNA viral family (Retroviridae. Overall, sequences significantly similar to Podoviridae were the most abundant in the P. harrisoni and A. downingi viromes. Various morphological types of virus-like particles (VLPs were confirmed in the healthy coral tissue by transmission electron microscopy, including large tailless VLPs and electron-dense core VLPs. Tailed bacteriophages were isolated from coral tissue using a plaque assay. Higher functional gene diversity was recorded in A. downingi than in P. harrisoni, and comparative metagenomics revealed that the Gulf viral assemblages are functionally distinct from Pacific Ocean coral viral communities.

  11. viral infections of the central nervous system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (CSF) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing can be performed for diagnosis. Treatment is .... e.g. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) ... They are caused by transmissible particles that contain a pathogenic ...

  12. Viral mimicry of the complement system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of virus-infected cells, and generation of inflammatory and specific immune responses. However, to ..... lovirus (HCMV), a herpesvirus, human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 .... of CD4-dependant entry and infection or result in effec- tive transfer of ...

  13. A versatile gas-flow proportional counter for Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibicu, I., E-mail: bibicu@infim.ro [National Institute for Materials Physics (Romania); Nicolescu, G. [IFIN-HH, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Romania); Cretu, C. [Transylvania University, Physics Department (Romania)

    2009-07-15

    This article presents a versatile gas-flow proportional counter for surface and transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy, suitable for studies with {sup 57}Fe, {sup 119}Sn and {sup 151}Eu isotopes. The main advantages obtained by new design are: (1) the height of the detection volume can be changed in large limits from 0 to 38 mm, (2) the detection volume can be choose symmetrical or not in respect with anode plan, (3) the anode replacement is easily (4) and different anode configuration can be used. The characteristics of the detector, operating at room temperature, are reported.

  14. Development of a versatile multiaperture negative ion sourcea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavenago, M.; Kulevoy, T.; Petrenko, S.; Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; Fellin, F.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P.

    2012-02-01

    A 60 kV ion source (9 beamlets of 15 mA each of H-) and plasma generators are being developed at Consorzio RFX and INFN-LNL, for their versatility in experimental campaigns and for training. Unlike most experimental sources, the design aimed at continuous operation. Magnetic configuration can achieve a minimum |B| trap, smoothly merged with the extraction filter. Modular design allows for quick substitution and upgrading of parts such as the extraction and postacceleration grids or the electrodes in contact with plasma. Experiments with a radio frequency plasma generator and Faraday cage inside the plasma are also described.

  15. Development of a versatile multiaperture negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavenago, M.; Kulevoy, T.; Petrenko, S.; Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; Fellin, F.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P.

    2012-01-01

    A 60 kV ion source (9 beamlets of 15 mA each of H - ) and plasma generators are being developed at Consorzio RFX and INFN-LNL, for their versatility in experimental campaigns and for training. Unlike most experimental sources, the design aimed at continuous operation. Magnetic configuration can achieve a minimum |B| trap, smoothly merged with the extraction filter. Modular design allows for quick substitution and upgrading of parts such as the extraction and postacceleration grids or the electrodes in contact with plasma. Experiments with a radio frequency plasma generator and Faraday cage inside the plasma are also described.

  16. Development of a versatile multiaperture negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, viale dell' Universita n.2, I-35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Kulevoy, T.; Petrenko, S. [INFN-LNL, viale dell' Universita n.2, I-35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; Fellin, F.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla fusione, c.so S. Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    A 60 kV ion source (9 beamlets of 15 mA each of H{sup -}) and plasma generators are being developed at Consorzio RFX and INFN-LNL, for their versatility in experimental campaigns and for training. Unlike most experimental sources, the design aimed at continuous operation. Magnetic configuration can achieve a minimum |B| trap, smoothly merged with the extraction filter. Modular design allows for quick substitution and upgrading of parts such as the extraction and postacceleration grids or the electrodes in contact with plasma. Experiments with a radio frequency plasma generator and Faraday cage inside the plasma are also described.

  17. Development of a versatile multiaperture negative ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavenago, M; Kulevoy, T; Petrenko, S; Serianni, G; Antoni, V; Bigi, M; Fellin, F; Recchia, M; Veltri, P

    2012-02-01

    A 60 kV ion source (9 beamlets of 15 mA each of H(-)) and plasma generators are being developed at Consorzio RFX and INFN-LNL, for their versatility in experimental campaigns and for training. Unlike most experimental sources, the design aimed at continuous operation. Magnetic configuration can achieve a minimum ∣B∣ trap, smoothly merged with the extraction filter. Modular design allows for quick substitution and upgrading of parts such as the extraction and postacceleration grids or the electrodes in contact with plasma. Experiments with a radio frequency plasma generator and Faraday cage inside the plasma are also described.

  18. Optical implementations of associative networks with versatile adaptive learning capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A D; Lippincott, W L; Lee, J N

    1987-12-01

    Optical associative, parallel-processing architectures are being developed using a multimodule approach, where a number of smaller, adaptive, associative modules are nonlinearly interconnected and cascaded under the guidance of a variety of organizational principles to structure larger architectures for solving specific problems. A number of novel optical implementations with versatile adaptive learning capabilities are presented for the individual associative modules, including holographic configurations and five specific electrooptic configurations. The practical issues involved in real optical architectures are analyzed, and actual laboratory optical implementations of associative modules based on Hebbian and Widrow-Hoff learning rules are discussed, including successful experimental demonstrations of their operation.

  19. CANDU - a versatile reactor for plutonium disposition or actinide burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, P.S.W.; Gagnon, M.J.N.; Boczar, P.G.; Ellis, R.J.; Verrall, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    High neutron economy, on-line refuelling, and a simple fuel-bundle design result in a high degree of versatility in the use of the CANDU reactor for the disposition of weapons-derived plutonium and for the annihilation of long-lived radioactive actinides, such as plutonium, neptunium, and americium isotopes, created in civilian nuclear power reactors. Inherent safety features are incorporated into the design of the bundles carrying the plutonium and actinide fuels. This approach enables existing CANDU reactors to operate with various plutonium-based fuel cycles without requiring major changes to the current reactor design. (author)

  20. Fiscal 1998 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Venture business fostering regional consortium--Creation of key industries (Development of Task-Oriented Robot Control System TORCS based on versatile 3-dimensional vision system VVV--Vertical Volumetric Vision); 1998 nendo sanjigen shikaku system VVV wo mochiita task shikogata robot seigyo system TORCS no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research is conducted for the development of a highly autonomous robot control system TORCS for the purpose of realizing an automated, unattended manufacturing process. In the development of an interface, an indicating function is built which easily adds or removes job attributes relative to given shape data. In the development of a 3-dimensional vision system VVV, a camera set and a new range finder are manufactured for ranging and recognition, the latter being an improvement from the conventional laser-aided range finder TDS. A 3-dimensional image processor is developed, which picks up pictures at a speed approximately 8 times higher than that of the conventional type. In the development of orbit calculating software programs, a job planner, an operation planner, and a vision planner are prepared. A robot program which is necessary for robot operation is also prepared. In an evaluation test involving a simulated casting line, the pick-and-place concept is successfully implemented for several kinds of cast articles positioned at random on a conveyer in motion. Difference in environmental conditions between manufacturing sites is not pursued in this paper on the ground that such should be discussed on the case-by-case basis. (NEDO)

  1. Acute Pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K.C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association of acute viral hepatitis and acute pancreatitis is well described. This study was conducted to find out the frequency of pancreatic involvement in acute viral hepatitis in the Nepalese population. Methods: Consecutive patients of acute viral hepatitis presenting with severe abdominal pain between January 2005 and April 2010 were studied. Patients with history of significant alcohol consumption and gall stones were excluded. Acute viral hepatitis was diagnosed by clinical examination, liver function test, ultrasound examination and confirmed by viral serology. Pancreatitis was diagnosed by clinical presentation, biochemistry, ultrasound examination and CT scan. Results: Severe abdominal pain was present in 38 of 382 serologically-confirmed acute viral hepatitis patients. Twenty five patients were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. The pancreatitis was mild in 14 and severe in 11 patients. The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 18 and hepatitis A virus in 7 patients. Two patients died of complications secondary to shock. The remaining patients recovered from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis occurred in 6.5 % of patients with acute viral hepatitis. Cholelithiasis and gastric ulcers are the other causes of severe abdominal pain. The majority of the patients recover with conservative management. Keywords: acute viral hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, pain abdomen, hepatitis E, hepatitis A, endemic zone

  2. Viral marketing: the use of surprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgreen, A.; Vanhamme, J.; Clarke, I.; Flaherty, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    Viral marketing involves consumers passing along a company's marketing message to their friends, family, and colleagues. This chapter reviews viral marketing campaigns and argues that the emotion of surprise often is at work and that this mechanism resembles that of word-of-mouth marketing.

  3. Restoration of central nervous system alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity and therapeutic benefits in mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB mice by a single intracisternal recombinant adeno-associated viral type 2 vector delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Haiyan; DiRosario, Julianne; Kang, Lu; Muenzer, Joseph; McCarty, Douglas M

    2010-07-01

    Finding efficient central nervous system (CNS) delivery approaches has been the major challenge facing therapeutic development for treating diseases with global neurological manifestation, such as mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IIIB, a lysosomal storage disease, caused by autosomal recessive defect of alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NaGlu). Previously, we developed an approach, intracisternal (i.c.) injection, to deliver recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector to the CNS of mice, leading to a widespread periventricular distribution of transduction. In the present study, we delivered rAAV2 vector expressing human NaGlu into the CNS of MPS IIIB mice by an i.c. injection approach, to test its therapeutic efficacy and feasibility for treating the neurological manifestation of the disease. We demonstrated significant functional neurological benefits of a single i.c. vector infusion in adult MPS IIIB mice. The treatment slowed the disease progression by mediating widespread recombinant NaGlu expression in the CNS, resulting in the reduction of brain lysosomal storage pathology, significantly improved cognitive function and prolonged survival. However, persisting motor function deficits suggested that pathology in areas outside the CNS contributes to the MPS IIIB behavioral phenotype. The therapeutic benefit of i.c. rAAV2 delivery was dose-dependent and could be attribute solely to the CNS transduction because the procedure did not lead to detectable transduction in somatic tissues. A single IC rAAV2 gene delivery is functionally beneficial for treating the CNS disease of MPS IIIB in mice. It is immediately clinically translatable, with the potential of improving the quality of life for patients with MPS IIIB.

  4. Origins and challenges of viral dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Siddharth R; Wang, David

    2017-07-15

    The accurate classification of viral dark matter - metagenomic sequences that originate from viruses but do not align to any reference virus sequences - is one of the major obstacles in comprehensively defining the virome. Depending on the sample, viral dark matter can make up from anywhere between 40 and 90% of sequences. This review focuses on the specific nature of dark matter as it relates to viral sequences. We identify three factors that contribute to the existence of viral dark matter: the divergence and length of virus sequences, the limitations of alignment based classification, and limited representation of viruses in reference sequence databases. We then discuss current methods that have been developed to at least partially circumvent these limitations and thereby reduce the extent of viral dark matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethical Considerations in Research Participation Virality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Barton, Carol

    2016-07-01

    This article seeks to commence and encourage discussion around the upcoming ethical challenges of virality in network structures. When the call for participation in a research project on lupus in Ireland went from an advertisement in a newsletter to a meme (unit of transmissible information) on a closed Facebook page, the ethical considerations of virality were raised. The article analyzes the Association of Internet Researchers guidelines, Facebook policies, and the context of privacy in relation to virality. Virality creates the leverage for methodological pluralism. The nature of the inquiry can determine the method rather than the other way around. Viral ethical considerations are evolving due to the cyber world becoming the primary meme of communication, with flexibility in the researcher's protocol providing opportunities for efficient, cost-effective, and diverse recruitment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. A Compact, Versatile Six-Port Radar Module for Industrial and Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Linz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Six-port receiver has been intensively investigated in the last decade to be implemented as an alternative radar architecture. Plenty of current scientific publications demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of the Six-port radar for special industrial, automotive, and medical applications, ranging from accurate contactless vibration analysis, through automotive radar calibration, to remote breath and heartbeat monitoring. Its highlights, such as excellent phase discrimination, trivial signal processing, low circuit complexity, and cost, have lately drawn the attention of companies working with radar technology. A joint project involving the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg and InnoSenT GmbH (Innovative Sensor Technology led to the development of a highly accurate, compact, and versatile Six-port radar module aiming at a reliable high-integration of all subcomponents such as antenna, Six-port front-end, baseband circuitry, and digital signal processing in one single package. Innovative aspects in the RF front-end design as well as in the integration strategy are hereby presented, together with a system overview and measurement results.

  7. VERSATILE, HIGH-RESOLUTION ANTEROGRADE LABELING OF VAGAL EFFERENT PROJECTIONS WITH DEXTRAN AMINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Gary C.; Phillips, Robert J.; Baronowsky, Elizabeth A.; Powley, Terry L.

    2009-01-01

    None of the anterograde tracers used to label and investigate vagal preganglionic neurons projecting to the viscera has proved optimal for routine and extensive labeling of autonomic terminal fields. To identify an alternative tracer protocol, the present experiment evaluated whether dextran conjugates, which have produced superior results in the CNS, might yield widespread and effective labeling of long, fine-caliber vagal efferents in the peripheral nervous system. The dextran conjugates that were evaluated proved reliable and versatile for labeling the motor neuron pool in its entirety, for single- and multiple-labeling protocols, for both conventional and confocal fluorescence microscopy, and for permanent labeling protocols for brightfield microscopy of the projections to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Using a standard ABC kit followed by visualization with DAB as the chromagen, Golgi-like labeling of the vagal efferent terminal fields in the GI wall was achieved with the biotinylated dextrans. The definition of individual terminal varicosities was so sharp and detailed that it was routinely practical to examine the relationship of putative vagal efferent contacts (by the criteria of high magnification light microscopy) with the dendritic and somatic architecture of counterstained neurons in the myenteric plexus. Overall, dextran conjugates provide high-definition labeling of an extensive vagal motor pool in the GI tract, and offer considerable versatility when multiple-staining protocols are needed to elucidate the complexities of the innervation of the gut. PMID:19056424

  8. Viral persistence, liver disease and host response in Hepatitis C-like virus rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trivedi, Sheetal; Murthy, Satyapramod; Sharma, Himanshu

    2018-01-01

    The lack of a relevant, tractable, and immunocompetent animal model for hepatitis C virus (HCV) has severely impeded investigations of viral persistence, immunity and pathogenesis. In the absence of immunocompetent models with robust HCV infection, homolog hepaciviruses in their natural host could...... potentially provide useful surrogate models. We isolated a rodent hepacivirus (RHV) from wild rats (Rattus norvegicus), RHV-rn1, acquired the complete viral genome sequence and developed an infectious reverse genetics system. RHV-rn1 resembles HCV in genomic features including the pattern of polyprotein...... cleavage sites and secondary structures in the viral 5' and 3' UTRs. We used site-directed and random mutagenesis to determine that only the first of the two miR-122 seed sites in viral 5'UTR is required for viral replication and persistence in rats. Next, we used the clone derived virus progeny to infect...

  9. Iron: a versatile element to produce materials for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Ana Paula C.; Araujo, Maria H.; Oliveira, Luiz C.A.; Moura, Flavia C.C.; Lago, Rochel M., E-mail: rochel@ufmg.br, E-mail: anapct@ufmg.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Tristao, Juliana C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Florestal, MG (Brazil); Ardisson, Jose D. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica Aplicada; Amorim, Camila C., E-mail: juliana@ufv.br [Departamento de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Iron is a versatile element forming several phases with different oxidation states and {sup s}tructures, such as Fe{sup 0}, FeO, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and FeOOH. All these phases have unique physicochemical properties which can be used for different applications. In this work, it is described the use of different iron compounds, synthetic and also from natural and waste sources, in environmental and technological applications. Two main research areas are described. The first one is related to strategies to increase the reactivity of Fe phases, mainly by the formation of Fe{sup 0}/iron oxide composites and by the introduction of new metals in the iron oxide structure to promote new surface reactions. The second area is the use of the magnetic properties of some iron phases to produce versatile magnetic materials with focus in adsorption, catalysis and emulsions. (author)

  10. Versatile equipment for mechanical testing of active materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, Johannes; Heimgartner, Peter

    2005-01-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) 3 different project groups presently perform aging research on active materials. The research fields are fusion, high neutron flux targets and LWR relevant components. Up to now mechanical testing has been performed with small, low dose rate samples behind local shielding, not appropriate for highly activated material. To overcome this situation, a cell concept for active mechanical testing was elaborated and has been erected in PSI's Hotlab. It consists of 4 shielded cells. 3 connected cells are versatile and independently operable for highly beta/gamma active samples. One cell is an alpha/beta/gamma-box which will be realized in a second phase. This paper presents the versatility especially of the beta/gamma-cells: The different user groups perform experiments in these cells, whereas different machines can be placed into the cells. As consequence of the need of heavily shielded cell doors, a special strengthening and levelling of the floor has been required. In all cells the relevant media are installed. Besides the performance of the cells, the project progress as the difficulties and their solutions are described. (Author)

  11. Graphene Emerges as a Versatile Template for Materials Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengjie; Wu, Sida; Lv, Wei; Shao, Jiao-Jing; Kang, Feiyu; Yang, Quan-Hong

    2016-05-01

    Graphene and its derivatives are emerging as a class of novel but versatile templates for the controlled preparation and functionalization of materials. In this paper a conceptual review on graphene-based templates is given, highlighting their versatile roles in materials preparation. Graphene is capable of acting as a low-dimensional hard template, where its two-dimensional morphology directs the formation of novel nanostructures. Graphene oxide and other functionalized graphenes are amphiphilic and may be seen as soft templates for formatting the growth or inducing the controlled assembly of nanostructures. In addition, nanospaces in restacked graphene can be used for confining the growth of sheet-like nanostructures, and assemblies of interlinked graphenes can behave either as skeletons for the formation of composite materials or as sacrificial templates for novel materials with a controlled network structure. In summary, flexible graphene and its derivatives together with an increasing number of assembled structures show great potentials as templates for materials production. Many challenges remain, for example precise structural control of such novel templates and the removal of the non-functional remaining templates. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Interplay Among Constitutes of Ebola Virus: Nucleoprotein, Polymerase L, Viral Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minchuan; He, Peiming; Su, Jing; Singh, Dadabhai T.; Su, Hailei; Su, Haibin

    Ebola virus is a highly lethal filovirus, claimed thousands of people in its recent outbreak. Seven viral proteins constitute ebola viral structure, and four of them (nucleoprotein (NP), polymerase L, VP35 and VP30) participate majorly in viral replication and transcription. We have elucidated a conformation change of NP cleft by VP35 NP-binding protein domains through superimposing two experimental NP structure images and discussed the function of this conformation change in the replication and transcription with polymerase complex (L, VP35 and VP30). The important roles of VP30 in viral RNA synthesis have also been discussed. A “tapping” model has been proposed in this paper for a better understanding of the interplay among the four viral proteins (NP, polymerase L, VP35 and VP30). Moreover, we have pinpointed some key residue changes on NP (both NP N- and C-terminal) and L between Reston and Zaire by computational studies. Together, this paper provides a description of interactions among ebola viral proteins (NP, L, VP35, VP30 and VP40) in viral replication and transcription, and sheds light on the complex system of viral reproduction.

  13. Diversity in viral anti-PKR mechanisms: a remarkable case of evolutionary convergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Domingo-Gil

    Full Text Available Most viruses express during infection products that prevent or neutralize the effect of the host dsRNA activated protein kinase (PKR. Translation of Sindbis virus (SINV mRNA escapes to PKR activation and eIF2 phosphorylation in infected cells by a mechanism that requires a stem loop structure in viral 26S mRNA termed DLP to initiate translation in the absence of functional eIF2. Unlike the rest of viruses tested, we found that Alphavirus infection allowed a strong PKR activation and eIF2α phosphorylation in vitro and in infected animals so that the presence of DLP structure in mRNA was critical for translation and replication of SINV. Interestingly, infection of MEFs with some viruses that express PKR inhibitors prevented eIF2α phosphorylation after superinfection with SINV, suggesting that viral anti-PKR mechanisms could be exchangeable. Thus, translation of SINV mutant lacking the DLP structure (ΔDLP in 26S mRNA was partially rescued in cells expressing vaccinia virus (VV E3 protein, a known inhibitor of PKR. This case of heterotypic complementation among evolutionary distant viruses confirmed experimentally a remarkable case of convergent evolution in viral anti-PKR mechanisms. Our data reinforce the critical role of PKR in regulating virus-host interaction and reveal the versatility of viruses to find different solutions to solve the same conflict.

  14. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated viral interference in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Zahir

    2015-11-11

    Background The CRISPR/Cas9 system provides bacteria and archaea with molecular immunity against invading phages and conjugative plasmids. Recently, CRISPR/Cas9 has been used for targeted genome editing in diverse eukaryotic species. Results In this study, we investigate whether the CRISPR/Cas9 system could be used in plants to confer molecular immunity against DNA viruses. We deliver sgRNAs specific for coding and non-coding sequences of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) into Nicotiana benthamiana plants stably overexpressing the Cas9 endonuclease, and subsequently challenge these plants with TYLCV. Our data demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system targeted TYLCV for degradation and introduced mutations at the target sequences. All tested sgRNAs exhibit interference activity, but those targeting the stem-loop sequence within the TYLCV origin of replication in the intergenic region (IR) are the most effective. N. benthamiana plants expressing CRISPR/Cas9 exhibit delayed or reduced accumulation of viral DNA, abolishing or significantly attenuating symptoms of infection. Moreover, this system could simultaneously target multiple DNA viruses. Conclusions These data establish the efficacy of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for viral interference in plants, thereby extending the utility of this technology and opening the possibility of producing plants resistant to multiple viral infections.

  15. Robustness and versatility of a nonlinear interdependence method for directional coupling detection from spike trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvestio, Irene; Kreuz, Thomas; Andrzejak, Ralph G.

    2017-08-01

    The detection of directional couplings between dynamics based on measured spike trains is a crucial problem in the understanding of many different systems. In particular, in neuroscience it is important to assess the connectivity between neurons. One of the approaches that can estimate directional coupling from the analysis of point processes is the nonlinear interdependence measure L . Although its efficacy has already been demonstrated, it still needs to be tested under more challenging and realistic conditions prior to an application to real data. Thus, in this paper we use the Hindmarsh-Rose model system to test the method in the presence of noise and for different spiking regimes. We also examine the influence of different parameters and spike train distances. Our results show that the measure L is versatile and robust to various types of noise, and thus suitable for application to experimental data.

  16. The feasibility of miniaturizing the versatile portable speech prosthesis: A market survey of commercial products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walklet, T.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of a miniature versatile portable speech prosthesis (VPSP) was analyzed and information on its potential users and on other similar devices was collected. The VPSP is a device that incorporates speech synthesis technology. The objective is to provide sufficient information to decide whether there is valuable technology to contribute to the miniaturization of the VPSP. The needs of potential users are identified, the development status of technologies similar or related to those used in the VPSP are evaluated. The VPSP, a computer based speech synthesis system fits on a wheelchair. The purpose was to produce a device that provides communication assistance in educational, vocational, and social situations to speech impaired individuals. It is expected that the VPSP can be a valuable aid for persons who are also motor impaired, which explains the placement of the system on a wheelchair.

  17. A versatile calibration procedure for portable coded aperture gamma cameras and RGB-D sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, V.; Crivellaro, A.; Amgarou, K.; de Lanaute, N. Blanc; Fua, P.; Liénard, E.

    2018-04-01

    The present paper proposes a versatile procedure for the geometrical calibration of coded aperture gamma cameras and RGB-D depth sensors, using only one radioactive point source and a simple experimental set-up. Calibration data is then used for accurately aligning radiation images retrieved by means of the γ-camera with the respective depth images computed with the RGB-D sensor. The system resulting from such a combination is thus able to retrieve, automatically, the distance of radioactive hotspots by means of pixel-wise mapping between gamma and depth images. This procedure is of great interest for a wide number of applications, ranging from precise automatic estimation of the shape and distance of radioactive objects to Augmented Reality systems. Incidentally, the corresponding results validated the choice of a perspective design model for a coded aperture γ-camera.

  18. Electron density profile measurements from hydrogen line intensity ratio method in Versatile Experimental Spherical Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, YooSung; Shi, Yue-Jiang, E-mail: yjshi@snu.ac.kr; Yang, Jeong-hun; Kim, SeongCheol; Kim, Young-Gi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Yang, Seongmoo; Jo, Jungmin; Chung, Kyoung-Jae [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Soo-Ghee [Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 442-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advanced Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Electron density profiles of versatile experiment spherical torus plasmas are measured by using a hydrogen line intensity ratio method. A fast-frame visible camera with appropriate bandpass filters is used to detect images of Balmer line intensities. The unique optical system makes it possible to take images of H{sub α} and H{sub β} radiation simultaneously, with only one camera. The frame rate is 1000 fps and the spatial resolution of the system is about 0.5 cm. One-dimensional local emissivity profiles have been obtained from the toroidal line of sight with viewing dumps. An initial result for the electron density profile is presented and is in reasonable agreement with values measured by a triple Langmuir probe.

  19. HIV Viral Load: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/hivviralload.html HIV Viral Load To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an HIV Viral Load? An HIV viral load is a ...

  20. Improving laboratory efficiencies to scale-up HIV viral load testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemnji, George; Onyebujoh, Philip; Nkengasong, John N

    2017-03-01

    Viral load measurement is a key indicator that determines patients' response to treatment and risk for disease progression. Efforts are ongoing in different countries to scale-up access to viral load testing to meet the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS target of achieving 90% viral suppression among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. However, the impact of these initiatives may be challenged by increased inefficiencies along the viral load testing spectrum. This will translate to increased costs and ineffectiveness of scale-up approaches. This review describes different parameters that could be addressed across the viral load testing spectrum aimed at improving efficiencies and utilizing test results for patient management. Though progress is being made in some countries to scale-up viral load, many others still face numerous challenges that may affect scale-up efficiencies: weak demand creation, ineffective supply chain management systems; poor specimen referral systems; inadequate data and quality management systems; and weak laboratory-clinical interface leading to diminished uptake of test results. In scaling up access to viral load testing, there should be a renewed focus to address efficiencies across the entire spectrum, including factors related to access, uptake, and impact of test results.

  1. Assembly of viral genomes from metagenomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia L Smits

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections remain a serious global health issue. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly used in the detection of novel viral pathogens but also to generate complete genomes of uncultivated viruses. In silico identification of complete viral genomes from sequence data would allow rapid phylogenetic characterization of these new viruses. Often, however, complete viral genomes are not recovered, but rather several distinct contigs derived from a single entity, some of which have no sequence homology to any known proteins. De novo assembly of single viruses from a metagenome is challenging, not only because of the lack of a reference genome, but also because of intrapopulation variation and uneven or insufficient coverage. Here we explored different assembly algorithms, remote homology searches, genome-specific sequence motifs, k-mer frequency ranking, and coverage profile binning to detect and obtain viral target genomes from metagenomes. All methods were tested on 454-generated sequencing datasets containing three recently described RNA viruses with a relatively large genome which were divergent to previously known viruses from the viral families Rhabdoviridae and Coronaviridae. Depending on specific characteristics of the target virus and the metagenomic community, different assembly and in silico gap closure strategies were successful in obtaining near complete viral genomes.

  2. First insight into the viral community of the cnidarian model metaorganism Aiptasia using RNA-Seq data

    KAUST Repository

    Brüwer, Jan D.

    2018-03-01

    Current research posits that all multicellular organisms live in symbioses with associated microorganisms and form so-called metaorganisms or holobionts. Cnidarian metaorganisms are of specific interest given that stony corals provide the foundation of the globally threatened coral reef ecosystems. To gain first insight into viruses associated with the coral model system Aiptasia (sensu Exaiptasia pallida), we analyzed an existing RNA-Seq dataset of aposymbiotic, partially populated, and fully symbiotic Aiptasia CC7 anemones with Symbiodinium. Our approach included the selective removal of anemone host and algal endosymbiont sequences and subsequent microbial sequence annotation. Of a total of 297 million raw sequence reads, 8.6 million (∼3%) remained after host and endosymbiont sequence removal. Of these, 3,293 sequences could be assigned as of viral origin. Taxonomic annotation of these sequences suggests that Aiptasia is associated with a diverse viral community, comprising 116 viral taxa covering 40 families. The viral assemblage was dominated by viruses from the families Herpesviridae (12.00%), Partitiviridae (9.93%), and Picornaviridae (9.87%). Despite an overall stable viral assemblage, we found that some viral taxa exhibited significant changes in their relative abundance when Aiptasia engaged in a symbiotic relationship with Symbiodinium. Elucidation of viral taxa consistently present across all conditions revealed a core virome of 15 viral taxa from 11 viral families, encompassing many viruses previously reported as members of coral viromes. Despite the non-random selection of viral genetic material due to the nature of the sequencing data analyzed, our study provides a first insight into the viral community associated with Aiptasia. Similarities of the Aiptasia viral community with those of corals corroborate the application of Aiptasia as a model system to study coral holobionts. Further, the change in abundance of certain viral taxa across different

  3. Massive activation of archaeal defense genes during viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quax, Tessa E F; Voet, Marleen; Sismeiro, Odile; Dillies, Marie-Agnes; Jagla, Bernd; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Sezonov, Guennadi; Forterre, Patrick; van der Oost, John; Lavigne, Rob; Prangishvili, David

    2013-08-01

    Archaeal viruses display unusually high genetic and morphological diversity. Studies of these viruses proved to be instrumental for the expansion of knowledge on viral diversity and evolution. The Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 (SIRV2) is a model to study virus-host interactions in Archaea. It is a lytic virus that exploits a unique egress mechanism based on the formation of remarkable pyramidal structures on the host cell envelope. Using whole-transcriptome sequencing, we present here a global map defining host and viral gene expression during the infection cycle of SIRV2 in its hyperthermophilic host S. islandicus LAL14/1. This information was used, in combination with a yeast two-hybrid analysis of SIRV2 protein interactions, to advance current understanding of viral gene functions. As a consequence of SIRV2 infection, transcription of more than one-third of S. islandicus genes was differentially regulated. While expression of genes involved in cell division decreased, those genes playing a role in antiviral defense were activated on a large scale. Expression of genes belonging to toxin-antitoxin and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas systems was specifically pronounced. The observed different degree of activation of various CRISPR-Cas systems highlights the specialized functions they perform. The information on individual gene expression and activation of antiviral defense systems is expected to aid future studies aimed at detailed understanding of the functions and interplay of these systems in vivo.

  4. Viral-Associated GN: Hepatitis C and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupin, Warren L

    2017-08-07

    Viruses are capable of inducing a wide spectrum of glomerular disorders that can be categorized on the basis of the duration of active viremia: acute, subacute, or chronic. The variable responses of the adaptive immune system to each time period of viral infection results mechanistically in different histologic forms of glomerular injury. The unique presence of a chronic viremic carrier state with either hepatitis C (HCV) or HIV has led to the opportunity to study in detail various pathogenic mechanisms of viral-induced glomerular injury, including direct viral infection of renal tissue and the development of circulating immune complexes composed of viral antigens that deposit along the glomerular basement membrane. Epidemiologic data show that approximately 25%-30% of all HIV patients are coinfected with HCV and 5%-10% of all HCV patients are coinfected with HIV. This situation can often lead to a challenging differential diagnosis when glomerular disease occurs in this dual-infected population and requires the clinician to be familiar with the clinical presentation, laboratory workup, and pathophysiology behind the development of renal disease for both HCV and HIV. Both of these viruses can be categorized under the new classification of infection-associated GN as opposed to being listed as causes of postinfectious GN as has previously been applied to them. Neither of these viruses lead to renal injury after a latent period of controlled and inactive viremia. The geneses of HCV- and HIV-associated glomerular diseases share a total dependence on the presence of active viral replication to sustain renal injury so the renal disease cannot be listed under "postinfectious" GN. With the new availability of direct-acting antivirals for HCV and more effective combined antiretroviral therapy for HIV, successful remission and even regression of glomerular lesions can be achieved if initiated at an early stage. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Viral Evasion of Natural Killer Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Li, Xiaojuan; Kuang, Ersheng

    2016-04-12

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a key role in antiviral innate defenses because of their abilities to kill infected cells and secrete regulatory cytokines. Additionally, NK cells exhibit adaptive memory-like antigen-specific responses, which represent a novel antiviral NK cell defense mechanism. Viruses have evolved various strategies to evade the recognition and destruction by NK cells through the downregulation of the NK cell activating receptors. Here, we review the recent findings on viral evasion of NK cells via the impairment of NK cell-activating receptors and ligands, which provide new insights on the relationship between NK cells and viral actions during persistent viral infections.

  6. Viral Evasion of Natural Killer Cell Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells play a key role in antiviral innate defenses because of their abilities to kill infected cells and secrete regulatory cytokines. Additionally, NK cells exhibit adaptive memory-like antigen-specific responses, which represent a novel antiviral NK cell defense mechanism. Viruses have evolved various strategies to evade the recognition and destruction by NK cells through the downregulation of the NK cell activating receptors. Here, we review the recent findings on viral evasion of NK cells via the impairment of NK cell-activating receptors and ligands, which provide new insights on the relationship between NK cells and viral actions during persistent viral infections.

  7. Unfinished stories on viral quasispecies and Darwinian views of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Más, Antonio; López-Galíndez, Cecilio; Cacho, Isabel; Gómez, Jordi; Martínez, Miguel Angel

    2010-04-09

    Experimental evidence that RNA virus populations consist of distributions of mutant genomes, termed quasispecies, was first published 31 years ago. This work provided the earliest experimental support for a theory to explain a system that replicated with limited fidelity and to understand the self-organization and adaptability of early life forms on Earth. High mutation rates and quasispecies dynamics of RNA viruses are intimately related to both viral disease and antiviral treatment strategies. Moreover, the quasispecies concept is being applied to other biological systems such as cancer research in which cellular mutant spectra can be also detected. This review addresses some of the unanswered questions regarding viral and theoretical quasispecies concepts as well as more practical aspects concerning resistance to antiviral treatments and pathogenesis. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of viral virulence: empirical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael; Wargo, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of virulence as a pathogen trait that can evolve in response to selection has led to a large body of virulence evolution theory developed in the 1980-1990s. Various aspects of this theory predict increased or decreased virulence in response to a complex array of selection pressures including mode of transmission, changes in host, mixed infection, vector-borne transmission, environmental changes, host vaccination, host resistance, and co-evolution of virus and host. A fundamental concept is prediction of trade-offs between the costs and benefits associated with higher virulence, leading to selection of optimal virulence levels. Through a combination of observational and experimental studies, including experimental evolution of viruses during serial passage, many of these predictions have now been explored in systems ranging from bacteriophage to viruses of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrate hosts. This chapter summarizes empirical studies of viral virulence evolution in numerous diverse systems, including the classic models myxomavirus in rabbits, Marek's disease virus in chickens, and HIV in humans. Collectively these studies support some aspects of virulence evolution theory, suggest modifications for other aspects, and show that predictions may apply in some virus:host interactions but not in others. Finally, we consider how virulence evolution theory applies to disease management in the field.

  9. Virus-Clip: a fast and memory-efficient viral integration site detection tool at single-base resolution with annotation capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Daniel W H; Sze, Karen M F; Ng, Irene O L

    2015-08-28

    Viral integration into the human genome upon infection is an important risk factor for various human malignancies. We developed viral integration site detection tool called Virus-Clip, which makes use of information extracted from soft-clipped sequencing reads to identify exact positions of human and virus breakpoints of integration events. With initial read alignment to virus reference genome and streamlined procedures, Virus-Clip delivers a simple, fast and memory-efficient solution to viral integration site detection. Moreover, it can also automatically annotate the integration events with the corresponding affected human genes. Virus-Clip has been verified using whole-transcriptome sequencing data and its detection was validated to have satisfactory sensitivity and specificity. Marked advancement in performance was detected, compared to existing tools. It is applicable to versatile types of data including whole-genome sequencing, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and targeted sequencing. Virus-Clip is available at http://web.hku.hk/~dwhho/Virus-Clip.zip.

  10. Reverse transcriptase directs viral evolution in a deep ocean methane seep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, B. G.; Bagby, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Deep ocean methane seeps are sites of intense microbial activity, with complex communities fueled by aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophy. Methane consumption in these communities has a substantial impact on the global carbon cycle, yet little is known about their evolutionary history or their likely evolutionary trajectories in a warming ocean. As in other marine systems, viral predation and virally mediated horizontal gene transfer are expected to be major drivers of evolutionary change in these communities; however, the host cells' resistance to cultivation has impeded direct study of the viral population. We conducted a metagenomic study of viruses in the anoxic sediments of a deep methane seep in the Santa Monica Basin in the Southern California Bight. We retrieved 1660 partial viral genomes, tentatively assigning 1232 to bacterial hosts and 428 to archaea. One abundant viral genome, likely hosted by Clostridia species present in the sediment, was found to encode a diversity-generating retroelement (DGR), a module for reverse transcriptase-mediated directed mutagenesis of a distal tail fiber protein. While DGRs have previously been described in the viruses of human pathogens, where diversification of viral tail fibers permits infection of a range of host cell types, to our knowledge this is the first description of such an element in a marine virus. By providing a mechanism for massively broadening potential host range, the presence of DGRs in these systems may have a major impact on the prevalence of virally mediated horizontal gene transfer, and even on the phylogenetic distances across which genes are moved.

  11. Versatility of PEEK as a fixed partial denture framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Nikita; Gupta, Nidhi; Reddy, K Mahendranadh; Shastry, Y M

    2017-01-01

    Materials used for fixed partial denture (FPD) frameworks have had properties of excellent strength, durability, and biocompatibility. Some of the materials which have been used till date include alloys, ceramics, and high-performance polymers such as zirconia, Ni-Cr, lithium disilicate, and so on. All these, though excellent, have their advantages and disadvantages. Hence, the search has always been on for a better material. One such material, which has made its foray into dentistry in the recent times, is polyetheretherketone (PEEK). It is a semicrystalline thermoplastic material. PEEK has an excellent chemical resistance and mechanical properties that are retained at high temperatures. The versatility of PEEK as a dental material for FPD framework was evaluated in this case report.

  12. A Versatile Active Block: DXCCCII and Tunable Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Tekin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study describes dual-X controlled current conveyor (DXCCCII as a versatile active block and its application to inductance simulators for testing. Moreover, the high pass filter application using with DXCCCII based inductance simulator and oscillator with flexible tunable oscillation frequency have been presented and simulated to confirm the theoretical validity. The proposed circuit which has a simple circuit design requires the low-voltage and the DXCCCII can also be tuned in the wide range by the biasing current. The proposed DXCCCII provides a good linearity, high output impedance at Z terminals, and a reasonable current and voltage transfer gain accuracy. The proposed DXCCCII and its applications have been simulated using the CMOS 0.18 µm technology.

  13. Preliminary Options Assessment of Versatile Irradiation Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramazan Sonat [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the work undertaken at INL from April 2016 to January 2017 and aimed at analyzing some options for designing and building a versatile test reactor; the scope of work was agreed upon with DOE-NE. Section 2 presents some results related to KNK II and PRISM Mod A. Section 3 presents some alternatives to the VCTR presented in [ ] as well as a neutronic parametric study to assess the minimum power requirement needed for a 235U metal fueled fast test reactor capable to generate a fast (>100 keV) flux of 4.0 x 1015 n /cm2-s at the test location. Section 4 presents some results regarding a fundamental characteristic of test reactors, namely displacement per atom (dpa) in test samples. Section 5 presents the INL assessment of the ANL fast test reactor design FASTER. Section 6 presents a summary.

  14. Algae biofuels: versatility for the future of bioenergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carla S; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2012-06-01

    The world continues to increase its energy use, brought about by an expanding population and a desire for a greater standard of living. This energy use coupled with the realization of the impact of carbon dioxide on the climate, has led us to reanalyze the potential of plant-based biofuels. Of the potential sources of biofuels the most efficient producers of biomass are the photosynthetic microalgae and cyanobacteria. These versatile organisms can be used for the production of bioethanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, and biogas. In fact, one of the most economic methods for algal biofuels production may be the combined biorefinery approach where multiple biofuels are produced from one biomass source. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Versatile hydrothermal synthesis of one-dimensional composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yonglan

    2008-12-01

    In this paper we report on a versatile hydrothermal approach developed to fabricate one-dimensional (1D) composite structures. Sulfur and selenium formed liquid and adsorbed onto microrods as droplets and subsequently reacted with metallic ion in solution to produce nanoparticles-decorated composite microrods. 1D composites including ZnO/CdS, ZnO/MnS, ZnO/CuS, ZnO/CdSe, and FeOOH/CdS were successfully made using this hydrothermal strategy and the growth mechanism was also discussed. This hydrothermal strategy is simple and green, and can be extended to the synthesis of various 1D composite structures. Moreover, the interaction between the shell nanoparticles and the one-dimensional nanomaterials were confirmed by photoluminescence investigation of ZnO/CdS.

  16. The versatile subepithelial connective tissue graft: a literature update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, B V; Khanna, Divya; Chowdhary, Kamedh Yashawant; Prabhuji, M Lv

    2016-01-01

    Harmony between hard and soft tissue morphologies is essential for form, function, and a good esthetic outlook. Replacement grafts for correction of soft tissue defects around the teeth have become important to periodontal plastic and implant surgical procedures. Among a multitude of surgical techniques and graft materials reported in literature, the subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) has gained wide popularity and acceptance. The purpose of this article is to acquaint clinicians with the current understanding of the versatile SCTG. Key factors associated with graft harvesting as well as applications, limitations, and complications of SCTGs are discussed. This connective tissue has shown excellent short- and long-term stability, is easily available, and is economical to use. The SCTG should be considered as an alternative in all periodontal reconstruction surgeries.

  17. Versatile Auxiliary Orthodontic Spring for Orthodontic Correction of Impacted Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavankumar Janardan Vibhute

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malocclusion such as impacted tooth is not uncommon. Many approaches with various auxiliary springs have been reported in literature till date for correction of such malocclusions. They had biomechanical, retentive and stability drawbacks inherent in their designs. This article presents the innovative approach for orthodontic correction of impacted tooth, especially with light force appliance, i.e. Begg′s appliance, where round wires in round molar tubes are used throughout treatment. A versatile auxiliary orthodontic spring (VAOS is fabricated in the 0.018 inch Australian stainless steel round wire, which may be anchored on round molar buccal tube, and desirable force vector may be applied in any of the three dimensions. Fabrication and its clinical application are discussed.

  18. Write Strategy for Dual-Layer Digital Versatile Discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Hiroshi; Tokui, Kenji; Higuchi, Shinji; Moriizumi, Hirokazu; Matsumoto, Ikuo

    2006-02-01

    A novel write strategy for rewritable dual-layer digital versatile discs (DVDs) was studied. This new strategy involves the erase top pulse which is included in the conventional write strategy for single-layer DVDs in present market. By thermal calculations, it was confirmed that this erase top pulse has an affect on the rapid heating of recording films. We observed that this new strategy enabled the improvement in data qualities on the layer near the laser incident (L0) effectively in 2 × and 4 ×-speed recordings even if L0 had a high optical transparency. Furthermore we also demonstrated a combination of what with the 2T-period strategy on the layer far from the laser incident (L1) realized a well-balanced signal performance for dual-layer DVD media.

  19. The human PDI family: Versatility packed into a single fold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appenzeller-Herzog, Christian; Ellgaard, Lars

    2007-01-01

    in promoting oxidative protein folding in the ER has been extended in recent years to include roles in other processes such as ER-associated degradation (ERAD), trafficking, calcium homeostasis, antigen presentation and virus entry. Some of these functions are performed by non-catalytic members of the family...... that lack the active-site cysteines. Regardless of their function, all human PDIs contain at least one domain of approximately 100 amino acid residues with structural homology to thioredoxin. As we learn more about the individual proteins of the family, a complex picture is emerging that emphasizes as much...... their differences as their similarities, and underlines the versatility of the thioredoxin fold. Here, we primarily explore the diversity of cellular functions described for the human PDIs. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec-3...

  20. Metagenome of a Versatile Chemolithoautotroph from Expanding Oceanic Dead Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, David A.; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles L.; Song, Young; Wright, Jody; Tringe, Susannah G.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2009-07-15

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), also known as oceanic"dead zones", are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding due to global warming and coastal eutrophication. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, OMZs support a thriving but cryptic microbiota whose combined metabolic activity is intimately connected to nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here we report time-resolved metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated OMZ microbe (SUP05) closely related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur-oxidation and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water column redox states. Thus, SUP05 plays integral roles in shaping nutrient and energy flow within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters via carbon sequestration, sulfide detoxification and biological nitrogen loss with important implications for marine productivity and atmospheric greenhouse control.

  1. A Versatile Microarray Platform for Capturing Rare Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Haller, Anna; Gorges, Tobias M.; Vellekoop, Michael J.; Riethdorf, Sabine; Müller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus; Fuchs, Harald

    2015-10-01

    Analyses of rare events occurring at extremely low frequencies in body fluids are still challenging. We established a versatile microarray-based platform able to capture single target cells from large background populations. As use case we chose the challenging application of detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs) - about one cell in a billion normal blood cells. After incubation with an antibody cocktail, targeted cells are extracted on a microarray in a microfluidic chip. The accessibility of our platform allows for subsequent recovery of targets for further analysis. The microarray facilitates exclusion of false positive capture events by co-localization allowing for detection without fluorescent labelling. Analyzing blood samples from cancer patients with our platform reached and partly outreached gold standard performance, demonstrating feasibility for clinical application. Clinical researchers free choice of antibody cocktail without need for altered chip manufacturing or incubation protocol, allows virtual arbitrary targeting of capture species and therefore wide spread applications in biomedical sciences.

  2. Development of a versatile laser light scattering instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    1990-10-01

    A versatile laser light scattering (LLS) instrument is developed for use in microgravity to measure microscopic particles of 30 A to above 3 microns. Since it is an optical technique, LLS does not affect the sample being studied. A LLS instrument built from modules allows several configurations, each optimized for a particular experiment. The multiangle LLS instrument can be mounted in the rack in the Space Shuttle and on Space Station Freedom. It is possible that a Space Shuttle glove-box and a lap-top computer containing a correlator card can be used to perform a number of experiments and to demonstrate the technology needed for more elaborate investigations. This offers simple means of flying a great number of experiments without the additional requirements of full-scale flight hardware experiments.

  3. Versatile robotic probe calibration for position tracking in ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bø, Lars Eirik; Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Lindseth, Frank; Hernes, Toril A N

    2015-01-01

    Within the field of ultrasound-guided procedures, there are a number of methods for ultrasound probe calibration. While these methods are usually developed for a specific probe, they are in principle easily adapted to other probes. In practice, however, the adaptation often proves tedious and this is impractical in a research setting, where new probes are tested regularly. Therefore, we developed a method which can be applied to a large variety of probes without adaptation. The method used a robot arm to move a plastic sphere submerged in water through the ultrasound image plane, providing a slow and precise movement. The sphere was then segmented from the recorded ultrasound images using a MATLAB programme and the calibration matrix was computed based on this segmentation in combination with tracking information. The method was tested on three very different probes demonstrating both great versatility and high accuracy. (paper)

  4. Towards Versatile Robots Through Open Heterogeneous Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyder, Andreas

    arises, a new robot can be assembled rapidly from the existing modules, in contrast to conventional robots, which require a time consuming and expensive development process. In this thesis we define a modular robot to be a robot consisting of dynamically reconfigurable modules. The goal of this thesis......Robots are important tools in our everyday life. Both in industry and at the consumer level they serve the purpose of increasing our scope and extending our capabilities. Modular robots take the next step, allowing us to easily create and build various robots from a set of modules. If a problem...... is to increase the versatility and practical usability of modular robots by introducing new conceptual designs. Until now modular robots have been based on a pre-specified set of modules, and thus, their functionality is limited. We propose an open heterogeneous design concept, which allows a modular robot...

  5. Versatile robotic probe calibration for position tracking in ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirik Bø, Lars; Fagertun Hofstad, Erlend; Lindseth, Frank; Hernes, Toril A. N.

    2015-05-01

    Within the field of ultrasound-guided procedures, there are a number of methods for ultrasound probe calibration. While these methods are usually developed for a specific probe, they are in principle easily adapted to other probes. In practice, however, the adaptation often proves tedious and this is impractical in a research setting, where new probes are tested regularly. Therefore, we developed a method which can be applied to a large variety of probes without adaptation. The method used a robot arm to move a plastic sphere submerged in water through the ultrasound image plane, providing a slow and precise movement. The sphere was then segmented from the recorded ultrasound images using a MATLAB programme and the calibration matrix was computed based on this segmentation in combination with tracking information. The method was tested on three very different probes demonstrating both great versatility and high accuracy.

  6. Electrophoresis Gel Quantification with a Flatbed Scanner and Versatile Lighting from a Screen Scavenged from a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Brendan; Ng, Tuck Wah; Tan, Han Yen; Liew, Oi Wah

    2012-01-01

    The use of different types of stains in the quantification of proteins separated on gels using electrophoresis offers the capability of deriving good outcomes in terms of linear dynamic range, sensitivity, and compatibility with specific proteins. An inexpensive, simple, and versatile lighting system based on liquid crystal display backlighting is…

  7. The Application of NHEJ-CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre-Lox System in the Generation of Bivalent Duck Enteritis Virus Vaccine against Avian Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxiang Chang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Duck-targeted vaccines to protect against avian influenza are critically needed to aid in influenza disease control efforts in regions where ducks are endemic for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI. Duck enteritis virus (DEV is a promising candidate viral vector for development of vaccines targeting ducks, owing to its large genome and narrow host range. The clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9 system is a versatile gene-editing tool that has proven beneficial for gene modification and construction of recombinant DNA viral vectored vaccines. Currently, there are two commonly used methods for gene insertion: non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ and homology-directed repair (HDR. Owing to its advantages in efficiency and independence from molecular requirements of the homologous arms, we utilized NHEJ-dependent CRISPR/Cas9 to insert the influenza hemagglutinin (HA antigen expression cassette into the DEV genome. The insert was initially tagged with reporter green fluorescence protein (GFP, and a Cre-Lox system was later used to remove the GFP gene insert. Furthermore, a universal donor plasmid system was established by introducing double bait sequences that were independent of the viral genome. In summary, we provide proof of principle for generating recombinant DEV viral vectored vaccines against the influenza virus using an integrated NHEJ-CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre-Lox system.

  8. Modern marketing approach: Concept of viral marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Lidija B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, viral marketing is one of the most effective forms of marketing and it can be used to raise awareness about the product/service of a specific company. This type of marketing thrives in a modern environment, where final users (buyers/clients dominate by spreading messages within themselves. Boosted by the advantages that modern technology brings, viral marketing is booming in the online world. For the first time, small brands have a chance to make their appearance in the global market ad challenge the dominating position of the historically top brands. All they need is content that draws attention and modern, digital culture will help spread their message. Viral marketing is the future. And with the growth of social media and other channels, marketing managers need to be careful, because it is a thin line between a good and a bad (backfired viral campaign.

  9. The Etiology and Pathogenesis of Viral Gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-31

    with subsequent seroconversion or susceptibility to illness in a naturally occurring outbreak of Norwalk virus gastroenteritis among American teen ... anorexia , myalgia and malaise. It can be severe, indeed fatal, in the elderly, infant, debilitated or malnourished pa- tient. Viral gastroenteritis

  10. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) C - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  11. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  12. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  13. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000 cases but...

  14. Bloodborne Viral Pathogen Contamination in the Era of Laboratory Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Andrew; Cook, Linda; Atienza, Ederlyn E; Kuypers, Jane; Cent, Anne; Baird, Geoffrey S; Coombs, Robert W; Jerome, Keith R; Wener, Mark H; Butler-Wu, Susan M

    2016-07-01

    The CDC states that laboratory testing for persons under investigation for Ebola virus disease can be safely performed using automated laboratory instruments by adhering to bloodborne pathogen practices. We therefore sought to investigate the levels of viral contamination of a total laboratory automation (TLA) system to guide risk mitigation strategies for handling infectious agents. Environmental swabs followed by PCR for hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses were taken from a chemistry TLA system during routine clinical use and after running a small number of high-titer HCV samples. Control experiments were performed to ensure the recovery of DNA and RNA viruses by swabs from a representative nonporous surface. Of 79 baseline swabs for nucleic acids performed on the TLA system, 10 were positive for HBV and 8 for HCV. Viral nucleic acid was consistently detected from swabs taken from the distal inside surface of the decapper discharge chute, with areas adjacent to the decapper instrument and the centrifuge rotor also positive for HBV or HCV nucleic acid. Contamination was occasionally detected on exposed surfaces in areas without protective barriers between samples and personnel. After running known HCV-positive samples, at least one additional site of contamination was detected on an exposed area of the line. A low level of viral contamination of automated clinical laboratory equipment occurs in clinical use. Given the risks associated with highly infectious agents, there is a need for risk-mitigation procedures when handling all samples. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  15. Immunity: Insect Immune Memory Goes Viral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligoxygakis, Petros

    2017-11-20

    Adaptive memory in insect immunity has been controversial. In this issue, Andino and co-workers propose that acquisition of viral sequences in the host genome gives rise to anti-sense, anti-viral piRNAs. Such sequences can be regarded as both a genomic archive of past infections and as an armour of potential heritable memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Institute of Medicine's Report on Viral Hepatitis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the 2010 report, Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C, from the Institute of Medicine.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  17. Viral Immunotherapy to Eradicate Subclinical Brain Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    flash frozen brain tissue. Hoechst and CFSE labeled cells are readily visualized in fresh CSF. The brightest staining is achieved with Hoechst and is...viral infection in the meninges is in part due to reduction of the effects of suppressor macrophages. The work is complicated by the fact that...therapeutic effect of viral infection in the meninges is in part due to reduction of the effects of suppressor macrophages. • We found that mice cured

  18. Rapid and highly fieldable viral diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Timothy E.

    2016-12-20

    The present invention relates to a rapid, highly fieldable, nearly reagentless diagnostic to identify active RNA viral replication in a live, infected cells, and more particularly in leukocytes and tissue samples (including biopsies and nasal swabs) using an array of a plurality of vertically-aligned nanostructures that impale the cells and introduce a DNA reporter construct that is expressed and amplified in the presence of active viral replication.

  19. [Drosophila melanogaster as a model for studying the function of animal viral proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelianchuk, L V; Iudina, O S

    2011-07-01

    Studies in which Drosophila melanogaster individuals carrying transgenes of animal viruses were used to analyze the action of animal viral proteins on the cell are reviewed. The data presented suggest that host specificity of viruses is determined by their proteins responsible for the penetration of the virus into the cell, while viral proteins responsible for interactions with the host cell are much less host-specific. Due to this, the model of Drosophila with its developed system of searching for genetic interactions can be used to find intracellular targets for the action of viral proteins of the second group.

  20. [The GIPSY-RECPAM model: a versatile approach for integrated evaluation in cardiologic care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinci, F

    2009-01-01

    Tree-structured methodology applied for the GISSI-PSICOLOGIA project, although performed in the framework of earliest GISSI studies, represents a powerful tool to analyze different aspects of cardiologic care. The GISSI-PSICOLOGIA project has delivered a novel methodology based on the joint application of psychometric tools and sophisticated statistical techniques. Its prospective use could allow building effective epidemiological models relevant to the prognosis of the cardiologic patient. The various features of the RECPAM method allow a versatile use in the framework of modern e-health projects. The study used the Cognitive Behavioral Assessment H Form (CBA-H) psychometrics scales. The potential for its future application in the framework of Italian cardiology is relevant and particularly indicated to assist planning of systems for integrated care and routine evaluation of the cardiologic patient.

  1. A versatile cis-acting inverter module for synthetic translational switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Kei; Hayashi, Karin; Inoue, Tan; Saito, Hirohide

    2013-01-01

    Artificial genetic switches have been designed and tuned individually in living cells. A method to directly invert an existing OFF switch to an ON switch should be highly convenient to construct complex circuits from well-characterized modules, but developing such a technique has remained a challenge. Here we present a cis-acting RNA module to invert the function of a synthetic translational OFF switch to an ON switch in mammalian cells. This inversion maintains the property of the parental switch in response to a particular input signal. In addition, we demonstrate simultaneous and specific expression control of both the OFF and ON switches. The module fits the criteria of universality and expands the versatility of mRNA-based information processing systems developed for artificially controlling mammalian cellular behaviour.

  2. Versatile Production of Poly(Epsilon-Caprolactone Fibers by Electrospinning Using Benign Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Liverani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The electrospinning technique is widely used for the fabrication of micro- and nanofibrous structures. Recent studies have focused on the use of less toxic and harmful solvents (benign solvents for electrospinning, even if those solvents usually require an accurate and longer process of optimization. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the versatility of the use of benign solvents, like acetic acid and formic acid, for the fabrication of microfibrous and nanofibrous electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone mats. The solvent systems were also shown to be suitable for the fabrication of electrospun structures with macroporosity, as well as for the fabrication of composite electrospun mats, fabricated by the addition of bioactive glass (45S5 composition particles in the polymeric solution.

  3. Versatile robotic interface to evaluate, enable and train locomotion and balance after neuromotor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Nadia; Keller, Urs; Vallery, Heike; Friedli, Lucia; van den Brand, Rubia; Starkey, Michelle L; Musienko, Pavel; Riener, Robert; Courtine, Grégoire

    2012-07-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) disorders distinctly impair locomotor pattern generation and balance, but technical limitations prevent independent assessment and rehabilitation of these subfunctions. Here we introduce a versatile robotic interface to evaluate, enable and train pattern generation and balance independently during natural walking behaviors in rats. In evaluation mode, the robotic interface affords detailed assessments of pattern generation and dynamic equilibrium after spinal cord injury (SCI) and stroke. In enabling mode,the robot acts as a propulsive or postural neuroprosthesis that instantly promotes unexpected locomotor capacities including overground walking after complete SCI, stair climbing following partial SCI and precise paw placement shortly after stroke. In training mode, robot-enabled rehabilitation, epidural electrical stimulation and monoamine agonists reestablish weight-supported locomotion, coordinated steering and balance in rats with a paralyzing SCI. This new robotic technology and associated concepts have broad implications for both assessing and restoring motor functions after CNS disorders, both in animals and in humans.

  4. The NiCl2-Li-arene(cat.) combination: a versatile reducing mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Francisco; Yus, Miguel

    2004-06-20

    The NiCl2.2H2O-Li-arene(cat.) combination described in this tutorial review has shown to be a useful and versatile mixture able to reduce a broad range of functionalities bearing carbon-carbon multiple bonds, as well as carbon-heteroatom and heteroatom-heteroatom single and multiple bonds. The analogous deuterated combination, NiCl2.2D2O-Li-arene(cat.), allows the easy incorporation of deuterium in the reaction products. Alternatively, the anhydrous NiCl2-Li-arene (or polymer-supported arene)(cat.) system generates a highly reactive metallic nickel, which in the presence of molecular hydrogen at atmospheric pressure is able to catalyze the hydrogenation of almost the same type of functionalities mentioned above.

  5. Towards versatile and sustainable hydrogen production via electrocatalytic water splitting: Electrolyte engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya

    2016-12-17

    Recent advances in power generation from renewable resources necessitate conversion of electricity to chemicals and fuels in an efficient manner. The electrocatalytic water splitting is one of the most powerful and widespread technologies. The development of highly efficient, inexpensive, flexible and versatile water electrolysis devices is desired. This review discusses the significance and impact of the electrolyte on electrocatalytic performance. Depending on the circumstances where water splitting reaction is conducted, required solution conditions such as the identity and molarity of ions may significantly differ. Quantitative understanding of such electrolyte properties on electrolysis performance is effective to facilitate developing efficient electrocatalytic systems. The electrolyte can directly participate in reaction schemes (kinetics), electrode stability, and/or indirectly impacts the performance by influencing concentration overpotential (mass transport). This review aims to guide fine-tuning of the electrolyte properties, or electrolyte engineering, for (photo)electrochemical water splitting reactions.

  6. Towards versatile and sustainable hydrogen production via electrocatalytic water splitting: Electrolyte engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in power generation from renewable resources necessitate conversion of electricity to chemicals and fuels in an efficient manner. The electrocatalytic water splitting is one of the most powerful and widespread technologies. The development of highly efficient, inexpensive, flexible and versatile water electrolysis devices is desired. This review discusses the significance and impact of the electrolyte on electrocatalytic performance. Depending on the circumstances where water splitting reaction is conducted, required solution conditions such as the identity and molarity of ions may significantly differ. Quantitative understanding of such electrolyte properties on electrolysis performance is effective to facilitate developing efficient electrocatalytic systems. The electrolyte can directly participate in reaction schemes (kinetics), electrode stability, and/or indirectly impacts the performance by influencing concentration overpotential (mass transport). This review aims to guide fine-tuning of the electrolyte properties, or electrolyte engineering, for (photo)electrochemical water splitting reactions.

  7. Oxygen tension level and human viral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morinet, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.morinet@sls.aphp.fr [Centre des Innovations Thérapeutiques en Oncologie et Hématologie (CITOH), CHU Saint-Louis, Paris (France); Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité Paris, Paris (France); Casetti, Luana [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); François, Jean-Hugues; Capron, Claude [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); Laboratoire d' Hématologie, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne (France); Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelynes, Versailles (France); Pillet, Sylvie [Laboratoire de Bactériologie-Virologie-Hygiène, CHU de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne (France); Université de Lyon et Université de Saint-Etienne, Jean Monnet, GIMAP EA3064, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, Lyon (France)

    2013-09-15

    The role of oxygen tension level is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in oncology and radiotherapy since about 60 years. Oxygen tension may inhibit or stimulate propagation of viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. In turn modulating oxygen metabolism may constitute a novel approach to treat viral infections as an adjuvant therapy. The major transcription factor which regulates oxygen tension level is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α is a possible method in the treatment of chronic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections and Kaposi sarcoma in addition to classic chemotherapy. The aim of this review is to supply an updating concerning the influence of oxygen tension level in human viral infections and to evoke possible new therapeutic strategies regarding this environmental condition. - Highlights: • Oxygen tension level regulates viral replication in vitro and possibly in vivo. • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) is the principal factor involved in Oxygen tension level. • HIF-1α upregulates gene expression for example of HIV, JC and Kaposi sarcoma viruses. • In addition to classical chemotherapy inhibition of HIF-1α may constitute a new track to treat human viral infections.

  8. Adsorption of viral particles from the blood plasma of patients with viral hepatitis on nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, A V; Osipov, N V; Yashchenko, S V; Kokotukha, Yu A; Baron, I J; Puzyr, A P; Olkhovskiy, I A; Bondar, V S

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption of viral particles from the blood plasma of patients with viral hepatitis B and C on modified nanodiamonds (MNDs) was shown in the in vitro experiments. PCR method showed the treatment of plasma with MNDs leads to a decrease in the viral load by 2-3 orders of magnitude or more in both cases studied. These results make it possible to predict the applicability of MNDs for the development of new technologies of hemodialysis and plasmapheresis for binding and removal of viral particles from the blood of infected patients.

  9. An Odyssey to Viral Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldstone, Michael B A

    2016-05-23

    polishing by Karl Habel (a superb senior virologist who left the National Institutes of Health and came to Scripps), and the gifted postdoctoral fellows who joined my laboratory over four decades form the log of my scientific voyage. The strong friendships and collaborations developed with other young but growing experimentalists like Bernie Fields and Abner Notkins are the fabric of the tale I will weave and were pivotal in the establishment of viral pathogenesis as a discipline.

  10. Neurological manifestations of dengue viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carod-Artal FJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Javier Carod-Artal1,21Neurology Department, Raigmore hospital, Inverness, UK; 2Universitat Internacional de Catalunya (UIC, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection worldwide. There is increased evidence for dengue virus neurotropism, and neurological manifestations could make part of the clinical picture of dengue virus infection in at least 0.5%–7.4% of symptomatic cases. Neurological complications have been classified into dengue virus encephalopathy, dengue virus encephalitis, immune-mediated syndromes (acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, myelitis, Guillain–Barré syndrome, neuritis brachialis, acute cerebellitis, and others, neuromuscular complications (hypokalemic paralysis, transient benign muscle dysfunction and myositis, and dengue-associated stroke. Common neuro-ophthalmic complications are maculopathy and retinal vasculopathy. Pathogenic mechanisms include systemic complications and metabolic disturbances resulting in encephalopathy, direct effect of the virus provoking encephalitis, and postinfectious immune mechanisms causing immune-mediated syndromes. Dengue viruses should be considered as a cause of neurological disorders in endemic regions. Standardized case definitions for specific neurological complications are still needed. Keywords: encephalitis, encephalopathy, dengue fever, neurological complications

  11. Modeling of Viral Aerosol Transmission and Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Khalid, Maryam; Amin, Osama; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the spread mechanism of diseases in the atmosphere as an engineering problem. Among the viral transmission mechanisms that do not include physical contact, aerosol transmission is the most significant mode of transmission where virus-laden droplets are carried over long distances by wind. In this work, we focus on aerosol transmission of virus and introduce the idea of viewing virus transmission through aerosols and their transport as a molecular communication problem, where one has no control over transmission source but a robust receiver can be designed using nano-biosensors. To investigate this idea, a complete system is presented and end-toend mathematical model for the aerosol transmission channel is derived under certain constraints and boundary conditions. In addition to transmitter and channel, a receiver architecture composed of air sampler and Silicon Nanowire field effect transistor is also discussed. Furthermore, a detection problem is formulated for which maximum likelihood decision rule and the corresponding missed detection probability is discussed. At the end, simulation results are presented to investigate the parameters that affect the performance and justify the feasibility of proposed setup in related applications.

  12. A viral suppressor protein inhibits host RNA silencing by hooking up with Argonautes

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Hailing; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2010-01-01

    RNA viruses are particularly vulnerable to RNAi-based defenses in the host, and thus have evolved specific proteins, known as viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs), as a counterdefense. In this issue of Genes & Development, Azevedo and colleagues (pp. 904-915) discovered that P38, the VSR of Turnip crinkle virus, uses its glycine/tryptophane (GW) motifs as an ARGONAUTE (AGO) hook to attract and disarm the host's essential effector of RNA silencing. Several GW motif-containing cellular proteins are known to be important partners of AGOs in RNA silencing effector complexes in yeast, plants, and animals. The GW motif appears to be a versatile and effective tool for regulating the activities of RNA silencing pathways, and the use of GW mimicry to compete for and inhibit host AGOs may be a strategy used by many pathogens to counteract host RNAi-based defenses. © 2010 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. A viral suppressor protein inhibits host RNA silencing by hooking up with Argonautes

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Hailing

    2010-05-01

    RNA viruses are particularly vulnerable to RNAi-based defenses in the host, and thus have evolved specific proteins, known as viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs), as a counterdefense. In this issue of Genes & Development, Azevedo and colleagues (pp. 904-915) discovered that P38, the VSR of Turnip crinkle virus, uses its glycine/tryptophane (GW) motifs as an ARGONAUTE (AGO) hook to attract and disarm the host\\'s essential effector of RNA silencing. Several GW motif-containing cellular proteins are known to be important partners of AGOs in RNA silencing effector complexes in yeast, plants, and animals. The GW motif appears to be a versatile and effective tool for regulating the activities of RNA silencing pathways, and the use of GW mimicry to compete for and inhibit host AGOs may be a strategy used by many pathogens to counteract host RNAi-based defenses. © 2010 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. Automation of a Versatile Crane (the LSMS) for Lunar Outpost Construction, Maintenance and Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, William R.; Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; Shen, Haijun; Seywald, Hans; King, Bruce D.; Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Devices for lifting, translating and precisely placing payloads are critical for efficient Earth-based construction operations. Both recent and past studies have demonstrated that devices with similar functionality will be needed to support lunar outpost operations. Although several designs have been developed for Earth based applications, these devices lack unique design characteristics necessary for transport to and use on the harsh lunar surface. These design characteristics include: a) lightweight components, b) compact packaging for launch, c) automated deployment, d) simple in-field reconfiguration and repair, and e) support for tele-operated or automated operations. Also, because the cost to transport mass to the lunar surface is very high, the number of devices that can be dedicated to surface operations will be limited. Thus, in contrast to Earth-based construction, where many single-purpose devices dominate a construction site, a lunar outpost will require a limited number of versatile devices that provide operational benefit from initial construction through sustained operations. The first generation test-bed of a new high performance device, the Lunar Surface Manipulation System (LSMS) has been designed, built and field tested. The LSMS has many unique features resulting in a mass efficient solution to payload handling on the lunar surface. Typically, the LSMS device mass is estimated at approximately 3% of the mass of the heaviest payload lifted at the tip, or 1.8 % of the mass of the heaviest mass lifted at the elbow or mid-span of the boom for a high performance variant incorporating advanced structural components. Initial operational capabilities of the LSMS were successfully demonstrated during field tests at Moses Lake, Washington using a tele-operated approach. Joint angle sensors have been developed for the LSMS to improve operator situational awareness. These same sensors provide the necessary information to support fully automated operations

  15. Vaccines against viral hemorrhagic fevers: non-human primate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Ricardo; Patterson, Jean L

    2011-06-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers are a group of disease syndromes caused by infection with certain RNA viruses. The disease is marked by a febrile response, malaise, coagulopathy and vascular permeability culminating in death. Case fatality rates can reach 90% depending on the etiologic agent. Currently, there is no approved antiviral treatment. Because of the high case fatality, risk of importation and the potential to use these agents as biological weapons, development of countermeasures to these agents is a high priority. The sporadic nature of disease outbreaks and the ethical issues associated with conducting a human trial for such diseases make human studies impractical; therefore, development of countermeasures must occur in relevant animal models. Non-human primates are superior models to study infectious disease because their immune system is similar to humans and they are good predictors of efficacy in vaccine development and other intervention strategies. This review article summarizes viral hemorrhagic fever non-human primate models.

  16. A metagenomic survey of viral abundance and diversity in mosquitoes from Hubei province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyan Shi

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes as one of the most common but important vectors have the potential to transmit or acquire a lot of viruses through biting, however viral flora in mosquitoes and its impact on mosquito-borne disease transmission has not been well investigated and evaluated. In this study, the metagenomic techniquehas been successfully employed in analyzing the abundance and diversity of viral community in three mosquito samples from Hubei, China. Among 92,304 reads produced through a run with 454 GS FLX system, 39% have high similarities with viral sequences belonging to identified bacterial, fungal, animal, plant and insect viruses, and 0.02% were classed into unidentified viral sequences, demonstrating high abundance and diversity of viruses in mosquitoes. Furthermore, two novel viruses in subfamily Densovirinae and family Dicistroviridae were identified, and six torque tenosus virus1 in family Anelloviridae, three porcine parvoviruses in subfamily Parvovirinae and a Culex tritaeniorhynchus rhabdovirus in Family Rhabdoviridae were preliminarily characterized. The viral metagenomic analysis offered us a deep insight into the viral population of mosquito which played an important role in viral initiative or passive transmission and evolution during the process.

  17. A Metagenomic Survey of Viral Abundance and Diversity in Mosquitoes from Hubei Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chenyan; Liu, Yi; Hu, Xiaomin; Xiong, Jinfeng; Zhang, Bo; Yuan, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes as one of the most common but important vectors have the potential to transmit or acquire a lot of viruses through biting, however viral flora in mosquitoes and its impact on mosquito-borne disease transmission has not been well investigated and evaluated. In this study, the metagenomic techniquehas been successfully employed in analyzing the abundance and diversity of viral community in three mosquito samples from Hubei, China. Among 92,304 reads produced through a run with 454 GS FLX system, 39% have high similarities with viral sequences belonging to identified bacterial, fungal, animal, plant and insect viruses, and 0.02% were classed into unidentified viral sequences, demonstrating high abundance and diversity of viruses in mosquitoes. Furthermore, two novel viruses in subfamily Densovirinae and family Dicistroviridae were identified, and six torque tenosus virus1 in family Anelloviridae, three porcine parvoviruses in subfamily Parvovirinae and a Culex tritaeniorhynchus rhabdovirus in Family Rhabdoviridae were preliminarily characterized. The viral metagenomic analysis offered us a deep insight into the viral population of mosquito which played an important role in viral initiative or passive transmission and evolution during the process. PMID:26030271

  18. [Investigation of RNA viral genome amplification by multiple displacement amplification technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zheng; Li, Jian-Dong; Li, Chuan; Liang, Mi-Fang; Li, De-Xin

    2013-06-01

    In order to facilitate the detection of newly emerging or rare viral infectious diseases, a negative-strand RNA virus-severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus, and a positive-strand RNA virus-dengue virus, were used to investigate RNA viral genome unspecific amplification by multiple displacement amplification technique from clinical samples. Series of 10-fold diluted purified viral RNA were utilized as analog samples with different pathogen loads, after a series of reactions were sequentially processed, single-strand cDNA, double-strand cDNA, double-strand cDNA treated with ligation without or with supplemental RNA were generated, then a Phi29 DNA polymerase depended isothermal amplification was employed, and finally the target gene copies were detected by real time PCR assays to evaluate the amplification efficiencies of various methods. The results showed that multiple displacement amplification effects of single-strand or double-strand cDNA templates were limited, while the fold increases of double-strand cDNA templates treated with ligation could be up to 6 X 10(3), even 2 X 10(5) when supplemental RNA existed, and better results were obtained when viral RNA loads were lower. A RNA viral genome amplification system using multiple displacement amplification technique was established in this study and effective amplification of RNA viral genome with low load was achieved, which could provide a tool to synthesize adequate viral genome for multiplex pathogens detection.

  19. Viral Hepatitis: Information for Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    VIRAL HEPATITIS Information for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by one of several ... each virus is spread in different ways. Are gay and bisexual men at risk for viral hepatitis? ...

  20. APLASTIC ANEMIA AND VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cudillo

    2009-11-01

    target organ of the immune  response is the liver as suggested by the time interval between hepatitis and the onset of bone marrow failure.

    Liver histology is characterized by T cell infiltrating the parenchyma as reported in acute hepatitis.

    Recently in HAA it has been demonstrated intrahepatic  and blood lymphocytes with  T cell repertoire similar to that of confirmed viral acute hepatitis. The expanded T cell clones return to a normal distribution after response to immunosuppressive treatment, suggesting the antigen or T cell clearance. Therapeutic options are the same as acquired aplastic anemia.