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Sample records for verrucomicrobia representatives share

  1. Complete genome sequence of the extremely acidophilic methanotroph isolate V4, Methylacidiphilum infernorum, a representative of the bacterial phylum Verrucomicrobia

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    Stott Matthew B

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylum Verrucomicrobia is a widespread but poorly characterized bacterial clade. Although cultivation-independent approaches detect representatives of this phylum in a wide range of environments, including soils, seawater, hot springs and human gastrointestinal tract, only few have been isolated in pure culture. We have recently reported cultivation and initial characterization of an extremely acidophilic methanotrophic member of the Verrucomicrobia, strain V4, isolated from the Hell's Gate geothermal area in New Zealand. Similar organisms were independently isolated from geothermal systems in Italy and Russia. Results We report the complete genome sequence of strain V4, the first one from a representative of the Verrucomicrobia. Isolate V4, initially named "Methylokorus infernorum" (and recently renamed Methylacidiphilum infernorum is an autotrophic bacterium with a streamlined genome of ~2.3 Mbp that encodes simple signal transduction pathways and has a limited potential for regulation of gene expression. Central metabolism of M. infernorum was reconstructed almost completely and revealed highly interconnected pathways of autotrophic central metabolism and modifications of C1-utilization pathways compared to other known methylotrophs. The M. infernorum genome does not encode tubulin, which was previously discovered in bacteria of the genus Prosthecobacter, or close homologs of any other signature eukaryotic proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal proteins and RNA polymerase subunits unequivocally supports grouping Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and Chlamydiae into a single clade, the PVC superphylum, despite dramatically different gene content in members of these three groups. Comparative-genomic analysis suggests that evolution of the M. infernorum lineage involved extensive horizontal gene exchange with a variety of bacteria. The genome of M. infernorum shows apparent adaptations for existence under extremely

  2. Verrucomicrobia and their role in soil methanol consumption

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    Fierer, N.

    2015-12-01

    Bacteria belonging to the phylum Verrucomicrobia are far more ubiquitous and abundant in soil than previous work would suggest. In many soils, a relatively small number of verrucomicrobial phylotypes or 'species' can represent more than 25% of the bacterial cells in soil. Since these phylotypes are not closely related to any known cultured isolates or any strains for which we have whole-genome data, we have limited information on what these bacteria are actually doing in soil, their metabolic capabilities, or the niches they inhabit. We have recently assembled the genomes of these dominant Verrucomicrobia from soil metagenomic data and found that these taxa appear to be oligotrophs that specialize in methanol oxidation. This is important because we have found in previous work that methanol likely represents an important source of labile organic carbon to soil microbes in many ecosystems with methanol fluxes likely representing an important, but under-studied, mechanism by which organic carbon is transferred from surface litter layers to mineral soils. Ongoing work has focused on using high-throughput cultivation methods to study soil Verrucomicrobia in vitro and better understand their controls on soil carbon dynamics. Together this work demonstrates how we can leverage recent methodological advances in metagenomics, high-throughput cultivation, and soil trace gas analyses to understand the biogeochemical relevance of an abundant, but mysterious, group of soil microorganisms.

  3. The rhizosphere selects for particular groups of acidobacteria and verrucomicrobia.

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    Ulisses Nunes da Rocha

    Full Text Available There is a lack in our current understanding on the putative interactions of species of the phyla of Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia with plants. Moreover, progress in this area is seriously hampered by the recalcitrance of members of these phyla to grow as pure cultures. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether particular members of Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia are avid colonizers of the rhizosphere. Based on previous work, rhizosphere competence was demonstrated for the Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 groups of Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria and it was hypothesized that the rhizosphere is a common habitat for Acidobacteria subdivision 8 (class Holophagae. We assessed the population densities of Bacteria, Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 groups Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria and Acidobacteria subdivisions 1, 3, 4, 6 and Holophagae in bulk soil and in the rhizospheres of grass, potato and leek in the same field at different points in time using real-time quantitative PCR. Primers of all seven verrucomicrobial, acidobacterial and holophagal PCR systems were based on 16S rRNA gene sequences of cultivable representatives of the different groups. Luteolibacter, Candidatus genus Rhizospheria, subdivision 6 acidobacteria and Holophaga showed preferences for one or more rhizospheres. In particular, the Holophaga 16S rRNA gene number were more abundant in the leek rhizosphere than in bulk soil and the rhizospheres of grass and potato. Attraction to, and colonization of, leek roots by Holophagae strain CHC25 was further shown in an experimental microcosm set-up. In the light of this remarkable capacity, we propose to coin strain CHC25 Candidatus Porrumbacterium oxyphilus (class Holophagae, Phylum Acidobacteria, the first cultured representative with rhizosphere competence.

  4. Distribution and diversity of Verrucomicrobia methanotrophs in geothermal and acidic environments.

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    Sharp, Christine E; Smirnova, Angela V; Graham, Jaime M; Stott, Matthew B; Khadka, Roshan; Moore, Tim R; Grasby, Stephen E; Strack, Maria; Dunfield, Peter F

    2014-06-01

    Recently, methanotrophic members of the phylum Verrucomicrobia have been described, but little is known about their distribution in nature. We surveyed methanotrophic bacteria in geothermal springs and acidic wetlands via pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Putative methanotrophic Verrucomicrobia were found in samples covering a broad temperature range (22.5-81.6°C), but only in acidic conditions (pH 1.8-5.0) and only in geothermal environments, not in acidic bogs or fens. Phylogenetically, three 16S rRNA gene sequence clusters of putative methanotrophic Verrucomicrobia were observed. Those detected in high-temperature geothermal samples (44.1-81.6°C) grouped with known thermoacidiphilic 'Methylacidiphilum' isolates. A second group dominated in moderate-temperature geothermal samples (22.5-40.1°C) and a representative mesophilic methanotroph from this group was isolated (strain LP2A). Genome sequencing verified that strain LP2A possessed particulate methane monooxygenase, but its 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to 'Methylacidiphilum infernorum' strain V4 was only 90.6%. A third group clustered distantly with known methanotrophic Verrucomicrobia. Using pmoA-gene targeted quantitative polymerase chain reaction, two geothermal soil profiles showed a dominance of LP2A-like pmoA sequences in the cooler surface layers and 'Methylacidiphilum'-like pmoA sequences in deeper, hotter layers. Based on these results, there appears to be a thermophilic group and a mesophilic group of methanotrophic Verrucomicrobia. However, both were detected only in acidic geothermal environments. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Methane oxidation at 55 degrees C and pH 2 by a thermoacidophilic bacterium belonging to the Verrucomicrobia phylum.

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    Islam, Tajul; Jensen, Sigmund; Reigstad, Laila Johanne; Larsen, Oivind; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre

    2008-01-08

    Methanotrophic bacteria constitute a ubiquitous group of microorganisms playing an important role in the biogeochemical carbon cycle and in control of global warming through natural reduction of methane emission. These bacteria share the unique ability of using methane as a sole carbon and energy source and have been found in a great variety of habitats. Phylogenetically, known methanotrophs constitute a rather limited group and have so far only been affiliated with the Proteobacteria. Here, we report the isolation and initial characterization of a nonproteobacterial obligately methanotrophic bacterium. The isolate, designated Kam1, was recovered from an acidic hot spring in Kamchatka, Russia, and is more thermoacidophilic than any other known methanotroph, with optimal growth at approximately 55 degrees C and pH 3.5. Kam1 is only distantly related to all previously known methanotrophs and belongs to the Verrucomicrobia lineage of evolution. Genes for methane monooxygenases, essential for initiation of methane oxidation, could not be detected by using standard primers in PCR amplification and Southern blot analysis, suggesting the presence of a different methane oxidation enzyme. Kam1 also lacks the well developed intracellular membrane systems typical for other methanotrophs. The isolate represents a previously unrecognized biological methane sink, and, due to its unusual phylogenetic affiliation, it will shed important light on the origin, evolution, and diversity of biological methane oxidation and on the adaptation of this process to extreme habitats. Furthermore, Kam1 will add to our knowledge of the metabolic traits and biogeochemical roles of the widespread but poorly understood Verrucomicrobia phylum.

  6. Capturing single cell genomes of active polysaccharide degraders: an unexpected contribution of Verrucomicrobia.

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    Manuel Martinez-Garcia

    Full Text Available Microbial hydrolysis of polysaccharides is critical to ecosystem functioning and is of great interest in diverse biotechnological applications, such as biofuel production and bioremediation. Here we demonstrate the use of a new, efficient approach to recover genomes of active polysaccharide degraders from natural, complex microbial assemblages, using a combination of fluorescently labeled substrates, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and single cell genomics. We employed this approach to analyze freshwater and coastal bacterioplankton for degraders of laminarin and xylan, two of the most abundant storage and structural polysaccharides in nature. Our results suggest that a few phylotypes of Verrucomicrobia make a considerable contribution to polysaccharide degradation, although they constituted only a minor fraction of the total microbial community. Genomic sequencing of five cells, representing the most predominant, polysaccharide-active Verrucomicrobia phylotype, revealed significant enrichment in genes encoding a wide spectrum of glycoside hydrolases, sulfatases, peptidases, carbohydrate lyases and esterases, confirming that these organisms were well equipped for the hydrolysis of diverse polysaccharides. Remarkably, this enrichment was on average higher than in the sequenced representatives of Bacteroidetes, which are frequently regarded as highly efficient biopolymer degraders. These findings shed light on the ecological roles of uncultured Verrucomicrobia and suggest specific taxa as promising bioprospecting targets. The employed method offers a powerful tool to rapidly identify and recover discrete genomes of active players in polysaccharide degradation, without the need for cultivation.

  7. Cultivation of hitherto-uncultured bacteria belonging to the Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 from the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) rhizosphere

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    da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; Andreote, Fernando Dini; de Azevedo, Joao Lucio; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; van Overbeek, Leo S.; Andreoti, F.D.

    The role of dominant bacterial groups in the plant rhizosphere, e.g., those belonging to the phyla Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia, has, so far, not been elucidated, and this is mainly due to the lack of culturable representatives. This study aimed to isolate hitherto-uncultured bacteria from the

  8. Cultivation of hitherto-uncultured bacteria belonging to the Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 from the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) rhizosphere

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    Rocha, da U.N.; Andreote, F.D.; Azevedo, J.L.; Elsas, van J.D.; Overbeek, van L.S.

    2010-01-01

    The role of dominant bacterial groups in the plant rhizosphere, e.g., those belonging to the phyla Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia, has, so far, not been elucidated, and this is mainly due to the lack of culturable representatives. This study aimed to isolate hitherto-uncultured bacteria from the

  9. Genomic analysis indicates the presence of an asymmetric bilayer outer membrane in Planctomycetes and Verrucomicrobia

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    Daan R Speth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the phylum Planctomycetes are of special interest for the study of compartmental cellular organization. Members of this phylum share a very unusual prokaryotic cell plan, featuring several membrane-bound compartments. Recently, it was shown that this cellular organization might extend to certain members of the phylum Verrucomicrobia. The Planctomycete cell plan has been defined as featuring a proteinaceous cell wall, a cytoplasmic membrane surrounding the paryphoplasm and an intracytoplasmic membrane defining the riboplasm. So far it was presumed that Planctomycetes did not have an asymmetric bilayer outer membrane as observed in Gram-negative bacteria. However, recent work on outer membrane biogenesis has provided several marker genes in the outer membrane protein (OMP assembly and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS insertion complexes. Additionally, advances in computational prediction of OMPs provided new tools to perform more accurate genomic screening for such proteins.Here we searched all 22 Planctomycetes and Verrucomicrobia genomes available in Genbank, plus the recently published genome of ‘Candidatus Scalindua profunda’, for markers of outer membrane biogenesis and OMPs. We were able to identify the key components of LPS insertion, OMP assembly and at least eight OMPs in all genomes tested. Additionally, we have analyzed the transcriptome and proteome data of the Planctomycetes ‘Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis’ and ‘Ca. S. profunda’ and could confirm high expression of several predicted OMPs, including the biomarkers of outer membrane biogenesis.

  10. Real-time PCR detection of Holophagae (Acidobacteria) and Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 groups in bulk and leek (Allium porrum) rhizosphere soils

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    da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; van Overbeek, Leonard Simon

    2010-01-01

    In the light of the poor culturability of Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia species, group-specific real-time (qPCR) systems were developed based on the 165 rRNA gene sequences from culturable representatives of both groups. The number of DNA targets from three different groups, i.e. Holophagae

  11. The Gut Microbiota of Healthy Chilean Subjects Reveals a High Abundance of the Phylum Verrucomicrobia

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    Sayaka Fujio-Vejar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is currently recognized as an important factor regulating the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract and influencing the energetic metabolism of the host as well as its immune and central nervous systems. Determining the gut microbiota composition of healthy subjects is therefore necessary to establish a baseline allowing the detection of microbiota alterations in pathologic conditions. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to characterize the gut microbiota of healthy Chilean subjects using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Fecal samples were collected from 41 young, asymptomatic, normal weight volunteers (age: 25 ± 4 years; ♀:48.8%; BMI: 22.5 ± 1.6 kg/m2 with low levels of plasma (IL6 and hsCRP and colonic (fecal calprotectin inflammatory markers. The V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of bacterial DNA was amplified and sequenced using MiSeq Illumina system. 109,180 ± 13,148 sequences/sample were obtained, with an α-diversity of 3.86 ± 0.37. The dominant phyla were Firmicutes (43.6 ± 9.2% and Bacteroidetes (41.6 ± 13.1%, followed by Verrucomicrobia (8.5 ± 10.4%, Proteobacteria (2.8 ± 4.8%, Actinobacteria (1.8 ± 3.9% and Euryarchaeota (1.4 ± 2.7%. The core microbiota representing the genera present in all the subjects included Bacteroides, Prevotella, Parabacteroides (phylum Bacteroidetes, Phascolarctobacterium, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Lachnospira, Oscillospira, Blautia, Dorea, Roseburia, Coprococcus, Clostridium, Streptococcus (phylum Firmicutes, Akkermansia (phylum Verrucomicrobia, and Collinsella (phylum Actinobacteria. Butyrate-producing genera including Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, Coprococcus, and Oscillospira were detected. The family Methanobacteriaceae was reported in 83% of the subjects and Desulfovibrio, the most representative sulfate-reducing genus, in 76%. The microbiota of the Chilean individuals significantly differed from those of Papua New Guinea and the Matses ethnic group and was closer to

  12. The sound of you and me: Novices represent shared goals in joint action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loehr, Janeen; Vesper, Cordula

    2016-01-01

    People performing joint actions coordinate their individual actions with each other to achieve a shared goal. The current study investigated the mental representations that are formed when people learn a new skill as part of a joint action. In a musical transfer-of-learning paradigm, piano novices......) or the shared action goal (the duet). As predicted, participants made more performance errors in the individual goal condition compared to the shared goal condition. Further experimental manipulations indicated that this difference was not due to different coordination requirements in the two conditions...

  13. Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 strains display a difference in the colonization of the leek (Allium porrum) rhizosphere

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    da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; van Overbeek, Leonard Simon

    2011-01-01

    Strains CHC12 and CHC8, belonging to, respectively, Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria (Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1), were recently isolated from the leek rhizosphere. The key question addressed in this study was: does attraction to and colonization of the rhizosphere occur in the

  14. Phylogenetic and metagenomic analysis of Verrucomicrobia in former agricultural grassland soil

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    Kielak, A.M.; Rodrigues, J.L.M.; Kuramae, E.E.; Chain, P.S.G.; Van Veen, J.A.; Kowalchuk, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    The bacterial phylum Verrucomicrobia has a widespread distribution, and is known to be one of the most common and diverse phyla in soil habitats. However, members of this phylum have typically been recalcitrant to cultivation methods, hampering the study of this presumably important bacterial group.

  15. Phylogenetic and metagenomic analysis of Verrucomicrobia in former agricultural grassland soil.

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    Kielak, A.; Rodrigues, J.M.L.; Kuramae, E.E.; Chain, P.S.G.; van Veen, J.A..; Kowalchuk, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    The bacterial phylum Verrucomicrobia has a widespread distribution, and is known to be one of the most common and diverse phyla in soil habitats. However, members of this phylum have typically been recalcitrant to cultivation methods, hampering the study of this presumably important bacterial group.

  16. Forest-to-pasture conversion increases the diversity of the phylum Verrucomicrobia in Amazon rainforest soils

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    Ranjan, Kshitij; Paula, Fabiana S.; Mueller, Rebecca C.; Jesus, Ederson da C.; Cenciani, Karina; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.; Nüsslein, Klaus; Rodrigues, Jorge L. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest is well known for its rich plant and animal diversity, but its bacterial diversity is virtually unexplored. Due to ongoing and widespread deforestation followed by conversion to agriculture, there is an urgent need to quantify the soil biological diversity within this tropical ecosystem. Given the abundance of the phylum Verrucomicrobia in soils, we targeted this group to examine its response to forest-to-pasture conversion. Both taxonomic and phylogenetic diversities were higher for pasture in comparison to primary and secondary forests. The community composition of Verrucomicrobia in pasture soils was significantly different from those of forests, with a 11.6% increase in the number of sequences belonging to subphylum 3 and a proportional decrease in sequences belonging to the class Spartobacteria. Based on 99% operational taxonomic unit identity, 40% of the sequences have not been detected in previous studies, underscoring the limited knowledge regarding the diversity of microorganisms in tropical ecosystems. The abundance of Verrucomicrobia, measured with quantitative PCR, was strongly correlated with soil C content (r = 0.80, P = 0.0016), indicating their importance in metabolizing plant-derived carbon compounds in soils. PMID:26284056

  17. The Verrucomicrobia LexA-binding Motif: Insights into the Evolutionary Dynamics of the SOS Response

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    Ivan Erill

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The SOS response is the primary bacterial mechanism to address DNA damage, coordinating multiple cellular processes that include DNA repair, cell division and translesion synthesis. In contrast to other regulatory systems, the composition of the SOS genetic network and the binding motif of its transcriptional repressor, LexA, have been shown to vary greatly across bacterial clades, making it an ideal system to study the co-evolution of transcription factors and their regulons. Leveraging comparative genomics approaches and prior knowledge on the core SOS regulon, here we define the binding motif of the Verrucomicrobia, a recently described phylum of emerging interest due to its association with eukaryotic hosts. Site directed mutagenesis of the Verrucomicrobium spinosum recA promoter confirms that LexA binds a 14 bp palindromic motif with consensus sequence TGTTC-N4-GAACA. Computational analyses suggest that recognition of this novel motif is determined primarily by changes in base-contacting residues of the third alpha helix of the LexA helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif. In conjunction with comparative genomics analysis of the LexA regulon in the Verrucomicrobia phylum, electrophoretic shift assays reveal that LexA binds to operators in the promoter region of DNA repair genes and a mutagenesis cassette in this organism, and identify previously unreported components of the SOS response. The identification of tandem LexA-binding sites generating instances of other LexA-binding motifs in the lexA gene promoter of Verrucomicrobia species leads us to postulate a novel mechanism for LexA-binding motif evolution. This model, based on gene duplication, successfully addresses outstanding questions in the intricate co-evolution of the LexA protein, its binding motif and the regulatory network it controls.

  18. Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 strains display a difference in the colonization of the leek (Allium porrum) rhizosphere.

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    da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; van Overbeek, Leonard Simon

    2011-11-01

    Strains CHC12 and CHC8, belonging to, respectively, Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria (Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1), were recently isolated from the leek rhizosphere. The key question addressed in this study was: does attraction to and colonization of the rhizosphere occur in the same way for both strains? Therefore, the fate of the two strains was studied near in vitro-grown leek roots and in soil zones proximate to and at a further distance from roots in a model plant-soil microcosm set-up. Quantitative PCR detection with specific primers was used, as the cultivation of these bacteria from soil is extremely fastidious. The data indicated that natural populations of Luteolibacter (akin to strain CHC12) had lower numbers in the rhizosphere than in the corresponding bulk soil. On the other hand, the populations of Candidatus genus Rhizospheria, i.e. strain CHC8, showed higher numbers in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil. Increased strain CHC8 cell-equivalent numbers in the rhizosphere were not only the result of in situ cell multiplication, but also of the migration of cells towards the roots. Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria cells displayed differences in attraction to the rhizosphere and colonization thereof, irrespective of the fact that both belonged to Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evolutionary Cell Biology of Division Mode in the Bacterial Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia- Chlamydiae Superphylum.

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    Rivas-Marín, Elena; Canosa, Inés; Devos, Damien P

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria from the Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Chlamydiae (PVC) superphylum are exceptions to the otherwise dominant mode of division by binary fission, which is based on the interaction between the FtsZ protein and the peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis machinery. Some PVC bacteria are deprived of the FtsZ protein and were also thought to lack PG. How these bacteria divide is still one of the major mysteries of microbiology. The presence of PG has recently been revealed in Planctomycetes and Chlamydiae, and proteins related to PG synthesis have been shown to be implicated in the division process in Chlamydiae, providing important insights into PVC mechanisms of division. Here, we review the historical lack of observation of PG in PVC bacteria, its recent detection in two phyla and its involvement in chlamydial cell division. Based on the detection of PG-related proteins in PVC proteomes, we consider the possible evolution of the diverse division mechanisms in these bacteria. We conclude by summarizing what is known and what remains to be understood about the evolutionary cell biology of PVC division modes.

  20. Riverine bacterial communities reveal environmental disturbance signatures within the Betaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia

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    John Paul Balmonte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Riverine bacterial communities play an essential role in the biogeochemical coupling of terrestrial and marine environments, transforming elements and organic matter in their journey from land to sea. However, precisely due to the fact that rivers receive significant terrestrial input, the distinction between resident freshwater taxa versus land-derived microbes can often become ambiguous. Furthermore, ecosystem perturbations could introduce allochthonous microbial groups and reshape riverine bacterial communities. Using full- and partial-length 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences, we analyzed the composition of bacterial communities in the Tar River of North Carolina from November 2010 to November 2010, during which a natural perturbation occurred: the inundation of the lower reaches of an otherwise drought-stricken river associated with Hurricane Irene, which passed over eastern North Carolina in late August 2011. This event provided the opportunity to examine the microbiological, hydrological and geochemical impacts of a disturbance, defined here as the large freshwater influx into the Tar River, superimposed on seasonal changes or other ecosystem variability independent of the hurricane. Our findings demonstrate that downstream communities are more taxonomically diverse and temporally variable than their upstream counterparts. More importantly, pre- versus post-disturbance taxonomic comparison of the freshwater-dominant Betaproteobacteria class and the phylum Verrucomicrobia reveal a disturbance signature of previously undetected taxa of diverse origins. We use known traits of closely-related taxa to interpret the ecological function of disturbance-associated bacteria, and hypothesize that carbon cycling was enhanced post-disturbance in the Tar River, likely due to the flux of organic carbon into the system associated with the large freshwater pulse. Our analyses demonstrate the importance of geochemical and hydrological alterations in

  1. Real-time PCR detection of Holophagae (Acidobacteria) and Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 groups in bulk and leek (Allium porrum) rhizosphere soils.

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    da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; van Overbeek, Leonard Simon

    2010-11-01

    In the light of the poor culturability of Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia species, group-specific real-time (qPCR) systems were developed based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences from culturable representatives of both groups. The number of DNA targets from three different groups, i.e. Holophagae (Acidobacteria group 8) and Luteolibacter/Prosthecobacter and unclassified Verrucomicrobiaceae subdivision 1, was determined in DNA extracts from different leek (Allium porrum) rhizosphere soil compartments and from bulk soil with the aim to determine the distribution of the three bacterial groups in the plant-soil ecosystem. The specificity of the designed primers was evaluated in three steps. First, in silico tests were performed which demonstrated that all designed primers 100% matched with database sequences of their respective groups, whereas lower matches with other non-target bacterial groups were found. Second, PCR amplification with the different primer sets was performed on genomic DNA extracts from target and from non-target bacteria. This test demonstrated specificity of the designed primers for the target groups, as single amplicons of expected sizes were found only for the target bacteria. Third, the qPCR systems were tested for specific amplifications from soil DNA extracts and 48 amplicons from each primer system were sequenced. All sequences were >97% similar to database sequences of the respective target groups. Estimated cell numbers based on Holophagae-, Luteolibacter/Prosthecobacter- and unclassified Verrucomicrobiaceae subdivision 1-specific qPCRs from leek rhizosphere compartments and bulk soils demonstrated higher preference for one or both rhizosphere compartments above bulk soil for all three bacterial groups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Perceived Benefits, Harms, and Views About How to Share Data Responsibly: A Qualitative Study of Experiences With and Attitudes Toward Data Sharing Among Research Staff and Community Representatives in Thailand.

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    Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Tangseefa, Decha; Somsaman, Aimatcha; Chunsuttiwat, Tri; Nosten, François; Day, Nicholas P J; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The Thailand Major Overseas Programme coordinates large multi-center studies in tropical medicine and generates vast amounts of data. As the data sharing movement gains momentum, we wanted to understand attitudes and experiences of relevant stakeholders about what constitutes good data sharing practice. We conducted 15 interviews and three focus groups discussions involving 25 participants and found that they generally saw data sharing as something positive. Data sharing was viewed as a means to contribute to scientific progress and lead to better quality analysis, better use of resources, greater accountability, and more outputs. However, there were also important reservations including potential harms to research participants, their communities, and the researchers themselves. Given these concerns, several areas for discussion were identified: data standardization, appropriate consent models, and governance. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Interplay between stochastic and deterministic processes in the maintenance of alternative community states in Verrucomicrobia-dominated shallow lakes.

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    Llames, Maria E; Huber, Paula; Metz, Sebastián; Unrein, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    We analyzed the interplay between neutral and deterministic processes in maintaining contrasting alternative bacterioplankton communities through time in highly productive shallow lakes and evaluated the relevance of these processes when a regime shift from a clear to a turbid state occurred. We observed that local assembly is ruled primary deterministically, via local habitat filtering, with a secondary role of stochastic processes. We also found a hierarchy in the environmental sorting: while an unusual Verrucomicrobia dominance characterizes the three systems, local conditions limit within-bacterial community membership to closely phylogenetically related and ecologically similar taxa. These results indicate that bacterial abilities to establish in these lakes are strongly determined by their traits, and point toward special physiological adaptations to persist when these systems undergo a regime shift. Altogether, these results hint to a divergence in function among these alternative communities, mediated by major shifts in bacterial community trait structure, particularly regarding carbon use. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The 1st EMBO workshop on PVC bacteria-Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae superphylum: exceptions to the bacterial definition?

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    Devos, Damien P; Jogler, Christian; Fuerst, John A

    2013-10-01

    The PVC superphylum is a phylogenetically supported collection of various related bacterial phyla that comprise unusual characteristics and traits. The 'PVC' abbreviation derives from Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and Chlamydiae as members of this superphylum, while additional bacterial phyla are related. There has recently been increasing and exciting interest in the cell biology, physiology and ecology of members of this superphylum, including evolutionary implications of the complex cell organization of some species. It is timely that international researchers in the PVC superphylum field met to discuss these developments. The first meeting entirely dedicated to those bacteria, the EMBO workshop "PVC superphylum: Exceptions to the bacterial definition" was held at the Heidelberg University to catalyze the formation of a vital scientific community supporting PVC-bacterial research. More than 45 investigators from more than 20 countries (PIs, senior scientists and students) attended the meeting and produced a great starting point for future collaborative research. This Special Issue will focus on the EMBO-PVC meeting. This Perspective briefly summarizes the history of PVC-research, focusing on the key findings and provides a brief summary of the meeting with a focus on the major questions that arose during discussion and that might influence the research in the years to come.

  5. The share of ultra-processed foods and the overall nutritional quality of diets in the US: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study.

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    Martínez Steele, Euridice; Popkin, Barry M; Swinburn, Boyd; Monteiro, Carlos A

    2017-02-14

    Recent population dietary studies indicate that diets rich in ultra-processed foods, increasingly frequent worldwide, are grossly nutritionally unbalanced, suggesting that the dietary contribution of these foods largely determines the overall nutritional quality of contemporaneous diets. Yet, these studies have focused on individual nutrients (one at a time) rather than the overall nutritional quality of the diets. Here we investigate the relationship between the energy contribution of ultra-processed foods in the US diet and its content of critical nutrients, individually and overall. We evaluated dietary intakes of 9,317 participants from 2009 to 2010 NHANES aged 1+ years. Food items were classified into unprocessed or minimally processed foods, processed culinary ingredients, processed foods, and ultra-processed foods. First, we examined the average dietary content of macronutrients, micronutrients, and fiber across quintiles of the energy contribution of ultra-processed foods. Then, we used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to identify a nutrient-balanced dietary pattern to enable the assessment of the overall nutritional quality of the diet. Linear regression was used to explore the association between the dietary share of ultra-processed foods and the balanced-pattern PCA factor score. The scores were thereafter categorized into tertiles, and their distribution was examined across ultra-processed food quintiles. All models incorporated survey sample weights and were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, family income, and educational attainment. The average content of protein, fiber, vitamins A, C, D, and E, zinc, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and calcium in the US diet decreased significantly across quintiles of the energy contribution of ultra-processed foods, while carbohydrate, added sugar, and saturated fat contents increased. An inverse dose-response association was found between ultra-processed food quintiles and overall dietary quality measured

  6. ALL-IN-ONE LASER SCANNING METHODS FOR SURVEYING, REPRESENTING AND SHARING INFORMATION ON ARCHAEOLOGY. VIA FLAMINIA AND THE FURLO TUNNEL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Clini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the results of the laser scanner survey of an archaeological complex, aimed at knowledge, documentation and diagnostic operations to make premises secure. Archaeology has always been the most complex subject where the discipline of surveying is continually being put to the test and experimented with. The development in laser scanner technologies has led to an extremely important turning point in this field. Complex geometrical shapes or irregular surfaces, such as those in archaeology, are defined through surfaces that can be directly extrapolated from the point cloud with extremely high precision, allowing even the finest details to be mapped. The precision of this surveying technique together with the wide range of data that can be acquired and represented provide several opportunities for communication and investigation. This experimental work has concentrated on the Furlo tunnel complex, located along one of the most important infrastructural arteries from Roman antiquity, the Via Flaminia. The need in this case was to be able to acquire the entire rocky complex, extending the scan area as far as possible so as to assess the whole system in its entirety. The results of our metric and morphological survey provide an excellent basis for record the situation as it is today, so as to establish the initial temporal step to be used in future monitoring programmes. The accuracy of the survey allows static assessments and effective planning for future safety-oriented projects.

  7. Sharing values, sharing a vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Teamwork, partnership and shared values emerged as recurring themes at the Third Technology Transfer/Communications Conference. The program drew about 100 participants who sat through a packed two days to find ways for their laboratories and facilities to better help American business and the economy. Co-hosts were the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where most meetings took place. The conference followed traditions established at the First Technology Transfer/Communications Conference, conceived of and hosted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in May 1992 in Richmond, Washington, and the second conference, hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in January 1993 in Golden, Colorado. As at the other conferences, participants at the third session represented the fields of technology transfer, public affairs and communications. They came from Department of Energy headquarters and DOE offices, laboratories and production facilities. Continued in this report are keynote address; panel discussion; workshops; and presentations in technology transfer.

  8. Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Constantiou, Ioanna; Thoma, Antonela

    De spite the hype the notion of the sharing economy is surrounded by, our understanding of sharing is surprisingly undertheorized. In this paper, we make a first step towards rem edying this state of affairs by analy sing sharing as a s ocial practice. Based on a multi ple - case study, we analyse...

  9. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Solutions of sharing that seeks to improve our cities and local communities in both urban and rural environments. 24 sharing economy organisations and businesses addressing urban and rural issues are being portrayed and seven Danish municipalities that have explored the potentials of sharing economy....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  10. Representing dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röhl Johannes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dispositions and tendencies feature significantly in the biomedical domain and therefore in representations of knowledge of that domain. They are not only important for specific applications like an infectious disease ontology, but also as part of a general strategy for modelling knowledge about molecular interactions. But the task of representing dispositions in some formal ontological systems is fraught with several problems, which are partly due to the fact that Description Logics can only deal well with binary relations. The paper will discuss some of the results of the philosophical debate about dispositions, in order to see whether the formal relations needed to represent dispositions can be broken down to binary relations. Finally, we will discuss problems arising from the possibility of the absence of realizations, of multi-track or multi-trigger dispositions and offer suggestions on how to deal with them.

  11. Sharing code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  12. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  13. Representing Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Representing Development presents the different social representations that have formed the idea of development in Western thinking over the past three centuries. Offering an acute perspective on the current state of developmental science and providing constructive insights into future pathways...... and development, addressing their contemporary enactments and reflecting on future theoretical and empirical directions. The first section of the book provides an historical account of early representations of development that, having come from life science, has shaped the way in which developmental science has...... approached development. Section two focuses upon the contemporary issues of developmental psychology, neuroscience and developmental science at large. The final section offers a series of commentaries pointing to the questions opened by the previous chapters, looking to outline the future lines...

  14. File sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2011-01-01

    ‘File sharing’ has become generally accepted on the Internet. Users share files for downloading music, films, games, software etc. In this note, we have a closer look at the definition of file sharing, the legal and policy-based context as well as enforcement issues. The economic and cultural

  15. Shared leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Müller, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, this paper comprehensively will review the conceptual and empirical literature to identify such critical underlying mechanisms which enable shared or collective leadership. Second, this article identifies the antecedents and outcomes of shared leadership...... according to the literature review to develop a re-conceptualised and synthesized framework for managing the organizational issues associated with shared leadership on various organizational levels. The paper rectifies this by identifying the critical factors and mechanisms which enable shared leadership...... and its antecedents and outcomes, and to develop a re-conceptualized and synthesized framework of shared leadership. The paper closes with a brief discussion of avenues for future research and implications for managers....

  16. Community representatives: representing the "community"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, R; Murcott, A

    1998-04-01

    This paper takes as its starting point the apparent disjunction between the assumptions of the self-evidence of the meaning of community in major international declarations and strategies which promote community participation and the observation that meanings of "community" are a subject of extensive debate in literatures of social analysis and to some extent health. Given that the word's meaning is not agreed, those working to promote "community participation" in health are forced to adjudicate on competing meanings in order to operationalise the notion. This raises questions about how this is done and what are the implications of particular choices for what may be achieved by the participating "community". This paper presents the findings of an empirical study which examined the manner in which ideas of "community" are operationalised by people engaged in encouraging community participation in health promotion in the context of the selection of members for health for all steering groups in healthy cities projects in the United Kingdom. It argues that the demands of the role of the "community representative" are such that particular interpretations of "community" achieve ascendance. The paper explores the consequences of the interpretation of "community" as part of the "voluntary sector" and argues that this may compromise one of the stated desired outcomes of community participation i.e. extending democracy in health decision-making.

  17. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  18. Sharing Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Refslund Christensen, Dorthe

    (s) displaying photographs, poetry, stories and expressions of grief and longing. They take part in expressions of empathy for others by lighting candles for other people's loved ones, they share their personal experiences in different chatrooms and the site offers services as a calendar displaying anniversaries...... allowing creating unique and editable profiles, adding personal content and sharing it with other people in your network(s) AND systems for publishing your own life: becoming visible to others, being connected and being observed. More and more sites turn up on the Internet that facilitates the process...

  19. Shared Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, Daniel; Cole, Shelbi; Ostien, Deborah; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Staples, Megan; Susla, Patricia; Truxaw, Mary

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a process by which seven educators collaboratively engaged in developing a shared language to describe the mathematics pedagogy used to guide whole-class discussions as well as the products of their work. Suggestions are made for how others might engage in similarly productive professional development activities. (Contains 3…

  20. Modeling Shared Variables in VHDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Brage, Jens P.

    1994-01-01

    A set of concurrent processes communicating through shared variables is an often used model for hardware systems. This paper presents three modeling techniques for representing such shared variables in VHDL, depending on the acceptable constraints on accesses to the variables. Also a set...... of guidelines for handling atomic updates of multiple shared variables is given. 1 Introduction It is often desirable to partition a computational system into discrete functional units which cooperates to....

  1. Network Analysis of Shared Interests Represented by Social Bookmarking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jung Sun

    2010-01-01

    Social bookmarking is a new phenomenon characterized by a number of features including active user participation, open and collective discovery of resources, and user-generated metadata. Among others, this study pays particular attention to its nature of being at the intersection of personal information space and social information space. While…

  2. Compulsory acquisition of shares buyer, other shareholders, abuse of right of compulsory acquisition of shares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Company Act of Republic of Serbia includes mechanism for the compulsory acquisition of the shareholdings of minority shareholders. Technically this procedure is effected on the basis of the shareholders assembly resolution. Buyer is shareholder who has at least 90% of share capital and at least 90% of votes. Shares owned by entity under his dominant influence will be treated as shares of that shareholder provided that dominant influence exists at least one year. Company's own shares, and shares subject o a pledge do not represent shares of other shareholders. There are several actions which may be treated as abuse of right of compulsory acquisition of shares.

  3. Representing videos in tangible products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fageth, Reiner; Weiting, Ralf

    2014-03-01

    Videos can be taken with nearly every camera, digital point and shoot cameras, DSLRs as well as smartphones and more and more with so-called action cameras mounted on sports devices. The implementation of videos while generating QR codes and relevant pictures out of the video stream via a software implementation was contents in last years' paper. This year we present first data about what contents is displayed and how the users represent their videos in printed products, e.g. CEWE PHOTOBOOKS and greeting cards. We report the share of the different video formats used, the number of images extracted out of the video in order to represent the video, the positions in the book and different design strategies compared to regular books.

  4. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-05

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Share your Sweets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrnit, Jill; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik; Makransky, Guido

    2015-01-01

    All over the world, humans (Homo sapiens) display resource-sharing behavior, and common patterns of sharing seem to exist across cultures. Humans are not the only primates to share, and observations from the wild have long documented food sharing behavior in our closest phylogenetic relatives...

  6. Share Your Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Share Your Values Page Content Article Body Today, teenagers are bombarded ... mid-twenties. The Most Effective Way to Instill Values? By Example Your words will carry more weight ...

  7. Sharing is sparing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.Y. Kocher; U. Gaudenz; P. Troxler; Dr. P. Troxler; P. Wolf

    2014-01-01

    The commitment of the Fab Lab community to participate in processes of commons-based knowledge production thus also includes global knowledge sharing. For sharing back into the global commons, new knowledge needs however to be documented in a way that allows to share it by the means of information

  8. List of Accredited Representatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — VA accreditation is for the sole purpose of providing representation services to claimants before VA and does not imply that a representative is qualified to provide...

  9. Urban sharing culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjalland, Emmy Laura Perez

    In urban areas sharing cultures, services and economies are rising. People share, rent and recycle their homes, cars, bikes, rides, tools, cloths, working space, knowhow and so on. The sharing culture can be understood as mobilities (Kesselring and Vogl 2013) of goods, values and ideas reshaping...... problems and side effects from concentration of consumption and contamination; and due to the shift from ownership to access it change our basic social cultural norms (Sayer 2005; Sayer 2011) about the ‘good’ life and social status (Freudendal-Pedersen 2007), commons and individuality, responsibility...... and trust. (Thomsen 2013; Bauman 2000; Beck 1992; Giddens 1991). The sharing economy is currently hyper trendy but before claiming capitalism as dead we need to understand the basics of the sharing economies and cultures asking who can share and what will we share. Furthermore it is crucial to study what...

  10. [Advance directives. Representatives' opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets I Font, J M; Hernando Robles, P; Font I Canals, R; Diestre Ortin, G; Quintana, S

    The use and usefulness of Advance Directives has led to a lot of controversy about their validity and effectiveness. Those areas are unexplored in our country from the perspective of representatives. To determine the opinion of the representatives appointed in a registered Statement of Advance Directives (SAD) on the use of this document. Telephone survey of representatives of 146 already dead people and who, since February 2012, had registered a SAD document. More the two-thirds (98) of respondents recalled that the SAD was consulted, with 86 (58.9%) saying that their opinion as representative was consulted, and 120 (82.1%) believe that the patient's will was respected. Of those interviewed, 102 (69.9%) believe that patients who had previously planned their care using a SAD had a good death, with 33 (22.4%) saying it could have been better, and 10 (6.9%) believe they suffered greatly. The SAD were mostly respected and consulted, and possibly this is related to the fact that most of the representatives declare that the death of those they represented was perceived as comfortable. It would be desirable to conduct further studies addressed at health personnel in order to know their perceptions regarding the use of Advance Directives in the process of dying. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. The Sharing Economy and the Future of Personal Mobility: New Models Based on Car Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Novikova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The sharing economy is an emerging phenomenon that shapes the cultural, economic, and social landscape of our modern world. With variations of the concept of the sharing economy emerging in so many fields, the area of shared mobility – the shared use of a motor vehicle, bicycle, or other mode that enables travellers to gain short-term access to transportation modes on an on-demand basis – has developed as the forerunner of the transformation to be expected in other areas. This article examines how the sphere of personal mobility has been affected by the growth of sharing economy. It contributes to the growing body of shared mobility literature by uncovering innovative mobility-based models that represent solutions on the intersection of shared mobility, physical infrastructure, and integrated-mobility schemes.

  12. Representing vision and blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Patrick L; Cox, Alexander P; Jensen, Mark; Allen, Travis; Duncan, William; Diehl, Alexander D

    2016-01-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to represent vision or blindness ontologically. This is unsurprising as the related phenomena of sight and blindness are difficult to represent ontologically for a variety of reasons. Blindness has escaped ontological capture at least in part because: blindness or the employment of the term 'blindness' seems to vary from context to context, blindness can present in a myriad of types and degrees, and there is no precedent for representing complex phenomena such as blindness. We explore current attempts to represent vision or blindness, and show how these attempts fail at representing subtypes of blindness (viz., color blindness, flash blindness, and inattentional blindness). We examine the results found through a review of current attempts and identify where they have failed. By analyzing our test cases of different types of blindness along with the strengths and weaknesses of previous attempts, we have identified the general features of blindness and vision. We propose an ontological solution to represent vision and blindness, which capitalizes on resources afforded to one who utilizes the Basic Formal Ontology as an upper-level ontology. The solution we propose here involves specifying the trigger conditions of a disposition as well as the processes that realize that disposition. Once these are specified we can characterize vision as a function that is realized by certain (in this case) biological processes under a range of triggering conditions. When the range of conditions under which the processes can be realized are reduced beyond a certain threshold, we are able to say that blindness is present. We characterize vision as a function that is realized as a seeing process and blindness as a reduction in the conditions under which the sight function is realized. This solution is desirable because it leverages current features of a major upper-level ontology, accurately captures the phenomenon of blindness, and can be

  13. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...... to mobility and its social context. Such an understanding can be approached through representations, as distance is being represented in various ways, most noticeably in maps and through the notions of space and Otherness. The question this talk subsequently asks is whether these representations of distance...

  14. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Carroll, John M.; Hjalmarsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    the ongoing debate about the sharing economy and contribute to the discourse with insights about how digital technologies are critical in shaping this turbulent ecosystem. Furthermore, we will define an agenda for future research on the sharing economy as it becomes part of the mainstream society as well......The sharing economy is spreading rapidly worldwide in a number of industries and markets. The disruptive nature of this phenomenon has drawn mixed responses ranging from active conflict to adoption and assimilation. Yet, in spite of the growing attention to the sharing economy, we still do not know...... much about it. With the abundant enthusiasm about the benefits that the sharing economy can unleash and the weekly reminders about its dark side, further examination is required to determine the potential of the sharing economy while mitigating its undesirable side effects. The panel will join...

  15. Shared governance. Sharing power and opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, S B

    1997-03-01

    Responding to an enlarged span of control and an ever changing health care environment, the author describes the implementation of a unit-based shared governance model. Through study,literature review, and team consensus, a new management style emerged. Using Rosabeth Kanter's framework for work effectiveness, the unit governance structure was transformed. The process, progress, and outcomes are described, analyzed, and celebrated.

  16. Secure association rule sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Stanley R. de M.; Zaïane, Osmar R.; Saygın, Yücel; Saygin, Yucel

    2004-01-01

    The sharing of association rules is often beneficial in industry, but requires privacy safeguards. One may decide to disclose only part of the knowledge and conceal strategic patterns which we call restrictive rules. These restrictive rules must be protected before sharing since they are paramount for strategic decisions and need to remain private. To address this challenging problem, we propose a unified framework for protecting sensitive knowledge before sharing. This framework encompasses:...

  17. Efficiency in Shared Services

    OpenAIRE

    Prachýl, Lukáš

    2010-01-01

    The thesis describes and analyzes shared services organizations as a management tool to achieve efficiency in the organizations' processes. Paper builds on established theoretical principles, enhance them with up-to-date insights on the current situation and development and create a valuable knowledge base on shared services organizations. Strong emphasis is put on concrete means on how exactly efficiency could be achieved. Major relevant topics such as reasons for shared services, people man...

  18. Factors Impacting Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulzmann, David; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    The purpose of this paper is to examine various factors affecting knowledge sharing at the R&D center of a Western MNE in China. The paper employs qualitative methodology and is based on the action research and case study research techniques. The findings of the paper advance our understanding...... about factors that affect knowledge sharing. The main emphasis is given to the discussion on how to improve knowledge sharing in global R&D organizations....

  19. A Data Sharing Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercè Crosas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From the early days of modern science through this century of Big Data, data sharing has enabled some of the greatest advances in science. In the digital age, technology can facilitate more effective and efficient data sharing and preservation practices, and provide incentives for making data easily accessible among researchers. At the Institute for Quantitative Social Science at Harvard University, we have developed an open-source software to share, cite, preserve, discover and analyze data, named the Dataverse Network. We share here the project’s motivation, its growth and successes, and likely evolution.

  20. Millennials and the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranzini, Giulia; Newlands, Gemma; Anselmi, Guido

    Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy......Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy...

  1. 5G Spectrum Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Nekovee, Maziar; Rudd, Richard

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an overview is given of the current status of 5G industry standards, spectrum allocation and use cases, followed by initial investigations of new opportunities for spectrum sharing in 5G using cognitive radio techniques, considering both licensed and unlicensed scenarios. A particular attention is given to sharing millimeter-wave frequencies, which are of prominent importance for 5G.

  2. Phenomenology of experiential sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    León, Felipe; Zahavi, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The chapter explores the topic of experiential sharing by drawing on the early contributions of the phenomenologists Alfred Schutz and Gerda Walther. It is argued that both Schutz and Walther support, from complementary perspectives, an approach to experiential sharing that has tended to be overl...

  3. Satisfaction and 'comparison sharing'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Despite the high degree of flexibility and generosity in Sweden’s parental leave program, one fifth of parents are not satisfied with the sharing of parental leave. This paper investigates whether ‘comparison sharing’, the sharing of parental leave by other comparable couples, influences the prob...

  4. Mobile energy sharing futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worgan, Paul; Knibbe, Jarrod; Plasencia, Diego Martinez

    2016-01-01

    We foresee a future where energy in our mobile devices can be shared and redistributed to suit our current task needs. Many of us are beginning to carry multiple mobile devices and we seek to re-evaluate the traditional view of a mobile device as only accepting energy. In our vision, we can...... sharing futures....

  5. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating...... knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organizational settings, the paper explores how knowledge exchange can be conceptualized as going on in four...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  6. Exploring the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    Despite the growing interest on the part of proponents and opponents - ranging from business, civil society, media, to policy-makers alike - there is still limited knowledge about the working mechanisms of the sharing economy. The thesis is dedicated to explore this understudied phenomenon...... and to provide a more nuanced understanding of the micro- and macro-level tensions that characterize the sharing economy. This thesis consists of four research papers, each using different literature, methodology, and data sets. The first paper investigates how the sharing economy is diffused and is ‘talked......-level tensions experience by sharing platforms by looking at the case of mobile fashion reselling and swapping markets. The final paper combines the perspectives of different sharing economy stakeholders and outlines some of the micro and macro tensions arising in and influencing the organization of these multi...

  7. Want change? Call your representative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhoff, Ilya R.

    2011-07-01

    During my tenure as an AGU Congressional Science Fellow, which began in September 2010 and continues until November 2011, my time has been shared between working with the U.S. House of Representatives Natural Resource Committee Democratic staff and in the office of Rep. Ed Markey (D-Mass., ranking Democrat on the committee). I appreciate getting to work with staff, fellows, and interns who inspire me, make me laugh, and know their issues cold. Much of my work on the committee is related to fish, wildlife, oceans, lands, and water issues and is directly related to my background in ecology and evolutionary biology (I studied zebra ecology and behavior in Kenya). My assignments have included asking the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) about why it has not changed the allowed usage of certain pesticides that the National Marine Fisheries Service has found to jeopardize the recovery of endangered Pacific salmon; helping to identify research needs and management options to combat the swiftly spreading and catastrophic white nose syndrome in North American bats; and inquiring as to whether a captive-ape welfare bill, if passed without amendment, could thwart development of a vaccine to stop the Ebola virus from continuing to cause mass mortality in endangered wild apes.

  8. Global resource sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Frederiksen, Linda; Nance, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Written from a global perspective, this book reviews sharing of library resources on a global scale. With expanded discovery tools and massive digitization projects, the rich and extensive holdings of the world's libraries are more visible now than at any time in the past. Advanced communication and transmission technologies, along with improved international standards, present a means for the sharing of library resources around the globe. Despite these significant improvements, a number of challenges remain. Global Resource Sharing provides librarians and library managers with a comprehensive

  9. Sharing resources@CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    The library is launching a 'sharing resources@CERN' campaign, aiming to increase the library's utility by including the thousands of books bought by individual groups at CERN. This will improve sharing of information among CERN staff and users. Photo 01: L. to r. Eduardo Aldaz, from the PS division, Corrado Pettenati, Head Librarian, and Isabel Bejar, from the ST division, read their divisional copies of the same book.

  10. The Spanish Sharing Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Bernarda Zamora

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the intrahousehold distribution of household's private expenditures between men and women (the sharing rule) in two types of Spanish households: those in which the woman works and those in which the woman does not work. The results for working women are parallel to those obtained for other countries which indicate a proportionally higher transfer from the woman to the man than from the man to the woman, such that the proportion of the woman's share decreases both wit...

  11. Bonobos Share with Strangers

    OpenAIRE

    Jingzhi Tan; Brian Hare

    2013-01-01

    Humans are thought to possess a unique proclivity to share with others ? including strangers. This puzzling phenomenon has led many to suggest that sharing with strangers originates from human-unique language, social norms, warfare and/or cooperative breeding. However, bonobos, our closest living relative, are highly tolerant and, in the wild, are capable of having affiliative interactions with strangers. In four experiments, we therefore examined whether bonobos will voluntarily donate food ...

  12. [The shared nursing function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Cynthia

    The Chair of Philosophy at Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Paris, is a place for the sharing of knowledge and recognition. It provides a place where the subjective, institutional and political dimension of care can be considered, by all stakeholders: patients, nurses, families and citizens. The aim is to invent a shared nursing function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Sharing big biomedical data

    OpenAIRE

    Toga, Arthur W.; Ivo D Dinov

    2015-01-01

    Background The promise of Big Biomedical Data may be offset by the enormous challenges in handling, analyzing, and sharing it. In this paper, we provide a framework for developing practical and reasonable data sharing policies that incorporate the sociological, financial, technical and scientific requirements of a sustainable Big Data dependent scientific community. Findings Many biomedical and healthcare studies may be significantly impacted by using large, heterogeneous and incongruent data...

  14. Information partnerships--shared data, shared scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsynski, B R; McFarlan, F W

    1990-01-01

    How can one company gain access to another's resources or customers without merging ownership, management, or plotting a takeover? The answer is found in new information partnerships, enabling diverse companies to develop strategic coalitions through the sharing of data. The key to cooperation is a quantum improvement in the hardware and software supporting relational databases: new computer speeds, cheaper mass-storage devices, the proliferation of fiber-optic networks, and networking architectures. Information partnerships mean that companies can distribute the technological and financial exposure that comes with huge investments. For the customer's part, partnerships inevitably lead to greater simplification on the desktop and more common standards around which vendors have to compete. The most common types of partnership are: joint marketing partnerships, such as American Airline's award of frequent flyer miles to customers who use Citibank's credit card; intraindustry partnerships, such as the insurance value-added network service (which links insurance and casualty companies to independent agents); customer-supplier partnerships, such as Baxter Healthcare's electronic channel to hospitals for medical and other equipment; and IT vendor-driven partnerships, exemplified by ESAB (a European welding supplies and equipment company), whose expansion strategy was premised on a technology platform offered by an IT vendor. Partnerships that succeed have shared vision at the top, reciprocal skills in information technology, concrete plans for an early success, persistence in the development of usable information for all partners, coordination on business policy, and a new and imaginative business architecture.

  15. Regulating the sharing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Erickson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian and economic (allocative, profit-seeking aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions. This definition of the sharing economy distinguishes it from other related peer-to-peer and collaborative forms of production. Understanding the social and economic motivations for and implications of participating in the sharing economy is important to its regulation. Each of the papers in this special issue contributes to knowledge by linking the social and economic aspects of sharing economy practices to regulatory norms and mechanisms. We conclude this essay by suggesting future research to further clarify and render intelligible the sharing economy, not as a contradiction in terms but as an empirically observable realm of socio-economic activity.

  16. Coordinating Shared Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    Shared Activity Coordination (ShAC) is a computer program for planning and scheduling the activities of an autonomous team of interacting spacecraft and exploratory robots. ShAC could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as helping multiple factory managers work toward competing goals while sharing such common resources as floor space, raw materials, and transports. ShAC iteratively invokes the Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning (CASPER) program to replan and propagate changes to other planning programs in an effort to resolve conflicts. A domain-expert specifies which activities and parameters thereof are shared and reports the expected conditions and effects of these activities on the environment. By specifying these conditions and effects differently for each planning program, the domain-expert subprogram defines roles that each spacecraft plays in a coordinated activity. The domain-expert subprogram also specifies which planning program has scheduling control over each shared activity. ShAC enables sharing of information, consensus over the scheduling of collaborative activities, and distributed conflict resolution. As the other planning programs incorporate new goals and alter their schedules in the changing environment, ShAC continually coordinates to respond to unexpected events.

  17. Sharing big biomedical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toga, Arthur W; Dinov, Ivo D

    The promise of Big Biomedical Data may be offset by the enormous challenges in handling, analyzing, and sharing it. In this paper, we provide a framework for developing practical and reasonable data sharing policies that incorporate the sociological, financial, technical and scientific requirements of a sustainable Big Data dependent scientific community. Many biomedical and healthcare studies may be significantly impacted by using large, heterogeneous and incongruent datasets; however there are significant technical, social, regulatory, and institutional barriers that need to be overcome to ensure the power of Big Data overcomes these detrimental factors. Pragmatic policies that demand extensive sharing of data, promotion of data fusion, provenance, interoperability and balance security and protection of personal information are critical for the long term impact of translational Big Data analytics.

  18. Shared care (comanagement).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero Ruiz, E

    2016-01-01

    Surgical departments have increasing difficulties in caring for their hospitalised patients due to the patients' advanced age and comorbidity, the growing specialisation in medical training and the strong political-healthcare pressure that a healthcare organisation places on them, where surgical acts take precedence over other activities. The pressure exerted by these departments on the medical area and the deficient response by the interconsultation system have led to the development of a different healthcare organisation model: Shared care, which includes perioperative medicine. In this model, 2 different specialists share the responsibility and authority in caring for hospitalised surgical patients. Internal Medicine is the most appropriate specialty for shared care. Internists who exercise this responsibility should have certain characteristics and must overcome a number of concerns from the surgeon and anaesthesiologist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  19. HydroShare: An online, collaborative environment for the sharing of hydrologic data and models (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Idaszak, R.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Ames, D.; Goodall, J. L.; Band, L. E.; Merwade, V.; Couch, A.; Arrigo, J.; Hooper, R. P.; Valentine, D. W.; Maidment, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    HydroShare is an online, collaborative system being developed for sharing hydrologic data and models. The goal of HydroShare is to enable scientists to easily discover and access data and models, retrieve them to their desktop or perform analyses in a distributed computing environment that may include grid, cloud or high performance computing model instances as necessary. Scientists may also publish outcomes (data, results or models) into HydroShare, using the system as a collaboration platform for sharing data, models and analyses. HydroShare is expanding the data sharing capability of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System by broadening the classes of data accommodated, creating new capability to share models and model components, and taking advantage of emerging social media functionality to enhance information about and collaboration around hydrologic data and models. One of the fundamental concepts in HydroShare is that of a Resource. All content is represented using a Resource Data Model that separates system and science metadata and has elements common to all resources as well as elements specific to the types of resources HydroShare will support. These will include different data types used in the hydrology community and models and workflows that require metadata on execution functionality. HydroShare will use the integrated Rule-Oriented Data System (iRODS) to manage federated data content and perform rule-based background actions on data and model resources, including parsing to generate metadata catalog information and the execution of models and workflows. This presentation will introduce the HydroShare functionality developed to date, describe key elements of the Resource Data Model and outline the roadmap for future development.

  20. Sharing the dance -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jing; Ravn, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    to the highly specialized field of elite sports dance, we aim at exploring the way in which reciprocity unfolds in intensive deliberate practices of movement. In our analysis, we specifically argue that the ongoing dynamics of two separate flows of movement constitute a shared experience of dancing together....... In this sense, moving together, in sports dance, is a practical way of understanding each other. In agreement with Zahavi, our analysis emphasizes the bi-directed nature of sharing. However, at the same time, we contribute to Zahavi’s ongoing endeavour as the special case of sports dance reveals how reciprocity...

  1. Rethinking the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin; Leixnering, Stephan; Meyer, Renate

    2017-01-01

    -governmental organization Train of Hope – labeled as a ‘citizen start-up’ by City of Vienna officials – played an outstanding role in mastering the crisis. In a blog post during his visit in Vienna at the time, and experiencing the refugee crisis first-hand, it was actually Henry Mintzberg who suggested reading...... arguments. Second, we hold that a particular form of organizing facilitates the sharing economy: the sharing economy organization. This particular organizational form is distinctive – at the same time selectively borrowing and skillfully combining features from platform organizations (e.g., use...

  2. Information Sharing and Knowledge Sharing as Communicative Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper elaborates the picture of information sharing and knowledge sharing as forms of communicative activity. Method: A conceptual analysis was made to find out how researchers have approached information sharing and knowledge sharing from the perspectives of transmission and ritual. The findings are based on the analysis of one…

  3. Computing on quantum shared secrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yingkai; Tan, Si-Hui; Zhao, Liming; Fitzsimons, Joseph F.

    2017-11-01

    A (k ,n )-threshold secret-sharing scheme allows for a string to be split into n shares in such a way that any subset of at least k shares suffices to recover the secret string, but such that any subset of at most k -1 shares contains no information about the secret. Quantum secret-sharing schemes extend this idea to the sharing of quantum states. Here we propose a method of performing computation securely on quantum shared secrets. We introduce a (n ,n )-quantum secret sharing scheme together with a set of algorithms that allow quantum circuits to be evaluated securely on the shared secret without the need to decode the secret. We consider a multipartite setting, with each participant holding a share of the secret. We show that if there exists at least one honest participant, no group of dishonest participants can recover any information about the shared secret, independent of their deviations from the algorithm.

  4. Shared Care in Diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Keld

    2006-01-01

    The Danish National Board of Health has recently released a report that is intended to mark the start of a new project to establish it support for shared care in diabetes. In this paper I raise a number of concerns where lack of attention towards participation from prospective users constitute...

  5. A shared vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Brigid

    2007-12-01

    One of today's most powerful technologies in biomedical research--the creation of mutant mice by gene targeting in embryonic stem (ES) cells--was finally celebrated in this year's Nobel Prize in Medicine. The history of how ES cells were first discovered and genetically manipulated highlights the importance of collaboration among scientists from different backgrounds with a shared vision.

  6. Beyond processor sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Aalto; U. Ayesta (Urtzi); S.C. Borst (Sem); V. Misra; R. Núñez Queija (Rudesindo (Sindo))

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWhile the (Egalitarian) Processor-Sharing (PS) discipline offers crucial insights in the performance of fair resource allocation mechanisms, it is inherently limited in analyzing and designing differentiated scheduling algorithms such as Weighted Fair Queueing and Weighted Round-Robin.

  7. Too Much Information Sharing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganuza, Juan José; Jansen, Jos

    2013-01-01

    parameters gives the following trade-off in Cournot oligopoly. On the one hand, it decreases the expected consumer surplus for a given information precision, as the literature shows. On the other hand, information sharing increases the firms’ incentives to acquire information, and the consumer surplus...

  8. Promoting teachers’ knowledge sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, P.R.; Sanders, K.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers’ professional development is nowadays seen as key in efforts to improve education. Knowledge sharing is a learning activity with which teachers not only professionalize themselves, but contribute to the professional development of their colleagues as well. This paper presents two studies,

  9. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamari, Juho; Sjöklint, Mimmi; Ukkonen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Information and communications technologies (ICTs) have enabled the rise of so-called “Collaborative Consumption” (CC): the peer-to-peer-based activity of obtaining, giving, or sharing the access to goods and services, coordinated through community-based online services. CC has been expected to a...

  10. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...

  11. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...

  12. SharedSpaces mingle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handberg, L.; Gullström, C.; Kort, J.; Nyström, J.

    2016-01-01

    SharedSpaces is a WebRTC design prototype that creates a virtual media space where people can mingle and interact. Although you are in different locations, you appear side by side in front of a chosen backdrop. This interactive installation addresses spatial and social connectedness, stressing the

  13. Distributed Programming with Shared Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, H.E.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    Operating system primitives (e.g., problem-oriented shared memory, shared virtual memory, the Agora shared memory) and languages (e.g., Concurrent Prolog, Linda, Emerald) for programming distributed systems have been proposed that support the shared-variable paradigm without the presence of physical

  14. On Positive Value of Information in Risk Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Denderski, Piotr; Stoltenberg, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We develop a novel argument why better public information can help countries to insure against idiosyncratic risk. Representative agents of developing and industrial countries receive public and private signals on their future income realization and engage in risk-sharing contracts with limited enforceability. Better public information has two opposite effects. First, it has a detrimental effect on risk sharing by limiting risk-sharing possibilities as emphasized by Hirshleifer (1971). Second...

  15. Risk Sharing under Incentive Constraints.

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    In addressing the matter, this thesis covers issues such as the welfare gains from international risk sharing, the impact of international risk sharing on national economic policies and production efficiency, the welfare effects of international risk sharing in the presence of tax competition, and risk sharing among entrepreneurs that face financing constraints. The thesis outlines the implications of incentive constraints for the efficiency of the actual extent and pattern of risk sharing am...

  16. Sharing the dance -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jing; Ravn, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    to the highly specialized field of elite sports dance, we aim at exploring the way in which reciprocity unfolds in intensive deliberate practices of movement. In our analysis, we specifically argue that the ongoing dynamics of two separate flows of movement constitute a shared experience of dancing together....... In this sense, moving together, in sports dance, is a practical way of understanding each other. In agreement with Zahavi, our analysis emphasizes the bi-directed nature of sharing. However, at the same time, we contribute to Zahavi’s ongoing endeavour as the special case of sports dance reveals how reciprocity...... can be deliberately shaped through the mutual coordination and affective bound dynamics of movement. Our article thus both pursues the methodological point that qualitative research of expert competences can constructively enrich phenomenological analysis and indicates how movement can be fundamental...

  17. Towards A Shared Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen; Orth Gaarn-Larsen, Carsten

    in the context of universities. Although the economic aspects of value are important and cannot be ignored, we argue for a much richer interpretation of value that captures the many and varied results from universities. A shared mission is a prerequisite for university management and leadership. It makes......A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome...... of the universities. The sad result is that the dialog about university development, resources, leadership, governance etc. too often ends up in rather fruitless discussions and sometimes even mutual suspicion. This paper argues for having a dialog involving both internal and external stakeholders agreeing...

  18. Resource Sharing in Heterogeneous and Cloud Radio Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Anna; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes performance of cellular systems with shared resources, where the network with overlapping cells is modeled as a circuit switched network with direct routing. The influence of the degree of sharing, represented by cell overlap percentage, on the call blocking probability is inv...

  19. Shared goals and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2015-01-01

    In 'Joint Action and Development', Stephen Butterfill argues that if several agents' actions are driven by what he calls a "shared goal" -- a certain pattern of goal-relations and expectations -- then these actions constitute a joint action. This kind of joint action is sufficiently cognitively...... a counterexample, I show that the pattern of goal-relations and expectations specified by Butterfill cannot play this role. I then provide an appropriately conceptually and cognitively undemanding amendment with which the account can be saved....

  20. Sharing data increases citations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Thea Marie; Ellegaard, Ole; Larsen, Asger Væring

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents some indications to the existence of a citation advantage related to sharing data using astrophysics as a case. Through bibliometric analyses we find a citation advantage for astrophysical papers in core journals. The advantage arises as indexed papers are associated with data...... by bibliographical links, and consists of papers receiving on average significantly more citations per paper per year, than do papers not associated with links to data....

  1. Shared Health Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2014-01-01

    Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a) developed the “health capability paradigm,” a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called “shared health governance” (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082

  2. Do Workers Gain by Sharing? Employee Outcomes under Employee Ownership, Profit Sharing, and Broad-based Stock Options

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas L. Kruse; Freeman, Richard B.; Joseph R. Blasi

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how shared capitalism compensation systems - those that link employee pay to company performance - affect diverse employee outcomes. It uses two data sets: the national GSS survey that provides a broad representative view of the extent of the programs; and the NBER Shared Capitalism Project surveys of workers in 14 companies that use shared capitalism programs extensively. We find that greater involvement in the programs is generally linked to greater participation in deci...

  3. Bonobos share with strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jingzhi; Hare, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Humans are thought to possess a unique proclivity to share with others--including strangers. This puzzling phenomenon has led many to suggest that sharing with strangers originates from human-unique language, social norms, warfare and/or cooperative breeding. However, bonobos, our closest living relative, are highly tolerant and, in the wild, are capable of having affiliative interactions with strangers. In four experiments, we therefore examined whether bonobos will voluntarily donate food to strangers. We show that bonobos will forego their own food for the benefit of interacting with a stranger. Their prosociality is in part driven by unselfish motivation, because bonobos will even help strangers acquire out-of-reach food when no desirable social interaction is possible. However, this prosociality has its limitations because bonobos will not donate food in their possession when a social interaction is not possible. These results indicate that other-regarding preferences toward strangers are not uniquely human. Moreover, language, social norms, warfare and cooperative breeding are unnecessary for the evolution of xenophilic sharing. Instead, we propose that prosociality toward strangers initially evolves due to selection for social tolerance, allowing the expansion of individual social networks. Human social norms and language may subsequently extend this ape-like social preference to the most costly contexts.

  4. Sharing resources@CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The library is launching a 'sharing resources@CERN' campaign, aiming to increase the library's utility by including the thousands of books bought by individual groups at CERN. This will improve sharing of information among CERN staff and users. Until now many people were unaware that copies of the same book (or standard, or journal) are often held not only by the library but by different divisions. (Here Eduardo Aldaz, from the PS division, and Isabel Bejar, from the ST division, read their divisional copies of the same book.) The idea behind the library's new sharing resources@CERN' initiative is not at all to collect the books in individual collections at the CERN library, but simply to register them in the Library database. Those not belonging to the library will in principle be unavailable for loan, but should be able to be consulted by anybody at CERN who is interested. "When you need a book urgently and it is not available in the library,' said PS Division engineer Eduardo Aldaz Carroll, it is a sham...

  5. Bonobos share with strangers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhi Tan

    Full Text Available Humans are thought to possess a unique proclivity to share with others--including strangers. This puzzling phenomenon has led many to suggest that sharing with strangers originates from human-unique language, social norms, warfare and/or cooperative breeding. However, bonobos, our closest living relative, are highly tolerant and, in the wild, are capable of having affiliative interactions with strangers. In four experiments, we therefore examined whether bonobos will voluntarily donate food to strangers. We show that bonobos will forego their own food for the benefit of interacting with a stranger. Their prosociality is in part driven by unselfish motivation, because bonobos will even help strangers acquire out-of-reach food when no desirable social interaction is possible. However, this prosociality has its limitations because bonobos will not donate food in their possession when a social interaction is not possible. These results indicate that other-regarding preferences toward strangers are not uniquely human. Moreover, language, social norms, warfare and cooperative breeding are unnecessary for the evolution of xenophilic sharing. Instead, we propose that prosociality toward strangers initially evolves due to selection for social tolerance, allowing the expansion of individual social networks. Human social norms and language may subsequently extend this ape-like social preference to the most costly contexts.

  6. Shared decision-making as an existential journey: Aiming for restored autonomous capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulbrandsen, P.; Clayman, M.L.; Beach, M.C.; Han, P.K.; Boss, E.F.; Ofstad, E.H.; Elwyn, G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We describe the different ways in which illness represents an existential problem, and its implications for shared decision-making. METHODS: We explore core concepts of shared decision-making in medical encounters (uncertainty, vulnerability, dependency, autonomy, power, trust,

  7. Privacy in the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranzini, Giulia; Etter, Michael; Lutz, Christoph

    ’s digital services through providing recommendations to Europe’s institutions. The initial stage of this research project involves a set of three literature reviews of the state of research on three core topics in relation to the sharing economy: participation (1), privacy (2), and power (3). This piece......Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share:Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy. This paper gives an in-depth overview of the topic of power in the sharing economy. It forms one part of a European Union Horizon 2020 Research Project on the sharing economy: "Ps2Share...... Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy". We aim to foster better awareness of the consequences which the sharing economy has on the way people behave, think, interact, and socialize across Europe. Our overarching objective is to identify key challenges of the sharing economy and improve Europe...

  8. Physician Shared Patient Patterns

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The physician referral data linked below was provided as a response to a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request. These files represent the number of encounters a...

  9. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  10. Risk Sharing and Layoff Risk in Profit Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Fabella, Raul V.

    1995-01-01

    We show that if the employer is risk averse, however slightly, there is always a profit sharing contract that will Pareto-dominate the spot wage contract in the sense of pure risk sharing. The smaller is the employer risk aversion, the narrower is the room for profit sharing. The higher the workers value employment stability (less layoff risk), the more Pareto attractive is profit sharing regardless of employer risk aversion.

  11. Shared care and boundaries:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winthereik, Brit Ross

    2008-01-01

    between home and clinic, which the project identifies as problematic and seeks to transgress. Research limitations/implications – The pilot project, which is used as a case, is terminated prematurely. However, this does not affect the fact that more attention should be paid to the specific redistribution......Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science...

  12. Can power be shared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Pas, William S

    2013-01-01

    Dental insurance began with a partnership between dental service organizations and state dental associations with a view toward expanding the number of Americans receiving oral health care and as a means for permitting firms and other organizations to offer employee benefits. The goals have been achieved, but the alliance between dentistry and insurance has become strained. A lack of dialogue has fostered mutual misconceptions, some of which are reviewed in this paper. It is possible that the public, the profession, and the dental insurance industry can all be strengthened, but only through power-sharing around the original common objective.

  13. Shared Oral Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Børge; Elmelund Poulsen,, Johan; Christophersen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Shared Oral Care - Forebyggelse af orale sygdomme på plejecentre Introduktion og formål: Mangelfuld mundhygiejne hos plejekrævende ældre er et alment og veldokumenteret sundhedsproblem, der kan føre til massiv udvikling af tandsygdomme, og som yderligere kan være medvirkende årsag til alvorlige...... ressourceanvendelse er muligt at skabe en betydeligt forbedret mundhygiejne hos plejekrævende ældre Key words: Geriatric dentistry, nursing home, community health services, prevention, situated learning...

  14. Shared consultant physician posts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooke, J

    2012-01-31

    Our aim was to assess the acceptability and cost-efficiency of shared consultancy posts. Two consultant physicians worked alternate fortnights for a period of twelve months. Questionnaires were distributed to general practitioners, nurses, consultants and junior doctors affected by the arrangement. Patients or their next of kin were contacted by telephone. 1\\/17 of consultants described the experience as negative. 14\\/19 junior doctors reported a positive experience. 11 felt that training had been improved while 2 felt that it had been adversely affected. 17\\/17 GPs were satisfied with the arrangement. 1\\/86 nurses surveyed reported a negative experience. 1\\/48 patients were unhappy with the arrangement. An extra 2.2 (p<0.001) patients were seen per clinic. Length of stay was shortened by 2.49 days (p<0.001). A saving of 69,212 was made due to decreased locum requirements. We present data suggesting structured shared consultancy posts can be broadly acceptable and cost efficient in Ireland.

  15. Reconceptualising Shared Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McKinlay

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Endeavours to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of local government have been a persistent theme both of politicians in higher tiers of government and of interest groups, especially business. The two contenders for improvement which receive most coverage both in the research literature and in popular discussion are amalgamation and shared services. Arguments from the literature have generally favoured shared services over amalgamation. Bish (2001 in a comprehensive review of North American research dismisses the argument for amalgamation as a product of flawed nineteenth-century thinking and a bureaucratic urge for centralized control. He does so making the very reasonable point that the presumed economies of scale which will result from amalgamation are a function not of the size and scale of individual local authorities, but of the services for which those local authorities are responsible, and the point at which economies of scale will be optimised will be very different for different services. The case against amalgamation is also reinforced by the absence of any significant post-facto evidence that amalgamation achieves either the promised savings or the anticipated efficiency gains (McKinlay 2006.

  16. Knowledge sharing in horizontal networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juliano Nunes Alves; Breno Augusto Diniz Pereira; Augusto Diniz

    2012-01-01

      The present study aimed to identify the process of sharing knowledge between the partners involved in the network, as well as the dimensions on sharing of knowledge between enterprises belonging...

  17. Shared Services Management: Critical Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Shouhong Wang; Hai Wang

    2015-01-01

    The cloud computing technology has accelerated shared services in the government and private sectors. This paper proposes a research framework of critical success factors of shared services in the aspects of strategy identification, collaborative partnership networking, optimal shared services process re-designing, and new policies and regulations. A survey has been employed to test the hypotheses. The test results indicate that clear vision of strategies of shared services, long term busines...

  18. Model Sharing and Collaboration using HydroShare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, J. L.; Morsy, M. M.; Castronova, A. M.; Miles, B.; Merwade, V.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    HydroShare is a web-based system funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) for sharing hydrologic data and models as resources. Resources in HydroShare can either be assigned a generic type, meaning the resource only has Dublin Core metadata properties, or one of a growing number of specific resource types with enhanced metadata profiles defined by the HydroShare development team. Examples of specific resource types in the current release of HydroShare (http://www.hydroshare.org) include time series, geographic raster, Multidimensional (NetCDF), model program, and model instance. Here we describe research and development efforts in HydroShare project for model-related resources types. This work has included efforts to define metadata profiles for common modeling resources, execute models directly through the HydroShare user interface using Docker containers, and interoperate with the 3rd party application SWATShare for model execution and visualization. These examples demonstrate the benefit of HydroShare to support model sharing and address collaborative problems involving modeling. The presentation will conclude with plans for future modeling-related development in HydroShare including supporting the publication of workflow resources, enhanced metadata for additional hydrologic models, and linking model resources with other resources in HydroShare to capture model provenance.

  19. Fractions: How to Fair Share

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P. Holt; Edgington, Cynthia P.; Nguyen, Kenny H.; Pescosolido, Ryan S.; Confrey, Jere

    2011-01-01

    Children learn from a very early age what it means to get their "fair share." Whether it is candy or birthday cake, many children successfully create equal-size groups or parts of a collection or whole but later struggle to create fair shares of multiple wholes, such as fairly sharing four pies among a family of seven. Recent research suggests…

  20. Risk sharing and public transfers

    OpenAIRE

    Dercon, Stefan; Krishnan, Pramila

    2002-01-01

    We use public transfers in the form of food aid to test for the presence of risk sharing arrangements at the village level in rural Ethiopia. We reject perfect risk-sharing, but find evidence of partial risk-sharing via transfers. There is also evidence consistent with crowding out of informal insurance linked to food aid programmes. – risk ; public transfers ; informal insurance

  1. Risk Aversion and Engagement in the Sharing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Santana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sharing economy is a new online community that has important implications for offline behavior. This study evaluates whether engagement in the sharing economy is associated with an actor’s aversion to risk. Using a web-based survey and a field experiment, we apply an adaptation of Holt and Laury’s (2002 risk lottery game to a representative sample of sharing economy participants. We find that frequency of activity in the sharing economy predicts risk aversion, but only in interaction with satisfaction. While greater satisfaction with sharing economy websites is associated with a decrease in risk aversion, greater frequency of usage is associated with greater risk aversion. This analysis shows the limitations of a static perspective on how risk attitudes relate to participation in the sharing economy.

  2. Shared consultant physician posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, J; Molefe, C; Carew, S; Finucane, P; Clinch, D

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the acceptability and cost-efficiency of shared consultancy posts. Two consultant physicians worked alternate fortnights for a period of twelve months. Questionnaires were distributed to general practitioners, nurses, consultants and junior doctors affected by the arrangement. Patients or their next of kin were contacted by telephone. 1/17 of consultants described the experience as negative. 14/19 junior doctors reported a positive experience. 11 felt that training had been improved while 2 felt that it had been adversely affected. 17/17 GPs were satisfied with the arrangement. 1/86 nurses surveyed reported a negative experience. 1/48 patients were unhappy with the arrangement. An extra 2.2 (pposts can be broadly acceptable and cost efficient in Ireland.

  3. SHARED TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFIN, JOHN M. HAUT, RICHARD C.

    2008-03-07

    The program established a collaborative process with domestic industries for the purpose of sharing Navy-developed technology. Private sector businesses were educated so as to increase their awareness of the vast amount of technologies that are available, with an initial focus on technology applications that are related to the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (Hydrogen) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Specifically, the project worked to increase industry awareness of the vast technology resources available to them that have been developed with taxpayer funding. NAVSEA-Carderock and the Houston Advanced Research Center teamed with Nicholls State University to catalog NAVSEA-Carderock unclassified technologies, rated the level of readiness of the technologies and established a web based catalog of the technologies. In particular, the catalog contains technology descriptions, including testing summaries and overviews of related presentations.

  4. Borrowing brainpower - sharing insecurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte; Meier, Ninna; Ingerslev, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Academic writing is a vital, yet complex skill that must be developed within a doctoral training process. In addition, becoming an academic researcher is a journey of changing sense of self and identity. Through analysis of a group session, we show how the feedback of peers addresses questions...... of structure and writing style along with wider issues of researcher identity. Thus, peer learning is demonstrated as a process of simultaneously building a text and an identity as scholarly researcher. The paper advocates ‘borrowing brainpower’ from peers in order to write better texts and, at the same time......, ‘share insecurities’ during the development of the researcher identity. Based on a distributed notion of peer learning and identity, we point to the need for further research into the everyday activities of doctoral writing groups in order to understand the dynamic relationship between production of text...

  5. Homotopy Measures for Representative Trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambers, Erin W.; Kostitsyna, Irina; Löffler, Maarten; Staals, Frank

    2016-01-01

    An important task in trajectory analysis is defining a meaningful representative for a cluster of similar trajectories. Formally defining and computing such a representative r is a challenging problem. We propose and discuss two new definitions, both of which use only the geometry of the input

  6. On Cheating Immune Secret Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Pieprzyk

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the cheating prevention in secret sharing. We consider secret sharing with binary shares. The secret also is binary. This model allows us to use results and constructions from the well developed theory of cryptographically strong boolean functions. In particular, we prove that for given secret sharing, the average cheating probability over all cheating vectors and all original vectors, i.e., 1/n 2 n ∑ c=1...n ∑ α∈V n ρ c,α, denoted by ρ, satisfies ρ ≥ ½, and the equality holds if and only if ρ c,α satisfies ρ c,α = ½ for every cheating vector δ c and every original vector α. In this case the secret sharing is said to be cheating immune. We further establish a relationship between cheating-immune secret sharing and cryptographic criteria of boolean functions.This enables us to construct cheating-immune secret sharing.

  7. Social identities and shared realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Michael A; Rinella, Mark J

    2017-11-04

    People are fundamentally motivated to establish a shared reality with others to validate their identity and experiences. Guided by social identity theory, we examine how social identity processes, such as self-categorization and depersonalization, create a shared identity and a sense of shared reality. Research demonstrates that internal states such as attitudes, feelings, and emotions are often shared among members of a group. Furthermore, research has shown that self-uncertainty motivates people to establish shared realities through group identification, often with highly entitative groups that are associated with a self-saturating reality that is shared absolutely. Finally, we review research on how group-defining norms that serve as the bases of these identity-related shared realities are constructed and communicated through group-membership based influence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sharing electronic health records: the patient view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Powell

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of a national electronic health record system to the National Health Service (NHS has raised concerns about issues of data accuracy, security and confidentiality. The primary aim of this project was to identify the extent to which primary care patients will allow their local electronic record data to be shared on a national database. The secondary aim was to identify the extent of inaccuracies in the existing primary care records, which will be used to populate the new national Spine. Fifty consecutive attenders to one general practitioner were given a paper printout of their full primary care electronic health record. Participants were asked to highlight information which they would not want to be shared on the national electronic database of records, and information which they considered to be incorrect. There was a 62% response rate (31/50. Five of the 31 patients (16% identified information that they would not want to be shared on the national record system. The items they identified related almost entirely to matters of pregnancy, contraception, sexual health and mental health. Ten respondents (32% identified incorrect information in their records (some of these turned out to be correct on further investigation. The findings in relation to data sharing fit with the commonly held assumption that matters related to sensitive or embarrassing issues, which may affect how the patient will be treated by other individuals or institutions, are most likely to be censored by patients. Previous work on this has tended to ask hypothetical questions concerning data sharing rather than examine a real situation. A larger study of representative samples of patients in both primary and secondary care settings is needed to further investigate issues of data sharing and consent.

  9. The science of sharing and the sharing of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkman, Katherine L; Berger, Jonah

    2014-09-16

    Why do members of the public share some scientific findings and not others? What can scientists do to increase the chances that their findings will be shared widely among nonscientists? To address these questions, we integrate past research on the psychological drivers of interpersonal communication with a study examining the sharing of hundreds of recent scientific discoveries. Our findings offer insights into (i) how attributes of a discovery and the way it is described impact sharing, (ii) who generates discoveries that are likely to be shared, and (iii) which types of people are most likely to share scientific discoveries. The results described here, combined with a review of recent research on interpersonal communication, suggest how scientists can frame their work to increase its dissemination. They also provide insights about which audiences may be the best targets for the diffusion of scientific content.

  10. Data sharing in neuroimaging research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste ePoline

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant resources around the world have been invested in neuroimaging studies of brain function and disease. Easier access to this large body of work should have profound impact on research in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatry, leading to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric and neurological disease. A trend toward increased sharing of neuroimaging data has emerged in recent years. Nevertheless, a number of barriers continue to impede momentum. Many researchers and institutions remain uncertain about how to share data or lack the tools and expertise to participate in data sharing. The use of electronic data capture methods for neuroimaging greatly simplifies the task of data collection and has the potential to help standardize many aspects of data sharing. We review here the motivations for sharing neuroimaging data, the current data sharing landscape, and the sociological or technical barriers that still need to be addressed. The INCF Task Force on Neuroimaging Datasharing, in conjunction with several collaborative groups around the world, has started work on several tools to ease and eventually automate the practice of data sharing. It is hoped that such tools will allow researchers to easily share raw, processed, and derived neuroimaging data, with appropriate metadata and provenance records, and will improve the reproducibility of neuroimaging studies. By providing seamless integration of data sharing and analysis tools within a commodity research environment, the Task Force seeks to identify and minimize barriers to data sharing in the field of neuroimaging.

  11. Sharing Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohler, Bryan L.

    2004-09-01

    Workplace safety is inextricably tied to the culture – the leadership, management and organization – of the entire company. Nor is a safety lesson fundamentally different from any other business lesson. With these points in mind, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recast its lessons learned program in 2000. The laboratory retained elements of a traditional lessons learned program, such as tracking and trending safety metrics, and added a best practices element to increase staff involvement in creating a safer, healthier work environment. Today, the Lessons Learned/Best Practices program offers the latest business thinking summarized from current external publications and shares better ways PNNL staff have discovered for doing things. According to PNNL strategic planning director Marilyn Quadrel, the goal is to sharpen the business acumen, project management ability and leadership skills of all staff and to capture the benefits of practices that emerge from lessons learned. A key tool in the PNNL effort to accelerate learning from past mistakes is one that can be easily implemented by other firms and tailored to their specific needs. It is the weekly placement of Lessons Learned/Best Practices articles in the lab’s internal electronic newsletter. The program is equally applicable in highly regulated environments, such as the national laboratories, and in enterprises that may have fewer external requirements imposed on their operations. And it is cost effective, using less than the equivalent of one fulltime person to administer.

  12. Using semantics for representing experimental protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Olga; García, Alexander; López, Federico; Corcho, Oscar

    2017-11-13

    An experimental protocol is a sequence of tasks and operations executed to perform experimental research in biological and biomedical areas, e.g. biology, genetics, immunology, neurosciences, virology. Protocols often include references to equipment, reagents, descriptions of critical steps, troubleshooting and tips, as well as any other information that researchers deem important for facilitating the reusability of the protocol. Although experimental protocols are central to reproducibility, the descriptions are often cursory. There is the need for a unified framework with respect to the syntactic structure and the semantics for representing experimental protocols. In this paper we present "SMART Protocols ontology", an ontology for representing experimental protocols. Our ontology represents the protocol as a workflow with domain specific knowledge embedded within a document. We also present the S ample I nstrument R eagent O bjective (SIRO) model, which represents the minimal common information shared across experimental protocols. SIRO was conceived in the same realm as the Patient Intervention Comparison Outcome (PICO) model that supports search, retrieval and classification purposes in evidence based medicine. We evaluate our approach against a set of competency questions modeled as SPARQL queries and processed against a set of published and unpublished protocols modeled with the SP Ontology and the SIRO model. Our approach makes it possible to answer queries such as Which protocols use tumor tissue as a sample. Improving reporting structures for experimental protocols requires collective efforts from authors, peer reviewers, editors and funding bodies. The SP Ontology is a contribution towards this goal. We build upon previous experiences and bringing together the view of researchers managing protocols in their laboratory work. Website: https://smartprotocols.github.io/ .

  13. Shared performance monitor in a multiprocessor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, George; Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2012-07-24

    A performance monitoring unit (PMU) and method for monitoring performance of events occurring in a multiprocessor system. The multiprocessor system comprises a plurality of processor devices units, each processor device for generating signals representing occurrences of events in the processor device, and, a single shared counter resource for performance monitoring. The performance monitor unit is shared by all processor cores in the multiprocessor system. The PMU comprises: a plurality of performance counters each for counting signals representing occurrences of events from one or more the plurality of processor units in the multiprocessor system; and, a plurality of input devices for receiving the event signals from one or more processor devices of the plurality of processor units, the plurality of input devices programmable to select event signals for receipt by one or more of the plurality of performance counters for counting, wherein the PMU is shared between multiple processing units, or within a group of processors in the multiprocessing system. The PMU is further programmed to monitor event signals issued from non-processor devices.

  14. Representative process sampling - in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Friis-Pedersen, Hans Henrik; Julius, Lars Petersen

    2007-01-01

    Didactic data sets representing a range of real-world processes are used to illustrate "how to do" representative process sampling and process characterisation. The selected process data lead to diverse variogram expressions with different systematics (no range vs. important ranges; trends and/or...... presented cases of variography either solved the initial problems or served to understand the reasons and causes behind the specific process structures revealed in the variograms. Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) are not complete without process TOS....

  15. Representative mass reduction in sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Harry Kim; Dahl, Casper Kierulf

    2004-01-01

    dividers, the Boerner Divider, the ??spoon method??, alternate/fractional shoveling and grab sampling. Only devices based on riffle splitting principles (static or rotational) passes the ultimate representativity test (with minor, but significant relative differences). Grab sampling, the overwhelmingly...... always be representative in the full Theory of Sampling (TOS) sense. This survey also allows empirical verification of the merits of the famous ??Gy?s formula?? for order-of-magnitude estimation of the Fundamental Sampling Error (FSE)....

  16. 2013 Information Sharing Environment Performance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Information Sharing Environment — This is a survey of federal departments and agencies who share terrorism information and are therefore considered part of the Information Sharing Environment. The...

  17. 2012 Information Sharing Environment Performance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Information Sharing Environment — This is a survey of federal departments and agencies who share terrorism information and are therefore considered part of the Information Sharing Environment. The...

  18. SharePoint User's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Corporation, Infusion Development

    2009-01-01

    This straightforward guide shows SharePoint users how to create and use web sites for sharing and collaboration. Learn to use the document and picture libraries for adding and editing content, add discussion boards and surveys, receive alerts when documents and information have been added or changed, and enhance security. Designed to help you find answers quickly, the book shows how to make the most of SharePoint for productivity and collaboration.

  19. Emergent Resource Sharing & Interlibrary Loan

    OpenAIRE

    Oberlander, Cyril

    2006-01-01

    Resource sharing and Interlibrary Loan face exciting opportunities to develop new connections between information and library resources and services. Emergent consumer technology is radically changing the nature of Library service; however, we can shape the transformation of resource sharing and interlibrary loan. Framing the evolution of request management systems and resource sharing workflow are communities of adaptations to the changed information and technology landscape. The redefini...

  20. Instant Social Ride-Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Gidofalvi, Gyözö; Herenyi, Gergely; Bach Pedersen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the use of ride–sharing as a resource-efficient mode of personal transportation. While the perceived benefits of ride–sharing include reduced travel times, transportation costs, congestion, and carbon emissions, its wide–spread adoption is hindered by a number of barriers. These include the scheduling and coordination of routes, safety risks, social discomfort in sharing private spaces, and an imbalance of costs and benefits among parties. To address these barriers, the au...

  1. Using Cognitive Mapping to Represent and Share Users’ Interpretations of Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Annemette Leonhardt; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2014-01-01

    An assumption implied by much of the literature in information systems (IS) research is that people’s interpretations of technology influence the way in which technology gets adapted in organizations. Despite this acknowledgment, little insight is provided for how these interpretations can...... be elicited, and only a few studies suggest methods for doing so. In this article we address this opportunity by advancing cognitive mapping as a well-established method to systematically inquire into people’s interpretations of technology. We show how cognitive maps can serve as visual means...... of representation of these interpretations and discuss how the maps can be used to facilitate individual reflection and collective negotiation of technology adaptation. We illustrate the use of the cognitive mapping method with a case example of the introduction of an electronic patient record (EPR) system...

  2. Challenges in sharing information effectively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. The goal of information sharing is to change a person's image of the world and to develop a shared working understanding. It is an essential component of collaboration. This paper examines barriers to sharing information effectively in dynamic group work situations. Method. Three...... to other high stress, unique and complex situations, such as natural disasters. Recommendations for more effective information behaviour techniques in dynamic group work situations are presented....... types of battlefield training simulations were observed and open-ended interviews with military personnel were conducted. Analysis. Observation notes and interview transcripts were analysed to identify incidents when group members erroneously believed they had shared information effectively and were...

  3. Governing Individual Knowledge Sharing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The emerging Knowledge Governance Approach asserts the need to build microfoundations grounded in individual action. Toward this goal, using the Theory of Planned Behavior, we aim to explain individual knowledge sharing behavior as being determined by the intention to share knowledge and its...... antecedents: attitude toward knowledge sharing, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. In addition, we consider managerial interventions (governance mechanisms) that managers can employ to influence the identified antecedents and thereby govern individual knowledge sharing behavior. We test...... a positive effect on subjective norms and perceived behavioral control, respectively....

  4. Technology Mediated Information Sharing (Monitor Sharing) in Primary Care Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Onur

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation study was to identify and describe the use of electronic health records (EHRs) for information sharing between patients and clinicians in primary-care encounters and to understand work system factors influencing information sharing. Ultimately, this will promote better design of EHR technologies and effective training…

  5. Sharing models as social objects through HydroShare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, J. L.; Morsy, M. M.; Castronova, A. M.; Dash, P. K.; Merwade, V.; Sadler, J.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    Many hydrologists devote a significant amount of time to applying computational models. Sharing the results of these efforts broadly would benefit the community because scientists could, when appropriate, verify, extend, and refine existing models created by others rather than creating new models from scratch. While recent attention has been devoted to sharing hydrologic data including model outputs, approaches for sharing model instances, that is the input data required to execute a model, have received less attention. To address this need, we present functionality within HydroShare that allows scientists to share both model instances and the model programs used to execute the instances. HydroShare is an NSF-funded online system with the goal of making it simple to share data and models. The approach we designed is general and applicable to any hydrology model. It includes an extensible metadata framework capable of capturing detailed metadata for specific hydrology models, while also providing general metadata applicable to any hydrology model. Another advantage of this work is that defining a structured resource type with formal metadata fosters interoperability between cyberinfrastructure systems. This is illustrated through software providing interoperability between HydroShare and a third-party application called SWATShare that is focused on providing online visualization, execution, and management of SWAT models.

  6. Shared governance and shared leadership: meeting the challenges of implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Linda; Caress, Ann-Louise

    2005-01-01

    New forms of leadership are required if staff are to be effectively engaged and involved in decision-making and promoting clinical effectiveness. One such mechanism is shared governance and shared leadership to ensure practice is both practitioner owned and organizationally supported. Empowering staff is a great challenge requiring effective planning, preparation and commitment. Establishing the process of shared governance requires effective leadership, implementation of a suitable framework, multidisciplinary working and examination of the organization's structure and culture. This paper discusses the challenges of implementation, preparation of staff, and alignment with the organizational agenda. It emphasizes that shared governance is an ongoing and fluid process, requiring continual assessment and re-evaluation in order to be flexible and responsive to an ever-changing environment. The Christie model provides a sustainable framework for moving practice forward and successful implementation has led to greater coordination of practice development and sharing of best practice.

  7. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  8. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Paolo

    2009-06-29

    The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology.In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization supporting clinical trial recruitment

  9. Marc Treib: Representing Landscape Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    The editor of Representing Landscape Architecture, Marc Treib, argues that there is good reason to evaluate the standard practices of representation that landscape architects have been using for so long. In the rush to the promised land of computer design these practices are now in danger of being...... left by the wayside. The 14 often both fitting and well crafted contributions of this publication offer an approach to how landscape architecture has been and is currently represented; in the design study, in presentation, in criticism, and in the creation of landscape architecture....

  10. Distributed Programming with Shared Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, H.E.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Until recently, at least one thing was clear about parallel programming: shared-memory machines were programmed in a language based on shared variables and distributed machines were programmed using message passing. Recent research on distributed systems and their languages, however, has led to new

  11. Barriers to Cyber Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    that compete for use within organizations.89 According to Kathleen Moriarty of EMC Corporation, threat information-sharing efforts must affect the...Intelligence Sharing (Hopkinton, MA: EMC , 2013). 90 Ibid. 22 release of too much information...has expressed concern that extending protections would only serve as a legal shield against liability.131 In addition, the challenges of information

  12. Benefit sharing in health research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-02

    Aug 2, 2015 ... [7,9] The guideline's MTA template provides for the 'fair and equitable sharing of benefits' derived ... exposure which could assist in safeguarding the women's rights to any benefits that may accrue from ..... biological resources in developing countries: Benefit sharing without undue inducement (in press).

  13. Food Sharing: An Evolutionary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Saul

    Food altruism and the consumption of food are examined from a sociological perspective which assumes that humans share food as inclusive fitness actors. Inclusive fitness implies the representation of an individual's genes in future generations through his own or others' offspring. The discussion includes characteristics of food sharing among kin…

  14. Shared Contract-Obedient Endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Étienne Lozes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing verification techniques for message-passing programs suppose either that channel endpoints are used in a linear fashion, where at most one thread may send or receive from an endpoint at any given time, or that endpoints may be used arbitrarily by any number of threads. The former approach usually forbids the sharing of channels while the latter limits what is provable about programs. In this paper we propose a midpoint between these techniques by extending a proof system based on separation logic to allow sharing of endpoints. We identify two independent mechanisms for supporting sharing: an extension of fractional shares to endpoints, and a new technique based on what we call reflexive ownership transfer. We demonstrate on a number of examples that a linear treatment of sharing is possible.

  15. FAIR-share

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-seven engineers involved in the FAIR project in Germany recently spent three days at CERN. The purpose of their visit: tour ALICE and meet with CERN engineers. This marks the start of a close cooperation. The FAIR project engineers and their CERN counterparts.If you want to build a new particle accelerator and wish to benefit from existing expertise, who do you go to see? Well… why not go straight to CERN? That’s what this group of 27 engineers did. They are working on a new accelerator project, the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), to be built at the heavy-ion research centre GSI located near Darmstadt, Germany. Representing a variety of disciplines, from manufacturing to architecture, they will be responsible for making the project a reality. The visit was organised from 14-16 October, making it possible to include a tour of the ALICE experiment prior to the re-start of the LHC. However, the main goal was ...

  16. What is unique about shared reality? Insights from a new comparison species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Angie M; Byrne, Molly; Santos, Laurie R

    2017-11-15

    We introduce a new comparison species-domesticated dogs (Canis familaris)-that can shed light on the evolutionary origins of shared reality. Given that dogs share many basic building blocks of shared reality (e.g. representing others' perceptions, emotions, and behaviors) they provide an ideal species for pinpointing unique aspects of shared reality in humans. In particular, current research with dogs underscores two aspects of shared reality that may be special to humans. First, humans may be unique in our tendency to share reality involuntarily. Second, humans may be unique in the extent to which we share reality. Although both humans and dogs share reality in one-on-one interactions, only humans share reality at the more extensive group and cultural level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Representative shuttle evaporative heat sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixon, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a representative shuttle evaporative heat sink (RSEHS) system which vaporizes an expendable fluid to provide cooling for the shuttle heat transport fluid loop is reported. The optimized RSEHS minimum weight design meets or exceeds the shuttle flash evaporator system requirements. A cold trap which cryo-pumps flash evaporator exhaust water from the CSD vacuum chamber test facility to prevent water contamination of the chamber pumping equipment is also described.

  18. One Share-One Vote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas; Eklund, Johan E.

    Shares with more voting rights than cash flow rights provide their owners with a disproportional influence that is often found to destroy the value of outside equity. This is taken as evidence of discretionary use of power. However, concentration of power does not necessarily result from control...... enhancing mechanisms; it could also be that some shareholders retain a large block in a one share-one vote structure. In this paper, we develop a methodology to disentangle disproportionality, which allows us to test the effect of deviations from one share-one vote more precisely. Our empirical findings add...

  19. i-Review: Sharing Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Kubilius

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF. GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  20. Enhancing shared governance for interdisciplinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoying, Cheryl; Allen, Susan R

    2011-01-01

    Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center has a strong history of embracing staff empowerment and shared decision making. Shared governance for nursing was implemented in 1989; a separate allied health structure was created in 1999. The two operated in parallel with few occasions for interface, and with little collaboration. With the beginning of the medical center's efforts to pursue perfect patient care in 2002, there was a marked increase in the frequency of interprofessional initiatives and collaborations in the organization. By 2005, this increase in collaborative practice precipitated discussions questioning the purpose and efficiency of two separate structures. Over the next two years, planning ensued to merge these structures to better reflect the current interprofessional reality. The enhanced shared governance structure at Cincinnati Children's was launched in 2008. Each discipline now governs its own practice, but as patient care issues overlap, there is a structure in place to resolve patient issues that cross disciplines. The new Patient Care Governance Council includes physician and family representatives.

  1. COAST Map Sharing Plugin Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development of a capability which will allow ecosystem managers to share a map view in terms of location, magnification level, and data layers (to...

  2. Knowledge Sharing and National Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailova, Snejina; Hutchings, Kate

    2004-01-01

    the complexity of differencesbetween transition economies. The paper is written as a set of theoretical arguments andpropositions that is designed to elucidate more nuanced ways of thinking about knowledgesharing in China and Russia. We argue that in the case of China and Russia, verticalindividualism...... to the knowledge-sharing literature by specificallydiscussing the interplay between knowledge-sharing and national cultural factors in the context oftransition countries. The paper engages in a comparative examination of two major transitionsocieties, China and Russia, and contributes to understanding...... and particularist social relations facilitate knowledge sharing. We also maintainthat there are important differences between China and Russia in terms of motivation forknowledge sharing and propose that the differences between the two countries in terms of originsof collectivism and degree of collectivism impact...

  3. Positive train control shared network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Interoperable Train Control (ITC) Positive : Train Control (PTC) Shared Network (IPSN) : project investigated anticipated industry benefits : and the level of support for the development of : a hosted technological platform for PTC : messaging ac...

  4. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages art_science/2003>. Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological and cultural models.

  5. Developing SharePoint applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rupnik, Gašper

    2011-01-01

    The thesis includes a research on SharePoint 2010 programming capabilities and a display of products created by this knowledge. The introduction part includes background information on how the topic was chosen and how the thesis was developed. The second chapter presents the SharePoint platform, which includes a description of its structure, function and usability. The third chapter focuses solely on the programming of the platform. First, some of the most useful software tools for i...

  6. Information Sharing and Environmental Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Tsakiris

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the assumption that in a standard eco-dumping model governments are uncertain about future product demand and allowing governments to obtain information from firms, we examine governments’ and firms’ incentives to share information. We show that when governments regulate polluting firms through emission standards, then governments and firms will reach an agreement concerning information sharing. The opposite holds when governments regulate pollution through emission taxes.

  7. Cost-Sharing and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Teresa B.; A. Mark Fendrick; Chernew, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature examines the cross price elasticities between different health care services. For example, increasing the patient out of pocket price for some health care services increases the utilization of other health care services. Yet, the literature has generally ignored the connection between cost sharing for health care services and labor market outcomes. This paper examines the direction and magnitude of the reduced form relationship between patient cost-sharing and wor...

  8. Shared Year Exchange in Nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsegaard, Helle Wendner; Wederkinck, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien.......Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien....

  9. The value of shared services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Beverly B

    2011-07-01

    A multisite shared services organization, combined with a robust business continuity plan, provides infrastructure and redundancies that mitigate risk for hospital CFOs. These structures can position providers to do the following: move essential operations out of a disaster impact zone, if necessary. Allow resources to focus on immediate patient care needs. Take advantage of economies of scale in temporary staffing. Leverage technology. Share in investments in disaster preparedness and business continuity solutions

  10. Conspicuous Waste and Representativeness Heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Shishkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the similarities between conspicuous waste and representativeness heuristic. The conspicuous waste is analyzed according to the classic Veblen’ interpretation as a strategy to increase social status through conspicuous consumption and conspicuous leisure. In “The Theory of the Leisure Class” Veblen introduced two different types of utility – conspicuous and functional. The article focuses on the possible benefits of the analysis of conspicuous utility not only in terms of institutional economic theory, but also in terms of behavioral economics. To this end, the representativeness heuristics is considered, on the one hand, as a way to optimize the decision-making process, which allows to examine it in comparison with procedural rationality by Simon. On the other hand, it is also analyzed as cognitive bias within the Kahneman and Twersky’ approach. The article provides the analysis of the patterns in the deviations from the rational behavior strategy that could be observed in case of conspicuous waste both in modern market economies in the form of conspicuous consumption and in archaic economies in the form of gift-exchange. The article also focuses on the marketing strategies for luxury consumption’ advertisement. It highlights the impact of the symbolic capital (in Bourdieu’ interpretation on the social and symbolic payments that actors get from the act of conspicuous waste. This allows to perform a analysis of conspicuous consumption both as a rational way to get the particular kind of payments, and, at the same time, as a form of institutionalized cognitive bias.

  11. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  12. Probability distribution of extreme share returns in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Wan Zawiah Wan; Safari, Muhammad Aslam Mohd; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Yie, Wendy Ling Shin

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the suitable probability distribution to model the extreme share returns in Malaysia. To achieve this, weekly and monthly maximum daily share returns are derived from share prices data obtained from Bursa Malaysia over the period of 2000 to 2012. The study starts with summary statistics of the data which will provide a clue on the likely candidates for the best fitting distribution. Next, the suitability of six extreme value distributions, namely the Gumbel, Generalized Extreme Value (GEV), Generalized Logistic (GLO) and Generalized Pareto (GPA), the Lognormal (GNO) and the Pearson (PE3) distributions are evaluated. The method of L-moments is used in parameter estimation. Based on several goodness of fit tests and L-moment diagram test, the Generalized Pareto distribution and the Pearson distribution are found to be the best fitted distribution to represent the weekly and monthly maximum share returns in Malaysia stock market during the studied period, respectively.

  13. Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

  14. Real World SharePoint 2007 Indispensable Experiences From 16 MOSS and WSS MVPs

    CERN Document Server

    Hillier, Scot; Buenz, Adam; Connell, Andrew; Draper, Stacy; Solier Grinda, Luis Du; Klindt, Todd; Medero, Jason; Miller, Dustin; Perran, Shane; Poelmans, Joris; Solomon, Heather; Swan, Nick; Tielens, Jan; Walsh, Mike; Young, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Microsoft recognizes key individuals who contribute significantly to the community of technologists through the Microsoft Most Valuable Professional (MVP) award. These individuals are active authors, speakers, bloggers, and innovators. They are also skilled network engineers, developers, trainers, designers, and architects. In the SharePoint community, these MVPs are recognized for their expertise in either Windows SharePoint Services (WSS) or Microsoft Office SharePoint Server (MOSS). This book represents the efforts of 16 MVPs in the SharePoint community to present core areas of SharePoint 2

  15. Vibrio chromosomes share common history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevers Dirk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.

  16. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co......-creation strategies. Confronted with the results, the group completely altered their approach to knowledge sharing and let it become knowledge co-creation. The conclusions are, that knowledge is and can only be a diverse and differentiated concept, and that groups are able to embrace this complexity. Thus rather than...

  17. Representing Performance in Ethnomusicological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Lutzu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Back in the 1970s a number of ethnomusicologists started to elaborate a theoretical reflection on performance as a central issue in the study of music making. This forced them to develop other ways of visualizing music for their analytical purposes. This article deals with how performance has been represented in ethnomusicological studies. I shall discuss how the graphic rendition of a sound recording is simply the mirror of what a scholar perceives, or the consequence of his/her will to emphasise a specific aspect, mediated through the possibilities offered by (and the limits of the Western semiographic system. After presenting a series of examples on how various scholars chose to graphically visualize musical performance, this paper shows how the contemplation of the strategies used to visualize performance in ethnomusicological studies can be a fruitful way of reflecting upon various topics, namely 1 the impassable limits of score transcription for understanding music as a performative phenomenon; 2 the analysis of the graphic solutions adopted by the ethnomusicologist as a way to better understand their idea of what the performance is; 3 the role played by technology in promoting new analytical approaches and methodologies; 4 analysis in ethnomusicology as an "artisanal process".

  18. Data sharing for pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian J; Merry, Alan F

    2009-10-01

    Pooling data from different pediatric studies can provide a single robust pharmacokinetic analysis that allows covariate analysis and hypothesis testing. Data sharing should be driven by the altruistic purpose of improving drug understanding to the clinical benefit of children. Electronic communications have rendered the sharing of data relatively easy, and data sharing within the wider scientific community has become commonplace. Data sharing allows verification of results, save costs and time, allows new interpretation of old data, and can fulfill teaching benefits. It may stimulate cooperative competition between researchers and allow individual researchers to concentrate on unique aspects of the scientific puzzle. However, there is occasionally a reluctance to share, in part because of fear of others stealing the hard work of a research group, which may not be recognized in subsequent publications that reuse data. Providing data may require additional effort for presentation in a suitable format. Data may be abused or used for purposes other than those for which they were collected. Propriety claims may limit access to industry-sponsored drug research. The question of who has ownership of data is contentious. Investigators often consider data they have collected to be their own property. Reputations and grants may be hinge on ownership of a data set. However, other team members, institutions, funding agencies, and the public also have a stake. The difficulties identified in the general scientific community also apply to data sharing for pediatric pharmacokinetic studies. There are few clearly established rules at present, and consideration of the issues hinges on ethical and philosophical arguments. The development of databases will depend on collaboration and cooperation and greater clarity and consensus over appropriate processes and procedures.

  19. Sharing best practice in partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Mette; Remmen, Arne; Pedersen, Claus Stig

    upstream in the supply chain, and “business development” of sustainable products and product service systems. Sharing best practice in partnerships is an example of the latter, but Supply Chain Management goes beyond product chains and into partnerships where the focus is not on one main company......In this paper, the promotion of sustainable products through the sharing of best practices in product chains is examined. The general understanding is that the interactions in the supply chain are changing from a traditional focus on the supply of goods “just in time” towards a focus on value...

  20. Mine, yours, ours? Sharing data on human genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milia, Nicola; Congiu, Alessandra; Anagnostou, Paolo; Montinaro, Francesco; Capocasa, Marco; Sanna, Emanuele; Destro Bisol, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The achievement of a robust, effective and responsible form of data sharing is currently regarded as a priority for biological and bio-medical research. Empirical evaluations of data sharing may be regarded as an indispensable first step in the identification of critical aspects and the development of strategies aimed at increasing availability of research data for the scientific community as a whole. Research concerning human genetic variation represents a potential forerunner in the establishment of widespread sharing of primary datasets. However, no specific analysis has been conducted to date in order to ascertain whether the sharing of primary datasets is common-practice in this research field. To this aim, we analyzed a total of 543 mitochondrial and Y chromosomal datasets reported in 508 papers indexed in the Pubmed database from 2008 to 2011. A substantial portion of datasets (21.9%) was found to have been withheld, while neither strong editorial policies nor high impact factor proved to be effective in increasing the sharing rate beyond the current figure of 80.5%. Disaggregating datasets for research fields, we could observe a substantially lower sharing in medical than evolutionary and forensic genetics, more evident for whole mtDNA sequences (15.0% vs 99.6%). The low rate of positive responses to e-mail requests sent to corresponding authors of withheld datasets (28.6%) suggests that sharing should be regarded as a prerequisite for final paper acceptance, while making authors deposit their results in open online databases which provide data quality control seems to provide the best-practice standard. Finally, we estimated that 29.8% to 32.9% of total resources are used to generate withheld datasets, implying that an important portion of research funding does not produce shared knowledge. By making the scientific community and the public aware of this important aspect, we may help popularize a more effective culture of data sharing.

  1. Information Sharing and International Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keen, M.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The sharing between national tax authorities of taxpayer-specific information has emerged over the last few years as a-probably "the"-central issue in the formation of international tax policy.Yet this refocusing of the debate on international taxation-away from parametric tax coordination and

  2. Scalable shared-memory multiprocessing

    CERN Document Server

    Lenoski, Daniel E

    1995-01-01

    Dr. Lenoski and Dr. Weber have experience with leading-edge research and practical issues involved in implementing large-scale parallel systems. They were key contributors to the architecture and design of the DASH multiprocessor. Currently, they are involved with commercializing scalable shared-memory technology.

  3. Neither invented nor shared here

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Ana Luiza de Araújo; Knudsen, M. P.; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    2014-01-01

    against the sourcing of external knowledge (the Not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome) and against the external exploitation of knowledge assets (the Not-shared-here (NSH) syndrome). Using survey data collected from 331 firms, this article empirically assesses the theoretical assertion that the NIH and NSH...

  4. Dynamic Spectrum Sharing among Femtocells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Costa, Gustavo Wagner Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The ever-growing demand for mobile broadband is leading to an imminent spectrum scarcity. In order to cope with such situation dynamic spectrum sharing and the widespread deployment of small cells (femtocells) are promising solutions. Delivering such a view is not short of challenges. Massive...

  5. Sharing Power in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Amato, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that be sharing power in the classroom teachers allow the development of participatory classrooms in which all students can thrive. Examines participatory teaching and critical pedagogy, components of the participatory learning experience, manifestations of participatory teaching, an application of the language experience approach,…

  6. Availability Cascades & the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    In search of a new concept that will provide answers to as to how modern societies should not only make sense but also resolve the social and environmental problems linked with our modes of production and consumption, collaborative consumption and the sharing economy are increasingly attracting a...

  7. Availability Cascades & the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    In search of a new concept that will provide answers to as to how modern societies should not only make sense but also resolve the social and environmental problems linked with our modes of production and consumption, collaborative consumption and the sharing economy are increasingly attracting a...

  8. Performance Modeling of Maximal Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Steindorfer (Michael); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIt is noticeably hard to predict the effect of optimization strategies in Java without implementing them. "Maximal sharing" (a.k.a. "hash-consing") is one of these strategies that may have great benefit in terms of time and space, or may have detrimental overhead. It all depends on the

  9. Moralities of sharing and caring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, A.; Wahlen, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper propounds the concept of the moral household economy in order to understand and explain gender performances in food practices of sharing and caring in the socio-cultural domain of unpaid food work. Households are the immediate context for meeting people’s food and nutrition needs and for

  10. Job Sharing: One District's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Mahlon L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes responses of principals, teachers, and parents to a job sharing program instituted to reduce impact of staff layoffs. Principals were satisfied overall; teachers believed that students benefited from interaction with two instructors; and a majority of parents felt likewise. (TE)

  11. Knowledge sharing in diverse organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that both strengths and weaknesses of diversity in organisations stem from the different demographic, national, linguistic, social and cultural backgrounds of their members. However, few attempts have been made to link different types of diversity to knowledge sharing despite t...

  12. Car sharing à la carte

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Do you want to make your commute to CERN easier, while saving money at the same time? Would you prefer not to spend a quarter of an hour crawling round the CERN car parks looking for a space? If so, read on: this article might well be of great interest to you.   We would like to draw your attention to a well established, albeit sadly under-used, method of transport: car sharing. To promote car-sharing, the GS Department has stepped in to call on the services of the Swiss firm Green Monkeys which specialises in this user-friendly and intelligent transport scheme. The company’s slogan is:  “Car-sharing as you want, when you want and as much as you want”. The principle is very straightforward. To use this car-sharing facility, you simply complete your free online registration with Green Monkeys, providing the following details: your journey, departure time, arrival time and days of the week, and indicating whether you are a passenger or driver or both. &a...

  13. Shared Vision promotes family firm performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Edward Neff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A clear picture of the influential drivers of private family firm performance has proven to be an elusive target. The unique characteristics of private family owned firms necessitate a broader, non-financial approach to reveal firm performance drivers. This research study sought to specify and evaluate the themes that distinguish successful family firms from less successful family firms. In addition, this study explored the possibility that these themes collectively form an effective organizational culture that improves longer-term firm performance. At an organizational level of analysis, research findings identified four significant variables: Shared Vision (PNS, Role Clarity (RCL, Confidence in Management (CON, and Professional Networking (OLN that positively impacted family firm financial performance. Shared Vision exhibited the strongest positive influence among the significant factors. In addition, Family Functionality (APGAR, the functional integrity of the family itself exhibited a significant supporting role. Taken together, the variables collectively represent an effective family business culture (EFBC that positively impacted the long-term financial sustainability of family owned firms. The index of effective family business culture also exhibited potential as a predictive non-financial model of family firm performance.

  14. Shared vision promotes family firm performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, John E

    2015-01-01

    A clear picture of the influential drivers of private family firm performance has proven to be an elusive target. The unique characteristics of private family owned firms necessitate a broader, non-financial approach to reveal firm performance drivers. This research study sought to specify and evaluate the themes that distinguish successful family firms from less successful family firms. In addition, this study explored the possibility that these themes collectively form an effective organizational culture that improves longer-term firm performance. At an organizational level of analysis, research findings identified four significant variables: Shared Vision (PNS), Role Clarity (RCL), Confidence in Management (CON), and Professional Networking (OLN) that positively impacted family firm financial performance. Shared Vision exhibited the strongest positive influence among the significant factors. In addition, Family Functionality (APGAR), the functional integrity of the family itself, exhibited a significant supporting role. Taken together, the variables collectively represent an effective family business culture (EFBC) that positively impacted the long-term financial sustainability of family owned firms. The index of effective family business culture also exhibited potential as a predictive non-financial model of family firm performance.

  15. Perceptions of Participation and the Share Button

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Tiidenberg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses Estonian youth’s perceptions of their own political participation and their practices of participation on social media. We analysed 60 interviews with Estonian informants in a MYPLACE study and relied on a conceptual broadening that acknowledges the political potential of everyday. We relay on theories of standby citizenship and spiral of silence to understand signing petitions, commenting, liking and sharing politically minded content online. Based on this we suggest that young people in Estonia are interested in political issues and public opinion and their social media use represents a diversification of how citizens take part in civic matters. However, youths do not necessarily believe in the efficacy of social media in enacting political change and their reasons for not participating can be seen as indicative of a desire for both impression management and being affected by the spiral of silence.

  16. [Involvement of medical representatives in team medical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirotsu, Misaki; Sohma, Michiro; Takagi, Hidehiko

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, chemotherapies have been further advanced because of successive launch of new drugs, introduction of molecular targeting, etc., and the concept of so-called Team Medical Care ,the idea of sharing interdisciplinary expertise for collaborative treatment, has steadily penetrated in the Japanese medical society. Dr. Naoto Ueno is a medical oncologist at US MD Anderson Cancer Center, the birthplace of the Team Medical Care. He has advocated the concept of ABC of Team Oncology by positioning pharmaceutical companies as Team C. Under such team practice, we believe that medical representatives of a pharmaceutical company should also play a role as a member of the Team Medical Care by providing appropriate drug use information to healthcare professionals, supporting post-marketing surveillance of treated patients, facilitating drug information sharing among healthcare professionals at medical institutions, etc.

  17. Work-Sharing: Panacea or Palliative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, high unemployment and a high perceived rate of technological change have created interest in work-sharing. Definitions of different types of work-sharing and theoretical and practical issues related to work-sharing are covered. Work-sharing is not necessarily a panacea, but it does show the potential to help. (Author/IS)

  18. HLA sharing and history of miscarriage among women with rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, P. [Univ. of Manchester Medical School (United Kingdom)

    1997-03-01

    An increased frequency of recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA), defined as three or more pregnancy losses without an identifiable cause, has been reported among women who share HLA alleles with their partner. A similar association has also been reported for women who have decreased fecundity. No specific HLA alleles have been identified as being the important etiological factor, raising the possibility that the observed sharing may represent a marker for sharing of other closely linked susceptibility genes. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Professional SharePoint 2013 administration

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Shane; Klindt, Todd

    2013-01-01

    SharePoint admin author gurus return to prepare you for working with the new features of SharePoint 2013! The new iteration of SharePoint boasts exciting new features. However, any new version also comes with its fair share of challenges and that's where this book comes in. The team of SharePoint admin gurus returns to presents a fully updated resource that prepares you for making all the new SharePoint 2013 features work right. They cover all of the administration components of SharePoint 2013 in detail, and present a clear understanding of how they affect the role of the adminis

  20. GLOBALIZATION IMPACT ON UKRAINIAN MARKET OF SHARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zotsenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of globalization on the Ukrainian market of shares. Main trends of globalization of world share market are analyzed. The study highlights key elements of the operating share markets of the world leading countries. The research investigates main factors that affect on the level of national market of shares. The findings trace out a number of problems that hinder and distort the role of the Ukrainian share market in capital allocation.

  1. Understanding shared services (Article 1 of 3)

    OpenAIRE

    T. N. Van der Linde; A. L. Boessenkool; C. J. Jooste

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Shared services is a viable business model that can be used by organisations to reduce costs and enhance efficiency and effectiveness in the organisation. The purpose of this trilogy of articles is to introduce shared services as a business model, and how to efficiently and effectively manage a shared services business unit. The purpose of the first article in the trilogy, introduces shared services as a business model, defines what shared services is, the transformation requir...

  2. Settlement-date Accounting for Equity Share Options - Conceptual Validity and Numerical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peder Fredslund

    that the expenses resulting from settlement-date accounting for equity share option awards are significantly higher on average than the expenses resulting from grant-date accounting. And they show that the cost of equity, the share price volatility and the lifetime of the equity share options are important......This paper demonstrates that settlement-date accounting for equity share options can be seen as an accounting method which implements a shareholder focused residually rewarded partners' equity view. This equity view represents a simple, natural extension of the shareholder proprietary view....... It implicates an equity and income sharing model for accounting which is characterized by specification of both shareholders' and non-shareholders' parts of total equity and income. When using this equity and income sharing model, the remeasurements of equity share option obligations made by settlement...

  3. Argumentation for coordinating shared activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Barrett, Anthony C.; Schaffer, Steven R.

    2004-01-01

    an increasing need for space missions to be able to collaboratively (and competitively) develop plans both within and across missions. In addition, interacting spacecraft that interleave onboard planning and execution must reach consensus on their commitments to each other prior to execution. In domains where missions have varying degrees of interaction and different constraints on communication and computation, the missions will require different coordination protocols in order to efficiently reach consensus with in their imposed deadlines. We describe a Shared Activity Coordination (SHAC) framework that provides a decentralized algorithm for negotiating the scheduling of shared activities over the lifetimes of multiple agents and a foundation for customizing protocols for negotiating planner interactions. We investigate variations of a few simple protocols based on argumentation and distributed constraints satisfaction techniques and evaluate their abilities to reach consistent solutions according to computation, time, and communication costs in an abstract domain where spacecraft propose joint measurements.

  4. SECTORAL SHARES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Naveed, Amjad; Naz, Amber

    2013-01-01

    believe that structural change is an unimportant side effect of the economic development. On the contrary, economists associated with the World Bank and some others posit that growth is brought about by the changes in sectoral composition. The objective of this study is to empirically test...... the relationship between sectoral shares and economic growth by using the panel data for 20 developed countries. The results of the granger causality suggest that both services and agriculture sectors do granger cause economic growth, whereas industrial sector does not granger cause growth. Reverse causality does...... not hold for any of the three sectors. The results of Barro and Non-Barro regressions along with the set of control variables have suggested that services sector is negatively affecting growth, whereas both industrial and agriculture shares are positively affect economic growth....

  5. Elvis is returning to the building: understanding a decline in unauthorized file sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, J.; Weda, J.

    2015-01-01

    A set of representative consumer surveys shows that in the Netherlands unauthorized file sharing of music has declined substantially between 2008 and 2012. It decreased slightly for games, but almost doubled for films and TV series. Overall, file sharing dropped from 38% to 27% of the population.

  6. The evolution of reciprocal sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Jim

    1984-01-01

    Genetical models of the evolution of reciprocal altruism (as distinct from cooperation, mutualism, or nepotism) have difficulty explaining the initial establishment of an altruist gene in a selfish deme. Though potential mechanisms have been suggested, there is an alternative: much "altruistic" behavior may in fact be purely selfish in origin and consequently reciprocity need not be invoked to provide a selective benefit to the actor. _Sharing_ and _helping_ are fundamentally different behavi...

  7. Producing citizenship as shared meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Coelho Liberali

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the Creative Chain (Liberali, 2006a for citizenship education in the “Citizenship Action Project: Reading in Different Areas”(PAC-LDA. It approaches the concepts of sense, meaning, and answerability-responsibility (Bakhtin, 1992 as the basis for citizenship production. The analysis of data collected in the 2006 activities of the project suggests that shared meanings contribute to the view of citizenship in the Creative Chain of Activities as a desirable attitude (Kymlicka & Norman, 1997.

  8. Framework for managing shared knowledge in an information systems outsourcing context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smuts, H

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Both information systems (IS) outsourcing and knowledge management are well-established business phenomena. The integration of shared knowledge in an IS outsourcing arrangement, represents the blending of organisational knowledge with external...

  9. The evolution of extreme cooperation via shared dysphoric experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Harvey; Jong, Jonathan; Buhrmester, Michael D; Gómez, Ángel; Bastian, Brock; Kavanagh, Christopher M; Newson, Martha; Matthews, Miriam; Lanman, Jonathan A; McKay, Ryan; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2017-03-14

    Willingness to lay down one's life for a group of non-kin, well documented historically and ethnographically, represents an evolutionary puzzle. Building on research in social psychology, we develop a mathematical model showing how conditioning cooperation on previous shared experience can allow individually costly pro-group behavior to evolve. The model generates a series of predictions that we then test empirically in a range of special sample populations (including military veterans, college fraternity/sorority members, football fans, martial arts practitioners, and twins). Our empirical results show that sharing painful experiences produces "identity fusion" - a visceral sense of oneness - which in turn can motivate self-sacrifice, including willingness to fight and die for the group. Practically, our account of how shared dysphoric experiences produce identity fusion helps us better understand such pressing social issues as suicide terrorism, holy wars, sectarian violence, gang-related violence, and other forms of intergroup conflict.

  10. The evolution of extreme cooperation via shared dysphoric experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Harvey; Jong, Jonathan; Buhrmester, Michael D.; Gómez, Ángel; Bastian, Brock; Kavanagh, Christopher M.; Newson, Martha; Matthews, Miriam; Lanman, Jonathan A.; McKay, Ryan; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Willingness to lay down one’s life for a group of non-kin, well documented historically and ethnographically, represents an evolutionary puzzle. Building on research in social psychology, we develop a mathematical model showing how conditioning cooperation on previous shared experience can allow individually costly pro-group behavior to evolve. The model generates a series of predictions that we then test empirically in a range of special sample populations (including military veterans, college fraternity/sorority members, football fans, martial arts practitioners, and twins). Our empirical results show that sharing painful experiences produces “identity fusion” – a visceral sense of oneness – which in turn can motivate self-sacrifice, including willingness to fight and die for the group. Practically, our account of how shared dysphoric experiences produce identity fusion helps us better understand such pressing social issues as suicide terrorism, holy wars, sectarian violence, gang-related violence, and other forms of intergroup conflict. PMID:28290499

  11. Understanding shared services (Article 1 of 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Van der Linde

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Shared services is a viable business model that can be used by organisations to reduce costs and enhance efficiency and effectiveness in the organisation. The purpose of this trilogy of articles is to introduce shared services as a business model, and how to efficiently and effectively manage a shared services business unit. The purpose of the first article in the trilogy, introduces shared services as a business model, defines what shared services is, the transformation required to successfully implement a shared services business model, as well as the benefits that can be derived from implementing a shared services business model. Methodology: A comprehensive literature study was conducted in order to: - Define and describe shared services as a business model, - Compare shared services with centralisation and de-centralisation, - Determine and describe the transformation required to successfully implement shared services. Findings: In the article, a framework is generated to help organisations understand the business concept of shared services. This work has further potential: when applied correctly, there are both tangible and intangible benefits that can be accrued above cost savings. Implications: The findings of this article are important for organisations that are in the process of implementing or have implemented shared services, as it will assist the organisation in determining if shared services is the correct business model for them to implement. Value: This article provides an understanding of shared services and the business environment required to successfully implement a shared services business model. Value created by a shared services business model is further enhanced once the organisation has embarked on the successful implementation of a shared services business model, which is the primary objective of the second article, Implementation and continuous evolution in shared services.

  12. Representing the environment 3.0. Maps, models, networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Bollini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Web 3.0 is changing the world we live and perceive the environment anthropomorphized, making a stratifation of levels of experience and mediated by the devices. If the urban landscape is designed, shaped and planned space, there is a social landscape that overwrite the territory of values, representations shared images, narratives of personal and collective history. Mobile technology introduces an additional parameter, a kind of non-place, which allows the coexistence of the here and elsewhere in an sort of digital landscape. The maps, mental models, the system of social networks become, then, the way to present, represented and represent themselves in a kind of ideal coring of the co-presence of levels of physical, cognitive and collective space.

  13. Professional SharePoint 2010 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, Tom; Fried, Jeff; Swider, Paul J; Hillier, Scot; Schaefer, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Updated guidance on how to take advantage of the newest features of SharePoint programmability More than simply a portal, SharePoint is Microsoft's popular content management solution for building intranets and websites or hosting wikis and blogs. Offering broad coverage on all aspects of development for the SharePoint platform, this comprehensive book shows you exactly what SharePoint does, how to build solutions, and what features are accessible within SharePoint. Written by a team of SharePoint experts, this new edition offers an extensive selection of field-tested best practices that shows

  14. Professional SharePoint 2013 development

    CERN Document Server

    Alirezaei, Reza; Ranlett, Matt; Hillier, Scot; Wilson, Brian; Fried, Jeff; Swider, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Thorough coverage of development in SharePoint 2013 A team of well-known Microsoft MVPs joins forces in this fully updated resource, providing you with in-depth coverage of development tools in the latest iteration of the immensely popular SharePoint. From building solutions to building custom workflow and content management applications, this book shares field-tested best practices on all aspect of SharePoint 2013 development. Offers a thorough look at Windows Azure and SharePoint 2013Includes new chapters on Application Life Cycle Management, developing apps in ShareP

  15. SharePoint 2010 Field Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Steven; Gazmuri, Pablo; Caravajal, Steve; Wheeler, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Hands-on solutions for common SharePoint 2010 challenges Aimed at the more than 100 million licensed SharePoint 2010 users, this indispensable field guide addresses an abundance of common SharePoint 2010 problems and offers proven solutions. A team of authors encourages you to customize SharePoint beyond the out-of-the-box functionality so that you can build more complex solutions to these challenges. You?ll discover intricate details and specific full-scale solutions that you can then implement to your own SharePoint 2010 solutions.Tackles a variety of SharePoint 2010 problems ranging from si

  16. SharePoint 2010 For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Vanessa L

    2012-01-01

    Here's the bestselling guide on SharePoint 2010, updated to cover Office 365 SharePoint Portal Server is an essential part of the enterprise infrastructure for many businesses. The Office 365 version includes significantly enhanced cloud capabilities. This second edition of the bestselling guide to SharePoint covers getting a SharePoint site up and running, branded, populated with content, and more. It explains ongoing site management and offers plenty of advice for administrators who want to leverage SharePoint and Office 365 in various ways.Many businesses today rely on SharePoint Portal Ser

  17. Constructing Ontology for Knowledge Sharing of Materials Failure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials failure indicates the fault with materials or components during their performance. To avoid the reoccurrence of similar failures, materials failure analysis is executed to investigate the reasons for the failure and to propose improved strategies. The whole procedure needs sufficient domain knowledge and also produces valuable new knowledge. However, the information about the materials failure analysis is usually retained by the domain expert, and its sharing is technically difficult. This phenomenon may seriously reduce the efficiency and decrease the veracity of the failure analysis. To solve this problem, this paper adopts ontology, a novel technology from the Semantic Web, as a tool for knowledge representation and sharing and describes the construction of the ontology to obtain information concerning the failure analysis, application area, materials, and failure cases. The ontology represented information is machine-understandable and can be easily shared through the Internet. At the same time, failure case intelligent retrieval, advanced statistics, and even automatic reasoning can be accomplished based on ontology represented knowledge. Obviously this can promote the knowledge sharing of materials service safety and improve the efficiency of failure analysis. The case of a nuclear power plant area is presented to show the details and benefits of this method.

  18. Sharing is Caring? Not Quite

    OpenAIRE

    van Welsum, Desirée

    2016-01-01

    Fast evolving cloud-computing platforms that enable new business models, combined with a rapid uptake in digital technologies by consumers and a change in consumer behavior and preferences have enabled the emergence of a so-called ‘sharing economy’. With new start-ups offering all kinds of services springing up every day, there was soon talk of the ‘Uber of everything’ or ‘the uberification of the service economy.’ But these technology enabled business models also raise a numbe...

  19. Employee share ownership in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortlieb, Renate; Matiaske, Wenzel; Fietze, Simon

    2016-01-01

    on an institutional theoretical framework, this article examines what aims firms pursue through the provision of ESO. The data originate from a survey of firms in Germany. The cluster analytic findings indicate distinctive patterns of relationships between aims and firm characteristics. Aims related to employee...... performance are most important to foreign-owned firms, financial aims are most important to non-public small and medium-sized firms and aims related to corporate image are most important to big firms and to firms that do not provide profit sharing. Aims related to employee attraction and retention are almost...

  20. Knowledge Sharing Strategies for Large Complex Building Projects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Bektas

    2013-06-01

    complex nature of such projects has often been reported as a potential barrier to investing knowledge sharing. However, this analysis highlighted that the while the location is unique, the underlying challenges are typically not, and although projects are per definition temporary, these large, complex projects often last for a decade. Investing in knowledge sharing is therefore possible and worth the effort, and with respect to complexity more needed than those involved are aware of. In the second part of the empirical data analysis, the knowledge sharing strategies inuse in the two cases were examined. The first case represents a people-oriented approach using collocated open plan offices for the entire design team; the second case represents a tool-oriented approach drawing on a Building Information Model (BIM. The co-located offices provided the physical setting for knowledge sharing, but it not planned as a conscious strategy and so was mainly regarded as sharing the same office floor and was not used to its full potential. Physical boundaries remained between subteams and interaction was restricted to the level of project managers. In the second case, the implementation of a BIM represented a bottom-up and emergent strategy that embraced digital technologies for specific problems. The analysis showed that there was limited understanding about requirements and implication of changes in the design processes. Introduced through a bottom-up emergent strategy without commitment from all project partners, it was not possible to utilize the potential benefits of a BIM system for the overall design team. The analysis also revealed that what practitioners referred to as a BIM, was not a true BIM implementation, thereby indicating that digital concepts are still not completely clear in practice. This comparative analysis of two cases led to several conclusions: • Irrespective of whether a tool or people-oriented approach is used, there will be emerging strategies with which

  1. Knowledge Sharing Strategies for Large Complex Building Projects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Bektas

    2013-06-01

    complex nature of such projects has often been reported as a potential barrier to investing knowledge sharing. However, this analysis highlighted that the while the location is unique, the underlying challenges are typically not, and although projects are per definition temporary, these large, complex projects often last for a decade. Investing in knowledge sharing is therefore possible and worth the effort, and with respect to complexity more needed than those involved are aware of.In the second part of the empirical data analysis, the knowledge sharing strategies inuse in the two cases were examined. The first case represents a people-oriented approach using collocated open plan offices for the entire design team; the second case represents a tool-oriented approach drawing on a Building Information Model (BIM. The co-located offices provided the physical setting for knowledge sharing, but it not planned as a conscious strategy and so was mainly regarded as sharing the same office floor and was not used to its full potential. Physical boundaries remained between subteams and interaction was restricted to the level of project managers. In the second case, the implementation of a BIM represented a bottom-up and emergent strategy that embraced digital technologies for specific problems. The analysis showed that there was limited understanding about requirements and implication of changes in the design processes. Introduced through a bottom-up emergent strategy without commitment from all project partners, it was not possible to utilize the potential benefits of a BIM system for the overall design team. The analysis also revealed that what practitioners referred to as a BIM, was not a true BIM implementation, thereby indicating that digital concepts are still not completely clear in practice.This comparative analysis of two cases led to several conclusions:• Irrespective of whether a tool or people-oriented approach is used, there will be emerging strategies with which

  2. Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wole M. Olatokun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes to knowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’, and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledge sharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers. 

  3. To share or not to share : Parental, sibling, and situational influences on sharing with a younger sibling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Berkel, Sheila R.; Van Der Pol, Lotte D.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T.; Endendijk, Joyce J.; Mesman, Judi; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2015-01-01

    Sharing is an important indicator of internalised prosocial values. We examined predictors of sharing of 302 preschoolers with their younger siblings in a one-year longitudinal study. Sharing was observed during different home visits, once with father and once with mother. We examined the following

  4. To Share or Not to Share: Parental, Sibling, and Situational Influences on Sharing with a Younger Sibling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Sheila R.; Van der Pol, Lotte D.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T.; Endendijk, Joyce J.; Mesman, Judi; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2015-01-01

    Sharing is an important indicator of internalised prosocial values. We examined predictors of sharing of 302 preschoolers with their younger siblings in a one-year longitudinal study. Sharing was observed during different home visits, once with father and once with mother. We examined the following predictors: both children's externalising…

  5. Open sharing of genomic data: Who does it and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeusermann, Tobias; Greshake, Bastian; Blasimme, Alessandro; Irdam, Darja; Richards, Martin; Vayena, Effy

    2017-01-01

    We explored the characteristics and motivations of people who, having obtained their genetic or genomic data from Direct-To-Consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT) companies, voluntarily decide to share them on the publicly accessible web platform openSNP. The study is the first attempt to describe open data sharing activities undertaken by individuals without institutional oversight. In the paper we provide a detailed overview of the distribution of the demographic characteristics and motivations of people engaged in genetic or genomic open data sharing. The geographical distribution of the respondents showed the USA as dominant. There was no significant gender divide, the age distribution was broad, educational background varied and respondents with and without children were equally represented. Health, even though prominent, was not the respondents' primary or only motivation to be tested. As to their motivations to openly share their data, 86.05% indicated wanting to learn about themselves as relevant, followed by contributing to the advancement of medical research (80.30%), improving the predictability of genetic testing (76.02%) and considering it fun to explore genotype and phenotype data (75.51%). Whereas most respondents were well aware of the privacy risks of their involvement in open genetic data sharing and considered the possibility of direct, personal repercussions troubling, they estimated the risk of this happening to be negligible. Our findings highlight the diversity of DTC-GT consumers who decide to openly share their data. Instead of focusing exclusively on health-related aspects of genetic testing and data sharing, our study emphasizes the importance of taking into account benefits and risks that stretch beyond the health spectrum. Our results thus lend further support to the call for a broader and multi-faceted conceptualization of genomic utility.

  6. Open sharing of genomic data: Who does it and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Haeusermann

    Full Text Available We explored the characteristics and motivations of people who, having obtained their genetic or genomic data from Direct-To-Consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT companies, voluntarily decide to share them on the publicly accessible web platform openSNP. The study is the first attempt to describe open data sharing activities undertaken by individuals without institutional oversight. In the paper we provide a detailed overview of the distribution of the demographic characteristics and motivations of people engaged in genetic or genomic open data sharing. The geographical distribution of the respondents showed the USA as dominant. There was no significant gender divide, the age distribution was broad, educational background varied and respondents with and without children were equally represented. Health, even though prominent, was not the respondents' primary or only motivation to be tested. As to their motivations to openly share their data, 86.05% indicated wanting to learn about themselves as relevant, followed by contributing to the advancement of medical research (80.30%, improving the predictability of genetic testing (76.02% and considering it fun to explore genotype and phenotype data (75.51%. Whereas most respondents were well aware of the privacy risks of their involvement in open genetic data sharing and considered the possibility of direct, personal repercussions troubling, they estimated the risk of this happening to be negligible. Our findings highlight the diversity of DTC-GT consumers who decide to openly share their data. Instead of focusing exclusively on health-related aspects of genetic testing and data sharing, our study emphasizes the importance of taking into account benefits and risks that stretch beyond the health spectrum. Our results thus lend further support to the call for a broader and multi-faceted conceptualization of genomic utility.

  7. Open sharing of genomic data: Who does it and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasimme, Alessandro; Irdam, Darja; Richards, Martin; Vayena, Effy

    2017-01-01

    We explored the characteristics and motivations of people who, having obtained their genetic or genomic data from Direct-To-Consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT) companies, voluntarily decide to share them on the publicly accessible web platform openSNP. The study is the first attempt to describe open data sharing activities undertaken by individuals without institutional oversight. In the paper we provide a detailed overview of the distribution of the demographic characteristics and motivations of people engaged in genetic or genomic open data sharing. The geographical distribution of the respondents showed the USA as dominant. There was no significant gender divide, the age distribution was broad, educational background varied and respondents with and without children were equally represented. Health, even though prominent, was not the respondents’ primary or only motivation to be tested. As to their motivations to openly share their data, 86.05% indicated wanting to learn about themselves as relevant, followed by contributing to the advancement of medical research (80.30%), improving the predictability of genetic testing (76.02%) and considering it fun to explore genotype and phenotype data (75.51%). Whereas most respondents were well aware of the privacy risks of their involvement in open genetic data sharing and considered the possibility of direct, personal repercussions troubling, they estimated the risk of this happening to be negligible. Our findings highlight the diversity of DTC-GT consumers who decide to openly share their data. Instead of focusing exclusively on health-related aspects of genetic testing and data sharing, our study emphasizes the importance of taking into account benefits and risks that stretch beyond the health spectrum. Our results thus lend further support to the call for a broader and multi-faceted conceptualization of genomic utility. PMID:28486511

  8. User Expectations for Media Sharing Practices in Open Display Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Jose

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Open Display Networks have the potential to allow many content creators to publish their media to an open-ended set of screen displays. However, this raises the issue of how to match that content to the right displays. In this study, we aim to understand how the perceived utility of particular media sharing scenarios is affected by three independent variables, more specifically: (a the locativeness of the content being shared; (b how personal that content is and (c the scope in which it is being shared. To assess these effects, we composed a set of 24 media sharing scenarios embedded with different treatments of our three independent variables. We then asked 100 participants to express their perception of the relevance of those scenarios. The results suggest a clear preference for scenarios where content is both local and directly related to the person that is publishing it. This is in stark contrast to the types of content that are commonly found in public displays, and confirms the opportunity that open displays networks may represent a new media for self-expression. This novel understanding may inform the design of new publication paradigms that will enable people to share media across the display networks.

  9. User Expectations for Media Sharing Practices in Open Display Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Rui; Cardoso, Jorge C S; Hong, Jason

    2015-07-06

    Open Display Networks have the potential to allow many content creators to publish their media to an open-ended set of screen displays. However, this raises the issue of how to match that content to the right displays. In this study, we aim to understand how the perceived utility of particular media sharing scenarios is affected by three independent variables, more specifically: (a) the locativeness of the content being shared; (b) how personal that content is and (c) the scope in which it is being shared. To assess these effects, we composed a set of 24 media sharing scenarios embedded with different treatments of our three independent variables. We then asked 100 participants to express their perception of the relevance of those scenarios. The results suggest a clear preference for scenarios where content is both local and directly related to the person that is publishing it. This is in stark contrast to the types of content that are commonly found in public displays, and confirms the opportunity that open displays networks may represent a new media for self-expression. This novel understanding may inform the design of new publication paradigms that will enable people to share media across the display networks.

  10. SHARE: Statistical hadronization with resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrieri, G.; Steinke, S.; Broniowski, W.; Florkowski, W.; Letessier, J.; Rafelski, J.

    2005-05-01

    SHARE is a collection of programs designed for the statistical analysis of particle production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. With the physical input of intensive statistical parameters, it generates the ratios of particle abundances. The program includes cascade decays of all confirmed resonances from the Particle Data Tables. The complete treatment of these resonances has been known to be a crucial factor behind the success of the statistical approach. An optional feature implemented is the Breit-Wigner distribution for strong resonances. An interface for fitting the parameters of the model to the experimental data is provided. Program summaryTitle of the program:SHARE, October 2004, version 1.2 Catalogue identifier: ADVD Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVD Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer: PC, Pentium III, 512 MB RAM (not hardware dependent) Operating system: Linux: RedHat 6.1, 7.2, FEDORA, etc. (not system dependent) Programming language:FORTRAN77: g77, f77 as well as Mathematica, ver. 4 or 5, for the case of full chemical equilibrium and particle widths set to zero Size of the package: 645 KB directory including example programs (87 KB compressed distribution archive) External routines: KERNLIB, MATHLIB and PACKLIB from the CERN Program Library (see http://cernlib.web.cern.ch for download and installation instructions) Distribution format: tar.gz Number of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 15 277 Number of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 88 522 Computer: Any computer with an f77 compiler Nature of the physical problem: Statistical analysis of particle production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions involves the formation and the subsequent decays of a large number of resonances. With the physical input of thermal parameters, such as the temperature and fugacities, and considering cascading decays, along with weak

  11. Motivational theory and knowledge sharing in the public service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nthabiseng N. Mosala-Bryant

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge sharing has been identified as the core process of knowledge management for institutions which are interested in the retention of knowledge invested in their human capital in the event of their departure from the institutions. To this end, knowledge sharing has been the focus of research institution-wide, and less focus has been paid to communities of practice (CoPs within the South African public service.Objectives: This study aimed to explore factors that motivated knowledge sharing practices in a South African public service CoP.Method: This study used the mixed methods design through the lens of the motivational theory. Primary quantitative data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires returned by 23 of the 31 KwaZulu-Natal (KZN Provincial Human Resource Development Forum (PHRDF members to whom the questionnaires were distributed. In addition, primary qualitative data were collected from the senior managers of Human Resource Development (HRD units from 10 different KZN Provincial Departments of the 14 managers requested. The quantitative analysis was established using SPSS software, whereas qualitative analysis was established using thematic codes with the NVIVO software.Results: The findings from the results revealed that PHRDF members were intrinsically motivated to share their knowledge rather than extrinsically motivated.Conclusion: Although literature confirmed the main barrier to knowledge sharing in organisations as being the unwillingness to share, CoPs were likely to reduce the extent to which knowledge sharing was hindered. Members of a CoP ultimately related to one another as homogeneous groups despite representing different departments. To this end, hedonic intrinsic motivation occurred as members shared knowledge for the good of the whole regardless of the absence of extrinsic motivation. Departmental silos fell away, and there was no anticipation of rewards or incentives for knowledge

  12. VT Biodiversity Project - Representative Landscapes boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This coverage represents the results of an analysis of landscape diversity in Vermont. Polygons in the dataset represent as much as possible (in a...

  13. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adj...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate share...

  14. Introduction: Power-Sharing in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mehler, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Introduction to the Featured Topic "Power-Sharing in Africa", Africa Spectrum, Vol. 44, No. 3 (2009). Einführung in den Themenschwerpunkt "Power-Sharing in Africa" in Heft 3, Jahrgang 44 (2009) der Zeitschrift "Africa Spectrum".

  15. Motorcycle lane-sharing : literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report examines the use of lane-sharing (also sometimes referred to as lane-splitting and filtering) nationally and internationally and includes discussions on motorcycle and driver (auto) safety, and the potential benefits of lane-sharing.

  16. Creating Shared Value by Combatting Corruption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Philip M Nichols

    2016-01-01

      Creating Shared Value The creating shared value strategy is similar to corporate social responsibility and to social impact in that it focusses on the intersection between business and the rest of society...

  17. Private Sharing of IOCs and Sightings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kamp, Tim Robert; Peter, Andreas; Everts, Maarten Hinderik; Jonker, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Information sharing helps to better protect computer systems against digital threats and known attacks. However, since security information is usually considered sensitive, parties are hesitant to share all their information through public channels. Instead, they only exchange this information with

  18. Representing Uncertainty by Probability and Possibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uncertain parameters in modeling are usually represented by probability distributions reflecting either the objective uncertainty of the parameters or the subjective belief held by the model builder. This approach is particularly suited for representing the statistical nature or variance of uncer......Uncertain parameters in modeling are usually represented by probability distributions reflecting either the objective uncertainty of the parameters or the subjective belief held by the model builder. This approach is particularly suited for representing the statistical nature or variance...

  19. Imitation-based Social Spectrum Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xu; Huang, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic spectrum sharing is a promising technology for improving the spectrum utilization. In this paper, we study how secondary users can share the spectrum in a distributed fashion based on social imitations. The imitation-based mechanism leverages the social intelligence of the secondary user crowd and only requires a low computational power for each individual user. We introduce the information sharing graph to model the social information sharing relationship among the secondary users. W...

  20. Teaching behaviorally handicapped preschool children to share.

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, L E; Budd, K S

    1984-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of Barton and Ascione 's (1979) package for training sharing in a classroom setting with six behaviorally handicapped preschool children, four of whom were also developmentally delayed. Individual responses in sharing and not sharing were examined. Training consisted of initial instructions, modeling, and behavioral rehearsal, followed by teacher prompts and praise regarding sharing directly in a classroom free play period. Introduction of training in a multiple-...

  1. Risk taking under heterogenous risk sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Belhaj, Mohamed; Deroïan, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    We revisit the common view that risk sharing enhances risk taking in the context of heterogenous risk sharing in a small economy. Under low volumes of transfers, we express individual risk level in terms of Bonacich measure. We find that heterogeneity combined to strategic interaction imply that risk sharing enhances risk taking only in average. However, under high transfer volumes, risk sharing may reduce risk taking. We also provide conditions under which agents under or over invest with re...

  2. International Risk Sharing During the Globalization Era

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, Robert P.; Marion, Nancy P.; Akito Matsumoto

    2009-01-01

    Though theory suggests financial globalization should improve international risk sharing, empirical support has been limited. We develop a simple welfare-based measure that captures how far countries are from the ideal of perfect risk sharing. We then take it to data and find international risk sharing has, indeed, improved during globalization. Improved risk sharing comes mostly from the convergence in rates of consumption growth among countries rather than from synchronization of consumptio...

  3. Shared Services – Setting unrealistic expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Yurchenko, Yuliya; Lethbridge, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This report was commissioned by PCS in February 2014 to inform campaigns against the outsourcing of services in the Ministry of Justice. It has been almost a decade since central government started to outsource shared services. This experience should be used to inform future decisions about shared service outsourcing. This report presents some of the evidence about the extent to which shared services can save on costs.\\ud \\ud This report is in six sections: \\ud 1. Overview of shared services ...

  4. 37 CFR 3.61 - Domestic representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic representative. 3.61... COMMERCE GENERAL ASSIGNMENT, RECORDING AND RIGHTS OF ASSIGNEE Domestic Representative § 3.61 Domestic... is not domiciled in the United States, the assignee may designate a domestic representative in a...

  5. Designing for Sharing in Local Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmborg, Lone; Light, Ann; Fitzpatrick, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    The Sharing Economy has brought new attention to the everyday practice of sharing. Digital tools are changing both what we can do together across neighbourhoods and how we think about sharing our time, materials and skills. It is possible to design to boost resource management, economic wellbeing...

  6. 75 FR 80367 - Share Insurance and Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 745 RIN 3133-AD79 Share Insurance and Appendix AGENCY: National Credit Union....gov . Include ``[Your name] Comments on Proposed Rule 745, Share Insurance and Appendix'' in the e... on PRA Collection for Proposed Rule 745, Share Insurance and Appendix'' in the e-mail subject line...

  7. 36 CFR 13.168 - Shared use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shared use. 13.168 Section 13... PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins Cabin Use for Subsistence Purposes § 13.168 Shared use. In any... authorized subsistence uses, the Superintendent shall provide for shared use of the facility by the permittee...

  8. Testing for Unit Roots in Market Shares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franses, P.H.B.F.; Srinivasan, S.; Boswijk, H.P.

    2001-01-01

    A unique characteristic of marketing data sets is the logical consistency requirement in market share models that market shares are bounded by 0 and 1, and they sum to unity. To take account of this logical consistency requirement, we propose to test for unit roots in individual market share series

  9. Fair Shares, Matey, or Walk the Plank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P. Holt; Myers, Marrielle; Edgington, Cyndi; Confrey, Jere

    2012-01-01

    Whether sharing a collection of toys among friends or a pie for dessert, children as young as kindergarten age are keen on making sure that everyone gets their "fair share." In the classroom, fair-sharing activities call for creating equal-size groups from a collection of objects or creating equal-size parts of a whole and are generally used by…

  10. Team Learning: Building Shared Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Piet; Gijselaers, Wim; Segers, Mien; Woltjer, Geert; Kirschner, Paul

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight in the social processes that underlie knowledge sharing in teams, this article questions which team learning behaviors lead to the construction of a shared mental model. Additionally, it explores how the development of shared mental models mediates the relation between team learning behaviors and team effectiveness. Analyses were…

  11. Qualitative Data Sharing Practices in Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Social scientists have been sharing data for a long time. Sharing qualitative data, however, has not become a common practice, despite the context of e-Research, information growth, and funding agencies' mandates on research data archiving and sharing. Since most systematic and comprehensive studies are based on quantitative data practices, little…

  12. Team learning: building shared mental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, van den P.; Gijselaers, W.; Segers, M.; Woltjer, G.B.; Kirschner, P.

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight in the social processes that underlie knowledge sharing in teams, this article questions which team learning behaviors lead to the construction of a shared mental model. Additionally, it explores how the development of shared mental models mediates the relation between team learning

  13. Recommendations for the Sharing Economy: Safeguarding Privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranzini, G.; Kusber, Nina; Vermeulen, I.E.; Etter, Michael

    2018-01-01

    his report, ‘Recommendations: Privacy’, forms one element of a European Union Horizon 2020 Research Project on the sharing economy: Ps2Share ‘Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy’. The study is undertaken within the scope of the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and

  14. Shared services centers can drive significant savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Jim

    2011-06-01

    A study of more than 30 U.S. integrated delivery systems (IDSs) found that implementing effective shared services centers can drive significant cost savings in human resources, accounts payable, and procurement. Many IDSs have not adopted effective shared services strategies. Implementing administrative shared services involves low risk and a relatively low start-up investment.

  15. Sharing a bowl of tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S

    1993-06-01

    Soshitsu Sen's keynote speech before a symposium on population and the environment is summarized unofficially by the editorial staff. The instability of human thinking is given as the cause for the present destruction of the environment. In a visit to the His Majesty King of Sweden, Sen remarked that stabilizing human minds can be achieved within the tea ceremony through "serving tea heartily, receiving it with gratitude, and offering it to another." In this way, the spirit of concern for others can be practiced in everyday life and tranquility of mind reached. News broadcasts of starving parents and children as victims of civil war are disheartening. The Japanese people are not suffering such hunger, even though the economy has not been as robust as desired. The analogy is provided in the story by Chuang Chou about King Hun Dun and King Xiu and man's good intentions, which nonetheless destroy the earth. Japan has experienced forest and environmental destruction on the road to economic prosperity and satisfaction of self-interests. The advice on living in accord with nature is to appreciate each season for its own changes. For example, when it is the winter season, the complaint is about the cold and the desire is for spring; but when spring comes, the desire is for the cooler weather of fall. the ordinary way is to appreciate all seasons and is the best way of sustaining a healthy environment. In the garden of the tea hut, humans enter without their worldly title, position, and means; at the water basin, hands and mouth are cleansed, and entrance is made through a small hole into the hut much the same as emerging from the womb. Worldly matters are dispensed with and purity of thought is shared in the sharing of the bowl of green tea, saying "after you" to one another. Christianity and the Way of Tea share the same symbols of purification. The black tea bowl is in harmony with the green tea. Fatigue is relieved when gazing upon the color green; examples are given

  16. Hadron therapy information sharing prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Faustin Laurentiu; Kanellopoulos, Vassiliki; Amoros, Gabriel; Davies, Jim; Dosanjh, Manjit; Jena, Raj; Kirkby, Norman; Peach, Ken; Salt, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The European PARTNER project developed a prototypical system for sharing hadron therapy data. This system allows doctors and patients to record and report treatment-related events during and after hadron therapy. It presents doctors and statisticians with an integrated view of adverse events across institutions, using open-source components for data federation, semantics, and analysis. There is a particular emphasis upon semantic consistency, achieved through intelligent, annotated form designs. The system as presented is ready for use in a clinical setting, and amenable to further customization. The essential contribution of the work reported here lies in the novel data integration and reporting methods, as well as the approach to software sustainability achieved through the use of community-supported open-source components.

  17. Bacteria like sharing their sweets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccui, Jon; Wren, Brendan W

    2013-09-01

    Protein glycosylation and capsular polysaccharide formation are increasingly recognized as playing central roles in the survival and virulence of bacterial pathogens. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, structural analysis in Acinetobacter baumannii 17978 revealed that a pentasaccharide that decorates glycoproteins is formed of the same building blocks used for capsule biosynthesis demonstrating split roles for this glycan. Disruption of PglC, the initiating glycosyltransferase responsible for attachment of the first sugar to undecaprenylphosphate abolished glycoprotein production and capsule biosynthesis. Both pathways are demonstrated to be important in biofilm formation and pathogenesis, and disabling their synthesis should provide a useful route for antimicrobial design. Shared polysaccharide usage reduces the genetic and metabolic burden in a bacterial cell and is an emerging theme among bacterial pathogens that need to be energy efficient for their streamlined lifestyle. © 2013 Crown copyright.

  18. Sharing Space Situational Awareness Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, D.

    2010-09-01

    The Commander, United States Strategic Command (CDRUSSTRATCOM) accepted responsibility for sharing space situational awareness (SSA) information/services with commercial & foreign entities from the US Air Force on 22 Dec 09 (formerly the Commercial & Foreign Entities Pilot Program). The requirement to share SSA services with non-US Government (USG) entities is derived from Title 10, United States Code, Section 2274 (2010) and is consistent with the new National Space Policy. US Strategic Command’s (USSTRATCOM’s) sharing of SSA services consists of basic services (Two-Line Elements, decay data and satellite catalog details) available on www.space-track.org and advanced services (conjunction assessment, launch support, etc) available with a signed agreement. USSTRATCOM has requested USG permission to enter into international agreements to enable SSA data exchange with our foreign partners. USSTRATCOM recently authorized Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC SPACE) to share Conjunction Summary Messages (CSMs) with satellite owner/operators whose satellites have been identified as closely approaching another space object. CSMs contain vector and covariance data computed using Special Perturbations theory. To facilitate the utility of the CSMs, USSTRATCOM has and is hosting CSM Workshops to ensure satellite operators fully understand the data contained in the CSM in order to provide an informed recommendation to their leadership. As JFCC SPACE matures its ability to accept ephemeris data from a satellite operator, it will be necessary to automatically transfer that data from one security level to another. USSTRATCOM and Air Force Space Command are coordinating the integration of a cross domain solution that will allow JFCC SPACE to do just that. Finally, USSTRATCOM is also working with commercial and governmental organizations to develop an internationally-accepted conjunction assessment message. The United States Government (USG), specifically the

  19. Normal Criterion Concerning Shared Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study normal criterion of meromorphic functions shared values, we obtain the following. Let F be a family of meromorphic functions in a domain D, such that function f∈F has zeros of multiplicity at least 2, there exists nonzero complex numbers bf,cf depending on f satisfying (i  bf/cf is a constant;  (iimin {σ(0,bf,σ(0,cf,σ(bf,cf≥m} for some m>0;  (iii  (1/cfk-1(f′k(z+f(z≠bfk/cfk-1 or (1/cfk-1(f′k(z+f(z=bfk/cfk-1⇒f(z=bf, then F is normal. These results improve some earlier previous results.

  20. Financial Assets [share, bonds] & Ancylia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksoed, Wh-

    2016-11-01

    Instead Elaine Scarry: "Thermonuclear monarchy" reinvent Carry Nation since Aug 17, 1965 the Republic of Indonesia's President speech: "Reach to the Star", for "cancellation" usually found in External Debt herewith retrieved from "the Window of theWorld": Ancylia, feast in March, a month named after Mars, the god of war. "On March 19 they used to put on their biggest performance of gymnastics in order to "bribe" their god for another good year", further we have vacancy & "vacuum tube"- Bulat Air karena Pembuluh, Bulat Kata karena Mufakat" proverb from Minangkabau, West Sumatra. Follows March 19, 1984 are first prototype flight of IAI Astra Jet as well as March 19, 2012 invoice accompanies Electric car Kujang-193, Fainancial Assets [share, bonds] are the answer for "infrastructure" & state owned enterprises assets to be hedged first initial debt per capita accordances. Heartfelt gratitudes to HE. Mr. Ir. Sarwono Kusumaatmadja/PT. Smartfren INDONESIA.

  1. Hadron therapy information sharing prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Faustin Laurentiu; Abler, Daniel; Kanellopoulos, Vassiliki; Amoros, Gabriel; Davies, Jim; Dosanjh, Manjit; Jena, Raj; Kirkby, Norman; Peach, Ken; Salt, Jose

    2013-07-01

    The European PARTNER project developed a prototypical system for sharing hadron therapy data. This system allows doctors and patients to record and report treatment-related events during and after hadron therapy. It presents doctors and statisticians with an integrated view of adverse events across institutions, using open-source components for data federation, semantics, and analysis. There is a particular emphasis upon semantic consistency, achieved through intelligent, annotated form designs. The system as presented is ready for use in a clinical setting, and amenable to further customization. The essential contribution of the work reported here lies in the novel data integration and reporting methods, as well as the approach to software sustainability achieved through the use of community-supported open-source components.

  2. Shared vision, shared vulnerability: A content analysis of corporate social responsibility information on tobacco industry websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Cadman, Brie; Malone, Ruth E

    2016-08-01

    Tobacco companies rely on corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives to improve their public image and advance their political objectives, which include thwarting or undermining tobacco control policies. For these reasons, implementation guidelines for the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) recommend curtailing or prohibiting tobacco industry CSR. To understand how and where major tobacco companies focus their CSR resources, we explored CSR-related content on 4 US and 4 multinational tobacco company websites in February 2014. The websites described a range of CSR-related activities, many common across all companies, and no programs were unique to a particular company. The websites mentioned CSR activities in 58 countries, representing nearly every region of the world. Tobacco companies appear to have a shared vision about what constitutes CSR, due perhaps to shared vulnerabilities. Most countries that host tobacco company CSR programs are parties to the FCTC, highlighting the need for full implementation of the treaty, and for funding to monitor CSR activity, replace industry philanthropy, and enforce existing bans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pro SharePoint 2013 administration

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Pro SharePoint 2013 Administration is a practical guide to SharePoint 2013 for intermediate to advanced SharePoint administrators and power users, covering the out-of-the-box feature set and capabilities of Microsoft's collaboration and business productivity platform. SharePoint 2013 is an incredibly complex product, with many moving parts, new features, best practices, and 'gotchas.' Author Rob Garrett distills SharePoint's portfolio of features, capabilities, and utilities into an in-depth professional guide-with no fluff and copious advice-that is designed from scratch to be the manual Micr

  4. SharePoint 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Withee, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling guide on running SharePoint, now updated to cover all the new features of SharePoint 2013 SharePoint Portal Server is an essential part of the enterprise infrastructure for many businesses. Building on the success of previous versions of SharePoint For Dummies, this new edition covers all the latest features of SharePoint 2013 and provides you with an easy-to-understand resource for making the most of all that this version has to offer. You'll learn how to get a site up and running, branded, and populated with content, workflow, and management. In addition, t

  5. Payoff Shares in Two-Player Contests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Häfner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In imperfectly discriminating contests with symmetric valuations, equilibrium payoffs are positive shares of the value of the prize. In contrast to a bargaining situation, players’ shares sum to less than one because a residual share of the value is lost due to rent dissipation. In this paper, we consider contests with two players and investigate the relationship between these equilibrium shares and the parameters of a class of asymmetric Tullock contest success functions. Our main finding is that any players’ shares that sum up to less than one can arise as the unique outcome of a pure-strategy Nash equilibrium for appropriate parameters.

  6. Pro SharePoint 2010 Search

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, J; Bakman-Mikalski, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Pro SharePoint 2010 Search gives you expert advice on planning, deploying and customizing searches in SharePoint 2010. Drawing on the authors' extensive experience of working with real-world SharePoint deployments, this book teaches everything you'll need to know to create well-designed SharePoint solutions that always keep the end-user's experience in mind. Increase your search efficiency with SharePoint 2010's search functionality: extend the search user interface using third-party tools, and utilize analytics to improve relevancy. This practical hands-on book is a must-have resource for any

  7. Developing a data sharing community for spinal cord injury research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Alison; Anderson, Kim D; Beattie, Michael S; Bixby, John L; Ferguson, Adam R; Fouad, Karim; Jakeman, Lyn B; Nielson, Jessica L; Popovich, Phillip G; Schwab, Jan M; Lemmon, Vance P

    2017-09-01

    The rapid growth in data sharing presents new opportunities across the spectrum of biomedical research. Global efforts are underway to develop practical guidance for implementation of data sharing and open data resources. These include the recent recommendation of 'FAIR Data Principles', which assert that if data is to have broad scientific value, then digital representations of that data should be Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable (FAIR). The spinal cord injury (SCI) research field has a long history of collaborative initiatives that include sharing of preclinical research models and outcome measures. In addition, new tools and resources are being developed by the SCI research community to enhance opportunities for data sharing and access. With this in mind, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) hosted a workshop on October 5-6, 2016 in Bethesda, MD, in collaboration with the Open Data Commons for Spinal Cord Injury (ODC-SCI) titled "Preclinical SCI Data: Creating a FAIR Share Community". Workshop invitees were nominated by the workshop steering committee (co-chairs: ARF and VPL; members: AC, KDA, MSB, KF, LBJ, PGP, JMS), to bring together junior and senior level experts including preclinical and basic SCI researchers from academia and industry, data science and bioinformatics experts, investigators with expertise in other neurological disease fields, clinical researchers, members of the SCI community, and program staff representing federal and private funding agencies. The workshop and ODC-SCI efforts were sponsored by the International Spinal Research Trust (ISRT), the Rick Hansen Institute, Wings for Life, the Craig H. Neilsen Foundation and NINDS. The number of attendees was limited to ensure active participation and feedback in small groups. The goals were to examine the current landscape for data sharing in SCI research and provide a path to its future. Below are

  8. Online GIS services for mapping and sharing disease information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Anton, Francois; Yi, Xiaolun; Coleman, David J

    2008-02-25

    Disease data sharing is important for the collaborative preparation, response, and recovery stages of disease control. Disease phenomena are strongly associated with spatial and temporal factors. Web-based Geographical Information Systems provide a real-time and dynamic way to represent disease information on maps. However, data heterogeneities, integration, interoperability, and cartographical representation are still major challenges in the health geographic fields. These challenges cause barriers in extensively sharing health data and restrain the effectiveness in understanding and responding to disease outbreaks. To overcome these challenges in disease data mapping and sharing, the senior authors have designed an interoperable service oriented architecture based on Open Geospatial Consortium specifications to share the spatio-temporal disease information. A case study of infectious disease mapping across New Brunswick (Canada) and Maine (USA) was carried out to evaluate the proposed architecture, which uses standard Web Map Service, Styled Layer Descriptor and Web Map Context specifications. The case study shows the effectiveness of an infectious disease surveillance system and enables cross-border visualization, analysis, and sharing of infectious disease information through interactive maps and/or animation in collaboration with multiple partners via a distributed network. It enables data sharing and users' collaboration in an open and interactive manner. In this project, we develop a service oriented architecture for online disease mapping that is distributed, loosely coupled, and interoperable. An implementation of this architecture has been applied to the New Brunswick and Maine infectious disease studies. We have shown that the development of standard health services and spatial data infrastructure can enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of public health surveillance.

  9. Online GIS services for mapping and sharing disease information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xiaolun

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease data sharing is important for the collaborative preparation, response, and recovery stages of disease control. Disease phenomena are strongly associated with spatial and temporal factors. Web-based Geographical Information Systems provide a real-time and dynamic way to represent disease information on maps. However, data heterogeneities, integration, interoperability, and cartographical representation are still major challenges in the health geographic fields. These challenges cause barriers in extensively sharing health data and restrain the effectiveness in understanding and responding to disease outbreaks. To overcome these challenges in disease data mapping and sharing, the senior authors have designed an interoperable service oriented architecture based on Open Geospatial Consortium specifications to share the spatio-temporal disease information. Results A case study of infectious disease mapping across New Brunswick (Canada and Maine (USA was carried out to evaluate the proposed architecture, which uses standard Web Map Service, Styled Layer Descriptor and Web Map Context specifications. The case study shows the effectiveness of an infectious disease surveillance system and enables cross-border visualization, analysis, and sharing of infectious disease information through interactive maps and/or animation in collaboration with multiple partners via a distributed network. It enables data sharing and users' collaboration in an open and interactive manner. Conclusion In this project, we develop a service oriented architecture for online disease mapping that is distributed, loosely coupled, and interoperable. An implementation of this architecture has been applied to the New Brunswick and Maine infectious disease studies. We have shown that the development of standard health services and spatial data infrastructure can enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of public health surveillance.

  10. Represented Speech in Qualitative Health Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Represented speech refers to speech where we reference somebody. Represented speech is an important phenomenon in everyday conversation, health care communication, and qualitative research. This case will draw first from a case study on physicians’ workplace learning and second from a case study...... on nurses’ apprenticeship learning. The aim of the case is to guide the qualitative researcher to use own and others’ voices in the interview and to be sensitive to represented speech in everyday conversation. Moreover, reported speech matters to health professionals who aim to represent the voice...... of their patients. Qualitative researchers and students might learn to encourage interviewees to elaborate different voices or perspectives. Qualitative researchers working with natural speech might pay attention to how people talk and use represented speech. Finally, represented speech might be relevant...

  11. Business models of sharing economy companies : exploring features responsible for sharing economy companies’ internationalization

    OpenAIRE

    Kosintceva, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the sharing economy business models and their features responsible for internationalization. The study proposes derived definitions for the concepts of “sharing economy” and “business model” and first generic sharing economy business models typology. The typology was created through the qualitative analysis of secondary data on twenty sharing economy companies from nine different industries. The outlined categories of sharing economy business models a...

  12. Semiotes: a semantics for sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazic, T

    2000-12-01

    Reliable, automated communication of biological information requires methods to declare the information's semantics. In this paper I describe an approach to semantic declaration intended to permit independent, distributed databases, algorithms, and servers to exchange and process requests for information and computations without requiring coordination or agreement among them on universe of discourse, data model, schema, or implementation. This approach uses Glossa, a formal language defining the semantics of biological ideas, information, and algorithms, to executably define the semantics of complex ideas and computations by constructs of semiotes, terms which axiomatically define very simple notions. A database or algorithm wishing to exchange information or computations maintains a set of mappings between its particular notions and semiotes, and a parser to translate between its indigenous ideas and implementation and the semiotes. Requests from other databases or algorithms are issued as semiotic messages, locally interpreted and processed, and the results returned as semiotes to the requesting entity. Thus, semiotes serve as a shared, abstract layer of definitions which can be computably combined by each database or algorithm according to its own needs and ideas. By combining the explicit declaration of semantics with the computation of the semantics of complex ideas, Glossa and its semiotes permit independent computational entities to lightly federate their capabilities as desired while maintaining their unique perspectives on both scientific and technical questions.

  13. Representing a public that does not exist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann

    In her seminal essay ‘The Crisis in Education’ Hannah Arendt presents teachers with the challenge of having to represent a world that is becoming out of joint. This means that the teacher stands as a representative of a world that is becoming increasingly inexplicable and incomprehensible, and th...

  14. Representing Animal-Others in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Gail J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper encourages environmental and humane education scholars to consider the ethical implications of how nonhuman animals are represented in research. I argue that research representations of animals can work to either break down processes of "othering," or reinforce them. I explore various options for representing other animals, including…

  15. Towards a Theory of Socially Shared Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increased sharing of consumptive practices, experiences and evaluations on social media platforms. Such socially shared consumption can range from electronic word-of-mouth to formal online reviews as well as automated product mentions facilitated by social media applicat......Recent years have seen an increased sharing of consumptive practices, experiences and evaluations on social media platforms. Such socially shared consumption can range from electronic word-of-mouth to formal online reviews as well as automated product mentions facilitated by social media...... understanding and analysing the growing phenomenon of consumers’ social sharing of consumption on social media platforms The taxonomy consists of five dimensions of socially shared consumption: Phase, Automation, Formality, Expressiveness, and Sentiment. The primary contributions of this research...

  16. SharePoint 2007 Collaboration For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Greg

    2009-01-01

    If you're looking for a way to help your teams access what they need to know, work together, and get the job done, SharePoint can do just that. SharePoint 2007 Collaboration For Dummies shows you the easiest way to set up and customize SharePoint, manage your data, interact using SharePoint blogs and wikis, integrate Office programs, and make your office more productive. You'll learn what SharePoint can do and how to make it work for your business, understand the technical terms, and enable your people to collaborate on documents and spreadsheets. You'll even discover how to get SharePoint hel

  17. Four Models of Sharing Economy Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna; Marton, Attila; Tuunainen, Virpi Kristiina

    2017-01-01

    Sharing economy platforms combine organizational and market mechanisms in innovative ways to gain competitive advantages over incumbents. These mechanisms are combined on two key dimensions: tight or loose control over participants, and high or low rivalry between participants. We call the result......Sharing economy platforms combine organizational and market mechanisms in innovative ways to gain competitive advantages over incumbents. These mechanisms are combined on two key dimensions: tight or loose control over participants, and high or low rivalry between participants. We call...... the resulting four sharing economy models "Franchiser," "Principal," "Chaperone" and "Gardener." Each model focuses on a different value proposition and strategic intent, but they all exploit the growing fluidity of organizational boundaries. Understanding the sharing economy in these terms enables businesses...... to identify, and respond to, the threats and opportunities provided by sharing economy platforms. The lessons learned from our research will help businesses to engage with the sharing economy....

  18. On the Sharing of Cyber Security Information

    OpenAIRE

    Luiijf, Eric; Klaver, Marieke

    2015-01-01

    Part 1: THEMES AND ISSUES; International audience; The sharing of cyber security information between organizations, both public and private, and across sectors and borders is required to increase situational awareness, reduce vulnerabilities, manage risk and enhance cyber resilience. However, the notion of information sharing often is a broad and multi-faceted concept. This chapter describes an analytic framework for sharing cyber security information. A decomposition of the information shari...

  19. Perceptions of NATO Burden-Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    stock ih another index of contribution measured in terms of military resources. Since the early 1960s the U.S. share of total military spending among... military spending .................. 33 15. Big Four: ratio of military capital share to military spending share ............................... 34 xv I...least measurable but most important source of discounting is the inescapable disagreement over the goals and value of U.S. military spending . At various

  20. Cross-Platform Application Sharing Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Akram, Raja Naeem; Markantonakis, Konstantinos; Mayes, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The application sharing mechanism in multi-application smart cards facilitates corroborative schemes between applications in a secure and reliable manner. Traditional application sharing can only be realised if both applications are installed on the same device. In this paper, we extend the smart card firewall to include the application sharing mechanism between applications installed on different smart cards. We propose Platform and Application Binding Protocols that enables two smart-cards ...

  1. Infections shared with wildlife: an updated perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gortázar, Christian; Ruiz Fons, Francisco; Höfle, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Infections shared with wildlife matter because many are zoonotic, because of their impact on animal health and in consequence on livestock production, and due to their adverse effects on conservation and on the sustainable use of wildlife. We describe recent environmental and societal changes that contribute to explain the current wildlife disease scenario, propose an updated list and ranking of relevant shared disease agents, illustrate key risk factors which often underlay shared infections...

  2. Blockchain Based Intelligent Vehicle Data sharing Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Madhusudan; Kim, Shiho

    2017-01-01

    The Intelligent vehicle (IV) is experiencing revolutionary growth in research and industry, but it still suffers from many security vulnerabilities. Traditional security methods are incapable to provide secure IV data sharing. The major issues in IV data sharing are trust, data accuracy and reliability of data sharing data in the communication channel. Blockchain technology works for the crypto currency, Bit-coin, which is recently used to build trust and reliability in peer-to-peer networks ...

  3. On the human ethology of food sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Schiefenhövel Wulf

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares various explanatory concepts of food sharing in humans. In many animal species, parents share food with their offspring, thus investing into the 50% of their own genes present in each child. Even in modern families of industrialised societies, there is a very significant flow of material goods from the parent to the offspring generation. Sharing food between reproductive partners is also easily explainable in evolutionary terms: „food for sex“ as male strategy is observed ...

  4. Shared-Reality Development in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, E Tory

    2016-07-01

    Many significant changes occur during human childhood, including cognitive, social-cognitive, and socioemotional changes. This article reviews some key phenomena associated with some of these changes and attempts to capture them within a single conceptual umbrella-changes in children's shared realities with others Shared reality is the experience that you have an inner state about something (e.g., a feeling or belief or concern about something) that is shared by others (a person or group). Four phases of shared-reality development are proposed: Phase 1 (6-12 months) shared feelings; Phase 2 (18-24 months) shared practices; Phase 3 (3-5 years) shared self-guides; Phase 4 (9-13 years) shared coordinated roles In each phase, a new way that children interact with and relate to others emerges, and the emergence of each new shared-reality mode has significant self-regulatory and social consequences. These consequences include both major benefits for children and potential costs-trade-offs of being human. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. When global virtual teams share knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Anders; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    for internal knowledge sharing is now more important than ever before. Extant studies have provided useful theories and empirical documentation on how to manage global virtual teams. However, no prior research has examined the interaction of media type with the relation between culture/language and canonical....../equivocal knowledge sharing. This is an important omission because cultural and linguistic variations are known to have a great effect on knowledge sharing. We use ethnographic field-study methodology for an exploratory examination of the effects of culture, shared language commonality and media choice on knowledge...

  6. Beginning SharePoint Designer 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Windischman, Woodrow W; Rehmani, Asif

    2010-01-01

    Teaching Web designers, developers, and IT professionals how to use the new version of SharePoint Designer. Covering both the design and business applications of SharePoint Designer, this complete Wrox guide brings readers thoroughly up to speed on how to use SharePoint Designer in an enterprise. You'll learn to create and modify web pages, use CSS editing tools to modify themes, use Data View to create interactivity with SharePoint and other data, and much more. Coverage includes integration points with Visual Studio, Visio, and InfoPath.: Shows web designers, developers, and IT professionals

  7. Beginning SharePoint 2010 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Discover how to take advantage of the many new features in SharePoint 2010. SharePoint provides content management (enterprise content management, Web content management, records management, and more), workflow, and social media features, and the new version boasts enhanced capabilities. This introductory-level book walks you through the process of learning, developing, and deploying SharePoint 2010 solutions. You'll leverage your existing skills and tools to grasp the fundamental programming concepts and practices of SharePoint 2010. The author clearly explains how to develop your first appli

  8. Mapping the landscape of shared leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Müller, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    As can be seen from the substantial increase in the volume and scope of leadership publications over the last ten to fifteen years, leadership is a construct with important social and relational properties. Shared leadership in particular has attracted considerable attention from organization...... and management scholars, although there has been surprisingly little focus on the key structuring processes and mechanisms that enable shared leadership. The aim of this paper is to rectify this by identifying the critical factors and mechanisms which enable shared leadership and its antecedents and outcomes......, and to develop synthesized framework of shared leadership. The paper closes with a brief discussion of avenues for future research and implications for managers....

  9. Improved Cognitive Development in Preterm Infants with Shared Book Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braid, Susan; Bernstein, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effect of shared book reading on the cognitive development of children born preterm and to determine what factors influence shared book reading in this population. Secondary analysis using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a large, nationally representative survey of children born in the United States in 2001. One thousand four hundred singleton preterm infants (22-36 weeks gestation). Cognitive development measured using the Bayley Mental Scale score from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development Research Edition. Adjusting for neonatal, maternal, and socioeconomic characteristics, reading aloud more than two times a week is associated with higher cognitive development scores in two-year-old children born preterm (p book reading holds potential as an early developmental intervention for this population.

  10. On Sharing and Quasi-Sharing : The Tension between Sharing-Economy Practices, Public Policy, and Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranchordás, Sofia; Albinsson, Pia A.; Perera, B. Yasanthi

    2018-01-01

    This paper offers a critical and comparative overview of the main regulatory and policy challenges faced by regulators in the context of the sharing economy. The regulation of the sharing economy has been particularly challenging as regulators are being asked to balance the interests protected by

  11. Beginning SharePoint 2010 Building Business Solutions with SharePoint

    CERN Document Server

    Perran, Amanda; Mason, Jennifer; Rogers, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Two SharePoint MVPs provide the ultimate introduction to SharePoint 2010Beginning SharePoint 2010: Building Team Solutions with SharePoint provides information workers and site managers with extensive knowledge and expert advice, empowering them to become SharePoint champions within their organizations.Provides expansive coverage of SharePoint topics, as well as specialty areas such as forms, excel services, records management, and web content managementDetails realistic usage scenarios, and includes practice examples that highlight best practices for configuration and customizationIncludes de

  12. Wrox SharePoint 2010 SharePoint911 three-pack

    CERN Document Server

    Klindt, Todd; Mason, Jennifer; Rogers, Laura; Drisgill, Randy; Ross, John; Riemann, Larry; Perran, Amanda; Perran, Shane; Sanford, Jacob J; Stubbs, Paul; Caravajal, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Wrox SharePoint 2010 SharePoint911 Three-Pack combines the contents of three full e-books written by the experts from SharePoint911.  That's over 1800 pages of hands-on advice from Todd Klindt, Shane Young, Laura Rogers, Randy Drisgill, Jennifer Mason, John Ross, and Larry Riemann, among others. In Beginning SharePoint 2010: Building Business Solutions with SharePoint (ISBN 978-0-470-61789-2) by Amanda Perran, Shane Perran, Jennifer Mason, and Laura Rogers, readers learn the core concepts, terminology, and features of SharePoint 2010. In Professiona

  13. Revitalizing communities together: the shared values, goals, and work of education, urban planning, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alison Klebanoff; Schuchter, Joseph W

    2013-04-01

    Inequities in education, the urban environment, and health co-exist and mutually reinforce each other. Educators, planners, and public health practitioners share commitments to place-based, participatory, youth-focused, and equitable work. They also have shared goals of building community resilience, social capital, and civic engagement. Interdisciplinary programs that embody these shared values and work towards these shared goals are emerging, including school-based health centers, full-service community schools, community health centers, Promise Neighborhoods, and Choice Neighborhoods. The intersection of these three fields represents an opportunity to intervene on social determinants of health. More collaborative research and practice across public health, education, and planning should build from the shared values identified to continue to address these common goals.

  14. A Study on Employee Behavior Intention of Knowledge Sharing in a R&D Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hui Chin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the relations-hips among external variables, internal variables, and employee intention of knowledge sharing in the Theory of Planned Behavior. Industrial Technology Research Institute in Taiwan is chosen as the case under study. A questionnaire survey has been done respectively in two research groups which represent senior R&D employee and members in community of practice of knowledge management, in order to find out the major determinants of employee intention of knowledge sharing. In conclusion, it has positive influences on employee intention of knowledge sharing by reinforcing the cooperative work relationship within employees and activating altruistic motive of knowledge sharing. In addition, it is helpful for knowledge sharing contexture by building up a trustful organizational culture and adopting proper managerial system.[Article content in Chinese

  15. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  16. Shared financial management of Community programs and its implementation in the EU area

    OpenAIRE

    Jedličková, Vladislava

    2008-01-01

    The issue of migration within the European Union has grown in member countries to considerable size. Management representatives of EU institutions have decided to address this situation. They established community program Solidarity and management of migration flows. The European Commission has decided that for the financial management of this program will be used the principle of shared management. The principle of shared financial management is the delegation of powers and responsibilities ...

  17. Individual, Technological, and Organizational Predictors of Knowledge Sharing in the Norwegian Context

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin Spieler; Velibor Bobo Kovač

    2017-01-01

    Organizational knowledge sharing (OKS) represents a distinct sub-field in knowledge management theory. The present study adopts a quantitative approach and reports data collected in a medium sized industrial organization in Norway. The aim of the study is to identify factors that are important for OKS and examine their relative impact on knowledge sharing practices. The present analysis of OKS includes personal (i.e. personality dispositions), technological (i.e. technologic...

  18. Share price trend based on analysis of investor’s online activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Dumitru SACALĂ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The desire of modeling the influence coming from behavioral economics, representing mostly qualitative variables, requires new approaches to quantify this influence. In this paper we present an analytical method for determining the direction of the share future return using an aggregate indicator calculated based exclusively on the trend of registered variables from investor’s online activity. This online activity refers to the number and content of messages posted by investors on shares analysis dedicated web blogs.

  19. Do Shared Interests Affect the Accuracy of Budgets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Maria Beuren

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The creation of budgetary slack is a phenomenon associated with various behavioral aspects. This study focuses on accuracy in budgeting when the benefit of the slack is shared between the unit manager and his/her assistant. In this study, accuracy is measured by the level of slack in the budget, and the benefit of slack represents a financial consideration for the manager and the assistant. The study aims to test how shared interests in budgetary slack affect the accuracy of budget reports in an organization. To this end, an experimental study was conducted with a sample of 90 employees in management and other leadership positions at a cooperative that has a variable compensation plan based on the achievement of organizational goals. The experiment conducted in this study is consubstantiated by the study of Church, Hannan and Kuang (2012, which was conducted with a sample of undergraduate students in the United States and used a quantitative approach to analyze the results. In the first part of the experiment, the results show that when budgetary slack is not shared, managers tend to create greater slack when the assistant is not aware of the creation of slack; these managers thus generate a lower accuracy index than managers whose assistants are aware of the creation of slack. When budgetary slack is shared, there is higher average slack when the assistant is aware of the creation of slack. In the second part of the experiment, the accuracy index is higher for managers who prepare the budget with the knowledge that their assistants prefer larger slack values. However, the accuracy level differs between managers who know that their assistants prefer maximizing slack values and managers who do not know their assistants' preference regarding slack. These results contribute to the literature by presenting evidence of managers' behavior in the creation of budgetary slack in scenarios in which they share the benefits of slack with their assistants.

  20. Representative Sampling for reliable data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Kim Harry

    2005-01-01

    regime in order to secure the necessary reliability of: samples (which must be representative, from the primary sampling onwards), analysis (which will not mean anything outside the miniscule analytical volume without representativity ruling all mass reductions involved, also in the laboratory) and data......) that fully cover all practical aspects of sampling and provides a handy “toolbox” for samplers, engineers, laboratory and scientific personnel....

  1. Enhancing policy innovation by redesigning representative democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    . Two Danish case studies indicate that collaboration between politicians and relevant and affected stakeholders can promote policy innovation, but also that a redesign of representative democracy is needed in order to establish a productive combination of political leadership, competition......Policy innovation is a key aspect of public innovation, which has been largely overlooked. Political leadership, competition and collaboration are key drivers of policy innovation. It is a barrier in traditional models of representative democracy that they provide weak conditions for collaboration...

  2. The U.S. Culture Collection Network Responding to the Requirements of the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin McCluskey; Katharine B. Barker; Hazel A. Barton; Kyria Boundy-Mills; Daniel R. Brown; Jonathan A. Coddington; Kevin Cook; Philippe Desmeth; David Geiser; Jessie A. Glaeser; Stephanie Greene; Seogchan Kang; Michael W. Lomas; Ulrich Melcher; Scott E. Miller; David R. Nobles; Kristina J. Owens; Jerome H. Reichman; Manuela da Silva; John Wertz; Cale Whitworth; David Smith; Steven E. Lindow

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Culture Collection Network held a meeting to share information about how culture collections are responding to the requirements of the recently enacted Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The meeting included representatives...

  3. The Political Economy of Intergenerational Risk Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the political constraints of intergenerational risk sharing. The rst result is that the political process generally does not lead to ex ante optimal insurance. The second result is that in a second best political setting PAYG still contributes to intergenerational risk sharing.

  4. Putting the sharing economy into perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, Koen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253; Schor, Juliet

    We develop a conceptual framework that allows us to define the sharing economy and its close cousins and we understand its sudden rise from an economic-historic perspective. We then assess the sharing economy platforms in terms of the economic, social and environmental impacts. We end with

  5. A Decision Model for Data Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckartz, S.; Hofman, W.J.; Veenstra, A.F. van

    2014-01-01

    Data-driven innovation has great potential for the development of innovative services that not only have economic value, but that help to address societal challenges. Many of these challenges can only be addressed by data sharing of public and privately owned data. These public-private data sharing

  6. Private sharing of IOCs and sightings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, T.R. van de; Peter, A.; Everts, M.H.; Jonker, W.

    2016-01-01

    Information sharing helps to better protect computer sys- tems against digital threats and known attacks. However, since security information is usually considered sensitive, parties are hesitant to share all their information through public channels. Instead, they only exchange this informa- tion

  7. How suboptimal are linear sharing rules?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne Astrup; Nielsen, Jørgen Aase

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze criteria for portfolio choice when two investors are forced to invest in a common portfolio and share the proceeds by a linear sharing rule. A similar situation with many investors is typical for defined contribution pension schemes. The restriction impli...

  8. Cidre: Programming with Distributed Shared Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    André, Françoise; Mahéo, Yves

    1996-01-01

    International audience; A programming model that is widely approved today for large applications is parallel programming with shared variables. We propose an implementation of shared arrays on distributed memory architectures: it provides the user with an uniform addressing scheme while being effcient thanks to a logical paging technique and optimized communication mechanisms.

  9. Share Contract Choices and Economic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar Espinoza, César Antonio

    2015-01-01

    framework, we estimate a dose-response function to study the formation of contracts and identify the marginal effects of changes in crew profit shares on fishing returns in Chilean artisanal fisheries. The results support share contract choices based on bargaining power, monitoring costs, technology, state...

  10. Attitude, Perceptions and Motivation towards Knowledge Sharing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the attitude, perceptions and motivation towards knowledge sharing among faculty members in higher institutions and emphasise the significant role attitude, intention and intrinsic motivation play in knowledge sharing. The study was conducted within Kwara State, Nigeria, using two ...

  11. resource sharing activities in academic libraries services

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efe Francis Ejedafiru. Abstract. Although libraries have along tradition of resource sharing, in the past the results have not been meaningful as regards to having enough to share with others. The pervasive state of academic libraries generates a syndrome of insufficiency, and will continue for as long as the so-deemed.

  12. Shared Decision Making for Better Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Delegating decision making to those closest to implementation can result in better decisions, more support for improvement initiatives, and increased student performance. Shared decision making depends on capable school leadership, a professional community, instructional guidance mechanisms, knowledge and skills, information sharing, power, and…

  13. Shared Reading Goes High-Tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sharon Ruth; Islam, Chhanda

    2011-01-01

    Shared Reading is a powerful teaching technique for teaching beginning reading. Technologies such as Interactive Whiteboards now make Shared Reading much easier to do. Large texts are projected on the whiteboard for Choral reading, and interactive features allow students to learn about letter-sound correspondences, spelling patterns, punctuation,…

  14. How to Share Data with Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Lorette; Patton, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Students whose parents receive regular and personalized messages with actionable information from teachers are more likely to succeed in school. But effective data-sharing programs require more than simply sending data home. They also encourage educators and families to make connections with each other, sharing observations about how a child…

  15. The Cross-Cultural Knowledge Sharing Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby

    2013-01-01

    Cross-cultural offshoring in software development challenges effective knowledge sharing. While research has suggested temporarily co-locating participants to address this challenge, few studies are available on what knowledge sharing practices emerge over time when co-locating cross-cultural sof...

  16. Expressions Shared by Vietnamese in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Carole

    This document is a collection of a list of expressions shared by Vietnamese immigrants who have entered the United States. The expressions concern the following topics: names, formality, cultural influences, touching, tact and diplomacy, shared life, open houses, social standards, manual labor, fatalism, and adaptability. (Author/AM)

  17. 24 CFR 4001.118 - Equity sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equity sharing. 4001.118 Section... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures § 4001.118 Equity sharing. (a) Initial Equity. For purposes of section 257(k)(1) of the Act, the initial equity created as a direct result of the origination of a Program...

  18. Sharing the "Current Events" in Children's Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passe, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about two elementary classroom activities used as teaching tools, namely "Show and Tell" and "Sharing Time." As a teaching tool, Sharing Time has several advantages over Show and Tell. It avoids children bringing valuable items to school, reduces emphasis on materialism, allows opportunities for extended oral…

  19. Monotonicity in the limited processor sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Nuyens; W. van der Weij (Wemke)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study a processor sharing queue with a limited number of service positions and an infinite buffer. The occupied service positions share an underlying resource. We prove that for service times with a decreasing failure rate, the queue length is stochastically decreasing in the number

  20. Exploration Participants Engagement in Organisational Knowledge Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedighi, M.; Lukosch, S.G.; van Splunter, S.; Brazier, F.M.; van Beers, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of knowledge sharing within most organisations is well recognised. While abundant KM systems have been matured to encourage individual engagement in knowledge sharing, practical evidences show a low success rate of KM systems. This paper reports on a qualitative exploratory multi-case

  1. Sharing tools and know-how

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saad-Sulonen, Joanna

    In this position paper I address the theme of designing for sharing in self-organized urban communities by bringing forward the aspect of sharing tools and know-how. I report the lessons learned from a case in Helsinki and open questions for discussion regarding some of the identified challenges...

  2. 45 CFR 63.22 - Cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost sharing. 63.22 Section 63.22 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Financial Provisions § 63.22 Cost sharing. Policy...

  3. 12 CFR 741.212 - Share insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Share insurance. 741.212 Section 741.212 Banks... INSURANCE Regulations Codified Elsewhere in NCUA's Regulations as Applying to Federal Credit Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.212 Share insurance. (a) Member...

  4. 75 FR 9246 - Cooperative Share Loan Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Cooperative Share Loan Insurance AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... cooperative housing loan insurance will be published to update existing policies, and better enable mortgagees to submit cooperative share loans for FHA insurance. This new publication will provide instructions...

  5. 47 CFR 95.7 - Channel sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel sharing. 95.7 Section 95.7... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.7 Channel sharing. (a) Channels or channel pairs (one 462... and use of channels to reduce interference and to make the most effective use of the facilities. (b...

  6. Importance sampling in rate-sharing networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, P.; Mandjes, M.

    2008-01-01

    We consider a network supporting elastic traffic, where the service capacity is shared among the various classes according to an alpha-fair sharing policy. Assuming Poisson arrivals and exponentially distributed service requirements for each class, the dynamics of the user population may be

  7. Secure Data Sharing In an Untrusted Cloud

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rekha Chandankere; Masrath Begum

    2015-01-01

    .... A secure and efficient data sharing scheme for groups in cloud is not an easy task. On one hand customers are not ready to share their identity but on other hand want to enjoy the cost efficiency provided by the cloud...

  8. 77 FR 4277 - Proposed Data Sharing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... the Department of Commerce proposes to share business data for statistical purposes. More specifically... business data for statistical purposes with the BLS. Section 524(d) of CIPSEA requires public notice of the... agencies advocated an increase of business data sharing among Federal statistical agencies. Moreover...

  9. Putting the sharing economy into perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, Koen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253; Schor, Juliet

    2017-01-01

    We develop a conceptual framework that allows us to define the sharing economy and its close cousins and we understand its sudden rise from an economic-historic perspective. We then assess the sharing economy platforms in terms of the economic, social and environmental impacts. We end with

  10. The Filtering Effect of Sharing Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari Mattiacci, G.; de Geest, G.G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Sharing rules have a filtering effect on violations: they prevent the most harmful violations and let the least harmful ones occur. We show under what conditions the filtering effect improves social welfare and argue that this may explain why, in most areas of the law, sharing rules are, in general,

  11. 10 CFR 603.415 - Cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-Federal parties carrying out a RD&D project under a TIA are to provide at least half of the costs of the... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost sharing. 603.415 Section 603.415 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Cost sharing. To help ensure a competitive process that is fair and equitable to all potential...

  12. Determinants of knowledge-sharing intention and knowledge-sharing behavior in a public organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delio Ignacio Castaneda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that affect the knowledge-sharing intention and knowledge-sharing behavior in a public sector organization. A survey was conducted with 188 knowledge workers of a public-sector organization at the national level in Colombia. In this public organization significant relationships between self-efficacy and knowledge-sharing intention, subjective norms, and knowledge-sharing behavior, and between knowledge-sharing intention and knowledge-sharing behavior were found. There was a direct effect of perceived organizational support on knowledge-sharing behavior and a moderator role of perceived organizational support between the studied variables. The findings clarify how some personal variables and perceived organizational support interact in the explanation of knowledge sharing.

  13. Power-sharing: concepts, debates and gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Sousa Carvalho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Academic literature tends to reflect the two main objectives of power-sharing: promoting the construction of sustainable peace and serving to structure the foundations for growth and development of democracy in divided societies. reflecting this, two dimensions and discourses of analysis and evaluation stand out: a classical dimension centred on power-sharing as theory and a normative proposal for democracy in divided societies, and another focused mainly on power-sharing as a meachanism of conflict management. This article aims to introduce the reader to discussions about power-sharing, reviewing and critically analysing power-sharing literature to show its gaps and tensions, as well as suggesting some points where one can continue the debate.

  14. Space Sharing i teori og praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkø, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    Dette er den anden artikel i FM Update, der præsenterer resultater fra Ph.d. studiet ”Sharing Space in the Knowledge City” fra DTU. Den første artikel med titlen ”Shared Space – mellem vision og realitet” (FM-Update, nr. 1, 2015) præsenterede en ny typologi for shared space, som delekoncept. Denne...... artikel er en fortsættelse, med fire dybdegående studier af eksempler på bygge- og renoveringsprojekter, som afspejler de fire typer at shared space, som beskrives i typologien. Formålet med denne artikel er dels at eksemplificere de fire typer af shared space, og dels at formidle erfaringer fra...

  15. Enhancing behavioral control increases sharing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Over, Harriet

    2017-07-01

    Young children endorse norms of fairness but rarely act on them. We investigated whether a failure of behavioral control can partially explain why children do not share more generously than they do. We experimentally manipulated behavioral control and observed its effects on sharing in 120 children aged 6-9years of age. Using a between-participants design, we presented children with stories in which a protagonist either exerted behavioral control in an unrelated context or not. Following this, children engaged in a sharing task. We found that children who had been read a story promoting behavioral control shared more than children who had been read a neutral story. This effect held over two different types of instruction. Perceptions of fairness, on the other hand, were identical across conditions. These findings speak to the importance of behavioral control in prosocial behavior, and specifically sharing, during middle childhood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. SharePoint 2010 Development For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Withee, Ken

    2011-01-01

    A much-needed guide that shows you how to leverage SharePoint tools without writing a line of code!. The great news about SharePoint is…you don't need to be a seasoned .NET developer to develop custom functions for it. This book shows you how to use SharePoint Designer, Report Builder, Dashboard Designer, InfoPath, Excel, Word, Visio, and the SharePoint web-based UI to design and develop—without ever writing a line of code! Learn how to customize your site, build SharePoint apps, start social networking, or add Web parts.  This straightforward guide makes everything easier.: Introduces you to

  17. International Peacekeeping Operations: Burden Sharing and Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Todd

    2017-10-01

    This article takes stock of some of the important contributions to the study of peacekeeping (PK). Two key topics stand out: peacekeeping burden sharing and mission effectiveness. For burden sharing, the theoretical foundation is the private provision of public goods and joint products. Implications for burden sharing differ whether financial or troop contributions are being shared, with the latter driven by jointly produced country-specific benefits. Financial burden sharing can also differ between United Nations (UN)-led and non-UN-led peacekeeping operations, wherein country-specific benefits are especially important for the latter. Many articles gauge peacekeeping effectiveness by the mission's ability to maintain the peace or to protect lives for a set time period. More recently, multiple criteria are raised for evaluating peacekeeping in today's world of multifaceted peacebuilding operations.

  18. Performing an allreduce operation using shared memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Dozsa, Gabor [Ardsley, NY; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-04-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for performing an allreduce operation using shared memory that include: receiving, by at least one of a plurality of processing cores on a compute node, an instruction to perform an allreduce operation; establishing, by the core that received the instruction, a job status object for specifying a plurality of shared memory allreduce work units, the plurality of shared memory allreduce work units together performing the allreduce operation on the compute node; determining, by an available core on the compute node, a next shared memory allreduce work unit in the job status object; and performing, by that available core on the compute node, that next shared memory allreduce work unit.

  19. Fair Shares and Sharing Fairly: A Survey of Public Views on Open Science, Informed Consent and Participatory Research in Biobanking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Joly

    Full Text Available Biobanks are important resources which enable large-scale genomic research with human samples and data, raising significant ethical concerns about how participants' information is managed and shared. Three previous studies of the Canadian public's opinion about these topics have been conducted. Building on those results, an online survey representing the first study of public perceptions about biobanking spanning all Canadian provinces was conducted. Specifically, this study examined qualitative views about biobank objectives, governance structure, control and ownership of samples and data, benefit sharing, consent practices and data sharing norms, as well as additional questions and ethical concerns expressed by the public.Over half the respondents preferred to give a one-time general consent for the future sharing of their samples among researchers. Most expressed willingness for their data to be shared with the international scientific community rather than used by one or more Canadian institutions. Whereas more respondents indicated a preference for one-time general consent than any other model of consent, they constituted less than half of the total responses, revealing a lack of consensus among survey respondents regarding this question. Respondents identified biobank objectives, governance structure and accountability as the most important information to provide participants. Respondents' concerns about biobanking generally centred around the control and ownership of biological samples and data, especially with respect to potential misuse by insurers, the government and other third parties. Although almost half the respondents suggested that these should be managed by the researchers' institutions, results indicate that the public is interested in being well-informed about these projects and suggest the importance of increased involvement from participants. In conclusion, the study discusses the viability of several proposed models for

  20. Fair Shares and Sharing Fairly: A Survey of Public Views on Open Science, Informed Consent and Participatory Research in Biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Yann; Dalpé, Gratien; So, Derek; Birko, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are important resources which enable large-scale genomic research with human samples and data, raising significant ethical concerns about how participants' information is managed and shared. Three previous studies of the Canadian public's opinion about these topics have been conducted. Building on those results, an online survey representing the first study of public perceptions about biobanking spanning all Canadian provinces was conducted. Specifically, this study examined qualitative views about biobank objectives, governance structure, control and ownership of samples and data, benefit sharing, consent practices and data sharing norms, as well as additional questions and ethical concerns expressed by the public. Over half the respondents preferred to give a one-time general consent for the future sharing of their samples among researchers. Most expressed willingness for their data to be shared with the international scientific community rather than used by one or more Canadian institutions. Whereas more respondents indicated a preference for one-time general consent than any other model of consent, they constituted less than half of the total responses, revealing a lack of consensus among survey respondents regarding this question. Respondents identified biobank objectives, governance structure and accountability as the most important information to provide participants. Respondents' concerns about biobanking generally centred around the control and ownership of biological samples and data, especially with respect to potential misuse by insurers, the government and other third parties. Although almost half the respondents suggested that these should be managed by the researchers' institutions, results indicate that the public is interested in being well-informed about these projects and suggest the importance of increased involvement from participants. In conclusion, the study discusses the viability of several proposed models for informed consent

  1. Fair Shares and Sharing Fairly: A Survey of Public Views on Open Science, Informed Consent and Participatory Research in Biobanking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Yann; Dalpé, Gratien; So, Derek; Birko, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Context Biobanks are important resources which enable large-scale genomic research with human samples and data, raising significant ethical concerns about how participants’ information is managed and shared. Three previous studies of the Canadian public’s opinion about these topics have been conducted. Building on those results, an online survey representing the first study of public perceptions about biobanking spanning all Canadian provinces was conducted. Specifically, this study examined qualitative views about biobank objectives, governance structure, control and ownership of samples and data, benefit sharing, consent practices and data sharing norms, as well as additional questions and ethical concerns expressed by the public. Results Over half the respondents preferred to give a one-time general consent for the future sharing of their samples among researchers. Most expressed willingness for their data to be shared with the international scientific community rather than used by one or more Canadian institutions. Whereas more respondents indicated a preference for one-time general consent than any other model of consent, they constituted less than half of the total responses, revealing a lack of consensus among survey respondents regarding this question. Respondents identified biobank objectives, governance structure and accountability as the most important information to provide participants. Respondents’ concerns about biobanking generally centred around the control and ownership of biological samples and data, especially with respect to potential misuse by insurers, the government and other third parties. Although almost half the respondents suggested that these should be managed by the researchers’ institutions, results indicate that the public is interested in being well-informed about these projects and suggest the importance of increased involvement from participants. In conclusion, the study discusses the viability of several proposed models

  2. Autonomous, teleoperated, and shared control of robot systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper illustrates how different modes of operation such as bilateral teleoperation, autonomous control, and shared control can be described and implemented using combinations of modules in the SMART robot control architecture. Telerobotics modes are characterized by different ``grids`` of SMART icons, where each icon represents a portion of run-time code that implements a passive control law. By placing strict requirements on the module`s input-output behavior and using scattering theory to develop a passive sampling technique, a flexible, expandable telerobot architecture is achieved. An automatic code generation tool for generating SMART systems is also described.

  3. Multimodal Information Sharing Team (MIST) - Port of Baltimore Industry and Public Sector Cooperation for Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Team MPA Maryland Port Administration MOU Memorandum of Understanding MS- ISAC Multi-State Information Sharing and Analysis Center NMIO National...Organized Crime Law Enforcement Working Group (MAGLOCLEN) Multi-State Information Sharing and Analysis Center (MS- ISAC ) Maryland is a member of...Multi-State Information Sharing and Analysis Center (MS- ISAC ). Southern Maryland Information Center (SMIC) The Southern Maryland Information Center

  4. 75 FR 26815 - AdvisorShares Investments, LLC and AdvisorShares Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ...) secondary market transactions in Shares to occur at negotiated market prices; (c) certain series to pay... investment objective by utilizing an ``active'' management strategy. Funds may invest in equity securities or... Shares (the ``Distributor''). 4. Applicants anticipate that the price of a Share will range from $20 to...

  5. Knowledge Sharing in Public Sector Organizations: The Effect of Organizational Characteristics on Interdepartmental Knowledge Sharing.

    OpenAIRE

    A. WILLEM; M. BUELENS

    2005-01-01

    Public sector organizations are mainly knowledge-intensive organizations and to exploit their knowledge, effective knowledge sharing among the different departments is required. We focus on specific characteristics of public sector organizations that increase or limit interdepartmental knowledge sharing. Three types of organization-specific coordination mechanisms directly influence knowledge sharing between units. Organizations are also characterized by members’ social identification and tru...

  6. 14 CFR 1260.58 - Designation of new technology representative and patent representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of new technology... of new technology representative and patent representative. Designation of New Technology... of this grant entitled “New Technology,” the following named representatives are hereby designated by...

  7. 48 CFR 1852.227-72 - Designation of new technology representative and patent representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.227-72 Designation of new technology representative... of New Technology Representative and Patent Representative (JUL 1997) (a) For purposes of administration of the clause of this contract entitled “New Technology” or “Patent Rights—Retention by the...

  8. Representing object colour in language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Louise

    2007-03-01

    Embodied theories of cognition hold that mentally representing something red engages the neural subsystems that respond to environmental perception of that colour. This paper examines whether implicit perceptual information on object colour is represented during sentence comprehension even though doing so does not necessarily facilitate task performance. After reading a sentence that implied a particular colour for a given object, participants were presented with a picture of the object that either matched or mismatched the implied colour. When asked if the pictured object was mentioned in the preceding sentence, people's responses were faster when the colours mismatched than when they matched, suggesting that object colour is represented differently to other object properties such as shape and orientation. A distinction between stable and unstable embodied representations is proposed to allow embodied theories to account for these findings.

  9. Agrotourism-Representative Issues And Pro Arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ciolac

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many governments from European Union recognize the fact that agrotourism and rural tourism represents one way that can save the agriculture in that in the coming year’s rural tourism and agrotourism will become representative elements for rural area, the arguments of this representativity being the purpose of this paper. The rural area offers great opportunities for development of agrotourism, practicing of its being necessary in the current period. At the majority of rural settlements, the defining emblematic is multiple: the quality of landscape and warmth of the inhabitants, works of art and popular technique, traditional occupations, costumes, customs, traditions, cuisine, resources, etc. To these is added also the awareness, by small farmers, of the need to diversify agricultural activity, both in and outside the farm, by engaging in other activities, with non-agricultural character, from which agrotourism is one of the most circulated.

  10. Representative galaxy age-metallicity relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Aparicio, Antonio; Hidalgo, Sebastián L.

    2017-07-01

    The ongoing surveys of galaxies and those for the next generation of telescopes will demand the execution of high-CPU consuming machine codes for recovering detailed star formation histories (SFHs) and hence age-metallicity relationships (AMRs). We present here an expeditive method which provides quick-look AMRs on the basis of representative ages and metallicities obtained from colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) analyses. We have tested its performance by generating synthetic CMDs for a wide variety of galaxy SFHs. The representative AMRs turn out to be reliable down to a magnitude limit with a photometric completeness factor higher than ˜85 per cent, and trace the chemical evolution history for any stellar population (represented by a mean age and an intrinsic age spread) with a total mass within ˜40 per cent of the more massive stellar population in the galaxy.

  11. Representing Context in Hypermedia Data Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank Allan

    2005-01-01

    As computers and software systems move beyond the desktopand into the physical environments we live and workin, the systems are required to adapt to these environmentsand the activities taking place within them. Making applicationscontext-aware and representing context informationalong side...... application data can be a challenging task. Thispaper describes how digital context traditionally has beenrepresented in hypermedia data models and how this representationcan scale to also represent physical context. TheHyCon framework and data model, designed for the developmentof mobile context...

  12. On the Inception of Financial Representative Bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Ferrara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we aim to formalize the inception of representative bubbles giving the condition under which they may arise. We will find that representative bubbles may start at any time, depending on the definition of a behavioral component. This result is at odds with the theory of classic rational bubbles, which are those models that rely on the fulfillment of the transversality condition by which a bubble in a financial asset can arise just at its first trade. This means that a classic rational bubble (differently from our model cannot follow a cycle since if a bubble exists, it will burst by definition and never arise again.

  13. Challenges for IT-supported shared care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granlien, Maren Fich; Simonsen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    of Denmark throughout 2005. The study comprises 21 interviews and 35 hours of observations. The data were analysed through a coding process that led to the emergence of three main challenges impeding the organisational implementation of IT-supported shared care. Discussion and conclusion: The two cases faced......: (1) Poor integration with the general practitioners' existing IT systems; (2) low compatibility with general practitioners' work ethic; (3) and discrepancy between the number of diabetes patients and the related need for shared care. We conclude that development of IT-supported shared care must...

  14. Sharing Video Datasets in Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo; Abildgaard, Sille Julie Jøhnk

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how design researchers, design practitioners and design education can benefit from sharing a dataset. We present the Design Thinking Research Symposium 11 (DTRS11) as an exemplary project that implied sharing video data of design processes and design activity in natural settings...... a multitude of appropriate perspectives and methods may be utilized in analyzing and discussing the singular dataset. The shared data is, from this perspective, understood as a design object in itself, which facilitates new ways of working, collaborating, studying, learning and educating within the expanding...

  15. A Shared Scratchpad Memory with Synchronization Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik Enggaard; Maroun, Emad Jacob; Kristensen, Andreas Toftegaard

    2017-01-01

    propose a shared scratchpad memory as a time-predictable communication and synchronization structure, instead of the level 2 cache. The shared on-chip memory is accessed via a time division multiplexing arbiter, isolating the execution time of load and store instructions between processing cores....... Furthermore, the arbiter supports an extended time slot where an atomic load and store instruction can be executed to implement synchronization primitives. In the evaluation we show that a shared scratchpad memory is an efficient communication structure for a small number of processors; in our setup, 9 cores....... Furthermore, we evaluate the efficiency of the synchronization support for implementation of classic locks....

  16. Shared Representations and the Translation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present chapter is to investigate automated processing during translation. We provide evidence from a translation priming study which suggests that translation involves activation of shared lexico-semantic and syntactical representations, i.e., the activation of features of both...... source and target language items which share one single cognitive representation. We argue that activation of shared representations facilitates automated processing. The chapter revises the literal translation hypothesis and the monitor model (Ivir 1981; Toury 1995; Tirkkonen-Condit 2005), and re......-defines it in terms of findings from translation process research. On the basis of the evidence, we propose a recursive model of translation....

  17. Shared Representations and the Translation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate automated processing during translation. We provide evidence from a translation priming study which suggests that translation involves activation of shared lexico-semantic and syntactical representations, i.e., the activation of features of both...... source and target language items which share one single cognitive representation. We argue that activation of shared representations facilitates automated processing. The paper revises the literal translation hypothesis and the monitor model (Ivir 1981; Toury 1995; Tirkkonen-Condit 2005), and re......-defines it in terms of findings from translation process research. On the basis of the evidence, we propose a recursive model of translation....

  18. Knowledge-Sharing Hostility and Governance Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina; Minbaeva, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims at further developing and empirically examining the concept of knowledge-sharing hostility. It seeks to analyze reasons for hoarding knowledge, reasons for rejecting external knowledge, and attitudes towards mistakes, as well as the influence of these factors on actual....... Findings – The authors find that the use of transaction-based mechanisms promotes knowledge-sharing hostility by strengthening individuals' reasons for hoarding and rejecting knowledge, and by negatively affecting individuals' attitudes towards sharing knowledge about mistakes. In contrast, the use...

  19. Does information sharing promote group foraging?

    OpenAIRE

    Sernland, Emma; Olsson, Ola; Holmgren, NMA

    2003-01-01

    Individuals may join groups for several reasons, one of which is the possibility of sharing information about the quality of a foraging area. Sharing information in a patch-foraging scenario gives each group member an opportunity to make a more accurate estimate of the quality of the patch. In this paper we present a mathematical model in which we study the effect of group size on patch-leaving policy and per capita intake rate. In the model, group members share information equally in a rando...

  20. SharePoint 2010 Enterprise Architect's Guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Brian; Baer, Bill; Kearn, Martin; Shah, Arpan; Adams, Jim; Bridport, Nigel; Esperanca, Huge; Gideon, Chris; Hassani, Sam; Hodgkinson, Neil; Juvonen, Vesa; Kleven, Scott; Morrish, Ian; Olenick, Paul; Ranlett, Matt; Voskresenskaya, Natalya; Walker, Simon; Whitehead, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Tips and techniques for becoming a successful SharePoint architect If you're eager to design and architect a successful deployment of SharePoint 2010, then this is the book for you. Packed with real-world experiences and solid processes, this guidebook provides you with everything you need to perform for designing and architecting enterprise portal services. Helpful examples examine the common design issues affecting SharePoint 2010 environments that can cause deployments to fail so you can learn what to avoid. Plus, key development and deployment issues are covered from an architecture perspe

  1. Global games with noisy sharing of information

    KAUST Repository

    Touri, Behrouz

    2014-12-15

    We provide a framework for the study of global games with noisy sharing of information. In contrast to the previous works where it is shown that an intuitive threshold policy is an equilibrium for such games, we show that noisy sharing of information leads to non-existence of such an equilibrium. We also investigate the group best-response dynamics of two groups of agents sharing the same information to threshold policies based on each group\\'s observation and show the convergence of such dynamics.

  2. Sharing and reuse of individual participant data from clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohmann, Christian; Banzi, Rita; Canham, Steve

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined major issues associated with sharing of individual clinical trial data and developed a consensus document on providing access to individual participant data from clinical trials, using a broad interdisciplinary approach. DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a consensus......-building process among the members of a multistakeholder task force, involving a wide range of experts (researchers, patient representatives, methodologists, information technology experts, and representatives from funders, infrastructures and standards development organisations). An independent facilitator...... supported the process using the nominal group technique. The consensus was reached in a series of three workshops held over 1 year, supported by exchange of documents and teleconferences within focused subgroups when needed. This work was set within the Horizon 2020-funded project CORBEL (Coordinated...

  3. Recipient syringe sharing and its relationship to social proximity, perception of risk and preparedness to share.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Bobby P; Roche, Aoife

    2007-09-01

    We sought to examine the association between the perceived risk attached to recipient syringe sharing and the past and future practice of this unsafe injecting activity. Injecting drug users (IDU) with a history of past sharing with sexual partner identified significantly less risk in this activity compared to those with no past history of borrowing from sexual partner. Significant differences in risk perception were also found when comparing IDU with and without a history of sharing with close friends and with acquaintances. Preparedness to share in the future was significantly associated with lower perceived risk in borrowing from sexual partners (p=0.009) and close friends (p=0.01). We conclude that perceived risk is associated with both past sharing and preparedness to share in the future, particularly with groups of closer social proximity. Cognitive interventions which succeed in elevating perceived risk could reduce actual sharing with other IDU of close social proximity.

  4. Attributes Heeded When Representing an Osmosis Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, June Trop

    Eighteen high school science students were involved in a study to determine what attributes in the problem statement they need when representing a typical osmosis problem. In order to realize this goal students were asked to solve problems aloud and to explain their answers. Included as a part of the results are the attributes that the students…

  5. Adjustment Following Disability: Representative Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Shontz, Franklin C.

    1984-01-01

    Examined adjustment following physical disability using the representative case method with two persons with quadriplegia. Results highlighted the importance of previously established coping styles as well as the role of the environment in adjustment. Willingness to mourn aided in later growth. (JAC)

  6. A Framework for Representing Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Ludger; Blunck, Henrik; Hinrichs, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    We present a framework for representing the trajectories of moving objects and the time-varying results of operations on moving objects. This framework supports the realization of discrete data models of moving objects databases, which incorporate representations of moving objects based on non...

  7. A survey of pharmaceutical company representative interactions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To examine the frequency of pharmaceutical company representative (PCR) interactions with doctors in Libya and review possible associations between these interactions and the personal and practice setting characteristics of doctors. Method: An anonymous survey questionnaire was circulated to 1,000 Libyan ...

  8. 42 CFR 405.910 - Appointed representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... number; (6) Include the appointed representative's professional status or relationship to the party; (7... suppliers. A provider or supplier that furnished the items or services to a beneficiary that are the subject... supplier may not charge the beneficiary any fee associated with the representation. If a provider or...

  9. Novel energy sharing collisions of multicomponent solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1) exhibit certain novel inelastic (energy sharing) collisions [11] in contrast to single-component NLS system. Kanna et al have obtained multisoliton solu- tions for the multicomponent Manakov system (2) using the Hirota's method [15]. Thus,.

  10. Highlight: Knowledge-sharing meeting examines sustainability ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-14

    sharing meeting on September 30, 2015 to highlight the major findings of the IDRC-supported project "Improving food and livelihood security in Punjab through water-energy-agriculture management under climate change and ...

  11. Highlight: Knowledge-sharing meeting examines sustainability ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-09-30

    sharing meeting on September 30, 2015 to highlight the major findings of the IDRC-supported project "Improving food and livelihood security in Punjab through water-energy-agriculture management under climate change and ...

  12. 76 FR 30250 - Share Insurance and Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... Share Insurance and Appendix AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Final rule... APPENDIX 0 1. The authority citation for Part 745 continues to read as follows: Authority: 12 U.S.C. 1752(5...

  13. From bedside to boardroom - nursing shared governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert G

    2004-01-31

    A brand-new nursing shortage is revitalizing shared governance. This innovative organizational model gives staff nurses control over their practice and can extend their influence into administrative areas previously controlled only by managers. But nursing shared governance is hard to define. Its structures and processes are different in every organization; and its implementation is like pinning Jell-O to a wall. Is it appropriate for every situation? Is it worth the price? And can it really measure up to its glowing reputation? This article presents an overview of nursing shared governance, looking at themes and experiences from its rich 25-year tradition. The author identifies its essential elements, provides guidance for professionals who wish to embark on the journey, and describes the current status of shared governance as of 2004.

  14. Statistical Uncertainty in the Medicare Shared Savings...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to analysis reported in Statistical Uncertainty in the Medicare Shared Savings Program published in Volume 2, Issue 4 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  15. Sharing: The Integration of Intimate Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, John A.

    1975-01-01

    Sharing is seen as an integrative or coordinating process that makes the parts of the "intimate" (small in scale and personal in quality) economic system congruous and effective in the allocation of economic goods and services without calculating returns. (JC)

  16. Data Sharing: Convert Challenges into Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Figueiredo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Initiatives for sharing research data are opportunities to increase the pace of knowledge discovery and scientific progress. The reuse of research data has the potential to avoid the duplication of data sets and to bring new views from multiple analysis of the same data set. For example, the study of genomic variations associated with cancer profits from the universal collection of such data and helps in selecting the most appropriate therapy for a specific patient. However, data sharing poses challenges to the scientific community. These challenges are of ethical, cultural, legal, financial, or technical nature. This article reviews the impact that data sharing has in science and society and presents guidelines to improve the efficient sharing of research data.

  17. Sharing personal knowlege over the Semantic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostadinov, Zlatko

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Kostadinov, Z. (2006). Sharing personal knowlege over the Semantic Web. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. September 12th, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence. Retrieved June 30th,

  18. Science: the shared language of development

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This year’s conference on “Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean” is being held in Malta from 5 to 8 May. It is the sixth in a series of conferences whose aim is to promote dialogue among countries in the Mediterranean region through the language of science, organised by the “Sharing Knowledge Foundation”. CERN is one of the Foundation’s partners, and today John Ellis, one of CERN’s non-Member State advisors, announced CERN's readiness to donate several hundred computers to various Moroccan universities to encourage their participation in high-energy physics and Grid computing   CERN scientists, including John Ellis and Patrick Fassnacht, participate in the 6th Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean conference in Malta, on Friday 6 May. This gesture of support to the North African region was announced during the sixth "Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean" conference. Embracing many of CERN's gu...

  19. Overcoming Barriers to Shared Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a palliative care specialist or social worker. Barrier: Disagreeing with the doctor Solution: In shared decision making, the patient and doctor are partners. And sometimes, partners disagree. Communication is critical if a disagreement occurs. If a ...

  20. Sharing Knowledge in Adaptive Learning Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kravcik, Milos; Gasevic, Dragan

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Kravcik, M. & Gasevic, D. (2006). Sharing Knowledge in Adaptive Learning Systems. Proceedings of ICALT2006. July, Kerkrade, The Netherlands: IEEE. Retrieved July 30th, 2006, from http://dspace.learningnetworks.org

  1. Shared Enterprise Geodata and Services (SEGS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The core mission of Shared Enterprise Geodata and Services (SEGS) is to provide a single point of ownership for geospatial datasets that are national in extent and...

  2. Kwaabana: File sharing for rural networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, DL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available in rural or developing areas connected behind slow, congested gateways are falling increasingly behind the growing bandwidth requirements of the modern Internet. To address this problem, we present Kwaabana, a system to enable efficient sharing of content...

  3. Shared services as a new organizational form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Organizations increasingly establish Shared Service Centers, either for transactional (administrative) or transformational (organizational change) purposes. Their popularity originates from a combination of efficiency gains and an increase in service quality, without giving up control of the

  4. Sharing the cost of risky projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    are the expectation, over the random realization of the projects, of shares computed ex post. Cost Additivity together with Separability Across Projects ensure that the cost shares of an item depend only upon the service provided by that item for a given realization of all other items. Combining these with fair......Users share the cost of unreliable non-rival projects (items). For instance, industry partners pay today for R&D that may or may not deliver a cure to some viruses, agents pay for the edges of a network that will cover their connectivity needs, but the edges may fail, etc. Each user has a binary...... inelastic need that is served if and only if certain subsets of items are actually functioning. We ask how should the cost be divided when individual needs are heterogenous. We impose three powerful separability properties: Independence of Timing ensures that the cost shares computed ex ante...

  5. Risk sharing relations and enforcement mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barr, A.; Dekker, M.; Fafchamps, M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate whether the set of available enforcement mechanisms affects the formation of risk sharing relations by applying dyadic regression analysis to data from a specifically designed behavioural experiment, two surveys and a genealogical mapping exercise. During the experiment participants

  6. General-purpose computer networks and resource sharing in ERDA. Volume 3. Remote resource-sharing experience and findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-15

    The investigation focused on heterogeneous networks in which a variety of dissimilar computers and operating systems were interconnected nationwide. Homogeneous networks, such as MFE net and SACNET, were not considered since they could not be used for general purpose resource sharing. Issues of privacy and security are of concern in any network activity. However, consideration of privacy and security of sensitive data arise to a much lesser degree in unclassified scientific research than in areas involving personal or proprietary information. Therefore, the existing mechanisms at individual sites for protecting sensitive data were relied on, and no new protection mechanisms to prevent infringement of privacy and security were attempted. Further development of ERDA networking will need to incorporate additional mechanisms to prevent infringement of privacy. The investigation itself furnishes an excellent example of computational resource sharing through a heterogeneous network. More than twenty persons, representing seven ERDA computing sites, made extensive use of both ERDA and non-ERDA computers in coordinating, compiling, and formatting the data which constitute the bulk of this report. Volume 3 analyzes the benefits and barriers encountered in actual resource sharing experience, and provides case histories of typical applications.

  7. Spectrum sharing for future mobile cellular systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bennis, M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Spectrum sharing has become a high priority research area over the past few years. The motivation behind this lies in the fact that the limited spectrum is currently inefficiently utilized. As recognized by the World radio communication conference (WRC)-07, the amount of identified spectrum is not large enough to support large bandwidths for a substantial number of operators. Therefore, it is paramount for future mobile cellular systems to share the frequency spectrum and coexist ...

  8. Shared language:Towards more effective communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joyce; McDonagh, Deana

    2013-01-01

    The ability to communicate to others and express ourselves is a basic human need. As we develop our understanding of the world, based on our upbringing, education and so on, our perspective and the way we communicate can differ from those around us. Engaging and interacting with others is a critical part of healthy living. It is the responsibility of the individual to ensure that they are understood in the way they intended.Shared language refers to people developing understanding amongst themselves based on language (e.g. spoken, text) to help them communicate more effectively. The key to understanding language is to first notice and be mindful of your language. Developing a shared language is an ongoing process that requires intention and time, which results in better understanding.Shared language is critical to collaboration, and collaboration is critical to business and education. With whom and how many people do you connect? Your 'shared language' makes a difference in the world. So, how do we successfully do this? This paper shares several strategies.Your sphere of influence will carry forward what and how you are communicating. Developing and nurturing a shared language is an essential element to enhance communication and collaboration whether it is simply between partners or across the larger community of business and customers. Constant awareness and education is required to maintain the shared language. We are living in an increasingly smaller global community. Business is built on relationships. If you invest in developing shared language, your relationships and your business will thrive.

  9. Right On Time Distributed Shared Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Guerraoui, Rachid; Kozhaya, David; Pignolet-Oswald, Yvonne-Anne

    2016-01-01

    The demand for real-time data storage in distributed control systems (DCSs) is growing. Yet, providing real- time DCS guarantees is challenging, especially when more and more sensor and actuator devices are connected to industrial plants and message loss needs to be taken into account. In this paper, we investigate how to build a shared memory abstraction for DCSs as a first step towards implementing different shared storage systems in a DCS context. We first prove that, in the presence of ho...

  10. Data sharing by scientists: Practices and perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, C.; Allard, S.; Douglass, K.; Aydinoglu, A.U.; Wu, L.; Read, E.; Manoff, M.; Frame, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Scientific research in the 21st century is more data intensive and collaborative than in the past. It is important to study the data practices of researchers - data accessibility, discovery, re-use, preservation and, particularly, data sharing. Data sharing is a valuable part of the scientific method allowing for verification of results and extending research from prior results. Methodology/Principal Findings: A total of 1329 scientists participated in this survey exploring current data sharing practices and perceptions of the barriers and enablers of data sharing. Scientists do not make their data electronically available to others for various reasons, including insufficient time and lack of funding. Most respondents are satisfied with their current processes for the initial and short-term parts of the data or research lifecycle (collecting their research data; searching for, describing or cataloging, analyzing, and short-term storage of their data) but are not satisfied with long-term data preservation. Many organizations do not provide support to their researchers for data management both in the short- and long-term. If certain conditions are met (such as formal citation and sharing reprints) respondents agree they are willing to share their data. There are also significant differences and approaches in data management practices based on primary funding agency, subject discipline, age, work focus, and world region. Conclusions/Significance: Barriers to effective data sharing and preservation are deeply rooted in the practices and culture of the research process as well as the researchers themselves. New mandates for data management plans from NSF and other federal agencies and world-wide attention to the need to share and preserve data could lead to changes. Large scale programs, such as the NSF-sponsored DataNET (including projects like DataONE) will both bring attention and resources to the issue and make it easier for scientists to apply sound

  11. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    OpenAIRE

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered ‘improved sanitation’ or, in the current terminology, ‘basic sanitation’ by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapte...

  12. How to share data for collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Shannon E.; Leek, Jeffrey T

    2017-01-01

    Within the statistics community, a number of guiding principles for sharing data have emerged; however, these principles are not always made clear to collaborators generating the data. To bridge this divide, we have established a set of guidelines for sharing data. In these, we highlight the need to provide raw data to the statistician, the importance of consistent formatting, and the necessity of including all essential experimental information and pre-processing steps carried out to the sta...

  13. Quantum state sharing against the controller's cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run-hua; Zhong, Hong; Huang, Liu-sheng

    2013-08-01

    Most existing QSTS schemes are equivalent to the controlled teleportation, in which a designated agent (i.e., the recoverer) can recover the teleported state with the help of the controllers. However, the controller may attempt to cheat the recoverer during the phase of recovering the secret state. How can we detect this cheating? In this paper, we considered the problem of detecting the controller's cheating in Quantum State Sharing, and further proposed an effective Quantum State Sharing scheme against the controller's cheating. We cleverly use Quantum Secret Sharing, Multiple Quantum States Sharing and decoy-particle techniques. In our scheme, via a previously shared entanglement state Alice can teleport multiple arbitrary multi-qubit states to Bob with the help of Charlie. Furthermore, by the classical information shared previously, Alice and Bob can check whether there is any cheating of Charlie. In addition, our scheme only needs to perform Bell-state and single-particle measurements, and to apply C-NOT gate and other single-particle unitary operations. With the present techniques, it is feasible to implement these necessary measurements and operations.

  14. Factors Associated With Infant Bed-Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Heere MD

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bed-sharing is associated with sudden infant death syndrome and accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for newborn bed-sharing. Methods: Postpartum mothers from a university maternity service were contacted by phone to complete a survey. Demographic and environmental data were collected; newborn bed-sharing and sleep environment were self-reported. Results: A total of 1261 mothers completed surveys; bed-sharing was reported by 79 mothers (6.3%. Multivariate logistic regression identified referral to a nurse (odds ratio [OR] = 10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.5-30 and sleep location “other” than a crib, bassinet, or Pack and Play (OR = 7.1; 95% CI = 1.9-25.9 as factors associated with an increased risk of bed-sharing; formula feeding (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.20-0.77 and crib sleeping (OR = 0.49; 95% CI = 0.26-0.86 reduced this risk. Conclusion: Infants with no identifiable places to sleep, significant health issues, and who are breastfed are more likely to bed-share. Interventional studies should be directed at these factors.

  15. Understanding patient perceptions of shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, L Aubree; Lafata, Jennifer Elston

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to develop a conceptual model of patient-defined SDM, and understand what leads patients to label a specific, decision-making process as shared. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 primary care patients following a recent appointment. Patients were asked about the meaning of SDM and about specific decisions that they labeled as shared. Interviews were coded using qualitative content analysis. Patients' conceptual definition of SDM included four components of an interactive exchange prior to making the decision: both doctor and patient share information, both are open-minded and respectful, patient self-advocacy, and a personalized physician recommendation. Additionally, a long-term trusting relationship helps foster SDM. In contrast, when asked about a specific decision labeled as shared, patients described a range of interactions with the only commonality being that the two parties came to a mutually agreed-upon decision. There is no one-size-fits all process that leads patients to label a decision as shared. Rather, the outcome of "agreement" may be more important than the actual decision-making process for patients to label a decision as shared. Studies are needed to better understand how longitudinal communication between patient and physicians and patient self-advocacy behaviors affect patient perceptions of SDM. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Do reading and spelling share a lexicon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela C; Rawson, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    In the reading and spelling literature, an ongoing debate concerns whether reading and spelling share a single orthographic lexicon or rely upon independent lexica. Available evidence tends to support a single lexicon account over an independent lexica account, but evidence is mixed and open to alternative explanation. In the current work, we propose another, largely ignored account--separate-but-shared lexica--according to which reading and spelling have separate orthographic lexica, but information can be shared between them. We report three experiments designed to competitively evaluate these three theoretical accounts. In each experiment, participants learned new words via reading training and/or spelling training. The key manipulation concerned the amount of reading versus spelling practice a given item received. Following training, we assessed both response time and accuracy on final outcome measures of reading and spelling. According to the independent lexica account, final performance in one modality will not be influenced by the level of practice in the other modality. According to the single lexicon account, final performance will depend on the overall amount of practice regardless of modality. According to the separate-but-shared account, final performance will be influenced by the level of practice in both modalities but will benefit more from same-modality practice. Results support the separate-but-shared account, indicating that reading and spelling rely upon separate lexica, but information can be shared between them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors Associated With Infant Bed-Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heere, Megan; Moughan, Beth; Alfonsi, Joseph; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Aronoff, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Bed-sharing is associated with sudden infant death syndrome and accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for newborn bed-sharing. Methods: Postpartum mothers from a university maternity service were contacted by phone to complete a survey. Demographic and environmental data were collected; newborn bed-sharing and sleep environment were self-reported. Results: A total of 1261 mothers completed surveys; bed-sharing was reported by 79 mothers (6.3%). Multivariate logistic regression identified referral to a nurse (odds ratio [OR] = 10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.5-30) and sleep location "other" than a crib, bassinet, or Pack and Play (OR = 7.1; 95% CI = 1.9-25.9) as factors associated with an increased risk of bed-sharing; formula feeding (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.20-0.77) and crib sleeping (OR = 0.49; 95% CI = 0.26-0.86) reduced this risk. Conclusion: Infants with no identifiable places to sleep, significant health issues, and who are breastfed are more likely to bed-share. Interventional studies should be directed at these factors.

  18. Representing Boolean Functions by Decision Trees

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    A Boolean or discrete function can be represented by a decision tree. A compact form of decision tree named binary decision diagram or branching program is widely known in logic design [2, 40]. This representation is equivalent to other forms, and in some cases it is more compact than values table or even the formula [44]. Representing a function in the form of decision tree allows applying graph algorithms for various transformations [10]. Decision trees and branching programs are used for effective hardware [15] and software [5] implementation of functions. For the implementation to be effective, the function representation should have minimal time and space complexity. The average depth of decision tree characterizes the expected computing time, and the number of nodes in branching program characterizes the number of functional elements required for implementation. Often these two criteria are incompatible, i.e. there is no solution that is optimal on both time and space complexity. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  19. Meeting staff representatives of the European Agencies

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      The AASC (Assembly of Agency Staff Committee) held its 27th Meeting of the specialized European Agencies on 26 and 27 May on the premises of the OHIM (Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market) in Alicante, Spain. Two representatives of the CERN Staff Association, in charge of External Relations, attended as observers. This participation is a useful complement to regular contacts we have with FICSA (Federation of International Civil Servants' Associations), which groups staff associations of the UN Agencies, and the annual CSAIO conferences (Conference of Staff Associations of International Organizations), where each Autumn representatives of international organizations based in Europe meet to discuss themes of common interest to better promote and defend the rights of the international civil servants. All these meetings allow us to remain informed on items that are directly or indirectly related to employment and social conditions of our colleagues in other international and Europ...

  20. Climate Change and the Representative Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, R.B. [Environmental Studies Program, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2000-02-01

    The artifice of an infinitely-lived representative agent is commonly invoked to balance the present costs and future benefits of climate stabilization policies. Since actual economies are populated by overlapping generations of finite-lived persons, this approach begs important questions of welfare aggregation. This paper compares the results of representative agent and overlapping generations models that are numerically calibrated based on standard assumptions regarding climate economy interactions. Under two social choice rules - Pareto efficiency and classical utilitarianism - the models generate closely similar simulation results. In the absence of policies to redistribute income between present and future generations, efficient rates of carbon dioxide emissions abatement rise from 15 to 20% between the years 2000 and 2105. Under classical utilitarianism, in contrast, optimal control rates rise from 48 to 79% this same period. 23 refs.

  1. Data structures and apparatuses for representing knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Thomson, Judi R; Harvey, William J; Paulson, Patrick R; Whiting, Mark A; Tratz, Stephen C; Chappell, Alan R; Butner, Robert S

    2014-02-18

    Data structures and apparatuses to represent knowledge are disclosed. The processes can comprise labeling elements in a knowledge signature according to concepts in an ontology and populating the elements with confidence values. The data structures can comprise knowledge signatures stored on computer-readable media. The knowledge signatures comprise a matrix structure having elements labeled according to concepts in an ontology, wherein the value of the element represents a confidence that the concept is present in an information space. The apparatus can comprise a knowledge representation unit having at least one ontology stored on a computer-readable medium, at least one data-receiving device, and a processor configured to generate knowledge signatures by comparing datasets obtained by the data-receiving devices to the ontologies.

  2. Food-Sharing Networks in Lamalera, Indonesia: Status, Sharing, and Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolin, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Costly signaling has been proposed as a possible mechanism to explain food sharing in foraging populations. This sharing-as-signaling hypothesis predicts an association between sharing and status. Using exponential random graph modeling (ERGM), this prediction is tested on a social network of between-household food-sharing relationships in the fishing and sea-hunting village of Lamalera, Indonesia. Previous analyses (Nolin 2010) have shown that most sharing in Lamalera is consistent with reciprocal altruism. The question addressed here is whether any additional variation may be explained as sharing-as-signaling by high-status households. The results show that high-status households both give and receive more than other households, a pattern more consistent with reciprocal altruism than costly signaling. However, once the propensity to reciprocate and household productivity are controlled, households of men holding leadership positions show greater odds of unreciprocated giving when compared to households of non-leaders. This pattern of excessive giving by leaders is consistent with the sharing-as-signaling hypothesis. Wealthy households show the opposite pattern, giving less and receiving more than other households. These households may reciprocate in a currency other than food or their wealth may attract favor-seeking behavior from others. Overall, status covariates explain little variation in the sharing network as a whole, and much of the sharing observed by high-status households is best explained by the same factors that explain sharing by other households. This pattern suggests that multiple mechanisms may operate simultaneously to promote sharing in Lamalera and that signaling may motivate some sharing by some individuals even within sharing regimes primarily maintained by other mechanisms. PMID:22822299

  3. Representing melancholy: figurative art and feminism

    OpenAIRE

    Reading, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Re-presentations of women's melancholic subjectivity by women figurative artists from different historical moments, canonical images of melancholy and theoretical accounts of melancholy are brought together to address the question: 'What aspects of women's experience of melancholy have women figurative artists chosen to represent historically and contemporaneously, and further what is the importance of these artworks for understanding the nature of women's melancholic subjectivity today? ...

  4. Simulating Ability: Representing Skills in Games

    OpenAIRE

    Hetland, Magnus Lie

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the history of games, representing the abilities of the various agents acting on behalf of the players has been a central concern. With increasingly sophisticated games emerging, these simulations have become more realistic, but the underlying mechanisms are still, to a large extent, of an ad hoc nature. This paper proposes using a logistic model from psychometrics as a unified mechanism for task resolution in simulation-oriented games.

  5. Diversity and representativeness: two key factors

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    In the past few weeks many of you have filled out the questionnaire for preparing the upcoming Five-yearly review. Similarly, Staff Association members have elected their delegates to the Staff Council for the coming two years. Once again we would like to thank all those who have taken the time and effort to make their voice heard on these two occasions. Elections to the Staff Council Below we publish the new Staff Council with its forty delegates who will represent in 2014 and 2015 all CERN staff in the discussions with Management and Member States in the various bodies and committees. Therefore it is important that the Staff Council represents as far as possible the diversity of the CERN population. By construction, the election process with its electoral colleges and two-step voting procedure guarantees that all Departments, even the small ones, and the various staff categories are correctly represented. Figure 1 shows the participation rate in the elections. The average rate is just above 52 %, with ...

  6. Making SharePoint® Chemically Aware™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallapragada, Kartik; Chewning, Joseph; Kombo, David; Ludwick, Beverly

    2012-01-12

    The use of SharePoint® collaboration software for content management has become a critical part of today's drug discovery process. SharePoint 2010 software has laid a foundation which enables researchers to collaborate and search on various contents. The amount of data generated during a transition of a single compound from preclinical discovery to commercialization can easily range in terabytes, thus there is a greater demand of a chemically aware search algorithm that supplements SharePoint which enables researchers to query for information in a more intuitive and effective way. Thus by supplementing SharePoint with Chemically Aware™ features provides a great value to the pharmaceutical and biotech companies and makes drug discovery more efficient. Using several tools we have integrated SharePoint with chemical, compound, and reaction databases, thereby improving the traditional search engine capability and enhancing the user experience. This paper describes the implementation of a Chemically Aware™ system to supplement SharePoint. A Chemically Aware SharePoint (CASP) allows users to tag documents by drawing a structure and associating it with the related content. It also allows the user to search SharePoint software content and internal/external databases by carrying out substructure, similarity, SMILES, and IUPAC name searches. Building on traditional search, CASP takes SharePoint one step further by providing a intuitive GUI to the researchers to base their search on their knowledge of chemistry than textual search. CASP also provides a way to integrate with other systems, for example a researcher can perform a sub-structure search on pdf documents with embedded molecular entities. A Chemically Aware™ system supplementing SharePoint is a step towards making drug discovery process more efficient and also helps researchers to search for information in a more intuitive way. It also helps the researchers to find information which was once difficult to find

  7. Making SharePoint® Chemically Aware™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tallapragada Kartik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of SharePoint® collaboration software for content management has become a critical part of today's drug discovery process. SharePoint 2010 software has laid a foundation which enables researchers to collaborate and search on various contents. The amount of data generated during a transition of a single compound from preclinical discovery to commercialization can easily range in terabytes, thus there is a greater demand of a chemically aware search algorithm that supplements SharePoint which enables researchers to query for information in a more intuitive and effective way. Thus by supplementing SharePoint with Chemically Aware™ features provides a great value to the pharmaceutical and biotech companies and makes drug discovery more efficient. Using several tools we have integrated SharePoint with chemical, compound, and reaction databases, thereby improving the traditional search engine capability and enhancing the user experience. Results This paper describes the implementation of a Chemically Aware™ system to supplement SharePoint. A Chemically Aware SharePoint (CASP allows users to tag documents by drawing a structure and associating it with the related content. It also allows the user to search SharePoint software content and internal/external databases by carrying out substructure, similarity, SMILES, and IUPAC name searches. Building on traditional search, CASP takes SharePoint one step further by providing a intuitive GUI to the researchers to base their search on their knowledge of chemistry than textual search. CASP also provides a way to integrate with other systems, for example a researcher can perform a sub-structure search on pdf documents with embedded molecular entities. Conclusion A Chemically Aware™ system supplementing SharePoint is a step towards making drug discovery process more efficient and also helps researchers to search for information in a more intuitive way. It also helps the

  8. Tinnitus, depression, and suicidal ideation in adults: A nationally representative general population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Man; Ko, Young-Hoon; Shin, Cheolmin; Lee, Jae-Hon; Choi, June; Kwon, Do-Young; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Han, Changsu; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2018-03-01

    Tinnitus is strongly associated with psychiatric symptoms, including depression and suicidality. We aimed to further investigate the association of tinnitus with depressive mood and/or suicidal ideation, and explore the shared risk factors for these within a representative sample of the adult general population. We also investigated potential mediation pathways among tinnitus, suicidal ideation, depression, shared risk factors, and perceived stress levels. We analysed data from 28,930 adults (aged ≥19 years) from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) conducted from 2008 to 2012 in South Korea. We investigated the presence and severity of tinnitus, depressive mood, suicidal ideation, perceived usual stress level, and socioeconomic and health-related variables. We conducted logistic regression and mediation analyses. Tinnitus and its severity were significantly associated with depressive mood and suicidal ideation. Tinnitus, depressive mood, and suicidal ideation shared common socioeconomic and health-related risk factors. Tinnitus significantly mediated the association of shared risk factors for depressive mood and suicidal ideation. Perceived usual stress level mediates the association of tinnitus with depressive mood and suicidal ideation. The correlation of perceived usual stress levels with depression and suicidal ideation was also mediated by tinnitus. Our findings implicate that tinnitus may contribute substantially to the development of depressive symptom and suicidal ideation in adults via apparent interactions with shared risk factors and stress levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Shared services – shared necessity: Austerity, reformed local government and reduced budgets1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Greg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Shared services are now established as a core delivery model in local and regional governance arrangements. Shared services have emerged as a ‘common sense’ delivery vehicle with attendant efficiency and effectiveness gains. There is, however, a more complex intellectual provenance to a reliance on shared services. In essence, shared services are the logical outcome of the deliberate turn to neo-liberal thinking and the various iterations of the new public managerialism methodology which has progressively established itself in local and regional governance over the past thirty years or so. This paper explores the neo-liberal provenance of shared services and considers the consequential vulnerabilities to austerity, administrative reform and reduced public sector budgets. The central proposition of the paper is that while neo-liberal ideas have created the justification for shared services, this has embedded a set of systemic tensions in the delivery model.

  10. C-share: Optical circuits sharing for software-defined data-centers [arXiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Itzhak, Yaniv; Caba, Cosmin Marius; Schour, Liran

    2016-01-01

    are based on separated packet and circuit planes which do not have the ability to utilize an optical circuit with flows that do not arrive from or delivered to switches directly connected to the circuit’s end-points. Moreover, current SDN-based elephant flow rerouting methods require a forwarding rule...... for each flow, which raise scalability issues. In this paper, we present C-Share - a practical, scalable SDN-based circuit sharing solution for data center networks. C-Share inherently enable elephant flows to share optical circuits by exploiting a flat upper tier network topology. C-Share is based...... on a scalable and decoupled SDN-based elephant flow rerouting method comprised of elephant flow detection, tagging and identification, which is utilized by using a prevalent network sampling method (e.g., sFlow). C-Share requires only a single OpenFlow rule for each optical circuit, and therefore significantly...

  11. Secure Data Sharing In an Untrusted Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Chandankere

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a huge area which basically provides many services on the basis of pay as you go. One of the fundamental services provided by cloud is data storage. Cloud provides cost efficiency and an efficient solution for sharing resource among cloud users. A secure and efficient data sharing scheme for groups in cloud is not an easy task. On one hand customers are not ready to share their identity but on other hand want to enjoy the cost efficiency provided by the cloud. It needs to provide identity privacy, multiple owner and dynamic data sharing without getting effected by the number of cloud users revoked. In this paper, any member of a group can completely enjoy the data storing and sharing services by the cloud. A secure data sharing scheme for dynamic cloud users is proposed in this paper. For which it uses group signature and dynamic broadcast encryption techniques such that any user in a group can share the information in a secured manner. Additionally the permission option is proposed for the security reasons. This means the file access permissions are generated by the admin and given to the user using Role Based Access Control (RBA algorithm. The file access permissions are read, write and delete. In this, owner can provide files with options and accepts the users using that option. The revocation of cloud user is a function generated by the Admin for security purpose. The encryption computational cost and storage overhead is not dependent on the number of users revoked. We analyze the security by proofs and produce the cloud efficiency report using cloudsim.

  12. A simple tool for neuroimaging data sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselgrove, Christian; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Kennedy, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Data sharing is becoming increasingly common, but despite encouragement and facilitation by funding agencies, journals, and some research efforts, most neuroimaging data acquired today is still not shared due to political, financial, social, and technical barriers to sharing data that remain. In particular, technical solutions are few for researchers that are not a part of larger efforts with dedicated sharing infrastructures, and social barriers such as the time commitment required to share can keep data from becoming publicly available. We present a system for sharing neuroimaging data, designed to be simple to use and to provide benefit to the data provider. The system consists of a server at the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) and user tools for uploading data to the server. The primary design principle for the user tools is ease of use: the user identifies a directory containing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data, provides their INCF Portal authentication, and provides identifiers for the subject and imaging session. The user tool anonymizes the data and sends it to the server. The server then runs quality control routines on the data, and the data and the quality control reports are made public. The user retains control of the data and may change the sharing policy as they need. The result is that in a few minutes of the user’s time, DICOM data can be anonymized and made publicly available, and an initial quality control assessment can be performed on the data. The system is currently functional, and user tools and access to the public image database are available at http://xnat.incf.org/. PMID:24904398

  13. Sagnac secret sharing over telecom fiber networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanski, Jan; Ahrens, Johan; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2009-01-19

    We report the first Sagnac quantum secret sharing (in three-and four-party implementations) over 1550 nm single mode fiber (SMF) networks, using a single qubit protocol with phase encoding. Our secret sharing experiment has been based on a single qubit protocol, which has opened the door to practical secret sharing implementation over fiber telecom channels and in free-space. The previous quantum secret sharing proposals were based on multiparticle entangled states, difficult in the practical implementation and not scalable. Our experimental data in the three-party implementation show stable (in regards to birefringence drift) quantum secret sharing transmissions at the total Sagnac transmission loop distances of 55-75 km with the quantum bit error rates (QBER) of 2.3-2.4% for the mean photon number micro?= 0.1 and 1.7-2.1% for micro= 0.3. In the four-party case we have achieved quantum secret sharing transmissions at the total Sagnac transmission loop distances of 45-55 km with the quantum bit error rates (QBER) of 3.0-3.7% for the mean photon number micro= 0.1 and 1.8-3.0% for micro?= 0.3. The stability of quantum transmission has been achieved thanks to our new concept for compensation of SMF birefringence effects in Sagnac, based on a polarization control system and a polarization insensitive phase modulator. The measurement results have showed feasibility of quantum secret sharing over telecom fiber networks in Sagnac configuration, using standard fiber telecom components.

  14. Child and adolescent conduct disorder substantially shares genetic influences with three socioemotional dispositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Irwin D; Tackett, Jennifer L; Van Hulle, Carol A; Applegate, Brooks; Pardini, Dustin; Frick, Paul J; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2011-02-01

    In a representative sample of twin children and adolescents, we tested the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of the genetic and environmental influences underlying conduct disorder (CD) are shared with three socioemotional dispositions: Prosociality, Negative Emotionality, and Daring. Caretaker ratings of each dispositional dimension were uniquely associated with a latent CD dimension that included both caretaker- and youth-reports of CD as indicators. Behavior genetic analyses indicated that moderate-to-high additive genetic and moderate nonshared environmental influences underlie all three dispositions and CD, with modest shared environmental influences on Prosociality. Forty percent of the additive genetic influences and all of the nonshared environmental influences on the latent CD dimension were shared in common with the three socioemotional dispositions. The finding that CD shares a substantial proportion of its genetic influences with three distinct socioemotional dispositions suggests new perspectives on the heterogeneous etiology of CD and new approaches to exploring its specific etiological mechanisms. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. STUDY ON INCREASING THE SHARE CAPITAL BY NEW CONTRIBUTIONS IN CASH AND IN KIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARUNTU GENU ALEXANDRU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the means, techniques and financing tools is the correct expression of a financial policy placement. Essentially, the financial policy consists in determining the weight that equity and borrowed capitals have and must have into the company resources, taking into account their actual cost. It is envisaged the high share of capital in total equity, which represents long term resources in company’s activity and which knows more ways to move over time. The share capital is equal to the nominal value of inscriptions or shares, respectively the value of the contribution in kind or in cash mentioned in the memorandum. Over the life of the company's existence, the share capital may increase by new contributions, by incorporation of reserves and by debt conversion of the company, respectively of the claims that creditors have on it

  16. The Revealed Competitiveness of Major Ports in the East Asian Region: An Additive Market Share Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Seung Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the single cargo market, the ordinary market share analysis method has been the representative tool for revealed competitiveness analysis. This paper develops and employs an applied market share index called the additive market share (AMS. Data are collected from 15 major container ports for the 1998-2013 period. In comparison to the results of an ordinary market share analysis, the highest AMS is observed for the Bohai Rim port cluster from 2008, not for the Yangtze River cluster or the Pearl River cluster. There are substitutable relationships between Yangtze River and non-Chinese ports and between Pearl River and Bohai Rim ports from 2001. Finally, there is an internal competition at Pearl River and Yangtze River ports, whereas Bohai Rim and non-Chinese ports show internally complementary relationships.

  17. Shared decision-making as an existential journey: Aiming for restored autonomous capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbrandsen, Pål; Clayman, Marla L; Beach, Mary Catherine; Han, Paul K; Boss, Emily F; Ofstad, Eirik H; Elwyn, Glyn

    2016-09-01

    We describe the different ways in which illness represents an existential problem, and its implications for shared decision-making. We explore core concepts of shared decision-making in medical encounters (uncertainty, vulnerability, dependency, autonomy, power, trust, responsibility) to interpret and explain existing results and propose a broader understanding of shared-decision making for future studies. Existential aspects of being are physical, social, psychological, and spiritual. Uncertainty and vulnerability caused by illness expose these aspects and may lead to dependency on the provider, which underscores that autonomy is not just an individual status, but also a varying capacity, relational of nature. In shared decision-making, power and trust are important factors that may increase as well as decrease the patient's dependency, particularly as information overload may increase uncertainty. The fundamental uncertainty, state of vulnerability, and lack of power of the ill patient, imbue shared decision-making with a deeper existential significance and call for greater attention to the emotional and relational dimensions of care. Hence, we propose that the aim of shared decision-making should be restoration of the patient's autonomous capacity. In doing shared decision-making, care is needed to encompass existential aspects; informing and exploring preferences is not enough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Perspectives on Cybersecurity Information Sharing among Multiple Stakeholders Using a Decision-Theoretic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meilin; Devine, Laura; Zhuang, Jun

    2018-02-01

    The government, private sectors, and others users of the Internet are increasingly faced with the risk of cyber incidents. Damage to computer systems and theft of sensitive data caused by cyber attacks have the potential to result in lasting harm to entities under attack, or to society as a whole. The effects of cyber attacks are not always obvious, and detecting them is not a simple proposition. As the U.S. federal government believes that information sharing on cybersecurity issues among organizations is essential to safety, security, and resilience, the importance of trusted information exchange has been emphasized to support public and private decision making by encouraging the creation of the Information Sharing and Analysis Center (ISAC). Through a decision-theoretic approach, this article provides new perspectives on ISAC, and the advent of the new Information Sharing and Analysis Organizations (ISAOs), which are intended to provide similar benefits to organizations that cannot fit easily into the ISAC structure. To help understand the processes of information sharing against cyber threats, this article illustrates 15 representative information sharing structures between ISAC, government, and other participating entities, and provide discussions on the strategic interactions between different stakeholders. This article also identifies the costs of information sharing and information security borne by different parties in this public-private partnership both before and after cyber attacks, as well as the two main benefits. This article provides perspectives on the mechanism of information sharing and some detailed cost-benefit analysis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Power User Cookbook SharePoint Applied

    CERN Document Server

    Colquhoun, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    This hands-on cookbook takes readers through many highly applicable intermediate and advanced SharePoint recipes, as well as offering three real-world business scenarios to complement the knowledge already gained. The book specifically sets out to cover important SharePoint 2010 topics that are often avoided by other authors. If you are an advanced End User or Power User of SharePoint 2010 who wants to accomplish specific business tasks beyond the basics, then this cookbook is not to be missed. You should already be comfortable with SharePoint in order to get the most out the recipes, which ar

  20. Representing, Running, and Revising Mental Models: A Computational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Scott; Forbus, Kenneth; Sherin, Bruce

    2017-12-27

    People use commonsense science knowledge to flexibly explain, predict, and manipulate the world around them, yet we lack computational models of how this commonsense science knowledge is represented, acquired, utilized, and revised. This is an important challenge for cognitive science: Building higher order computational models in this area will help characterize one of the hallmarks of human reasoning, and it will allow us to build more robust reasoning systems. This paper presents a novel assembled coherence (AC) theory of human conceptual change, whereby people revise beliefs and mental models by constructing and evaluating explanations using fragmentary, globally inconsistent knowledge. We implement AC theory with Timber, a computational model of conceptual change that revises its beliefs and generates human-like explanations in commonsense science. Timber represents domain knowledge using predicate calculus and qualitative model fragments, and uses an abductive model formulation algorithm to construct competing explanations for phenomena. Timber then (a) scores competing explanations with respect to previously accepted beliefs, using a cost function based on simplicity and credibility, (b) identifies a low-cost, preferred explanation and accepts its constituent beliefs, and then (c) greedily alters previous explanation preferences to reduce global cost and thereby revise beliefs. Consistency is a soft constraint in Timber; it is biased to select explanations that share consistent beliefs, assumptions, and causal structure with its other, preferred explanations. In this paper, we use Timber to simulate the belief changes of students during clinical interviews about how the seasons change. We show that Timber produces and revises a sequence of explanations similar to those of the students, which supports the psychological plausibility of AC theory. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Invite your representative to work. Change the world. Here's how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montell, Denise J

    2018-02-15

    Today's political climate can seem hostile to science. Alternative facts, climate change denial, and relabeling of actual news as fake news are discouraging phenomena for sure. But these trends make it more important than ever to engage our politicians. Take heart! There is something you can do. You can show your representatives firsthand the amazing things you do, evidence of the economic engine that your activities generate, and the real people behind the discoveries. I did, and it was fun. We invited our congressman to the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), and he accepted! For 2 hours, we explained and demonstrated efforts to cure blindness using stem cells, the medical implications of the discovery that cells can recover from the brink of death, a mosquito lab striving to eliminate insect-borne disease, and an Alzheimer's disease laboratory. Salud Carbajal peered through a microscope and met real scientists. Before his visit, he did not know what a postdoctoral fellow was, much less what stem cells look like. When he left he knew our names, how much money we bring into his district, and how important National Institutes of Health funding and international mobility are to our enterprise. Although I live in the United States, this approach should also apply to other democratic countries. If each of us converts one representative into a science champion, we can change the world. © 2018 Montell. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  2. Final Report: Multi-State Sharing Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begoli, Edmon [ORNL; Boehmann, Brant [ORNL; DeNap, Frank A [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    In 2003 a joint effort between the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the U.S. Department of Justice created state and metropolitan intelligence fusion centers. These fusion centers were an effort to share law enforcement, disaster, and terrorism related information and intelligence between state and local jurisdictions and to share terrorism related intelligence between state and local law enforcement agencies and various federal entities. In 2006, DHS commissioned the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to establish and manage a groundbreaking program to assist local, state, and tribal leaders in developing the tools and methods required to anticipate and forestall terrorist events and to enhance disaster response. This program, called the Southeast Region Research Initiative (SERRI), combines science and technology with validated operational approaches to address regionally unique requirements and suggest regional solutions with the potential for national application. In 2009, SERRI sponsored the Multistate Sharing Initiative (MSSI) to assist state and metropolitan intelligence fusion centers with sharing information related to a wider variety of state interests than just terrorism. While these fusion centers have been effective at sharing data across organizations within their respective jurisdictions, their organizational structure makes bilateral communication with federal entities convenient and also allows information to be further disbursed to other local entities when appropriate. The MSSI-developed Suspicious Activity Report (SAR) sharing system allows state-to-state sharing of non-terrorism-related law enforcement and disaster information. Currently, the MSSI SAR system is deployed in Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee, and South Carolina. About 1 year after implementation, cognizant fusion center personnel from each state were contacted to ascertain the status of their MSSI SAR systems. The overwhelming response from these individuals was that the MSSI

  3. A Shared Vision of Human Excellence: Confucian Spirituality and Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene; Tan, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Spirituality encourages the individual to make sense of oneself within a wider framework of meaning and see oneself as part of some larger whole. This article discusses Confucian spirituality by focusing on the spiritual ideals of "dao" (Way) and "he" (harmony). It is explained that the Way represents a shared vision of human…

  4. Processing Verb Argument Structure across Languages: Evidence for Shared Representations in the Bilingual Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamoura, Angeliki; Williams, John N.

    2007-01-01

    Although the organization of first language (L1) and second language (L2) lexicosemantic information has been extensively studied in the bilingual literature, little evidence exists concerning how syntactic information associated with words is represented across languages. The present study examines the shared or independent nature of the…

  5. A renewal theory approach to IBD sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmi, Shai; Wilton, Peter R; Wakeley, John; Pe'er, Itsik

    2014-11-01

    A long genomic segment inherited by a pair of individuals from a single, recent common ancestor is said to be identical-by-descent (IBD). Shared IBD segments have numerous applications in genetics, from demographic inference to phasing, imputation, pedigree reconstruction, and disease mapping. Here, we provide a theoretical analysis of IBD sharing under Markovian approximations of the coalescent with recombination. We describe a general framework for the IBD process along the chromosome under the Markovian models (SMC/SMC'), as well as introduce and justify a new model, which we term the renewal approximation, under which lengths of successive segments are independent. Then, considering the infinite-chromosome limit of the IBD process, we recover previous results (for SMC) and derive new results (for SMC') for the mean number of shared segments longer than a cutoff and the fraction of the chromosome found in such segments. We then use renewal theory to derive an expression (in Laplace space) for the distribution of the number of shared segments and demonstrate implications for demographic inference. We also compute (again, in Laplace space) the distribution of the fraction of the chromosome in shared segments, from which we obtain explicit expressions for the first two moments. Finally, we generalize all results to populations with a variable effective size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding Interdependency Through Complex Information Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rosas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between three or more random variables are often nontrivial, poorly understood and, yet, are paramount for future advances in fields such as network information theory, neuroscience and genetics. In this work, we analyze these interactions as different modes of information sharing. Towards this end, and in contrast to most of the literature that focuses on analyzing the mutual information, we introduce an axiomatic framework for decomposing the joint entropy that characterizes the various ways in which random variables can share information. Our framework distinguishes between interdependencies where the information is shared redundantly and synergistic interdependencies where the sharing structure exists in the whole, but not between the parts. The key contribution of our approach is to focus on symmetric properties of this sharing, which do not depend on a specific point of view for differentiating roles between its components. We show that our axioms determine unique formulas for all of the terms of the proposed decomposition for systems of three variables in several cases of interest. Moreover, we show how these results can be applied to several network information theory problems, providing a more intuitive understanding of their fundamental limits.

  7. Identifying Optimal Models to Represent Biochemical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apri, Mochamad; de Gee, Maarten; van Mourik, Simon; Molenaar, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Biochemical systems involving a high number of components with intricate interactions often lead to complex models containing a large number of parameters. Although a large model could describe in detail the mechanisms that underlie the system, its very large size may hinder us in understanding the key elements of the system. Also in terms of parameter identification, large models are often problematic. Therefore, a reduced model may be preferred to represent the system. Yet, in order to efficaciously replace the large model, the reduced model should have the same ability as the large model to produce reliable predictions for a broad set of testable experimental conditions. We present a novel method to extract an “optimal” reduced model from a large model to represent biochemical systems by combining a reduction method and a model discrimination method. The former assures that the reduced model contains only those components that are important to produce the dynamics observed in given experiments, whereas the latter ensures that the reduced model gives a good prediction for any feasible experimental conditions that are relevant to answer questions at hand. These two techniques are applied iteratively. The method reveals the biological core of a model mathematically, indicating the processes that are likely to be responsible for certain behavior. We demonstrate the algorithm on two realistic model examples. We show that in both cases the core is substantially smaller than the full model. PMID:24416170

  8. Toward a New Perspective of the Shared Reality Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    熊谷, 有理

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a new perspective of shared reality theory. Sharing realities, that is to say, a shared orientation toward and acting together in the world with others has been conceived substantialistically...

  9. Shared genetic origins of allergy and autoimmune diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waage, J. E.; Kreiner-Møller, E.; Standl, M.

    2015-01-01

    Parallel increases in allergy and autoimmune disease prevalence in recent time suggest shared, but yet unknown, etiologies. Here, we investigated shared genetic loci and molecular pathways to identify possible shared disease mechanisms between allergy and autoimmune diseases....

  10. The potential of shared value creation: a theoretical analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Victor Danciu

    2016-01-01

    .... A step forward is the concept of shared value creation. This paper aims to analyze the main features, the content of strategy of shared value creation and to propose the social innovation as main strategic way of shared value creation...

  11. Peer-to-Peer Service Sharing Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Magnus; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    cost. Whereas early peer-to-peer platforms were designed to enable file sharing and goods trading, we recently witness the emergence of a new breed of peer-to-peer platforms that are designed for ordinary service sharing. Ordinary services entail intangible provisions and are defined as an economic...... activity that generates immaterial benefits and does not result in ownership of material goods. Based on a structured analysis of 41 internet-based rideshare platforms, we explore and layout the unique characteristics of peer-to-peer service sharing platforms based on three distinct temporal patterns...... that entail specific consequences for platform use as well as provide insights about their overall design imperative....

  12. Sharing Epigraphic Information as Linked Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Fernando-Luis; García-Barriocanal, Elena; Gómez-Pantoja, Joaquín-L.

    The diffusion of epigraphic data has evolved in the last years from printed catalogues to indexed digital databases shared through the Web. Recently, the open EpiDoc specifications have resulted in an XML-based schema for the interchange of ancient texts that uses XSLT to render typographic representations. However, these schemas and representation systems are still not providing a way to encode computational semantics and semantic relations between pieces of epigraphic data. This paper sketches an approach to bring these semantics into an EpiDoc based schema using the Ontology Web Language (OWL) and following the principles and methods of information sharing known as "linked data". The paper describes the general principles of the OWL mapping of the EpiDoc schema and how epigraphic data can be shared in RDF format via dereferenceable URIs that can be used to build advanced search, visualization and analysis systems.

  13. Framework for Shared Drinking Water Risk Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peplinski, William John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Roger [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Binning, David [AEM Corp., Herndon, VA (United States); Meszaros, Jenny [AEM Corp., Herndon, VA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Central to protecting our nation's critical infrastructure is the development of methodologies for prioritizing action and supporting resource allocation decisions associated with risk-reduction initiatives. Toward this need a web-based risk assessment framework that promotes the anonymous sharing of results among water utilities is demonstrated. Anonymous sharing of results offers a number of potential advantages such as assistance in recognizing and correcting bias, identification of 'unknown, unknowns', self-assessment and benchmarking for the local utility, treatment of shared assets and/or threats across multiple utilities, and prioritization of actions beyond the scale of a single utility. The constructed framework was demonstrated for three water utilities. Demonstration results were then compared to risk assessment results developed using a different risk assessment application by a different set of analysts.

  14. Sharing Vital Signs between mobile phone applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlen, Walter; Dumont, Guy A; Scheffer, Cornie

    2014-01-01

    We propose a communication library, ShareVitalSigns, for the standardized exchange of vital sign information between health applications running on mobile platforms. The library allows an application to request one or multiple vital signs from independent measurement applications on the Android OS. Compatible measurement applications are automatically detected and can be launched from within the requesting application, simplifying the work flow for the user and reducing typing errors. Data is shared between applications using intents, a passive data structure available on Android OS. The library is accompanied by a test application which serves as a demonstrator. The secure exchange of vital sign information using a standardized library like ShareVitalSigns will facilitate the integration of measurement applications into diagnostic and other high level health monitoring applications and reduce errors due to manual entry of information.

  15. Regression Models for Market-Shares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Kristina; Olsen, Jørgen Kai; Tjur, Tue

    2005-01-01

    On the background of a data set of weekly sales and prices for three brands of coffee, this paper discusses various regression models and their relation to the multiplicative competitive-interaction model (the MCI model, see Cooper 1988, 1993) for market-shares. Emphasis is put on the interpretat......On the background of a data set of weekly sales and prices for three brands of coffee, this paper discusses various regression models and their relation to the multiplicative competitive-interaction model (the MCI model, see Cooper 1988, 1993) for market-shares. Emphasis is put...... on the interpretation of the parameters in relation to models for the total sales based on discrete choice models.Key words and phrases. MCI model, discrete choice model, market-shares, price elasitcity, regression model....

  16. Scaling Law of Urban Ride Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachet, R.; Sagarra, O.; Santi, P.; Resta, G.; Szell, M.; Strogatz, S. H.; Ratti, C.

    2017-03-01

    Sharing rides could drastically improve the efficiency of car and taxi transportation. Unleashing such potential, however, requires understanding how urban parameters affect the fraction of individual trips that can be shared, a quantity that we call shareability. Using data on millions of taxi trips in New York City, San Francisco, Singapore, and Vienna, we compute the shareability curves for each city, and find that a natural rescaling collapses them onto a single, universal curve. We explain this scaling law theoretically with a simple model that predicts the potential for ride sharing in any city, using a few basic urban quantities and no adjustable parameters. Accurate extrapolations of this type will help planners, transportation companies, and society at large to shape a sustainable path for urban growth.

  17. Scaling Law of Urban Ride Sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Tachet, Remi; Santi, Paolo; Resta, Giovanni; Szell, Michael; Strogatz, Steven; Ratti, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Sharing rides could drastically improve the efficiency of car and taxi transportation. Unleashing such potential, however, requires understanding how urban parameters affect the fraction of individual trips that can be shared, a quantity that we call shareability. Using data on millions of taxi trips in New York City, San Francisco, Singapore, and Vienna, we compute the shareability curves for each city, and find that a natural rescaling collapses them onto a single, universal curve. We explain this scaling law theoretically with a simple model that predicts the potential for ride sharing in any city, using a few basic urban quantities and no adjustable parameters. Accurate extrapolations of this type will help planners, transportation companies, and society at large to shape a sustainable path for urban growth.

  18. Shared Value Creation and Crowdfunding in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel José dos Santos Felipe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Approaching the theory of creating shared value (Porter & Kramer, 2011 with the basic social elements of crowdfunding in Brazil. The idea was to explore the complementarity of the concepts governing the CF in line with the theory of Porter and Kramer. Through literature review and empirical discussion is intended to answer two central questions regarding the theme developed in this essay: i which elements of the theory of creating shared value are found in crowdfunding? ii how occurs the creation of shared value in business developed in crowdfunding platforms?Methodology. Theoretical Essay.Findings.  It is possible to make a theoretical approach of the themes studied in this trial, as we take the social and financial perspective of crowdfunding and their relationships with the creation of value for the company and investors.Originality. So far, was not found another study that addressed the themes of this essay in Brazil.

  19. Shared identity is key to effective communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Wright, Ruth G; Willingham, Joanne; Reynolds, Katherine J; Haslam, S Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The ability to communicate with others is one of the most important human social functions, yet communication is not always investigated from a social perspective. This research examined the role that shared social identity plays in communication effectiveness using a minimal group paradigm. In two experiments, participants constructed a model using instructions that were said to be created by an ingroup or an outgroup member. Participants made models of objectively better quality when working from communications ostensibly created by an ingroup member (Experiments 1 and 2). However, this effect was attenuated when participants were made aware of a shared superordinate identity that included both the ingroup and the outgroup (Experiment 2). These findings point to the importance of shared social identity for effective communication and provide novel insights into the social psychology of communication. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered 'improved sanitation' or, in the current terminology, 'basic sanitation' by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapted and adopted throughout urban slums in developing countries, with a caretaker employed to keep the facilities clean. Such shared sanitation should be classified as 'basic', sometimes as 'safely-managed', sanitation, so contributing to the achievement of the sanitation target of the Sustainable Development Goals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. To share or not to share: thats the question! When does sharing of HR services maximize perceived HR service value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Jeroen Gerard; Hofman, Erwin; Hemels, Hinse

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, organizations can rely on a variety of delivery channels for offering HR services to employees, such as HR shared service centres, embedded HR professionals or electronic HRM. However, when should organizations opt for one of the many HR delivery channels that are at their disposal to

  2. Quantifying Heuristic Bias: Anchoring, Availability, and Representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Megan; Josephson, S Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Construct: Authors examined whether a new vignette-based instrument could isolate and quantify heuristic bias. Heuristics are cognitive shortcuts that may introduce bias and contribute to error. There is no standardized instrument available to quantify heuristic bias in clinical decision making, limiting future study of educational interventions designed to improve calibration of medical decisions. This study presents validity data to support a vignette-based instrument quantifying bias due to the anchoring, availability, and representativeness heuristics. Participants completed questionnaires requiring assignment of probabilities to potential outcomes of medical and nonmedical scenarios. The instrument randomly presented scenarios in one of two versions: Version A, encouraging heuristic bias, and Version B, worded neutrally. The primary outcome was the difference in probability judgments for Version A versus Version B scenario options. Of 167 participants recruited, 139 enrolled. Participants assigned significantly higher mean probability values to Version A scenario options (M = 9.56, SD = 3.75) than Version B (M = 8.98, SD = 3.76), t(1801) = 3.27, p = .001. This result remained significant analyzing medical scenarios alone (Version A, M = 9.41, SD = 3.92; Version B, M = 8.86, SD = 4.09), t(1204) = 2.36, p = .02. Analyzing medical scenarios by heuristic revealed a significant difference between Version A and B for availability (Version A, M = 6.52, SD = 3.32; Version B, M = 5.52, SD = 3.05), t(404) = 3.04, p = .003, and representativeness (Version A, M = 11.45, SD = 3.12; Version B, M = 10.67, SD = 3.71), t(396) = 2.28, p = .02, but not anchoring. Stratifying by training level, students maintained a significant difference between Version A and B medical scenarios (Version A, M = 9.83, SD = 3.75; Version B, M = 9.00, SD = 3.98), t(465) = 2.29, p = .02, but not residents or attendings. Stratifying by heuristic and training level, availability maintained

  3. Online file sharing innovations in media consumption

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson Schwarz, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    It is apparent that file sharing on the Internet has become an emerging norm of media consumption-especially among young people. This book provides a critical perspective on this phenomenon, exploring issues related to file sharing, downloading, peer-to-peer networks, ""piracy,"" and (not least) policy issues regarding these practices. Andersson Schwartz critically engages with the justificatory discourses of the actual file-sharers, taking Sweden as a geographic focus. By focusing on the example of Sweden-home to both The Pirate Bay and Spotify-he provides a unique insight into a mentality th

  4. SharePoint 2010 Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Randy

    2011-01-01

    Fast, accurate answers on SharePoint 2010 administration-in an instant If you're a SharePoint administrator and are looking for fast, accurate, easy-to-understand answers and solutions, then this reference is for you. Thumb tabs, secondary and tertiary tables of contents, and special heading treatments ensure quick and easy ways to find practical solutions on the spot. In addition, quick-reference tables, lists, and step-by-step instruction provide even more helpful information on the day-to-day administration of Microsoft's newest collaboration solution.Features invaluable answers and solutio

  5. Shared governance from concept to reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapson, Caroline; Otte, Debra; Elton, Sharn

    2001-06-01

    THE CONCEPT of shared governance, which originated in the USA in the 1970s, has recently been introduced into Britain ( Geoghegan and Farrington 1995 ). It developed as a means of allowing staff nurses to have greater control over their working environment (Totten and Scott 1993) and is widely recognised as having benefits in empowering practitioners from a variety of health care professions ( Porter O'Grady 1994 ). Several models of shared gov- ernance have been described in the literature (Porter-O'Grady 1994, Geoghegan and Farrington 1995), making it a broad philosophy which can be adapted to meet the needs of individual hospitals and health care trusts in the UK.

  6. Microsoft SharePoint 2010 development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Musters, Ed

    2011-01-01

    The plan of the book is to build a relationship with the Author as your personal guide through the most common "pattern" of SharePoint development. In cookbook style, you will be led carefully step by step through a comprehensive set of recipes. The practical example starts quickly and builds logically throughout the chapters to create a common theme. You will be developing coding techniques that you will be able to apply to the real world. In fact, this book will train you for the first SharePoint development project you will join. This book is written for the ASP.NET developer who wants to g

  7. What Factors Influence Knowledge Sharing in Organizations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmerita, Liana; Kirchner, Kathrin; Nielsen, Pia

    2016-01-01

    factors drive employees’ participation and what factors hamper their participation in enterprise social media. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a literature review, a unified research model is derived integrating demographic, individual, organizational and technological factors that influence...... the motivation of employees to share knowledge. The model is tested using statistical methods on a sample of 114 respondents in Denmark. Qualitative data is used to elaborate and explain quantitative findings. Findings: Our findings pinpoint towards the general drivers and barriers to knowledge sharing within...

  8. Sharing casting technological data on web site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hailan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on database and asp.net technologies, a web platform of scientific data in the casting technology fi eld has been developed. This paper presents the relevant data system structure, the approaches to the data collection, the applying methods and policy in data sharing, and depicts the collected and shared data recently fi nished. Statistics showed that there are about 20,000 visitors in China every day visiting the related data through the web, proving that many engineers or other relevant persons are interested in the data.

  9. SharePoint 2010 for Project Management

    CERN Document Server

    Sy, Dux

    2012-01-01

    If you were to analyze your team's performance on a typical project, you'd be surprised how much time is wasted on non-productive tasks. This hands-on guide shows you how to work more efficiently by organizing and managing projects with SharePoint 2010. You'll learn how to build a Project Management Information System (PMIS), customized to your project, that can effectively coordinate communication and collaboration among team members. Written by a certified Project Management Professional (PMP) and Microsoft SharePoint MVP with 15 years of IT project management experience, each chapter incl

  10. Sharing cost in social community networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pal, Ranjan; Elango, Divya; Wardana, Satya Ardhy

    2012-01-01

    to gain attention amongst the civilian Internet users. By using special WiFi routers that are provided by a social community network provider (SCNP), users can effectively share their connection with the neighborhood in return for some monthly monetary benefits. However, deployment maps of existing WSCNs...... reflect their slow progress in capturing the WiFi router market. In this paper, we look at a router design and cost sharing problem in WSCNs to improve deployment. We devise a simple to implement, successful, budget-balanced, ex-post efficient, and individually rational auction-based mechanism...

  11. Pro SharePoint 2010 Solution Development

    CERN Document Server

    Hild, E

    2010-01-01

    This book takes a practical problem-solution approach to common business challenges. You'll not only encounter interesting code samples, but also see how to combine these examples with the Microsoft collaboration platform's services. The book's solutions focus on using Visual Studio 2008 and its built-in Office development tools to construct the user interface layer. And solutions can interact with SharePoint as a service provider, taking advantage of SharePoint's many collaboration features like document repositories, collaboration sites, and search functions. This book is unique because it s

  12. Shared Decision Making in Neurocritical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Waqas; Muehlschlegel, Susanne

    2017-11-01

    Shared decision making is a collaborative decision-making process between health care providers and patients or their surrogates, taking into account the best scientific evidence available while considering the patient's values, goals, and preferences. Decision aids are tools enabling SDM. This article discusses shared decision making in general and in the intensive care unit in particular and facilitators and barriers for the creation and implementation of International Patient Decision Aids Standards Collaboration-compliant decision aids for the intensive care unit and neuro-intensive care unit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cloud application for sharing task lists

    OpenAIRE

    Knez, Rok

    2015-01-01

    We have all had days, where we wanted to finish multiple errands in a single day. Feeling overwhelmed from lack of organization, we have all experienced a lack of productivity and poorly finished errands. To help us better achieve and manage daily tasks, we have all, at least once, created a multitasking list to help us master our tasks. The aim of this thesis was to develop an application to share multitasking lists. The application enables us to create, share, like, copy, comment and vi...

  14. On the Sharing of Temporary Parental Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses......-point of the female is found to push the intra household allocation of temporary parental leave towards greater sharing between the spouses. In addition, an increase in the insurance ceiling will further sharing of temporary parental leave in some families, while reducing it in others....

  15. Direct access inter-process shared memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, Ronald B; Pedretti, Kevin; Hudson, Trammell B

    2013-10-22

    A technique for directly sharing physical memory between processes executing on processor cores is described. The technique includes loading a plurality of processes into the physical memory for execution on a corresponding plurality of processor cores sharing the physical memory. An address space is mapped to each of the processes by populating a first entry in a top level virtual address table for each of the processes. The address space of each of the processes is cross-mapped into each of the processes by populating one or more subsequent entries of the top level virtual address table with the first entry in the top level virtual address table from other processes.

  16. NASA Shared Services Center breaks ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    NASA officials and elected leaders were on hand for the groundbreaking ceremony of the NASA Shared Services Center Feb. 24, 2006, on the grounds of Stennis Space Center. The NSSC provides agency centralized administrative processing, human resources, procurement and financial services. From left, Louisiana Economic Development Secretary Mike Olivier, Stennis Space Center Director Rick Gilbrech, Computer Sciences Corp. President Michael Laphen, NASA Deputy Administrator Shana Dale, Rep. Gene Taylor, Sen. Trent Lott, Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour, NASA Administrator Mike Griffin and Shared Services Center Executive Director Arbuthnot use golden shovels to break ground at the site.

  17. SharePoint Server 2010 Enterprise Content Management

    CERN Document Server

    Kitta, Todd; Caplinger, Chris; Houberg, Russ

    2011-01-01

    SharePoint experts focus on SharePoint 2010 as a platform for Enterprise Content Management SharePoint allows all users in an organization to manage and share their content reliably and securely. If you're interested in building Web sites using the new capabilities of enterprise content management (ECM) in SharePoint 2010, then this book is for you. You'll discover how SharePoint 2010 spans rich document management, records management, business process management and web content management in a seamless way to manage and share content. The team of SharePoint experts discusses the ECM capabi

  18. Towards a representative periphytic diatom sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to acquire a representative periphytic diatom sample for river water quality monitoring has been recognised in the development of existing diatom indices, important in the development and employment of diatom monitoring tools for the Water Framework Directive. In this study, a nested design with replication is employed to investigate the magnitude of variation in diatom biomass, composition and Trophic Diatom Index at varying scales within a small chalk river. The study shows that the use of artificial substrates may not result in diatom communities that are typical of the surrounding natural substrates. Periphytic diatom biomass and composition varies between artificial and natural substrates, riffles and glides and between two stretches of the river channel. The study also highlights the existence of high variation in diatom frustule frequency and biovolume at the individual replicate scale which may have implications for the use of diatoms in routine monitoring.

  19. Using resource graphs to represent conceptual change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Wittmann

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce resource graphs, a representation of linked ideas used when reasoning about specific contexts in physics. Our model is consistent with previous descriptions of coordination classes and resources. It represents mesoscopic scales that are neither knowledge-in-pieces nor large-scale concepts. We use resource graphs to describe several forms of conceptual change: incremental, cascade, wholesale, and dual construction. For each, we give evidence from the physics education research literature to show examples of each form of conceptual change. Where possible, we compare our representation to models used by other researchers. Building on our representation, we analyze another form of conceptual change, differentiation, and suggest several experimental studies that would help understand the differences between reform-based curricula.

  20. The French method (of representing noise annoyance)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, F.; Delol, J.

    1980-01-01

    The psophic index used in France for noise exposure from aircraft globally represents the annoyance with the following hypotheses: (1) the global annoyance is a function of the number of aircraft overflights of each type but does not depend on the overflight time; (2) an aircraft flying at night is considered to be just as annoying as 10 aircraft of the same type passing overhead during the day; and (3) and annoyance is only a function of the peak noise levels. Overall, the psophic index appears statistically as good a representation of the average annoyance as methods used in other countries; however, it does seem to reflect poorly the annoyance caused by light aircraft. Noise maps produced for Orly, Roissy, and the area around Paris are described. The range of applications and limitations of the psophic index are discussed.

  1. Endeavors to Represent the Non-Representational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft

    and findings emerged through the development of a conceptual understanding of the non-representational and pre-linguistic nature and structure of corporeal-locomotive gameplay. Through the effort of trying to think and talk about games as corporeal-locomotive activities and experiences it quickly became...... the corporeal-locomotive dimension of gameplay where hands and bodies where moving to the (kin)aesthetic rhythms of the game’s choreography. Consequently, I found myself barred from ‘meaningfully’ communicating the expressive, sensuous and (kin)aesthetic meaning and significance of corporeal-locomotive gameplay...... of this hazardous, messy and meticulous endeavor to represent the non-representational nature of corporeal-locomotive gameplay activity and experience. Furthermore, the article points towards the importance of letting the expressive research field or subject dictate the method, rather than letting the method...

  2. Communication from the Information Sharing Working Group: Agreement for Data Sharing Among Caribbean Foresters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamara Heartsill Scalley; Saara DeWalt; François Korysko; Guy Van Laere; Kasey Jacobs; Seth Panka; Joseph Torres

    2016-01-01

    We presented a new information-sharing platform at the 16th Caribbean Foresters Meeting in August 2013 to facilitate and promote collaboration among Caribbean foresters. The platform can be accessed through the Caribbean Foresters website where information and data on forest research sites can be shared. There is a special focus on identifying potential collaborations...

  3. Meaningful Share Generation for Increased Number of Secrets in Visual Secret-Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ulutas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new scheme for hiding two halftone secret images into two meaningful shares created from halftone cover images. Meaningful shares are more desirable than noise-like (meaningless shares in Visual Secret Sharing because they look natural and do not attract eavesdroppers' attention. Previous works in the field focus on either increasing number of secrets or creating meaningful shares for one secret image. The method outlined in this paper both increases the number of secrets and creates meaningful shares at the same time. While the contrast ratio of shares is equal to that of Extended Visual Cryptography, two secrets are encoded into two shares as opposed to one secret in the Extended Visual Cryptography. Any two natural-looking images can be used as cover unlike the Halftone Visual Cryptography method where one cover should be the negative of the other cover image and can only encode one secret. Effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by an experiment.

  4. How to Split a Shared Secret into Shared Bits in Constant-Round

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Fitzi, Matthias; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    We show that if a set of players hold shares of a value $a\\in Z_p$ for some prime $p$ (where the set of shares is written $[a]_p$), it is possible to compute, in constant round and with unconditional security, sharings of the bits of $a$, i.e.~compute sharings $[a_0]_p, \\ldots, [a_{l-1}]_p......$ such that $l = \\lceil \\log_2(p) \\rceil$, $a_0, \\ldots, a_{l-1} \\in \\{0,1\\}$ and $a = \\sum_{i=0}^{l-1} a_i 2^i$. Our protocol is secure against active adversaries and works for any linear secret sharing scheme with a multiplication protocol. This result immediately implies solutions to other long-standing open...... problems, such as constant-round and unconditionally secure protocols for comparing shared numbers and deciding whether a shared number is zero. The complexity of our protocol is $O(l \\log(l))$ invocations of the multiplication protocol for the underlying secret sharing scheme, carried out in $O(1)$....

  5. Sharing Economy vs Sharing Cultures? Designing for social, economic and environmental good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Light

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the story behind a crowdfunding service as an example of sharing technology. Research in a small neighborhood of London showed how locally-developed initiatives can differ in tone, scale, ambition and practice to those getting attention in the so-called sharing economy. In local accounts, we see an emphasis on organizing together to create shared spaces for collaborative use of resources and joint ownership of projects and places. Whereas, many global business models feature significant elements of renting, leasing and hiring and focus only on resource management, sometimes at the expense of community growth. The service we discuss is based in the area we studied and has a collective model of sharing, but hopes to be part of the new global movement. We use this hybridity to problematize issues of culture, place and scalability in developing sharing resources and addressing sustainability concerns. We relate this to the motivation, rhetoric and design choices of other local sharing enterprises and other global sharing economy initiatives, arguing, in conclusion, that there is no sharing economy, but a variety of new cultures being fostered.

  6. Sharing for people, planet or profit? Analysing motivations for intended sharing economy participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böcker, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34472803X; Meelen, A.A.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413291499

    2016-01-01

    The sharing economy is a fast-growing and heavily debated phenomenon. This study provides an overview of motivations of people willing to participate in different forms of the sharing economy. A survey was held amongst 1,330 respondents from Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Using stated preference data,

  7. Beyond shared savings : a multilevel analysis of the perceived value of HR shared services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Jeroen Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Human Resource Shared Service Centers are introduced by organizations with the aim to create value for employees and managers. Although several studies uncovered the value potential of HR shared services (e.g. possibilities for reducing costs, improving HR service quality and increasing the

  8. Putting the Focus Back on the Patient: How Privacy Concerns Affect Personal Health Information Sharing Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Mohamed; Gaia, Joana; Sanders, G Lawrence

    2017-09-13

    Health care providers are driven by greater participation and systemic cost savings irrespective of benefits to individual patients derived from sharing Personal Health Information (PHI). Protecting PHI is a critical issue in the sharing of health care information systems; yet, there is very little literature examining the topic of sharing PHI electronically. A good overview of the regulatory, privacy, and societal barriers to sharing PHI can be found in the 2009 Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act. This study investigated the factors that influence individuals' intentions to share their PHI electronically with health care providers, creating an understanding of how we can represent a patient's interests more accurately in sharing settings, instead of treating patients like predetermined subjects. Unlike privacy concern and trust, patient activation is a stable trait that is not subject to change in the short term and, thus, is a useful factor in predicting sharing behavior. We apply the extended privacy model in the health information sharing context and adapt this model to include patient activation and issue involvement to predict individuals' intentions. This was a survey-based study with 1600+ participants using the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) data to validate a model through various statistical techniques. The research method included an assessment of both the measurement and structural models with post hoc analysis. We find that privacy concern has the most influence on individuals' intentions to share. Patient activation, issue involvement, and patient-physician relationship are significant predictors of sharing intention. We contribute to theory by introducing patient activation and issue involvement as proxies for personal interest factors in the health care context. Overall, this study found that although patients are open to sharing their PHI, they still have concerns over the privacy of their PHI

  9. Sharing medicine: the candidacy of medicines and other household items for sharing, Dominican Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Dohn

    Full Text Available People share medicines and problems can result from this behavior. Successful interventions to change sharing behavior will require understanding people's motives and purposes for sharing medicines. Better information about how medicines fit into the gifting and reciprocity system could be useful in designing interventions to modify medicine sharing behavior. However, it is uncertain how people situate medicines among other items that might be shared. This investigation is a descriptive study of how people sort medicines and other shareable items.This study in the Dominican Republic examined how a convenience sample (31 people sorted medicines and rated their shareability in relation to other common household items. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to produce association maps in which the distances between items offer a visual representation of the collective opinion of the participants regarding the relationships among the items. In addition, from a pile sort constrained by four categories of whether sharing or loaning the item was acceptable (on a scale from not shareable to very shareable, we assessed the degree to which the participants rated the medicines as shareable compared to other items. Participants consistently grouped medicines together in all pile sort activities; yet, medicines were mixed with other items when rated by their candidacy to be shared. Compared to the other items, participants had more variability of opinion as to whether medicines should be shared.People think of medicines as a distinct group, suggesting that interventions might be designed to apply to medicines as a group. People's differing opinions as to whether it was appropriate to share medicines imply a degree of uncertainty or ambiguity that health promotion interventions might exploit to alter attitudes and behaviors. These findings have implications for the design of health promotion interventions to impact medicine sharing behavior.

  10. Pension systems, intergenerational risk sharing and inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate intergenerational risk sharing in two-pillar pension systems with a pay-as-you-go pillar and a funded pillar. We consider shocks in productivity, depreciation of capital and inflation. The funded pension pillar can be either defined contribution or defined benefit, with benefits

  11. Benefit-sharing arrangements in the Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tysyachnyouk, M.

    2016-01-01

    Can the interests of both the extractive industries and Indigenous communities in the Arctic be balanced through the implementation of benefit-sharing practices in the places of resource extraction? Most transnational corporations
    in the Arctic oil and gas sector have declared their commitment

  12. Lecturers, students and community members sharing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lecturers, students and community members sharing the responsibility of assessing project-based poster presentations. ... Active participation in the process of learning rather than transmission of information is prominent in modern higher education contexts. In alignment with this trend, traditional modes of assessment, ...

  13. Secure medical information sharing in cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhiyi; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Wenzheng; Zhao, Yi; Wu, Zhenqiang; Miao, Meixia

    2015-01-01

    Medical information sharing is one of the most attractive applications of cloud computing, where searchable encryption is a fascinating solution for securely and conveniently sharing medical data among different medical organizers. However, almost all previous works are designed in symmetric key encryption environment. The only works in public key encryption do not support keyword trapdoor security, have long ciphertext related to the number of receivers, do not support receiver revocation without re-encrypting, and do not preserve the membership of receivers. In this paper, we propose a searchable encryption supporting multiple receivers for medical information sharing based on bilinear maps in public key encryption environment. In the proposed protocol, data owner stores only one copy of his encrypted file and its corresponding encrypted keywords on cloud for multiple designated receivers. The keyword ciphertext is significantly shorter and its length is constant without relation to the number of designated receivers, i.e., for n receivers the ciphertext length is only twice the element length in the group. Only the owner knows that with whom his data is shared, and the access to his data is still under control after having been put on the cloud. We formally prove the security of keyword ciphertext based on the intractability of Bilinear Diffie-Hellman problem and the keyword trapdoor based on Decisional Diffie-Hellman problem.

  14. Shared Governance in the Modern University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A governance model is developed in which university governance is shared between the academic and governing bodies and is coordinated by the university executive. Viewing the university as a professional service organisation, and noting the importance of developing a flexible culture within a shifting, marketised external environment, it is argued…

  15. Independence, Individualism & Connection among Share Householders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalier, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    How do young people who are financially dependent on their parents but living in share households conceive of the concept of independence? The meanings of independence are discussed in relation to a qualitative study of young people who described themselves as independent although they accepted money on a regular basis from their parents. Their…

  16. Principals, Shared Decision Making, and School Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Carol H.; Cambone, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The attitudes of six principals serving in shared decision-making (SDM) high schools toward SDM were studied. Although three supported SDM as a vehicle for improving education, the others supported it for its own sake, to democratize schools. Problems in instituting the reforms in these schools are discussed. (SLD)

  17. Creating sustainable campuses: Sharing knowledge between ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... One important challenge facing post-secondary institutions today is how to transform themselves into agents of sustainability. In the last decade, a number of initiatives in Canada set out strategies and forums to share experiences and best practices and to advance teaching and research for social and ...

  18. Knowledge Sharing in Knowledge-Intensive Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Akshey; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a study of the knowledge-sharing difficulties experienced by three departments in a knowledge-intensive firm. The case organization is a global consulting firm that has been on the forefront of knowledge management and has won several knowledge management related international accla...

  19. Conditional shared confidentiality in mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, Axel; Eneman, Marc

    2015-05-01

    Because of the development towards community care, care providers not only exchange information in a team, but increasingly also in networks. This is a challenge to confidentiality. The ethical question is how care providers can keep information about the care receiver confidential, whilst at the same time exchanging information about that care receiver in a team or network? Can shared confidentiality be extended from a team to a network? To clarify this question, the article refers to the advice of an expert ethics committee in mental health care. The advice regards exchange of information in a network as a further step in enhancing collaboration among care providers. Therefore, the good and evident practice of shared confidentiality in a team can be extended to a network if the same conditions are met. First, the care providers participate in a clearly defined and identifiable team or network. Secondly, they have a shared care responsibility. Thirdly, they have a duty of confidentiality. Fourth, they dialogue with the care receiver and obtain his or her consent. Finally, they apply the filter of relevance. Hence, conditional shared confidentiality is an ethical justification for the exchange of information in a team or network.

  20. On Secret Sharing with Nonlinear Product Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascudo Pueyo, Ignacio; Cramer, Ronald; Mirandola, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Multiplicative linear secret sharing is a fundamental notion in the area of secure multiparty computation and, since recently, in the area of two-party cryptography as well. In a nutshell, this notion guarantees that the product of two secrets is obtained as a linear function of the vector consis...

  1. Cooperative Games arising from Information Sharing Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.; Timmer, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Relations are established between information sharing (IS) situations and IS-games on one hand and information collecting (IC) situations and IC-games on the other hand. It is shown that IC-games can be obtained as convex combinations of so-called local games. Properties are described which IC-games

  2. The autonomy: A challenge in shared spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena NITRI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as a goal, to study a few up- dated alternatives on the field of Teaching Coaching toe the focus of reflection. From the concept to autonomy we built and implement teaching strategies focussing on the development of autonomous working projects and tutorial systems, whose aim is placed in the creation of shared spaces which allow decision-taking.

  3. Genome project: An experiment in sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, L.

    1990-05-25

    The Human Genome Project is in many respects a gigantic experiment in data sharing. Around the world, investigators are working on pieces of the same puzzle. And whether the project succeeds will depend in large measure on these investigators making available their data and materials - cell lines, probes, and clones - to their colleagues and competitors. While sharing may be the norm in, say, immunology or bacterial genetics, human genetics has always been intensely competitive. So should the National Institutes of Health and the Department of Energy, which both fund the genome project, promulgate rules to govern access to data and sharing of materials A DOE committee has drafted some guidelines, which have yet to be formally endorsed. They stipulate that data and materials must be publicly available 6 months after they are generated or characterized. But at NIH, James Watson, who heads the genome project, is shying away from setting rules. He points to the new collaborative plans to map chromosome 21 as evidence that the community will develop its own ways of sharing data. Because of its known role in Down syndrome and its suspected role in Alzheimer's disease, chromosome 21 has generated a vast amount of interest. Lots of groups are already hard at work constructing maps of the chromosome - first developing a series of landmarks spaced along the chromosome, and then a collection of ordered DNA fragments. But the maps all these groups generate will be essentially useless unless they pool their data and adopt a common language.

  4. Job sharing for women pharmacists in academia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogers, Kelly C; Finks, Shannon W

    2009-01-01

    ... unique arrangements for female academic pharmacists who wish to work part-time. Job sharing is an example of a flexible alternative work arrangement that can be successful for academic pharmacists who wish to continue in a part-time capacity...

  5. Job Sharing for Women Pharmacists in Academia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelly C Rogers; Shannon W Finks

    2009-01-01

    ... unique arrangements for female academic pharmacists who wish to work part-time. Job sharing is an example of a flexible alternative work arrangement that can be successful for academic pharmacists who wish to continue in a part-time capacity...

  6. Analyzing user behavior across social sharing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meo, P.; Ferrara, E.; Abel, F.; Aroyo, L.M.; Houben, G.J

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present an in-depth analysis of the user behaviors on different Social Sharing systems. We consider three popular platforms, Flickr, Delicious and StumbleUpon, and, by combining techniques from social network analysis with techniques from semantic analysis, we characterize the

  7. 77 FR 76380 - Partner's Distributive Share

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Part 1 [TD 9607] RIN 1545-BJ37 Partner's Distributive Share AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... partnerships that qualify, for the current tax year and all prior tax years, as pro rata partnerships, de... considered a pro rata partnership if all contributions to the partnership are cash; all items of partnership...

  8. Governance and Control of Shared Service Centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaar, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    - Purpose - The study aims to add to the knowledge of governance and control aspects of intrafirm relationships by exploring a transaction costs economics perspective (TCE perspective) on governance and management control structure choices related to the development of a shared service center (SSC).

  9. Training students for a shared traumatic reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttman-Shwartz, Orit; Dekel, Rachel

    2008-07-01

    A shared reality challenges students' ability to deal with threat and crisis. It requires several resources in terms of money and time, as students need a great deal of support, a containing environment, and a relevant knowledge base to establish effective helping relationships. We found a large gap between the design and implementation of the course, introducing modifications to provide the students with a professional shield so that they could work with the teenagers in an appropriate and ethical manner. The recent increase in traumatic events throughout the world, whether acts of terror or natural disasters, makes it necessary to train social work students for conditions of shared reality and to include such courses in their core curriculums, not merely to design them ad hoc as a response to acute situations. We recommend that suitable training programs continue to be developed and that sufficient time be allocated to theory and practice. Students need a more secure base of wider knowledge to be able to operate effectively in an intense experience. Furthermore, it is important to remember that the lecturers, too, are part of the same shared reality, a fact that is likely to affect their ability to teach and to analyze the experience. As the staff may be perceived as vulnerable, students might be reluctant to reveal to them their political views or unique needs as helpers (Nuttman-Shwartz & Shay, 2006). Thus in situations of shared reality, means should be found to support the staff as well.

  10. Risk-sharing agreements in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Marie; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Holm-Larsen, Tove

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective Our objectives were to explore the changes in the level of interest in risk-sharing agreements (RSAs) in the EU during the last 15 years and the underlying reasons for these changes. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science...

  11. Understanding the Climate-knowledge Sharing Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llopis, Oscar; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2016-01-01

    A cooperative organizational climate is often argued to promote knowledge-sharing behaviors among employees. However, research indicates that managerial interventions aimed at shaping the organizational climate can be difficult to execute. We develop and test a contingency model of intrinsic moti...

  12. Structures to Effectively Share Architectural Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponisio, Laura; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Vermeulen, Erik; Poort, Eltjo; van Megen, Ignas

    2007-01-01

    Sharing architectural knowledge is not an easy task. A small software company in the Netherlands has successfully lifted patterns from the software implementation level to the architectural level by employing functional design patterns. These codify recurring functionality of applications. In this

  13. Flow Sharing Systems for Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T. O.; Hansen, M. R.; Conrad, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This contribution reports about some analytical and simulation/experimental studies carried out on different flow control systems for mobile applications with respect to their ability to do flow sharing. All systems have two parallel actuators and are considered regarding functionality...... and complexity. The aim is to compare well established systems/methods and systems involving electronic sensor technology....

  14. Does information sharing promote group foraging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sernland, Emma; Olsson, Ola; Holmgren, Noél M A

    2003-06-07

    Individuals may join groups for several reasons, one of which is the possibility of sharing information about the quality of a foraging area. Sharing information in a patch-foraging scenario gives each group member an opportunity to make a more accurate estimate of the quality of the patch. In this paper we present a mathematical model in which we study the effect of group size on patch-leaving policy and per capita intake rate. In the model, group members share information equally in a random search for food. Food is distributed in patches according to a negative binomial distribution. A prediction from our model is that, the larger the group, the earlier each group member should leave the current patch. We also find that the benefit from enhanced exchange of information does not exceed the cost of sharing food with group members. The per capita intake rate decreases as the group size increases. Therefore, animals should only form groups when other factors outweigh the costs, which is easiest to achieve when the travelling time is short.

  15. Revenue sharing in semiconductor industry supply chain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Industrial Marketing Management 31(4): 367–382. Hartman B C, Dror M 1996 Cost allocation in continuous review inventory models. Naval Research. Logistics 43: 549–561. Leng M, Parlar M 2005 Allocation of cost savings in a three-level supply chain with demand informa- tion sharing: A cooperative-game approach, ...

  16. Queueing networks with a single shared server

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.A. Boon (Marko); R.D. van der Mei (Rob); E.M.M. Winands

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study a queueing network with a single shared server, that serves the queues in a cyclic order according to the gated service discipline. External customers arrive at the queues according to independent Poisson processes. After completing service, a customer either leaves the

  17. Availability Cascades and the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    As scholars search for a new concept that will provide answers on how modern societies should make sense of and resolve the social and environmental problems linked to our modes of production and consumption, the sharing economy is attracting increased attention. To better understand this emergent...

  18. Catch shares slow the race to fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenbach, Anna M.; Kaczan, David J.; Smith, Martin D.

    2017-04-01

    In fisheries, the tragedy of the commons manifests as a competitive race to fish that compresses fishing seasons, resulting in ecological damage, economic waste, and occupational hazards. Catch shares are hypothesized to halt the race by securing each individual’s right to a portion of the total catch, but there is evidence for this from selected examples only. Here we systematically analyse natural experiments to test whether catch shares reduce racing in 39 US fisheries. We compare each fishery treated with catch shares to an individually matched control before and after the policy change. We estimate an average policy treatment effect in a pooled model and in a meta-analysis that combines separate estimates for each treatment-control pair. Consistent with the theory that market-based management ends the race to fish, we find strong evidence that catch shares extend fishing seasons. This evidence informs the current debate over expanding the use of market-based regulation to other fisheries.

  19. How to Share a Key (Invited paper)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzi, Matthias; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Wolf, Stefan

    The problem of asynchronous perfectly secure communication via one-time pads (OTP) has been recently introduced by Di Crescenzo and Kiayias. There, several players share the same OTP to be used in parallel but it is not known in advance which players will consume how many bits of the pad. Based...

  20. Forecasting Market Shares from Models for Sales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractDividing forecasts of brand sales by a forecast of category sales, when they are generated from brand specific sales-response models, renders biased forecasts of the brands' market shares. In this paper we therefore propose an easy-to-apply simulation-based method which results in