WorldWideScience

Sample records for verraet uns pet

  1. PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariager, Rasmus Mølgaard; Schmidt, Regin; Heiberg, Morten Rievers

    PET handler om den hemmelige tjenestes arbejde under den kolde krig 1945-1989. Her fortæller Regin Schmidt, Rasmus Mariager og Morten Heiberg om de mest dramatiske og interessante sager fra PET's arkiv. PET er på flere måder en udemokratisk institution, der er sat til at vogte over demokratiet....... Dens virksomhed er skjult for offentligheden, den overvåger borgernes aktiviteter, og den registrerer følsomme personoplysninger. Historien om PET rejser spørgsmålet om, hvad man skal gøre, når befolkningen i et demokrati er kritisk indstillet over for overvågningen af lovlige politiske aktiviteter......, mens myndighederne mener, at det er nødvendigt for at beskytte demokratiet. PET er på en gang en fortælling om konkrete aktioner og begivenheder i PET's arbejde og et stykke Danmarkshistorie. Det handler om overvågning, spioner, politisk ekstremisme og international terrorisme.  ...

  2. Stable isotope analysis of the human body. What isotopes in our tissue can reveal and what not; Stabilisotopenanalysen am Menschen. Was die Isotopie unseres Koerpergewebes ueber uns verraet- und was nicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerger, Marlene [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Most isotopes in the natural environment are stable but there are radioactive isotopes. Premordial radionuclides are nuclides that exist since the development of the earth crust. Cosmogenic radionuclides are generated due to cosmic radiation (protons, electrons, ionized atoms) - for instance C-14. Radiogenic nuclides are daughter products of radioactive nuclei. Anthropogenic radionuclides are generated due to human activities. Deviations from a ''normal'' isotope distribution are used for environmental impact analysis and forensic purposes. The human provenance project was stopped.

  3. Validation of a method of automatic segmentation for delineation of volumes in PET imaging for radiotherapy; Validacion de un metodo de segmentacion automatica para delineacion de volumenes en imagenes PET para radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latorre Musoll, A.; Eudaldo Puell, T.; Ruiz Martinez, A.; Fernandez Leon, A.; Carrasco de Fez, P.; Jornet Sala, N.; Ribas Morales, M.

    2011-07-01

    Prior to clinical use of PET imaging for the delineation of BTV, has made a preliminary study on model, to validate the automatic segmentation tools based on thresholds of activity concentration, which implement both PET-CT equipment as the Eclipse planning system.

  4. Development and implementation of a quality assurance program of physical aspects of a hybrid tomograph PET/CT Discovery ST GE in a nuclear medicine service;Desarollo e implementacion de un programa de garantia de calidad de los aspectos fisicos de un tomografo hibrido PET/CT Discovery ST GE en un servicio de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seijas, Jugleys; Reggio, Franklyn; Campa, Raudel [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Postgrado de Fisica Medica

    2009-07-01

    This research was carry out due to the low presence of PET/CT projects in Venezuela in this moment, which consisted of the implementation and evaluation of a protocol for the acceptance and implementation of a hybrid tomograph PET/CT Discovery ST located in the nuclear medicine service at the Hospital de Clinicas Caracas. For this work, two references were used to provide a basic set of tests established and accepted by almost all manufacturers, such references are: NEMA 1994 PET and Spanish Protocol for Quality Control for Radiology CT. In general, we found that the smallest lesion in a functional image that this tomograph can resolve is {approx} 6mm. The spatial resolution of an anatomical image was resolved through 8 pl/cm. Likewise, this tomograph is able to produce a uniform anatomical and functional image, with very little noise and radiation scattered once the correction was done, referring to the test of co-registration accuracy of PET and CT shows that there is an excellent correspondence between the image of PET (functional) and the image of CT (anatomic), a basic parameter in a study of PET/CT. (author)

  5. jQC-PET, an ImageJ macro to analyse the quality control of a PET/CT; jQC-PET, una macro de ImageJ para el analisis del control de calidad de un PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes-Rodicio, J.; Sanchez-Merino, G.; Garcia-Fidalgo, A.

    2015-07-01

    An ImageJ macro has been developed to facilitate the analysis of three PET/CT quality control procedures included in the documents from the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NU2-2007) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (Pub-1393): image quality, uniformity and spatial resolution. In them, the generation of the regions of interest and the analysis are automatized. The results obtained with the software have been compared with those of the commercial software and the literature. The use of jQC-PET allows a standard analysis and the independence of the commercial software. (Author)

  6. Pet Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pets can add fun, companionship and a feeling of safety to your life. Before getting a pet, think carefully about which animal is best for ... is each family member looking for in a pet? Who will take care of it? Does anyone ...

  7. Occupational dosimetry commissioning of a PET-CT: learning curve and staff participation; Dosimetria ocupacional en la puesta en funcionamiento de un PET-TC curva de aprendizaje y participacion del personal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Diaz, F.; Hurtado Sanchez, A.; Gomez Cortes, M. S.; Gonzalez Ruiz, C.; Gago Gomez, P.; Ruiz Galan, G.; Lopez Bote, M. A.

    2011-07-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon has been in clinical use PET-CT equipment at the end of 2009. The Dosimetry and Radiation Protection Service has been conducting surveillance at the facility and individual environmental dosimetry. Following the obligations contained in the performance specifications of the authorization granted by the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), during the first year of the PET-CT has been tracking personal dosimetry of the professionals involved. As a novelty, had to take the ring dosimetry to control the dose equivalent in the hands instead of the normal wrist.

  8. El HTLV-I y la PET/HAM un modelo de investigación en virología y biología molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe García Vallejo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    En la actualidad la infección por el virus linfotrópico humano tipo 1 (HTLV-1 ha sido confirmada epidemiológicamente en la Leucemia/Linfoma de las Células T del Adulto (ATLL y en la Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/ Mielopatía Asociada al HTLV-I (PET/MAH (1. El HTLV-I es endémico en varias áreas geográficas del mundo y representa un problema de salud pública global. En Colombia las áreas mas afectadas incluyen diferentes poblaciones de la costa pacífica y del sur occidente. En el laboratorio de Biología Molecular y Patogénesis de la Facultad de Salud de la Universidad de del Valle, nos hemos planteado las siguientes preguntas para las cuales hemos realizado una serie de estudios moleculares:

    • Cual fue el origen y cómo se dispersó el virus en Sur América y especialmente en Colombia.

    • Cuales son los principales mecanismos moleculares involucrados en la progresión de la PET/MAH.

    • Como es la integración de los provirus durante la progresión de la PET/MAH y cuales serían nuevos blancos moleculares virales y principios activos para el diseño de una nueva estrategia antirretroviral.

    En la primera, nuestros datos filogenéticos sobre las regiones genómicas virales 3´LTR, Env y Tax obtenidos, permitieron determinar que el subtipo mas prevalente en Colombia es el cosmopolita, en el que los genotipos moleculares africanos son los más abundantes en la costa pacífica; en general nuestros resultados mostraron que la actual diversidad genética del HTLV-I en Colombia es compleja y es el resultado de varios eventos de introducción temporalmente separados (2-4.

  9. Optimization of the boards of management/acquisition of a PET-CT in the design phase; Optimizacion de las salas de administracion/captacion de un PET-CT en la fase de diseno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde Velasco, M. E.; Ramos Pacho, J. M.; Montes Fuentes, J. A.; Delgado Aparicio, C.; Gomez Llorente, J. M.; Cons Perez, N.; Garcia Repiso, N.; Saez Beltran, S.; Gomez Llorente, P. L.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we study the doses received by the personnel of managing activity to the patients of the PET-CT, due to patients who are already injected and are resting during the uptake phase. The parameters will be taken into account are the placement in the pits of the armchairs or couches to inject patients, as well as the order of entry of such patients in each of the available boxes. (Author)

  10. Senior Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of 7 human years for each year in dog years. Age is not a disease. Although senior pets may develop age-related problems, ... develop diseases such as heart, kidney and liver disease, cancer or ... of pets over 10 years of age. Dogs get cancer at roughly the same rate as ...

  11. AS "PET Baltija" saimnieciskās darbības finanšu analīze un attīstības iespējas

    OpenAIRE

    Strazdiņa, Evija

    2014-01-01

    Bakalaura darba mērķis ir izpētīt un analizēt AS „PET Baltija” finanšu pārskatus no 2007.-2012.gadam, balstoties uz veiktajiem aprēķiniem no dotās finanšu informācijas, analizējot un izdarot secinājumus par uzņēmuma finansiālo stāvokli ietekmējošiem faktoriem un izvirzot priekšlikumus uzņēmuma saimnieciskās darbības veicināšanai un turpmākai attīstībai. Darba gaitā bakalaura darba izstrādāšanai, pielietojot nozīmīgākos finanšu rādītājus, tika secināts, ka uzņēmuma darbību negatīvi ietekmēj...

  12. Diabetic Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health or management, contact your veterinarian. In addition, diabetic pets should be monitored for long-term complications such as cataracts, which commonly develop in diabetic dogs and cats. Other problems that can occur ...

  13. Giardia & Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and disinfect my home after my dog or cat is diagnosed with Giardia infection? Clean and disinfect potentially contaminated items (toys, water bowls and food bowls, pet bedding, floors, dog crates, linens, towels, ...

  14. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs.

  15. Pet Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop bacterial infections of the sinuses, such as sinusitis. Asthma People with asthma and pet allergy often have difficulty managing asthma symptoms. They may be at risk of asthma attacks that require immediate medical treatment or emergency care. Prevention If you don't ...

  16. Las ruinas de Oxpemul: un sitio fortificado en la frontera entre el Petén campechano y el Río Bec Ruins of Oxpemul: a fortified site located on the boarder between the Campechean Petén and Río Bec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Folan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las ruinas de Oxpemul representan una corte real fortificada plasmada en la Cuenca de Calakmul adentro del Petén Campechano, ubicado unos 25 kms. al norte del centro regional de Calakmul. El Grupo Principal de Oxpemul está organizado sobre una meseta de 45.50 m de altura que forma su corte real con un patrón de asentamiento parecido a Calakmul y El Mirador. La Meseta Suroeste y otras más pequeñas están distribuidas alrededor del Bajo Central. Oxpemul incluye un total de 21 estelas con 18 altares, muchas de las estelas están de pie y muestran figuras humanas y textos jeroglíficos en buen estado de conservación. Varios de los altares también incluyen textos y uno muestra la figura de una deidad. Oxpemul está relacionado con 11 ejemplos de su glifo emblema en la forma de un "Trono de Piedra", uno fechado alrededor del Siglo Quinto. Se ha realizado un plano de 9 km² incluyendo su Grupo Principal y 1 400 estructuras que incluye varios grupos mayores y menores, además de aguadas, canales, albarradas, canteras y sascaberas.The Ruins of Oxpemul, Campeche represent a fortified royal court in the Peten Campechano and the Calakmul Basin some 25 kms north of the major regional center of Calakmul. Oxpemul's larger nucleus to the north is perched on a 45.50 m high mesa. Its settlement pattern closely resembles that of Calakmul and El Mirador. There is a smaller nucleus to the south. Oxpemul has 21 stelae with some 18 altars fronting them. Many of the stelae with human figures and hieroglyph texts are standing and well preserved. Several altars are also graced with texts with one appearing to be a deity figure. Oxpemul is associated with a stone throne emblem glyph that appears in texts five or more times. A 9 km² map has been made of the area surrounding Oxpemul's two nuclei that includes several major and minor groups as well as aguadas, canteras and sascaberas.

  17. Pet Problems at Home: Pet Problems in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems of pets in the community, examining the community's role related to disruptive pets and pet overpopulation. Also discusses pet problems at home, offering advice on selecting a pet, meeting a pet's needs, and disciplining pets. Includes a list of books, films/filmstrips, teaching materials, and various instructional strategies.…

  18. Pet Bonding and Pet Bereavement among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Brenda H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studied adolescent-pet bonding and bereavement following pet loss (n=55). Hypothesized that highly-bonded adolescents experience more intense grief when a pet dies than do those less bonded; degree of bonding is greater for girls than for boys; and intensity of bereavement is greater for girls than for boys. Results supported the hypotheses. (RB)

  19. Brain PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have false results on a PET scan. Blood sugar or insulin levels may affect the test results in people with diabetes . PET scans may be done along with a CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. Alternative Names Brain positron emission tomography; PET scan - brain References Chernecky ...

  20. Disaster Preparedness for Your Pet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for pets Louisiana State University College of Veterinary Medicine: Manual for Animal Shelters during a Disaster Ready Wrigley Pet Stories After the Storm: Pets and Preparedness Pet Preparedness Features Media Sign up for Features ...

  1. Interests of the PET with 18-F.D.G. in infectious pathology: about a case of systemic candidiasis; Interets de la TEP au 18-FDG en pathologie infectieuse: a propos d'un cas de candidose systemique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avet, J.; Granjon, D.; Prevot, N.; Isnardi, V.; Dubois, F. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU de Saint-etienne, (France); Stephan, J.L.; Berger, C. [service de pediatrie, CHU de Saint-etienne, (France)

    2009-05-15

    We report the interest of the PET with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. in the extension evaluation of injuries and in the therapy decision for a patient suffering of a systemic candida. Conclusions: In spite of a lack of recommendations, because of its great sensitivity for the deep infectious centres detection, the PET with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. can bring useful information to the management and follow up of the systemic infections. (N.C.)

  2. Heart PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  3. Pets and Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oral contact with your pet. Don’t share food or kiss your pet on the mouth. Pregnant women and people who have weakened immune systems should never clean out cat litter boxes or handle cat feces. They can ...

  4. Rol del PET/CT en epilepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ladrón De Guevara David

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El PET (Positron Emission Tomography con F18-Fluorodeoxiglucosa (FDG es un examen ampliamente utilizado en el estudio de epilepsia refractaria, constituyendo en la actualidad un pilar fundamental en la evaluación quirúrgica. El PET proporciona una traducción funcional de la lesión morfológica y puede pesquisar otras áreas epileptógenas temporales y extratemporales no visibles con los métodos tradicionales. Su alta sensibilidad y positividad aún con Resonancia Magnética (RM negativa, hace posible optar a la resección quirúrgica en pacientes que de otra manera no podrían operarse, obteniendo sujetos libres de crisis en hasta el 80% de las epilepsias temporales. El PET es realizado eminentemente en fase interictal y posee una sensibilidad de 90% en focos temporales y 50 a 70% en focos extratemporales. El PET “ictal” y el uso de radiofármacos distintos del F18-FDG son alternativas válidas en ciertos casos de epilepsia, especialmente extratemporal. Es posible que el uso del PET en epilepsia siga aumentando debido a la cada vez mayor disponibilidad del método y su consiguiente menor costo.

  5. Healthy Pets and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Pet Healthy Whether you have a dog, cat, horse, parakeet, gerbil, or bearded dragon, providing regular, life-long veterinary care is important to having a healthy pet and a healthy family. Regular veterinary visits are essential to good pet health. Talk to your pet’s veterinarian about ...

  6. Materiales carbonosos obtenidos a partir del reciclado de PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra, J. B.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethyleneterephthalate, PET, is nowadays one of the polymers more widely used. However, due to its big production, it accounts for a large part of the wastes generated and it becomes necessary to minimise them. The PET incineration with energy recovery is the most common way to eliminate these residues. Further research is needed in order to find alternative processes to recycling PET. In this work, it is shown that the post-consumer PET is an interesting source of carbonaceous materials that develop a well controlled microporosity, giving the possibility of application in several fields.

    El polietilentereftalato o tereftalato de polietileno, PET, es un poliéster termoplástico ampliamente utilizado. Debido a su gran producción y consumo se genera un gran volumen de PET usado que es necesario tratar. En la actualidad, la única alternativa utilizada para la minimización de residuos de PET de pureza media/baja es la incineración. Por lo tanto, se hace necesaria la búsqueda de otras opciones que aprovechen en mayor medida el potencial de este residuo y que, a la vez, sean rentables. En este trabajo se muestra cómo el PET proveniente de botellas usadas puede ser una fuente de materiales carbonosos que desarrollan una microporosidad controlada, por lo que su campo de aplicación puede ser muy amplio.

  7. La Corona: un acercamiento a las políticas del reino Kaan desde un centro secundario del noroeste del Petén La Corona: an approach to politics in the kingdom of Kaan from a secondary center in Norwest Petén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello A. Canuto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El Proyecto Regional Arqueológico La Corona estudia la región del noroeste de Petén, Guatemala, donde se localiza la antigua ciudad maya de La Corona, que recientemente fue identificada como el Sitio Q. La investigación ha incluido las excavaciones de arquitectura monumental, asentamientos, la elaboración de mapas, el uso de sensores remotos y la realización de estudios paleoclimatológicos y ecológicos. Desde el punto de vista de los modelos de la organización política, las investigaciones en La Corona presentan una oportunidad para estudiar la naturaleza y las relaciones políticas de los sitios secundarios. Los datos epigráficos relatan una afiliación directa entre La Corona y la dinastía gobernante en Calakmul, por lo que el primer centro seguramente fungió como punto clave para las estrategias de expansión de Calakmul por las Tierras Bajas Mayas durante los siglos VI y VII d.C. Aquí se presentan algunos resultados obtenidos en las investigaciones llevadas al cabo entre 2005 y 2009.The La Corona Regional Archaeological Project is studying the northwestern Peten region (Guatemala, where the ancient Maya city of La Corona is located. This site has been recently identified as the unknown Site Q. The research at La Corona has included excavations of monumental and settlement architecture, mapping, use of remote sensing and ecological and paleo-climate studies. Viewed from the political organization models, investigations at La Corona present an opportunity to study the nature and political relations of secondary sites. Epigraphic data show a direct affiliation between La Corona and the ruling dynasty of Calakmul, suggesting that La Corona could have been a key center for the expansionistic strategies of Calakmul during the sixth and seventh centuries A.D. In this paper we present some of the results obtained in the investigations carried out between 2005 and 2009.

  8. Has F.D.G. PET/CT an impact on the management of patients with anal carcinoma?;La TEP/TDM au FDG a-t-elle un impact dans la prise en charge des patients atteints d'un cancer du canal anal?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vercellino, L.; Nataf, V.; Kerrou, K.; Huchet, V.; Pascal, O.; Montravers, F.; Talbot, J.N. [Universite Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, Service de medecine nucleaire, hopital Tenon, 75 - Paris (France); De Parades, V.; Bauer, P. [Groupe hospitalier Diaconesses-Croix-Saint-Simon, Service de proctologie medico-interventionnelle, 75 - Paris (France); Touboul, E. [Universite Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, hopital Tenon, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of F.D.G. PET/C Ton the management of patients referred for the staging and/or the follow-up of anal carcinoma, and PET/CT on patient management. Patients and methods: We included patients referred to our department for anal carcinoma whose therapeutic management was evaluable thanks to follow-up data during at least 6 months. Results: Data of 44 patients were analysed: 22 had PET/CT for initial staging and 36 during follow-up. PET/CT had impact in nine patients out of 44 (20%) and it was relevant in eight of them. Conclusion: F.D.G. PET/CT is an accurate imaging modality in anal cancer, its impact on patient management is more obvious when persistence or recurrence of disease is suspected. (authors)

  9. Calculation of an analytical memory for the installation of a PET-CT equipment in the Nuclear Medicine Department of the National Institute of Cancerology; Calculo de una memoria analitica para la instalacion de un equipo PET-CT en el Departamento de Medicina Nuclear del Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo Z, F.E.; Gomez A, E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, 14000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The studies with a PET-CT equipment combines the metabolic information that provides the Positron Emission Tomography technique (PET), with the morphological data offered by the Computerized Tomography (CT). In Mexico, it will have the first PET-CT equipment, for a public service hospital. Since that makes use of radioactive material (emission of annihilation photons with 511 keV) and X rays, is necessary to calculate the necessary shielding for the PET-CT equipment room and for the area where it is managed or have presence of radioactive material (mainly fluorodeoxyglucose labelled with F-18, i.e. FDG-F18). It is presented a summary of the calculations and necessary considerations so that the shielding allows to fulfill with the official doses limits in Mexico (50 mSv/year for Occupationally Exposure Personnel, OEP and 5 mSv/year for public in general), taking into account the adjacent areas to the installation. It is concluded with the shielding thickness required for the walls and roof of the installation, having a maximum of 20 cm of concrete ({rho} = 2.35 g/cm{sup 3}) for the administration room of radioactive material to the patients and a minimum of 1 mm of lead for the room of the PET-CT equipment, having taken into account the dimensions of each area. (Author)

  10. Neurolymphomatosis of the sciatic nerve and F.D.G. PET: case report and review; Neurolymphomatose du nerf sciatique en TEP au FDG: a propos d'un cas et revue de la litterature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruna-Muraille, C.; Papathanassiou, D.; Cuif-Job, A.; Liehn, J.C. [Institut Jean-Godinot, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 51 - Reims (France); Job, L. [CHU Robert-Debre, Service de Radiologie, 51 - Reims (France); Kolb, B.; Himberlin, C.; Delmer, A. [CHU Robert-Debre, Service d' Hematologie Clinique, 51 - Reims (France)

    2009-12-15

    We are reporting the case of a woman who has been suffering from sciatica for several months. A neurolymphomatosis of the sciatic nerve was found. In this report, we present the characteristics of this lesion in conventional imaging and in F.D.G. PET. (authors)

  11. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Laboratory and cyclotron requirements for PET research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlyer, D.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes four types of PET facilities: Clinical PET with no radionuclide production; clinical PET with a small accelerator; clinical PET with research support; and research PET facilities. General facility considerations are also discussed.

  13. Integrated PET/MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Harald H

    2014-02-01

    Integrated whole-body PET/MR hybrid imaging combines excellent soft tissue contrast and various functional imaging parameters provided by MR with high sensitivity and quantification of radiotracer metabolism provided by positron emission tomography (PET). While clinical evaluation now is under way, integrated PET/MR demands for new technologies and innovative solutions, currently subject to interdisciplinary research. Attenuation correction of human soft tissues and of hardware components has to be MR-based to maintain quantification of PET imaging because computed tomography (CT) attenuation information is missing. This brings up the question of how to provide bone information with MR imaging. The limited field-of-view in MR imaging leads to truncations in body imaging and MR-based attenuation correction. Another research field is the implementation of motion correction technologies to correct for breathing and cardiac motion in view of the relatively long PET data acquisition times. Initial clinical applications of integrated PET/MR in oncology, neurology, pediatric oncology, and cardiovascular disease are highlighted. The hybrid imaging workflow here has to be tailored to the clinical indication to maximize diagnostic information while minimizing acquisition time. PET/MR introduces new artifacts that need special observation and innovative solutions for correction. Finally, the rising need for appropriate phantoms and standardization efforts in PET/MR hybrid imaging is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. My Pet Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  15. Healthy pets, healthy people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S K; Feinstein, L H; Heidmann, P

    1999-08-01

    Zoonoses, diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans, can pose serious health risks to immunocompromised people. Although pets can carry zoonoses, owning and caring for animals can benefit human health. Information exists about preventing transmission of zoonoses, but not all physicians and veterinarians provide adequate and accurate information to immunocompromised pet owners. This disease prevention/health promotion project provides physicians and veterinarians with information, created specifically to share with patients and clients, about the health risks and benefits of pet ownership. Further, "Healthy Pets, Healthy People" encourages communication between veterinarians, physicians, clients, and patients and can serve as a model program for a nation-wide effort to aid health professionals in making recommendations about pet ownership for immunocompromised people.

  16. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  17. Evaluation of PET Scanner Performance in PET/MR and PET/CT Systems: NEMA Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Mustafa; Toklu, Türkay; Abuqbeitah, Mohammad; Çetin, Hüseyin; Sezgin, H Sezer; Yeyin, Nami; Sönmezoğlu, Kerim

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of positron emission tomography (PET) component of PET/computed tomography (CT) with new emerging PET/magnetic resonance (MR) of the same vendor. According to National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU2-07, five separate experimental tests were performed to evaluate the performance of PET scanner of General Electric GE company; SIGNATM model PET/MR and GE Discovery 710 model PET/CT. The main investigated aspects were spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, count rate performance, image quality, count loss and random events correction accuracy. The findings of this study demonstrated superior sensitivity (~ 4 folds) of PET scanner in PET/MR compared to PET/CT system. Image quality test exhibited higher contrast in PET/MR (~ 9%) compared with PET/CT. The scatter fraction of PET/MR was 43.4% at noise equivalent count rate (NECR) peak of 218 kcps and the corresponding activity concentration was 17.7 kBq/cc. Whereas the scatter fraction of PET/CT was found as 39.2% at NECR peak of 72 kcps and activity concentration of 24.3 kBq/cc. The percentage error of the random event correction accuracy was 3.4% and 3.1% in PET/MR and PET/CT, respectively. It was concluded that PET/MR system is about 4 times more sensitive than PET/CT, and the contrast of hot lesions in PET/MR was ~ 9% higher than PET/CT. These outcomes also emphasize the possibility to achieve excellent clinical PET images with low administered dose and/or a short acquisition time in PET/MR.

  18. Integrated PET/MR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quick, Harald H

    2014-01-01

    Integrated whole‐body PET/MR hybrid imaging combines excellent soft tissue contrast and various functional imaging parameters provided by MR with high sensitivity and quantification of radiotracer metabolism provided...

  19. Combined PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D. L.; Pichler, B. J.; Gückel, B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises key themes and discussions from the 4th international workshop dedicated to the advancement of the technical, scientific and clinical applications of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems that was held in Tübingen, Germany, from...... February 23 to 27, 2015. Specifically, we summarise the three days of invited presentations from active researchers in this and associated fields augmented by round table discussions and dialogue boards with specific topics. These include the use of PET/MRI in cardiovascular disease, paediatrics, oncology......, neurology and multi-parametric imaging, the latter of which was suggested as a key promoting factor for the wider adoption of integrated PET/MRI. Discussions throughout the workshop and a poll taken on the final day demonstrated that attendees felt more strongly that PET/MRI has further advanced in both...

  20. Pet Disaster Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Volunteer Volunteer Opportunities Volunteer to Sound the Alarm Sign in to Volunteer Connection About Us Our ... may be more comfortable together, be prepared to house them separately. Include your pets in evacuation drills ...

  1. Pet Allergy Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of U.S. households include a member of the dog or cat family. Yet, millions of people suffer from pet allergies. Take this quiz to test your knowledge about popular myths as well as coping strategies related to ...

  2. Cold Weather Pet Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AVMA Who We Are Governance AVMA Careers AVMF Student AVMA (SAVMA) Allied Organizations AVMA Store (Products) Policy ... Protect family: Odds are your pet will be spending more time inside during the winter, so it's ...

  3. Combined PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D L; Pichler, B J; Gückel, B

    2018-01-01

    The 6th annual meeting to address key issues in positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was held again in Tübingen, Germany, from March 27 to 29, 2017. Over three days of invited plenary lectures, round table discussions and dialogue board deliberations, participants c...... of response to pharmacological interventions and therapies. As such, PET/MRI is a key to advancing medicine and patient care....

  4. PET and Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Funda Sevencan; Songul A. Vaizoglu

    2007-01-01

    This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water,...

  5. Pets and Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, G

    1997-11-01

    Which parasites can be transmitted by household cats and dogs? Certainly a variety of potentially dangerous helminths and protozoa can be transmitted to humans from pets but, for the most part, very special conditions must be present before this occurs. Small children, pregnant women and immunocompromised persons are three groups at greater potential risk than the general population. Infants and toddlers may contract visceral or cutaneous larva migrans, tapeworm infections and, rarely, other helminths or protozoa. Pregnant women and their offspring are at special risk for toxoplasmosis. Immunocompromised persons (including those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) are susceptible to multiple infections but especially to cryptosporidiosis, an underdiagnosed zoonosis present in contaminated water supplies. Other zoonotic infections (Echinococcosis, Dirofilariasis) rarely appear in the general population but, when they do occur, pose very real diagnostic challenges. The risk of disease transmission from pets can be minimized by taking a few simple precautions such as avoiding fecal-oral contact, not emptying the cat's litterbox if pregnant, washing hands carefully after handling pets, worming pets regularly and supervising toddler-pet interactions. In most cases, the psychologic benefits of pet ownership appear to outweigh the reducible risks of disease transmission.

  6. Double localization of neuro lymphomatosis in an early relapse of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and ({sup 18}F)-F.D.G. PET-CT: Case report;Double localisation de neurolymphomatose d'une rechute prcoce d'un lymphome non hodgkinien en TEP-TDM au ({sup 18}F)-FDG: a propos d'un cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazaentre, T.; Pascal-ortiz, D. [Hopital Saint-Jean, Service de medecine nucleaire, 66 - Perpignan (France); Sanhes, L.; Vallantin, X. [Hopital Saint-Jean, Service d' hematologie, 66 - Perpignan (France); Cassarini, J.F. [Hopital Saint-Jean, Service de neurologie, 66 - Perpignan (France)

    2010-06-15

    In a patient suffering from left lower limb pain and chin anesthesia, fused PET-CT imaging showed an ({sup 18}F)-F.D.G. uptake along the left sciatic nerve and the mandibular branch of the left trigeminal nerve corresponding to neuro lymphomatosis due to an early relapse of a B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (authors)

  7. Servicio integral y supermercado para mascotas Villa House Pet Center

    OpenAIRE

    Céspedes, Javier; Chumpitaz, Yanina; Saettone, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del desarrollo de este plan de marketing, es establecer los lineamientos y estrategias que permitan un adecuado desarrollo de la marca Villa House Pet Center como negocio, teniendo entre los principales pilares de un correcto posicionamiento, los elementos que conforman la identidad de la marca y el plan de comunicaciones, apoyado en el protocolo de servicios, los paquetes de membresías anuales personalizados y el acertado seguimiento de las necesidades de las mascotas registradas...

  8. PET/MRI: Where might it replace PET/CT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehman, Eric C; Johnson, Geoffrey B; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier E; Cha, Soonmee; Leynes, Andrew Palmera; Larson, Peder Eric Zufall; Hope, Thomas A

    2017-11-01

    Simultaneous positron emission tomography and MRI (PET/MRI) is a technology that combines the anatomic and quantitative strengths of MR imaging with physiologic information obtained from PET. PET and computed tomography (PET/CT) performed in a single scanning session is an established technology already in widespread and accepted use worldwide. Given the higher cost and complexity of operating and interpreting the studies obtained on a PET/MRI system, there has been question as to which patients would benefit most from imaging with PET/MRI versus PET/CT. In this article, we compare PET/MRI with PET/CT, detail the applications for which PET/MRI has shown promise and discuss impediments to future adoption. It is our hope that future work will prove the benefit of PET/MRI to specific groups of patients, initially those in which PET/CT and MRI are already performed, leveraging simultaneity and allowing for greater degrees of multiparametric evaluation. 5 Technical Efficacy: Stage 5 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1247-1262. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Selecting Safe Pets (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a dangerous situation. Before choosing any kind of animal for your family, learn as much as you can about your pet-to-be: Read pet guides explaining the various personalities, tendencies, and backgrounds of specific breeds in detail. ...

  10. Medical application of PET technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, C. W.; An, S. H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yang, S. D.; Jun, G. S. and others

    1999-04-01

    We performed following studies using PET technology: 1. Clinical usefulness of [{sup 18}F]FDG whole body PET in malignant disease 2. Clinical usefulness of quantitative evaluation of F-18-FDG 3. Pilot study of C-11 methionine PET in brain tumor 4. PET study in patients with Parkinson's disease 5. A study on the clinical myocardial PET image. PET gives various metabolic information for the living human body, and is very important, new diagnostic modality. The PET study will give us the information of cancer patients such as early detection of cancer, staging, recurrence detection and characterization of cancer. The quantitative analysis using PET could be applied to evaluate the pathophysiology of various diseases and develop new drugs and develop new radiopharmaceuticals.

  11. PET/MR in oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balyasnikova, Svetlana; Löfgren, Johan; de Nijs, Robin

    2012-01-01

    After more than 20 years of research, a fully integrated PET/MR scanner was launched in 2010 enabling simultaneous acquisition of PET and MR imaging. Currently, no clinical indication for combined PET/MR has been established, however the expectations are high. In this paper we will discuss some...... of the challenges inherent in this new technology, but focus on potential applications for simultaneous PET/MR in the field of oncology. Methods and tracers for use with the PET technology will be familiar to most readers of this journal; thus this paper aims to provide a short and basic introduction to a number...... be applied together with PET increasing the amount of information about the tissues of interest. The potential clinical benefit of applying PET/MR in staging, radiotherapy planning and treatment evaluation in oncology, as well as the research perspectives for the use of PET/MR in the development of new...

  12. PET/MR in oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balyasnikova, Svetlana; Löfgren, Johan; de Nijs, Robin

    2012-01-01

    be applied together with PET increasing the amount of information about the tissues of interest. The potential clinical benefit of applying PET/MR in staging, radiotherapy planning and treatment evaluation in oncology, as well as the research perspectives for the use of PET/MR in the development of new......After more than 20 years of research, a fully integrated PET/MR scanner was launched in 2010 enabling simultaneous acquisition of PET and MR imaging. Currently, no clinical indication for combined PET/MR has been established, however the expectations are high. In this paper we will discuss some...... of the challenges inherent in this new technology, but focus on potential applications for simultaneous PET/MR in the field of oncology. Methods and tracers for use with the PET technology will be familiar to most readers of this journal; thus this paper aims to provide a short and basic introduction to a number...

  13. PET in neuro-oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelcke, U; Leenders, K.L.

    This article reviews possible clinical applications of positron emission tomography (PET) in brain tumor patients. PET allows quantitative assessment of brain tumor pathophysiology and biochemistry. It therefore provides different information about tumors when compared to histological or

  14. PET imaging in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria, Daniele de Paula; Copray, Sjef; Buchpiguel, Carlos; Dierckx, Rudi; de Vries, Erik

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a non-invasive technique for quantitative imaging of biochemical and physiological processes in animals and humans. PET uses probes labeled with a radioactive isotope, called PET tracers, which can bind to or be converted by a specific biological target and thus

  15. Metabolic imaging using PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, Takashi [University of Fukui, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Eiheiji-cho, Fukui (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    There is growing evidence that myocardial metabolism plays a key role not only in ischaemic heart disease but also in a variety of diseases which involve myocardium globally, such as heart failure and diabetes mellitus. Understanding myocardial metabolism in such diseases helps to elucidate the pathophysiology and assists in making therapeutic decisions. As well as providing information on regional changes, PET can deliver quantitative information about both regional and global changes in metabolism. This capability of quantitative measurement is one of the major advantages of PET along with physiological positron tracers, especially relevant in evaluating diseases which involve the whole myocardium. This review discusses major PET tracers for metabolic imaging and their clinical applications and contributions to research regarding ischaemic heart disease and other diseases such as heart failure and diabetic heart disease. Future applications of positron metabolic tracers for the detection of vulnerable plaque are also highlighted briefly. (orig.)

  16. PET/MR in oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balyasnikova, Svetlana; Löfgren, Johan; de Nijs, Robin

    2012-01-01

    of the challenges inherent in this new technology, but focus on potential applications for simultaneous PET/MR in the field of oncology. Methods and tracers for use with the PET technology will be familiar to most readers of this journal; thus this paper aims to provide a short and basic introduction to a number...... be applied together with PET increasing the amount of information about the tissues of interest. The potential clinical benefit of applying PET/MR in staging, radiotherapy planning and treatment evaluation in oncology, as well as the research perspectives for the use of PET/MR in the development of new...

  17. Polyesteramides based on PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, K.

    1999-01-01

    Engineering plastics have good mechanical, thermal and electrical properties, and can be easily processed. Typical engineering plastics include polyamides (PA6,6, PA6, PA4,6) and polyesters (PBT, PET). Compared to polyesters of a similar structure, polyamides have a high glass transition (Tg) and

  18. PET's indsats under lup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peer Henrik

    2006-01-01

    En undersøgelseskommission nedsat i 1999. Fem medlemmer skal undersøge PET's efterretningsvirksomhed i forhold til politiske partier, faglige konflikter og politisk ideologiske bevægelser i Danmark under den kolde krig. Kommissionens rapport forventes færdig næste år. Udgivelsesdato: 2. juli 2006...

  19. Birds Kept as Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Healthy Families and Flocks Pet Food Safety Trouble with Tiny Turtles Trouble with Tiny ... before purchase. Ask your veterinarian about the proper food, care, and enclosure or environment that is best for the bird you are ...

  20. PET and PET/CT in malignant melanoma; PET y PET/CT en melanoma maligno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia O, J.R. [Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging PET/CT, Centro Medico ABC, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The advantages that it has the PET/CT are: 1. It diminishes mainly positive false lesions. It identifies physiologic accumulate places. 2. It diminishes in smaller grade false negative. Small injuries. Injuries with low grade concentration. Injure on intense activity areas. 3. Precise anatomical localization of accumulate places. 4. Reduction of the acquisition time. (Author)

  1. I Love Petting Zoos!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-23

    This Kidtastics podcast helps children learn about how to stay safe and healthy when visiting petting zoos and other animal exhibits.  Created: 3/23/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/23/2010.

  2. Propuesta de diseño y desarrollo preliminares de un prototipo de baldosa para piso a partir del PET reciclado y la cascarilla de arroz para una vivienda de interés social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Mora Portilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es un análisis de la importancia, factibilidad y efectos de la reutilización de materia orgánica e inorgánica, considerada de desecho, para la elaboración de baldosas. A partir de ese estudio investigativo, se propone la elaboración del producto en cuestión, como alternativa sustentable y económica al sector de la construcción para la creación de viviendas populares.

  3. Talking with Children about Furry Classroom Pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Notes that rodents and rabbits share many characteristics that make them suitable classroom pets and gives background information on rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, and gerbils. Offers advice on buying a classroom pet, the pet's home, feeding, helping the children handle the pet, and pet health and family planning. (TJQ)

  4. The pet connection: pets as a conduit for social capital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa; Giles-Corti, Billie; Bulsara, Max

    2005-09-01

    There is growing interest across a range of disciplines in the relationship between pets and health, with a range of therapeutic, physiological, psychological and psychosocial benefits now documented. While much of the literature has focused on the individual benefits of pet ownership, this study considered the potential health benefits that might accrue to the broader community, as encapsulated in the construct of social capital. A random survey of 339 adult residents from Perth, Western Australia were selected from three suburbs and interviewed by telephone. Pet ownership was found to be positively associated with some forms of social contact and interaction, and with perceptions of neighbourhood friendliness. After adjustment for demographic variables, pet owners scored higher on social capital and civic engagement scales. The results suggest that pet ownership provides potential opportunities for interactions between neighbours and that further research in this area is warranted. Social capital is another potential mechanism by which pets exert an influence on human health.

  5. THE PETS:Game Introduction of Pets in Two Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Febriyanto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducing environment is important for children. Included in this environment is the life of living beings such as humans, animals, and plants. The role of parents is needed in introducing the living creatures. One of the living creatures that endeared children are animals, especially the pets. Therefore made educational game The Pets. With the game "The Pets" is expected to help parents to teach the children in learning about pets based on place of living and food. In this paper describes how to design and create introducing pet game based on the type of food and its habitat in two different languages . "The Pets" has the Android platform with a minimum API Level 14 is created using the game engine Construct 2. Using two dimensional model and image with interesting coloring for children, and using the application CorelDraw X4. From results of the survey, "The Pets" can provide new knowledge and can assist children in learning about pets based on place of living and food. Children who previously could not mention animals vocabulary in English, after playing "The Pets" can name them into English.

  6. Breast PET/MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsaether, Amy; Moy, Linda

    2017-05-01

    Breast and whole-body PET/MR imaging is being used to detect local and metastatic disease and is being investigated for potential imaging biomarkers, which may eventually help personalize treatments and prognoses. This article provides an overview of breast and whole-body PET/MR exam techniques, summarizes PET and MR breast imaging for lesion detection, outlines investigations into multi-parametric breast PET/MR, looks at breast PET/MR in the setting of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, and reviews the pros and cons of whole-body PET/MR in the setting of metastatic or suspected metastatic breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ingredients: where pet food starts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Angele

    2008-08-01

    Every clinician is asked "What should I feed my pet?" Understanding the ingredients in pet food is an important part of making the best recommendation. Pet food can be as simple as one ingredient or as complicated as containing more than 60 ingredients. Pet food and its ingredients are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and state feed officials. Part of that regulation is the review and definition of ingredients. Existing ingredients change and new ingredients become available so the need for ingredient definitions grows. Ingredients for product formulations are chosen based on their nutrient content, digestibility, palatability, functionality, availability, and cost. As an example, a typical, nutritionally complete dry dog food with 42 ingredients is examined and the ingredients are discussed here. Safe, healthy pet food starts with safe ingredients sourced from well-monitored suppliers. The ultimate goal of both veterinarians and pet food manufacturers is the same--long healthy lives for dogs and cats.

  8. Resina pet para recipientes

    OpenAIRE

    Montenegro, Ricardo Sá Peixoto; Monteiro Filha, Dulce Corrêa; Pan, Simon Shi Koo

    1996-01-01

    O mercado potencial de resina PET para recipientes é grande, com ampla expectativa de expansão. A nível mundial, esta ocorrendo um ciclo de expansão que deverá levar a uma sobrecapacidade, pressionando os preços para baixo. No Brasil, a escassez de resina PET tem retardado sua maior utilização em recipientes, notadamente de bebidas carbonatadas e em mercados em desenvolvimento, como o de óleo comestível e água mineral. Com a entrada em operação da fábrica da Nitrocarbono e da expansão da Rhod...

  9. PET studies in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, K. [Neurologische Universitaetsklinik and Max-Planck-Inst. fuer neurologische Forschung, Koeln (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    Measurement of local cerebral glucose metabolism (lCMRGlc) by positron emission tomography (PET) and {sup 18}F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) has become a standard technique during the past 20 years and is now available at many university hospitals in all highly developed countries. Many studies have documented a close relation between lCMRGlc and localized cognitive functions, such as language and visuoconstructive abilities. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by regional impairment of cerebral glucose metabolism in neocortical association areas (posterior cingulate, temporoparietal and frontal multimodal association cortex), whereas primary visual and sensorimotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum are relatively well preserved. In a multicenter study comprising 10 PET centers (Network for Efficiency and Standardization of Dementia Diagnosis, NEST-DD) that employed an automated voxel-based analysis of FDG PET images, the distinction between controls and AD patients was 93% sensitive and 93% specific, and even in very mild dementia (at Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) 24 or higher) sensitivity was still 84% at 93% specificity. Significantly abnormal metabolism in mild cognitive deficit (MCI) indicates a high risk to develop dementia within the next two years. Reduced neocortical glucose metabolism can probably be detected with FDG PET in AD on average one year before onset of subjective cognitive impairment. In addition to glucose metabolism, specific tracers for dopamine synthesis ({sup 18}F-F-DOPA) and for ({sup 11}C-MP4A) are of interest for differentiation among dementia subtypes. Cortical acetylcholine esterase activity (AChE) activity is significantly lower in patients with AD or with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) than in age-matched normal controls. In LBD there is also impairment of dopamine synthesis, similar to Parkinson disease. (author) 115 refs.

  10. Pet overpopulation: An economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Coate, Stephen; Knight, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of pet overpopulation. It develops a tractable dynamic model whose positive predictions square well with key features of the current U.S. market for pets. The model is used to understand, from a welfare economic perspective, the sense in which there is \\overpopulation" of pets and the underlying causes of the problem. The paper also employs the model to consider what policies might be implemented to deal with the problem. A calibrated example is developed to i...

  11. Client services for geriatric pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, G; Yates, J

    1989-01-01

    Some veterinarians have been reluctant to discuss the prospect of the death of a pet because of a sense of discomfort and a lack of understanding about how to respond to the client's grief reaction. It is essential to take the time for this important communication and help clients deal with fears about the process, any feelings of guilt and helplessness, and judgments about the medical aspects of a case. Clients must be encouraged to express grief over the loss of a pet, particularly a geriatric pet that has lived with them many years and to which they are deeply bonded. Veterinarians need to counsel clients about obtaining additional pets or another pet. The phrase "replacement pet" must be stricken from the veterinarian's vocabulary. One does not "replace" a deceased spouse, mother, father, or child. It is possible to have another child or find another spouse, but it is not possible to replace a person. Neither can a pet be "replaced," because each pet is a unique living being. It is disrespectful to the memory of deceased pets to belittle their uniqueness by suggesting that they can be replaced. Instead, the veterinarian has the capability and responsibility to help pet owners maintain fond and happy memories of an irreplacable pet, while finding room in their hearts for another new pet to create happiness for the future. Once the grief is resolved, clients will be thankful for having had the privilege of sharing their life with an animal and experiencing the joy of the bond between two unique individuals.

  12. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 307-312

  13. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 307-312

  14. Respiratory gating in cardiac PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Rasmussen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory motion due to breathing during cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) results in spatial blurring and erroneous tracer quantification. Respiratory gating might represent a solution by dividing the PET coincidence dataset into smaller respiratory phase subsets. The aim...... stress (82)RB-PET. Respiratory rates and depths were measured by a respiratory gating system in addition to registering actual respiratory rates. Patients undergoing adenosine stress showed a decrease in measured respiratory rate from initial to later scan phase measurements [12.4 (±5.7) vs 5.6 (±4.......7) min(-1), P PET...

  15. PET and PET/CT - clinical value in lung cancer; PET und PET/CT - Stellenwert beim Lungenkarzinom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinert, H.C. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nukearmedizin, Dept. Medizinische Radiologie, Univ. Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-12-01

    Preoperative staging of lung cancer is essential for prognosis and management. The aim of this overview is to present the synergistic effects of FDG-PET and CT. For planning surgery and planning radiation treatment the precise definition of the tumor extend is essential. Integrated PET/CT scanning enables the exact localization of tumor infiltration into surrounding tissue and of small metastases. In this overview the applications of PET and PET/CT in non-small-cell lung cancer, small-cell lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma are presented. (orig.)

  16. Cost-effectiveness of PET and PET/Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Hermansson, Ronnie; Hess, Søren

    2015-01-01

    measure by means of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios when considering the replacement of the standard regimen by a new diagnostic procedure. This article discusses economic assessments of PET and PET/computed tomography reported until mid-July 2014. Forty-seven studies on cancer and noncancer...

  17. Innovations in PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin Klausen, T; Høgild Keller, S; Vinter Olesen, O

    2012-01-01

    There has been a longstanding interest in positron emission tomography (PET) in combination with computed tomography (CT). Mostly because of the lack of structural information in PET which makes it difficult to assess the precise location of tissue with metabolic uptake, whereas CT can provide im...

  18. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  19. Business Plan of Precious Pets

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Nitesh

    2009-01-01

    Precious Pets is a one stop shop for all the dog lovers and pet owners in India. It not only breeds and sells pedigree dogs in its facility but also provides all the related products and services under the same roof as well.

  20. Pet Ownership: A Research Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, M. Powell; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Data from a 1968 national sample of older people (N=3,996) indicated that pet ownership was more frequent in owner-occupied residences in smaller communities where other family, including children were present. No association was found between pet ownership and psychological well-being or health. (Author)

  1. Neurotransmission imaging by PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Akihiro; Suhara, Tetsuya [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    PET studies on neurotransmission in psychological disorders to evaluate abnormal neurotransmission and therapeutic effects are thoroughly reviewed by type of major neurotransmitters. Studies on dopaminergic neurotransmission have focused on the function of dopamine D{sub 2} receptors, receptor subtypes, such as the D{sub 1} receptor, and ligands, such as transporters. PET studies of dopamine D{sub 2} receptor, which began in the early 1980s, have predominantly been performed in schizophrenia, and most have failed to detect any statistically significant differences between schizophrenia patients and controls. The studies in the early 1980s were performed by using [{sup 11}C]N-methyl-spiperone (NMSP) and [{sup 11}C]raclopride, ligands for striatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptors. [{sup 11}C]FLB457, which has much higher affinity for D{sub 2} receptors than raclopride, began to be used in the 1990s. Dopamine D{sub 2} occupancy after drug ingestion has also been investigated to clarify the mechanisms and effects of antipsychotic drugs, and there have also been studies on the effect of aging and personality traits on dopamine D{sub 2} receptor levels in healthy subjects. In studies on dopamine receptor subtypes other than D{sub 2}, dopamine D{sub 1} receptors have been studied in connection with assessments of cognitive functions. Most studies on dopamine transporters have been related to drug dependence. Serotonin 5-HT{sub 2A} receptors have been studied with [{sup 11}C]NMSP in schizophrenia patients, while studies of another serotonin receptor subtype, 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors, have been mainly conducted in patients with depression. [{sup 11}C]NMSP PET showed no difference between schizophrenia patients who had not undergone phamacotherapy and normal subjects. Because serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) affect serotonin transporters, and abnormalities in serotonin transporters detected in mood disorders, PET ligands for serotonin transporters have increasingly

  2. [Behavior of pet animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmelin, I

    1990-06-01

    Severe mistakes in pet keeping are often the result of ignorance. Many animals suffer from the care of their owners. Industry provides food in the proper composition, but the importance of the cage's interior, its size and the number of animals of the same species kept in it is often neglected. The key to a better understanding of pets is the knowledge of the ecological environment of their species. Fish, amphibia and reptiles are capable of simple acts of learning, but their potential of adaptation to their environment is determined mainly genetically, which can be observed best during the phase of their youth. Most members of these animal groups are born with a perfect behaviour program. Thus aquaria and terraria should as far as possible correspond to the needs and requirements of the species in question to its ecological niche. An aquarium should be a model of the animals' biotope. The effect of the conditions under which a pet is kept on its wellbeing is discussed in detail for the budgerigar and the guinea pig. Experiments with budgerigars showing that too small cages and the missing company of animals of the same species lead to abnormal behaviour are described. Guinea pigs live in packs. The fact how important the group and its social organization is for the individual guinea pig is documented by experimentally verified data. Furthermore the effect of the guinea pig's ontogeny under experimental conditions on the structure of a pack is discussed. Already small changes in the size of the cage or in its interior encourage the guinea pig's exploration behaviour and its mobility.

  3. Simultaneous PET and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiping Shao; Cherry, Simon R.; Meadors, Ken; Siegel, Stefan; Silverman, Robert W. [Crump Institute for Biological Imaging, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Farahani, Keyvan [Department of Radiological Sciences, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Marsden, Paul K. [Guy' s and St Thomas' Clinical PET Centre, Division of Radiological Sciences, UMDS, London (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    We have developed a prototype PET detector which is compatible with a clinical MRI system to provide simultaneous PET and MR imaging. This single-slice PET system consists of 48 2x2x10mm{sup 3} LSO crystals in a 38 mm diameter ring configuration that can be placed inside the receiver coil of the MRI system, coupled to three multi-channel photomultipliers housed outside the main magnetic field via 4 m long and 2 mm diameter optical fibres. The PET system exhibits 2 mm spatial resolution, 41% energy resolution at 511 keV and 20 ns timing resolution. Simultaneous PET and MR phantom images were successfully acquired. (author)

  4. Supplements for exotic pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Fava, Johanna; Colitz, Carmen M H

    2014-09-01

    The use of supplements has become commonplace in an effort to complement traditional therapy and as part of long-term preventive health plans. This article discusses historical and present uses of antioxidants, vitamins, and herbs. By complementing traditional medicine with holistic and alternative nutrition and supplements, the overall health and wellness of exotic pets can be enhanced and balanced. Further research is needed for understanding the strengths and uses of supplements in exotic species. Going back to the animals' origin and roots bring clinicians closer to nature and its healing powers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Non FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, C., E-mail: cristina.nanni@aosp.bo.i [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Policlinico S.Orsola, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Fantini, L.; Nicolini, S.; Fanti, S. [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Policlinico S.Orsola, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    2- [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is the radiopharmaceutical most frequently used for clinical positron emission tomography (PET). However, FDG cannot be used for many oncological, cardiological, or neurological conditions, either because the abnormal tissue does not concentrate it, or because the tissues under investigation demonstrate high physiological glucose uptake. Consequently, alternative PET tracers have been produced and introduced into clinical practice. The most important compounds in routine practice are {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 18}F-choline, mainly for the evaluation of prostate cancer; {sup 1}C-methionine for brain tumours; {sup 118}F-DOPA ({sup 18}F- deoxiphenilalanine) for neuroendocrine tumours and movement disorders; {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC (tetraazacyclododecanetetraacetic acid-[1-Nal3]-octreotide) and other somatostatin analogues for neuroendocrine tumours; 11C-acetate for prostate cancer and hepatic masses and 18F-FLT (3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine) for a number of malignant tumours. Another impetus for the development of new tracers is to enable the investigation of biological processes in tumours other than glucose metabolism. This is especially important in the field of response assessment, where there are new agents that are targeted more specifically at angiogenesis, hypoxia, apoptosis and other processes.

  6. FDG PET imaging dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Kyungpook National University Medical School and Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Dementia is a major burden for many countries including South Korea, where life expectancy is continuously growing and the proportion of aged people is rapidly growing. Neurodegenerative disorders, such as, Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia. Parkinson disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Huntington disease, can cause dementia, and cerebrovascular disease also can cause dementia. Depression or hypothyroidism also can cause cognitive deficits, but they are reversible by management of underlying cause unlike the forementioned dementias. Therefore these are called pseudodementia. We are entering an era of dementia care that will be based upon the identification of potentially modifiable risk factors and early disease markers, and the application of new drugs postpone progression of dementias or target specific proteins that cause dementia. Efficient pharmacologic treatment of dementia needs not only to distinguish underlying causes of dementia but also to be installed as soon as possible. Therefore, differential diagnosis and early diagnosis of dementia are utmost importance. F-18 FDG PET is useful for clarifying dementing diseases and is also useful for early detection of the disease. Purpose of this article is to review the current value of FDG PET for dementing diseases including differential diagnosis of dementia and prediction of evolving dementia.

  7. Pet food recalls and pet food contaminants in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Karyn; Rumbeiha, Wilson K

    2012-03-01

    Most pet foods are safe, but incidents of chemical contamination occur and lead to illness and recalls. There were 11 major pet food recalls in the United States between 1996 and 2010 that were due to chemical contaminants or misformulations: 3 aflatoxin, 3 excess vitamin D3, 1 excess methionine, 3 inadequate thiamine, and 1 adulteration with melamine and related compounds and an additional 2 warnings concerning a Fanconilike renal syndrome in dogs after ingesting large amounts of chicken jerky treat products. This article describes clinical findings and treatment of animals exposed to the most common pet food contaminants.

  8. Interest of the PET with 18-F.D.G. in the exploration of cardiac tumors. About one case; Interet de la TEP au 18-FDG dans l'exploration des tumeurs cardiaques. A propos d'un cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussato, D.; Songy, B.; Penaud, D.; Karila Cohen, D.; Vigoni, F. [Centre cardiologique du Nord, Saint-Denis, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The positron computed tomography (PET) with {sup 18}F.D.G. is today a key examination in oncology, but its use in the exploration of cardiac tumors is not actually established. The PET enlightened a hyper-metabolic injury of the left auricle, reaching to the right pulmonary veins, associated to numerous hyper-metabolic centres: hepatic, osseous and muscular ones. A muscular adjusted biopsy enlightened a metastatic fibrosarcoma. An adapted neoplastic treatment was established. This observation illustrates the potential interest of the PET with {sup 18}F.D.G. in the diagnosis of malignancy of cardiac tumor injuries and their eventual extension evaluation. (N.C.)

  9. Older Latinos, pets, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca A; Meadows, Richard L

    2002-10-01

    The majority of thefindings regarding pet ownership, interaction, and the human-animal bond have involved only Caucasians or have included other ethnic group members only incidentally. The extent to which older adultsfrom other ethnic groups may benefitfrom pet ownership and interaction is unclear. If the benefits of human-animal interaction are to be used effectively in promoting health and preventing illness, it is necessary to identify the "boundaries" of effectiveness for this interaction across various populations. The present study is an initial effort at describing one ethnic minority group, Latino pet owners, the extent of their relationships with their pet, and the extent to which these relationships may be beneficial in facilitating health. Twenty-four Latinos over age 50 were studied and are described in terms of their demographic characteristics, relationships with their pets, health, and exercise practices. The findings suggest that the participants were very devoted to their pets, had been involved with pets since childhood, and viewed themselves as healthy.

  10. Understanding regulations affecting pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzanis, David A

    2008-08-01

    In the United States, pet foods are subject to regulation at both the federal and the state levels. The US Food and Drug Administration has jurisdiction over all animal feeds (including pet foods, treats, chews, supplements, and ingredients) in interstate commerce, which includes imported products. Many states adopt and enforce at least in part the Association of American Feed Control Officials Model Bill and Model Regulations for Pet Food and Specialty Pet Food. Thus, all pet foods in multi-state distribution are subject to a host of labeling requirements covering aspects such as product names, ingredient lists, nutrient content guarantees, and nutritional adequacy statements. Ingredients must be GRAS (generally recognized as safe) substances, approved food additives, or defined by Association of American Feed Control Officials for their intended use. Pet food labels may not bear claims that are false or misleading or that state or imply use for the treatment or prevention of disease. Pet foods that are found to be adulterated or misbranded may be subject to seizure or other enforcement actions.

  11. Pet ownership and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchock, Robert L

    2015-09-01

    Pet ownership and brief human-animal interactions can serve as a form of social support and convey a host of beneficial psychological and physiological health benefits. This article critically examines recent relevant literature on the pet-health connection. Cross-sectional studies indicate correlations between pet ownership and numerous aspects of positive health outcomes, including improvements on cardiovascular measures and decreases in loneliness. Quasi-experimental studies and better controlled experimental studies corroborate these associations and suggest that owning and/or interacting with a pet may be causally related to some positive health outcomes. The value of pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy (AAT), as a nonpharmacological treatment modality, augmentation to traditional treatment, and healthy preventive behavior (in the case of pet ownership), is starting to be realized. However, more investigations that employ randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes and investigations that more closely examine the underlying mechanism of the pet-health effect, such as oxytocin, are needed.

  12. ESTUDIO DE FACTIBILIDAD PARA LA MANUFACTURA DE EMPUÑADURAS DE PET RECICLADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Juárez N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, expone los resultados obtenidos de la investigación realizada, para proponer una nueva reutilización viable del plástico, el cual, se usa en las botellas hechas de Polietilentereftalato (PET. Este plástico cuenta con gran potencial de reciclado. Sin embargo, forma parte de las miles de toneladas que son dispuestas a los rellenos sanitarios, generando entre otras problemáticas, la necesidad de generar mayores espacios para la gestión de desechos, además del consumo de materias primas vírgenes. En este sentido, materiales con las cualidades como las del PET pueden ser reaprovechadas por medio del reciclaje, este tiene tienes varias opciones, entre estas destaca el reciclaje mecánico. Este método presenta varias ventajas, una de las más importantes es que tiene un impacto menor en el ambiente. Por lo tanto es necesaria la búsqueda de la continuación del proceso de recuperación, hasta llegar al producto terminado. Uno de los métodos de transformación, que cuentan con un ciclo corto de proceso, es la extrusión, por la cual, es posible convertir las hojuelas de PET, a un artículo de uso común, como pueden ser las empuñaduras para escobas o mechudos. Todo esto mediante un estudio previo del material, es decir, con la revisión bibliográfica de trabajos anteriores y otros medios, se encontró que el PET permite ser utilizado en diversas aplicaciones, siempre y cuando, se lleve a cabo un control minucioso del proceso durante el extruido del PET. Por tanto, este trabajo implica el aprovechamiento del PET reciclado, que contribuye a la conciencia ambiental, además de los beneficios económicos inherentes.

  13. Salmonella: Dry Pet Foods and Pet Treats (FAQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will have a decreased appetite, fever and abdominal pain. However, not all pets carrying Salmonella will appear sick. Apparently well but infected animals can be carriers and may infect other animals ...

  14. About a case of pathological muscular hyper fixations in PET-F.D.G.. Diagnosis discussions and reminder of the main differential diagnosis; A propos d'un cas d'hyperfixations musculaires pathologiques en TEP-FDG. Discussion diagnostique et rappel des principaux diagnostics differentiels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colavolpe, C.; Puech, J.B.; Mundler, O. [CHU Timone, Service de medecine nucleaire, 13 - Marseille (France); Belenotti, P.; Sevy, A.; Ene, N.; Serratrice, J. [CHU Timone, Service de medecine interne, 13 - Marseille (France); Verschueren, A.; Attarian, S. [CHU Timone, Service de neurologie maladies neuromusculaires, 13 - Marseille (France); Azulay, J.P. [CHU Timone, Service de neurologie pathologies du mouvement, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2010-07-01

    The muscle hyper fixing are common in PET-F.D.G.. Their interpretation requires a good knowledge of the main artifactual and pathological causes and the correlation with other clinical and para clinical data. (N.C.)

  15. PET/TAC in Oncology; PET/TAC en Oncologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez V, A.M. [Especialista en Medicina Nuclear, Profa. Depto. Radiologia de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    From this presentation of PET-TAC in oncology the following advantages on the conventional PET are obtained: 1. More short study and stadium in one session. 2. It adds the information of both techniques. 3. Better localization of leisure: affected organ, stadium change (neck, mediastinum, abdomen). 4. Reduction of false positive (muscle, brown fat, atelectasis, pneumonias, intestine, urinary vials, etc.). 5. Reduction of negative false. 6. Reduction of not conclusive. 7. More understandable for other specialists. 8. Biopsies guide. 9. Planning radiotherapy.

  16. Discovery of Erdheim-Chester disease by PET / CT in 18-F.D.G. with the waning of a prolonged inflammatory syndrome; Decouverte d'une maladie d'Erdheim-Chester par la TEP-TDM au 18-FDG au decours d'un syndrome inflammatoire biologique prolonge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalaye, J.; Carrier, P.; Viau, P.; Razzouk, M.; Darcourt, J. [CHU-CAL, Service universitaire de medecine nucleaire, 06 - Nice (France)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: to report a case of Erdheim-Chester disease, a rare non-Langerhans histiocytosis with bone and visceral involvement, of which diagnosis was made using PET-CT with {sup 18}-F.D.G.. PET / CT with {sup 18}F.D.G. revealed and to do the staging of Erdheim-Chester disease, objectifying particularly vascular damage that may condition the prognosis. (N.C.)

  17. Macrophage activation syndrome and PET with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. in a context of a prolonged fever; Syndrome d'activation macrophagique et TEP au 18F-FDG dans un contexte de fievre au long cours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshayes, E.; Janier, M.; Billotey, C. [Hopital Edouard-Herriot, Service de medecine nucleaire, 69 - Lyon (France); Hot, A. [Hopital Edouard-Herriot, Service de medecine interne, 69 - Lyon (France); Adham, M.; Parmentier, B. [Hopital Edouard-Herriot, federation des specialites digestives, 69 - Lyon (France); Girard, S. [Hopital Edouard-Herriot, service d' hematologie biologique, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Think to the diagnosis, a rare but often fatal hemo phagocytic syndrome before an intense and diffuse bone marrow uptake in homogenous PET{sup 18}F-F.D.G.. The place of PET {sup 18}F-F.D.G. in the diagnosis of fever in the long term is growing. In this context, nuclear physicians and clinicians need to suspect to the diagnosis of hemo phagocytic syndrome. (N.C.)

  18. Quantitative analysis of fluorodeoxyglucose-, fluoro-misonidazole- and fluoro-thymidine-PET images on five patients irradiated for a non-small-cell bronchial cancer; Analyse quantitative d'images de TEP au fluorodesoxyglucose, au fluoromisonidazole et a la fluorothymidine chez cinq patients irradies pour un cancer bronchique non a petites cellules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thureau, S.; Dubray, B. [Departement de radiotherapie et physique medicale, centre Henri-Becquerel, Rouen (France); Litis EA 4108, QuantiF, universite de Rouen, Rouen (France); Modzelewski, R.; Lelandais, B.; Edet Sanson, A.; Gardin, I.; Vera, P. [Litis EA 4108, QuantiF, universite de Rouen, Rouen (France); Departement de medecine nucleaire, centre Henri-Becquerel, Rouen (France)

    2011-10-15

    As fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (positron emission tomography) is used for the planning of non-small-cell bronchial carcinoma radiotherapy in order to help to define the gross tumour volume (GTV), and as new tracers have been developed to define a biological target volume, the authors report the comparison of several thresholding methods by using fluorodeoxyglucose-, fluoro-misonidazole- and fluoro-thymidine-PET images. They notice important differences between the delineated volumes. Short communication

  19. PET/MR sammenlignet med PET/CT: fordeler og ulemper

    OpenAIRE

    Haugsrud, Jane Marion; Mikalsen, Linn Bergh; Olsen, Celine Hestvik

    2014-01-01

    NORSK: Problemstilling: Hva er dokumentert av fordeler og ulemper ved PET/MR sammenlignet med PET/CT, og kan PET/MR benyttes ved kreftdiagnostikk av barn og unge? Hensikt: Er på sammenligne PET/MR med PET/CT, og om PET/MR kan brukes på barn ved kreftutredning. Metode: Kvalitativt litteraturstudie med analyse av artikler. Resultat: De tekniske utfordringene ved PET/MR er hovedsakelig attenuasjonskorreksjon og kompatibilitet mellom komponentene. En av hovedgrunnene til at PET/MR kan væ...

  20. Measuring receptor occupancy with PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, A

    2000-01-01

    Many physiological and biochemical measurements can be performed noninvasively in humans with modern imaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This review focuses on the monitoring of

  1. PET and PET/CT in tumour of undetermined origin; PET y PET/CT en tumor de origen indeterminado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia O, J.R. [Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, PET/CT, Centro Medico ABC, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In this presentation the following conclusions were obtained regarding the use of PET and PET/CT in patient with cancer of unknown primary: 1. Detection of the primary one in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 2. It detects metastases in other places in 50%. 3. It changes the initial therapy planned in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 4. Useful in initial phases of protocol study to limit the other procedures. After standard evaluation. Before advanced protocol. 5. PET/CT study increases the % of primary detection, although in a non significant way vs. PET. 6. They are required more studies to value their utility to a more objective manner. (Author)

  2. Should immunocompromised patients have pets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Russell W

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the risks and benefits of pet ownership by immunodeficient patients, focusing primarily on organisms that colonize animals and are transmitted to humans. Those diseases that are known to be progressive or more severe in patients with altered immune function are emphasized. A review of the medical and veterinary literature pertaining to zoonoses transmitted by domestic animals was completed. Information pertaining to issues involving immunosuppressed patients including AIDS was carefully evaluated and summarized for inclusion. There are significant clinical and psychosocial benefits to pet ownership. However, numerous diseases can be acquired from these animals which may be more severe in immunocompromised individuals. Simple guidelines for pet ownership by immunosuppressed patients can be implemented to reduce their risk of disease and allow them to safely interchange with their pets.

  3. Pets and the immunocompromised person

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect the cat's immune system. This puts your cat at risk of other infections that may be spread to humans. Feed your pet only commercially prepared food and treats. Animals can get sick from undercooked ...

  4. Should pet owners be regulated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Georgina

    2013-12-21

    To own a television, you have to have a licence, and to drive a car, you have to pass a test. However, there are no such limitations on owning a pet. Should this be changed, and what can be done to encourage more responsible pet ownership? This topic was discussed at the BVA Congress at the London Vet Show on November 21. Georgina Mills reports.

  5. Estudio PET/TC en patología inflamatoria-infecciosa PET/CT in infectious and inflammatory pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Carrera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Demostrar la utilidad del examen PET/TC en patología inflamatoria-infecciosa. Materiales y Métodos. Evaluación retrospectiva (enero de 2009 - mayo de 2011 de los exámenes de tomografía por Emisión de Positrones/ Tomografía Computada (PET/TC, realizados en nuestra institución con un equipo híbrido SIEMENS-BIOGRAPH 16 (Siemens, Erlangen, Alemania. Se seleccionaron 5 pacientes. Resultados. Caso 1: paciente de 68 años de edad con fiebre de 6 meses de duración, fatiga y pérdida de peso. El examen reumatológico demostró disminución en pulsos radiales sin otros síntomas asociados. La paciente fue sometida a biopsia de arteria temporal. Ésta confirmó una arteritis de la arteria temporal y el estudio PET/TC demostró hipermetabolismo en la aorta torácica y ramas principales. Caso 2: paciente de 85 años con fiebre de origen desconocido (FOD y sospecha de osteomielitis de cadera. En contraposición, el PET/TC demostró un foco ávido de celulitis glútea y neumopatía. Caso 3: paciente de 35 años con fiebre vespertina. El PET/TC mostró múltiples adenomegalias ávidas por fluorodexosiglucosa (FDG en mediastino, axilas y retroperitoneo, y compromiso difuso esplénico asociado a calcificaciones. Se confirmó infección por citomegalovirus por inmuno-globulina G y M. Caso 4: paciente de 39 años con infección por HIV que consultó por hipercalcemia. El PET/TC mostró implantes de silicona en glúteos con proceso inflamatorio ávido asociado. Se confirmó por la biopsia de uno de ellos. Caso 5: paciente de 45 años con historia de cáncer de mama en control presentó en los últimos estudios tomográficos aumento del tamaño de los ganglios supraclaviculares y mediastínicos, y compromiso esplénico multifocal difuso. Estos resultaron ávidos en el examen PET/TC. Se confirmó el diagnóstico de sarcoidosis por el estudio anatomopatológico de un ganglio supraclavicular. Conclusiones. El PET/TC es un método no invasivo de

  6. Do carotid MR surface coils affect PET quantification in PET/MR imaging?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willemink, Martin J; Eldib, Mootaz [Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (United States); Leiner, Tim [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Fayad, Zahi A; Mani, Venkatesh [Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-05-18

    To evaluate the effect of surface coils for carotid MR imaging on PET quantification in a clinical simultaneous whole-body PET/MR scanner. A cylindrical phantom was filled with a homogeneous 2L water-FDG mixture at a starting dose of 301.2MBq. Clinical PET/MR and PET/CT systems were used to acquire PET-data without a coil (reference standard) and with two carotid MRI coils (Siemens Special Purpose 8-Channel and Machnet 4-Channel Phased Array). PET-signal attenuation was evaluated with Osirix using 51 (PET/MR) and 37 (PET/CT) circular ROIs. Mean and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVs) were quantified for each ROI. Furthermore, SUVs of PET/MR and PET/CT were compared. For validation, a patient was scanned with an injected dose of 407.7MBq on both a PET/CT and a PET/MR system without a coil and with both coils. PET/MR underestimations were -2.2% (Siemens) and -7.8% (Machnet) for SUVmean, and -1.2% (Siemens) and -3.3% (Machnet) for SUVmax, respectively. For PET/CT, underestimations were -1.3% (Siemens) and -1.4% (Machnet) for SUVmean and -0.5% (both Siemens and Machnet) for SUVmax, respectively using no coil data as reference. Except for PET/CT SUVmax values all differences were significant. SUVs differed significantly between PET/MR and PET/CT with SUVmean values of 0.51-0.55 for PET/MR and 0.68-0.69 for PET/CT, respectively. The patient examination showed that median SUVmean values measured in the carotid arteries decreased from 0.97 without a coil to 0.96 (Siemens) and 0.88 (Machnet). Carotid surface coils do affect attenuation correction in both PET/MR and PET/CT imaging. Furthermore, SUVs differed significantly between PET/MR and PET/CT.

  7. Game Design to Introduce Pets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Febriyanto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of animals from an early age can make children to love animals, especially pets. Children are the easiest group to receive stimulation, such as for example the stimulation of introducing children to the pet. Various media are used by parents to introduce pet. For examplle, by the media of books, multimedia, etc. One of the interesting media to introduce pet is with game. Of these problems then need to know how to make concept and design game to introduced pets for children age 3-6 years. In this paper, author formulate how to make pet game design include game genre, user interface design, image model selection, game characters, and game engine. The expected design of this game can be formulation of learning through proper game as a learning tool children. Game design derived from this writing by using model 2-dimensional images are funny and interesting coloring. And combines several game genres into one, or use the mini games that children do not get bored quickly. Design of GUI (Graphical User Interface is made as simple as possible so that children easily understand in playing this game, but also must use an interesting image

  8. Nutritional sustainability of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kelly S; Carter, Rebecca A; Yount, Tracy P; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R

    2013-03-01

    Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system.

  9. UN Peacekeeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of civilians, Denmark’s contribution to the UN mission in Liberia, anti-piracy operations, and the prospective role of special forces in UN operations. The two forewords of the book have been written by Major General Hu Guangzheng from AMS and Rear Admiral Nils Christian Wang from the Royal Danish Defence...

  10. What do we measure in oncology PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, Seong Jang [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has come to the practice of oncology. It is known that {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET is more sensitive for the assessment of treatment response than conventional imaging. In addition, PET has an advantage in the use of quantitative analysis of the study. Nowadays, various PET parameters are adopted in clinical settings. In addition, a wide range of factors has been known to be associated with FDG uptake. Therefore, there has been a need for standardization and harmonization of protocols and PET parameters. We will introduce PET parameters and discuss major issues in this review.

  11. Parasites in pet reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavri Urška

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exotic reptiles originating from the wild can be carriers of many different pathogens and some of them can infect humans. Reptiles imported into Slovenia from 2000 to 2005, specimens of native species taken from the wild and captive bred species were investigated. A total of 949 reptiles (55 snakes, 331 lizards and 563 turtles, belonging to 68 different species, were examined for the presence of endoparasites and ectoparasites. Twelve different groups (Nematoda (5, Trematoda (1, Acanthocephala (1, Pentastomida (1 and Protozoa (4 of endoparasites were determined in 26 (47.3% of 55 examined snakes. In snakes two different species of ectoparasites were also found. Among the tested lizards eighteen different groups (Nematoda (8, Cestoda (1, Trematoda (1, Acanthocephala (1, Pentastomida (1 and Protozoa (6 of endoparasites in 252 (76.1% of 331 examined animals were found. One Trombiculid ectoparasite was determined. In 563 of examined turtles eight different groups (Nematoda (4, Cestoda (1, Trematoda (1 and Protozoa (2 of endoparasites were determined in 498 (88.5% animals. In examined turtles three different species of ectoparasites were seen. The established prevalence of various parasites in reptiles used as pet animals indicates the need for examination on specific pathogens prior to introduction to owners.

  12. Parasites in pet reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rataj, Aleksandra Vergles; Lindtner-Knific, Renata; Vlahović, Ksenija; Mavri, Urška; Dovč, Alenka

    2011-05-30

    Exotic reptiles originating from the wild can be carriers of many different pathogens and some of them can infect humans. Reptiles imported into Slovenia from 2000 to 2005, specimens of native species taken from the wild and captive bred species were investigated. A total of 949 reptiles (55 snakes, 331 lizards and 563 turtles), belonging to 68 different species, were examined for the presence of endoparasites and ectoparasites. Twelve different groups (Nematoda (5), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (4)) of endoparasites were determined in 26 (47.3%) of 55 examined snakes. In snakes two different species of ectoparasites were also found. Among the tested lizards eighteen different groups (Nematoda (8), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (6)) of endoparasites in 252 (76.1%) of 331 examined animals were found. One Trombiculid ectoparasite was determined. In 563 of examined turtles eight different groups (Nematoda (4), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1) and Protozoa (2)) of endoparasites were determined in 498 (88.5%) animals. In examined turtles three different species of ectoparasites were seen. The established prevalence of various parasites in reptiles used as pet animals indicates the need for examination on specific pathogens prior to introduction to owners.

  13. Estudio PET/TC en patología inflamatoria-infecciosa PET/CT in infectious and inflammatory pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Carrera; Silvina De Luca; Laura Tisser; Mariana Jakubowicz; Emilia Casalini Vañek; Eduardo Eyheremendy

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo. Demostrar la utilidad del examen PET/TC en patología inflamatoria-infecciosa. Materiales y Métodos. Evaluación retrospectiva (enero de 2009 - mayo de 2011) de los exámenes de tomografía por Emisión de Positrones/ Tomografía Computada (PET/TC), realizados en nuestra institución con un equipo híbrido SIEMENS-BIOGRAPH 16 (Siemens, Erlangen, Alemania). Se seleccionaron 5 pacientes. Resultados. Caso 1: paciente de 68 años de edad con fiebre de 6 meses de duración, fatiga y pérdida de pes...

  14. Detection of Cancer with PET and PET/CT in Asymptomatic Volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ji In; Choi, Joon Young; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae; Choi, Yoon Ho [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Han Byoul; Shim, Jae Yong [The Graduate School of Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    We retrospectively investigated the diagnostic performance of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/CT for cancer detection in asymptomatic health-check examinees. This study consisted of 5091 PET or PET/CT conducted as part of annual health examination at one hospital from March 1998 to February 2008. To find the incidence of cancers, medical records of the subjects were thoroughly reviewed for a follow-up period of one year. The patterns of formal readings of PET and PET/CT were analyzed to assess the sensitivity and specificity for cancer detection. The histopathology and stage of the cancers were evaluated in relation to the results of PET. Eighty-six cancers (1.7%) were diagnosed within one year after PET or PET/CT. When PET and PET/CT results were combined, the sensitivity was 48.8% and specificity was 81.1% for cancer detection. PET only had a sensitivity of 46.2% and a specificity of 81.4%, and PET/CT only had a sensitivity of 75.0% and a specificity of 78.5% respectively. There were no significant differences in cancer site, stage and histopathology between PET positive and PET negative cancers. In 19.3% of formal readings of PET and PET/CT, further evaluation to exclude malignancy or significant disease was recommended. Head and neck area and upper gastrointestinal tract were commonly recommended sites for further evaluation. PET and PET/CT showed moderate performance for detecting cancers in asymptomatic adults in this study. More experience and further investigation are needed to overcome limitations of PET and PET/CT for cancer screening.

  15. Quantitative PET imaging with the 3T MR-BrainPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirich, C., E-mail: c.weirich@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine – 4, Juelich (Germany); Scheins, J.; Lohmann, P.; Tellmann, L. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine – 4, Juelich (Germany); Byars, L.; Michel, C. [Siemens Healthcare, Molecular Imaging, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rota Kops, E.; Brenner, D.; Herzog, H.; Shah, N.J. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine – 4, Juelich (Germany)

    2013-02-21

    The new hybrid imaging technology of MR-PET allows for simultaneous acquisition of versatile MRI contrasts and the quantitative metabolic imaging with PET. In order to achieve the quantification of PET images with minimal residual error the application of several corrections is crucial. In this work we present our results on quantification with the 3T MR BrainPET scanner.

  16. Combined PET/MR imaging in neurology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming Littrup; Ladefoged, Claes Nøhr; Beyer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    ). RESULTS: PET activity values in patients following MR-AC (A) showed a substantial radial dependency when compared to PET/CT. In all patients cortical PET activity was lower than the activity in the central region of the brain (10-15%). When adding bone attenuation values to standard MR-AC (B and C......) the radial gradient of PET activity values was removed. Further evaluation of PET/MR activity following MR-AC (A) relative to MR-AC (C) using the full CT for attenuation correction showed an underestimation of 25% in the cortical regions and 5-10% in the central regions of the brain. Observations in patients...... were replicated by observations from the phantom study. CONCLUSION: Our phantom and patient data demonstrate a spatially varying bias of the PET activity in PET/MR images of the brain when bone tissue is not accounted for during attenuation correction. This has immediate implications for PET/MR imaging...

  17. Magnetic Resonance-based Motion Correction for Quantitative PET in Simultaneous PET-MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakvongthai, Yothin; El Fakhri, Georges

    2017-07-01

    Motion degrades image quality and quantitation of PET images, and is an obstacle to quantitative PET imaging. Simultaneous PET-MR offers a tool that can be used for correcting the motion in PET images by using anatomic information from MR imaging acquired concurrently. Motion correction can be performed by transforming a set of reconstructed PET images into the same frame or by incorporating the transformation into the system model and reconstructing the motion-corrected image. Several phantom and patient studies have validated that MR-based motion correction strategies have great promise for quantitative PET imaging in simultaneous PET-MR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of PET/CT with sequential PET/MRI using an MR-compatible mobile PET system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Ryusuke; Nakamoto, Yuji; Ishimori, Takayoshi; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Kido, Aki; Togashi, Kaori

    2017-11-02

    Objectives: The current study tested a newly developed flexible PET (positron emission tomography) scanner prototype. This flexible PET (fxPET) system involves dual arc-shaped detectors based on silicon photomultipliers, which are designed to fit existing magnetic resonance (MR) devices, allowing us to get fused PET and MR images by sequential PET scanning. This prospective study sought to evaluate image quality, lesion detection rate, and quantitative values of fxPET in comparison with conventional whole-body (WB) PET images, and to assess the accuracy of registration. Methods: Seventeen patients with suspected or known malignant tumors were analyzed. Approximately 1 h after intravenous injection of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), WB PET/computed tomography (CT) scanning was performed, followed by fxPET and MR scanning. For reconstruction of fxPET images, MRI-based attenuation correction was applied. The quality of fxPET images was visually assessed, and the number of detected lesions was compared between the two imaging methods. The maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and maximum average SUV within a 1 cm(3) spherical volume (SUVpeak) of lesions were also compared. In addition, the magnitude of misregistration between fxPET and MR images was evaluated. Results: The image quality of fxPET was acceptable for diagnosis of malignant tumors. There was no significant difference in detectability of malignant lesions between fxPET and WB PET (P > 0.05). However, the system did not exhibit superior performance compared with WB PET. There were strong positive correlations between the two imaging modalities in SUVmax (ρ = 0.88) and SUVpeak (ρ = 0.81). SUVmax and SUVpeak measured with fxPET were approximately 1.1-fold greater compared with WB PET measurements. The average misregistration between fxPET and MR images was 5.5 ± 3.4 mm. Conclusion: Our preliminary data indicate that running a fxPET scanner in the proximity of an existing MR system provided visually

  19. Validating PET segmentation of thoracic lesions-is 4D PET necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. S.; Carl, J.

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory-induced motions are prone to degrade the positron emission tomography (PET) signal with the consequent loss of image information and unreliable segmentations. This phantom study aims to assess the discrepancies relative to stationary PET segmentations, of widely used semiautomatic PET...... segmented using three SUV threshold methods (Max40%, SUV40% and 2.5SUV) and a gradient based method (GradientSeg). Segmentations in static 3D-PET scans (PETsta) specified the reference conditions for the individual segmentation methods, target lesions and tracer concentrations. The motion included PET...... images followed a 4D-PET (PET4D) and a 3D-PET (PETmot) scan protocol. Moreover, motion-corrected PET images (PETdeb) were derived from the PETmot images. Segmentations in PET4D, PETmot and PETdeb were compared to the PETsta segmentations according to volume changes (Delta Vol) and an error estimate (low...

  20. About one case of mental anorexia associated with a right frontal partial epilepsy diagnosed in crisis by a PET with {sup 18}F.D.G; A propos d'un cas d'anorexie mentale associee a une epilepsie partielle frontale droite diagnostiquee en crise par une TEP au 18-FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avet, J.; Decousus, M.; Dubois, F. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU de Saint-etienne, (France); Galusca, B. [service d' endocrinologie, CHU de Saint-etienne, (France); Convers, P. [service de neurologie, CHU de Saint-etienne, (France); Barral, F.G. [service de radiologie, CHU de Saint-etienne, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The physiology of mental anorexia is very controversial. In some cases, it was described an association with injuries close to the right frontal and temporal lobes. We report the case of an anorexia associated to a partial right frontal epilepsy, fortuitously diagnosed in crisis by a PET with {sup 18}F.D.G.. Conclusions: Because of its closely relationship with the limbic system, the abnormalities touching the right frontal area could contribute to the development of dietary behaviour troubles. This case illustrates this relationship and reports in addition a per-critic PET image of partial epilepsy, that is exceptional because of the tracer kinetics. (N.C.)

  1. Pet care during preadolescence: developmental considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J H

    1987-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated pet care in relation to psychosocial development during preadolescence. A group of male and female preadolescents (n = 22) at appropriate grade level for age completed a dog care responsibility inventory. The results revealed that preadolescents in general do not routinely care for pets. Mothers appear to assume most pet care tasks.

  2. Pet therapy: dogs de-stress students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Judith S

    2012-01-01

    Research supports the efficacy of the human-animal bond and pet therapy in a variety of settings. At nursing students' request at one school, the author began offering pet therapy prior to examinations. Anecdotal evidence of a study with the author's Golden Retriever, Goldilocks, demonstrates that pet therapy can reduce test anxiety and improve nursing student performance.

  3. Saying Goodbye: Pet Loss and Its Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Thelma

    2005-01-01

    Pets can be loyal, loving, and entertaining members of a family. Their deaths are generally experienced as painful losses by the people who love them, even though the grief experience is often culturally disenfranchised. In this manuscript, we discuss the role that pets can play in a person's life; the effects that pet loss can have on the people…

  4. Pets in the family: practical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Kate; Darling, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Adapting family life cycle theory to include pets provides veterinarians with a framework for understanding and reinforcing the human-animal bond. The family genogram with pets is a practice tool that identifies all people and pets in the family, enhancing the practice of One Health at the community level.

  5. Pets or People: Another Research Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmeier, John

    1986-01-01

    Compared four samples of elderly women: living alone, with other persons, and with and without a pet. Pets only made a difference for those living alone. At best, pets only attenuate the sense of loneliness. In intervention with the elderly, the provision of human supports should remain a priority. (Author/BL)

  6. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF EEC PET INSTRUMENTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PAANS, AMJ

    1991-01-01

    As a result of a Guide-Questionnaire distributed among all European PET centers an inventory of the European PET instrumentation has become available in a data base. An overview and analysis of the European PET equipment, cyclotrons, scanners and software, together with some global information on

  7. 24 CFR 960.707 - Pet ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pet ownership. 960.707 Section 960... ADMISSION TO, AND OCCUPANCY OF, PUBLIC HOUSING Pet Ownership in Public Housing § 960.707 Pet ownership. (a) Ownership Conditions. A resident of a dwelling unit in public housing, as that term is used in § 960.703...

  8. PET/MRI. Challenges, solutions and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Hans [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. of Neuroscience and Medicine - 4

    2012-07-01

    Already from the start of PET/CT integrating positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) in one instrument, there have been considerations how to combine PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) so that their complementary abilities can be utilized in a single investigation. Since classical PET electronics fail in an even weak magnetic field and PET signal processing might disturb high-frequency signals of MRI, it soon became clear that new solutions had to be found to avoid mutual interferences. During the last fifteen years a number of different approaches towards PET/MRI for small animal imaging have been developed by research groups which together with their specific features are summarized in this review. Recently, PET/MRI for human imaging became available as well - this time by industrial initiatives. First some prototypes of BrainPET/MRI were developed followed by commercial products for simultaneous and non-simultaneous whole-body PET/MRI. Although only PET/MRI integrated in one scanner offers the full diversity of complementary multiparametric imaging, there are also promising applications of non-simultaneous sequential PET/MRI. While describing the present instrumentation for human PET/MRI, this review discusses the challenges and promises related to this new imaging technology. (orig.)

  9. PET Metabolic Biomarkers for Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Croteau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The body's main fuel sources are fats, carbohydrates (glucose, proteins, and ketone bodies. It is well known that an important hallmark of cancer cells is the overconsumption of glucose. Positron emission tomography (PET imaging using the glucose analog 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG has been a powerful cancer diagnostic tool for many decades. Apart from surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy represent the two main domains for cancer therapy, targeting tumor proliferation, cell division, and DNA replication–-all processes that require a large amount of energy. Currently, in vivo clinical imaging of metabolism is performed almost exclusively using PET radiotracers that assess oxygen consumption and mechanisms of energy substrate consumption. This paper reviews the utility of PET imaging biomarkers for the detection of cancer proliferation, vascularization, metabolism, treatment response, and follow-up after radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and chemotherapy-related side effects.

  10. PET and SPECT in neurology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Otte, Andreas (ed.) [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology

    2014-07-01

    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  11. Evaluation of a PET-T.D.M. with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. in mode List 1 acquisition protocol and a dynamic phantom of head and neck cancer simulation; Evaluation d'un protocole d'acquisition TEP-TDM au 18- FDG en mode List1 et d'un fantome dynamique de simulation de cancer de la tete et du cou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierickx, L.; Nalis, J.; Zerdoud, S.; Robert, A.; Caselles, O.; Courbon, F. [Institut Claudius-Regaud, Toulouse, (France)

    2009-05-15

    A pharmacokinetic analysis of F.D.G. can improve the diagnosis accuracy of the PET-T.D.M; for the simulation in radiotherapy and the post operative evaluation of head and neck cancer. A protocol of dynamic acquisition in list mod allows to test and optimize the different parameters of acquisition for a clinical application. the aim of this study is to develop a dynamic phantom of head and neck cancers simulation and to evaluate the influence of acquisition and reconstruction parameters ( temporal sampling,: bin, correction of random events) on the quantitative analysis. Conclusions: we dispose of a model adapted to the quality control and optimization of pharmaco-dynamic studies in PET-T.D.M; with {sup 18}F.D.G. of head and neck cancers. (N.C.)

  12. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadvar, Hossein, E-mail: jadvar@usc.edu; Colletti, Patrick M.

    2014-01-15

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved.

  13. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perdidos en la selva : un estudio del proceso de re-arraigo y de desarrollo local de la Comunidad-Cooperativa Unión Maya Itzá, formada por campesinos guatemaltecos, antiguos refugiados, reasentados en el Departamento de El Petén, Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaeren, Van der P.

    2000-01-01

    Lost in the forest : A study of the reintegration, re-rooting, and endogenous development process of the communal co-operative Unión Maya Itzá, formed by Guatemalan peasants, former refugees in Mexico, resettled in the Department of Petén,

  15. Myositis ossificans: a false positive of malignancy in PET - CT F.D.G. and in osseous scintigraphy with HMDP {sup 99}Tc;La myosite ossifiante: un faux positif de malignite en TEP-TDM FDG et en scintigraphie osseuse au HMDP Tc99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassler, S.; Bourahla, K. [CLCC Paul-Strauss, Service de medecine nucleaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2010-05-15

    Myositis ossificans is a difficult differential diagnosis and a false positive for malignancy in both {sup 99m}Tc H.M.D.P. (hydroxy-methylene diphosphonate) scintigraphy and in exploration PET-F.D.G. This hypothesis should be mentioned in case of young patients, despite the unusual scintigraphic appearance in a benign process. (N.C.)

  16. Contribution of the PET-CT with {sup 18}F.D.G. in the diagnosis of neurolymphomatosis: about one case; Apport de la TEP-TDM au {sup 18}FDG dans le diagnostic de neurolymphomatose: a propos d'un cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazaentre, T.; Sanhes, L.; Cassarini, J.F.; Vallentin, X.; Pascal-Ortiz, D. [Hopital Saint-Jean, 66 - Perpignan (France)

    2010-07-01

    The PET with {sup 18}F.D.G. has an important place in the diagnosis, the extension assessment after treatment of the neurolymphomatosis. It is the most sensitive examination and allows to evoke the diagnosis in lack of available histological data. (N.C.)

  17. Kinetic modeling in PET imaging of hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Jesper T; Hansen, Anders E; Kjaer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    be used for non-invasive mapping of tissue oxygenation in vivo and several hypoxia specific PET tracers have been developed. Evaluation of PET data in the clinic is commonly based on visual assessment together with semiquantitative measurements e.g. standard uptake value (SUV). However, dynamic PET......Tumor hypoxia is associated with increased therapeutic resistance leading to poor treatment outcome. Therefore the ability to detect and quantify intratumoral oxygenation could play an important role in future individual personalized treatment strategies. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) can...... analysis for PET imaging of hypoxia....

  18. FDG-PET response-adapted therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate tool for staging, treatment monitoring, and response evaluation in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Early determination of treatment sensitivity by FDG-PET is the best tool to guide individualized......, response-adapted treatment. Several ongoing or recently completed trials have investigated the use of FDG-PET/CT for early response-adapted HL therapy. The results are encouraging, but the data are immature, and PET response-adapted HL therapy is discouraged outside the setting of clinical trials. PET...

  19. Cardiac Applications of PET/MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jeffrey M C; Laforest, Richard; Nensa, Felix; Zheng, Jie; Gropler, Robert J; Woodard, Pamela K

    2017-05-01

    Simultaneous acquisition PET/MR imaging combines the anatomic capabilities of cardiac MR imaging with quantitative capabilities of both PET and MR imaging. Cardiac PET/MR imaging has the potential not only to assess cardiac tumors but also to provide thorough assessment of myocardial ischemia, infarction, and function and specific characterization of cardiomyopathies, such as cardiac sarcoid. In this article, the authors start with a discussion of the technical challenges specific to cardiovascular PET/MR imaging followed by a discussion of the use of PET/MR imaging in various cardiovascular conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PET/CT in the thorax: pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Mylene T; Viswanathan, Chitra; Carter, Brett W; Mawlawi, Osama; Marom, Edith M

    2014-01-01

    PET/CT is widely used in the staging and assessment of therapeutic response in patients with malignancies. Accurate interpretation of PET/CT requires knowledge of the normal physiologic distribution of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose, artifacts due to the use of CT for attenuation correction of the PET scan and potential pitfalls due to malignancies that are PET negative and benign conditions that are PET positive. Awareness of these artifacts and potential pitfalls is important in preventing misinterpretation that can alter patient management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Kinetic modeling in PET imaging of hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fan; Jørgensen, Jesper Tranekjær; Hansen, Anders E

    2014-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia is associated with increased therapeutic resistance leading to poor treatment outcome. Therefore the ability to detect and quantify intratumoral oxygenation could play an important role in future individual personalized treatment strategies. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) can...... be used for non-invasive mapping of tissue oxygenation in vivo and several hypoxia specific PET tracers have been developed. Evaluation of PET data in the clinic is commonly based on visual assessment together with semiquantitative measurements e.g. standard uptake value (SUV). However, dynamic PET...... analysis for PET imaging of hypoxia....

  2. Development of PET/MRI with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jin Ho; Choi, Yong, E-mail: ychoi.image@gmail.com; Jung, Jiwoong; Kim, Sangsu; Lim, Hyun Keong; Im, Ki Chun [Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyun-wook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Jong Guk [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-709 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a dual-modality positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of the human brain. Methods: The PET detector block was composed of a 4 × 4 matrix of detector modules, each consisting of a 4 × 4 array LYSO coupled to a 4 × 4 Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GAPD) array. The PET insert consisted of 18 detector blocks, circularly mounted on a custom-made plastic base to form a ring with an inner diameter of 390 mm and axial length of 60 mm. The PET gantry was shielded with gold-plated conductive fabric tapes with a thickness of 0.1 mm. The charge signals of PET detector transferred via 4 m long flat cables were fed into the position decoder circuit. The flat cables were shielded with a mesh-type aluminum sheet with a thickness of 0.24 mm. The position decoder circuit and field programmable gate array-embedded DAQ modules were enclosed in an aluminum box with a thickness of 10 mm and located at the rear of the MR bore inside the MRI room. A 3-T human MRI system with a Larmor frequency of 123.7 MHz and inner bore diameter of 60 cm was used as the PET/MRI hybrid system. A custom-made radio frequency (RF) coil with an inner diameter of 25 cm was fabricated. The PET was positioned between gradient and the RF coils. PET performance was measured outside and inside the MRI scanner using echo planar imaging, spin echo, turbo spin echo, and gradient echo sequences. MRI performance was also evaluated with and without the PET insert. The stability of the newly developed PET insert was evaluated and simultaneous PET and MR images of a brain phantom were acquired. Results: No significant degradation of the PET performance caused by MR was observed when the PET was operated using various MR imaging sequences. The signal-to-noise ratio of MR images was slightly degraded due to the PET insert installed inside the MR bore while the homogeneity was

  3. Understanding the context for pet cat and dog feeding and exercising behaviour among pet owners in Ireland: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Martin J; Devitt, Catherine; Downes, Marie T; More, Simon J

    2017-01-01

    Pet cat and dog obesity contributes to increased risk of several diseases, including cancer and diabetes mellitus as well as a worsening of orthopaedic problems, and a reduction in survival rate. This study aims to develop a better understanding of cat and dog owners' self-reported beliefs and factors that influence owner behaviour around feeding and exercising their pet cat or dog, as there is a lack of in-depth understanding in this area. Seven focus group discussions, with 43 pet owners in total, were conducted. Pet owners often reported a perceived a low level of control over feeding; often undermined by other people feeding of their pet, their pets begging for food, and their pets attitude towards food. Treats were used in the absence of owner control over pet begging and emotional attachment, and to influence pet behaviour. The majority of participants had positive attitudes to pet exercise, which could be related to pet specific requirements, especially differences in cats and dogs. There were some negative experiences of stress associated with dog walking and fears over aggressive confrontations with other dogs. Feeding one's pet is influenced by beliefs about pet specific needs, pet food and pet health, pet owners' perceived control over feeding, and the implications for the pet owner. Pet exercise is influenced by beliefs about pet specific exercise needs, and the implications of exercising one's pet for the pet owner. Understanding owner behaviours on feeding and exercise allows for a more targeted approach to preventing and treating pet obesity.

  4. Effect of Attenuation Correction on Regional Quantification Between PET/MR and PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teuho, Jarmo; Johansson, Jarkko; Linden, Jani

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED: A spatial bias in brain PET/MR exists compared with PET/CT, because of MR-based attenuation correction. We performed an evaluation among 4 institutions, 3 PET/MR systems, and 4 PET/CT systems using an anthropomorphic brain phantom, hypothesizing that the spatial bias would be minimized...... with CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC). METHODS: The evaluation protocol was similar to the quantification of changes in neurologic PET studies. Regional analysis was conducted on 8 anatomic volumes of interest (VOIs) in gray matter on count-normalized, resolution-matched, coregistered data. On PET/MR...... systems, CTAC was applied as the reference method for attenuation correction. RESULTS: With CTAC, visual and quantitative differences between PET/MR and PET/CT systems were minimized. Intersystem variation between institutions was +3.42% to -3.29% in all VOIs for PET/CT and +2.15% to -4.50% in all VOIs...

  5. PET/MR Imaging in Gynecologic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohliger, Michael A; Hope, Thomas A; Chapman, Jocelyn S; Chen, Lee-May; Behr, Spencer C; Poder, Liina

    2017-08-01

    MR imaging and PET using 2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoroglucose (FDG) are both useful in the evaluation of gynecologic malignancies. MR imaging is superior for local staging of disease whereas fludeoxyglucose FDG PET is superior for detecting distant metastases. Integrated PET/MR imaging scanners have great promise for gynecologic malignancies by combining the advantages of each modality into a single scan. This article reviews the technology behind PET/MR imaging acquisitions and technical challenges relevant to imaging the pelvis. A dedicated PET/MR imaging protocol; the roles of PET and MR imaging in cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers; and future directions for PET/MR imaging are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-09-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  7. Should Immunocompromised Patients Have Pets?

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Russell W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the risks and benefits of pet ownership by immunodeficient patients, focusing primarily on organisms that colonize animals and are transmitted to humans. Those diseases that are known to be progressive or more severe in patients with altered immune function are emphasized.

  8. 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Naprosyn®) is an over-the-counter pain reliever. Dogs and cats are very sensitive to naproxen and even small amounts can cause stomach ulcers and kidney failure. Duloxetine – Duloxetine (Cymbalta®) is prescribed as an antidepressant and anti-anxiety agent. When ingested by pets it can cause ...

  9. Particle Accelerators for PET radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    The requirements set for particle accelerators for production of radioactive isotopes for PET can easily be derived from first principles. The simple general need is for proton beams with energy in the region 10–20 MeV and current 20–100 microAmps. This is most reliably and cost-effectively achie......The requirements set for particle accelerators for production of radioactive isotopes for PET can easily be derived from first principles. The simple general need is for proton beams with energy in the region 10–20 MeV and current 20–100 microAmps. This is most reliably and cost...... different manufacturers will be discussed the light of what is actually needed for a given PET site operation. Alternatives to the conventional cyclotron have been proposed and tested but have at present very limited use. These alternatives will be discussed, as well as the future possibilities of supplying...... point of demand tracer production with very small cyclotrons of energy well below 10 MeV. The authors best advice at present for new PET sites is to negotiate for conventional cyclotron solutions from experienced manufacturers. It is the combined performance of cyclotron and target in terms of available...

  10. SPECT og PET i neurobiologien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A

    1997-01-01

    PET (positron emission tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) are isotopic methods in which the distribution is registered of radiolabelled tracers given in such small amounts that they are without effect on the organism or the organism's disposal of them. Thus, a series...

  11. Brain fluorodeoxyglucose PET in adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsano, Ettore; Marotta, Giorgio; Manfredi, Valentina; Giovagnoli, Anna Rita; Farina, Laura; Savoiardo, Mario; Pareyson, Davide; Benti, Riccardo; Uziel, Graziella

    2014-09-09

    To investigate the cerebral glucose metabolism in subjects with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) by using brain [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET). Cross-sectional study in which 12 adults with various forms of X-ALD underwent clinical evaluation and brain MRI, followed by brain FDG-PET, neuropsychological assessment, and personality and psychopathology evaluation using the Symptom Checkist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). When compared to healthy control subjects (n = 27) by using Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software, the patients with X-ALD-with or without brain MRI changes-showed a pattern of increased glucose metabolism in frontal lobes and reduced glucose metabolism in cerebellum and temporal lobe areas. On single case analysis by Scenium software, we found a similar pattern, with significant (p < 0.02) correlation between the degree of hypermetabolism in the frontal lobes of each patient and the corresponding X-ALD clinical scores. With respect to personality, we found that patients with X-ALD usually present with an obsessive-compulsive personality disorder on the MCMI-III, with significant (p < 0.05) correlation between glucose uptake in ventral striatum and severity of score on the obsessive-compulsive subscale. We examined cerebral glucose metabolism using FDG-PET in a cohort of patients with X-ALD and provided definite evidence that in X-ALD the analysis of brain glucose metabolism reveals abnormalities independent from morphologic and signal changes detected by MRI and related to clinical severity. Brain FDG-PET may be a useful neuroimaging technique for the characterization of X-ALD and possibly other leukodystrophies. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Dose Optimization in TOF-PET/MR Compared to TOF-PET/CT

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Marcelo A; Gaspar Delso; Scott Wollenweber; Timothy Deller; Konstantinos Zeimpekis; Martin Huellner; Felipe de Galiza Barbosa; Gustav von Schulthess; Patrick Veit-Haibach

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the possible activity reduction in FDG-imaging in a Time-of-Flight (TOF) PET/MR, based on cross-evaluation of patient-based NECR (noise equivalent count rate) measurements in PET/CT, cross referencing with phantom-based NECR curves as well as initial evaluation of TOF-PET/MR with reduced activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 75 consecutive patients were evaluated in this study. PET/CT imaging was performed on a PET/CT (time-of-flight (TOF) Discovery D 690 PET/CT)...

  13. Pet Ownership by Elderly People: Two New Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David W. E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined two issues of pet ownership in mail questionnaire and interview survey of 1,595 older adults over age 60, 377 of whom had a pet. Found evidence that pets were important determinant of housing choice. Many elderly pet owners had made no arrangements for pet if they predecease it or become unable to care for it. (Author/NB)

  14. Comparison of integrated whole-body PET/MR and PET/CT: Is PET/MR alternative to PET/CT in routine clinical oncology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Shirou; Shimao, Daisuke; Hara, Takamitsu; Miyajima, Masayuki; Kikuchi, Ken; Takawa, Masashi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ito, Hiroshi; Shishido, Fumio

    2016-04-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of whole-body PET/CT and integrated PET/MR in relation to the total scan time durations. One hundred and twenty-three (123) patients (40 males and 83 females; mean age 59.6 years; range 20-83 years) with confirmed primary cancer and clinical suspicion of metastatic disease underwent whole-body 18F-FDG-PET/CT and 18F-FDG-PET/MR. Data acquisition was done after intravenous administration of 110-301 MBq radioactivity of 18F-FDG, and PET/MR data were acquired after the PET/CT data acquisition. The mean uptake times for PET/CT and PET/MR acquisition were 68.0 ± 8.0 and 98.0 ± 14 min, respectively. Total scan time was 20.0 and 25.0 min for whole-body PET/CT and PET/MR imaging. The reconstructed PET/CT and PET/MR data detected 333/355 (93.8 %) common lesions in 111/123 (90.2 %) patients. PET/CT and PET/MR alone detected 348/355 and 340/355 lesions, respectively. No significant (p = 0.08) difference was observed for the overall detection efficiency between the two techniques. On the other hand, a significant difference was observed between the two techniques for the detection of lung (p = 0.003) and cerebrospinal (p = 0.007) lesions. The 15 lesions identified by PET/CT only included 8 lung, 3 lymph nodes, 2 bone, and 1 each of peritoneal and adrenal gland lesions. On the other hand, 7 (6 brain metastatic lesions and 1 bone lesion) were identified by PET/MR only. Integrated PET/MR is a feasible whole-body imaging modality and may score better than PET/CT for the detection of brain metastases. To further prove diagnostic utility, this technique requires further clinical validation.

  15. Basic study of entire whole-body PET scanners based on the OpenPET geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.j [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yamaya, Taiga; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-09-21

    A conventional PET scanner has a 15-25 cm axial field-of-view (FOV) and images a whole body using about six bed positions. An OpenPET geometry can extend the axial FOV with a limited number of detectors. The entire whole-body PET scanner must be able to process a large amount of data effectively. In this work, we study feasibility of the fully 3D entire whole-body PET scanner using the GATE simulation. The OpenPET has 12 block detector rings with the ring diameter of 840 mm and each block detector ring consists of 48 depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors. The OpenPET has the axial length of 895.95 mm with five parts of 58.95 mm open gaps. The OpenPET has higher single data loss than a conventional PET scanner at grouping circuits. NECR of the OpenPET decreases by single data loss. But single data loss is mitigated by separating the axially arranged detector into two parts. Also, multiple coincidences are found to be important for the entire whole-body PET scanner. The entire whole-body PET scanner with the OpenPET geometry promises to provide a large axial FOV with the open space and to have sufficient performance values. But single data loss at the grouping circuits and multiple coincidences are limited to the peak noise equivalent count rate (NECR) for the entire whole-body PET scanner.

  16. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne D. Hawkins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment to pets has an important role in children’s social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life and pets (such as humane treatment. This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood.

  17. PET/MRI and PET/CT in advanced gynaecological tumours: initial experience and comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Marcelo A.; Schulthess, Gustav von; Veit-Haibach, Patrick [University Hospital Zurich, Department Medical Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Department Medical Radiology, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Freiwald-Chilla, Bianka [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); Hauser, Nik [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Gynaecology, Baden (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Guerbet AG, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-08-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of PET/MRI and PET/CT for staging and re-staging advanced gynaecological cancer patients as well as identify the potential benefits of each method in such a population. Twenty-six patients with suspicious or proven advanced gynaecological cancer (12 ovarian, seven cervical, one vulvar and four endometrial tumours, one uterine metastasis, and one primary peritoneal cancer) underwent whole-body imaging with a sequential trimodality PET/CT/MR system. Images were analysed regarding primary tumour detection and delineation, loco-regional lymph node staging, and abdominal/extra-abdominal distant metastasis detection (last only by PET/CT). Eighteen (69.2 %) patients underwent PET/MRI for primary staging and eight patients (30.8 %) for re-staging their gynaecological malignancies. For primary tumour delineation, PET/MRI accuracy was statistically superior to PET/CT (p < 0.001). Among the different types of cancer, PET/MRI presented better tumour delineation mainly for cervical (6/7) and endometrial (2/3) cancers. PET/MRI for local evaluation as well as PET/CT for extra-abdominal metastases had therapeutic consequences in three and one patients, respectively. PET/CT detected 12 extra-abdominal distant metastases in 26 patients. PET/MRI is superior to PET/CT for primary tumour delineation. No differences were found in detection of regional lymph node involvement and abdominal metastases detection. (orig.)

  18. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Roxanne D; Williams, Joanne M; Scottish Society For The Prevention Of Cruelty To Animals Scottish Spca

    2017-05-06

    Attachment to pets has an important role in children's social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life) and pets (such as humane treatment). This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood.

  19. Role of Cardiac PET in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salata, Brian M; Singh, Parmanand

    2017-11-09

    Early identification of atherosclerosis and at-risk lesions plays a critical role in reducing the burden of cardiovascular disease. While invasive coronary angiography serves as the gold standard for diagnosing coronary artery disease, non-invasive imaging techniques provide visualization of both anatomical and functional atherosclerotic processes prior to clinical presentation. The development of cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) has greatly enhanced our capability to diagnose and treat patients with early stages of atherosclerosis. Cardiac PET is a powerful, versatile non-invasive diagnostic tool with utility in the identification of high-risk plaques, myocardial perfusion defects, and viable myocardial tissue. Cardiac PET allows for comparisons of myocardial function both at time of rest and stress, providing accurate assessments of both myocardial perfusion and viability. Furthermore, novel PET techniques with unique radiotracers yield clinically relevant data on high-risk plaques in active progressive atherosclerosis. While PET exercise stress tests were previously difficult to perform given short radiotracer half-life, the development of the novel radiotracer Flurpiridaz F-18 provides a promising future for PET exercise stress imaging. In addition, hybrid imaging with computed tomography angiography (CTA) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) provides integration of cardiac function and structure. In this review article, we discuss the principles of cardiac PET, the clinical applications of PET in diagnosing and prognosticating patients at risk for future cardiovascular events, compare PET with other non-invasive cardiac imaging modalities, and discuss future applications of PET in CVD evaluation and management.

  20. PET/MR: a paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, Sebastian; Schwaiger, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Abstract More than a decade ago, multimodality imaging was introduced into clinical routine with the development of the positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) technique. Since then, PET/CT has been widely accepted in clinical imaging and has emerged as one of the main cancer imaging modalities. With the recent development of combined PET/magnetic resonance (MR) systems for clinical use, a promising new hybrid imaging modality is now becoming increasingly available. The combination of functional information delivered by PET with the morphologic and functional imaging of MR imaging (e.g., diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging and MR spectroscopy) offers exciting possibilities for clinical applications as well as basic research. However, the differences between CT and MR imaging are fundamental. This also leads to distinct differences between PET/CT and PET/MR not only regarding image interpretation but also concerning data acquisition, data processing and image reconstruction. This article provides an overview of the principal differences between PET/CT and PET/MR in terms of scanner design and technology, attenuation correction, speed, acquisition protocols, radiation exposure and safety aspects. PET/MR is expected to show advantages over PET/CT in clinical applications in which MR is known to be superior to CT due to its high intrinsic soft tissue contrast. However, as of now, only assumptions can be made about the future clinical role of PET/MR, as data about the performance of PET/MR in the clinical setting are still limited. The possible future clinical use of PET/MR in oncology, neurology and neurooncology, cardiology and imaging of inflammation is discussed. PMID:23446110

  1. Extra gonadal non-seminomatous germ cell tumour and PET-T.D.M. with {sup 18}F-F.D.G.: about one case of primitive retroperitoneal choriocarcinoma; Tumeurs germinales non seminomateuses extragonadiques et TEP-TDM au F-18 FDG: a propos d'un cas de choriocarcinome retroperitoneal primitif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimarelli, S.; Deshayes, E.; Mognetti, T.; Desuzinges, C. [Service de medecine nucleaire, centre Leon-Berard, Lyon, (France); Biron, P. [departement d' oncologie, centre Leon-Berard, Lyon, (France); Rivoire, M. [departement de chirurgie, centre Leon-Berard, Lyon, (France); Giammarile, F. [service de medecine nucleaire, hopital Lyon-Sud, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The non-seminomatous germinal tumors represent 60% of the germinal tumors, the most frequent cancer for young men.The positron computed tomography/computed tomography (PET/T.D.M.) with {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose seems full of promises for the initial evaluation and the early evaluation of chemotherapy. for this type of tumor. In 1 to 5% of cases these tumors are extra gonadal. We present the case of a twenty three years old man with a retroperitoneal primitive choriocarcinoma with numerous metastases for whom the metabolic imaging was useful. We discuss the interest of this examination in this rare pathology. For the extra gonadal non-seminomatous germinal tumors the PET-F.D.G. seems bring information useful for the determination of the viable character of a post-chemotherapy residual mass, especially when the anatomical imaging show results discordant with the clinico biological data. (N.C.)

  2. PET Performance Evaluation of an MR-Compatible PET Insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yibao; Catana, Ciprian; Farrell, Richard; Dokhale, Purushottam A.; Shah, Kanai S.; Qi, Jinyi; Cherry, Simon R.

    2009-06-01

    A magnetic resonance (MR) compatible positron emission tomography (PET) insert has been developed in our laboratory for simultaneous small animal PET/MR imaging. This system is based on lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator arrays with position-sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) photodetectors. The PET performance of this insert has been measured. The average reconstructed image spatial resolution was 1.51 mm. The sensitivity at the center of the field of view (CFOV) was 0.35%, which is comparable to the simulation predictions of 0.40%. The average photopeak energy resolution was 25%. The scatter fraction inside the MRI scanner with a line source was 12% (with a mouse-sized phantom and standard 35 mm Bruker 1 H RF coil), 7% (with RF coil only) and 5% (without phantom or RF coil) for an energy window of 350-650 keV. The front-end electronics had a dead time of 390 ns, and a trigger extension dead time of 7.32 mus that degraded counting rate performance for injected doses above 0.75 mCi (28 MBq). The peak noise-equivalent count rate (NECR) of 1.27 kcps was achieved at 290 muCi (10.7 MBq). The system showed good imaging performance inside a 7-T animal MRI system; however improvements in data acquisition electronics and reduction of the coincidence timing window are needed to realize improved NECR performance.

  3. PET/CT en oncología pediátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. H. David Ladrón de Guevara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Los exámenes metabólicos con PET (Positron Emission Tomography han experimentado un notable desarrollo tecnológico y expansión de su uso clínico en las últimas décadas. Gran parte de la utilidad clínica del PET se ha centrado en el estudio de patología oncológica, donde ha demostrado alto rendimiento diagnóstico y adecuada relación costo/beneficio, permitiendo diagnósticos más rápidos, certeros e integrales, con reconocido ahorro de tiempo y recursos. En el área pediátrica, el PET ha mostrado un crecimiento exponencial en los últimos años, debido principalmente al advenimiento de equipos tecnológicamente más avanzados y de adquisición híbrida como el PET/CT (Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography, que han permitido disminuir las dosis de radiación y los tiempos de examen, con significativa elevación del rendimiento de la técnica. Por otro lado, la rápida masificación de equipos PET/CT ha hecho posible reducir notablemente los costos del examen. En este trabajo se revisan aspectos técnicos del PET/CT, preparación para el examen, indicaciones, rendimiento y utilidad por patología, haciendo una revisión de la literatura disponible.

  4. FDG PET and PET/CT: EANM procedure guidelines for tumour PET imaging: version 1.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boellaard, Ronald; O'Doherty, Mike J; Weber, Wolfgang A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this guideline is to provide a minimum standard for the acquisition and interpretation of PET and PET/CT scans with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). This guideline will therefore address general information about[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography......-computed tomography (PET/CT) and is provided to help the physician and physicist to assist to carrying out,interpret, and document quantitative FDG PET/CT examinations,but will concentrate on the optimisation of diagnostic quality and quantitative information....

  5. PET/MRI in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Andreas; Loft, Annika; Law, Ian

    2013-01-01

    described include brain tumors, pediatric oncology as well as lung, abdominal and pelvic cancer. In general the cases show that PET/MRI performs well in all these types of cancer when compared to PET/CT. However, future large-scale clinical studies are needed to establish when to use PET/MRI. We envision...... that PET/MRI in oncology will prove to become a valuable addition to PET/CT in diagnosing, tailoring and monitoring cancer therapy in selected patient populations.......Combined PET/MRI systems are now commercially available and are expected to change the medical imaging field by providing combined anato-metabolic image information. We believe this will be of particular relevance in imaging of cancer patients. At the Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear...

  6. PET/MRI in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Andreas; Loft, Annika; Law, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Combined PET/MRI systems are now commercially available and are expected to change the medical imaging field by providing combined anato-metabolic image information. We believe this will be of particular relevance in imaging of cancer patients. At the Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear...... described include brain tumors, pediatric oncology as well as lung, abdominal and pelvic cancer. In general the cases show that PET/MRI performs well in all these types of cancer when compared to PET/CT. However, future large-scale clinical studies are needed to establish when to use PET/MRI. We envision...... that PET/MRI in oncology will prove to become a valuable addition to PET/CT in diagnosing, tailoring and monitoring cancer therapy in selected patient populations....

  7. PET/MR Outperforms PET/CT in Suspected Occult Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Tetsuro; Barbosa, Felipe de Galiza; Sah, Bert-Ram; Mader, Cäcilia E; Delso, Gaspar; Burger, Irene A; Stolzmann, Paul; Ter Voert, Edwin E; von Schulthess, Gustav K; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Huellner, Martin W

    2017-02-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of PET/MR and PET/CT in patients with suspected occult primary tumors. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Sequential PET/CT-MR was performed in 43 patients (22 male subjects; median age, 58 years; range, 20-86 years) referred for suspected occult primary tumors. Patients were assessed with PET/CT and PET/MR for the presence of a primary tumor, lymph node metastases, and distant metastases. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT and PET/MR. According to the standard of reference, a primary lesion was found in 14 patients. In 16 patients, the primary lesion remained occult. In the remaining 13 patients, lesions proved to be benign. PET/MR was superior to PET/CT for primary tumor detection (sensitivity/specificity, 0.85/0.97 vs 0.69/0.73; P = 0.020) and comparable to PET/CT for the detection of lymph node metastases (sensitivity/specificity, 0.93/1.00 vs 0.93/0.93; P = 0.157) and distant metastases (sensitivity/specificity, 1.00/0.97 vs 0.82/1.00; P = 0.564). PET/CT tended to misclassify physiologic FDG uptake as malignancy compared with PET/MR (8 patients vs 1 patient). PET/MR outperforms PET/CT in the workup of suspected occult malignancies. PET/MR may replace PET/CT to improve clinical workflow.

  8. PET/MR in the Assessment of Pediatric Histiocytoses: A Comparison to PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Andrew C; Orth, Robert; McClain, Kenneth; Allen, Carl; Hayatghaibi, Shireen; Seghers, Victor

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility and diagnostic performance of F-FDG PET/MR compared with F-FDG PET/CT in a cohort of pediatric histiocytosis patients with regard to image quality, lesion detection, and FDG quantification. Children with a diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis or Rosai-Dorfman disease were prospectively recruited. Seventeen PET/CT and PET/MR examinations were performed on 9 patients (mean age, 6.2 years) following a single-injection dual-imaging protocol. The indication was Langerhans cell histiocytosis in 10 examinations and Rosai-Dorfman disease in 7 examinations. The anonymized data were evaluated for image quality and lesion detection. SUV quantification of each lesion was compared between modalities. All PET/MR examinations had good or excellent image quality and were deemed clinically acceptable. There was substantial agreement of PET image quality among readers of PET/MR images. Per patient, PET/MR and PET/CT had complete concordance in identifying active disease. PET/MRI correctly classified 74 (96%) of 77 foci of disease identified on PET/CT. The per-lesion maximum SUVs were strongly correlated between modalities with a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.73 (P PET/MR is clinically feasible in pediatric patients with a histiocytic disease. PET/MR demonstrates comparable image quality and lesion detection to PET/CT while maintaining strongly correlated quantitative performance. Given the significant radiation dose savings, PET/MR represents an appealing alternative to PET/CT in the care of children with histiocytic disorders.

  9. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Rohrbaugh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pet ownership has historically been one of the biggest risk factors for evacuation failure prior to natural disasters. The forced abandonment of pets during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 made national headlines and led to the passage of the Pet Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act (PETS, 2006 which mandated local authorities to plan for companion animal evacuation. Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States in 2011, providing an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of the PETS legislation on frequency and ease of evacuation among pet owners and non-pet owners. Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during the hurricane and symptoms of depression, PTSD, dissociative experiences, and acute stress. Pet ownership was not found to be a statistical risk factor for evacuation failure. However, many pet owners who failed to evacuate continue to cite pet related reasons.

  10. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Melissa G; Bogue, Kelsey; Rohrbaugh, Nick

    2012-09-28

    Pet ownership has historically been one of the biggest risk factors for evacuation failure prior to natural disasters. The forced abandonment of pets during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 made national headlines and led to the passage of the Pet Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act (PETS, 2006) which mandated local authorities to plan for companion animal evacuation. Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States in 2011, providing an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of the PETS legislation on frequency and ease of evacuation among pet owners and non-pet owners. Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during the hurricane and symptoms of depression, PTSD, dissociative experiences, and acute stress. Pet ownership was not found to be a statistical risk factor for evacuation failure. However, many pet owners who failed to evacuate continue to cite pet related reasons.

  11. Know the Risks of Feeding Raw Food to Your Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one factor that should be considered when selecting diets for your pet.” June 30, 2014 back to top Related Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Avoid the Dangers of Raw Pet Food Tips for Safe Handling of Pet Food and ...

  12. Pet Store Loyalty in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Yuen Yee

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty is open studied topic within the retailing and marketing discipline. A strong and profitable base of loyal customers is an asset to any organization, and is one of the epitomes of success for a company. The flourishing of large, specialty niche retailers like Starbucks, Victoria Secret and Barnes & Noble are stellar success stories that thrive on their troop of staunch followers. Pet retailing is a niche market which has its own interesting market characteristics. The emergence of ...

  13. Critical Care of Pet Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey Rowe

    2016-05-01

    Successful care of the critical pet bird patient is dependent on preparation and planning and begins with the veterinarian and hospital staff. An understanding of avian physiology and pathophysiology is key. Physical preparation of the hospital or clinic includes proper equipment and understanding of the procedures necessary to provide therapeutic and supportive care to the avian patient. An overview of patient intake and assessment, intensive care environment, and fluid therapy is included. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The AX-PET project Demonstration of a high resolution axial 3D PET

    CERN Document Server

    Bolle, E; Casella, C; Chesi, E; Clinthorne, N; Cochran, E; De Leo, R; Dissertori, G; Djambazov, G; Fanti, V; Honscheid, K; Huh, S; Johnson, I; Joram, C; Kagan, H; Lustermann, W; Meddi, F; Nappi, E; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Oliver, J F; Pauss, P; Rafecas, M; Renker, D; Rudge, A; Schinzel, D; Schneider, T; Seguinot, J; Smith, S; Solevi, P; Stapnes, S; Weilhammer, P

    2010-01-01

    The AX-PET is a new geometrical concept for a high resolution 3D PET scanner, based on matrices of axially oriented LYSO crystals interleaved by stacks of WLS, both individually read out by G-APDs. A PET demonstrator, based on two detector modules used in coincidence, is currently under construction.

  15. Processing and characterization of extruded PET and its r-PET and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of r-PET and r-PET+ MWCNT fillers was obtained by the precipitation method using TFA as a solvent and acetone as an antisolvent. The samples before spin coating were extruded and for comparison, a film of non-extruded PET was also prepared. Structural studies by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction show ...

  16. Evacuating People and Their Pets: Older Floridians' Need for and Proximity to Pet-Friendly Shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Rachel; Kocatepe, Ayberk; Barrett, Anne E; Ozguven, Eren Erman; Gumber, Clayton

    2017-10-04

    Pets influence evacuation decisions, but little is known about pet-friendly emergency shelters' availability or older adults' need for them. Our study addresses this issue, focusing on the most densely populated area of Florida (Miami-Dade)-the state with the oldest population and greatest hurricane susceptibility. We use Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based methodology to identify the shortest paths to pet-friendly shelters, based on distance and congested and uncongested travel times-taking into account the older population's spatial distribution. Logistic regression models using the 2013 American Housing Survey's Disaster Planning Module examine anticipated shelter use as a function of pet ownership and requiring pet evacuation assistance. Thirty-four percent of older adults in the Miami-Dade area have pets-35% of whom report needing pet evacuation assistance. However, GIS accessibility measures show that travel time factors are likely to impede older adults' use of the area's few pet-friendly shelters. Logistic regression results reveal that pet owners are less likely to report anticipating shelter use; however, the opposite holds for pet owners reporting they would need help evacuating their pets-they anticipate using shelters. High pet shelter need coupled with low availability exacerbates older adults' heightened vulnerability during Florida's hurricane season.

  17. F-18-FLT PET for visualization of laryngeal cancer : Comparison with F-18-FDG PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, DCP; van der Laan, BFAM; Maas, B; Vaalburg, W; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hoekstra, HJ; Jager, PL; Elsinga, PH

    The feasibility of F-18-3'-fluoro-3'-deoxy-L-thymidine PET (FLT PET) for detecting laryngeal cancer was investigated and compared with F-18-FDG PET. Methods: Eleven patients diagnosed with or strongly suspected of having recurrent laryngeal cancer and 10 patients with histologically proven primary

  18. Processing and characterization of extruded PET and its r-PET and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The objective of the present study was basic understanding of the formation of thin film morphology by spin coating using reorganized polyethylene terephthalate (r-PET) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as fillers in PET. A study of the correlation between physical properties of the PET films and its surface ...

  19. Bacterial Zoonoses Transmitted by Household Pets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Broens, E.M.; Chomel, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    with urine), and campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis (faecal–oral ingestion). Antimicrobial resistance was also included due to the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria of zoonotic potential in dogs and cats. There is a general lack of data on pathogen prevalence in the relevant pet population...... to estimate the burden of human disease attributable to pets and to identify risk behaviours facilitating transmission, and (3) education of those in charge of pets, animal caretakers, veterinarians and human medical healthcare practitioners on the potential zoonotic risks associated with exposure to pets...

  20. PET-Computed Tomography in Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Elissa K

    2016-05-01

    PET/CT is an advanced imaging modality that is becoming more commonly used in veterinary medicine. It is most commonly used to image patients with cancer, and the most frequently used radiopharmaceutical is F-18 FDG. F-18 FDG is a glucose analog that highlights areas of increased glucose metabolism on the PET images. CT images provide excellent anatomic depiction and aid in interpretation of the PET data. Many types of cancer are hypermetabolic on PET/CT scans, but normal structures and areas of inflammation are also hypermetabolic, so knowledge of normal imaging and cytologic or histopathologic evaluation of lesions is essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pet food safety: the roles of government, manufacturers, and veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirmann, Laura; Cowell, Christopher; Thompson, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Food safety is of concern for both human and companion animal health. Government agencies, pet food manufacturers, and veterinarians play crucial roles in ensuring the safety of pet food and safeguarding pets and their owners. Recent legislation will increase the governmental role in regulating pet food and will affect many manufacturers. Veterinarians continue to play a vital role by recognizing and reporting pet food safety issues and by educating clients on matters related to pet food safety.

  2. Musculoskeletal imaging using fluoride PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dorothee Rita

    2013-11-01

    The convenience of (18)F-fluoride imaging is undeniable both because of its favorable tracer and because of its technical characteristics, including high image quality and short examination times leading to increased patient comfort. Depending on the activity administered, the radiation dose to patients is about comparable to higher using (18)F-fluoride for bone imaging compared with conventional scintigraphy using 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate. In times of molybdenum shortage, (18)F-fluoride represents a good alternative to 99mTc-based bone tracers. Besides malignant skeletal disease(18)F-fluoride PET/CT has in the last decade been investigated in a variety of non-oncologic musculoskeletal disorders of all parts of the skeleton. Studies included imaging of the skull with a special focus on bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients treated with bisphosphonates due to benign or malignant bone changes. Further studies evaluated the appendicular skeleton with emphasis on postsurgical changes including patients after knee and hip surgery and patients having received bone grafts of their limbs. Also, therapeutic effect of (18)F-fluoride PET/CT on patients with unclear foot pain was investigated. Finally imaging of the axial skeleton was analyzed including patients with ankylosing spondylitis and with Paget disease as well as patients after spine surgery including assessment of cage incorporation after cervical and lumbar spine fusion surgery. Furthermore, children suspected of child abuse as well as young patients with back pain were investigated by either (18)F-fluoride PET or PET/CT. Regarding its favorable technical aspects as well as study results presented, it is imaginable that (18)F-fluoride PET/(CT) will be increasingly used for non-oncologic musculoskeletal imaging in the future either as an adjunct or alternative to so far established imaging modalities and seems to be promising regarding decision making in the therapeutic management of

  3. Colorectal cancer staging: comparison of whole-body PET/CT and PET/MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Onofrio A; Coutinho, Artur M; Sahani, Dushyant V; Vangel, Mark G; Gee, Michael S; Hahn, Peter F; Witzel, Thomas; Soricelli, Andrea; Salvatore, Marco; Catana, Ciprian; Mahmood, Umar; Rosen, Bruce R; Gervais, Debra

    2017-04-01

    Correct staging is imperative for colorectal cancer (CRC) since it influences both prognosis and management. Several imaging methods are used for this purpose, with variable performance. Positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance (PET/MR) is an innovative imaging technique recently employed for clinical application. The present study was undertaken to compare the staging accuracy of whole-body positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) with whole-body PET/MR in patients with both newly diagnosed and treated colorectal cancer. Twenty-six patients, who underwent same day whole-body (WB) PET/CT and WB-PET/MR, were evaluated. PET/CT and PET/MR studies were interpreted by consensus by a radiologist and a nuclear medicine physician. Correlations with prior imaging and follow-up studies were used as the reference standard. Correct staging was compared between methods using McNemar's Chi square test. The two methods were in agreement and correct for 18/26 (69%) patients, and in agreement and incorrect for one patient (3.8%). PET/MR and PET/CT stages for the remaining 7/26 patients (27%) were discordant, with PET/MR staging being correct in all seven cases. PET/MR significantly outperformed PET/CT overall for accurate staging (P = 0.02). PET/MR outperformed PET/CT in CRC staging. PET/MR might allow accurate local and distant staging of CRC patients during both at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up.

  4. A Clinical and Experimental Comparison of Time of Flight PET/MRI and PET/CT Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea-Lager, Daniela E.; Yaqub, Maqsood; Pieters, Indra C; Reinhard, Rinze; van Moorselaar, Reindert J. A.; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J. M.; Hoekstra, Otto S; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to compare image quality and quantitative accuracy of positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) and PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) systems with time of flight PET gantries, using phantom and clinical studies. Procedures Identical phantom experiments were performed on both systems. Calibration, uniformity, and standardized uptake value (SUV) recovery were measured. A clinical PET/CT versus PET/MRI comparison was performed using [18...

  5. Pet allergy: how important for Turkey where there is a low pet ownership rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Dilşad; Celik, Gülfem; Bavbek, Sevim; Misirligil, Zeynep

    2003-01-01

    Exposure and sensitization to allergens derived from cats/dogs have been shown to represent an important risk factor for allergic respiratory diseases. So far, there has not been any study exploring cat/dog sensitization and related factors in our geographic location. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitization to cats/dogs in a group of patients with rhinitis and/or asthma and to evaluate the relationship between current and childhood exposure and sensitivity to pets. Three hundred twelve consecutive subjects with asthma and/or rhinitis were included in the study and were asked to reply a questionnaire concerning past and current pet ownership and presence of pet-related respiratory symptoms. After performing skin-prick tests, subjects were allocated into three groups: group 1 (n = 103), subjects with nonatopic asthma; group 2 (n = 54), allergic rhinitis and/or asthma patients with pet allergy; group 3 (n = 155), allergic rhinitis and/or asthma patients without pet allergy. Pet hypersensitivity was detected in 54 of 209 atopic subjects (25.8%). There was no difference in the rates of past pet ownership among subjects with (29.6%) and without (23.8%) pet allergy. However, the ratio of current pet ownership was higher in atopic patients with pet allergy (16.6%) than in nonatopic subjects (2.9%; p = 0.02). The prevalence of sensitization to pets in current owners (42.8%) was higher than prevalence of sensitization in patients who never had a pet (22.6%; p = 0.002; odds ratio, 2.67) and who owned a pet at childhood (28.2%; p = 0.038; odds ratio, 1.9). Thirteen subjects (13/54; 24%) described respiratory symptoms when exposed to cats and/or dogs. Rate of past pet ownership was similar in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects with pet allergy (30.7% versus 29.2%; p > 0.05). Rate of current per ownership was higher in symptomatic subjects than in asymptomatic subjects with pet sensitivity (38.4% versus 9.5%; p pet allergens have the potential to become an

  6. FDG PET and PET/CT: EANM procedure guidelines for tumour PET imaging: version 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boellaard, R.; O'Doherty, M.J.; Weber, W.A.; Mottaghy, F.M.; Lonsdale, M.N.; Stroobants, S.G.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Kotzerke, J.; Hoekstra, O.S.; Pruim, J.; Marsden, P.K.; Tatsch, K.; Hoekstra, C.J.; Visser, E.P.; Arends, B.; Verzijlbergen, F.J.; Zijlstra, J.M.; Comans, E.F.I.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Paans, A.M.; Willemsen, A.T.; Beyer, T.; Bockisch, A.; Schaefer-Prokop, C.; Delbeke, D.; Baum, R.P.; Chiti, A.; Krause, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this guideline is to provide a minimum standard for the acquisition and interpretation of PET and PET/CT scans with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). This guideline will therefore address general information about [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed

  7. A proposal of an open PET geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaya, Taiga [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Inaniwa, Taku [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Minohara, Shinichi [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yoshida, Eiji [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Inadama, Naoko [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Nishikido, Fumihiko [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Shibuya, Kengo [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Lam, Chih Fung [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Murayama, Hideo [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan)

    2008-02-07

    The long patient port of a PET scanner tends to put stress on patients, especially patients with claustrophobia. It also prevents doctors and technicians from taking care of patients during scanning. In this paper, we proposed an 'open PET' geometry, which consists of two axially separated detector rings. A long and continuous field-of-view (FOV) including a 360 deg. opened gap between two detector rings can be imaged enabling a fully 3D image reconstruction of all the possible lines-of-response. The open PET will become practical if iterative image reconstruction methods are applied even though image reconstruction of the open PET is analytically an incomplete problem. First we implemented a 'masked' 3D ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM) in which the system matrix was obtained from a long 'gapless' scanner by applying a mask to detectors corresponding to the open space. Next, in order to evaluate imaging performance of the proposed open PET geometry, we simulated a dual HR+ scanner (ring diameter of D = 827 mm, axial length of W = 154 mm x 2) separated by a variable gap. The gap W was the maximum limit to have axially continuous FOV of 3W though the maximum diameter of FOV at the central slice was limited to D/2. Artifacts, observed on both sides of the open space when the gap exceeded W, were effectively reduced by inserting detectors partially into unnecessary open spaces. We also tested the open PET geometry using experimental data obtained by the jPET-D4. The jPET-D4 is a prototype brain scanner, which has 5 rings of 24 detector blocks. We simulated the open jPET-D4 with a gap of 66 mm by eliminating 1 block-ring from experimental data. Although some artifacts were seen at both ends of the opened gap, very similar images were obtained with and without the gap. The proposed open PET geometry is expected to lead to realization of in-beam PET, which is a method for an in situ monitoring of charged particle therapy, by

  8. Characterization by SPECT imaging, micro-PET with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. and micro scanner of an orthotopic osteosarcoma murine model; Caracterisation par imagerie TEMP, micro-TEP au {sup 18}F-FDG et microscanner d'un modele murin d'osteosarcome orthotopique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miot-Noirault, E.; Moins, N.; Chezal, J.M. [EA4231, UMR 990, Inserm, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Gouin, F.; Heymann, D.; Redini, F. [EA3822, UMR 957, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2010-07-01

    This study had for purpose the characterization of the murine model of POS-1 osteolytic osteosarcoma implanted in orthotopic situation, by SPECT imaging, micro-PET, micro scanner, clinical and histological study. Conclusions: these results show all the interest of multimodal small animal imaging as quantitative method of evaluation in vivo of the osteosarcoma tumor progression and bone rebuilding associated to the osteolytic evolution. The assessment in vivo of this pathology should allow to improve the knowledge of interactions between tumor cells and bone environment, preclinical evaluation in vivo of new therapy strategies targeting both tumor development and bone resorption. (N.C.)

  9. Perdidos en la selva : un estudio del proceso de re-arraigo y de desarrollo local de la Comunidad-Cooperativa Unión Maya Itzá, formada por campesinos guatemaltecos, antiguos refugiados, reasentados en el Departamento de El Petén, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Vaeren, Van der, P.

    2000-01-01

    Lost in the forest : A study of the reintegration, re-rooting, and endogenous development process of the communal co-operative Unión Maya Itzá, formed by Guatemalan peasants, former refugees in Mexico, resettled in the Department of Petén, Guatemala.

    Lost in the Forest: the return of the refugees to the El Quetzal "finca"

    This book is about the process of re-rooting and socio-economic development of a group Guatemalan...

  10. Interest of delayed images in the detection of small size lesions in positron emission tomography (PET): about a case of peritoneal carcinosis evaluation; Interet des images tardives dans la detection de lesion de petite taille en tomographie par emission de positons (TEP): a propos d'un cas de bilan de carcinose peritoneale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakotonirina, H.; Berthelot, C.; Vervueren, L.; Agius, C.; Jeanguillaume, C.; Couturier, O. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU d' Angers, (France)

    2009-05-15

    Because of the effect of partial volume, the small injuries (under 1 cm) are not the most often seen in F.D.G.-PET. however, if the gradient tumor/background noise is important, it is sometimes possible to visualize them. To increase this gradient, we can increase the tumor captation of F.D.G. by increasing the time of captation, or reduce the vascular background noise by making easy the urinary excretion. through a clinical case, we remind the interest of delayed images ( 2 hours after injection) associated to the injection of furosemide in the detection of small injuries of peritoneal carcinosis. (N.C.)

  11. Indeterminate findings on oncologic PET/CT: What difference dose PET/MRI make?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraum, Tyler J.; Fowler, Kathryn J.; McConathy, Jonathan; Dehdashti, Farokh [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) has become the standard of care for the initial staging and subsequent treatment response assessment of many different malignancies. Despite this success, PET/CT is often supplemented by MRI to improve assessment of local tumor invasion and to facilitate detection of lesions in organs with high background FDG uptake. Consequently, PET/MRI has the potential to expand the clinical value of PET examinations by increasing reader certainty and reducing the need for subsequent imaging. This study evaluates the ability of FDG-PET/MRI to clarify findings initially deemed indeterminate on clinical FDG-PET/CT studies. A total of 190 oncology patients underwent whole-body PET/CT, immediately followed by PET/MRI utilizing the same FDG administration. Each PET/CT was interpreted by our institution's nuclear medicine service as a standard-of-care clinical examination. Review of these PET/CT reports identified 31 patients (16 %) with indeterminate findings. Two readers evaluated all 31 PET/CT studies, followed by the corresponding PET/MRI studies. A consensus was reached for each case, and changes in interpretation directly resulting from PET/MRI review were recorded. Interpretations were then correlated with follow-up imaging, pathology results, and other diagnostic studies. In 18 of 31 cases with indeterminate findings on PET/CT, PET/MRI resulted in a more definitive interpretation by facilitating the differentiation of infection/inflammation from malignancy (15/18), the accurate localization of FDG-avid lesions (2/18), and the characterization of incidental non-FDG-avid solid organ lesions (1/18). Explanations for improved reader certainty with PET/MRI included the superior soft tissue contrast of MRI and the ability to assess cellular density with diffusion-weighted imaging. The majority (12/18) of such cases had an appropriate standard of reference; in all 12 cases

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Flame Retardant PET Fiber with Microencapsulated CMSs/PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIU Mei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The core-shell carbon microspheres(CMSs/polyethylene terephthalate(PET capsule (PCMSs by in situ polymerization was selected as flame retardant. The flame-retardant PCMSs/PET functional fiber was prepared by melt spinning method. The structure and properties of PET fiber with different mass fractions of flame retardant were characterized by SEM, sound velocimeter, tensile tester and limit oxygen index apparatus. The results show that PCMSs has a good compatibility and dispersion within PET matrix, and the excellent moisture absorption and flame retardant properties of functional PET fiber with smooth surface is obtained when the mass fraction of PCMSs is 0.6%, but the mechanical property of PCMSs/PET fiber with 0.6% PCMSs is a little lower than the PCMSs/PET fiber with 0.2% PCMSs.

  13. [Pet ownership and health status of pets from immunocompromised children, with emphasis in zoonotic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca V, Katia; López Del P, Javier; Peña D, Anamaría; López G, J Carlos

    2011-06-01

    To characterize pet ownership and pet health status in families of immunocompromised (IS) children, with emphasis in zoonotic diseases. Families of IS children from two hospitals in Santiago, Chile, were interviewed and their pets were evaluated by veterinary examination, coproparasitologic and skin dermatophytes test. In specific cases, other laboratory tests were performed in IS children or their relatives. 47 out of 70 contacted families had pets, 42 participated in the study. Several risk factors for IS children were observed, as having a turtle as a pet and to clean cat or turtle faeces. Lack of adequate veterinary control, immunizations and deparasitation of pets were observed. Some animals showed zoonotic diseases or agents, as Brucella canis, Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia intestinalis, Toxocara canis and scabies. 44% of dogs had ticks and 37% had fleas, both potential vectors of infections. Our results suggest that policies to provide safer pet contact in IS children are needed.

  14. Human health implications of Salmonella-contaminated natural pet treats and raw pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Rita; Reid-Smith, Richard; Weese, J Scott

    2006-03-01

    Human salmonellosis occurs mainly as a result of handling or consuming contaminated food products, with a small percentage of cases being related to other, less well-defined exposures, such as contact with companion animals and natural pet treats. The increasing popularity of raw food diets for companion animals is another potential pet-associated source of Salmonella organisms; however, no confirmed cases of human salmonellosis have been associated with these diets. Pets that consume contaminated pet treats and raw food diets can be colonized with Salmonella organisms without exhibiting clinical signs, making them a possible hidden source of contamination in the household. Pet owners can reduce their risk of acquiring Salmonella organisms by not feeding natural pet treats and raw food diets to their pets, whereas individuals who investigate cases of salmonellosis or interpret surveillance data should be aware of these possible sources of Salmonella organisms.

  15. Evaluation of attenuation correction in cardiac PET using PET/MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jeffrey M C; Laforest, R; Sotoudeh, H; Nie, X; Sharma, S; McConathy, J; Novak, E; Priatna, A; Gropler, R J; Woodard, P K

    2017-06-01

    Simultaneous acquisition Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) is a new technology that has potential as a tool both in research and clinical diagnosis. However, cardiac PET acquisition has not yet been validated using MR imaging for attenuation correction (AC). The goal of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of PET imaging using a standard 2-point Dixon volume interpolated breathhold examination (VIBE) MR sequence for AC. Evaluation was performed in both phantom and patient data. A chest phantom containing heart, lungs, and a lesion insert was scanned by both PET/MR and PET/CT. In addition, 30 patients underwent whole-body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT followed by simultaneous cardiac PET/MR. Phantom study showed 3% reduction of activity values in the myocardium due to the non-inclusion of the phased array coil in the AC. In patient scans, average standardized uptake values (SUVs) obtained by PET/CT and PET/MR showed no significant difference (n = 30, 4.6 ± 3.5 vs 4.7 ± 2.8, P = 0.47). There was excellent per patient correlation between the values acquired by PET/CT and PET/MR (R 2 = 0.97). Myocardial SUVs PET imaging using MR for AC shows excellent correlation with myocardial SUVs obtained by standard PET/CT imaging. The 2-point Dixon VIBE MR technique can be used for AC in simultaneous PET/MR data acquisition.

  16. Simultaneous PET/MR imaging with a radio frequency-penetrable PET insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Alexander M; Lee, Brian J; Chang, Chen-Ming; Levin, Craig S

    2017-01-01

    A brain sized radio frequency (RF)-penetrable PET insert has been designed for simultaneous operation with MRI systems. This system takes advantage of electro-optical coupling and battery power to electrically float the PET insert relative to the MRI ground, permitting RF signals to be transmitted through small gaps between the modules that form the PET ring. This design facilitates the use of the built-in body coil for RF transmission and thus could be inserted into any existing MR site wishing to achieve simultaneous PET/MR imaging. The PET detectors employ nonmagnetic silicon photomultipliers in conjunction with a compressed sensing signal multiplexing scheme, and optical fibers to transmit analog PET detector signals out of the MRI room for decoding, processing, and image reconstruction. The PET insert was first constructed and tested in a laboratory benchtop setting, where tomographic images of a custom resolution phantom were successfully acquired. The PET insert was then placed within a 3T body MRI system, and tomographic resolution/contrast phantom images were acquired both with only the B0 field present, and under continuous pulsing from different MR imaging sequences. The resulting PET images have comparable contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) under all MR pulsing conditions: The maximum percent CNR relative difference for each rod type among all four PET images acquired in the MRI system has a mean of 14.0 ± 7.7%. MR images were successfully acquired through the RF-penetrable PET shielding using only the built-in MR body coil, suggesting that simultaneous imaging is possible without significant mutual interference. These results show promise for this technology as an alternative to costly integrated PET/MR scanners; a PET insert that is compatible with any existing clinical MRI system could greatly increase the availability, accessibility, and dissemination of PET/MR. © 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  17. Development of PET insert for simultaneous PET/MR imaging of human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jiwoong; Choi, Yong; Jung, Jin Ho; Kim, Sangsu; Im, Ki Chun; Lim, Hyun Keong [Molecular Imaging Research & Education (MiRe) Laboratory, Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Changheun; Park, HyunWook; Cho, Gyuseong [Departments of Electrical Engineering and Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-29

    Recently, there has been great interest on the development of combined PET/MR, which is a useful tool for both functional and anatomic imaging. The purpose of this study was to develop a MR compatible PET insert for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of human brain and to evaluate the performance of the hybrid PET-MRI. The PET insert consisted of 18 detector blocks arranged in a ring of 390 mm diameter with 60 mm axial FOV. Each detector block was composed of 4 × 4 matrix of detector modules, each of which consisted of a 4 × 4 array LYSO coupled to a 4 × 4 GAPD array. The PET gantry was shielded with gold-plated conductive fabric tapes. The charge signals of PET detector transferred via 4 m long flat cables were fed into the position decoder circuits (PDCs) and then transferred to FPGA-embedded DAQ modules. The PDCs and DAQ modules were enclosed in an aluminum box and located at the rear of the MR bore inside MRI room. 3-T human MRIs of two different vendors were used to evaluate the MR compatibility of developed PET insert. No significant changes of the PET performance and the homogeneity of MR images caused by the non-compatibility of PET-MRI were observed with the 2 different MRIs. The signal intensities of MR images were slightly degraded (<3.6%) with the both MRI systems. The difference between independently and simultaneously acquired PET images of brain phantom was negligibly small (<4.3%). High quality simultaneous brain PET and MRI of 3 normal volunteers were successfully acquired. Experimental results indicate that the high performance compact and lightweight PET insert for hybrid PET/MRI, which could be utilized with the MRI from various manufactures, can be developed using GAPD arrays and charge signal transmission method proposed in this study.

  18. Clinical PET/MR Imaging in Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Andreas; Torigian, Drew A.

    2016-01-01

    . The question, therefore, arises regarding what the future clinical applications of PET/MR imaging will be. In this article, the authors discuss ways in which PET/MR imaging may be used in future applications that justify the added cost, predominantly focusing on oncologic applications. The authors suggest...

  19. Towards enhanced PET quantification in clinical oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaidi, Habib; Karakatsanis, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    and software system specifications, tracer kinetics, motion, scan protocol design and limitations in current image-derived PET metrics. Given the relatively large number of PET metrics reported in the literature, the selection of the best metric for fulfilling a specific task in a particular application...

  20. Evaluating College Student Interest in Pet Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamle, Kathleen N.; Riley, Tracy A.; Carlson, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    The first year of college can be extremely stressful, especially for students residing on campus. Objective: The authors obtained information from college freshmen about their relationships with pets and investigated interest in a pet therapy program as social support for transient stressful periods. Participants: As part of a university…

  1. Integrating Pet Therapy into Daily School Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brous, Miriam T.

    2010-01-01

    Stories abound in literature of the ways that people and their pets have fostered and created valuable relationships. More recently, research has shown a strong impact from the pet relationship in health-related settings. Positive changes have been seen in people developing resilience, self-reliance, and in making progress in treatment. Children…

  2. Other PET tracers for neuroendocrine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Klaas Pieter; Glaudemans, Andor W J M

    In this article the applicability of (124)I-MIBG and (11)C-5-HTP PET for the detection of abdominal gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is discussed. (124)I-MIBG is a positron-emitting variant of (123)I-MIBG and therefore suited for PET imaging. Due to the better intrinsic characteristics

  3. PET-container collection systems in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logtenberg, T.; Groot, J.L.B. de; Rink, T.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of a TNO study of the present situation in Europe with regard to PET-bottle recycling. The overview concentrates on the main PET-bottles consuming countries in Europe i.e.: France, Italy, Spain and the UK. In addition the system in Belgium is presented. Applying a

  4. Developing simplified Regional Potential Evapotranspiration (PET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regional Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) estimation method was developed to estimate the potential evapotranspiration (reference evapotranspiration) over Abbay Basin as a function of basin maximum and minimum temperature, and modulated by site specific elevation data. The method is intended to estimate PET in ...

  5. Pet Ownership and Health Status during Bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroko; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated impact of pet ownership on the health status of recently widowed urban middle-class women. Findings suggest pet ownership may have a salutary effect on the adjustment of recently widowed women in terms of symptom experiences and proneness to utilization of medication. (Author/KS)

  6. Quantitative Techniques in PET-CT Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basu, Sandip; Zaidi, Habib; Holm, Soren; Alavi, Abass

    The appearance of hybrid PET/CT scanners has made quantitative whole body scanning of radioactive tracers feasible. This paper deals with the novel concepts for assessing global organ function and disease activity based on combined functional (PET) and structural (CT or MR) imaging techniques, their

  7. PET/MRI – Technical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzic, Raymond F.; DiFilippo, Frank P.

    2015-01-01

    PET/MR is a hybrid imaging technology with the potential to combine the molecular and functional information of PET with the soft-tissue contrast of MR. Herein we review the technical features and challenges of putting these different technologies together. We emphasize the conceptual to make the material accessible to a wide audience. We begin by reviewing PET/CT, a more mature multi-modality imaging technology, to provide a basis for comparison to the history of PET/MR development. We discuss the motivation and challenges of PET/MR and different approaches that have been used to meet the challenges. We conclude with a speculation about the future of this exciting imaging method. PMID:25497909

  8. Interests of the PET-T.D.M. with F.D.G. in the Hodgkin nodular disease lymphocyte predominance type: about one case; Interets de la TEP-TDM au FDG dans la maladie de Hodgkin nodulaire a predominance lymphocytaire: a propos d'un cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puech, J.B.; Guedj, E.; Cammilleri, S.; Mundler, O. [Medecine nucleaire, CHU de La-Timone, Marseille, (France); Curtillet, C.; Michel, G. [hematologie pediatrique, CHU de La-Timone, Marseille, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The objective is to illustrate the interest of the PET-T.D.M. with {sup 18}F.D.G. in the diagnosis of the nodular Hodgkin disease with lymphocyte predominance; or Loppema-Lennert para granuloma. This disease is a rare anatomo-clinical item of Hodgkin disease characterized by a slow evolution, a localised peripheral injury, a trend to local recurrence, and a risk of transformation towards a lymphoma with big cells. This case enlightens the difficulty for the anatomo-pathologist to distinguish follicular lymphoid hyperplasia and nodular Hodgkin with lymphocyte predominance, of different coverage. In spite of the indolent character of this pathology, the PET-T.D.M. with F.D.G. enlightens easily the suspect character of ganglions injuries. This examination takes here a determinant place in the surveillance of these anatomo-clinical entities located at the limit between the benign and the malignant, allowing to guide the behaviour of the hematologist in function of the scintigraphy evolution. (N.C.)

  9. Obtaining a pet: realistic expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Amy; Duxbury, Margaret M

    2008-09-01

    Millions of dog-human relationships fail each year-some from simple and preventable mismatches. False or unrealistic expectations of a dog's behavior are a common reason for failed human-animal bonds. Veterinarians can reduce the incidence of false expectations and thereby increase the likelihood of successful adoptions by offering preadoption counseling to help clients sort through the many factors involved in the process of successful pet selection, by preparing clients to take on the important tasks of puppy socialization and the management of the home learning environment, and by educating new owners about the needs and behavior of dogs.

  10. Exotic pet medicine I. Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, E R

    1993-11-01

    Of the 6,000 extant species of reptiles, approximately 2500 are snakes. Several dozen species of snakes have become popular in the pet trade, and to meet the increased demand, more and more species are being bred in captivity. Along with this popularity comes the need for more sound veterinary expertise. Although much biomedical information on snakes exists in the literature and can be found in texts on reptile medicine, few reviews have tried to consolidate the literature on this subject. The purpose of this article is to bring together information on the most pertinent aspects of snake medicine and disease.

  11. Common Emergencies in Pet Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jane D

    2016-05-01

    Treating avian emergencies can be a challenging task. Pet birds often mask signs of illness until they are critically ill and require quick initiation of supportive care with minimal handling to stabilize them. This article introduces the clinician to common avian emergency presentations and details initial therapeutics and diagnostics that can be readily performed in the small-animal emergency room. Common disease presentations covered include respiratory and extrarespiratory causes of dyspnea, gastrointestinal signs, reproductive disease, neurologic disorders, trauma, and toxin exposure. The duration and severity of the avian patient's disease and the clinician's initiation of appropriate therapy often determines clinical outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. SPECT og PET i neurobiologien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A

    1997-01-01

    PET (positron emission tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) are isotopic methods in which the distribution is registered of radiolabelled tracers given in such small amounts that they are without effect on the organism or the organism's disposal of them. Thus, a series...... of important biological processes in the intact organism can be studied. The methods have been used in many disciplines but in particular for neurobiological research on the brain--e.g., the brain's regional blood circulation and mapping of the brain's functional structure. The methods have also been used...

  13. Preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer: prospective comparison of PET/MR and PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Min; Goo, Jin Mo; Park, Chang Min; Yoon, Soon Ho; Paeng, Jin Chul; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Young Tae; Park, Young Sik

    2016-11-01

    To prospectively compare the accuracies of PET/MR and PET/CT in the preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Institutional review board approval and patients' informed consents were obtained. 45 patients with proven or radiologically suspected lung cancer which appeared to be resectable on CT were enrolled. PET/MR was performed for the preoperative staging of NSCLC followed by PET/CT without contrast enhancement on the same day. Dedicated MR images including diffusion weighted images were obtained. Readers assessed PET/MR and PET/CT with contrast-enhanced CT. Accuracies of PET/MR and PET/CT for NSCLC staging were compared. Primary tumour stages (n = 40) were correctly diagnosed in 32 patients (80.0 %) on PET/MR and in 32 patients (80.0 %) on PET/CT (P = 1.0). Node stages (n = 42) were correctly determined in 24 patients (57.1 %) on PET/MR and in 22 patients (52.4 %) on PET/CT (P = 0.683). Metastatic lesions in the brain, bone, liver, and pleura were detected in 6 patients (13.3 %). PET/MR missed one patient with pleural metastasis while PET/CT missed one patient with solitary brain metastasis and two patients with pleural metastases (P = 0.480). This study demonstrated that PET/MR in combination with contrast-enhanced CT was comparable to PET/CT in the preoperative staging of NSCLC while reducing radiation exposure. • PET/MR can be comparable to PET/CT for preoperative NSCLC staging. • PET/MR and PET/CT show excellent correlation in measuring SUVmax of primary lesions. • Using PET/MR, estimated radiation dose can decrease by 31.1 % compared with PET/CT.

  14. The spatial distribution of pet dogs and pet cats on the island of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background There is considerable international research regarding the link between human demographics and pet ownership. In several international studies, pet ownership was associated with household demographics including: the presence of children in the household, urban/rural location, level of education and age/family structure. What is lacking across all these studies, however, is an understanding of how these pets are spatially distributed throughout the regions under study. This paper describes the spatial distribution of pet dog and pet cat owning households on the island of Ireland. Results In 2006, there were an estimated 640,620 pet dog owning households and 215,542 pet cat owning households in Ireland. These estimates are derived from logistic regression modelling, based on household composition to determine pet dog ownership and the type of house to determine pet cat ownership. Results are presented using chloropleth maps. There is a higher density of pet dog owning households in the east of Ireland and in the cities than the west of Ireland and rural areas. However, in urban districts there are a lower proportion of households owning pet dogs than in rural districts. There are more households with cats in the urban areas, but the proportion of households with cats is greater in rural areas. Conclusions The difference in spatial distribution of dog ownership is a reflection of a generally higher density of households in the east of Ireland and in major cities. The higher proportion of ownership in the west is understandable given the higher proportion of farmers and rural dwellings in this area. Spatial representation allows us to visualise the impact of human household distribution on the density of both pet dogs and pet cats on the island of Ireland. This information can be used when analysing risk of disease spread, for market research and for instigating veterinary care. PMID:21663606

  15. The spatial distribution of pet dogs and pet cats on the island of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More Simon J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable international research regarding the link between human demographics and pet ownership. In several international studies, pet ownership was associated with household demographics including: the presence of children in the household, urban/rural location, level of education and age/family structure. What is lacking across all these studies, however, is an understanding of how these pets are spatially distributed throughout the regions under study. This paper describes the spatial distribution of pet dog and pet cat owning households on the island of Ireland. Results In 2006, there were an estimated 640,620 pet dog owning households and 215,542 pet cat owning households in Ireland. These estimates are derived from logistic regression modelling, based on household composition to determine pet dog ownership and the type of house to determine pet cat ownership. Results are presented using chloropleth maps. There is a higher density of pet dog owning households in the east of Ireland and in the cities than the west of Ireland and rural areas. However, in urban districts there are a lower proportion of households owning pet dogs than in rural districts. There are more households with cats in the urban areas, but the proportion of households with cats is greater in rural areas. Conclusions The difference in spatial distribution of dog ownership is a reflection of a generally higher density of households in the east of Ireland and in major cities. The higher proportion of ownership in the west is understandable given the higher proportion of farmers and rural dwellings in this area. Spatial representation allows us to visualise the impact of human household distribution on the density of both pet dogs and pet cats on the island of Ireland. This information can be used when analysing risk of disease spread, for market research and for instigating veterinary care.

  16. The spatial distribution of pet dogs and pet cats on the island of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Martin J; Clegg, Tracy A; Collins, Daniel M; McGrath, Guy; More, Simon J

    2011-06-10

    There is considerable international research regarding the link between human demographics and pet ownership. In several international studies, pet ownership was associated with household demographics including: the presence of children in the household, urban/rural location, level of education and age/family structure. What is lacking across all these studies, however, is an understanding of how these pets are spatially distributed throughout the regions under study. This paper describes the spatial distribution of pet dog and pet cat owning households on the island of Ireland. In 2006, there were an estimated 640,620 pet dog owning households and 215,542 pet cat owning households in Ireland. These estimates are derived from logistic regression modelling, based on household composition to determine pet dog ownership and the type of house to determine pet cat ownership. Results are presented using chloropleth maps. There is a higher density of pet dog owning households in the east of Ireland and in the cities than the west of Ireland and rural areas. However, in urban districts there are a lower proportion of households owning pet dogs than in rural districts. There are more households with cats in the urban areas, but the proportion of households with cats is greater in rural areas. The difference in spatial distribution of dog ownership is a reflection of a generally higher density of households in the east of Ireland and in major cities. The higher proportion of ownership in the west is understandable given the higher proportion of farmers and rural dwellings in this area. Spatial representation allows us to visualise the impact of human household distribution on the density of both pet dogs and pet cats on the island of Ireland. This information can be used when analysing risk of disease spread, for market research and for instigating veterinary care.

  17. 24 CFR 5.318 - Discretionary pet rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities General Requirements § 5.318 Discretionary pet rules. Pet rules promulgated by project owners and... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discretionary pet rules. 5.318...

  18. The Positron Emission Tomography. A diagnostic technique; Con la PET diagnosi precoce della malattia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvadori, P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica, Chimica e Radiofarmaceutica, Gruppo PET/Ciclotrone, Pisa (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a new imaging modality, which is able to assess non-invasively the biochemical mechanisms, underlying physiological and pathophysiological processes in vivo in humans. The technique relies on the administration of radioactive tracers labeled with short-lived positron emitters, which need to be produced on site via a particle accelerator (cyclotron). Radionuclides are produced upon request and formulated into biologically active organic molecules having precise pharmacokinetics and specificity. The radiotracer can be detected by the PET scanner and represented as tomographic sections (images of body sections) showing its regional distribution and concentration. This makes it possible to address clinical questions concerning occurrence and evolution of many diseases as well as their response to therapy. The ability to image (measure) biological processes and not only anatomy enables PET to explore diseases in the very early stage, including those diseases which are not related to modifications of organ structure (e.g. psychiatric diseases, metabolic disorders, biochemical disfunction). PET plays a major role, in conjunction with the other imaging modalities, to improve diagnosis capabilities and disease mechanism understanding. [Italian] La PET e' correntemente utilizzata come efficace strumento clinico, per l'elevata sensibilita' e specificita', nella valutazione dell'iter diagnostico di pazienti con sospetta cardiopatia ischemica e nel processo di decision making clinico di pazienti con disfunzione ventricolare sinistra e cardiopatia ischemica, in quanto metodica di riferimento per la diagnosi di vitalita' miocardica. In campo oncologico, viene impiegata l'ormai ben documentata capacita' del fluorodesossiglucosio (FDG), un tracciante contenente fluoro-18 ed in grado di permettere la misura del consumo cellulare di glucosio, nel porre in evidenza all'esame PET il tessuto neoplastico

  19. Myths and misperceptions about ingredients used in commercial pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, Dottie; Izquierdo, Oscar; Eirmann, Laura; Binder, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Information and misinformation about pet nutrition and pet foods, including ingredients used in pet foods, is widely available through various sources. Often, this "information" raises questions or concerns among pet owners. Many pet owners will turn to their veterinarian for answers to these questions. One of the challenges that veterinarians have is keeping up with the volume of misinformation about pet foods and sorting out fact from fiction. The goal of this article is to provide facts regarding some common myths about ingredients used in commercial pet foods so as to better prepare veterinarians to address their client's questions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Benefits and liabilities of pets for the homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, A H; Kidd, R M

    1994-06-01

    Observations in the streets and parks of San Francisco East Bay cities and suburbs suggested that many of the homeless people own and maintain pet animals in spite of circumstances and environmental conditions. Accordingly, 105 homeless adult men and women, half of whom owned pets, were interviewed for this pilot study. Responses indicated that homeless pet-owners were extremely attached to their pets and had owned significantly more pets during childhood and adolescence than nonowners although there were no significant differences in attachment to pets between parents and nonparents or between married and single persons. Providing food and veterinary care for pets, however, was a very significant problem for the majority of the homeless pet-owners. It was clear that many homeless adults did have pets which were important for their mental and physical health and that pet care was associated with unique problems.

  1. Dose Optimization in TOF-PET/MR Compared to TOF-PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Marcelo A; Delso, Gaspar; Wollenweber, Scott; Deller, Timothy; Zeimpekis, Konstantinos; Huellner, Martin; de Galiza Barbosa, Felipe; von Schulthess, Gustav; Veit-Haibach, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the possible activity reduction in FDG-imaging in a Time-of-Flight (TOF) PET/MR, based on cross-evaluation of patient-based NECR (noise equivalent count rate) measurements in PET/CT, cross referencing with phantom-based NECR curves as well as initial evaluation of TOF-PET/MR with reduced activity. A total of 75 consecutive patients were evaluated in this study. PET/CT imaging was performed on a PET/CT (time-of-flight (TOF) Discovery D 690 PET/CT). Initial PET/MR imaging was performed on a newly available simultaneous TOF-PET/MR (Signa PET/MR). An optimal NECR for diagnostic purposes was defined in clinical patients (NECRP) in PET/CT. Subsequent optimal activity concentration at the acquisition time ([A]0) and target NECR (NECRT) were obtained. These data were used to predict the theoretical FDG activity requirement of the new TOF-PET/MR system. Twenty-five initial patients were acquired with (retrospectively reconstructed) different imaging times equivalent for different activities on the simultaneous PET/MR for the evaluation of clinically realistic FDG-activities. The obtained values for NECRP, [A]0 and NECRT were 114.6 (± 14.2) kcps (Kilocounts per second), 4.0 (± 0.7) kBq/mL and 45 kcps, respectively. Evaluating the NECRT together with the phantom curve of the TOF-PET/MR device, the theoretical optimal activity concentration was found to be approximately 1.3 kBq/mL, which represents 35% of the activity concentration required by the TOF-PET/CT. Initial evaluation on patients in the simultaneous TOF-PET/MR shows clinically realistic activities of 1.8 kBq/mL, which represent 44% of the required activity. The new TOF-PET/MR device requires significantly less activity to generate PET-images with good-to-excellent image quality, due to improvements in detector geometry and detector technologies. The theoretically achievable dose reduction accounts for up to 65% but cannot be fully translated into clinical routine based on the coils within the FOV and MR

  2. Quantitative, Simultaneous PET/MRI for Intratumoral Imaging with an MRI-Compatible PET Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas S.C.; Bading, James R.; Park, Ryan; Sohi, Hargun; Procissi, Daniel; Colcher, David; Conti, Peter S.; Cherry, Simon R.; Raubitschek, Andrew A.; Jacobs, Russell E.

    2012-01-01

    Noninvasive methods are needed to explore the heterogeneous tumor microenvironment and its modulation by therapy. Hybrid PET/MRI systems are being developed for small-animal and clinical use. The advantage of these integrated systems depends on their ability to provide MR images that are spatially coincident with simultaneously acquired PET images, allowing combined functional MRI and PET studies of intratissue heterogeneity. Although much effort has been devoted to developing this new technology, the issue of quantitative and spatial fidelity of PET images from hybrid PET/MRI systems to the tissues imaged has received little attention. Here, we evaluated the ability of a first-generation, small-animal MRI-compatible PET scanner to accurately depict heterogeneous patterns of radiotracer uptake in tumors. Methods Quantitative imaging characteristics of the MRI-compatible PET (PET/MRI) scanner were evaluated with phantoms using calibration coefficients derived from a mouse-sized linearity phantom. PET performance was compared with a commercial small-animal PET system and autoradiography in tumor-bearing mice. Pixel and structure-based similarity metrics were used to evaluate image concordance among modalities. Feasibility of simultaneous PET/MRI functional imaging of tumors was explored by following 64Cu-labeled antibody uptake in relation to diffusion MRI using cooccurrence matrix analysis. Results The PET/MRI scanner showed stable and linear response. Activity concentration recovery values (measured and true activity concentration) calculated for 4-mm-diameter rods within linearity and uniform activity rod phantoms were near unity (0.97 ± 0.06 and 1.03 ± 0.03, respectively). Intratumoral uptake patterns for both 18F-FDG and a 64Cu-antibody acquired using the PET/MRI scanner and small-animal PET were highly correlated with autoradiography (r > 0.99) and with each other (r = 0.97 ± 0.01). On the basis of these data, we performed a preliminary study comparing

  3. Reproducibility of Quantitative Brain Imaging Using a PET-Only and a Combined PET/MR System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Martin L; Muzik, Otto; Beyer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    observed for kinetic parameters derived from emission data obtained from PET/MR and PET-only imaging due to different standard AC methods employed. Therefore, a transfer of imaging protocols from PET-only to PET/MR systems is not straightforward without application of proper correction methods...

  4. Comparing life cycle energy and GHG emissions of bio-based PET, recycled PET, PLA and man-made cellulosics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the environmental profiles of petrochemical PET, (partially) bio-based PET, recycled PET, and recycled (partially) bio-based PET, and compare them with other bio-based materials, namely PLA (polylactic acid, a bio-based polyester) and man-made cellulose

  5. Attenuation correction for small animal PET tomographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Patrick L [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of California, 700 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Rannou, Fernando R [Departamento de Ingenieria Informatica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Av. Ecuador 3659, Santiago (Chile); Chatziioannou, Arion F [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of California, 700 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2005-04-21

    Attenuation correction is one of the important corrections required for quantitative positron emission tomography (PET). This work will compare the quantitative accuracy of attenuation correction using a simple global scale factor with traditional transmission-based methods acquired either with a small animal PET or a small animal x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner. Two phantoms (one mouse-sized and one rat-sized) and two animal subjects (one mouse and one rat) were scanned in CTI Concorde Microsystem's microPET (registered) Focus{sup TM} for emission and transmission data and in ImTek's MicroCAT{sup TM} II for transmission data. PET emission image values were calibrated against a scintillation well counter. Results indicate that the scale factor method of attenuation correction places the average measured activity concentration about the expected value, without correcting for the cupping artefact from attenuation. Noise analysis in the phantom studies with the PET-based method shows that noise in the transmission data increases the noise in the corrected emission data. The CT-based method was accurate and delivered low-noise images suitable for both PET data correction and PET tracer localization.

  6. The impact of owner age on companionship with virtual pets

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Shaun W.; Chesney, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on issues of interaction with a particular type of mobile information system – virtual pets. It examines the impact of owner age on companionship with virtual pets, and tests the hypothesis that younger virtual pet owners will experience closer companionship with their virtual pet than older owners. This is in response to the marketing stance adopted by virtual pet manufacturers who clearly target younger people as the main consumers of their products. The hypothesis was te...

  7. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Melissa G.; Bogue, Kelsey; Rohrbaugh, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones during the 2011 Hurricane Irene were surveyed about whether or not they evacuated and about their experiences during the hurricane. Although pet-ownership was not statistically associated with evacuation failure, many pet owners who chose not to evacuate still claimed that they did not evacuate because of difficulties with evacuating their pet. These findings suggest that more work needs to be done ...

  8. Practical use and implementation of PET in children in a hospital PET centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgwardt, Lise; Larsen, Helle Jung; Pedersen, Kate; Hoejgaard, Liselotte [Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2003-10-01

    Children are not just small adults - they differ in their psychology, normal physiology and pathophysiology, and various aspects should be considered when planning a positron emission tomography (PET) scan in a child. PET in children is a growing area, and this article describes the practical use and implementation of PET in children in a hospital PET centre. It is intended to be of use to nuclear medicine departments implementing or starting to implement PET scans in children. Topics covered are: dealing with children, dosimetry, organisation within the department and relations with other departments, preparation of the child (provision of information to the child and parents and the fasting procedure), the imaging procedure (resting, tracer injection, positioning, sedation and bladder emptying) and pitfalls in the interpretation of PET scans in children, including experiences with telemedicine. (orig.)

  9. Molecular Imaging in Breast Cancer: From Whole-Body PET/CT to Dedicated Breast PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Koolen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET, with or without integrated computed tomography (CT, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG is based on the principle of elevated glucose metabolism in malignant tumors, and its use in breast cancer patients is frequently being investigated. It has been shown useful for classification, staging, and response monitoring, both in primary and recurrent disease. However, because of the partial volume effect and limited resolution of most whole-body PET scanners, sensitivity for the visualization of small tumors is generally low. To improve the detection and quantification of primary breast tumors with FDG PET, several dedicated breast PET devices have been developed. In this nonsystematic review, we shortly summarize the value of whole-body PET/CT in breast cancer and provide an overview of currently available dedicated breast PETs.

  10. Evaluating pet foods: how confident are you when you recommend a commercial pet food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicker, Steven C

    2008-08-01

    The safety, adequacy, and efficacy of pet foods are important considerations for veterinarians and consumers. Manufacturers of pet foods in the United States are required to comply with multiple regulations from a variety of governmental and state agencies to market foods in the public sector. However, consumers and veterinarians may not be aware of the multiple systems in place that help ensure the safety and adequacy of foods for their pets. Since the veterinarian occupies a key role to make recommendations to consumers regarding pet foods, it is the purpose of this article to review the processes of pet food manufacturing, as well as the processes that have been developed to help ensure safety and adequacy of pet foods in the United States.

  11. Practical use and implementation of PET in children in a hospital PET centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Lise; Larsen, Helle Jung; Pedersen, Kate

    2003-01-01

    Children are not just small adults-they differ in their psychology, normal physiology and pathophysiology, and various aspects should be considered when planning a positron emission tomography (PET) scan in a child. PET in children is a growing area, and this article describes the practical use...... and implementation of PET in children in a hospital PET centre. It is intended to be of use to nuclear medicine departments implementing or starting to implement PET scans in children. Topics covered are: dealing with children, dosimetry, organisation within the department and relations with other departments......, preparation of the child (provision of information to the child and parents and the fasting procedure), the imaging procedure (resting, tracer injection, positioning, sedation and bladder emptying) and pitfalls in the interpretation of PET scans in children, including experiences with telemedicine....

  12. PET/CT with intravenous contrast can be used for PET attenuation correction in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, A K; Holm, S; Loft, A

    2005-01-01

    correction, but this may result in a bias in the attenuation factors. The clinical significance of this bias has not been established. Our aim was to perform a prospective clinical study where each patient had CT performed with and without IV contrast agent to establish whether PET/CT with IV contrast can...... be used for PET attenuation without reducing the clinical value of the PET scan. METHODS: A uniform phantom study was used to document that the PET acquisition itself is not significantly influenced by the presence of IV contrast medium. Then, 19 patients referred to PET/CT with IV contrast underwent CT...... comparison of standard uptake value (SUV) was performed, and SUVs in tumour, in non-tumour tissue and in the subclavian vein were calculated. Clinical evaluation of the number and location of lesions on all PET/CT scans was performed twice, blinded and in a different random order, by two independent nuclear...

  13. The heritage of radiotracers for PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1988-05-01

    The history of PET research clearly demonstrates that it is advances in chemistry coupled with a detailed examination of the biochemistry of new radiotracers which has allowed the PET method to be applied to new areas of biology and medicine. Radiotracers whose regional distribution reflects glucose metabolism, neutrotransmitter activity and enzyme activity have all required the development of rapid synthetic methods for the radiotracers themselves and the characterization of their biochemical behavior. This article traces some of the advances in the production of labeled precursors and in radiotracer synthesis and evaluation which have shaped the rapidly expanding application of PET to problems in the neurosciences, in cardiology and in oncology. 54 refs.

  14. Imaging neuronal pathways with 52Mn PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Napieczynska, Hanna; Severin, Gregory; Fonslet, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    tomography (PET) neuronal tract tracer. We used 52Mn for imaging dopaminergic pathways after a unilateral injection into the ventral tegmental area (VTA), as well as the striatonigral pathway after an injection into the dorsal striatum (STR) in rats. Furthermore, we tested potentially noxious effects...... of the radioactivity dose with a behavioral test and histological staining. 24 h after 52Mn administration, the neuronal tracts were clearly visible in PET images and statistical analysis confirmed the observed distribution of the tracer. We noticed a behavioral impairment in some animals treated with 170 kBq of 52Mn...... for PET imaging....

  15. The Heritage of Radiotracers for PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, J. S.; Wolf, A. P.

    1988-05-01

    The history of PET research clearly demonstrates that it is advances in chemistry coupled with a detailed examination of the biochemistry of new radiotracers which has allowed the PET method to be applied to new areas of biology and medicine. Radiotracers whose regional distribution reflects glucose metabolism, neutrotransmitter activity and enzyme activity have all required the development of rapid synthetic methods for the radiotracers themselves and the characterization of their biochemical behavior. This article traces some of the advances in the production of labeled precursors and in radiotracer synthesis and evaluation which have shaped the rapidly expanding application of PET to problems in the neurosciences, in cardiology and in oncology.

  16. Quantitative carotid PET/MR imaging: clinical evaluation of MR-Attenuation correction versus CT-Attenuation correction in 18F-FDG PET/MR emission data and comparison to PET/CT

    OpenAIRE

    Bini, Jason; Robson, Philip M.; Calcagno, Claudia; Eldib, Mootaz; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2015-01-01

    Current PET/MR systems employ segmentation of MR images and subsequent assignment of empirical attenuation coefficients for quantitative PET reconstruction. In this study we examine the differences in the quantification of 18F-FDG uptake in the carotid arteries between PET/MR and PET/CT scanners. Five comparisons were performed to asses differences in PET quantification: i) PET/MR MR-based AC (MRAC) versus PET/MR CTAC, ii) PET/MR MRAC versus PET/CT, iii) PET/MR MRAC with carotid coil versus P...

  17. Fat-constrained 18F-FDG PET reconstruction in hybrid PET/MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevrhal, Sven; Heinzer, Susanne; Wülker, Christian; Renisch, Steffen; Ratib, Osman; Börnert, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Fusion of information from PET and MR imaging can increase the diagnostic value of both modalities. This work sought to improve (18)F FDG PET image quality by using MR Dixon fat-constrained images to constrain PET image reconstruction to low-fat regions, with the working hypothesis that fatty tissue metabolism is low in glucose consumption. A novel constrained PET reconstruction algorithm was implemented via a modification of the system matrix in list-mode time-of-flight ordered-subsets expectation maximization reconstruction, similar to the way time-of-flight weighting is incorporated. To demonstrate its use in PET/MR imaging, we modeled a constraint based on fat/water-separating Dixon MR images that shift activity away from regions of fat tissue during PET image reconstruction. PET and MR imaging scans of a modified National Electrical Manufacturers Association/International Electrotechnical Commission body phantom simulating body fat/water composition and in vivo experiments on 2 oncology patients were performed on a commercial time-of-flight PET/MR imaging system. Fat-constrained PET reconstruction visibly and quantitatively increased resolution and contrast between high-uptake and fatty-tissue regions without significantly affecting the images in nonfat regions. The incorporation of MR tissue information, such as fat, in image reconstruction can improve the quality of PET images. The combination of a variety of potential other MR tissue characteristics with PET represents a further justification for merging MR data with PET data in hybrid systems. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  18. Simultaneous trimodal PET-MR-EEG imaging: Do EEG caps generate artefacts in PET images?

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandran Rajkumar; Elena Rota Kops; Jörg Mauler; Lutz Tellmann; Christoph Lerche; Hans Herzog; N Jon Shah; Irene Neuner

    2017-01-01

    Trimodal simultaneous acquisition of positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) has become feasible due to the development of hybrid PET-MR scanners. To capture the temporal dynamics of neuronal activation on a millisecond-by-millisecond basis, an EEG system is appended to the quantitative high resolution PET-MR imaging modality already established in our institute. One of the major difficulties associated with the development of sim...

  19. Bacteriophages safely reduce Salmonella contamination in pet food and raw pet food ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Soffer, Nitzan; Abuladze, Tamar; Woolston, Joelle; Li, Manrong; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Heyse, Serena; Charbonneau, Duane; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of pet food with Salmonella is a serious public health concern, and several disease outbreaks have recently occurred due to human exposure to Salmonella tainted pet food. The problem is especially challenging for raw pet foods (which include raw meats, seafood, fruits, and vegetables). These foods are becoming increasingly popular because of their nutritional qualities, but they are also more difficult to maintain Salmonella-free because they lack heat-treatment. Among various m...

  20. PET/CT and PET/MRI in head and neck malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszko, T A; Cook, G J R

    2018-01-01

    Combined 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has an established role in the staging of difficult cases of head and neck (HN) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), looking for an unknown primary, assessing response post-chemotherapy at 3-6 months, and differentiating relapse from treatment effects in patients suspected to have tumour recurrence. The PET NECK trial, comparing PET/CT surveillance versus neck dissection in advanced head and neck cancer showed survival was similar among patients who underwent PET/CT-guided surveillance and those who underwent planned neck dissection, but surveillance was more cost-effective. There is growing interest in the use of hypoxia PET tracers, especially in targeting radiotherapy, where the radiotherapy dose can be boosted in regions of hypoxia; the use of 68Ga peptide tracers in neuroendocrine malignancy and also in the growing field of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PET/MRI has the advantage of increased anatomical detail and radiation dose reduction combined with the molecular and metabolic data from PET, although PET/CT has the advantage in better sensitivity for imaging lung metastases. Thus far, there is good agreement between PET/CT and PET/MRI with high correlation between semi-quantitative measurements in primary, nodal, osseous, and soft-tissue lesions imaging. PET/MRI may indeed provide greater accuracy than the currently available imaging procedures in the staging and later treatment response evaluation in HNSCC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The spatial distribution of pet dogs and pet cats on the island of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Downes, Martin J; Clegg, Tracy A; Collins, Daniel M; McGrath, Guy; More, Simon J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There is considerable international research regarding the link between human demographics and pet ownership. In several international studies, pet ownership was associated with household demographics including: the presence of children in the household, urban/rural location, level of education and age/family structure. What is lacking across all these studies, however, is an understanding of how these pets are spatially distributed throughout the regions under study. This...

  2. Development of a PET Scanner for Simultaneously Imaging Small Animals with MRI and PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Thompson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, positron emission tomography (PET is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and staging of cancer. Combined PET and X-ray computed tomography (PET-CT scanners are now the modality of choice in cancer treatment planning. More recently, the combination of PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is being explored in many sites. Combining PET and MRI has presented many challenges since the photo-multiplier tubes (PMT in PET do not function in high magnetic fields, and conventional PET detectors distort MRI images. Solid state light sensors like avalanche photo-diodes (APDs and more recently silicon photo-multipliers (SiPMs are much less sensitive to magnetic fields thus easing the compatibility issues. This paper presents the results of a group of Canadian scientists who are developing a PET detector ring which fits inside a high field small animal MRI scanner with the goal of providing simultaneous PET and MRI images of small rodents used in pre-clinical medical research. We discuss the evolution of both the crystal blocks (which detect annihilation photons from positron decay and the SiPM array performance in the last four years which together combine to deliver significant system performance in terms of speed, energy and timing resolution.

  3. Dedicated brain PET system of PET/MR for brain research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Li; Liu, Yaqiang; Ma, Tianyu; Wang, Shi; Wei, Qingyang; Xu, Tianpeng [Institute of Medical Physics, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2015-05-18

    This work is to replace PET ring in human brain PET/MR system with a dedicated wearable PET insert, aimed at improving both patient feasibility and system performance for brain imaging. The designed PET/MR system includes two parts: the inside parts, including a radio frequency (RF) coil and PET ring, are mounted on patient’s head, and the outside part, a MR imager, is dependent of patient. The RF coil is the innermost layer, surrounded by an outer PET-ring layer. They are supported by a MRcompatible structure. And both RF coil and PET detectors are placed inside a standard clinical 3-T MR imager. From the design of the system we can infer that some advantages can be achieved. First, high sensitivity will be achieved with the same amount crystals as the PET ring is more close to region-of-interest area, at a reduced cost. Second, by using a 2-layer depth of interaction (DOI) detector, the parallax effect can be minimized. The resolution will benefit from short positron range caused by magnetic field and smaller ring diameter will also reduce the effect of non-collinearity. Thirdly, as the PET ring is mounted on head, impact of patient motion will be reduced.

  4. APD-based PET detector for simultaneous PET/MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazioso, Ronald [Siemens Molecular Imaging, Knoxville, TN (United States)]. E-mail: ron.grazioso@siemens.com; Zhang, Nan [Siemens Molecular Imaging, Knoxville, TN (United States); Corbeil, James [Siemens Molecular Imaging, Knoxville, TN (United States); Schmand, Matthias [Siemens Molecular Imaging, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ladebeck, Ralf [Siemens AG Medical Solutions MR, Erlangen (Germany); Vester, Markus [Siemens AG Medical Solutions MR, Erlangen (Germany); Schnur, Guenter [Siemens AG Medical Solutions MR, Erlangen (Germany); Renz, Wolfgang [Siemens AG Medical Solutions MR, Erlangen (Germany); Fischer, Hubertus [Siemens AG Medical Solutions MR, Erlangen (Germany)

    2006-12-20

    Two, APD-based, PET modules have been evaluated for use in combined PET/MR imaging. Each module consists of 4 independent, optically isolated detectors. Each detector consists of an 8x8 array of 2x2x20 mm LSO crystals read out by a 2x2 array of 5x5 mm Hamamatsu S8664-55 APDs. The average crystal energy resolution and time resolution (against a plastic scintillator on a PMT) of the detectors was 17% and 1.8 ns, respectively. The modules were positioned in the tunnel of a 1.5 T Siemens Symphony MR scanner. The presence of the PET modules decreased the MR signal-to-noise ratio by about 15% but no image interference was observed. The gradient and RF pulse sequences of the MR produced adverse effects on the PET event signals. These high-frequency pulses did not affect the true PET events but did increase the dead time of the PET system. Simultaneous, artifact-free, images were acquired with the PET and MR system using a small Derenzo phantom. These results show that APD-based PET detectors can be used for a high-resolution and cost-effective integrated PET/MR system.

  5. APD-based PET detector for simultaneous PET/MR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioso, Ronald; Zhang, Nan; Corbeil, James; Schmand, Matthias; Ladebeck, Ralf; Vester, Markus; Schnur, Günter; Renz, Wolfgang; Fischer, Hubertus

    2006-12-01

    Two, APD-based, PET modules have been evaluated for use in combined PET/MR imaging. Each module consists of 4 independent, optically isolated detectors. Each detector consists of an 8×8 array of 2×2×20 mm LSO crystals read out by a 2×2 array of 5×5 mm Hamamatsu S8664-55 APDs. The average crystal energy resolution and time resolution (against a plastic scintillator on a PMT) of the detectors was 17% and 1.8 ns, respectively. The modules were positioned in the tunnel of a 1.5 T Siemens Symphony MR scanner. The presence of the PET modules decreased the MR signal-to-noise ratio by about 15% but no image interference was observed. The gradient and RF pulse sequences of the MR produced adverse effects on the PET event signals. These high-frequency pulses did not affect the true PET events but did increase the dead time of the PET system. Simultaneous, artifact-free, images were acquired with the PET and MR system using a small Derenzo phantom. These results show that APD-based PET detectors can be used for a high-resolution and cost-effective integrated PET/MR system.

  6. Motion Correction of Whole-Body PET Data with a Joint PET-MRI Registration Functional

    OpenAIRE

    Fieseler, M. (Michael); Gigengack, F. (Fabian); Jiang, X.; Schäfers, K.P.

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory motion is known to degrade image quality in PET imaging. The necessary acquisition time of several minutes per bed position will inevitably lead to a blurring effect due to organ motion. A lot of research has been done with regards to motion correction of PET data. As full-body PET-MRI became available recently, the anatomical data provided by MRI is a promising source of motion information. Current PET-MRI-based motion correction approaches, however, do not take into account the ...

  7. Is non-attenuation-corrected PET inferior to body attenuation-corrected PET or PET/CT in lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maintas, Dimitris [CMN, Hopital Pneumocardiologique de Lyon, 69394 Lyon Cedex (France)]. E-mail: maintas@otenet.gr; Houzard, Claire [CMN, Hopital Pneumocardiologique de Lyon, 69394 Lyon Cedex (France); Ksyar, Rachid [CMN, Hopital Pneumocardiologique de Lyon, 69394 Lyon Cedex (France); Mognetti, Thomas [Anticancer Center Leon Berard, Nuclear Medicine Department, Lyon (France); Maintas, Catherine [Institute of Isotopic Studies, Distomou 5-7, Maroussi (Greece); Scheiber, Christian [CMN, Hopital Pneumocardiologique de Lyon, 69394 Lyon Cedex (France); Itti, Roland [CMN, Hopital Pneumocardiologique de Lyon, 69394 Lyon Cedex (France)

    2006-12-20

    It is considered that one of the great strengths of PET imaging is the ability to correct for body attenuation. This enables better lesion uptake quantification and quality of PET images. The aim of this work is to compare the sensitivity of non-attenuation-corrected (NAC) PET images, the gamma photons (GPAC) and CT attenuation-corrected (CTAC) images in detecting and staging of lung cancer. We have studied 66 patients undergoing PET/CT examinations for detecting and staging NSC lung cancer. The patients were injected with 18-FDG; 5 MBq/kg under fasting conditions and examination was started 60 min later. Transmission data were acquired by a spiral CT X-ray tube and by gamma photons emitting Cs-137l source and were used for the patient body attenuation correction without correction for respiratory motion. In 55 of 66 patients we performed both attenuation correction procedures and in 11 patients only CT attenuation correction. In seven patients with solitary nodules PET was negative and in 59 patients with lung cancer PET/CT was positive for pulmonary or other localization. In the group of 55 patients we found 165 areas of focal increased 18-FDG uptake in NAC, 165 in CTAC and 164 in GPAC PET images.In the patients with only CTAC we found 58 areas of increased 18-FDG uptake on NAC and 58 areas lesions on CTAC. In the patients with positive PET we found 223 areas of focal increased uptake in NAC and 223 areas in CTAC images. The sensitivity of NAC was equal to the sensitivity of CTAC and GPAC images. The visualization of peripheral lesions was better in NAC images and the lesions were better localized in attenuation-corrected images. In three lesions of the thorax the localization was better in GPAC and fused images than in CTAC images.

  8. Evaluation of the PET component of simultaneous [{sup 18}F]choline PET/MRI in prostate cancer: comparison with [{sup 18}F]choline PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Axel; Lipponer, Christine; Nensa, Felix; Altenbernd, Jens-Christian; Schlosser, Thomas; Lauenstein, Thomas [University Hospital Essen, Department of diagnostic and interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Heusch, Philipp [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of diagnostic and interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Ruebben, Herbert [University Hospital Essen, Department of Urology and pediatric Urology, Essen (Germany); Bockisch, Andreas; Poeppel, Thorsten; Nagarajah, James [University Hospital Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the positron emission tomography (PET) component of [{sup 18}F]choline PET/MRI and compare it with the PET component of [{sup 18}F]choline PET/CT in patients with histologically proven prostate cancer and suspected recurrent prostate cancer. Thirty-six patients were examined with simultaneous [{sup 18}F]choline PET/MRI following combined [{sup 18}F]choline PET/CT. Fifty-eight PET-positive lesions in PET/CT and PET/MRI were evaluated by measuring the maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean}) using volume of interest (VOI) analysis. A scoring system was applied to determine the quality of the PET images of both PET/CT and PET/MRI. Agreement between PET/CT and PET/MRI regarding SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean} was tested using Pearson's product-moment correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. All PET-positive lesions that were visible on PET/CT were also detectable on PET/MRI. The quality of the PET images was comparable in both groups. Median SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean} of all lesions were significantly lower in PET/MRI than in PET/CT (5.2 vs 6.1, p < 0.05 and 2.0 vs 2.6, p < 0.001, respectively). Pearson's product-moment correlation indicated highly significant correlations between SUV{sub max} of PET/CT and PET/MRI (R = 0.86, p < 0.001) as well as between SUV{sub mean} of PET/CT and PET/MRI (R = 0.81, p < 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis revealed lower and upper limits of agreement of -2.77 to 3.64 between SUV{sub max} of PET/CT vs PET/MRI and -1.12 to +2.23 between SUV{sub mean} of PET/CT vs PET/MRI. PET image quality of PET/MRI was comparable to that of PET/CT. A highly significant correlation between SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean} was found. Both SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean} were significantly lower in [{sup 18}F]choline PET/MRI than in [{sup 18}F]choline PET/CT. Differences of SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean} might be caused by different techniques of attenuation correction

  9. Molecular Imaging Challenges With PET

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2010-01-01

    The future trends in molecular imaging and associated challenges for in-vivo functional imaging are illustrated on the basis of a few examples, such as atherosclerosis vulnerable plaques imaging or stem cells tracking. A set of parameters are derived to define the specifications of a new generation of in-vivo imaging devices in terms of sensitivity, spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. The limitations of strategies used in present PET scanners are discussed and new approaches are proposed taking advantage of recent progress on materials, photodetectors and readout electronics. A special focus is put on metamaterials, as a new approach to bring more functionality to detection devices. It is shown that the route is now open towards a fully digital detector head with very high photon counting capability over a large energy range, excellent timing precision and possibility of imaging the energy deposition process.

  10. Don't Just Pet Your Chia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents ways to use ChiaPets to link biology-related topics such as taxonomy, morphology, ethnobotany, economic botany, hydroponics, salinity, photomorphogenesis, and phototropism with food and fertilizer chemistry, mathematics, art, and history. (MKR)

  11. Therapy assessment in multiple myeloma with PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, Cristina; Zamagni, Elena

    2017-08-01

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell dyscrasia producing bone lytic lesions. In recent years, a wide spectrum of therapeutic approaches are available to treat the disease: an accurate therapy assessment has, therefore, become of utmost importance. In this field, imaging is becoming a cornerstone, especially in association with clinical parameters. Among imaging procedures, FDG PET/CT is recognized to provide reliable information, achieved in a very safe and fast procedure.  The literature has produced very concordant results from different groups assessing the value of FDG PET/CT as a prognostic factor in general and in therapy assessment, but some issues remain regarding a standardization of image interpretation especially in borderline cases. So far, no data regarding nor other imaging compounds and the use of hybrid tomographs PET/MR are available to define therapy assessment in PET.

  12. Autism spectrum disorder and pet therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewertsen, Caitlin M; French, Emma D; Teramoto, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) encompasses a wide range of social and mental afflictions that are difficult to treat. Due to a lack of established treatments for ASD, alternative therapies have been the primary form of intervention. One of these alternatives is pet therapy, a field that has experienced growing interest and has recently accumulated studies that investigate its efficacy. This article reviews and summarizes that effectiveness as well as the findings and limitations associated with pet therapy for ASD. The majority of research on ASD and pet therapy has examined children and has primarily used dogs and horses for therapy. Studies have shown positive effects for the therapy, including high satisfaction rates among the participants' families. Major limitations of studies in the current literature include the lack of control groups and small sample sizes. Future research should incorporate better study designs and large samples to validate pet therapy as an appropriate treatment for ASD.

  13. FDG PET/CT in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henrik; Holdgaard, Paw Christian; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    use of PET/CT in the RSD with these recommendations. This article summarizes the results. METHODS: A Work Group appointed a professional Subgroup which made Clinician Groups conduct literature reviews on six selected cancers responsible for 5,768 (62.6 %) of 9,213 PET/CT scans in the RSD in 2012......-recommendable" indications, respectively. RESULTS: Of 11,729 citations, 1,729 were considered for review, and 204 were included. The evidence suggested usefulness of PET/CT in lung, lymphoma, melanoma, head and neck, and colorectal cancers, whereas evidence was sparse in gynaecological cancers. The agreement between actual...... use of PET/CT and literature-based recommendations was high in the first five mentioned cancers in that 96.2 % of scans were made for grade A or B indications versus only 22.2 % in gynaecological cancers. CONCLUSION: Evidence-based usefulness was reported in five of six selected cancers; evidence...

  14. Pathophysiology of movement disorders studied using PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, KL

    1997-01-01

    PET radiotracer methods can measure various biochemical features of brain tissue in the living human brain. Here, local brain energy consumption and striatal dopaminergic function will be discussed in the light of the . neurodegenerative processes underlying Parkinson's disease. Particularly,

  15. PET/MR Imaging in Vascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Pedersen, Sune Folke; Kjær, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    For imaging of atherosclerotic disease, lumenography using computed tomography, ultrasonography, or invasive angiography is still the backbone of evaluation. However, these methods are less effective to predict the likelihood of future thromboembolic events caused by vulnerability of plaques. PET...

  16. Therapy assessment in multiple myeloma with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, Cristina [Medicina Nucleare Metropolitana di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Zamagni, Elena [Bologna University School of Medicine, Seragnoli Institute of Hematology, Bologna (Italy)

    2017-08-15

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell dyscrasia producing bone lytic lesions. In recent years, a wide spectrum of therapeutic approaches are available to treat the disease: an accurate therapy assessment has, therefore, become of utmost importance. In this field, imaging is becoming a cornerstone, especially in association with clinical parameters. Among imaging procedures, FDG PET/CT is recognized to provide reliable information, achieved in a very safe and fast procedure. The literature has produced very concordant results from different groups assessing the value of FDG PET/CT as a prognostic factor in general and in therapy assessment, but some issues remain regarding a standardization of image interpretation especially in borderline cases. So far, no data regarding nor other imaging compounds and the use of hybrid tomographs PET/MR are available to define therapy assessment in PET. (orig.)

  17. Dynamic PET denoising with HYPR processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christian, Bradley T; Vandehey, Nicholas T; Floberg, John M; Mistretta, Charles A

    2010-01-01

    HighlY constrained backPRojection (HYPR) is a promising image-processing strategy with widespread application in time-resolved MRI that is also well suited for PET applications requiring time series data...

  18. PET and PET/CT imaging for the earliest detection and treatment of colorectal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Carter

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 150,000 new cases of colorectal cancer are diagnosed each year with the life time risk of developing colon caner in developed nations being 4.6% in men and 3.2% in women. Screening patients is essential early detection of colon carcinoma to aid in complete resection. Unfortunately current screening methods carry with them poor patient compliance. PET and PET/CT may be a significant part of this screening solution. The authors reviewed and analyzed the English language articles and case reports identified on Medline during the last 10 years. PET and PET/CT results for colorectal carcinoma were tabulated and presented for the fifth Scientific Meeting of the Brazilian Society of Nuclear Biosciences. Though most studies have been retrospective analysis in using PET for staging for other malignant processes the cases that have identified additional uptake in the colon are important. The accuracy when utilizing PET and PET/CT in this screening method has a sensitivity between 65 and 90% with a specificity of 84 to 90% and a positive predictive value 71 to 78%. Early stages of malignancies and pre-cancerous polyps avidly accumulates F-18 Deoxyflouro glucose allowing us to conclude that whole body PET and PET/CT is an essential component in the work up, staging or treatment monitoring in colon carcinoma. We have to continue to accumulate data for possible introduction for whole body PET and PET/CT scanning for colon carcinoma and precancerous polyps.Aproximadamente, 150 000 novos casos de câncer coloretal são diagnosticados, anualmente, em países em desenvolvimento. Destes, 4,6% em homens e 3,2% em mulheres. A triagem de pacientes é essencial na detecção precoce do carcinoma de colon para ajudar na completa ressecção. Infelizmente, os métodos de exame atualmente disponíveis contam com uma baixa adesão dos pacientes. Parte significativa da solução desse problema pode estar no uso de PET e PET/CT. Os autores revisaram e

  19. Dynamic neurotransmitter interactions measured with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, W.K.; Dewey, S.L.

    2001-04-02

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a valuable interdisciplinary tool for understanding physiological, biochemical and pharmacological functions at a molecular level in living humans, whether in a healthy or diseased state. The utility of tracing chemical activity through the body transcends the fields of cardiology, oncology, neurology and psychiatry. In this, PET techniques span radiochemistry and radiopharmaceutical development to instrumentation, image analysis, anatomy and modeling. PET has made substantial contributions in each of these fields by providing a,venue for mapping dynamic functions of healthy and unhealthy human anatomy. As diverse as the disciplines it bridges, PET has provided insight into an equally significant variety of psychiatric disorders. Using the unique quantitative ability of PET, researchers are now better able to non-invasively characterize normally occurring neurotransmitter interactions in the brain. With the knowledge that these interactions provide the fundamental basis for brain response, many investigators have recently focused their efforts on an examination of the communication between these chemicals in both healthy volunteers and individuals suffering from diseases classically defined as neurotransmitter specific in nature. In addition, PET can measure the biochemical dynamics of acute and sustained drug abuse. Thus, PET studies of neurotransmitter interactions enable investigators to describe a multitude of specific functional interactions in the human brain. This information can then be applied to understanding side effects that occur in response to acute and chronic drug therapy, and to designing new drugs that target multiple systems as opposed to single receptor types. Knowledge derived from PET studies can be applied to drug discovery, research and development (for review, see (Fowler et al., 1999) and (Burns et al., 1999)). Here, we will cover the most substantial contributions of PET to understanding

  20. Sea otter health: Challenging a pet hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Lafferty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission.

  1. Radiopharmaceuticals in PET, Progress and Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A. P.; Fowler, J. S.

    1988-11-01

    It is the intention of this presentation to focus on the current state of radiopharmaceuticals for PET and where this is leading us. PET radiopharmaceuticals can be broken down into perhaps seven categories at present with each being applicable to a different aspect of human biochemistry. These are: metabolic probes, neurochemical probes, enzyme probes, ion channel blockers, blood flow agents, ethical drugs and other positron emitters.

  2. PET tracer for imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    There is provided a radiolabelled peptide-based compound for diagnostic imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). The compound may thus be used for diagnosis of malignant diseases. The compound is particularly useful for imaging of somatostatin overexpression in tumors, wherein the compound...... is capable of being imaged by PET when administered with a target dose in the range of 150-350 MBq, such as 150-250 MBq, preferable in the range of 191-210 MBq....

  3. Sterilization influence on PET track membrane properties

    OpenAIRE

    Filippova, Ekaterina Olegovna; Pichugin, Vladimir Fyodorovich; Gradoboev, Aleksandr Vasilyevich; Filippov, Andrey Vladimirovich

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) track membrane (TM) has a great opportunity to use as a bio implant in ophthalmology's surgery due to its physical and chemical properties and biological comparability. Sterilization of medical implants can change its properties and can influence on regeneration process and success of surgical treatment. We researched influence on the PET track membrane of two sterilization methods wide used in medicine. The first sterilization method was steam sterilization. ...

  4. Sea otter health: Challenging a pet hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D

    2015-12-01

    A recent series of studies on tagged sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) challenges the hypothesis that sea otters are sentinels of a dirty ocean, in particular, that pet cats are the main source of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in central California. Counter to expectations, sea otters from unpopulated stretches of coastline are less healthy and more exposed to parasites than city-associated otters. Ironically, now it seems that spillover from wildlife, not pets, dominates spatial patterns of disease transmission.

  5. Digital PET compliance to EARL accreditation specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Daniëlle; Groot Koerkamp, Maureen; Jager, Pieter L; Arkies, Hester; Knollema, Siert; Slump, Cornelis H; Sanches, Pedro G; van Dalen, Jorn A

    2017-12-01

    Our aim was to evaluate if a recently introduced TOF PET system with digital photon counting technology (Philips Healthcare), potentially providing an improved image quality over analogue systems, can fulfil EANM research Ltd (EARL) accreditation specifications for tumour imaging with FDG-PET/CT. We have performed a phantom study on a digital TOF PET system using a NEMA NU2-2001 image quality phantom with six fillable spheres. Phantom preparation and PET/CT acquisition were performed according to the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines. We made list-mode ordered-subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) TOF PET reconstructions, with default settings, three voxel sizes (4 × 4 × 4 mm(3), 2 × 2 × 2 mm(3) and 1 × 1 × 1 mm(3)) and with/without point spread function (PSF) modelling. On each PET dataset, mean and maximum activity concentration recovery coefficients (RCmean and RCmax) were calculated for all phantom spheres and compared to EARL accreditation specifications. The RCs of the 4 × 4 × 4 mm(3) voxel dataset without PSF modelling proved closest to EARL specifications. Next, we added a Gaussian post-smoothing filter with varying kernel widths of 1-7 mm. EARL specifications were fulfilled when using kernel widths of 2 to 4 mm. TOF PET using digital photon counting technology fulfils EARL accreditation specifications for FDG-PET/CT tumour imaging when using an OSEM reconstruction with 4 × 4 × 4 mm(3) voxels, no PSF modelling and including a Gaussian post-smoothing filter of 2 to 4 mm.

  6. Clinical evaluation of PET image quality as a function of acquisition time in a new TOF-PET/MR compared to TOF-PET/CT - initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeimpekis, Konstantinos; Huellner, Martin; De Galiza Barbosa, Felipe; Ter Voert, Edwin; Davison, Helen; Delso, Gaspar; Veit-Haibach, Patrick [Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-05-18

    The recently available integrated PET/MR imaging can offer significant additional advances in clinical imaging. The purpose of this study was to compare the PET performance between a PET/CT scanner and an integrated TOF-PET/MR scanner concerning image quality parameters and quantification in terms of SUV as a function of acquisition time (a surrogate of dose). Five brain and five whole body patients were included in the study. The PET/CT scan was used as a reference and the PET/MR acquisition time was consecutively adjusted, taking into account the decay between the scans in order to expose both systems to the same amount of emitted signal. The acquisition times were then retrospectively reduced to assess the performance of the PET/MRI for lower count rates. Image quality, image sharpness, artifacts and noise were evaluated. SUV measurements were taken in the liver and in white matter to compare quantification. Quantitative evaluation showed good correlation between PET/CT and PET/MR brain SUVs. Liver correlation was lower, with uptake underestimation in PET/MR, partially justified by bio-redistribution. The clinical evaluation showed that PET/MR offers higher image quality and sharpness with lower levels of noise and artefacts compared to PET/CT with reduced acquisition times for whole body scans, while for brain scans there is no significant difference. The PET-component of the TOF-PET/MR showed higher image quality compared to PET/CT as tested with reduced imaging times. However, these results account mainly for body imaging, while no significant difference were found in brain imaging. This overall higher image quality suggests that the acquisition time or injected activity can be reduced by at least 37% on the PET/MR scanner.

  7. Reproducibility of 18F-FDG PET uptake measurements in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma on both PET/CT and PET/MR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, B M; Aznar, M C; Hansen, A E; Vogelius, I R; Löfgren, J; Andersen, F L; Loft, A; Kjaer, A; Højgaard, L; Specht, L

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate reproducibility of fluorine-18 fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake on 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and 18F-FDG PET/MR scans in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods: 30 patients with HNSCC were included in this prospective study. The patients were scanned twice before radiotherapy treatment with both PET/CT and PET/MR. Patients were scanned on the same scanners, 3 days apart and according to the same protocol. Metabolic tumour activity was measured by the maximum and peak standardized uptake value (SUVmax and SUVpeak, respectively), and total lesion glycolysis from the metabolic tumour volume defined from ≥50% SUVmax. Bland–Altman analysis with limits of agreement, coefficient of variation (CV) from the two modalities were performed in order to test the reproducibility. Furthermore, CVs from SUVmax and SUVpeak were compared. The area under the curve from cumulative SUV–volume histograms were measured and tested for reproducibility of the distribution of 18F-FDG uptake. Results: 24 patients had two pre-treatment PET/CT scans and 21 patients had two pre-treatment PET/MR scans available for further analyses. Mean difference for SUVmax, peak and mean was approximately 4% for PET/CT and 3% for PET/MR, with 95% limits of agreement less than ±20%. CV was small (5–7%) for both modalities. There was no significant difference in CVs between PET/CT and PET/MR (p = 0.31). SUVmax was not more reproducible than SUVpeak (p = 0.09). Conclusion: 18F-FDG uptake in PET/CT and PET/MR is highly reproducible and we found no difference in reproducibility between PET/CT and PET/MR. Advances in knowledge: This is the first report to test reproducibility of PET/CT and PET/MR. PMID:25634069

  8. PeneloPET, a Monte Carlo PET simulation tool based on PENELOPE: features and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espana, S; Herraiz, J L; Vicente, E; Udias, J M [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J J; Desco, M [Unidad de Medicina y CirugIa Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jose@nuc2.fis.ucm.es

    2009-03-21

    Monte Carlo simulations play an important role in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, as an essential tool for the research and development of new scanners and for advanced image reconstruction. PeneloPET, a PET-dedicated Monte Carlo tool, is presented and validated in this work. PeneloPET is based on PENELOPE, a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of the transport in matter of electrons, positrons and photons, with energies from a few hundred eV to 1 GeV. PENELOPE is robust, fast and very accurate, but it may be unfriendly to people not acquainted with the FORTRAN programming language. PeneloPET is an easy-to-use application which allows comprehensive simulations of PET systems within PENELOPE. Complex and realistic simulations can be set by modifying a few simple input text files. Different levels of output data are available for analysis, from sinogram and lines-of-response (LORs) histogramming to fully detailed list mode. These data can be further exploited with the preferred programming language, including ROOT. PeneloPET simulates PET systems based on crystal array blocks coupled to photodetectors and allows the user to define radioactive sources, detectors, shielding and other parts of the scanner. The acquisition chain is simulated in high level detail; for instance, the electronic processing can include pile-up rejection mechanisms and time stamping of events, if desired. This paper describes PeneloPET and shows the results of extensive validations and comparisons of simulations against real measurements from commercial acquisition systems. PeneloPET is being extensively employed to improve the image quality of commercial PET systems and for the development of new ones.

  9. Factors in children's attitudes toward pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, A H; Kidd, R M

    1990-06-01

    This study investigates parental attitudes, family size, and structure, and presence or absence of household pets as influences on children's attitudes toward pets. 700 parents completed a Melson Parent Questionnaire which assesses children's activities with, interest in, and responsibility for pets, and completed either the Wilson Attitude Inventory for Pet Owners or for Nonpet Owners. Results indicated: that children of strongly attached adults and in pet-owning homes scored higher on Activities and Interest than children of weakly attached adults and in nonpet-owning homes; that children of both sexes in one-parent homes scored higher on Responsibility than in two-parent homes; that boys scored higher on Interest, girls on Activities, and both sexes on Responsibility when mothers worked full time rather than part-time; that girls scored higher on Interest and, in pet-owning homes, on Responsibility than boys; that preschoolers scored lower on Activities and Interest than older children, and that grade schoolers scored higher on Responsibility than preschoolers or high schoolers.

  10. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Mix, Michael; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Section of Positron Emission Tomography, Freiburg (Germany); Korsten-Reck, Ulrike [University Hospital Freiburg, Division of Sports Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Mueller, Frank [PET-Institute Rhein-Neckar, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Merk, Stefan [Kantonsspital Basel, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland)

    2005-04-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81{+-}15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only <0.1%. On this basis, equality of the volume values determined by the two methods can be assumed. PET can be used as a supplementary method for experimental determination of whole-body volume and total body fat in tumour patients. The fat content can be used to calculate the LBM and to determine body weight-independent SUVs (SUV{sub LBM}). (orig.)

  11. Nutritional Sustainability of Pet Foods12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kelly S.; Carter, Rebecca A.; Yount, Tracy P.; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system. PMID:23493530

  12. Effect of PET functionalization in composites of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cazan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The functionalization of polyethylene terephthalate (PET from tire rubber–PET–high density polyethylene (HDPE composites represents a key strategy for improving the composite properties. This is a practical and effective method to improve the interface between matrix (waste tire rubber and fillers (waste PET and HDPE. By PET functionalization, adherence and surface properties of composite materials can be controlled. PET functionalization was performed with polyethylene glycol (PEG 400, 1% and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS 1%. The characterization of the components and composite are discussed in terms of surface energy values (evaluated from water contact angle measurements and surface morphology by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The structural and conformational changes were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy while the crystalline structure was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The improved interfacial adhesion, thermal stability and mechanical properties (stress–strain, compression and impact resistance of the composites are correlated with the PET functionalization, with non-ionic (PEG and an anionic surfactant (SDS. The results proved that the interface properties are improved by functionalization of PET. The best mechanical properties were recorded at 30 min moulding. The samples with 45% PET–SDS showed the best combination of mechanical properties: tensile strength (1.56 N/mm2, impact strength (43.72 kJ/m2 and compression (158.78 N/mm2.

  13. Study, development and validation of a dead-timeless electronic architecture concept for highly sensitive PET (Positron Emission Tomograph); Etude, developpement et validation d'un concept d'architecture electronique sans temps mort pour TEP de haute sensibilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vert, P.E

    2007-03-15

    Positron emission tomographs (PET) are fitted with highly capable reading electronics, which owns qualities and drawbacks. Highly accused at first as an explanation of the poor sensitivity of these imagers, the present study points out that the dead-times shared along the chains contribute to only 16 % in the data losses at a typical activity of 10 {mu}Ci/ml. The gross acquisition rates could thus be raised by 20 % through a suppression of these saturations. Looking in details at the philosophy of the acquisition procedure, a property appears to circumscribe the sensitivity even more: the timing resolution. The latter conditions, to the first order, the rejection capabilities of random events, part of the scattered ones and hence noise which is finally rated to the true coincidences the signal is made up of. Minimizing the resolving time goes through the suppression of the unneeded actors along with the adoption of a well adapted time-stamping method (optimal filtering). In doing so, the intrinsic channel resolution appears to be possibly lowered by a factor 7, reducing to 350 ps. The bottom value of the coincidence window may be narrowed as a consequence, leading to an increase of the NECR (noise equivalent count rate) by 50 per cent. At this stage, a time of flight (TOF) algorithms can be implemented. As an opportunist, it promises a reduction of the noise variance by 430 %, a gain that echoes on the NECR figure. Finally merging all these ideas allows to expect an improvement close to an order of magnitude on the NECR, with the hope of routine exams shortened by the same amount. In this context, it appeared logical to imagine a new electronics acquisition synoptic dedicated to fully pixelized PET. The number of channels blows up by the way when compared to the existing, this statement being partially balanced by the decision to fully integrate the electronics. The measures of the energy and time are planned to be performed with a single channel, with a continuous

  14. Imaging with {sup 124}I in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: is PET/MRI superior to PET/CT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binse, I.; Poeppel, T.D.; Ruhlmann, M.; Gomez, B.; Bockisch, A.; Rosenbaum-Krumme, S.J. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Umutlu, L. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Essen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to compare integrated PET/CT and PET/MRI for their usefulness in detecting and categorizing cervical iodine-positive lesions in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer using {sup 124}I as tracer. The study group comprised 65 patients at high risk of iodine-positive metastasis who underwent PET/CT (low-dose CT scan, PET acquisition time 2 min; PET/CT{sub 2}) followed by PET/MRI of the neck 24 h after {sup 124}I administration. PET images from both modalities were analysed for the numbers of tracer-positive lesions. Two different acquisition times were used for the comparisons, one matching the PET/CT{sub 2} acquisition time (2 min, PET/MRI{sub 2}) and the other covering the whole MRI scan time (30 min, PET/MRI{sub 30}). Iodine-positive lesions were categorized as metastasis, thyroid remnant or inconclusive according to their location on the PET/CT images. Morphological information provided by MRI was considered for evaluation of lesions on PET/MRI and for volume information. PET/MRI{sub 2} detected significantly more iodine-positive metastases and thyroid remnants than PET/CT{sub 2} (72 vs. 60, p = 0.002, and 100 vs. 80, p = 0.001, respectively), but the numbers of patients with at least one tumour lesion identified were not significantly different (21/65 vs. 17/65 patients). PET/MRI{sub 30} tended to detect more PET-positive metastases than PET/MRI{sub 2} (88 vs. 72), but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07). Of 21 lesions classified as inconclusive on PET/CT, 5 were assigned to metastasis or thyroid remnant when evaluated by PET/MRI. Volume information was available in 34 % of iodine-positive metastases and 2 % of thyroid remnants on PET/MRI. PET/MRI of the neck was found to be superior to PET/CT in detecting iodine-positive lesions. This was attributed to the higher sensitivity of the PET component, Although helpful in some cases, we found no substantial advantage of PET/MRI over PET/CT in categorizing iodine

  15. Guidelines for 18F-FDG PET and PET-CT imaging in paediatric oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauss, J.; Franzius, C.; Pfluger, T.

    2008-01-01

    tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) in paediatric oncology. The Oncology Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) has published excellent procedure guidelines on tumour imaging with (18)F-FDG PET (Bombardieri et al., Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 30:BP115-24, 2003). These guidelines, published...

  16. Imaging corn plants with PhytoPET, a modular PET system for plant biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Kross, B.; McKisson, J.; McKisson, J. E.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Xi, W.; Zorn, C.; Bonito, G.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Crowell, A.; Cumberbatch, L. C.; Topp, C.; Smith, M. F.

    2013-11-01

    PhytoPET is a modular positron emission tomography (PET) system designed specifically for plant imaging. The PhytoPET design allows flexible arrangements of PET detectors based on individual standalone detector modules built from single Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes and pixelated LYSO arrays. We have used the PhytoPET system to perform preliminary corn plant imaging studies at the Duke University Biology Department Phytotron. Initial evaluation of the PhytoPET system to image the biodistribution of the positron emitting tracer {sup 11}C in corn plants is presented. {sup 11}CO{sub 2} is loaded into corn seedlings by a leaf-labeling cuvette and translocation of {sup 11}C-sugars is imaged by a flexible arrangement of PhytoPET modules on each side. The PhytoPET system successfully images {sup 11}C within corn plants and allows for the dynamic measurement of {sup 11}C-sugar translocation from the leaf to the roots.

  17. Development of Filtering Methods for PET Signals Contaminated by RF Pulses for Combined PET-MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yoonsuk; Choi, Yong; Hong, Key Jo; Hu, Wei; Kang, Jihoon; Jung, Jin Ho; Song, Myung Sung; Park, Hyun-wook; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents the development of filtering methods for positron emission tomography (PET) signals contaminated by radio frequency (RF) pulses for combined PET and clinical 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The filtering methods include software, hardware, and hybrid correction methods. In the software correction method, PET signals are assessed, and valid signals are identified based on the characteristics of a typical PET signal using Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based programming. The hardware correction method makes use of differential-to-single-ended and low-pass filter circuits for PET analog signals. The hybrid correction method involves the sequential application of both the hardware and software methods. Both valid and contaminated PET signals are measured with an oscilloscope. An evaluation is then made of the performance (energy resolution, photopeak channel, total counts, and coincidence timing resolution) of the PET detector modules with and without various MR sequences (gradient echo, spin echo T1 sequence). For all correction methods, the energy resolution, photopeak position, and coincidence timing resolution with MR sequences are similar (noise signals and reduce count loss while preserving the valid analog signals of MR sequences, is reliable and useful for the development of simultaneous PET-MRI.

  18. Assess PET/MR in diagnosis of disease in comparison with PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jianhua; Lim, Jason Chu-Chern; Loi, Hoi Yin; Totoman, John [A*STAR-NUS Clinical Imaging Research Centre (Singapore); Sinha, Arvind Kumar; Quek, Swee Titan [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Hospital (Singapore); Townsend, David [A*STAR-NUS Clinical Imaging Research Centre (Singapore)

    2015-05-18

    The aim of this study is to assess the performance of 18F-FDG whole body PET/MRI in comparison with PET/CT based on SUV. Anatomical location of lesion with Dixon MRI and additional value of advanced MRI technology such as diffusion weighted MR imaging in diagnosis of malignant disease will also be investigated.

  19. PET motion correction in context of integrated PET/MR: Current techniques, limitations, and future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Ashley; Smith, Jye; Thomas, Paul; Rose, Stephen; Dowson, Nicholas

    2017-12-01

    Patient motion is an important consideration in modern PET image reconstruction. Advances in PET technology mean motion has an increasingly important influence on resulting image quality. Motion-induced artifacts can have adverse effects on clinical outcomes, including missed diagnoses and oversized radiotherapy treatment volumes. This review aims to summarize the wide variety of motion correction techniques available in PET and combined PET/CT and PET/MR, with a focus on the latter. A general framework for the motion correction of PET images is presented, consisting of acquisition, modeling, and correction stages. Methods for measuring, modeling, and correcting motion and associated artifacts, both in literature and commercially available, are presented, and their relative merits are contrasted. Identified limitations of current methods include modeling of aperiodic and/or unpredictable motion, attaining adequate temporal resolution for motion correction in dynamic kinetic modeling acquisitions, and maintaining availability of the MR in PET/MR scans for diagnostic acquisitions. Finally, avenues for future investigation are discussed, with a focus on improvements that could improve PET image quality, and that are practical in the clinical environment. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  20. An update on the role of PET/CT and PET/MRI in ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khiewvan, Benjapa [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mahidol University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok (Thailand); Torigian, Drew A.; Emamzadehfard, Sahra; Paydary, Koosha; Salavati, Ali; Houshmand, Sina; Werner, Thomas J.; Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    This review article summarizes the role of PET/CT and PET/MRI in ovarian cancer. With regard to the diagnosis of ovarian cancer, the presence of FDG uptake within the ovary of a postmenopausal woman raises the concern for ovarian cancer. Multiple studies show that FDG PET/CT can detect lymph node and distant metastasis in ovarian cancer with high accuracy and may, therefore, alter the management to obtain better clinical outcomes. Although PET/CT staging is superior for N and M staging of ovarian cancer, its role is limited for T staging. Additionally, FDG PET/CT is of great benefit in evaluating treatment response and has prognostic value in patients with ovarian cancer. FDG PET/CT also has value to detect recurrent disease, particularly in patients with elevated serum CA-125 levels and negative or inconclusive conventional imaging test results. PET/MRI may beneficial for tumor staging because MRI has higher soft tissue contrast and no ionizing radiation exposure compared to CT. Some non-FDG PET radiotracers such as {sup 18}F-fluorothymidine (FLT) or {sup 11}C-methionine (MET) have been studied in preclinical and clinical studies as well and may play a role in the evaluation of patients with ovarian cancer. (orig.)

  1. Indikationer for anvendelse af PET eller PET/CT hos patienter med brystkræft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernsdorf, Mogens; Graff, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    PET and PET/CT, using 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, are not suited for primary diagnostics of small tumours or lymph node metastases to the axilla. In return, the method has a high sensitivity and specificity regarding the detection of loco-regional recurrence and metastases to mediastinal lymph...

  2. Clinical Evaluation of PET Image Quality as a Function of Acquisition Time in a New TOF-PET/MRI Compared to TOF-PET/CT--Initial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeimpekis, Konstantinos G; Barbosa, Felipe; Hüllner, Martin; ter Voert, Edwin; Davison, Helen; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Delso, Gaspar

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare only the performance of the PET component between a TOF-PET/CT (henceforth noted as PET/CT) scanner and an integrated TOF-PET/MRI (henceforth noted as PET/MRI) scanner concerning image quality parameters and quantification in terms of standardized uptake value (SUV) as a function of acquisition time (a surrogate of dose). The CT and MR image quality were not assessed, and that is beyond the scope of this study. Five brain and five whole-body patients were included in the study. The PET/CT scan was used as a reference and the PET/MRI acquisition time was consecutively adjusted, taking into account the decay between the scans in order to expose both systems to the same amount of the emitted signal. The acquisition times were then retrospectively reduced to assess the performance of the PET/MRI for lower count rates. Image quality, image sharpness, artifacts, and noise were evaluated. SUV measurements were taken in the liver and in the white matter to compare quantification. Quantitative evaluation showed strong correlation between PET/CT and PET/MRI brain SUVs. Liver correlation was good, however, with lower uptake estimation in PET/MRI, partially justified by bio-redistribution. The clinical evaluation showed that PET/MRI offers higher image quality and sharpness with lower levels of noise and artifacts compared to PET/CT with reduced acquisition times for whole-body scans while for brain scans there is no significant difference. The TOF-PET/MRI showed higher image quality compared to TOF-PET/CT as tested with reduced imaging times. However, this result accounts mainly for body imaging, while no significant differences were found in brain imaging.

  3. Bacteriophages safely reduce Salmonella contamination in pet food and raw pet food ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Nitzan; Abuladze, Tamar; Woolston, Joelle; Li, Manrong; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Heyse, Serena; Charbonneau, Duane; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Contamination of pet food with Salmonella is a serious public health concern, and several disease outbreaks have recently occurred due to human exposure to Salmonella tainted pet food. The problem is especially challenging for raw pet foods (which include raw meats, seafood, fruits, and vegetables). These foods are becoming increasingly popular because of their nutritional qualities, but they are also more difficult to maintain Salmonella-free because they lack heat-treatment. Among various methods examined to improve the safety of pet foods (including raw pet food), one intriguing approach is to use bacteriophages to specifically kill Salmonella serotypes. At least 2 phage preparations (SalmoFresh® and Salmonelex™) targeting Salmonella are already FDA cleared for commercial applications to improve the safety of human foods. However, similar preparations are not yet available for pet food applications. Here, we report the results of evaluating one such preparation (SalmoLyse®) in reducing Salmonella levels in various raw pet food ingredients (chicken, tuna, turkey, cantaloupe, and lettuce). Application of SalmoLyse® in low (ca. 2–4×106 PFU/g) and standard (ca. 9×106 PFU/g) concentrations significantly (P Salmonella contamination in all raw foods examined compared to control treatments. When SalmoLyse®-treated (ca. 2×107 PFU/g) dry pet food was fed to cats and dogs, it did not trigger any deleterious side effects in the pets. Our data suggest that the bacteriophage cocktail lytic for Salmonella can significantly and safely reduce Salmonella contamination in various raw pet food ingredients. PMID:27738557

  4. Bacteriophages safely reduce Salmonella contamination in pet food and raw pet food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Nitzan; Abuladze, Tamar; Woolston, Joelle; Li, Manrong; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Heyse, Serena; Charbonneau, Duane; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of pet food with Salmonella is a serious public health concern, and several disease outbreaks have recently occurred due to human exposure to Salmonella tainted pet food. The problem is especially challenging for raw pet foods (which include raw meats, seafood, fruits, and vegetables). These foods are becoming increasingly popular because of their nutritional qualities, but they are also more difficult to maintain Salmonella-free because they lack heat-treatment. Among various methods examined to improve the safety of pet foods (including raw pet food), one intriguing approach is to use bacteriophages to specifically kill Salmonella serotypes. At least 2 phage preparations (SalmoFresh® and Salmonelex™) targeting Salmonella are already FDA cleared for commercial applications to improve the safety of human foods. However, similar preparations are not yet available for pet food applications. Here, we report the results of evaluating one such preparation (SalmoLyse®) in reducing Salmonella levels in various raw pet food ingredients (chicken, tuna, turkey, cantaloupe, and lettuce). Application of SalmoLyse® in low (ca. 2-4×106 PFU/g) and standard (ca. 9×106 PFU/g) concentrations significantly (P contamination in all raw foods examined compared to control treatments. When SalmoLyse®-treated (ca. 2×107 PFU/g) dry pet food was fed to cats and dogs, it did not trigger any deleterious side effects in the pets. Our data suggest that the bacteriophage cocktail lytic for Salmonella can significantly and safely reduce Salmonella contamination in various raw pet food ingredients.

  5. PET/MR in children. Initial clinical experience in paediatric oncology using an integrated PET/MR scanner

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Franz Wolfgang; Sattler, Bernhard; Sorge, Ina; Kurch, Lars; Viehweger, Adrian; Ritter, Lutz; WERNER, Peter; Jochimsen, Thies; Barthel, Henryk; Bierbach, Uta; Till, Holger; Sabri, Osama; Kluge, Regine

    2013-01-01

    Use of PET/MR in children has not previously been reported, to the best of our knowledge. Children with systemic malignancies may benefit from the reduced radiation exposure offered by PET/MR. We report our initial experience with PET/MR hybrid imaging and our current established sequence protocol after 21 PET/MR studies in 15 children with multifocal malignant diseases. The effective dose of a PET/MR scan was only about 20% that of the equivalent PET/CT examination. Simultaneous acquisition ...

  6. Reproducibility of Quantitative Brain Imaging Using a PET-Only and a Combined PET/MR System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Martin L; Muzik, Otto; Beyer, Thomas; Hacker, Marcus; Ladefoged, Claes Nøhr; Cal-González, Jacobo; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Rausch, Ivo; Langer, Oliver; Bauer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of migrating a quantitative brain imaging protocol from a positron emission tomography (PET)-only system to an integrated PET/MR system. Potential differences in both absolute radiotracer concentration as well as in the derived kinetic parameters as a function of PET system choice have been investigated. Five healthy volunteers underwent dynamic (R)-[11C]verapamil imaging on the same day using a GE-Advance (PET-only) and a Siemens Biograph mMR system (PET/MR). PET-emission data were reconstructed using a transmission-based attenuation correction (AC) map (PET-only), whereas a standard MR-DIXON as well as a low-dose CT AC map was applied to PET/MR emission data. Kinetic modeling based on arterial blood sampling was performed using a 1-tissue-2-rate constant compartment model, yielding kinetic parameters (K1 and k2) and distribution volume (V T ). Differences for parametric values obtained in the PET-only and the PET/MR systems were analyzed using a 2-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Comparison of DIXON-based AC (PET/MR) with emission data derived from the PET-only system revealed average inter-system differences of -33 ± 14% (p PET/MR resulted in slightly lower systematic differences of -16 ± 18% for K1 and -9 ± 10% for k2. The average differences in V T were -18 ± 10% (p PET/MR and PET-only imaging due to different standard AC methods employed. Therefore, a transfer of imaging protocols from PET-only to PET/MR systems is not straightforward without application of proper correction methods. Clinical Trial Registration: www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu, identifier 2013-001724-19.

  7. Reproducibility of Quantitative Brain Imaging Using a PET-Only and a Combined PET/MR System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Martin L.; Muzik, Otto; Beyer, Thomas; Hacker, Marcus; Ladefoged, Claes Nøhr; Cal-González, Jacobo; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Rausch, Ivo; Langer, Oliver; Bauer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of migrating a quantitative brain imaging protocol from a positron emission tomography (PET)-only system to an integrated PET/MR system. Potential differences in both absolute radiotracer concentration as well as in the derived kinetic parameters as a function of PET system choice have been investigated. Five healthy volunteers underwent dynamic (R)-[11C]verapamil imaging on the same day using a GE-Advance (PET-only) and a Siemens Biograph mMR system (PET/MR). PET-emission data were reconstructed using a transmission-based attenuation correction (AC) map (PET-only), whereas a standard MR-DIXON as well as a low-dose CT AC map was applied to PET/MR emission data. Kinetic modeling based on arterial blood sampling was performed using a 1-tissue-2-rate constant compartment model, yielding kinetic parameters (K1 and k2) and distribution volume (VT). Differences for parametric values obtained in the PET-only and the PET/MR systems were analyzed using a 2-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Comparison of DIXON-based AC (PET/MR) with emission data derived from the PET-only system revealed average inter-system differences of −33 ± 14% (p PET/MR resulted in slightly lower systematic differences of −16 ± 18% for K1 and −9 ± 10% for k2. The average differences in VT were −18 ± 10% (p PET/MR and PET-only imaging due to different standard AC methods employed. Therefore, a transfer of imaging protocols from PET-only to PET/MR systems is not straightforward without application of proper correction methods. Clinical Trial Registration: www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu, identifier 2013-001724-19 PMID:28769742

  8. PET application in psychiatry and psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhara, Tetsuya [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In the last few decades diagnostic and research tools in the medical field have made great advances, yet psychiatry has lacked sufficiently sensitive tools to measure the aberration of brain functions. Recently however, the development of Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques has made it possible to measure changes in neurochemical components in mental disorders and the effect of psychoactive drugs in living human brain. Most of the advancement in the psychiatric field has came from the development psychoactive drugs. Brain research involving identification of neurotransmission is largely based on compounds developed in psychopharmacology. Some of these compounds have been radiolabelled and used as radioligands for quantitative examination of neuroreceptors and other aspects of neurotransmission. Using PET, radioligand binding can now be examined in the human brain in vivo. PET techniques also allow examination of an unlabelled drug by examination of its interaction with a radioligand. So one potential of PET in psychiatry is to investigate the mechanism of psychoactive drugs. Antidepressants modulate serotonin transmission by inhibiting serotonin reuptake from the synaptic cleft. High affinity [{sup 3}H]imipramine binding sites in mammalian brain have been labelled to investigate serotonin transporters in living human brain by PET. Cyanoimipramine which is described as a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was labelled with {sup 11}C. In a PET experiment with 6 healthy human subjects, a high accumulation of [{sup 11}C]cyanoimipramine was found in the thalamus and striatum and lowest accumulation was observed in the cerebellum, a region relatively void of serotonin transporters. The thalamus to cerebellum ratio was about 2 at 90 min after the injection of the tracer. Recently, [{sup 11}C]McN5652-X has been introduced as a better tracer for serotonin transporter imaging. Employing [{sup 11}C]McN5652-X in a PET study of 7 healthy human subjects, a high

  9. Design Features and Mutual Compatibility Studies of the Time-of-Flight PET Capable GE SIGNA PET/MR System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Craig S; Maramraju, Sri Harsha; Khalighi, Mohammad Mehdi; Deller, Timothy W; Delso, Gaspar; Jansen, Floris

    2016-08-01

    A recent entry into the rapidly evolving field of integrated PET/MR scanners is presented in this paper: a whole body hybrid PET/MR system (SIGNA PET/MR, GE Healthcare) capable of simultaneous acquisition of both time-of-flight (TOF) PET and high resolution MR data. The PET ring was integrated into an existing 3T MR system resulting in a (patient) bore opening of 60 cm diameter, with a 25 cm axial FOV. PET performance was evaluated both on the standalone PET ring and on the same detector integrated into the MR system, to assess the level of mutual interference between both subsystems. In both configurations we obtained detector performance data. PET detector performance was not significantly affected by integration into the MR system. The global energy resolution was within 2% (10.3% versus 10.5%), and the system coincidence time resolution showed a maximum change of < 3% (385 ps versus 394 ps) when measured outside MR and during simultaneous PET/MRI acquisitions, respectively. To evaluate PET image quality and resolution, the NEMA IQ phantom was acquired with MR idle and with MR active. Impact of PET on MR IQ was assessed by comparing SNR with PET acquisition on and off. B0 and B1 homogeneities were acquired before and after the integration of the PET ring inside the magnet. In vivo brain and whole body head-to-thighs data were acquired to demonstrate clinical image quality.

  10. A Clinical and Experimental Comparison of Time of Flight PET/MRI and PET/CT Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea-Lager, Daniela E; Yaqub, Maqsood; Pieters, Indra C; Reinhard, Rinze; van Moorselaar, Reindert J A; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J M; Hoekstra, Otto S; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare image quality and quantitative accuracy of positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) and PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) systems with time of flight PET gantries, using phantom and clinical studies. Identical phantom experiments were performed on both systems. Calibration, uniformity, and standardized uptake value (SUV) recovery were measured. A clinical PET/CT versus PET/MRI comparison was performed using [(18)F]fluoromethylcholine ([(18)F]FCH). Calibration accuracy and image uniformity were comparable between systems. SUV recovery met EANM/EARL requirements on both scanners. Thirty-four lesions with comparable PET image quality were identified. Lesional SUVmax differences of 4 ± 26% between PET/MRI and PET/CT data were observed (R (2) = 0.79, slope = 1.02). In healthy tissues, PET/MRI-derived SUVs were 16 ± 11% lower than on PET/CT (R (2) = 0.98, slope = 0.86). PET/MRI and PET/CT showed comparable performance with respect to calibration accuracy, image uniformity, and SUV recovery. [(18)F]FCH uptake values for both healthy tissues and lesions corresponded reasonably well between MR- and CT-based systems, but only in regions free of MR-based attenuation artifacts.

  11. Importance of PET/CT in lymphoma diagnostics; Stellenwert der PET/CT in der Lymphomdiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afshar-Oromieh, A.; Kratochwil, C.; Haberkorn, U.; Giesel, F.L. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Nuklearmedizin, Radiologische Klinik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Staging or re-staging of lymphomas using conventional imaging modalities is based on morphological changes, usually on the diameter of lesions. However, vitality of tumors cannot be evaluated. In this context computed tomography (CT) has been used as a standard modality. Since the introduction of positron emission tomography (PET), evaluation of tumor vitality has become possible. Moreover PET/CT hybrid scanners were brought onto the market one decade ago. The fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT technique is now accepted as one of the most accurate modalities in the diagnosis of aggressive lymphomas due to a high FDG uptake (overall accuracy > 90%, sensitivity >90%). However, indolent lymphomas suffer from lower FDG uptake due to a moderate metabolic activity. After the introduction of PET/CT hybrid imaging the specificity of this diagnostic technique increased significantly compared to PET alone (from > 80% to > 90%). With the utilization of PET approximately 20% more lesions are detected when comparing to CT alone and in up to 15% of the patients this also results in a change of the therapeutic regime. As post-chemotherapy scar tissue usually persists for months, evaluation of vitality within residual bulks using FDG-PET can predict therapy response much earlier than CT, enabling therapy stratification. Other PET tracers apart from FDG have low impact in imaging of lymphomas and only the thymidine analogue fluorothymidine (FLT) is used in some cases for non-invasive measurement of proliferation. Despite the capability of FDG-PET/CT there is no evidence that the improvement in diagnostics is translated into a better patient outcome and therefore warrants the high costs. False positive findings in PET can result in unnecessary treatment escalation with subsequent higher therapy-associated toxicity and costs. Some pitfalls can be avoided by scheduling PET scans carefully. As treatment-induced inflammation early after therapy can be misinterpreted as vital tumor tissue

  12. Positron emission tomography (PET): evaluation of chronic periaortitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salvarani, Carlo; Pipitone, Nicolò; Versari, Annibale; Vaglio, Augusto; Serafini, Desiderio; Bajocchi, Gianluigi; Salvo, Diana; Buzio, Carlo; Greco, Paolo; Boiardi, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    ...)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). A consecutive case series consisting of 7 patients with CP seen over a 3-year period and a control group of 14 patients with malignancy were evaluated with FDG-PET...

  13. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Clifford; Steedman, Catrina

    2012-07-01

    A variety of exotic vertebrate and invertebrate species are kept as 'pets' including fishes, amphibians (for example, frogs and toads), reptiles (turtles, crocodiles, lizards and snakes), birds, mammals (for example, primates, civets, and lions), and invertebrates (for example spiders, scorpions, and centipedes), and ownership of some of these animals is rising. Data for 2009-2011 suggest that the number of homes with reptiles rose by approximately 12.5%. Recent surveys, including only some of these animals, indicated that they might be present in around 18.6% of homes (equal to approximately 42 million animals of which around 40 million are indoor or outdoor fish). Many exotic 'pets' are capable of causing injury or poisoning to their keepers and some contacts prove fatal. We examined NHS Health Episode Statistics for England using selected formal categories for hospital admissions and bed days for 2004-2010 using the following categories of injury, envenomation or sting; bitten or struck by crocodile or alligator; bitten or crushed by other reptiles: contact with venomous snakes and lizards; contact with scorpions. Between 2004 and 2010 these data conservatively show a total of 760 full consultation episodes, 709 admissions and 2,121 hospital bed days were associated with injuries probably from exotic pets. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets constitute a small but important component of emerging medical problems. Greater awareness of relevant injuries and medical sequelae from exotic pet keeping may help medics formulate their clinical assessment and advice to patients.

  14. [Microbiological conservation medicine and exotic pets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassl, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    The keeping and the breeding of exotic pets in privacy is a hobby with increasing popularity in industrialised countries. The growing demand for animals usually imported from the tropics, the growing demand for unprofessionally bred feeder organisms, and the increasing number of cases of faulty caring behaviour lead to the creation of new infectiological niches in the interface between exotic pet--nurse--feed--vivarium. These niches are filled preferably by ubiquitous, facultative pathogenic, stress- and age-deduced opportunists with a broad host spectrum. On the one hand these extraordinary germ faunas, relating to their compositions, may generate broad relevance in human medicine, lead to bizarre clinical pictures in specific cases, and may contribute to a reduction of the mean span of life of exotic pets kept in human care. On the other hand the quantitative composition of the fauna may also be a direct measure of the degree of stress the pets are suffering in captivity. Thus, a professional designation of the germ fauna of an exotic pet may contribute to an optimisation of the captivity conditions.

  15. Fully 3D GPU PET reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herraiz, J.L., E-mail: joaquin@nuclear.fis.ucm.es [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Espana, S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Cal-Gonzalez, J. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J.J. [Departmento de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Desco, M. [Departmento de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-21

    Fully 3D iterative tomographic image reconstruction is computationally very demanding. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has been proposed for many years as potential accelerators in complex scientific problems, but it has not been used until the recent advances in the programmability of GPUs that the best available reconstruction codes have started to be implemented to be run on GPUs. This work presents a GPU-based fully 3D PET iterative reconstruction software. This new code may reconstruct sinogram data from several commercially available PET scanners. The most important and time-consuming parts of the code, the forward and backward projection operations, are based on an accurate model of the scanner obtained with the Monte Carlo code PeneloPET and they have been massively parallelized on the GPU. For the PET scanners considered, the GPU-based code is more than 70 times faster than a similar code running on a single core of a fast CPU, obtaining in both cases the same images. The code has been designed to be easily adapted to reconstruct sinograms from any other PET scanner, including scanner prototypes.

  16. PET/MR: Yet another Tesla?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Markus; Kunze, Karl; Rischpler, Christoph; Nekolla, Stephan G

    2017-06-01

    After the successful introduction of PET/CT as a multimodality imaging technique, PET/MR has subsequently emerged as an attractive instrumentation for applications in neurology, oncology, and cardiology. Simultaneous data acquisition combining structural, functional, and molecular imaging provides a unique platform to link various aspects of cardiac performance for the non-invasive characterization of cardiovascular disease phenotypes. Specifically, tissue characterization by MR techniques with and without contrast agents allows for functional parameters such as LGE, myocardial perfusion, and T1 maps as well as an estimate of extracellular volume. PET tracers excel by their high sensitivity and specificity, thus supplementing the functional tissue characterization by MRI. Although the clinical applications are yet to be validated , the first experience with PET/MR suggests future applications in the area of vascular imaging (unstable plaque) as well as in the characterization of inflammatory processes involving the heart. Ischemic heart disease can be comprehensively assessed by integrating regional function, perfusion, and viability. Future technical improvements leading to less costly PET/MR instrumentation are necessary to support routine clinical application of this promising technique in cardiology.

  17. FDG PET/CT in bone sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozdic Milojevic, Isidora; Sobic-Saranovic, Dragana; Videnovic-Ivanov, Jelica; Saranovic, Djordjije; Odalovic, Strahinja; Artiko, Vera

    2016-03-29

    Bone sarcoidosis is rare manifestation of disease usually accompanied with pulmonary involvement. Until today, exact prevalence of bone sarcoidosis is not known, since reported prevalence varies widely depending on the studied population and the used diagnostic techniques. To determine the prevalence of bone involvement and distribution pattern in active chronic sarcoidosis by using FDG PET/CT. Between January 2010 and December 2011, 98 patients with chronic sarcoidosis and presence of prolonged symptoms or other findings suggestive of active disease were referred to FDG PET/CT examination. Active disease was found in 82 patients, and they all were screened for presence of bone sarcoidosis on FDG PET/CT. All patients also underwent MDCT and assessment of serum ACE level. Bone sarcoidosis was present in 18/82 patients with active sarcoidosis. FDG uptake in bones was focal in 8 (44.4%), diffuse in 6 (33.3%) and both diffuse and focal in 4 (22.2%) patients. CT indicated bone abnormalities only in 5% patients. Osseous involvement was present in: pelvis (61.1%), vertebrae (44.4%), ribs (27.8%) and bone marrow (16.7%). Some patients had two or more locations of disease. Follow-up FDG PET/CT showed normal findings in two patients, same localization of active disease in four patients and progression of disease in one. In patients with active chronic sarcoidosis 22% of patients had osseous abnormalities on FDG PET/CT that mostly were not detected on CT.

  18. EUV micropatterning for biocompatibility control of PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, B.; Fahrner, M.; Frischauf, I.; Yakunin, S.; Svorcik, V.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Romanin, C.; Heitz, J.

    2010-08-01

    We have investigated the influence of oriented microstructures at modified polyethylene terephthalate (PET) on the adhesion and alignment of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. For surface modification, the PET foils were exposed to the radiation of a laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source based on a double-stream gas-puff target. The emission of the plasma was focused onto the samples by means of a gold-plated ellipsoidal collector. The spectrum of the focused radiation covered the wavelength range from 9 to 70 nm. The PET samples were irradiated with the EUV pulses at a repetition rate of 10 Hz in a high vacuum. For control experiments, PET samples were also irradiated in air with the light of a 193 nm ArF-excimer laser. Different kinds of surface microstructures were obtained depending on the EUV or laser fluence and pulse number, including oriented wall- and ripple-type structures with lateral structure periods of a few µm. The surface morphology of polymer samples after the irradiation was investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Changes in chemical surface structure of the irradiated samples were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We demonstrated that the cells show good adhesion and align along oriented wall- and ripple-type microstructures on PET surfaces produced by the EUV irradiation.

  19. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallamini, Andrea, E-mail: gallamini.a@ospedale.cuneo.it [Department of Research and Medical Innovation, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice University, Nice Cedex 2-06189 Nice (France); Zwarthoed, Colette [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice University, Nice Cedex 2-06189 Nice (France); Borra, Anna [Hematology Department S. Croce Hospital, Via M. Coppino 26, Cuneo 12100 (Italy)

    2014-09-29

    Since its introduction in the early nineties as a promising functional imaging technique in the management of neoplastic disorders, FDG-PET, and subsequently FDG-PET/CT, has become a cornerstone in several oncologic procedures such as tumor staging and restaging, treatment efficacy assessment during or after treatment end and radiotherapy planning. Moreover, the continuous technological progress of image generation and the introduction of sophisticated software to use PET scan as a biomarker paved the way to calculate new prognostic markers such as the metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and the total amount of tumor glycolysis (TLG). FDG-PET/CT proved more sensitive than contrast-enhanced CT scan in staging of several type of lymphoma or in detecting widespread tumor dissemination in several solid cancers, such as breast, lung, colon, ovary and head and neck carcinoma. As a consequence the stage of patients was upgraded, with a change of treatment in 10%–15% of them. One of the most evident advantages of FDG-PET was its ability to detect, very early during treatment, significant changes in glucose metabolism or even complete shutoff of the neoplastic cell metabolism as a surrogate of tumor chemosensitivity assessment. This could enable clinicians to detect much earlier the effectiveness of a given antineoplastic treatment, as compared to the traditional radiological detection of tumor shrinkage, which usually takes time and occurs much later.

  20. Evaluation of various hepatic lesions with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chul Ju

    2000-12-01

    When a liver lesion is found in a PET image, differential diagnosis and analysis of the lesion is very important. We tried to analyze hepatic lesions found in PET. 53 patients with focal liver lesions (13 patients with HCC, 8 patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), 20 patients with liver metastasis, 5 patients with hemangioma, 7 patients with liver abscess, including 1 patient with liver candidiasis) were examined. Definitely high FDG uptake pattern were observed in 54% (7/13) of HCC, 100% (8/8) of CC, 95% (19/20) of metastatic liver cancer and 100% (7/7) of liver abscess. Therefore, PET was partially useful in the diagnosis of HCC, but it was very useful in the diagnosis of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess. The contrast between lesions and surrounding liver background was very conspicuous in PET images of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess, which suggests that PET might be used for the follow up and assessment of treatment response of these diseases.

  1. Clinical PET/MRI in neurooncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marner, Lisbeth; Henriksen, Otto M; Lundemann, Michael

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in neurooncology, i.e., for diagnosis, treatment evaluation and detection of recurrence. However, standard MRI cannot always separate malignant tissue from other pathologies or treatment-induced changes. Advanced MRI techniques such as di......PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in neurooncology, i.e., for diagnosis, treatment evaluation and detection of recurrence. However, standard MRI cannot always separate malignant tissue from other pathologies or treatment-induced changes. Advanced MRI techniques...... number of sites. Several centers are now implementing hybrid PET/MRI systems allowing for multiparametric imaging, combining conventional MRI with advanced MRI and amino acid PET imaging. Neurooncology is an obvious focus area for PET/MR imaging. METHODS: Based on the literature and our experience from...... more than 300 PET/MRI examinations of brain tumors with (18)F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine, the clinical use of PET/MRI in adult and pediatric neurooncology is critically reviewed. RESULTS: Although the results are increasingly promising, the added value and range of indications for multiparametric imaging...

  2. 9 CFR 130.10 - User fees for pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for pet birds. 130.10... AGRICULTURE USER FEES USER FEES § 130.10 User fees for pet birds. (a) User fees for pet birds of U.S. origin returning to the United States, except pet birds of U.S. origin returning from Canada, are as follows...

  3. Pet therapy and increased socialization among elderly clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Allison

    2002-01-01

    Churchill et al.'s (1999) study supported the idea that pet therapy increased socialization and decreased agitation among persons with AD. This study could be used to support the group research utilization project on the use of pet therapy to increase socialization. Future research might concentrate on participants with varied ethnic backgrounds and varied clinical diagnoses. Some feasibility issues would be finding dogs or pets properly trained for therapy and finding nurses properly trained on the use of pet therapy.

  4. (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/MR Imaging in Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzek, Ivan

    2016-10-01

    (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/MR imaging is feasible for initial staging and therapy response assessment in lymphoma. Although FDG PET/MR imaging is equivalent to FDG PET/CT for initial staging of lymphoma, not enough data are available with regard to other indications yet. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is a promising addition to FDG PET/MR imaging, but has not been evaluated systematically. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pet ownership and adolescent health: cross-sectional population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Megan; Canterford, Louise; Olds, Tim; Waters, Elizabeth; Wake, Melissa

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether adolescent health and well-being are associated with having a pet in the household (any pet, or specifically dogs, cats or horses/ponies) or average daily time spent caring for/playing with pet(s). Design, setting and participants--Cross-sectional data from the third wave of the Health of Young Victorians Study (HOYVS), a school-based population study in Victoria, Australia. Predictors--Adolescent-reported pet ownership and average daily time spent caring for/playing with pet(s). Outcomes--Self-reported quality of life (KIDSCREEN); average 4-day daily physical activity level from a computerised diary; parent-proxy and self-reported physical and psychosocial health status (PedsQL); measured BMI status (not overweight, overweight, obese) and blood pressure. Statistical Analysis--Regression methods, adjusted for socio-demographic factors, and non-parametric methods. Household pet data were available for 928 adolescents (466 boys; mean age of 15.9 (SD 1.2) years). Most adolescents (88.7%) reported having a pet in their household. Of these, 75.1% reported no activity involving pets over the surveyed days. It appeared that neither owning a pet nor time spent caring for/playing with a pet was related, positively or negatively, to adolescent health or well-being. Despite high rates of pet ownership, adolescents had little interaction with pets. It appears that owning a pet and time spent caring for/playing with a pet was not clearly associated with adolescents' health or well-being. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2010 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  6. PET motion correction using PRESTO with ITK motion estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Melissa [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Science Faculty of University of Lisbon (Portugal); Caldeira, Liliana; Scheins, Juergen [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany); Matela, Nuno [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Science Faculty of University of Lisbon (Portugal); Kops, Elena Rota; Shah, N Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    The Siemens BrainPET scanner is a hybrid MRI/PET system. PET images are prone to motion artefacts which degrade the image quality. Therefore, motion correction is essential. The library PRESTO converts motion-corrected LORs into highly accurate generic projection data [1], providing high-resolution PET images. ITK is an open-source software used for registering multidimensional data []. ITK provides motion estimation necessary to PRESTO.

  7. Combined PET-MRI of the abdomen; Kombinierte PET-MRT des Abdomens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vag, Tibor; Eiber, M.; Schwaiger, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    The first fully integrated combined positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) scanners have been clinically available since 2010. Large prospective studies regarding indications and diagnostic accuracy of this new modality are not yet available; however, preliminary studies have shown a higher diagnostic accuracy and confidence compared to PET-computed tomography (PET-CT) in regions where MRI is known to be superior to CT, such as the liver. The benefit of MRI in accurate lesion characterization and the additional value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) as a complementary functional modality by means of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is apparent in entities with low tracer uptake (e. g. due to small size) and a decreased or absent accumulation pattern on PET. (orig.) [German] Seit 2010 sind die ersten voll integrierten Positronenemissionstomographie(PET)-MR-Scanner im klinischen Gebrauch. Obwohl es derzeit noch an empirischen Daten im Sinne groesserer und prospektiver Studien fehlt, implizieren erste Studien einen diagnostischen Mehrwert gegenueber der PET-CT in Regionen, in denen die MRT bekanntermassen der CT ueberlegen ist. Diese ist in der besseren morphologischen Charakterisierung begruendet, die insbesondere bei Laesionen mit geringer Tracerspeicherung (z. B. aufgrund der geringen Groesse) oder unbekanntem Speicherverhalten in der PET ausschlaggebend ist. Zudem steht der MRT eine komplementaere funktionelle Modalitaet in Form der Diffusionsbildgebung zur Verfuegung, die ueber die Berechnung des Apparent-diffusion-coefficient(ADC)-Werts eine weitere Einschaetzung des Gewebes geben kann. (orig.)

  8. Transmission of Bacterial Zoonotic Pathogens between Pets and Humans: The Role of Pet Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Elisabetta; Buchanan, Robert L; Narrod, Clare; Pradhan, Abani K

    2016-01-01

    Recent Salmonella outbreaks associated with dry pet food and treats raised the level of concern for these products as vehicle of pathogen exposure for both pets and their owners. The need to characterize the microbiological and risk profiles of this class of products is currently not supported by sufficient specific data. This systematic review summarizes existing data on the main variables needed to support an ingredients-to-consumer quantitative risk model to (1) describe the microbial ecology of bacterial pathogens in the dry pet food production chain, (2) estimate pet exposure to pathogens through dry food consumption, and (3) assess human exposure and illness incidence due to contact with pet food and pets in the household. Risk models populated with the data here summarized will provide a tool to quantitatively address the emerging public health concerns associated with pet food and the effectiveness of mitigation measures. Results of such models can provide a basis for improvements in production processes, risk communication to consumers, and regulatory action.

  9. Molecular cardiac PET besides FDG viability imaging; Molekulare Kardiale PET jenseits der FDG-Vitalitaetsdiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, O.; Burchert, W. [Universitaetsklinik der Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Molekulare Bildgebung, Herz- und Diabetszentrum NRW

    2009-06-15

    Molecular cardiac non F-18-FDG PET is currently based on perfusion imaging. It is of excellent diagnostic accuracy to detect coronary artery disease (CAD) and superior to perfusion SPECT. There is also evidence for its incremental prognostic value. The unique feature of PET to measure myocardial perfusion in absolute terms and in short time periods define its impact on cardiac imaging enabling both the evaluation of early changes in CAD and the accurate characterization of multivessel disease. Currently, all available PET perfusion tracers in Europe are cyclotron products. Rb-82, a generator product, is the most frequently employed perfusion tracer in the United States and cyclotron independent. This tracer has the potential to become an alternative in Europe soon. Nowadays, PET systems are manufactured as hybrid PET-CT scanners. In oncology, hybrid imaging revealed, that the combination of functional and morphological imaging is superior to the single components. In cardiology, the integration of perfusion PET imaging with CT calcium scoring and CT anatomy of the coronary arteries represents a similar constellation. Atherosclerotic plaque evaluation by combined PET-CT technique will be one of the most promising future applications with a potential immense impact on prophylaxis, diagnosis and therapy of CAD in the future. (orig.)

  10. Breast cancer detection using high-resolution breast PET compared to whole-body PET or PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinyak, Judith E. [Naviscan Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Berg, Wendie A. [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Magee-Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Schilling, Kathy [Boca Raton Regional Hospital, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Madsen, Kathleen S. [Certus International, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States); Narayanan, Deepa [Naviscan Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Tartar, Marie [Scripps Clinic, Scripps Green Hospital, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-02-15

    To compare the performance characteristics of positron emission mammography (PEM) with those of whole-body PET (WBPET) and PET/CT in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. A total of 178 women consented to PEM for presurgical planning in an IRB-approved protocol and also underwent either WBPET (n = 69) or PET/CT (n = 109) imaging, as per usual care at three centers. Tumor detection sensitivity, positive predictive values, and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake were compared between the modalities. The effects of tumor size, type, and grade on detection were examined. The chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests were used to compare distributions between groups, and McNemar's test was used to compare distributions for paired data within subject groups, i.e. PEM versus WBPET or PEM versus PET/CT. The mean age of the women was 59 ± 12 years (median 60 years, range 26-89 years), with a mean invasive index tumor size of 1.6 ± 0.8 cm (median 1.5 cm, range 0.5-4.0 cm). PEM detected more index tumors (61/66, 92 %) than WBPET (37/66, 56 %; p < 0.001) or PET/CT (95/109, 87 % vs. 104/109, 95 % for PEM; p < 0.029). Sensitivity for the detection of additional ipsilateral malignancies was also greater with PEM (7/15, 47 %) than with WBPET (1/15, 6.7 %; p = 0.014) or PET/CT (3/23, 13 % vs. 13/23, 57 % for PEM; p = 0.003). Index tumor detection decreased with decreasing invasive tumor size for both WBPET (p = 0.002) and PET/CT (p < 0.001); PEM was not significantly affected (p = 0.20). FDG uptake, quantified in terms of maximum PEM uptake value, was lowest in ductal carcinoma in situ (median 1.5, range 0.7-3.0) and invasive lobular carcinoma (median 1.5, range 0.7-3.4), and highest in grade III invasive ductal carcinoma (median 3.1, range 1.4-12.9). PEM was more sensitive than either WBPET or PET/CT in showing index and additional ipsilateral breast tumors and remained highly sensitive for tumors smaller than 1 cm. (orig.)

  11. Impact of MR-safe headphones on PET attenuation in combined PET/MRI scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büther, Florian; Vrachimis, Alexis; Becker, Anne; Stegger, Lars

    2016-12-01

    MR headphones are attenuation sources affecting PET quantification in hybrid PET/MRI. Despite potentially better patient communication, usage in PET/MRI scans is not approved by the vendor. This study aims to determine the impact of headphones on PET by means of phantom and patient scans. Additionally, the perceived benefit of using headphones was evaluated. A cylinder phantom was scanned without and with dedicated MR headphones in a PET/CT scanner. Headphone attenuation was additionally assessed in a clinical setup in 10 patients on a PET/MR scanner using F-18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose. The difference in tracer uptake with and without headset was determined for the various brain regions. Additionally, the patients were asked for differences in noise levels, patient comfort, communication quality, and preference. CT data revealed headphone attenuation values of 350-500 HU. Neglecting headphone attenuation leads to a decrease in PET values between the earcups of about 11 % when compared to the correctly reconstructed data. Regions further away from the headphones were less affected. Patient images demonstrated a decrease of 11 % on average in the cerebellum and temporal lobes, while other regions were less affected. No visual artefacts in the images were noticed. On average, no advantage in terms of noise and patient comfort and only slightly better quality of communication were imparted by the patients. Using headphones during PET/MR acquisition leads to a negative bias in brain uptake values without introducing obvious image artefacts. Since they lack benefits for the patients, they should be avoided if PET quantification of the brain is needed.

  12. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT and post hoc PET/MRI in a case of primary meningeal melanomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Je; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Hwang, Seong Wook; Cho, Suk Kyong; Kim, Hae Won; Lee, Sang-Woo; Hwang, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Jaetae

    2013-01-01

    Primary meningeal melanomatosis is a rare, aggressive variant of primary malignant melanoma of the central nervous system, which arises from melanocytes within the leptomeninges and carries a poor prognosis. We report a case of primary meningeal melanomatosis in a 17-year-old man, which was diagnosed with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) PET/CT, and post hoc F-18 FDG PET/MRI fusion images. Whole-body F-18 FDG PET/CT was helpful in ruling out the extracranial origin of melanoma lesions, and in assessing the therapeutic response. Post hoc PET/MRI fusion images facilitated the correlation between PET and MRI images and demonstrated the hypermetabolic lesions more accurately than the unenhanced PET/CT images. Whole body F-18 FDG PET/CT and post hoc PET/MRI images might help clinicians determine the best therapeutic strategy for patients with primary meningeal melanomatosis.

  13. Pet Care Teaching Unit: 1st-3rd Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Activities in this unit are designed to familiarize primary grade students with the responsibilities involved in pet ownership. Teaching plans are provided for a total of 12 lessons involving social studies, language arts, math, and health sciences. Activities adaptable for readers and non-readers focus on pet overpopulation, care of pets when…

  14. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets. 36.36... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such...

  15. Profound Encounters: Classroom Animals--More Than Responsible Pet Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naherniak, Craig

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of a classroom pet. Presents guidelines to determine whether a classroom pet is really needed and some suggestions for improving existing conditions for animals you may already have. Includes chart for choosing the right pet, which compares the life span, size, diet, and pros and cons for guinea pigs, hamsters, rabbits,…

  16. 50 CFR 14.17 - Personally owned pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personally owned pet birds. 14.17 Section 14.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Ports § 14.17 Personally owned pet birds. Any person may import a personally owned pet bird at any port...

  17. Effects of regularisation priors on dynamic PET Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira, Liliana; Scheins, Juergen; Silva, Nuno da; Gaens, Michaela; Shah, N Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine-4, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    Dynamic PET provides temporal information about tracer uptake. However, each PET frame has usually low statistics, resulting in noisy images. The goal is to study effects of prior regularisation on dynamic PET data. Quantification and noise in image-domain and time-domain as well as impact on parametric images is assessed.

  18. Social capital and pet ownership - A tale of four cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa; Martin, Karen; Christian, Hayley; Houghton, Steve; Kawachi, Ichiro; Vallesi, Shannen; McCune, Sandra

    2017-12-01

    Pet ownership is significantly associated with higher levels of social capital.•Social capital was associated with pet ownership in the U.S. and Australia.•Results are not confined to dog owners nor dog walkers.•Pets are an under-recognized conduit for building social capital.

  19. The Psychological Effect of Pet-Ownership on Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamtil, Rosemary

    A study examined the possible influence that pets may have on children's reading achievement. Subjects, 61 students from three third-grade classes in an urban school, completed a questionnaire about pet ownership. Responses were compiled and score values established to recognize the length of time the child had owned the pet and how much…

  20. PET/MRI for Oncologic Brain Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rausch, Ivo; Rischka, Lucas; Ladefoged, Claes N

    2017-01-01

    by Siemens Healthcare). As a reference, AC maps were derived from patient-specific CT images (CTref). PET data were reconstructed using standard settings after AC with all 4 AC methods. We report changes in diagnosis for all brain tumor patients and the following relative differences values (RDs...... of the whole brain and 10 anatomic regions segmented on MR images.Results:For brain tumor imaging (A and B), the standard PET-based diagnosis was not affected by any of the 3 MR-AC methods. For A, the average RDs of SUVmeanwere -10%, -4%, and -3% and of the VOIs 1%, 2%, and 7% for DIXON, UTE, and BD......, respectively.Conclusion:The diagnostic reading of PET/MR patients with brain tumors did not change with the chosen AC method. Quantitative accuracy of SUVs was clinically acceptable for UTE- and BD-AC for group A, whereas for group B BD was in accordance with CTref. Nevertheless, for the quantification...

  1. Immuno-PET for Clinical Theranostic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Bailly

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in molecular characterization of tumors have allowed identification of new molecular targets on tumor cells or biomarkers. In medical practice, the identification of these biomarkers slowly but surely becomes a prerequisite before any treatment decision, leading to the concept of personalized medicine. Immuno-positron emission tomography (PET fits perfectly with this approach. Indeed, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs labelled with radionuclides represent promising probes for theranostic approaches, offering a non-invasive solution to assess in vivo target expression and distribution. Immuno-PET can potentially provide useful information for patient risk stratification, diagnosis, selection of targeted therapies, evaluation of response to therapy, prediction of adverse effects or for titrating doses for radioimmunotherapy. This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in labelling methods, biological targets, and clinical data of some novel PET radiopharmaceuticals.

  2. Immuno-PET for Clinical Theranostic Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Clément; Cléry, Pierre-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Bourgeois, Mickael; Guérard, François; Haddad, Ferid; Barbet, Jacques; Chérel, Michel; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Carlier, Thomas; Bodet-Milin, Caroline

    2016-12-28

    Recent advances in molecular characterization of tumors have allowed identification of new molecular targets on tumor cells or biomarkers. In medical practice, the identification of these biomarkers slowly but surely becomes a prerequisite before any treatment decision, leading to the concept of personalized medicine. Immuno-positron emission tomography (PET) fits perfectly with this approach. Indeed, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) labelled with radionuclides represent promising probes for theranostic approaches, offering a non-invasive solution to assess in vivo target expression and distribution. Immuno-PET can potentially provide useful information for patient risk stratification, diagnosis, selection of targeted therapies, evaluation of response to therapy, prediction of adverse effects or for titrating doses for radioimmunotherapy. This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in labelling methods, biological targets, and clinical data of some novel PET radiopharmaceuticals.

  3. Psychiatric investigation of 18 bereaved pet owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuya; Kawabata, Hidenobu; Maezawa, Masaji

    2011-08-01

    This survey explores the grief associated with the loss of a pet, and was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaires were handed out to 50 bereaved pet owners attending a public animal cremation service, and we received 18 responses. Participants responded within 0 to 44 (median 4) days of the death of their pet. Although most mental health problems immediately following mourning are presumed to be normal grief reactions, on the basis of several psychiatric scales, 8 of the 16 valid responses indicated depression and/or neurosis. Statistical analyses showed that the following factors were significantly associated with grief reactions: age of owner, other stressful life events, family size, age of deceased animal, rearing place, and preliminary veterinary consultation.

  4. Cardiac sympathetic neuronal imaging using PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautamaeki, Riikka; Tipre, Dnyanesh [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bengel, Frank M. [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Balance of the autonomic nervous system is essential for adequate cardiac performance, and alterations seem to play a key role in the development and progression of various cardiac diseases. PET imaging of the cardiac autonomic nervous system has advanced extensively in recent years, and multiple pre- and postsynaptic tracers have been introduced. The high spatial and temporal resolution of PET enables noninvasive quantification of neurophysiologic processes at the tissue level. Ligands for catecholamine receptors, along with radiolabeled catecholamines and catecholamine analogs, have been applied to determine involvement of sympathetic dysinnervation at different stages of heart diseases such as ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmia. This review summarizes the recent findings in neurocardiological PET imaging. Experimental studies with several radioligands and clinical findings in cardiac dysautonomias are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Wildlife, Exotic Pets, and Emerging Zoonoses1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotto, Albino; Meslin, François-Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic; wildlife constitutes a large and often unknown reservoir. Wildlife can also be a source for reemergence of previously controlled zoonoses. Although the discovery of such zoonoses is often related to better diagnostic tools, the leading causes of their emergence are human behavior and modifications to natural habitats (expansion of human populations and their encroachment on wildlife habitat), changes in agricultural practices, and globalization of trade. However, other factors include wildlife trade and translocation, live animal and bushmeat markets, consumption of exotic foods, development of ecotourism, access to petting zoos, and ownership of exotic pets. To reduce risk for emerging zoonoses, the public should be educated about the risks associated with wildlife, bushmeat, and exotic pet trades; and proper surveillance systems should be implemented. PMID:17370509

  6. A comparison of 18F-FDG PET/MR with PET/CT in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Benjamin A; Molton, James S; Leek, Francesca; Pang, Yan; Totman, John J; Paton, Nicholas I; Townsend, David W

    2017-11-01

    PET/computed tomography (CT) has been shown to detect lesions in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and may be useful for assessing PTB disease in clinical research studies. However, radiation dose is of concern for clinical research in individuals with an underlying curable disease. This study aimed to determine whether PET/MR is equivalent to PET/CT in PTB. Ten patients with microbiologically confirmed PTB were recruited. Patients received 129.0±4.1 MBq of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose. Five of the 10 patients underwent a PET/MR scan, followed by PET/CT. The remaining five were first imaged on the PET/CT, followed by the PET/MRI. PET acquisition began at 66.7±14.4 min (mean±SD) after injection when performing PET/MR first (PET/CT: 117.2±5.6 min) and 92.4±7.6 min when patients were imaged on PET/MR second (PET/CT: 61.1±3.9 min). PET data were reconstructed iteratively with Ordinary-Poisson Ordered-Subset Expectation-Maximization and reconstruction parameters were matched across the two scanners. A visual lesion detection task and a standardized uptake value (SUV) analysis were carried out. The CT Hounsfield unit values of PTB lesions were also compared with MR-based attenuation correction mu-map tissue classes. A total of 108 PTB lesions were detected on PET/MR and 112 on PET/CT. SUV analysis was carried out on 50 of these lesions that were observed with both modalities. Mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) were significantly lower on PET/MR (SUVmean: 2.6±1.4; SUVmax: 4.3±2.5) than PET/CT (SUVmean: 3.5±1.5; SUVmax: 5.3±2.4). PET/MR visual performance was shown to be comparable to PET/CT in terms of the number of PTB lesions detected. SUVs were significantly lower on PET/MR. Dixon-based attenuation correction underestimates the linear attenuation coefficient of PTB lesions, resulting in lower SUVs compared with PET/CT. However, the use of PET/MR to measure the response of lung lesions

  7. SU-E-I-84: A Novel Approach for the Attenuation Correction of PET Data in PET/MR Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T; Clark, J; Mawlawi, O

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the use of non-attenuated PET images (PET-NAC) as a means for the attenuation correction (AC) of PET images in PET/MR systems. A 3 step iterative segmentation process is proposed. The first step is used to segment the body contour from the NAC PET images using an active contour algorithm (Kass et al., Int J Comput Vision, 321-331 (1988)). The second step was to segment the lung region from the resultant image using an optimal thresholding approach (Xu et al., IEEE T Nucl Sci, 43, 331-336 (1996)). The purpose of the third step was to delineate parts of the heart and liver from the lung contour using a region growing approach since these parts were unavoidably included in the lung contour of the second step. Finally the attenuation coefficients of the bed were included based on CT images to eliminate the impact of the couch on the accuracy of AC. The final attenuation map was then used to AC the raw PET data and Result in a final PET image (PET-IAC). To assess the proposed segmentation approach, a phantom and six patients were scanned on a GE Discovery-RX PET/CT scanner. PET-IAC was then generated from PET- NAC using the proposed approach and compared to those of CT-AC PET (PET-CTAC). Visual inspection and SUV measurements between PET-IAC and the PET-CTAC for phantom and patient studies were performed to assess the accuracy of image quantification. Visual inspection showed a small difference between the PET-IAC and PET-CTAC. PET-IAC tumor SUVs were on average equal to 103±9% compared to the SUVs from the PET-CTAC in the phantom study, and 110±7% in the patient studies. Preliminary results suggest that PET-NAC for the AC of PET images is feasible in the clinic. Such an approach can potentially be an alternative method of MR-based AC in PET/MR imaging. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  8. Comparison of PET/MRI With PET/CT in the Evaluation of Disease Status in Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afaq, Asim; Fraioli, Francesco; Sidhu, Harbir; Wan, Simon; Punwani, Shonit; Chen, Shih-Hsin; Akin, Oguz; Linch, David; Ardeshna, Kirit; Lambert, Jonathan; Miles, Kenneth; Groves, Ashley; Kayani, Irfan

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim was to compare the diagnostic performance of PET/MRI (performed with basic anatomical MRI sequences) in detecting sites of disease in adult patients with lymphoma compared with the current standard of care, PET/CT. Secondary aims were to assess the additional value of diffusion-weighted imaging to PET/MRI in disease detection and to evaluate the relationship between the standardized uptake value on PET/MR and the apparent diffusion coefficient on diffusion-weighted imaging. Sixty-eight studies in 66 consecutive patients with histologically proven Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma were prospectively evaluated. Each patient had whole body PET/CT, followed by whole body PET/MR. Two experienced readers independently evaluated the PET/MRI studies, and two other experienced readers independently evaluated PET/CT. Site of lymphoma involvement and SUVmax at all nodal sites more avid than background liver were recorded. Readers provided stage (in baseline cases) and disease status (remission vs active disease). The apparent diffusion coefficient mean value corresponding to the most avid PET site of disease was recorded. Ninety-five nodal and 8 extranodal sites were identified on both PET/CT and PET/MRI. In addition, 3 nodal and 1 extranodal sites were identified on PET/MRI. For positive lesion detection, reader agreement in PET/MR was perfect between the 2 readers and almost perfect between PET/CT and PET/MR (k > 0.978). Intermodality agreement between PET/CT and PET/MRI was also near perfect to perfect for staging/disease status k = (0.979-1.000). SUVmax from PET/CT and PET/MRI correlated significantly (Spearman rho correlation coefficient, 0.842; P PET/MRI is a reliable alternative to PET/CT in the evaluation of patients with lymphoma. Diffusion-weighted imaging did not alter diagnostic accuracy. With comparable accuracy in detection of disease sites and added benefit of radiation dose reduction, PET/MRI has a potential to become part of routine lymphoma

  9. Hybrid FDG-PET/MR compared to FDG-PET/CT in adult lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Wendy; Catana, Ciprian; Abramson, Jeremy S; Arabasz, Grae; McDermott, Shanaugh; Catalano, Onofrio; Muse, Victorine; Blake, Michael A; Barnes, Jeffrey; Shelly, Martin; Hochberg, Ephraim; Rosen, Bruce R; Guimaraes, Alexander R

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of simultaneous FDG-PET/MR including diffusion compared to FDG-PET/CT in patients with lymphoma. Eighteen patients with a confirmed diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's (NHL) or Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) underwent an IRB-approved, single-injection/dual-imaging protocol consisting of a clinical FDG-PET/CT and subsequent FDG-PET/MR scan. PET images from both modalities were reconstructed iteratively. Attenuation correction was performed using low-dose CT data for PET/CT and Dixon-MR sequences for PET/MR. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed. SUVmax was measured and compared between modalities and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) using ROI analysis by an experienced radiologist using OsiriX. Strength of correlation between variables was measured using the Pearson correlation coefficient (r p). Of the 18 patients included in this study, 5 had HL and 13 had NHL. The median age was 51 ± 14.8 years. Sixty-five FDG-avid lesions were identified. All FDG-avid lesions were visible with comparable contrast, and therefore initial and follow-up staging was identical between both examinations. SUVmax from FDG-PET/MR [(mean ± sem) (21.3 ± 2.07)] vs. FDG-PET/CT (mean 23.2 ± 2.8) demonstrated a strongly positive correlation [r s = 0.95 (0.94, 0.99); p PET/MR [r = 0.17(-0.07, 0.66); p = 0.09]. FDG-PET/MR offers an equivalent whole-body staging examination as compared with PET/CT with an improved radiation safety profile in lymphoma patients. Correlation of ADC to SUVmax was weak, understating their lack of equivalence, but not undermining their potential synergy and differing importance.

  10. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsia; SPECT und PET in der Diagnostik von Epilepsien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landvogt, C. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2007-09-15

    In preoperative localisation of epileptogenic foci, nuclear medicine diagnostics plays a crucial role. FDG-PET is used as first line diagnostics. In case of inconsistent MRI, EEG and FDG-PET findings, {sup 11}C-Flumazenil-PET or ictal and interictal perfusion-SPECT should be performed. Other than FDG, Flumazenil can help to identify the extend of the region, which should be resected. To enhance sensitivity and specificity, further data analysis using voxelbased statistical analyses or SISCOM (substraction ictal SPECT coregistered MRI) should be performed.

  11. Limitations of FDG-PET and FDG-PET with computed tomography for detecting synchronous cancer in pharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidenori; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Terada, Akihiro; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Hyodo, Ikuo; Suzuki, Masahiro; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Tamaki, Tsuneo; Nishio, Masami

    2008-11-01

    To analyze the ability of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and the fusion of FDG-PET with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) to detect synchronous upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI) cancer in newly diagnosed pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Synchronous UGI cancer is a significant problem in treating pharyngeal SCC, particularly for Japanese populations reported to be at high risk. Good results have been reported from the use of FDG-PET and FDG-PET/CT in staging head and neck SCC (HNSCC). An additional advantage is that both techniques are expected to prove useful in detecting synchronous cancer. Retrospective analysis of medical records. Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya, Japan. Forty-three Japanese patients with pharyngeal SCC were assessed for the ability of FDG-PET and FDG-PET/CT to detect synchronous UGI cancer via a comparison with UGI Lugol chromoendoscopy. The patients had undergone 17 FDG-PET and 26 FDG-PET/CT scans before treatment. Sensitivity of FDG-PET and FDG-PET/CT to detect synchronous UGI cancer. Pathologically, 6 patients with esophageal SCC (14%) and 4 with stomach adenocarcinoma (9%) were diagnosed on the basis of suspect lesions detected by UGI Lugol chromoendoscopy. One patient was found to have stage T2 esophageal cancer by FDG-PET/CT, but no patients had UGI cancer. The sensitivity of detecting T1 UGI cancer by FDG-PET and FDG-PET/CT was 0%. The choice of diagnostic technique must be based on the site and histologic characteristics of the synchronous tumor. Although FDG-PET and FDG-PET/CT are still the preferred techniques for staging HNSCC, neither replaces Lugol chromoendoscopy for detecting synchronous UGI cancer in high-risk populations.

  12. Preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer: prospective comparison of PET/MR and PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Jin Mo; Park, Chang Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Soon Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paeng, Jin Chul; Cheon, Gi Jeong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Tae [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Sik [Seoul National University Hospital, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    To prospectively compare the accuracies of PET/MR and PET/CT in the preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Institutional review board approval and patients' informed consents were obtained. 45 patients with proven or radiologically suspected lung cancer which appeared to be resectable on CT were enrolled. PET/MR was performed for the preoperative staging of NSCLC followed by PET/CT without contrast enhancement on the same day. Dedicated MR images including diffusion weighted images were obtained. Readers assessed PET/MR and PET/CT with contrast-enhanced CT. Accuracies of PET/MR and PET/CT for NSCLC staging were compared. Primary tumour stages (n = 40) were correctly diagnosed in 32 patients (80.0 %) on PET/MR and in 32 patients (80.0 %) on PET/CT (P = 1.0). Node stages (n = 42) were correctly determined in 24 patients (57.1 %) on PET/MR and in 22 patients (52.4 %) on PET/CT (P = 0.683). Metastatic lesions in the brain, bone, liver, and pleura were detected in 6 patients (13.3 %). PET/MR missed one patient with pleural metastasis while PET/CT missed one patient with solitary brain metastasis and two patients with pleural metastases (P = 0.480). This study demonstrated that PET/MR in combination with contrast-enhanced CT was comparable to PET/CT in the preoperative staging of NSCLC while reducing radiation exposure. (orig.)

  13. PET imaging in patients with Modic changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, H.B.; Manniche, C. [Univ. of Southern Denmark, Funen (Denmark). Back Research Centre; Petersen, H.; Hoeilund-Carlsen, P.F. [Odense University Hospital, Univ. of Southern Denmark (Denmark). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was via PET imaging to reveal if any highly metabolic processes were occurring in Modic changes type 1 and/or in the adjacent discs. Modic changes (MC) are signal changes in the vertebral endplate and body visualised by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MC are strongly associated with low back pain (LBP). MC type 1 appear to be inflammation on MRI, and histological and biochemical findings make it highly likely that an inflammation is present. Though MC is painful no known treatment is available, and it is unknown which entities affect the progress or regress of MC. The changes observed on MRI are slow and take months to develop, but faster changes in the metabolism might provide a platform for monitoring patients. Patients from The Back Centre Funen, with low back pain in the area of L1 to S1, MC type 1 in L1 to L5, and a previous herniated lumbar disc. All patients had a PET scan using FDG ({sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose) as tracer. Included in the study were 11 patients, 4 women and 7 men, mean age 48.1 year (range 20-65). All MC were situated in the vertebrae both above and below the previously herniated disc/discs. Ten patients had MC at 1 level, and 1 had MC at 2 levels. The affected levels were 1 at L2/L3, 6 at L4 /L5, and 5 at L5/S1. All had a previous disc herniation and MC larger than 4 mm in diameter. Technically satisfactory PET scans were obtained. However, PET imaging showed no increases in metabolism in any vertebra or disc of any patient. Modic type 1 changes do not reveal themselves by showing increased metabolism with ordinary FDG PET imaging. PET tracers illuminating inflammation are being developed and hopefully may become more successful. (orig.)

  14. PET and SPECT imaging in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Amy K; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2014-01-01

    Veterinarians have gained increasing access to positron emission tomography (PET and PET/CT) imaging facilities, allowing them to use this powerful molecular imaging technique for clinical and research applications. SPECT is currently being used more in Europe than in the United States and has been shown to be useful in veterinary oncology and in the evaluation of orthopedic diseases. SPECT brain perfusion and receptor imaging is used to investigate behavioral disorders in animals that have interesting similarities to human psychiatric disorders. This article provides an overview of the potential applications of PET and SPECT. The use of commercially available and investigational PET radiopharmaceuticals in the management of veterinary disease has been discussed. To date, most of the work in this field has utilized the commercially available PET tracer, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose for oncologic imaging. Normal biodistribution studies in several companion animal species (cats, dogs, and birds) have been published to assist in lesion detection and interpretation for veterinary radiologists and clinicians. Studies evaluating other (18)F-labeled tracers for research applications are underway at several institutions and companion animal models of human diseases are being increasingly recognized for their value in biomarker and therapy development. Although PET and SPECT technologies are in their infancy for clinical veterinary medicine, increasing access to and interest in these applications and other molecular imaging techniques has led to a greater knowledge and collective body of expertise for veterinarians worldwide. Initiation and fostering of physician-veterinarian collaborations are key components to the forward movement of this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET NUCLIDES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FINN,R.; SCHLYER,D.

    2001-06-25

    Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical.

  16. Comparative evaluation of respiratory-gated and ungated FDG-PET for target volume definition in radiotherapy treatment planning for pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Takahiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Akira; Nakamoto, Yuji; Itasaka, Satoshi; Mizowaki, Takashi; Togashi, Kaori; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of respiratory-gated positron emission tomography (4D-PET) in pancreatic cancer radiotherapy treatment planning (RTTP). Fourteen patients with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid pancreatic tumours were evaluated between December 2013 and March 2015. Two sets of volumes were contoured for the pancreatic tumour of each patient. The biological target volume in three-dimensional RTTP (BTV3D) was contoured using conventional respiratory un-gated PET. The BTV3D was then expanded using population-based margins to generate a series of internal target volume 3D (ITV3D) values. The ITV 4D (ITV4D) was contoured using 4D-PET. Each of the five phases of 4D-PET was used for 4D contouring, and the ITV4D was constructed by summing the volumes defined on the five individual 4D-PET images. The relative volumes and normalized volumetric overlap were computed between ITV3D and ITV4D. On average, the FDG-avid tumour volumes were 1.6 (range: 0.8-2.3) fold greater in the ITV4D than in the BTV3D. On average, the ITV3D values were 2.0 (range: 1.1-3.4) fold larger than the corresponding ITV4D values. The ITV generated from 4D-PET can be used to improve the accuracy or reduce normal tissue irradiation compared with conventional un-gated PET-based ITV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of patient positioning aids on PET quantification in PET/MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantlik, Frederic; Hofmann, Matthias [University of Tuebingen, Laboratory for Preclinical Imaging and Imaging Technology of the Werner Siemens-Foundation, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tuebingen (Germany); Werner, Matthias K.; Sauter, Alexander [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Kupferschlaeger, Juergen [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tuebingen (Germany); Schoelkopf, Bernhard [Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tuebingen (Germany); Pichler, Bernd J. [University of Tuebingen, Laboratory for Preclinical Imaging and Imaging Technology of the Werner Siemens-Foundation, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Beyer, Thomas [University Hospital, Imaging Science Institute, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Clinical PET/MR requires the use of patient positioning aids to immobilize and support patients for the duration of the combined examination. Ancillary immobilization devices contribute to overall attenuation of the PET signal, but are not detected with conventional MR sequences and, hence, are ignored in standard MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). We report on the quantitative effect of not accounting for the attenuation of patient positioning aids in combined PET/MR imaging. We used phantom and patient data acquired with positioning aids on a PET/CT scanner (Biograph 16, HI-REZ) to mimic PET/MR imaging conditions. Reference CT-based attenuation maps were generated from measured (original) CT transmission images (origCT-AC). We also created MR-like attenuation maps by following the same conversion procedure of the attenuation values except for the prior delineation and subtraction of the positioning aids from the CT images (modCT-AC). First, a uniform {sup 68}Ge cylinder was positioned centrally in the PET/CT scanner and fixed with a vacuum mattress (10 cm thick) and, in a repeat examination, with MR positioning foam pads. Second, 16 patient datasets were selected for subsequent processing. All patients were regionally immobilized with positioning aids: a vacuum mattress for head/neck imaging (nine patients) and a foam mattress for imaging of the lower extremities (seven patients). PET images were reconstructed following CT-based attenuation and scatter correction using the original and modified (MR-like) CT images: PET{sub origCT-AC} and PET{sub modCT-AC}, respectively. PET images following origCT-AC and modCT-AC were compared visually and in terms of mean differences of voxels with a standardized uptake value of at least 1.0. In addition, we report maximum activity concentration in lesions for selected patients. In the phantom study employing the vacuum mattress the average voxel activity in PET{sub modCT-AC} was underestimated by 6.4% compared to PET

  18. The effect of patient positioning aids on PET quantification in PET/MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantlik, Frederic; Hofmann, Matthias; Werner, Matthias K; Sauter, Alexander; Kupferschläger, Jürgen; Schölkopf, Bernhard; Pichler, Bernd J; Beyer, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Clinical PET/MR requires the use of patient positioning aids to immobilize and support patients for the duration of the combined examination. Ancillary immobilization devices contribute to overall attenuation of the PET signal, but are not detected with conventional MR sequences and, hence, are ignored in standard MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). We report on the quantitative effect of not accounting for the attenuation of patient positioning aids in combined PET/MR imaging. We used phantom and patient data acquired with positioning aids on a PET/CT scanner (Biograph 16, HI-REZ) to mimic PET/MR imaging conditions. Reference CT-based attenuation maps were generated from measured (original) CT transmission images (origCT-AC). We also created MR-like attenuation maps by following the same conversion procedure of the attenuation values except for the prior delineation and subtraction of the positioning aids from the CT images (modCT-AC). First, a uniform (68)Ge cylinder was positioned centrally in the PET/CT scanner and fixed with a vacuum mattress (10 cm thick) and, in a repeat examination, with MR positioning foam pads. Second, 16 patient datasets were selected for subsequent processing. All patients were regionally immobilized with positioning aids: a vacuum mattress for head/neck imaging (nine patients) and a foam mattress for imaging of the lower extremities (seven patients). PET images were reconstructed following CT-based attenuation and scatter correction using the original and modified (MR-like) CT images: PET(origCT-AC) and PET(modCT-AC), respectively. PET images following origCT-AC and modCT-AC were compared visually and in terms of mean differences of voxels with a standardized uptake value of at least 1.0. In addition, we report maximum activity concentration in lesions for selected patients. In the phantom study employing the vacuum mattress the average voxel activity in PET(modCT-AC) was underestimated by 6.4% compared to PET(origCT-AC), with 3

  19. FDG PET/CT in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henrik; Holdgaard, Paw Christian; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    -recommendable" indications, respectively. RESULTS: Of 11,729 citations, 1,729 were considered for review, and 204 were included. The evidence suggested usefulness of PET/CT in lung, lymphoma, melanoma, head and neck, and colorectal cancers, whereas evidence was sparse in gynaecological cancers. The agreement between actual...... use of PET/CT and literature-based recommendations was high in the first five mentioned cancers in that 96.2 % of scans were made for grade A or B indications versus only 22.2 % in gynaecological cancers. CONCLUSION: Evidence-based usefulness was reported in five of six selected cancers; evidence...

  20. The Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT and PET/MRI in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Randy; Dercle, Laurent; Garg, Ishan; Wang, Zhen Jane; Hough, David M; Goenka, Ajit H

    2017-11-16

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a difficult disease to treat and continues to portend a poor prognosis, as most patients are unresectable at diagnosis. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) combined with CT (PET/CT) has been a cornerstone in oncological imaging of different cancers; however, the role of PET/CT in PDAC is continually evolving and currently not well established. Studies have shown the potential of PET/CT in guiding the management of patients with PDAC, with possible added benefit over anatomic imaging with CT or MRI in certain scenarios. PET/CT may be useful in diagnosis, initial staging, treatment response assessment, differentiation of recurrent tumor from post-treatment fibrosis, and radiotherapy planning. Additionally, PET/CT may be a cost-effective modality due to upstaging of patients originally deemed as surgical candidates. Recently, the advent of simultaneous PET/MRI represents an exciting advancement in hybrid functional imaging with potential applications in the imaging of PDAC. The advantages of PET/MRI include simultaneous acquisition to improve registration of fusion images, lower radiation dose, superior soft tissue contrast, and availability of multiparametric imaging. Studies are underway to evaluate the utility of PET/MRI in PDAC, including in initial staging and treatment response assessment and to determine the subgroup of patients that will benefit from PET/MRI. Further studies are warranted in both PET/CR and PET/MRI to better understand the role of these modalities in PDAC.

  1. UN Peacebuilding Operations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rary UN peace operations are mandated to manage post-conflict peacebuilding transitions that ... UN military units? And can it remain relevant during all the phases of a UN peacebuilding operation? This paper will analyse this question by first defining and developing .... achievement of the overall peacebuilding objective.

  2. Report of radiological safety for a micro PET; Informe de seguridad radiologica para un microPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos M, R.; Ruiz T, C. G.; Martinez D, A.; Rodriguez V, M., E-mail: romeo@fisica.unam.m [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    Considering one of the guides emitted by the National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards, was realized the report of radiological safety for a micro tomography by positrons emission that is part of Bimodal System of Images developed in their entirety for personnel of the Physics Institute of UNAM. With this system is sought to obtain tomography images of small animals using non destructive methods, such as computerized micro tomography and micro tomography by positrons emission. In this work each one of the report points is enumerated and only it is described, to big features on that consist, due to the great extension of each one of them. The report has two parts; the first is denominated -Of the installation and the Organization- and is given to know the interior and external characteristics of the installation, besides how and under which authority the activities will be executed inside the laboratory. The second part is called -of the Radiological Protection- and has for objective to describe the radiation sources that will be used, as well as the measures of radiological protection foreseen inside the laboratory. The most important part in the report consists on the description of the three radionuclides to use: {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C and {sup 13}N, as well as the methods for the shielding calculation and for the estimate of the dose equivalent during the normal operation of the equipment. These methods were applied three times, because the calculation was made for each radionuclide. The results of these calculations show that: 1) it not is necessary to have a structural shielding, due to the activity sources very reduced, and 2) the dose limit per year (according to the ICRP-60) it will not be surpassed neither in the case of the occupationally exposed personnel, neither on the public in general. (Author

  3. Similarities between obesity in pets and children: the addiction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretlow, Robert A; Corbee, Ronald J

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in pets is a frustrating, major health problem. Obesity in human children is similar. Prevailing theories accounting for the rising obesity rates - for example, poor nutrition and sedentary activity - are being challenged. Obesity interventions in both pets and children have produced modest short-term but poor long-term results. New strategies are needed. A novel theory posits that obesity in pets and children is due to 'treats' and excessive meal amounts given by the 'pet-parent' and child-parent to obtain affection from the pet/child, which enables 'eating addiction' in the pet/child and results in parental 'co-dependence'. Pet-parents and child-parents may even become hostage to the treats/food to avoid the ire of the pet/child. Eating addiction in the pet/child also may be brought about by emotional factors such as stress, independent of parental co-dependence. An applicable treatment for child obesity has been trialled using classic addiction withdrawal/abstinence techniques, as well as behavioural addiction methods, with significant results. Both the child and the parent progress through withdrawal from specific 'problem foods', next from snacking (non-specific foods) and finally from excessive portions at meals (gradual reductions). This approach should adapt well for pets and pet-parents. Pet obesity is more 'pure' than child obesity, in that contributing factors and treatment points are essentially under the control of the pet-parent. Pet obesity might thus serve as an ideal test bed for the treatment and prevention of child obesity, with focus primarily on parental behaviours. Sharing information between the fields of pet and child obesity would be mutually beneficial.

  4. PET/MRI and PET/CT in follow-up of head and neck cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Marcelo A. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Huellner, Martin [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Neuroradiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Kuhn, Felix; Veit-Haibach, Patrick [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Huber, Gerhardt; Meerwein, Christian [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Zurich (Switzerland); Kollias, Spyros [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Neuroradiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Schulthess, Gustav von [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-06-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI combines the functional ability of PET and the high soft tissue contrast of MRI. The aim of this study was to assess contrast-enhanced (ce)PET/MRI compared to cePET/CT in patients with suspected recurrence of head and neck cancer (HNC). Eighty-seven patients underwent sequential cePET/CT and cePET/MRI using a trimodality PET/CT-MRI set-up. Diagnostic accuracy for the detection of recurrent HNC was evaluated using cePET/CT and cePET/MRI. Furthermore, image quality, presence of unclear {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose (FDG) findings of uncertain significance and the diagnostic advantages of use of gadolinium contrast enhancement were analysed. cePET/MRI showed no statistically significant difference in diagnostic accuracy compared to cePET/CT (91.5 vs 90.6 %). Artefacts' grade was similar in both methods, but their location was different. cePET/CT artefacts were primarily located in the suprahyoid area, while on cePET/MRI, artefacts were more equally distributed among the supra and infrahyoid neck regions. cePET/MRI and cePET/CT showed 34 unclear FDG findings; of those 11 could be solved by cePET/MRI and 5 by cePET/CT. The use of gadolinium in PET/MRI did not yield higher diagnostic accuracy, but helped to better define tumour margins in 6.9 % of patients. Our data suggest that cePET/MRI may be superior compared to cePET/CT to specify unclear FDG uptake related to possible tumour recurrence in follow-up of patients after HNC. It seems to be the modality of choice for the evaluation of the oropharynx and the oral cavity because of a higher incidence of artefacts in cePET/CT in this area mainly due to dental implants. However, overall there is no statistically significant difference. (orig.)

  5. Oral cancer diagnosed using PET/CT: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hee; Yang, Byoung Eun; Cho, Young Min [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Gon [Sam Anyang General Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    PET/CT is a new imaging technology that combines high-quality Position Emission Tomography (PET) and Computed Tomography (CT). This imaging provides simultaneous anatomical and metabolic information. Therefore PET/CT is useful diagnostic modality for early detection og malignant tumor, accurate at aging, decision on therapeutic plan, monitoring response to therapy and rapid detection of recurrence. We report oral and maxillofacial cancers diagnosed by using PET/CT and the usefulness of PET/CT in the evaluation of postoperative recurrence.

  6. Potential benefits of pet ownership in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, L B

    1997-12-01

    Pet ownership provides an opportunity to improve health. A pet may become a stimulus for exercise, reduce anxiety, and provide an external focus of attention. Pets are also a source of physical contact and comfort and may decrease loneliness and depression while promoting an interesting lifestyle. The benefits of pet ownership are consistent with the health promotion and disease prevention goals outlined in Healthy People 2000. These goals include (a) increasing physical activity and fitness and (b) improving mental health and preventing mental disorders. Assessment of pet ownership and discussion of potential health benefits facilitates a holistic understanding of our patients and ourselves.

  7. [¹⁸F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET imaging of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn Alexander; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2015-01-01

    [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET ((18)FDG PET) imaging has emerged as a promising tool for assessment of atherosclerosis. By targeting atherosclerotic plaque glycolysis, a marker for plaque inflammation and hypoxia, (18)FDG PET can assess plaque vulnerability and potentially predict risk...... of atherosclerosis-related disease, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. With excellent reproducibility, (18)FDG PET can be a surrogate end point in clinical drug trials, improving trial efficiency. This article summarizes key findings in the literature, discusses limitations of (18)FDG PET imaging...

  8. Validating PET segmentation of thoracic lesions-is 4D PET necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. S.; Carl, J.

    2017-01-01

    segmented using three SUV threshold methods (Max40%, SUV40% and 2.5SUV) and a gradient based method (GradientSeg). Segmentations in static 3D-PET scans (PETsta) specified the reference conditions for the individual segmentation methods, target lesions and tracer concentrations. The motion included PET......Uptake(error)) for the lesion part covering the low tracer concentration. In PET4D images, all segmentation methods provided lowUptakeerror estimates equivalent to PETsta segmentations and, except for the Max40% segmentations, a slight volume expansion. In the PET(mo)t images, the GradientSeg method results in an average 0.......43 increased volume and an overestimation of 0.33 for the lowUptakeerror. The most accurate segmentations in PETmot, relative to PETsta, were accomplished by the 2.5SUV and SUV40% methods. In the PETdeb images, the GradientSeg method solitary provided segmentations equivalent to segmentation in PETsta images...

  9. PET and paediatrics; La tomographie par emission de positons (ou PET scan) en pediatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boddaert, N. [Necker Enfants Malades, AP-HP, Serv Radiol Pediat, Paris (France); Ribeiro, M.J. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, Serv Hosp Frederic Joliot, F-91406 Orsay (France)

    2008-07-01

    Positon emission tomography (PET scan) is a functional imagery technique.As in scintigraphy, a radioactive tracer is administrated to the patient and its distribution into the organism is detected by a tomograph or a PET scanner. The nuclear medicine techniques which use radioactive tracers allow to obtain an imagery of the regional metabolism of glucose, blood flow or of different neurotransmitters. The PET-TDM (tomodensitometry) is an hybrid imagery system which associates a PET to a multi-bars scanner (4 to 64 bars). The use of hybrid imagery systems allows an anatomic register of the metabolic anomalies or others, as well as the adjustment of the attenuation of the emitted particles. (O.M.)

  10. The Maillard reaction and pet food processing: effects on nutritive value and pet health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rooijen, van, C; Bosch, G; Poel, van der, A.F.B; Wierenga, P.A; Alexander, L; Heniks, W.H

    2013-01-01

    The Maillard reaction, which can occur during heat processing of pet foods or ingredients, is known to reduce the bioavailability of essential amino acids such as lysine due to the formation of early...

  11. Development of a full-ring ;add-on PET; prototype: A head coil with DOI-PET detectors for integrated PET/MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikido, F.; Fujiwara, M.; Tashima, H.; Akram, M. S. H.; Suga, M.; Obata, T.; Yamaya, T.

    2017-08-01

    We developed a full-ring ;add-on PET; prototype which is brain-dedicated and consists of a RF-head coil with four-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) PET detectors for integrated PET/MRI in order to evaluate performance of our previously proposed add-on PET system and to investigate the mutual influences between the individual PET and MRI modalities when they are integrated in simultaneous measurements. In this add-on PET prototype, the DOI detectors are mounted on the head coil and close to the patient head. As a result, higher sensitivity and higher spatial resolution can be achieved for the integrated PET/MRI, compared with conventional whole body PET/MRI systems. In addition, implementation cost can be reduced, tuning of the RF-coil can be optimized and PET and MRI images can be obtained simultaneously in exactly the same positions. Specifically, the full-ring prototype consists of eight DOI-PET detectors and a birdcage type head coil of a 3T MRI. The radius of the PET ring is 123.9 mm. The distance from the center to the RF-coil elements is 130.5 mm. The scintillator blocks consist of lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate scintillators arranged in 19×6×4 layers with reflectors inserted between them. The size of each crystal element is 2.0 mm×2.0 mm ×5.0 mm. We evaluated performance of the full-ring prototype in simultaneous measurements of the integrated PET/MRI. We obtained spatial resolutions of 2.3 mm at the center of the field-of-view (FOV) and lower than 3.5 mm in the whole FOV. The energy resolution of 19.4% was obtained for 511 keV gamma-rays. In addition, we observed no degradation of PET performance caused by the MRI measurement. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the MRI image was 209.4 in simultaneous measurements with the PET. The maximum ΔB0 and maximum difference of the secondary magnetic field due to the eddy current effect were smaller than 0.8 ppm and ±5.0 μT, respectively. We concluded that sufficient spatial resolution and detector

  12. Hacia un conocimiento transdisciplinar

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz,Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Uno de los principales objetivos de la conferencia es ilustrar de manera práctica que un conocimiento transdisciplinar es posible. Ha sido plasmado en el espacio “Mestizajes” que constituye un espacio alternativo para el encuentro de artistas, escritores, científicos y humanistas. Un lugar para el debate, para pensar diferente, para imaginar; un lugar para la búsqueda, para el encuentro y también para el desacuerdo; un lugar para la generación y la comunicación de nuevas formas de conocimient...

  13. Feasibility of simultaneous PET/MR of the carotid artery: first clinical experience and comparison to PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripa, Rasmus S; Knudsen, Andreas; Hag, Anne Mette F; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Loft, Annika; Keller, Sune H; Hansen, Adam E; von Benzon, Eric; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjær, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at comparing PET/MR to PET/CT for imaging the carotid arteries in patients with known increased risk of atherosclerosis. Six HIV-positive men underwent sequential PET/MR and PET/CT of the carotid arteries after injection of 400 MBq of 18F-FDG. PET/MR was performed a median of 131 min after injection. Subsequently,PET/CT was performed. Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn slice by slice to include the carotid arteries and standardized uptake values (SUV) were calculated from both datasets independently. Quantitative comparison of 18F-FDG uptake revealed a high congruence between PET data acquired using the PET/MR system compared to the PET/CT system. The mean difference for SUVmean was -0.18 (p PET/MR system. The 95% limits of agreement were -0.55 to 0.20 for SUVmean and -0.93 to 0.65 for SUVmax. The image quality of the PET/MR allowed for delineation of the carotid vessel wall. The correlations between 18F-FDG uptake from ROI including both vessel wall and vessel lumen to ROI including only the wall were strong (r = 0.98 for SUVmean and r = 1.00 for SUVmax) indicating that the luminal 18F-FDG content had minimal influence on the values. The study shows for the first time that simultaneous PET/MR of the carotid arteries is feasible in patients with increased risk of atherosclerosis. Quantification of 18F-FDG uptake correlated well between PET/MR and PET/CT despite difference in method of PET attenuation correction, reconstruction algorithm, and detector technology. PMID:23900769

  14. Supplemental transmission method for improved PET attenuation correction on an integrated MR/PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Charles C., E-mail: charles.c.watson@siemens.com

    2014-01-11

    Although MR image segmentation, combined with information from the PET emission data, has achieved a clinically usable PET attenuation correction (AC) on whole-body MR/PET systems, more accurate PET AC remains one of the main instrumental challenges for quantitative imaging. Incorporating a full conventional PET transmission system in these machines would be difficult, but even a small amount of transmission data might usefully complement the MR-based estimate of the PET attenuation image. In this paper we explore one possible configuration for such a system that uses a small number of fixed line sources placed around the periphery of the patient tunnel. These line sources are implemented using targeted positron beams. The sparse transmission (sTX) data are collected simultaneously with the emission (EM) acquisition. These data, plus a blank scan, are combined with a partially known attenuation image estimate in a modified version of the maximum likelihood for attenuation and activity (MLAA) algorithm, to estimate values of the linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) in unknown regions of the image. This algorithm was tested in two simple phantom experiments. We find that the use of supplemental transmission data can significantly improve the accuracy of the estimated LAC in a truncated region, as well as the estimate of the emitter concentration within the phantom. In the experiments, the bias in the EM+sTX estimate of emitter concentrations was 3–5%, compared to 15–20% with the use of EM-only data. Highlights: • MR-based PET attenuation correction (AC) on MR/PET scanners remains problematic. • We propose a supplemental sparse transmission (sTX) system to improve MR-AC. • The sTX sources were implemented very practically using targeted positron beams. • A novel MLAA-like algorithm was developed to reconstruct these data. • We show that sTX leads to more accurate emission images in two phantom studies.

  15. Assessment of attenuation correction for myocardial PET imaging using combined PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Rasul, Sazan; Beitzke, Dietrich; Stelzmüller, Marie-Elisabeth; Cal-Gonzalez, Jacobo; Hacker, Marcus; Beyer, Thomas

    2017-11-22

    To evaluate the frequency of artifacts in MR-based attenuation correction (AC) maps and their impact on the quantitative accuracy of PET-based flow and metabolism measurements in a cohort of consecutive heart failure patients undergoing combined PET/MR imaging. Myocardial viability studies were performed in 20 patients following a dual-tracer protocol involving the assessment of myocardial perfusion (13N-NH3: 813 ± 86 MBq) and metabolism (18F-FDG: 335 ± 38 MBq). All acquisitions were performed using a fully-integrated PET/MR system, with standard DIXON-attenuation correction (DIXON-AC) mapping for each PET scan. All AC maps were examined for spatial misalignment with the emission data, total lung volume, susceptibility artifacts, and tissue inversion (TI). Misalignment and susceptibility artifacts were corrected using rigid co-registration and retrospective filling of the susceptibility-induced gaps, respectively. The effects of the AC artifacts were evaluated by relative difference measures and perceived changes in clinical interpretations. Average respiratory misalignment of (7 ± 4) mm of the PET-emission data and the AC maps was observed in 18 (90%) patients. Substantial changes in the lung volumes of the AC maps were observed in the test-retest analysis (ratio: 1.0 ± 0.2, range: 0.8-1.4). Susceptibility artifacts were observed in 10 (50%) patients, while six (30%) patients had TI artifacts. Average differences of 14 ± 10% were observed for PET images reconstructed with the artifactual AC maps. The combined artifact effects caused false-positive findings in three (15%) patients. Standard DIXON-AC maps must be examined carefully for artifacts and misalignment effects prior to AC correction of cardiac PET/MRI studies in order to avoid misinterpretation of biased perfusion and metabolism readings from the PET data.

  16. Pet ownership and risk factors for cardiovascular disease: another look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parslow, Ruth A; Jorm, Anthony F

    2003-11-03

    To test the claim that pet ownership reduces cardiovascular risk. Community survey. 2528 adults aged 40-44 years and 2551 aged 60-64 years who lived in the Australian Capital Territory and Queanbeyan, New South Wales, and were drawn randomly from the Australian electoral roll in 2000 and 2001. Sociodemographic measures, including pet ownership, and measures of physical health (including body mass index [BMI], alcohol and cigarette consumption, and levels of physical activity). Two readings of diastolic and systolic blood pressure were also taken. While pet owners and non-pet owners had similar levels of systolic blood pressure, those with pets had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. Pet owners also had higher BMI and were more likely to smoke. While those with pets undertook more mild physical activity, they continued to have significantly higher diastolic blood pressure after controlling for hypertensive risk factors. In this study, we found no evidence that pet ownership per se is associated with cardiovascular health benefits. Rather, pet owners had higher diastolic blood pressure than those without pets. It is likely that this increased health risk is linked to other hypertensive risk factors that are only indirectly associated with pet ownership.

  17. Factors associated with furry pet ownership among patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Martin J; Roy, Angkana; McGinn, Thomas G; Wisnivesky, Juan P

    2010-09-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens is an established risk factor for poor asthma control. Current guidelines recommend removing pets from the home of patients with asthma. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of furry pet ownership in asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics and to identify factors associated with furry pet ownership among those with asthma. Secondary analysis assessed characteristics among asthmatics that might be associated with allowing a furry pet into the bedroom. Using data from The National Asthma Survey collected from 2003 to 2004, we carried out univariate and multiple regression analyses, in 2009, to identify independent predictors of furry pet ownership in asthma sufferers after controlling for potential confounders. Overall, asthmatics were more likely to own a furry pet than nonasthmatic individuals in the general population (49.9% versus 44.8%, p pet ownership among asthmatics. Additionally, 68.7% of patients with asthma who own a furry pet allowed them into their bedroom. Higher income and carrying out pet into the bedroom. Furry pet ownership is equally or more common among asthmatics compared to those without asthma. The majority of asthmatics with furry pets allow them into the bedroom. Recognizing and addressing these problems may help decrease asthma morbidity.

  18. FDG-PET/CT in oncology. German guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, B.J. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Beyer, T.; Bockisch, A. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany); Delbeke, D. [Vanderbilt Univ. Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Kotzerke, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Dresden (Germany); Minkov, V. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany); Reiser, M. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Ludwig-Maximillians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Willich, N. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    FDG-PET/CT examinations combine metabolic and morphologic imaging within an integrated procedure. Over the past decade PET/CT imaging has gained wide clinical acceptance in the field of oncology. This FDG-PET/CT guideline focuses on indications, data acquisition and processing as well as documentation of FDG-PET/CT examinations in oncologic patients within a clinical and social context specific to Germany. Background information and definitions are followed by examples of clinical and research applications of FDG-PET/CT. Furthermore, protocols for CT scanning (low dose and contrast-enhanced CT) and PET emission imaging are discussed. Documentation and reporting of examinations are specified. Image interpretation criteria and sources of errors are discussed. Quality control for FDG and PET/CT-systems, qualification requirements of personnel as well as legal aspects are presented. (orig.)

  19. Optimization of yttrium-90 PET for simultaneous PET/MR imaging: A phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldib, Mootaz; Oesingmann, Niels; Faul, David D; Kostakoglu, Lale; Knešaurek, Karin; Fayad, Zahi A

    2016-08-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of yttrium-90 in the liver post radioembolization has been shown useful for personalized dosimetry calculations and evaluation of extrahepatic deposition. The purpose of this study was to quantify the benefits of several MR-based data correction approaches offered by using a combined PET/MR system to improve Y-90 PET imaging. In particular, the feasibility of motion and partial volume corrections were investigated in a controlled phantom study. The ACR phantom was filled with an initial concentration of 8 GBq of Y-90 solution resulting in a contrast of 10:1 between the hot cylinders and the background. Y-90 PET motion correction through motion estimates from MR navigators was evaluated by using a custom-built motion stage that simulated realistic amplitudes of respiration-induced liver motion. Finally, the feasibility of an MR-based partial volume correction method was evaluated using a wavelet decomposition approach. Motion resulted in a large (∼40%) loss of contrast recovery for the 8 mm cylinder in the phantom, but was corrected for after MR-based motion correction was applied. Partial volume correction improved contrast recovery by 13% for the 8 mm cylinder. MR-based data correction improves Y-90 PET imaging on simultaneous PET/MR systems. Assessment of these methods must be studied further in the clinical setting.

  20. Cardiovascular hybrid imaging using PET/MRI; Kardiovaskulaere Hybridbildgebung mit PET/MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nensa, Felix; Schlosser, Thomas [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie

    2014-12-15

    The following overview provides a summary of the state of the art and research as well as potential clinical applications of cardiovascular PET/MR imaging. PET/MRI systems have been clinically available for a few years, and their use in cardiac imaging has been successfully demonstrated. At this period in time, some of the technical difficulties that arose at the beginning have been solved; in particular with respect to MRI-based attenuation correction, caution should be exercised with PET quantification. In addition, many promising technical options are still in the developmental stage, such as MRI-based motion correction of PET data resulting from simultaneous MR acquisition, and are not yet available for cardiovascular imaging. On the other hand, PET/MRI has been used to demonstrate significant pathologies such as acute and chronic myocardial infarction, myocarditis or cardiac sarcoidosis; future applications in clinical routine or within studies appear to be possible. In coming years additional studies will have to be performed to prove diagnostic gain at a reasonable cost-benefit ratio before valid conclusions are possible regarding the clinical utility and future of cardiovascular PET/MR imaging.

  1. Anthropogenic and Naturally Produced Brominated Phenols in Pet Blood and Pet Food in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukawa, Hazuki; Nomiyama, Kei; Nakatsu, Susumu; Yamamoto, Miyuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2017-10-03

    Present study determined concentrations and residue patterns of bromophenols (BPhs) in whole blood samples of pet cats and pet dogs collected from veterinary hospitals in Japan. BPhs concentrations were higher in cat blood than in dog blood, with statistically insignificant differences (p = 0.07). Among the congeners, 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBPh) constituted the majority of BPhs (>90%) detected in both species. Analysis of commercial pet food to estimate exposure routes showed that the most abundant congener in all pet food samples was 2,4,6-TBPh, accounting for >99% of total BPhs. This profile is quite similar to the blood samples of the pets, suggesting that diet might be an important exposure route for BPhs in pets. After incubation in polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixtures (BDE-47, BDE-99 and BDE-209), 2,4,5-TBPh was found in dog liver microsomes but not in cat liver microsomes, implying species-specific metabolic capacities for PBDEs. Formation of 2,4,5-TBPh occurred by hydroxylation at the 1' carbon atom of the ether bond of BDE-99 is similar to human study reported previously. Hydroxylated PBDEs were not detected in cats or dogs; therefore, diphenyl ether bond cleavage of PBDEs can also be an important metabolic pathway for BPhs formation in cats and dogs.

  2. Visualization of micro glial activation in the L.A.S. by PET molecular imaging: use of a tracer specific of T.S.P.O, the [{sup 18}F]-D.P.A.-714; Visualisation de l'activation microgliale dans la SLA par l'imagerie moleculaire TEP: utilisation d'un traceur specifique des TSPO, le [{sup 18}F]-DPA-714

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauber, C.; Vercouillie, J.; Le Borgne, A.; Guilloteau, D.; Venel, Y.; Le Pogam, A.; Aesch-Prunier, C.; Corcia, P.; Baulieu, J.L. [CHU de Tours, Inserm U930, medecine nucleaire, 37 (France); Kassiou, M. [Brain and Mind Research Institute, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    The [{sup 18}F]-D.P.A.-714 (N, N-diethyl-2-[2-(4-(2-fluoro-ethoxy)phenyl)-5,7-dimethyl-pyrazolo1,5-a] pyrimidine-3-yl]-acetamide) is a new ligand of high affinity of T.S.P.O. (trans-locator proteins [18kDa], current name of Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor) expressed during micro glial activation. The aim of this work was to explore the feasibility of the cerebral PET with [{sup 18}F]-D.P.A.-714 and to evaluate the micro glial activation in the lateral amyotrophic scleroses (L.A.S.). PET with this new ligand is feasible in man. The preliminary results do not provide ant argument for a specific micro glial activation in the brain of patients suffering of L.A.S.. (N.C.)

  3. Simultaneous study by PET/CT of the proliferation, metabolism and tumoral hypoxia before and during an exclusive radiotherapy (R.T.) in patients suffering of anon at small cells bronco-pulmonary cancer (N.S.C.B.P.C.); Etude simultanee par TEP/TDM de la proliferation, du metabolisme et de l'hypoxie tumorale avant et pendant une radiotherapie exclusive (RT) chez les patients atteints d'un cancer broncho-pulmonaire non a petites cellules (CBPNPC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, P.; Edet-Sanson, A.; Bohn, P.; Salles, A.; Hapdey, S.; Gardin, I. [Centre Becquerel, QuantIF LITIS EA4108, service de medecine nucleaire, 76 - Rouen (France); Menard, J.F. [CHU de Rouen, QuantIF LITIS EA4108, service de statistique, 76 (France); Thiberville, L. [CHU de Rouen, clinique pneumologique, QuantIF LITIS EA4108, 76 (France); Dubray, B. [Centre Becquerel, QuantIF LITIS EA4108, service de radiotherapie, 76 - Rouen (France)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Simultaneous in vivo study by PET/CT of proliferation, metabolism and tumor hypoxia modifications before and during radiotherapy has never been realised in patients suffering of a bronco-pulmonary non at small cells cancer (C.B.P.N.P.C.). Conclusions: the quasi simultaneous realisation (in 4 to 7 days) of three PET/CT images before and during radiotherapy, in patients suffering of a C.B.P.N.P.C. appears feasible. At 2 Gy of the radiotherapy, proliferation reduces quickly, in the tumor and the mediastinum ganglions. this reduction appears more rapidly than the metabolism decrease. Hypoxia is more important in the tumor than in the ganglions, but does not vary during irradiation. (N.C.)

  4. Importance of PET/CT for imaging of colorectal cancer; Stellenwert der PET/CT zur Bildgebung des kolorektalen Karzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinel, F.G.; Schramm, N.; Graser, A.; Reiser, M.F.; Rist, C. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Haug, A.R. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) has emerged as a very useful imaging modality in the management of colorectal carcinoma. Data from the literature regarding the role of PET/CT in the initial diagnosis, staging, radiotherapy planning, response monitoring and surveillance of colorectal carcinoma is presented. Future directions and economic aspects are discussed. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FDG-PET for colorectal cancer and endorectal ultrasound for rectal cancer. Combined FDG-PET/CT. While other imaging modalities allow superior visualization of the extent and invasion depth of the primary tumor, PET/CT is most sensitive for the detection of distant metastases of colorectal cancer. We recommend a targeted use of PET/CT in cases of unclear M staging, prior to metastasectomy and in suspected cases of residual or recurrent colorectal carcinoma with equivocal conventional imaging. The role of PET/CT in radiotherapy planning and response monitoring needs to be determined. Currently there is no evidence to support the routine use of PET/CT for colorectal screening, staging or surveillance. To optimally exploit the synergy between morphologic and functional information, FDG-PET should generally be performed as an integrated FDG-PET/CT with a contrast-enhanced CT component in colorectal carcinoma. (orig.) [German] Die Fluordesoxyglukose-Positronenemissionstomographie/Computertomographie (FDG-PET/CT) hat in den letzten Jahren zunehmende Bedeutung zur Bildgebung des kolorektalen Karzinoms erlangt. In diesem Beitrag stellen wir den Stand der Literatur zur Rolle der PET/CT bei Screening, Staging, Bestrahlungsplanung, Beurteilung eines Therapieansprechens und Nachsorge des kolorektalen Karzinoms dar. Zudem wird auf gesundheitsoekonomische Aspekte und zukuenftige Entwicklungen eingegangen. CT, MRT, FDG-PET, beim Rektumkarzinom zusaetzlich endorektaler Ultraschall. Kombinierte FDG-PET/CT. Waehrend

  5. PET/MR Imaging in Musculoskeletal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Francis; Jensen, Karl Erik; Loft, Annika

    2016-01-01

    , treatment planning and monitoring, and follow-up of patients with musculoskeletal malignancies, and may also prove helpful in assessment of musculoskeletal infectious and inflammatory disorders. The application of more sophisticated MR imaging sequences and PET radiotracers other than FDG in the diagnostic...... workup and follow-up of patients with musculoskeletal disorders should be explored....

  6. SPECT and PET in Eating Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Audenaert, Kurt; Busatto, Geraldo F.; Buchpiguel, Carlos; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; den Boer, Johan A

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging techniques like PET and SPECT have been applied for investigation of brain function in anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Regional abnormalities have been detected in cerebral blood flow, glucose metabolism, the availability of several neurotransmitter receptors (serotonin 1A and 2A,

  7. Status of CIEMAT work on PETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, F.; Abramian, P.; Aragón, F.; Calero, J.; Carrillo, D.; Gutiérrez, J. L.; Lara, A.; Rodríguez, E.; Sánchez, L.; Doebert, S.; Mathot, S.; Riddone, G.; Samoshkin, A.; Syratchev, I.

    2011-11-01

    The goal of the present CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the CLIC scheme, where the RF power extracted from the drive beam is used to accelerate the main beam. Several prototypes of the RF power extractor so-called PETS (Power Extraction and Transfer Structure) have been developed at CIEMAT for this facility. The first device was embedded in a steel vacuum tank and installed at the Test Beam Line (TBL), whose aim is to prove the beam stability during deceleration and power extraction. Presently, CERN and CIEMAT share the responsibility to build eight additional PETS for TBL. Finally, in the framework of EuCARD (European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development) collaboration, a new PETS configuration is presently under engineering design at CIEMAT. It is based on a compact concept developed at CERN. This device will be installed in the Test Module at CTF3, in a similar configuration to that of the final two-beam scheme acceleration of CLIC. This paper describes the PETS prototype fabrication techniques used at CIEMAT, with particular attention to the production of the long copper rods which induce the RF generation and the welding and assembly procedures. The characterization of the devices with low RF power and the first tests with beam are also described.

  8. Pet Responsibility: Citizenship Lessons for Elementary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Thomas A.

    This unit is designed around a four-week plan integrated into third- and fourth-grade science, social studies, language arts, reading, and art. The unit takes students through specific strategies of creating awareness about issues and to help them become more responsible about pet care, personally and in the community. Each week has a theme,…

  9. Status of CIEMAT work on PETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toral, F., E-mail: fernando.toral@ciemat.es [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Abramian, P.; Aragon, F.; Calero, J.; Carrillo, D.; Gutierrez, J.L.; Lara, A.; Rodriguez, E.; Sanchez, L. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Doebert, S.; Mathot, S.; Riddone, G.; Samoshkin, A.; Syratchev, I. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2011-11-21

    The goal of the present CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the CLIC scheme, where the RF power extracted from the drive beam is used to accelerate the main beam. Several prototypes of the RF power extractor so-called PETS (Power Extraction and Transfer Structure) have been developed at CIEMAT for this facility. The first device was embedded in a steel vacuum tank and installed at the Test Beam Line (TBL), whose aim is to prove the beam stability during deceleration and power extraction. Presently, CERN and CIEMAT share the responsibility to build eight additional PETS for TBL. Finally, in the framework of EuCARD (European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development) collaboration, a new PETS configuration is presently under engineering design at CIEMAT. It is based on a compact concept developed at CERN. This device will be installed in the Test Module at CTF3, in a similar configuration to that of the final two-beam scheme acceleration of CLIC. This paper describes the PETS prototype fabrication techniques used at CIEMAT, with particular attention to the production of the long copper rods which induce the RF generation and the welding and assembly procedures. The characterization of the devices with low RF power and the first tests with beam are also described.

  10. The Value of Pets in Children's Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Gladys F.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews literature focusing on six aspects of pet-person relationships that are most relevant to the growing child. Areas include love, attachment, and comfort; sensorimotor and nonverbal learning; responsibility, nurturance, and competence; learning about the life cycle; therapeutic benefits; and nurturing humaness, ecological awareness, and…

  11. Thin Time-Of-Flight PET project

    CERN Multimedia

    The pre-R&D aims at designing and producing a compact and thin Time-Of-Flight PET detector device with depth of interaction measurement capability, which employs layered silicon sensors as active material, with a readout consisting of a new generation of very-low noise and very fast electronics based on SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBT) components.

  12. PET/CT in Radiation Therapy Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil

    2018-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is an important component of the management of lymphoma patients. Most lymphomas are metabolically active and accumulate 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Positron emission tomography with computer tomography (PET/CT) imaging using FDG is used routinely in staging and treatment...

  13. OCCURENCE OF MERCURY IN PET FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Abete

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury levels in 61 complete pet feed containing fish were evaluated. In five samples a mercury content exceeding the maximum residues level (0.4 mg/kg was detected. The statistical evaluation didn’t show a significant correlation between the percentage of fish in feedingstuffs and the contamination level.

  14. Drug development, radiolabelled drugs and PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaalburg, W; Hendrikse, NH; de Vries, EFJ

    1999-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) provides noninvasive in vivo quantitative pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic information on novel and established drugs. Because only very low amounts of the (potential) drug have to be administered, far below toxicity levels, human studies can be carried out even

  15. Positron emission tomography (PET) in endocrine tumours ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    endocrine pancreatic tumours is probably limited to those that are less well differentiated and metabolically active. However, a future role for PET imaging in the detection of endocrine tumours, using more specific substrates, appears very promising. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa Vol.

  16. PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Gent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences, Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-04-01

    Addresses a variety of aspects of neurotransmission in the brain. Details the latest results in probe development. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT of Neurobiological Systems combines the expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the development of novel probes and techniques for the investigation of neurobiological systems has achieved international recognition. Various aspects of neurotransmission in the brain are discussed, such as visualization and quantification of (more than 20 different) neuroreceptors, neuroinflammatory markers, transporters, and enzymes as well as neurotransmitter synthesis, ?-amyloid deposition, cerebral blood flow, and the metabolic rate of glucose. The latest results in probe development are also detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by radiochemists and nuclear medicine specialists to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to anyone in the field of clinical or preclinical neuroscience, from the radiochemist and radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested neurobiologist and general practitioner. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences. Other volumes focus on PET and SPECT in psychiatry and PET and SPECT in neurology''.

  17. Maillard reaction products in pet foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.

    2015-01-01

    Pet dogs and cats around the world are commonly fed processed commercial foods throughout their lives. Often heat treatments are used during the processing of these foods to improve nutrient digestibility, shelf life, and food safety. Processing is known to induce the Maillard reaction, in which a

  18. Uterine disorders in 50 pet rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Grinninger, Petra; Shibly, Sarina; Hassan, Jasmin; Tichy, Alexander; Berghold, Petra; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Although the incidence of uterine disorders in pet rabbits is high there are only a few retrospective studies and case reports on genital tract disease in female rabbits. Uterine disorders were assessed in 50 pet rabbits. In 31 pet rabbits with suspected clinical uterine disease, medical records were further reviewed regarding clinical signs, diagnostic workup, treatment as well as the outcome itself. Uterine adenocarcinoma (54%) was most frequently diagnosed, followed by endometrial hyperplasia (26%). Serosanguineous vaginal discharge was the predominant clinical sign observed by the rabbit owners. In approximately 50% of the rabbits with suspected uterine disorders, abdominal palpation revealed enlarged and/or irregular masses in the caudoventral abdomen indicating uterine lesions. Out of 23 rabbits undergoing ovariohysterectomy, four were either euthanized or died shortly after surgery because they were clinically unstable. Overall, 80% of the ovariohysterectomized animals were still alive 6 mo after surgery. In female pet rabbits that are not breeding, either ovariohysterectomy should be performed at an early age or routine checks including ultrasonography of the abdomen are recommended on a regular basis.

  19. PET imaging in patients with Modic changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Hanne; Pedersen, Henrik; Manniche, Claus

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was via PET imaging to reveal if any highly metabolic processes were occurring in Modic changes type 1 and/or in the adjacent discs. Modic changes (MC) are signal changes in the vertebral endplate and body visualised by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MC are strongly...... disc. All patients had a PET scan using FDG (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose) as tracer. RESULTS: Included in the study were 11 patients, 4 women and 7 men, mean age 48.1 year (range 20-65). All MC were situated in the vertebrae both above and below the previously herniated disc/discs. Ten patients had MC at 1...... level, and 1 had MC at 2 levels. The affected levels were 1 at L2/L3, 6 at L4 /L5, and 5 at L5/S1. All had a previous disc herniation and MC larger than 4 mm in diameter. Technically satisfactory PET scans were obtained. However, PET imaging showed no increases in metabolism in any vertebra or disc...

  20. A PET scanner developed by CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    This image shows a Position Emission Tomography (PET) scanner at the Hopital Cantonal Universitaire de Genève. Development of the multiwire proportional chamber at CERN in the mid-1970s was soon seen as a potential device for medical imaging. It is much more sensitive than previous devices and greatly reduced the dose of radiation received by the patient.

  1. 36 CFR 1002.15 - Pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... possession of pets by the Board. This paragraph shall not apply to guide dogs accompanying visually impaired persons or hearing ear dogs accompanying hearing-impaired persons. (2) Failing to crate, cage, restrain on... section does not apply to dogs used by authorized Federal, State and local law enforcement officers in the...

  2. Eye Removal Surgeries in Exotic Pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Kathryn A; McKinnon, Jo-Ann

    2016-01-01

    This article covers considerations and techniques of eye removal surgeries in exotic pets. After issues including surgical indications, anesthesia, patient preparation, and instrumentation are explored, surgical techniques are described. Enucleation/exenteration and modified evisceration are discussed, with species-specific nuances of small mammals, birds, reptiles, snakes, amphibians, and fish highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fundamentals of quantitative PET data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, ATM; van den Hoff, J

    2002-01-01

    Drug analysis and development with PET should fully exhaust the ability of this tomographic technique to quantify regional tracer concentrations in vivo. Data evaluation based on visual inspection or assessment of regional image contrast is not sufficient for this purpose since much of the

  4. Captive Conditions of Pet Lemurs in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim E; Schaefer, Melissa S

    2016-01-01

    Live extraction of wildlife is a threat to biodiversity and can compromise animal welfare standards. Studies of the captive environments and welfare of pet primates are known, but none has focused on Madagascar. We aimed to expand knowledge about the captive conditions of pet lemurs in Madagascar. We hypothesized that captive lemurs would often be kept in restrictive settings, including small cages, would be fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets and, as a result, would be in bad physical or psychological health. Data were collected via a web-based survey (n = 253 reports) and from the websites and social media pages of 25 hotels. Most lemurs seen by respondents were either kept on a rope/leash/chain or in a cage (67%), though some lemurs were habituated and were not restrained (28%). Most of the time (72%) cages were considered small, and lemurs were rarely kept in captivity together with other lemurs (81% of lemurs were caged alone). Pet lemurs were often fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets, and most (53%) were described as being in bad health. These findings point to a need to undertake outreach to pet lemur owners in Madagascar about the captivity requirements of primates. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. People Can Catch Diseases from Their Pets

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-01-23

    Dr. Carol Rubin, Associate Director for Zoonoses and One Health at CDC, discusses zoonotic diseases in pets.  Created: 1/23/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2013.

  6. Dynamic comparison of PET imaging performance between state-of-the-art ToF-PET/CT and ToF-PET/MR scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delso, Gaspar; Deller, Tim; Khalighi, Mehdi [GE Healthcare (Switzerland); Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Schulthess, Gustav von [University Hospital of Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-07-29

    The goal of the present work was to determine the potential for dose reduction in a new clinical ToF-PET/MR scanner. This was achieved by means of long dynamic phantom acquisitions designed to provide a fair comparison of image quality and lesion detectability, as a function of activity, between the new PET/MR system and a state-of-the art PET/CT.

  7. Evaluation of Dixon Sequence on Hybrid PET/MR Compared with Contrast-Enhanced PET/CT for PET-Positive Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ju Hye; Cho, Ihn Ho; Kong, Eun Jung; Chun, Kyung Ah [Yeungnam Univ. Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Hybrid positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance (PET/MR) imaging performs a two-point Dixon MR sequence for attenuation correction. However, MR data in hybrid PET/MR should provide anatomic and morphologic information as well as an attenuation map. We evaluated the Dixon sequence of hybrid PET/MR for anatomic correlation of PET-positive lesions compared with contrast-enhanced PET/computed tomography (CT) in patients with oncologic diseases. Twelve patients underwent a single injection, dual imaging protocol. PET/CT was performed with an intravenous contrast agent (85±13 min after {sup 18}F-FDG injection of 403± 45 MBq) and then (125±19 min after injection) PET/MR was performed. Attenuation correction and anatomic allocation of PET were performed using contrast-enhanced CT for PET/CT and Dixon MR sequence for hybrid PET/MR. The Dixon MR sequence and contrast-enhanced CT were compared for anatomic correlation of PET-positive lesions (scoring scale ranging from 0 to 3 for visual ratings). Additionally, standardized uptake values (SUVs) for the detected lesions were assessed for quantitative comparison. Both hybrid PET/MR and contrast-enhanced PET/CT identified 55 lesions with increased FDG uptake in ten patients. In total, 28 lymph nodes, 11 bone lesions, 3 dermal nodules, 3 pleural thickening lesions, 2 thyroid nodules, 1 pancreas, 1 liver, 1 ovary, 1 uterus, 1 breast, 1 soft tissue and 2 lung lesions were present. The best performance was observed for anatomic correlation of PET findings by the contrast-enhanced CT scans (contrast-enhanced CT, 2.64± 0.70; in-phase, 1.29±1.01; opposed-phase, 1.29±1.15; water-weighted, 1.71±1.07; fat weighted, 0.56±1.03). A significant difference was observed between the scores obtained from the contrast-enhanced CT and all four coregistered Dixon MR images. Quantitative evaluation revealed a high correlation between the SUVs measured with hybrid PET/MR (SUVmean, 2.63±1.62; SUVmax, 4.30±2.88) and contrast

  8. Preliminary experience of coincidence PET in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Yoon, S. N.; Joh, C. W.; Hwang, K. H.; Kim, Su Zy; Lim, S. M.; Yang, S. D. [Korea Cancer Ceter, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    Recently more medical centers in the western world are interested in the coincidence (CoDe) PET using a dual head gamma camera since its cost is about one tenth of the conventional PET, low cost to maintain and operate, and able to perform other routine planar and SPECT imaging studies. Elscint's Varicam is able to perform planar, SPECT, 511keV SPECT and CoDe PET. One such system with 5/8' crystals was installed at Ajou University Hospital early this year. Forty one patients with various cancers underwent F-18-FDG CoDe PET of the various anatomic sites. The patients were injected with 3-10mCi of F-18-FDG, supplied by the Korea Cancer Center Hospital, following more than 4 hr fasting. After 45-60 mimutes uptake period, raw data were acquired for 30 minutes by 10 clockwise continuous revolutions using a slip ring type gantry. Data acquisition was 3-D using only a filter / horizontal septae combination system in order to eliminate scatter and residual activity from the brain bladder. The data processed similar to SPECT in short axis, sagittal and coronal slices as well as reporjection profile. Coincidence subset expectation minimization (COSEM) iterative reconstruction algorithm was not available for the studies. Images were interpreted subjectively for unavailability of quantitative method of the system. Results of the study is tabulized and representive interesting cases will be shown. In conclusion, F-18-FDG CoDe PET was useful in diagnosis, staging and detection of recurrence of residual cancers. Draw backs of our study include, lack of specificities, inability to obtain WB and inability to quantitative F-18-FDG uptake. We believe these limitations will be resolved gradually in the future.

  9. Pet ownership and older women: the relationships among loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Parello, Cheryl A

    2012-01-01

    Pets can play a positive role in the both the physical and psychological health of older adults. This cross sectional study investigated the relationships among loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood in a convenience sample of 159 pet-owning older women residing in the community. Participants completed loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood scales. The results supported significant relationships between loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood. No relationship was found between human social support and depressed mood. Pet attachment support, but not human social support, influenced the relationship between loneliness and depressed mood indicating the importance of pet attachment as a greater form of support in this sample. Clinical and social implications for nurses working with the geriatric population were identified and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Semiquantitative Assessment of (18)F-FDG Uptake in the Normal Skeleton: Comparison Between PET/CT and Time-of-Flight Simultaneous PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamimoto, Ryogo; Xu, Guofan; Jamali, Mehran; Holley, Dawn; Barkhodari, Amir; Zaharchuk, Greg; Iagaru, Andrei

    2017-11-01

    Differences in the attenuation correction methods used in PET/CT scanners versus the newly introduced whole-body simultaneous PET/MRI reportedly result in differences in standardized uptake values (SUVs) in the normal skeleton. The aim of the study was to compare the semiquantitative FDG uptake in the normal skeleton using time-of-flight (TOF) PET/MRI versus PET/CT with and without TOF. Participants received a single FDG injection and underwent non-TOF and TOF PET/CT (n = 23) or non-TOF PET/CT and TOF PET/MRI (n = 50). Mean SUV (SUVmean) and maximum SUV (SUVmax) were measured from all PET scans for nine normal regions of the skeleton. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were used to evaluate the SUVmax and SUVmean of normal skeleton between non-TOF and TOF PET/CT, as well as between non-TOF PET/CT and TOF PET/MRI. In addition, percentage differences in SUVmax and SUVmean of the normal skeleton between non-TOF and TOF PET/CT and between non-TOF PET/CT and TOF PET/MRI were evaluated. The SUVmax and SUVmean in the normal skeleton significantly increased between non-TOF and TOF PET/CT, but they significantly decreased between non-TOF PET/CT and TOF PET/MRI. The SUVmax and SUVmean in normal skeleton showed good correlation between non-TOF PET/CT and TOF PET/MRI (SUVmax, r = 0.88; SUVmean, r = 0.91) and showed a similar trend between non-TOF and TOF PET/CT (SUVmax, r = 0.88; SUVmean, r = 0.94). In the normal skeleton, SUVmax and SUVmean showed high correlations between PET/MRI and PET/CT. The MRI attenuation correction used in TOF PET/MRI provides reliable semiquantitative measurements in the normal skeleton.

  11. Pet ownership among homeless youth: associations with mental health, service utilization and housing status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Rice, Eric

    2015-04-01

    As many as 25 % of homeless persons have pets. To our knowledge, pet ownership has not been studied quantitatively with homeless youth. This study examined pet ownership among 398 homeless youth utilizing two Los Angeles drop-in centers. Twenty-three percent of homeless youth had a pet. The majority of pet owners reported that their pets kept them company and made them feel loved; nearly half reported that their pets made it more difficult to stay in a shelter. Pet owners reported fewer symptoms of depression and loneliness than their non-pet owning peers. Pet ownership was associated with decreased utilization of housing and job-finding services, and decreased likelihood of currently staying in a shelter. These findings elucidate many of the positive benefits of pet ownership for homeless youth, but importantly highlight that pet ownership may negatively impact housing options. Housing and other services must be sensitive to the needs of homeless youth with pets.

  12. Reproducibility and repeatability of same-day two sequential FDG PET/MR and PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshar, David; Bernstine, Hanna; Goldberg, Natalia; Nidam, Meital; Stein, Dan; Abadi-Korek, Ifat; Domachevsky, Liran

    2017-04-05

    To determine PET/CT and PET/MR reproducibility and PET/MR repeatability of fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake measurements in tumors in cancer patients. This IRB approved prospective study was performed between October 2015 and February 2016 in consecutive patients who performed same day PET/CT and two sequential PET/MR. Thirty three patients with visible tumors (N = 63) were included. SUV for body weight (SUV) and lean body mass (SUL) were obtained. Volume of interest (VOI) with a threshold of 40% was used and SUV/L's, metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and tumor to liver ratio (T/L) were calculated. Measurements were plotted in a scattered diagram to visually identify correlation, a regression line was drawn and the equation of the line was calculated. Bland-Altman plots expressed as percentages were constructed to assess the agreement between measurements. The maximal clinically acceptable limits range was defined as ±30%. Lesional SUV's, SUL's and MTV corrected to body weight (BW) and lean body mass (LBM) demonstrated strong positive linear correlation between PET/CT and PET/MR and between two sequential PET/MR. The 95% limits of agreement ranged from -27.7 to 17.5 with a mean of -5.1 and -27.6 to 17.9 with a mean of -4.9 for SUVpeak and SULpeak, respectively for sequential PET/MR. Other PET metrics demonstrated limits range that is above ±30% between PET/CT and PET/MR and between two sequential PET/MR. PET/MR SUV/L peak has a clinically acceptable repeatability performance and can be used to evaluate the response to treatment.

  13. O limiar de esforço percebido (LEP corresponde à potência crítica e a um indicador de máximo estado estável de consumo de oxigênio El umbral de esfuerzo percibido (UEP corresponde a la potencia crítica y a un indicador de máximo estado estable de consumo de oxigeno The perceived exertion threshold (PET corresponds to the critical power and to an indicator of maximal oxygen uptake steady state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Yuzo Nakamura

    2005-06-01

    -se que o LEP prediz de forma acurada a intensidade de PCrit e PCrit'.El esfuerzo percibido viene sido blanco de diversas investigaciones, generalmente asociándolo a indicadores fisiológicos objetivos en el ejercicio. Recientemente, fué propuesta a la identifica ción del humbral de esfuerzo percibido (UEP en carrera acuática, e la cual no difirió de la velocidad crítica. En teoría, ambos parámetros serían indicadores de máximo estado estable de variables como el VO2 y el lactato sangüíneo. Este trabajo ha tenido como objetivo verificar la coincidencia entre UEP, potencia crítica (PCrit y un indicador de máximo estado estable de VO2 (PCrit' en cicloergómetro. Ocho participantes de sexo masculino fueron sometidos a test de esfuerzo progresivo para determinación del VO2pico (46,7 ± 8,5 ml/kg/min, y a cuatro tests rectangulares exhaustivos para estimar los parámetros del modelo de potencia crítica, UEP y PCrit'. La relación hiperbólica entre potencia mecánica y tiempo hasta que el VO2pico fuera alcanzado en cada test fué utilizada para la estimativa de la PCrit', tenida como la asíntota en el eje de la potencia y la porción de la capacidad de trabajo anaerobico (CTAnaer depletada hasta el establecimiento del VO2pico (CTAnaer'. Para identificar el UEP, los coeficientes angulares de las rectas de aumento de esfuerzo percibido en el tiempo (ordenada y de las potencias utilizadas (abscisas fueron ajustados a una función lineal que sería mantenido estable indefinidamente. Los parámetros PCrit y CTAnaer fueron estimados por medio de la ecuación no lineal de potencia en función de tiempo. Para comparación de las estimativas de UEP, PCrit y PCrit' fué empleado ANOVA para las medidas repetidas, y las asociaciones fueron establecidas por correlación de Pearson. CTAnaer y CTAnaer' fueron comparadas por el test t. El UEP (180 ± 61, PCrit (174 ± 43 y PCrit' (176 ± 48 no difirieron significativamente, y las correlaciones de 0,92-0,98. CTAnaer' (14.080

  14. Impact of Ge-68/Ga-68-based versus CT-based attenuation correction on PET.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalen, J.A. van; Visser, E.P.; Vogel, W.V.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Oyen, W.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Transmission (Tx) scans are used in PET for attenuation correction (AC). For standalone PET this is typically done using Ge-68/Ga-68 sources, for PET-CT using CT. Therefore, standalone PET suffers from emission contamination during Tx scans, PET-CT does not. Here, we studied the effects of AC across

  15. A survey of attitudes toward responsible pet ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, L A; Rhoades, J D; Hewett, J E; Irvin, J A

    1979-01-01

    The concerns of medical and community officials about responsible pet ownership have increased. Before a practical solution can be found for irresponsible ownership and community health problems associated with pet populations, the public's attitudes on issues related to responsible pet ownership must be determined. Such issues include attitudes on dog and cat overpopulation, potential public health problems associated with pet populations, and methods of controlling pet populations and stray animals. Responses to a questionnaire were used to evaluate the attitudes of 910 pet owners and nonowners toward factors comprising responsible pet ownership. The median age of the respondents was 33 years; 414 (45 percent) were men, and 496 (55 percent) were women. At the time of the study, 18 percent owned a cat and a dog, 35 percent owned only a dog, 11 percent showed only a cat, and 36 percent were nonowners. Not only the sex of the respondent but also the category of pet ownership affected opinions on overpopulation of dogs and cats, nuisance and pollution problems associated with these animals, and methods of controlling pet populations in the community. For example, owners agreed strongly on family planning for pets, but a majority of male owners stated that they would not have their dogs neutered.

  16. Feasibility of simultaneous PET/MR of the carotid artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus S; Knudsen, Andreas; Hag, Anne Mette F

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at comparing PET/MR to PET/CT for imaging the carotid arteries in patients with known increased risk of atherosclerosis. Six HIV-positive men underwent sequential PET/MR and PET/CT of the carotid arteries after injection of 400 MBq of (18)F-FDG. PET/MR was performed a median of 131...... between PET data acquired using the PET/MR system compared to the PET/CT system. The mean difference for SUVmean was -0.18 (p PET/MR system. The 95% limits of agreement were -0.55 to 0.......20 for SUVmean and -0.93 to 0.65 for SUVmax. The image quality of the PET/MR allowed for delineation of the carotid vessel wall. The correlations between (18)F-FDG uptake from ROI including both vessel wall and vessel lumen to ROI including only the wall were strong (r = 0.98 for SUVmean and r = 1.00 for SUVmax...

  17. Pet ownership increases human risk of encountering ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E H; Hinckley, A F; Hook, S A; Meek, J I; Backenson, B; Kugeler, K J; Feldman, K A

    2018-02-01

    We examined whether pet ownership increased the risk for tick encounters and tickborne disease among residents of three Lyme disease-endemic states as a nested cohort within a randomized controlled trial. Information about pet ownership, use of tick control for pets, property characteristics, tick encounters and human tickborne disease were captured through surveys, and associations were assessed using univariate and multivariable analyses. Pet-owning households had 1.83 times the risk (95% CI = 1.53, 2.20) of finding ticks crawling on and 1.49 times the risk (95% CI = 1.20, 1.84) of finding ticks attached to household members compared to households without pets. This large evaluation of pet ownership, human tick encounters and tickborne diseases shows that pet owners, whether of cats or dogs, are at increased risk of encountering ticks and suggests that pet owners are at an increased risk of developing tickborne disease. Pet owners should be made aware of this risk and be reminded to conduct daily tick checks of all household members, including the pets, and to consult their veterinarian regarding effective tick control products. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. PKU-PET-II: A novel SiPM-based PET imaging system for small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhaoheng; Li, Suying; Zhou, Kun; Vuletic, Ivan; Meng, Xiangxi; Zhu, Sihao; Xu, Huan; Yang, Kun; Xu, Baixuan; Zhang, Jinming; Ren, Qiushi

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to introduce, describe, and validate the performance of a novel preclinical silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)-based PET system (PKU-PET-II). Briefly, the detector assembly consisted of cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals, with dimensions of 2 ×2 ×15 mm3, that offered a 60 mm transaxial field of view (FOV) and 32 mm axial FOV, respectively. The compact front-end electronics readout and digital controller implemented architecture in the FPGA were noteworthy improvements in PKU-PET-II over its predecessor (PKU-PET-I). Based on the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 04-2008 standards, the design of the PKU-PET-II system was validated by a phantom experiment. The results presented spatial resolution (evaluated as full width at half maximum) with a system range from 1.68 ±0.07 to 2.31 ±0.03 mm at the FOV center and from 1.43 ±0.02 to 2.10 ±0.10 mm at the 1/4th axial FOV, respectively. The system's absolute sensitivity at the center position was 1.35% with the coincidence window of 6 ns and energy window of 300-700 keV. In addition, the NEMA image quality phantom and an animal study results validated the system imaging performance in preclinical imaging application. In conclusion, this SiPM-based, small-animal PET system (PKU-PET-II) provided higher-resolution, adequate sensitivity, and excellent image quality and has potential as a useful tool for real-time imaging of disease progression and development in vivo.

  19. Development of compact DOI-measurable PET detectors for simultaneous PET/MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States); Lou, Kai [Rice University (United States)

    2015-05-18

    It is critically needed yet challenging to develop compact PET detectors with high sensitivity and uniform, high imaging resolution for improving the performance of simultaneous PET/MR imaging, particularly for an integrated/inserted small-bore system. Using the latest “edge-less” SiPM arrays for DOI measurement using the design of dual-ended-scintillator readout, we developed several compact PET detectors suited for PET/MR imaging. Each detector consists of one LYSO array with each end coupled to a SiPM array. Multiple detectors can be seamlessly tiled together along all sides to form a large detector panel. Detectors with 1.5x1.5 and 2.0x2.0 mm crystals at 20 or 30 mm lengths were studied. Readout of individual SiPM or capacitor-based signal multiplexing was used to transfer 3D interaction position-coded analog signals through flexible-print-circuit cables to dedicated ASIC frontend electronics to output digital timing pulses that encode interaction information. These digital pulses can be transferred to, through standard LVDS cables, and decoded by a FPGA-based data acquisition positioned outside the MRI scanner for coincidence event selection. Initial detector performance measurement shows excellent crystal identification even with 30 mm long crystals, ~18% and 2.8 ns energy and timing resolutions, and around 2-3 mm DOI resolution. A large size detector panel can be scaled up with these modular detectors and different PET systems can be flexibly configured with the scalable readout electronics and data acquisition, providing an important design advantage for different system and application requirements. It is expected that standard shielding of detectors, electronics and signal transfer lines can be applied for simultaneous PET/MR imaging applications, with desired DOI measurement capability to enhance the PET performance and image quality.

  20. Validation of a simultaneous PET/MR system model for PET simulation using GATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnier, Florian; Fayad, Hadi; Bert, Julien [LaTIM UMR 1101, Brest (France); Schmidt, Holger [University Hospital of Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany); Visvikis, Dimitris [LaTIM UMR 1101, Brest (France)

    2015-05-18

    Simultaneous PET/MR acquisition shows promise in a range of applications. Simulation using GATE is an essential tool that allows obtaining the ground truth for such acquisitions and therefore helping in the development and the validation of innovative processing methods such as PET image reconstruction, attenuation correction and motion correction. The purpose of this work is to validate the GATE simulation of the Siemens Biograph mMR PET/MR system. A model of the Siemens Biograph mMR was developed. This model includes the geometry and spatial positioning of the crystals inside the scanner and the characteristics of the detection process. The accuracy of the model was tested by comparing, on a real physical phantom study, GATE simulated results to reconstructed PET images using measured results obtained from a Siemens Biograph mMR system. The same parameters such as the acquisition time and phantom position inside the scanner were fixed for our simulations. List-mode outputs were recovered in both cases and reconstructed using the OPL-EM algorithm. Several parameters were used to compare the two reconstructed images such as profile comparison, signal-to-noise ratio and activity contrast analysis. Finally patient acquired MR images were segmented and used for the simulation of corresponding PET images. The simulated and acquired sets of reconstructed phantom images showed close emission values in regions of interest with relative differences lower than 5%. The scatter fraction was within a <3% agreement. Close matching of profiles and contrast indices were obtained between simulated and corresponding acquired PET images. Our results indicate that the GATE developed Biograph mMR model is accurate in comparison to the real scanner performance and can be used for evaluating innovative processing methods for applications in clinical PET/MR protocols.

  1. Simultaneous PET/MRI with (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (hyperPET): phantom-based evaluation of PET quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Adam E; Andersen, Flemming L; Henriksen, Sarah T; Vignaud, Alexandre; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan H; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjaer, Andreas; Klausen, Thomas L

    2016-12-01

    Integrated PET/MRI with hyperpolarized (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((13)C-MRSI) offers simultaneous, dual-modality metabolic imaging. A prerequisite for the use of simultaneous imaging is the absence of interference between the two modalities. This has been documented for a clinical whole-body system using simultaneous (1)H-MRI and PET but never for (13)C-MRSI and PET. Here, the feasibility of simultaneous PET and (13)C-MRSI as well as hyperpolarized (13)C-MRSI in an integrated whole-body PET/MRI hybrid scanner is evaluated using phantom experiments. Combined PET and (13)C-MRSI phantoms including a NEMA [(18)F]-FDG phantom, (13)C-acetate and (13)C-urea sources, and hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate were imaged repeatedly with PET and/or (13)C-MRSI. Measurements evaluated for interference effects included PET activity values in the largest sphere and a background region; total number of PET trues; and (13)C-MRSI signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for urea and acetate phantoms. Differences between measurement conditions were evaluated using t tests. PET and (13)C-MRSI data acquisition could be performed simultaneously without any discernible artifacts. The average difference in PET activity between acquisitions with and without simultaneous (13)C-MRSI was 0.83 (largest sphere) and -0.76 % (background). The average difference in net trues was -0.01 %. The average difference in (13)C-MRSI SNR between acquisitions with and without simultaneous PET ranged from -2.28 to 1.21 % for all phantoms and measurement conditions. No differences were significant. The system was capable of (13)C-MRSI of hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate. Simultaneous PET and (13)C-MRSI in an integrated whole-body PET/MRI hybrid scanner is feasible. Phantom experiments showed that possible interference effects introduced by acquiring data from the two modalities simultaneously are small and non-significant. Further experiments can now investigate the benefits of simultaneous PET and

  2. Does pet arrival trigger prosocial behaviors in individuals with autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Grandgeorge

    Full Text Available Alteration of social interactions especially prosocial behaviors--an important aspect of development--is one of the characteristics of autistic disorders. Numerous strategies or therapies are used to improve communication skills or at least to reduce social impairments. Animal-assisted therapies are used widely but their relevant benefits have never been scientifically evaluated. In the present study, we evaluated the association between the presence or the arrival of pets in families with an individual with autism and the changes in his or her prosocial behaviors. Of 260 individuals with autism--on the basis of presence or absence of pets--two groups of 12 individuals and two groups of 8 individuals were assigned to: study 1 (pet arrival after age of 5 versus no pet and study 2 (pet versus no pet, respectively. Evaluation of social impairment was assessed at two time periods using the 36-items ADI-R algorithm and a parental questionnaire about their child-pet relationships. The results showed that 2 of the 36 items changed positively between the age of 4 to 5 (t(0 and time of assessment (t(1 in the pet arrival group (study 1: "offering to share" and "offering comfort". Interestingly, these two items reflect prosocial behaviors. There seemed to be no significant changes in any item for the three other groups. The interactions between individuals with autism and their pets were more--qualitatively and quantitatively--reported in the situation of pet arrival than pet presence since birth. These findings open further lines of research on the impact of pet's presence or arrival in families with an individual with autism. Given the potential ability of individuals with autism to develop prosocial behaviors, related studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms involved in the development of such child-pet relationship.

  3. Adhesion of Pet/psma Interfaces Reinforced with Plasma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chi-An; Tsui, Tai-An; Cheng, Yao-Yi

    The interface between biaxially oriented poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films and poly (styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PSMA) was reinforced by nitrogen plasma treatment of PET film and subsequent annealing treatment of the PET/PSMA bi-material. The fracture toughness, Gc, of the interface was quantitatively measured using an asymmetric double cantilever beam test (ADCB). X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) was used to measure the change in the surface composition of PET films upon plasma treatment and correlate the fracture toughness of the interface. The fracture energy of PET/PSMA interface is significantly enhanced by annealing the plasma treated PET with PSMA at a temperature greater than the glass transition temperature of PSMA (~ 120°C). At an annealing temperature of 150°C, Gc increases with increasing plasma treatment time and reaches a plateau value of ~ 100-120 J/m2, a two order of magnitude increase in Gc compared with that of samples annealed at 130°C. The enhancement of the adhesion is resulted from the in-situ formation of copolymers due to reaction between amine functional groups from the plasma treatment and anhydride groups from PSMA. For plasma treatment time < 10 s, scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurement show that the fracture surface is relatively smooth indicating an interfacial failure between PET/PSMA. With increasing plasma treatment time and therefore increasing the amount of nitrogen functional groups on PET surface, large plastic deformation takes place at the PET/PSMA interface. For treatment time ≥ 100-150 s, the PET/PSMA interface becomes stronger than PET bulk material and consequently crack deviates from the interface and the failure occurs within the PET film. The interlayer fracture energy of a biaxially oriented PET film can thus be quantitatively measured with a Gc value of roughly 120 J/m2.

  4. Feasibility of simultaneous PET/MR of the carotid artery: first clinical experience and comparison to PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Knudsen, Andreas; Hag, Anne Mette Fisker

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at comparing PET/MR to PET/CT for imaging the carotid arteries in patients with known increased risk of atherosclerosis. Six HIV-positive men underwent sequential PET/MR and PET/CT of the carotid arteries after injection of 400 MBq of 18F-FDG. PET/MR was performed a median of 131...... between PET data acquired using the PET/MR system compared to the PET/CT system. The mean difference for SUVmean was -0.18 (p PET/MR system. The 95% limits of agreement were -0.55 to 0.......20 for SUVmean and -0.93 to 0.65 for SUVmax. The image quality of the PET/MR allowed for delineation of the carotid vessel wall. The correlations between 18F-FDG uptake from ROI including both vessel wall and vessel lumen to ROI including only the wall were strong (r = 0.98 for SUVmean and r = 1.00 for SUVmax...

  5. PET-based geometrical calibration of a pinhole SPECT add-on for an animal PET scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao; Beaudoin, Jean-François; Cadorette, Jules; Naaman, Charles; Lecomte, Roger; Yao, Rutao

    2013-04-07

    We developed SPECT imaging capability on an animal PET scanner to provide a cost effective option for animal SPECT imaging. The SPECT add-on sub-system was enabled by mechanically integrating a multiple-pinhole collimator in the PET detector ring. This study introduces a method to calibrate the geometrical parameters of the SPECT add-on using the PET imaging capability of the scanner. The proposed PET imaging-based calibration method consists of two steps: (1) paint the pinhole apertures of the collimator with a positron emitting radioactive solution; and (2) image the collimator inside the scanner in PET mode. The geometrical parameters of the multi-pinhole SPECT add-on can then be derived directly from a set of PET images by simple linear calculation and used in defining the SPECT system. The method was compared to our implementation of a SPECT calibration approach with model-based fitting of SPECT projection data. The procedure for carrying out the PET imaging-based calibration method is simpler and faster than that of our implementation of the SPECT model-based calibration method. Since it does not require model fitting, the uniqueness of the calibration result is warranted. Better quality SPECT images were reconstructed using the PET-derived calibration parameters rather than our implementation of the SPECT model-based calibration parameters. We conclude that the proposed PET imaging-based calibration method provides a highly effective means for enabling SPECT imaging on a PET scanner.

  6. PET in diagnosing exocrine pancreatic cancer; PET bei Tumoren des exokrinen Pankreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bares, R.; Besenfelder, H.; Dohmen, B.M. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Radiologische Klinik des Universitaetsklinikums Tuebingen (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    Despite dramatic improvements in diagnostic imaging (ultrasonography, in particular endoscopic ultrasound, CT, MRI) treatment results of pancreatic cancer are still poor. Due to the lack of early symptoms, most tumors are diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease which excludes curative surgical treatment. FDG-PET has been shown to be effective in detecting pancreatic cancer as well as differentiating benign from malignant pancreatic tumors. Results might be further improved by applying quantitative analyses, in particular kinetic modelling of FDG metabolism. Nevertheless false negative as well as false positive findings may occur. Small lesions (lymphnode or liver metastases < 1 cm) might be missed, furthermore hyperglycemia often present in patients with pancreatic disease might reduce tumor uptake and subsequently tumor detectability by PET. False positive findings were reported in active pancreatitis and some benign tumors. Although PET proved to be superior to CT or ERCP in detecting cancer, clinical relevance of PET is limited due to the absence of therapeutic consequences to be derived from PET. As a consequence PET should only be used in patients with equivocal findings of morphological imaging (CT, ERCP) who are potential candidates for surgical treatment. (orig.) [German] Trotz verbesserter diagnostischer Moeglichkeiten (endoskopischer Ultraschall, Spiral-CT, MRT) sind die Behandlungsergebnisse bei Tumoren des exokrinen Pankreas nach wie vor unbefriedigend. Aufgrund der spaet einsetzenden klinischen Symptomatik wird die Diagnose meist erst bei lokaler Inoperabilitaet gestellt. Die FDG-PET has sich sowohl im Nachweis von Pankreaskarzinomen als auch bei der Differenzialdiagnose pankreatischer Raumforderungen bewaehrt und den etablierten bildgebenden Verfahren (Ultraschall, CT) als ueberlegen erwiesen. Weitere Verbesserungen erscheinen durch absolute Quantifizierung der FDG-Kinetik moeglich. Dennoch koennen falsch negative wie auch falsch positive Ergebnisse

  7. Foreign body reaction associated with PET and PET/chitosan electrospun nanofibrous abdominal meshes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Veleirinho

    Full Text Available Electrospun materials have been widely explored for biomedical applications because of their advantageous characteristics, i.e., tridimensional nanofibrous structure with high surface-to-volume ratio, high porosity, and pore interconnectivity. Furthermore, considering the similarities between the nanofiber networks and the extracellular matrix (ECM, as well as the accepted role of changes in ECM for hernia repair, electrospun polymer fiber assemblies have emerged as potential materials for incisional hernia repair. In this work, we describe the application of electrospun non-absorbable mats based on poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET in the repair of abdominal defects, comparing the performance of these meshes with that of a commercial polypropylene mesh and a multifilament PET mesh. PET and PET/chitosan electrospun meshes revealed good performance during incisional hernia surgery, post-operative period, and no evidence of intestinal adhesion was found. The electrospun meshes were flexible with high suture retention, showing tensile strengths of 3 MPa and breaking strains of 8-33%. Nevertheless, a significant foreign body reaction (FBR was observed in animals treated with the nanofibrous materials. Animals implanted with PET and PET/chitosan electrospun meshes (fiber diameter of 0.71 ± 0.28 µm and 3.01 ± 0.72 µm, respectively showed, respectively, foreign body granuloma formation, averaging 4.2-fold and 7.4-fold greater than the control commercial mesh group (Marlex. Many foreign body giant cells (FBGC involving nanofiber pieces were also found in the PET and PET/chitosan groups (11.9 and 19.3 times more FBGC than control, respectively. In contrast, no important FBR was observed for PET microfibers (fiber diameter = 18.9 ± 0.21 µm. Therefore, we suggest that the reduced dimension and the high surface-to-volume ratio of the electrospun fibers caused the FBR reaction, pointing out the need for further studies to elucidate the mechanisms

  8. Quantitative assessment of human and pet exposure to Salmonella associated with dry pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Elisabetta; Buchanan, Robert L; Narrod, Clare; Ford, Randall M; Baker, Robert C; Pradhan, Abani K

    2016-01-04

    Recent Salmonella outbreaks associated with dry pet foods and treats highlight the importance of these foods as previously overlooked exposure vehicles for both pets and humans. In the last decade efforts have been made to raise the safety of this class of products, for instance by upgrading production equipment, cleaning protocols, and finished product testing. However, no comprehensive or quantitative risk profile is available for pet foods, thus limiting the ability to establish safety standards and assess the effectiveness of current and proposed Salmonella control measures. This study sought to develop an ingredients-to-consumer quantitative microbial exposure assessment model to: 1) estimate pet and human exposure to Salmonella via dry pet food, and 2) assess the impact of industry and household-level mitigation strategies on exposure. Data on prevalence and concentration of Salmonella in pet food ingredients, production process parameters, bacterial ecology, and contact transfer in the household were obtained through literature review, industry data, and targeted research. A probabilistic Monte Carlo modeling framework was developed to simulate the production process and basic household exposure routes. Under the range of assumptions adopted in this model, human exposure due to handling pet food is null to minimal if contamination occurs exclusively before extrusion. Exposure increases considerably if recontamination occurs post-extrusion during coating with fat, although mean ingested doses remain modest even at high fat contamination levels, due to the low percent of fat in the finished product. Exposure is highly variable, with the distribution of doses ingested by adult pet owners spanning 3Log CFU per exposure event. Child exposure due to ingestion of 1g of pet food leads to significantly higher doses than adult doses associated with handling the food. Recontamination after extrusion and coating, e.g., via dust or equipment surfaces, may also lead to

  9. Does PET reconstruction method affect Deauville scoring in lymphoma patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enilorac, Blandine; Lasnon, Charline; Nganoa, Cathy; Fruchart, Christophe; Gac, Anne Claire; Damaj, Gandhi; Aide, Nicolas

    2017-12-14

    Background: When scoring 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) with the Deauville scale (DS), the quantification of tumor and reference organs limits the problem of optical misinterpretation. Compared to conventional reconstruction algorithms, point spread function (PSF) modeling significantly increases standardized uptake values (SUVs) in tumors but only moderately in the liver, which could affect the DS. We investigated whether the choice of the reconstruction algorithm affects the DS and whether discordances affect the capability of FDG PET to stratify lymphoma patients. Materials and Methods: Overall, 126 diffuse large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) patients were included (56 females, 70 males, median (range) age: 65 (20-88) years). PET data were reconstructed with unfiltered PSF reconstruction. Additionally, a 6-mm filter was applied to PSF images to meet the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)/European Association Research Ltd (EARL) requirements (PSFEARL). One hundred interim PET (i-PET) and 95 end-of-treatment PET (EoT-PET) studies were analyzed. SUVmax in the liver and aorta were determined using automatic volumes of interest (VOIs) and compared to SUVmax of the residual mass with the highest FDG uptake. Results: For i-PET, using PSF and PSFEARL, patients were classified as responders and non-responders in 60 and 40 cases versus 63 and 37 cases, respectively. Five (5.0%) major discordances (i.e., changes from responder to non-responder) occurred. For Eot-PET, patients were classified using PSF and PSFEARL as responders and non-responders in 69 and 26 cases versus 72 and 23 cases, respectively. Three (3.2%) major discordances occurred. Concordance (Cohen's unweighted Kappa) between PSF and the PSFEARL Deauville scoring was 0.82 (95%CI: 0.73-0.91) for i-PET and 0.89 (95%CI: 0.81-0.96) for EoT-PET. The median follow-up periods were 28.4 and 27.4 months for i-PET and EoT-PET, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed

  10. 18F-FDG-PET/CT in the Staging and Management of Melanoma: A Prospective Multicenter Ontario PET Registry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singnurkar, Amit; Wang, Jonathan; Joshua, Anthony M; Langer, Deanna L; Metser, Ur

    2016-03-01

    The Ontario PET Registry was established to provide evidence on the clinical impact of 18-FDG-PET/CT (PET) imaging to inform Ontario Health Insurance Plan funding decisions. The melanoma registry assessed the use of melanoma staging by PET in advanced or high-risk melanoma as a useful adjunct to clinical and standard radiologic investigation. Between January 2011 and July 2013, approximately 319 consecutive patients with potentially resectable localized high-risk melanoma or recurrent disease under consideration for metastasectomy underwent PET imaging for staging across 9 institutions in Ontario. Pre-PET stage information was provided by the referring clinician and compared with post-PET stage. The ability of PET to reclassify disease from M0 to M1 status was assessed. The registry data were then linked to provincial administrative databases using deidentified health insurance numbers to determine PET stage-based rates of systemic therapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. There was a significant increase in stage to M1 status after PET in 56 of 319 patients (17.6%) (P < 0.0001). There was no significant relationship between upstaging with PET and the proportion of patients receiving radiation therapy (P = 0.066) or systemic therapy (P = 0.072). There was a significant relationship between upstaging with PET and the proportion of patients undergoing surgical resection of metastases distant to the primary melanoma site (P = 0.034). This prospective, multicenter registry of high-risk or advanced melanoma found that PET significantly upstages patients and impacts surgical management.

  11. The Maillard reaction and pet food processing: effects on nutritive value and pet health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooijen, Charlotte; Bosch, Guido; van der Poel, Antonius F B; Wierenga, Peter A; Alexander, Lucille; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2013-12-01

    The Maillard reaction, which can occur during heat processing of pet foods or ingredients, is known to reduce the bioavailability of essential amino acids such as lysine due to the formation of early and advanced Maillard reaction products (MRP) that are unavailable for utilisation by the body. Determination of the difference between total and reactive lysine by chemical methods provides an indication of the amount of early MRP present in foods, feeds and ingredients. Previous research reported that the difference between total and reactive lysine in pet foods can be up to 61.8%, and foods for growing dogs may be at risk of supplying less lysine than the animal may require. The endogenous analogues of advanced MRP, advanced glycation endproducts, have been associated with age-related diseases in humans, such as diabetes and impaired renal function. It is unknown to what extent advanced MRP are present in pet foods, and if dietary MRP can be associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes and impaired renal function in pet animals. Avoidance of ingredients with high levels of MRP and processing conditions known to favour the Maillard reaction may be useful strategies to prevent the formation of MRP in manufactured pet food. Future work should further focus on understanding the effects of ingredient choice and processing conditions on the formation of early and advanced MRP, and possible effects on animal health.

  12. SmartPET: Applying HPGe and pulse shape analysis to small-animal PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rjc@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Grint, A.N.; Mather, A.R.; Nolan, P.J.; Scraggs, D.P.; Turk, G. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Hall, C.J.; Lazarus, I. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Berry, A.; Beveridge, T.; Gillam, J.; Lewis, R.A. [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2007-08-21

    The SmartPET project is the development of a prototype small-animal imaging system based on the use of Hyperpure Germanium (HPGe) detectors. The use of digital electronics and application of Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) techniques provide fine spatial resolution, while the excellent intrinsic energy resolution of HPGe detectors makes the system ideal for multi-nuclide imaging. As a result, the SmartPET system has the potential to function as a dual modality imager, operating as a dual-head Positron Emission Tomography (PET) camera or in a Compton Camera configuration for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging. In this paper, we discuss how the use of simple PSA techniques greatly improves the position sensitivity of the detector yielding improved spatial resolution in reconstructed images. The PSA methods presented have been validated by comparison to data from high-precision scanning of the detectors. Results from this analysis are presented along with initial images from the SmartPET system, which demonstrates the impact of these techniques on PET images.

  13. Reproducibility of (18)F-FDG PET uptake measurements in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma on both PET/CT and PET/MR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J H; Fischer, B M; Aznar, M C

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate reproducibility of fluorine-18 fludeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake on (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and (18)F-FDG PET/MR scans in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: 30 patients with HNSCC were included in this prospective...

  14. Practical Considerations for Clinical PET/MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgano, Samuel; Viets, Zachary; Fowler, Kathryn; Gore, Lael; Thomas, John V; McNamara, Michelle; McConathy, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Clinical PET/MR imaging is currently performed at a number of centers around the world as part of routine standard of care. This article focuses on issues and considerations for a clinical PET/MR imaging program, focusing on routine standard-of-care studies. Although local factors influence how clinical PET/MR imaging is implemented, the approaches and considerations described here intend to apply to most clinical programs. PET/MR imaging provides many more options than PET/computed tomography with diagnostic advantages for certain clinical applications but with added complexity. A recurring theme is matching the PET/MR imaging protocol to the clinical application to balance diagnostic accuracy with efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. PET-CT og kolorektal cancer - retrospektivt studie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Christian; Julie, Pedersen; Prakash, Vineet

    fusioneret Positron Emissions Tomografi (PET) og Computer : Den nye kombination af fusioneret Positron Emissions Tomografi (PET) og Computer Tomografi scanning (CT) har vist sig effektiv i udredningen af recidiv ved en lang række kræftformer inklusiv gastrointestinal cancer. Den anvendes desuden i...... udredningen af primært metastaserende cancer. Patienterne henvises til PET-CT, når der klinisk rejses mistanke om recidiv i form af symptomer eller biokemiske markørstigninger. Alternativt, hvis CT- og MRscanning ikke kan afklare problemstillingen. På nuværende tidspunkt er der ingen klare retningslinjer for...... modalitet som PET-CT i udredningsfasen, er det vigtig at evaluere brugen af denne. Vi har med dette materiale vist, at PET-CT kan have en plads i udredning af recidiv ved kolorectal cancer. Mistanke fra andre scanninger og CEA stigning bør få klinikeren til at henvise patienten til PET-CT, idet hovedparten...

  16. Effect of petting a dog on immune system function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnetski, Carl J; Riggers, Sandra; Brennan, Francis X

    2004-12-01

    The present study assessed the effect of petting a dog on secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels. 55 college students were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or one of two control groups. Group 1 (n= 19) petted a live dog; Group 2 (n = 17) petted a stuffed dog, while Group 3 (n = 19) simply sat comfortably on a couch. Each participant was exposed to one of the three conditions for 18 min. Pre- and posttreatment saliva samples yielded a significant increase in IgA for Group 1 only. Participants were also asked to complete the Pet Attitude Scale of Templer, Salter, Dickey, Baldwin and Veleber. Scores on this scale correlated with IgA increases only for participants in Group 2 (petting a stuffed animal). Results are discussed in terms of the beneficial effects of pets on health in general, and immunity in particular.

  17. Microfluidics for Synthesis of Peptide-Based PET Tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET is a powerful noninvasive tool for acquisition of the physiological parameters in human and animals with the help of PET tracers. Among all the PET tracers, radiolabeled peptides have been widely explored for cancer-related receptor imaging due to their high affinity and specificity to receptors. But radiochemistry procedures for production of peptide-based PET tracers are usually complex, which makes large-scale clinical studies relatively challenging. New radiolabeling technologies which could simplify synthesis and purification procedures, are extremely needed. Over the last decade, microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip (LOC technology have boomed as powerful tools in the field of organic chemistry, which potentially provide significant help to the PET chemistry. In this minireview, microfluidic radiolabeling technology is described and its application for synthesis of peptide-based PET tracers is summarized and discussed.

  18. Facile method to prepare a transparent superhydrophobic PET film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Chen, Hong; Wang, Xian; Yuan, Zhiqing

    2016-11-01

    A simple method to fabricate a transparent superhydrophobic coating was developed by spraying PDMS/SiO2 nanoparticles suspension on a hydrophilic PET film. This PDMS/SiO2 nanoparticles suspension was prepared by fully diluting and properly stirring. When this suspension was sprayed on the surface of PET film at a distance of about 30 cm for 2 s, a porous micro-nano-binary structure was formed, which endowed the hydrophilic PET film superhydrophobicity, while the PET film maintained transparent after spraying with a SiO2 nanoparticle layer. The as-prepared superhydrophobic PET film exhibited a high water contact angle of about 155° ± 1.9° and a low water sliding angle of about 7°. The formation mechanism of this transparent superhydrophobic coating on PET film was also discussed in detail in this paper.

  19. SU-F-I-57: Evaluate and Optimize PET Acquisition Overlap in 18F-FDG Oncology Wholebody PET/CT: Can We Scan PET Faster?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J; Natwa, M; Hall, NC; Knopp, MV [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Knopp, MU [Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA (United States); Zhang, B; Tung, C [Philips Healthcare, Highland Heights, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The longer patient has to remain on the table during PET imaging, the higher the likelihood of motion artifacts due to patient discomfort. This study was to investigate and optimize PET acquisition overlap in 18F-FDG oncology wholebody PET/CT to speed up PET acquisition and improve patient comfort. Methods: Wholebody 18F-FDG PET/CT of phantoms, 8 pre-clinical patients (beagles) and 5 clinical oncology patients were performed in 90s/bed on a time-of-flight Gemini TF 64 system. Imaging of phantoms and beagles was acquired with reduced PET overlaps (40%, 33%, 27%, 20%, 13% and no overlap) in addition to the system default (53%). In human studies, 1 or 2 reduced overlaps from the listed options were used to acquire PET/CT sweeps right after the default standard of care imaging. Image quality was blindly reviewed using visual scoring criteria and quantitative SUV assessment. NEMA PET sensitivity was performed under different overlaps. Results: All PET exams demonstrated no significant impact on the visual grades for overlaps >20%. Blinded reviews assigned the best visual scores to PET using overlaps 53%–27%. Reducing overlap to 27% for oncology patients (12-bed) saved an average of ∼40% acquisition time (11min) compared to using the default overlap (18min). No significant SUV variances were found when reducing overlap to half of default for cerebellum, lung, heart, aorta, liver, fat, muscle, bone marrow, thighs and target lesions (p>0.05), except expected variability in urinary system. Conclusion: This study demonstrated by combined phantom, pre-clinical and clinical PET/CT scans that PET acquisition overlap in axial of today’s systems can be reduced and optimized. It showed that a reduction of PET acquisition overlap to 27% (half of system default) can be implemented to reduce table time by ∼40% to improve patient comfort and minimize potential motion artifacts, without prominently degrading image quality or compromising PET quantification.

  20. Cherenkov TOF PET with silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolenec, R., E-mail: rok.dolenec@ijs.si [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Maribor (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Korpar, S. [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, Maribor (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Križan, P. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pestotnik, R. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-12-21

    As previously demonstrated, an excellent timing resolution below 100 ps FWHM is possible in time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF PET) if the detection method is based on the principle of detecting photons of Cherenkov light, produced in a suitable material and detected by microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCP PMTs). In this work, the silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) were tested for the first time as the photodetectors in Cherenkov TOF PET. The high photon detection efficiency (PDE) of SiPMs led to a large improvement in detection efficiency. On the other hand, the time response of currently available SiPMs is not as good as that of MCP PMTs. The SiPM dark counts introduce a new source of random coincidences in Cherenkov method, which would be overwhelming with present SiPM technology at room temperature. When the apparatus was cooled, its performance significantly improved.

  1. Simplification of Methods for PET Radiopharmaceutical Syntheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbourn, Michael, R.

    2011-12-27

    In an attempt to develop simplified methods for radiochemical synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals useful in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), current commercially available automated synthesis apparati were evaluated for use with solid phase synthesis, thin-film techniques, microwave-accelerated chemistry, and click chemistry approaches. Using combinations of these techniques, it was shown that these automated synthesis systems can be simply and effectively used to support the synthesis of a wide variety of carbon-11 and fluorine-18 labeled compounds, representing all of the major types of compounds synthesized and using all of the common radiochemical precursors available. These techniques are available for use to deliver clinically useful amounts of PET radiopharmaceuticals with chemical and radiochemical purities and high specific activities, suitable for human administration.

  2. Quantitative carotid PET/MR imaging: clinical evaluation of MR-Attenuation correction versus CT-Attenuation correction in (18)F-FDG PET/MR emission data and comparison to PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Jason; Robson, Philip M; Calcagno, Claudia; Eldib, Mootaz; Fayad, Zahi A

    2015-01-01

    Current PET/MR systems employ segmentation of MR images and subsequent assignment of empirical attenuation coefficients for quantitative PET reconstruction. In this study we examine the differences in the quantification of (18)F-FDG uptake in the carotid arteries between PET/MR and PET/CT scanners. Five comparisons were performed to asses differences in PET quantification: i) PET/MR MR-based AC (MRAC) versus PET/MR CTAC, ii) PET/MR MRAC versus PET/CT, iii) PET/MR MRAC with carotid coil versus PET/MR MRAC without coil, iv) PET/MR MRAC scan 2 versus PET/MR MRAC scan 1, and v) PET/MR CTAC versus PET/CT. Standardized uptakes values (SUV) mean and SUV maximum were calculated for six regions-of-interests: left and right carotid arteries, left and right lungs, spine and muscle. Pearson's Correlation and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare SUV mean and maximum within each ROI of each patient. PET/MR emission data reconstructed with MRAC versus PET/MR emission data reconstructed with CTAC had percent differences of SUV mean ranging from -2.0% (Absolute Difference, -0.02) to 7.4% (absolute difference, 0.06). Percent differences within the carotid arteries proved to correlate well with differences of SUV mean of 5.4% (Absolute Difference, 0.07) in the left carotid and 2.7% (Absolute Difference, 0.03) in the right carotid. Pearson's correlation and Bland-Altman of PET/MR with MRAC versus PET/MR with CTAC showed high correlation between SUV mean (R(2)=0.80, mean difference 0.03 ± 0.18 SUV, p=0.3382), demonstrating excellent correlation within ROIs analyzed. The results of this study support the use of (18)F-FDG PET/MR for quantitative measure of inflammation in the carotid arteries.

  3. Quantitative carotid PET/MR imaging: clinical evaluation of MR-Attenuation correction versus CT-Attenuation correction in 18F-FDG PET/MR emission data and comparison to PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Jason; Robson, Philip M; Calcagno, Claudia; Eldib, Mootaz; Fayad, Zahi A

    2015-01-01

    Current PET/MR systems employ segmentation of MR images and subsequent assignment of empirical attenuation coefficients for quantitative PET reconstruction. In this study we examine the differences in the quantification of 18F-FDG uptake in the carotid arteries between PET/MR and PET/CT scanners. Five comparisons were performed to asses differences in PET quantification: i) PET/MR MR-based AC (MRAC) versus PET/MR CTAC, ii) PET/MR MRAC versus PET/CT, iii) PET/MR MRAC with carotid coil versus PET/MR MRAC without coil, iv) PET/MR MRAC scan 2 versus PET/MR MRAC scan 1, and v) PET/MR CTAC versus PET/CT. Standardized uptakes values (SUV) mean and SUV maximum were calculated for six regions-of-interests: left and right carotid arteries, left and right lungs, spine and muscle. Pearson’s Correlation and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare SUV mean and maximum within each ROI of each patient. PET/MR emission data reconstructed with MRAC versus PET/MR emission data reconstructed with CTAC had percent differences of SUV mean ranging from -2.0% (Absolute Difference, -0.02) to 7.4% (absolute difference, 0.06). Percent differences within the carotid arteries proved to correlate well with differences of SUV mean of 5.4% (Absolute Difference, 0.07) in the left carotid and 2.7% (Absolute Difference, 0.03) in the right carotid. Pearson’s correlation and Bland-Altman of PET/MR with MRAC versus PET/MR with CTAC showed high correlation between SUV mean (R2=0.80, mean difference 0.03 ± 0.18 SUV, p=0.3382), demonstrating excellent correlation within ROIs analyzed. The results of this study support the use of 18F-FDG PET/MR for quantitative measure of inflammation in the carotid arteries. PMID:26069863

  4. Testimonio de un despojo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYLVIA DE CASTRO

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Una lectura psicoanalítica de El Otoño del Patriarca, de Gabriel García ;Márquez, en cuyas páginas asistimos a los desbordes de un régimen dictatorial, nos permite situar un objeto cuyo poder de fascinación resulta suficiente para movilizar el curso de lo

  5. Denmark and UN peacekeeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Denmark became a staunch supporter of UN peacekeeping during the cold war because it simultaneously served its interests and values and this winning combination meant that it relatively quickly became internalized as part of Denmark’s foreign policy identity. Denmark turned its back on UN...

  6. Associations of Pet Ownership with Older Adults Eating Patterns and Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roschelle Heuberger

    2017-01-01

      Pet ownership has been shown to improve quality of life for older adults. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare older pet owners and older non-pet owners and assess differences between groups...

  7. 24 CFR 5.363 - Housing programs: Protection of the pet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing Programs § 5.363 Housing programs... rules. Pet Ownership Requirements for Public Housing Programs ...

  8. VII. Boettstein Colloquium: PET-Radiopharmaceuticals at PSI: achievement and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubiger, P.A.; Beer, H.F.; Blaeuenstein, P.; Leenders, K.E.

    1993-12-31

    The three sessions of the 1993 Boettstein colloquium dealt with the following topics: - PET-radiopharmaceuticals, - PET-scanning: significance of tracer uptake, - clinical options using PET. 22 papers were presented. figs., refs.

  9. Amyloid PET in pseudotumoral multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Guiu, Jordi A; Cabrera-Martín, María Nieves; Cortés-Martínez, Ana; Pytel, Vanesa; Moreno-Ramos, Teresa; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Carreras, José Luis; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    Pseudotumoral multiple sclerosis is a rare form of demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Positron emission tomography (PET) using amyloid-tracers has also been suggested as a marker of damage in white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis due to the nonspecific uptake of these tracers in white matter. We present the case of a 59 year-old woman with a pathological-confirmed pseudotumoral multiple sclerosis, who was studied with the amyloid tracer (18)F-florbetaben. The patient had developed word-finding difficulties and right hemianopia twelve years ago. In that time, MRI showed a lesion on the left hemisphere with an infiltrating aspect in frontotemporal lobes. Brain biopsy showed demyelinating areas and inflammation. During the following years, two new clinical relapses occurred. (18)F-florbetaben PET showed lower uptake in the white matter lesion visualized in the CT and MRI images. Decreased tracer uptake was also observed in a larger area of the left hemisphere beyond the lesions observed on MRI or CT. White matter lesion volume on FLAIR was 44.2mL, and tracer uptake change between damaged white matter and normal appearing white matter was - 40.5%. Standardized uptake value was inferior in the pseudotumoral lesion than in the other white matter lesions. We report the findings of amyloid PET in a patient with pseudotumoral multiple sclerosis. This case provides further evidence on the role of amyloid PET in the assessment of white matter and demyelinating diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Immuno-PET for Clinical Theranostic Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Clément Bailly; Pierre-François Cléry; Alain Faivre-Chauvet; Mickael Bourgeois; François Guérard; Ferid Haddad; Jacques Barbet; Michel Chérel; Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré; Thomas Carlier; Caroline Bodet-Milin

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Recent advances in molecular characterization of tumors have allowed identification of new molecular targets on tumor cells or biomarkers. In medical practice, the identification of these biomarkers slowly but surely becomes a prerequisite before any treatment decision, leading to the concept of personalized medicine. Immuno-positron emission tomography (PET) fits perfectly with this approach. Indeed, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) labelled with radionuclides represent p...

  11. Bacterial and parasitic diseases of pet fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Helen E; Palmeiro, Brian; Weber, E Scott

    2009-09-01

    Bacterial and parasitic diseases are very common problems in pet fish. Diagnostic testing for bacterial and parasitic diseases is simple to do; many tests can be done on ambulatory visits. When logical treatment strategies are initiated and supported by diagnostic testing, a successful outcome is possible. Identification of the correct pathogens also allows an educational opportunity for discussions on prevention and biosecurity practices with clients and although fish are poikilothermic, there are some bacterial and parasitic pathogens that are zoonotic.

  12. The application of PET imaging in psychoneuroimmunology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannestad, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is a research tool that allows in vivo measurements of brain metabolism and specific target molecules. PET imaging can be used to measure these brain variables in a variety of species, including human and non-human primates, and rodents. PET imaging can therefore be combined with various experimental and clinical model systems that are commonly used in psychoneuroimmunology research.

  13. Structural insight into catalytic mechanism of PET hydrolase

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Xu; Liu, Weidong; Huang, Jian-Wen; Ma, Jiantao; Zheng, Yingying; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Xu, Limin; Cheng, Ya-Shan; Chen, Chun-Chi; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2017-01-01

    PET hydrolase (PETase), which hydrolyzes polyethylene terephthalate (PET) into soluble building blocks, provides an attractive avenue for the bioconversion of plastics. Here we present the structures of a novel PETase from the PET-consuming microbe Ideonella sakaiensis in complex with substrate and product analogs. Through structural analyses, mutagenesis, and activity measurements, a substrate-binding mode is proposed, and several features critical for catalysis are elucidated.

  14. Structural insight into catalytic mechanism of PET hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Liu, Weidong; Huang, Jian-Wen; Ma, Jiantao; Zheng, Yingying; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Xu, Limin; Cheng, Ya-Shan; Chen, Chun-Chi; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2017-12-13

    PET hydrolase (PETase), which hydrolyzes polyethylene terephthalate (PET) into soluble building blocks, provides an attractive avenue for the bioconversion of plastics. Here we present the structures of a novel PETase from the PET-consuming microbe Ideonella sakaiensis in complex with substrate and product analogs. Through structural analyses, mutagenesis, and activity measurements, a substrate-binding mode is proposed, and several features critical for catalysis are elucidated.

  15. Reproducibility of Quantitative Brain Imaging Using a PET-Only and a Combined PET/MR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L. Lassen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of migrating a quantitative brain imaging protocol from a positron emission tomography (PET-only system to an integrated PET/MR system. Potential differences in both absolute radiotracer concentration as well as in the derived kinetic parameters as a function of PET system choice have been investigated. Five healthy volunteers underwent dynamic (R-[11C]verapamil imaging on the same day using a GE-Advance (PET-only and a Siemens Biograph mMR system (PET/MR. PET-emission data were reconstructed using a transmission-based attenuation correction (AC map (PET-only, whereas a standard MR-DIXON as well as a low-dose CT AC map was applied to PET/MR emission data. Kinetic modeling based on arterial blood sampling was performed using a 1-tissue-2-rate constant compartment model, yielding kinetic parameters (K1 and k2 and distribution volume (VT. Differences for parametric values obtained in the PET-only and the PET/MR systems were analyzed using a 2-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Comparison of DIXON-based AC (PET/MR with emission data derived from the PET-only system revealed average inter-system differences of −33 ± 14% (p < 0.05 for the K1 parameter and −19 ± 9% (p < 0.05 for k2. Using a CT-based AC for PET/MR resulted in slightly lower systematic differences of −16 ± 18% for K1 and −9 ± 10% for k2. The average differences in VT were −18 ± 10% (p < 0.05 for DIXON- and −8 ± 13% for CT-based AC. Significant systematic differences were observed for kinetic parameters derived from emission data obtained from PET/MR and PET-only imaging due to different standard AC methods employed. Therefore, a transfer of imaging protocols from PET-only to PET/MR systems is not straightforward without application of proper correction methods.Clinical Trial Registration:www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu, identifier 2013-001724-19

  16. Reliability of semiquantitative {sup 18}F-FDG PET parameters derived from simultaneous brain PET/MRI: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, Amarnath, E-mail: drjena2002@yahoo.com [Department of Molecular Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076, Delhi (India); Taneja, Sangeeta, E-mail: s_taneja1974@yahoo.com [Department of Molecular Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076, Delhi (India); Goel, Reema, E-mail: reemagoell@gmail.com [Department of Molecular Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076, Delhi (India); Renjen, Pushpendranath, E-mail: pnrenjen@hotmail.com [Department of Neurology, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076, Delhi (India); Negi, Pradeep, E-mail: pradeepmri@rediffmail.com [Department of Molecular Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Sarita Vihar, Mathura Road, New Delhi 110076, Delhi (India)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Simultaneous brain PET/MRI faces an important issue of validation of accurate MRI based attenuation correction (AC) method for precise quantitation of brain PET data unlike in PET/CT systems where the use of standard, validated CT based AC is routinely available. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of evaluation of semiquantitative {sup 18}F-FDG PET parameters derived from simultaneous brain PET/MRI using ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences for AC and to assess their agreement with those obtained from PET/CT examination. Methods: Sixteen patients (age range 18–73 years; mean age 49.43 (19.3) years; 13 men 3 women) underwent simultaneous brain PET/MRI followed immediately by PET/CT. Quantitative analysis of brain PET images obtained from both studies was undertaken using Scenium v.1 brain analysis software package. Twenty ROIs for various brain regions were system generated and 6 semiquantitative parameters including maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max), SUV mean, minimum SUV (SUV min), minimum standard deviation (SD min), maximum SD (SD max) and SD from mean were calculated for both sets of PET data for each patient. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were determined to assess agreement between the various semiquantitative parameters for the two PET data sets. Results: Intra-class co-relation between the two PET data sets for SUV max, SUV mean and SD max was highly significant (p < 0.00) for all the 20 predefined brain regions with ICC > 0.9. SD from mean was also found to be statistically significant for all the predefined brain regions with ICC > 0.8. However, SUV max and SUV mean values obtained from PET/MRI were significantly lower compared to those of PET/CT for all the predefined brain regions. Conclusion: PET quantitation accuracy using the MRI based UTE sequences for AC in simultaneous brain PET/MRI is reliable in a clinical setting, being similar to that obtained using PET/CT.

  17. Gamma-camera 18F-FDG PET in diagnosis and staging of patients presenting with suspected lung cancer and comparison with dedicated PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, Peter S; Mortensen, Jann; Enevoldsen, Henriette

    2004-01-01

    It is not clear whether high-quality coincidence gamma-PET (gPET) cameras can provide clinical data comparable with data obtained with dedicated PET (dPET) cameras in the primary diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected lung cancer. This study focuses on 2 main issues: direct comparison betw...

  18. Dual tracer functional imaging of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors using 68Ga-DOTA-NOC PET-CT and 18F-FDG PET-CT: competitive or complimentary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naswa, Niraj; Sharma, Punit; Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Karunanithi, Sellam; Reddy, Rama Mohan; Patnecha, Manish; Lata, Sneh; Kumar, Rakesh; Malhotra, Arun; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT with F-FDG PET/CT in the patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). Data of 51 patients with definite histological diagnosis of GEP-NET who underwent both Ga-DOTA-NOC PET-CT and F-FDG PET-CT within a span of 15 days were selected for this retrospective analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated for Ga-DOTA-NOC PET-CT and F-FDG PET-CT, and results were compared both on patientwise and regionwise analysis. Ga-DOTA-NOC PET-CT is superior to F-FDG PET-CT on patientwise analysis (P NOC PET-CT is superior to F-FDG PET-CT only for lymph node metastases (P NOC PET-CT detected more liver and skeletal lesions compared with F-FDG PET-CT, the difference was not statistically significant. In addition, the results of combined imaging helped in selecting candidates who would undergo the appropriate mode of treatment, whether octreotide therapy or conventional chemotherapy Ga-DOTA-NOC PET-CT seems to be superior to F-FDG PET-CT for imaging GEP-NETs. However, their role seems to be complementary because combination of Ga-DOTA-NOC PET-CT and F-FDG PET-CT in such patients helps demonstrate the total disease burden and segregate them to proper therapeutic groups.

  19. PET imaging of the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, James T; Bengel, Frank M

    2016-12-01

    The autonomic nervous system is the primary extrinsic control of heart rate and contractility, and is subject to adaptive and maladaptive changes in cardiovascular disease. Consequently, noninvasive assessment of neuronal activity and function is an attractive target for molecular imaging. A myriad of targeted radiotracers have been developed over the last 25 years for imaging various components of the sympathetic and parasympathetic signal cascades. While routine clinical use remains somewhat limited, a number of larger scale studies in recent years have supplied momentum to molecular imaging of autonomic signaling. Specifically, the findings of the ADMIRE HF trial directly led to United States Food and Drug Administration approval of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) assessment of sympathetic neuronal innervation, and comparable results have been reported using the analogous PET agent 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED). Due to the inherent capacity for dynamic quantification and higher spatial resolution, regional analysis may be better served by PET. In addition, preliminary clinical and extensive preclinical experience has provided a broad foundation of cardiovascular applications for PET imaging of the autonomic nervous system. Recent years have witnessed the growth of novel quantification techniques, expansion of multiple tracer studies, and improved understanding of the uptake of different radiotracers, such that the transitional biology of dysfunctional subcellular catecholamine handling can be distinguished from complete denervation. As a result, sympathetic neuronal molecular imaging is poised to play a role in individualized patient care, by stratifying cardiovascular risk, visualizing underlying biology, and guiding and monitoring therapy.

  20. Surface structure of oriented PET films

    CERN Document Server

    Kirov, K

    2001-01-01

    crystallinity and the level of molecular orientation of the polymer are highest at the film surface and gradually decrease away from it. The same trend for an increase in structural order nearer the film surface was observed in a series of PET films drawn uniaxially in laboratory conditions. The observed strong dependence of stratification in the oriented films on drawing ratio, lead to the conclusion, that the structural gradients arise as a result of viscous flow. The molecular mechanism of stratification is discussed and leads to the idea of enhanced chain mobility at the PET film surface. The idea is in line with recent studies showing a depression of the glass transition temperature of free polymer surfaces. In addition, the results on structure formation in PET films during drawing, give support to the existing view that polymer crystallisation is assisted by a spinodal-decomposition nucleation process. Polymer films are widely used as substrates in nano-composite materials and therefore have to possess...

  1. Bereavement following death of a pet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, J; Winchester, G

    1994-05-01

    A 40-item questionnaire based on reactions following human bereavement was used to investigate the occurrence of grief following death of a pet in a sample of 88 people. Items indicating initial numbness or disbelief, preoccupation with the loss, a loss of part of themselves and being drawn towards reminders were endorsed by half to four-fifths of the sample. About a quarter reported the urge to search, avoidance or mitigation strategies, anger, anxiety and depression. The questionnaire showed high internal reliability, and total scores were significantly positively correlated with the degree of affective attachment to the pet, the suddenness of the death and whether the respondent lived alone; but not with the type of pet, the time since it had died, and how long the owner had been with it. Factor analysis of the questionnaire revealed one main factor accounting for about a third of the variance, described as emotional distress associated with the loss; two lesser factors involved items representing personal importance of the loss and a feeling of continued attachment. Overall these findings indicate a parallel reaction to that following a human bereavement, but with a lower frequency of affective distress. Moderator variables were also comparable with those known to be important for grief following a human loss.

  2. Compton scatter tomography in TOF-PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Hamidreza; Kamali-Asl, Alireza; Ay, Mohammadreza; Ghafarian, Pardis

    2017-10-01

    Scatter coincidences contain hidden information about the activity distribution on the positron emission tomography (PET) imaging system. However, in conventional reconstruction, the scattered data cause the blurring of images and thus are estimated and subtracted from detected coincidences. List mode format provides a new aspect to use time of flight (TOF) and energy information of each coincidence in the reconstruction process. In this study, a novel approach is proposed to reconstruct activity distribution using the scattered data in the PET system. For each single scattering coincidence, a scattering angle can be determined by the recorded energy of the detected photons, and then possible locations of scattering can be calculated based on the scattering angle. Geometry equations show that these sites lie on two arcs in 2D mode or the surface of a prolate spheroid in 3D mode, passing through the pair of detector elements. The proposed method uses a novel and flexible technique to estimate source origin locations from the possible scattering locations, using the TOF information. Evaluations were based on a Monte-Carlo simulation of uniform and non-uniform phantoms at different resolutions of time and detector energy. The results show that although the energy uncertainties deteriorate the image spatial resolution in the proposed method, the time resolution has more impact on image quality than the energy resolution. With progress of the TOF system, the reconstruction using the scattered data can be used in a complementary manner, or to improve image quality in the next generation of PET systems.

  3. SPECT and PET Imaging of Meningiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varvara Valotassiou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas arise from the meningothelial cells of the arachnoid membranes. They are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms and represent about 20% of all intracranial tumors. They are usually diagnosed after the third decade of life and they are more frequent in women than in men. According to the World Health Organization (WHO criteria, meningiomas can be classified into grade I meningiomas, which are benign, grade II (atypical and grade III (anaplastic meningiomas, which have a much more aggressive clinical behaviour. Computed Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI are routinely used in the diagnostic workup of patients with meningiomas. Molecular Nuclear Medicine Imaging with Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT and Positron Emission Tomography (PET could provide complementary information to CT and MRI. Various SPECT and PET tracers may provide information about cellular processes and biological characteristics of meningiomas. Therefore, SPECT and PET imaging could be used for the preoperative noninvasive diagnosis and differential diagnosis of meningiomas, prediction of tumor grade and tumor recurrence, response to treatment, target volume delineation for radiation therapy planning, and distinction between residual or recurrent tumour from scar tissue.

  4. Pet (dog and cat) overpopulation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, P N; Moulton, C

    1993-01-01

    Over half of all United States (US) households own a dog or cat. The veterinary profession can now provide health care for dogs and cats of affluent or devoted owners that rivals the health care offered many human patients. Unfortunately, as many pets receive medical and surgical care that becomes increasingly sophisticated, other pets in the US receive no veterinary care at all. Additionally, millions of pets are humanely killed in US animal shelters because owners are not committed to the continual responsibilities of pet care. Although the total dog and cat population is unknown in the US, as is the total number of pets killed, estimates suggest that between one-tenth and one-quarter of the entire US pet population is destroyed annually because of a surplus dog and cat problem. Pet overpopulation is attributable to relinquishment and abandonment, as well as to birth rates; thus, veterinarians must strive to reduce pet overpopulation by not only curbing reproduction, but also by decreasing the major cause of pet death in the US (i.e. humane killing). Thus, the veterinary profession must take a prominent role in the campaign to prevent the deaths of healthy animals for whom homes cannot be found, just as it has done to prevent the deaths of sick animals that do have homes.

  5. PET protection optimization for streaming scalable videos with multiple transmissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ruiqin; Taubman, David S; Sivaraman, Vijay

    2013-11-01

    This paper investigates priority encoding transmission (PET) protection for streaming scalably compressed video streams over erasure channels, for the scenarios where a small number of retransmissions are allowed. In principle, the optimal protection depends not only on the importance of each stream element, but also on the expected channel behavior. By formulating a collection of hypotheses concerning its own behavior in future transmissions, limited-retransmission PET (LR-PET) effectively constructs channel codes spanning multiple transmission slots and thus offers better protection efficiency than the original PET. As the number of transmission opportunities increases, the optimization for LR-PET becomes very challenging because the number of hypothetical retransmission paths increases exponentially. As a key contribution, this paper develops a method to derive the effective recovery-probability versus redundancy-rate characteristic for the LR-PET procedure with any number of transmission opportunities. This significantly accelerates the protection assignment procedure in the original LR-PET with only two transmissions, and also makes a quick and optimal protection assignment feasible for scenarios where more transmissions are possible. This paper also gives a concrete proof to the redundancy embedding property of the channel codes formed by LR-PET, which allows for a decoupled optimization for sequentially dependent source elements with convex utility-length characteristic. This essentially justifies the source-independent construction of the protection convex hull for LR-PET.

  6. Pets, pica, pathogens and pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, R W; Stack, T; Blair, R E; Keel, J C

    1981-12-01

    The incidence of pica in pre-school children was investigated by studying 192 children attending a general paediatric hospital clinic and 69 attending a general practice surgery. The incidence of pica was twice as common in those who kept pets in both study groups. Half of the pet-keeping children with pica had eaten their pet's food. Imitative behaviour is suggested as a probable cause. Pet-keeping compounds a child's risk of infestation not only by providing close contact with a reservoir of enteropathogens but also by encouraging pica.

  7. Research Progress of Amino Acid Metabolism PET Imaging in Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIE Da-hong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid metabolism PET imaging plays a very important role in metabolism molecular imaging. Amino acid PET tracers include [1-11C]amino acid, labeling α-C amino acid, labeling side-chain amino acid, and N-substituted labeling amino acid. Uptake mechanism of these amino acids in tumor mainly involves in amino acid transport and amino acid metabolism PET imaging has an advantage of differential diagnosis of neuropsychiatric diseases, brain cancer, neuroendocrine tumor, and other tumors. The research progress of amino acid metabolism PET imaging in tumor were summarized.

  8. Friends with benefits: on the positive consequences of pet ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Allen R; Brown, Christina M; Shoda, Tonya M; Stayton, Laura E; Martin, Colleen E

    2011-12-01

    Social support is critical for psychological and physical well-being, reflecting the centrality of belongingness in our lives. Human interactions often provide people with considerable social support, but can pets also fulfill one's social needs? Although there is correlational evidence that pets may help individuals facing significant life stressors, little is known about the well-being benefits of pets for everyday people. Study 1 found in a community sample that pet owners fared better on several well-being (e.g., greater self-esteem, more exercise) and individual-difference (e.g., greater conscientiousness, less fearful attachment) measures. Study 2 assessed a different community sample and found that owners enjoyed better well-being when their pets fulfilled social needs better, and the support that pets provided complemented rather than competed with human sources. Finally, Study 3 brought pet owners into the laboratory and experimentally demonstrated the ability of pets to stave off negativity caused by social rejection. In summary, pets can serve as important sources of social support, providing many positive psychological and physical benefits for their owners.

  9. PET motion correction using MR-derived motion parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickell, Matthew [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven (Belgium); Koesters, Thomas; Boada, Fernando [Center for Advanced Imaging Innovation and Research, New York University (United States); Department of Radiology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, Bernard & Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York (United States); Nuyts, Johan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-07-29

    With the improving resolution of modern PET scanners, any slight motion during the scan can cause significant blurring and loss of resolution. MRI scanners have the capacity to perform quick successive scans and thus provide a means to track motion during a scan. Hence, with the advent of simultaneous PET-MR scanners, it has become possible to use the MR scanner to track the motion and thereby provide the necessary motion parameters to correct the PET data. Using a suitable segmentation approach a separate MR scan can provide the attenuation map to produce quantitative PET images.

  10. Evaluation of diagnostic performance of whole-body simultaneous PET/MRI in pediatric lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponisio, Maria Rosana; McConathy, Jonathan; Laforest, Richard; Khanna, Geetika

    2016-08-01

    Whole-body (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is the standard of care for lymphoma. Simultaneous PET/MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a promising new modality that combines the metabolic information of PET with superior soft-tissue resolution and functional imaging capabilities of MRI while decreasing radiation dose. There is limited information on the clinical performance of PET/MRI in the pediatric setting. This study evaluated the feasibility, dosimetry, and qualitative and quantitative diagnostic performance of simultaneous whole-body FDG-PET/MRI in children with lymphoma compared to PET/CT. Children with lymphoma undergoing standard of care FDG-PET/CT were prospectively recruited for PET/MRI performed immediately after the PET/CT. Images were evaluated for quality, lesion detection and anatomical localization of FDG uptake. Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax/mean) of normal organs and SUVmax of the most FDG-avid lesions were measured for PET/MRI and PET/CT. Estimation of radiation exposure was calculated using specific age-related factors. Nine PET/MRI scans were performed in eight patients (mean age: 15.3 years). The mean time interval between PET/CT and PET/MRI was 51 ± 10 min. Both the PET/CT and PET/MRI exams had good image quality and alignment with complete (9/9) concordance in response assessment. The SUVs from PET/MRI and PET/CT were highly correlated for normal organs (SUVmean r(2): 0.88, Pcompared with PET/CT. Simultaneous whole-body PET/MRI is clinically feasible in pediatric lymphoma. PET/MRI performance is comparable to PET/CT for lesion detection and SUV measurements. Replacement of PET/CT with PET/MRI can significantly decrease radiation dose from diagnostic imaging in children.

  11. Development of a PET Insert for simultaneously small animal PET/MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yingjie; Zhang, Zhiming; Li, Daowu; Liu, Shuangquan; Wang, Peilin; Feng, Baotong; Chai, Pei; Wei, Long [Division of Nuclear Technology and Applications, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Radiographic Techniques and Equipment, Beijing, 100049 (China)

    2015-05-18

    PET/MR is a new multi-modality imaging system which provide both structural and functional information with good soft tissue imaging ability and no ionizing radiation. In recent years, PET/MR is under major progress because of the development of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). The goal of this study is to develop a MRI compatible PET insert based on SiPM and LYSO scintillator. The PET system was constituted by the detector ring, electronics and software. The detector ring consists of 16 detector module. The inner diameter of the ring was 151 mm, the external diameter was 216 mm, which was big enough for small animal research, e.g. rat, rabbit and tupaia. The sensor of each module was 2*2 SensL SPMArraySL, coupled with an array of 14 x 14 LYSO crystals, each crystal measuring 2 mm x 2 mm 10 mm. The detector was encapsulated in a copper box for light and magnetic shielding. Resister charge multiplexing circuit was used in the front end electronics. Each detector output 8X and 8Y position signals. One summed timing signal was extracted from the common cathode of all 64 channels. All these signals were transmitted to digital electronic board by a 3 m long coaxial cable from inside of the MR to the outside. Each digital electronic board handled 8 detector modules based on FPGA to obtain the timing, position and energy information of a single event. And then these single events were sent to the coincidence processing board to produce coincidence packets which are prepared for further processing. A 0.2mCi 68Ge line source was used to do the preliminary imaging test. The image was reconstructed by 3D-OSEM algorithm. The initial result proved the system to be feasible as a PET. FDG phantom imaging and simultaneous PET/MR imaging are in progress.

  12. Evaluation of a silicon photomultiplier PET insert for simultaneous PET and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Guen Bae; Kim, Kyeong Yun; Yoon, Hyun Suk; Son, Jeong-Whan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, South Korea and Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min Sun [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799, South Korea and Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Hyung-Jun [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung, E-mail: jaes@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Interdisciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: In this study, the authors present a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)-based positron emission tomography (PET) insert dedicated to small animal imaging with high system performance and robustness to temperature change. Methods: The insert consists of 64 LYSO-SiPM detector blocks arranged in 4 rings of 16 detector blocks to yield a ring diameter of 64 mm and axial field of view of 55 mm. Each detector block consists of a 9 × 9 array of LYSO crystals (1.2 × 1.2 × 10 mm{sup 3}) and a monolithic 4 × 4 SiPM array. The temperature of each monolithic SiPM is monitored, and the proper bias voltage is applied according to the temperature reading in real time to maintain uniform performance. The performance of this PET insert was characterized using National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU 4-2008 standards, and its feasibility was evaluated through in vivo mouse imaging studies. Results: The PET insert had a peak sensitivity of 3.4% and volumetric spatial resolutions of 1.92 (filtered back projection) and 0.53 (ordered subset expectation maximization) mm{sup 3} at center. The peak noise equivalent count rate and scatter fraction were 42.4 kcps at 15.08 MBq and 16.5%, respectively. By applying the real-time bias voltage adjustment, an energy resolution of 14.2% ± 0.3% was maintained and the count rate varied ≤1.2%, despite severe temperature changes (10–30 °C). The mouse imaging studies demonstrate that this PET insert can produce high-quality images useful for imaging studies on the small animals. Conclusions: The developed MR-compatible PET insert is designed for insertion into a narrow-bore magnetic resonance imaging scanner, and it provides excellent imaging performance for PET/MR preclinical studies.

  13. Pet ownership, dog types and attachment to pets in 9?10 year old children in Liverpool, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Westgarth, Carri; Boddy, Lynne M.; Stratton, Gareth; German, Alexander J.; Gaskell, Rosalind M.; Coyne, Karen P.; Bundred, Peter; McCune, Sandra; Dawson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic differences in childhood ownership and attitudes to pets. The objective of this study was to describe the factors associated with living with different pet types, as well as factors that may influence the intensity of relationship or ?attachment? that children have to their pet. Data were collected using a survey of 1021 9?10 year old primary school children in a deprived area of the city of Liverpool, UK. Results Dogs were t...

  14. Additive value of amyloid-PET in routine cases of clinical dementia work-up after FDG-PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Matthias; Schnabel, Jonas; Schönecker, Sonja; Wagner, Leonie; Brendel, Eva; Meyer-Wilmes, Johanna; Unterrainer, Marcus; Schildan, Andreas; Patt, Marianne; Prix, Catharina; Ackl, Nibal; Catak, Cihan; Pogarell, Oliver; Levin, Johannes; Danek, Adrian; Buerger, Katharina; Bartenstein, Peter; Barthel, Henryk; Sabri, Osama; Rominger, Axel

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, several [18F]-labeled amyloid-PET tracers have been developed and have obtained clinical approval. Despite their widespread scientific use, studies in routine clinical settings are limited. We therefore investigated the impact of [18F]-florbetaben (FBB)-PET on the diagnostic management of patients with suspected dementia that was still unclarified after [18F]-fluordeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET. All subjects were referred in-house with a suspected dementia syndrome due to neurodegenerative disease. After undergoing an FDG-PET exam, the cases were discussed by the interdisciplinary dementia board, where the most likely diagnosis as well as potential differential diagnoses were documented. Because of persistent diagnostic uncertainty, the patients received an additional FBB-PET exam. Results were interpreted visually and classified as amyloid-positive or amyloid-negative, and we then compared the individual clinical diagnoses before and after additional FBB-PET. A total of 107 patients (mean age 69.4 ± 9.7y) were included in the study. The FBB-PET was rated as amyloid-positive in 65/107. In 83% of the formerly unclear cases, a final diagnosis was reached through FBB-PET, and the most likely prior diagnosis was changed in 28% of cases. The highest impact was observed for distinguishing Alzheimer's dementia (AD) from fronto-temporal dementia (FTLD), where FBB-PET altered the most likely diagnosis in 41% of cases. FBB-PET has a high additive value in establishing a final diagnosis in suspected dementia cases when prior investigations such as FDG-PET are inconclusive. The differentiation between AD and FTLD was particularly facilitated by amyloid-PET, predicting a considerable impact on patient management, especially in the light of upcoming disease-modifying therapies.

  15. Convergent effects of mouse Pet-1 deletion and human PET-1 variation on amygdala fear and threat processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wellman, Cara L.; Camp, Marguerite; Jones, V. Morgan; MacPherson, Kathryn P.; Ihne, Jessica; Fitzgerald, Paul; Maroun, Mouna; Drabant, Emily; Bogdan, Ryan; Ahmad R Hariri; Holmes, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin is critical for shaping the development of neural circuits regulating emotion. Pet-1 (FEV-1) is an ETS-domain transcription factor essential for differentiation and forebrain targeting of serotonin neurons. Constitutive Pet-1 knockout (KO) causes major loss of serotonin neurons and forebrain serotonin availability, and behavioral abnormalities. We phenotyped Pet-1 KO mice for fear conditioning and extinction, and on a battery of assays for anxiety- and depression-related behaviors. ...

  16. Companionship outweighs disease risk from pets: good hygiene, common sense can help protect you.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Veterinarians and health experts agree that pet companionship benefits outweigh the threat of disease risk to AIDS patients. Experts say AIDS cannot be caught from cats or mosquitoes, but some invisible worms in pets can cause human problems, such as rashes. Besides de-worming pets, other precautionary measures for pet owners include avoiding exotic, wild, or sickly pets; washing one's hands after touching pets; using gloves when cleaning up after animals or cleaning litter boxes; removing solid wastes every day; keeping pets vaccinated; and neutering pets to reduce roaming tendencies.

  17. Pet Ownership among Homeless Youth: Associations with Mental Health, Service Utilization and Housing Status

    OpenAIRE

    Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Rice, Eric

    2015-01-01

    As many as 25% of homeless persons have pets. To our knowledge, pet ownership has not been studied quantitatively with homeless youth. This study examined pet ownership among 398 homeless youth utilizing two Los Angeles drop-in centers. Twenty-three percent of homeless youth had a pet. The majority of pet owners reported that their pets kept them company and made them feel loved; nearly half reported that their pets made it more difficult to stay in a shelter. Pet owners reported fewer sympto...

  18. PET-Tool: a software suite for comprehensive processing and managing of Paired-End diTag (PET) sequence data

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Chia-Lin; Ooi Hong; Ariyaratne Pramila; Chen Qiongyu; Wong Chee-Hong; Chiu Kuo; Sung Wing-Kin; Ruan Yijun

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background We recently developed the Paired End diTag (PET) strategy for efficient characterization of mammalian transcriptomes and genomes. The paired end nature of short PET sequences derived from long DNA fragments raised a new set of bioinformatics challenges, including how to extract PETs from raw sequence reads, and correctly yet efficiently map PETs to reference genome sequences. To accommodate and streamline data analysis of the large volume PET sequences generated from each ...

  19. PET-Tool: a software suite for comprehensive processing and managing of Paired-End diTag (PET sequence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chia-Lin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently developed the Paired End diTag (PET strategy for efficient characterization of mammalian transcriptomes and genomes. The paired end nature of short PET sequences derived from long DNA fragments raised a new set of bioinformatics challenges, including how to extract PETs from raw sequence reads, and correctly yet efficiently map PETs to reference genome sequences. To accommodate and streamline data analysis of the large volume PET sequences generated from each PET experiment, an automated PET data process pipeline is desirable. Results We designed an integrated computation program package, PET-Tool, to automatically process PET sequences and map them to the genome sequences. The Tool was implemented as a web-based application composed of four modules: the Extractor module for PET extraction; the Examiner module for analytic evaluation of PET sequence quality; the Mapper module for locating PET sequences in the genome sequences; and the ProjectManager module for data organization. The performance of PET-Tool was evaluated through the analyses of 2.7 million PET sequences. It was demonstrated that PET-Tool is accurate and efficient in extracting PET sequences and removing artifacts from large volume dataset. Using optimized mapping criteria, over 70% of quality PET sequences were mapped specifically to the genome sequences. With a 2.4 GHz LINUX machine, it takes approximately six hours to process one million PETs from extraction to mapping. Conclusion The speed, accuracy, and comprehensiveness have proved that PET-Tool is an important and useful component in PET experiments, and can be extended to accommodate other related analyses of paired-end sequences. The Tool also provides user-friendly functions for data quality check and system for multi-layer data management.

  20. Clinical value of FDG PET or PET/CT in urinary bladder cancer: A systemic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yu-Yu, E-mail: yuoyuolu@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jin-Hua, E-mail: chenjh99@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Biostatistics Center and Graduate Institute of Biostatistics, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liang, Ji-An, E-mail: hope.jal@msa.hinet.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Hsin-Yi, E-mail: hywang@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Cheng-Chieh, E-mail: cclin@mail.cmuh.org.tw [School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Community Medicine and Health Examination Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wan-Yu, E-mail: wylin@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Kao, Chia-Hung, E-mail: d10040@mail.cmuh.org.tw [School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-15

    Aim: The purpose of the current study was to conduct a systemic review and meta-analysis of the published literature to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET or PET/CT in urinary bladder cancer. Materials and methods: The authors conducted a systematic MEDLINE search of articles published between January 2000 and December 2010. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of each study. We conducted a meta-analysis of pooled sensitivity and specificity in detecting primary and metastatic lesions of bladder cancer. Results: Six studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET/CT for primary lesion detection of bladder cancer were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.70–0.99) and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.74–1.00), respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of FDG PET or PET/CT for staging or restaging (metastatic lesions) of bladder cancer were 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72–0.89) and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.81–0.95), respectively. Conclusion: The diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET or PET/CT is good in metastatic lesions of urinary bladder cancer. Due to the small number of patients and limited number of studies analyzed, the diagnostic capability of FDG PET or PET/CT in detection of primary bladder wall lesions could not be assessed.

  1. The role of 18F-FDG PET and PET/CT in the evaluation of primary cutaneous lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lin; Tu, Guojian; Li, Jing; Chen, Yue

    2017-02-01

    Primary cutaneous lymphoma (PCL) is the second most common type of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including both cutaneous T-cell and B-cell lymphomas. PCL comprises numerous subtypes and thus has myriad clinical presentations in the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Accurate classification and staging are important for making treatment recommendations for PCL and will further impact patient prognosis significantly. We review the role of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET (F-FDG PET) and F-FDG PET with computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis, staging, tumor biological evaluation, treatment response assessment, and early recurrence surveillance of PCL. Although F-FDG PET and PET/CT do not seem to adequately distinguish the plaque, patch, or erythroderma cutaneous lesions of PCL, the imaging modalities are superior to CT, MRI, and other nuclear medicine methods in detecting both the cutaneous and the extracutaneous lesions of PCL. The available literature addressing the clinical role of F-FDG PET and PET/CT in patients with PCL is promising for the use of the modalities in staging, tumor biological evaluation, biopsy guidance, early treatment response assessment, and recurrence surveillance. However, more data are needed to better specify the role of F-FDG PET and PET/CT in the management of PCL.

  2. Comparison of 18F-FDG PET/CT and PET/MRI in patients with multiple myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Sachpekidis, Christos; Hillengass, Jens; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Mosebach, Jennifer; Pan, Leyun; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Haberkorn, Uwe; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    PET/MRI represents a promising hybrid imaging modality with several potential clinical applications. Although PET/MRI seems highly attractive in the diagnostic approach of multiple myeloma (MM), its role has not yet been evaluated. The aims of this prospective study are to evaluate the feasibility of 18F-FDG PET/MRI in detection of MM lesions, and to investigate the reproducibility of bone marrow lesions detection and quantitative data of 18F-FDG uptake between the functional (PET) component ...

  3. Clinical evaluation of TOF versus non-TOF on PET artifacts in simultaneous PET/MR: a dual centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Voert, Edwin E G W; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Ahn, Sangtae; Wiesinger, Florian; Khalighi, M Mehdi; Levin, Craig S; Iagaru, Andrei H; Zaharchuk, Greg; Huellner, Martin; Delso, Gaspar

    2017-07-01

    Our objective was to determine clinically the value of time-of-flight (TOF) information in reducing PET artifacts and improving PET image quality and accuracy in simultaneous TOF PET/MR scanning. A total 65 patients who underwent a comparative scan in a simultaneous TOF PET/MR scanner were included. TOF and non-TOF PET images were reconstructed, clinically examined, compared and scored. PET imaging artifacts were categorized as large or small implant-related artifacts, as dental implant-related artifacts, and as implant-unrelated artifacts. Differences in image quality, especially those related to (implant) artifacts, were assessed using a scale ranging from 0 (no artifact) to 4 (severe artifact). A total of 87 image artifacts were found and evaluated. Four patients had large and eight patients small implant-related artifacts, 27 patients had dental implants/fillings, and 48 patients had implant-unrelated artifacts. The average score was 1.14 ± 0.82 for non-TOF PET images and 0.53 ± 0.66 for TOF images (p PET image artifacts are significantly mitigated with integration of TOF information in simultaneous PET/MR. The impact is predominantly seen in patients with significant artifacts due to metal implants.

  4. Clinical evaluation of TOF versus non-TOF on PET artifacts in simultaneous PET/MR: a dual centre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voert, Edwin E.G.W. ter [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Veit-Haibach, Patrick [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Ahn, Sangtae [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Wiesinger, Florian [GE Global Research, Muenchen (Germany); Khalighi, M.M.; Delso, Gaspar [GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI (United States); Levin, Craig S. [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford, CA (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H. [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Stanford, CA (United States); Zaharchuk, Greg [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Huellner, Martin [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Department of Neuroradiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-07-15

    Our objective was to determine clinically the value of time-of-flight (TOF) information in reducing PET artifacts and improving PET image quality and accuracy in simultaneous TOF PET/MR scanning. A total 65 patients who underwent a comparative scan in a simultaneous TOF PET/MR scanner were included. TOF and non-TOF PET images were reconstructed, clinically examined, compared and scored. PET imaging artifacts were categorized as large or small implant-related artifacts, as dental implant-related artifacts, and as implant-unrelated artifacts. Differences in image quality, especially those related to (implant) artifacts, were assessed using a scale ranging from 0 (no artifact) to 4 (severe artifact). A total of 87 image artifacts were found and evaluated. Four patients had large and eight patients small implant-related artifacts, 27 patients had dental implants/fillings, and 48 patients had implant-unrelated artifacts. The average score was 1.14 ± 0.82 for non-TOF PET images and 0.53 ± 0.66 for TOF images (p < 0.01) indicating that artifacts were less noticeable when TOF information was included. Our study indicates that PET image artifacts are significantly mitigated with integration of TOF information in simultaneous PET/MR. The impact is predominantly seen in patients with significant artifacts due to metal implants. (orig.)

  5. PET Imaging Stability Measurements During Simultaneous Pulsing of Aggressive MR Sequences on the SIGNA PET/MR System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deller, Timothy W; Khalighi, Mohammad Mehdi; Jansen, Floris P; Glover, Gary H

    2018-01-01

    The recent introduction of simultaneous whole-body PET/MR scanners has enabled new research taking advantage of the complementary information obtainable with PET and MRI. One such application is kinetic modeling, which requires high levels of PET quantitative stability. To accomplish the required PET stability levels, the PET subsystem must be sufficiently isolated from the effects of MR activity. Performance measurements have previously been published, demonstrating sufficient PET stability in the presence of MR pulsing for typical clinical use; however, PET stability during radiofrequency (RF)-intensive and gradient-intensive sequences has not previously been evaluated for a clinical whole-body scanner. In this work, PET stability of the GE SIGNA PET/MR was examined during simultaneous scanning of aggressive MR pulse sequences. Methods: PET performance tests were acquired with MR idle and during simultaneous MR pulsing. Recent system improvements mitigating RF interference and gain variation were used. A fast recovery fast spin echo MR sequence was selected for high RF power, and an echo planar imaging sequence was selected for its high heat-inducing gradients. Measurements were performed to determine PET stability under varying MR conditions using the following metrics: sensitivity, scatter fraction, contrast recovery, uniformity, count rate performance, and image quantitation. A final PET quantitative stability assessment for simultaneous PET scanning during functional MRI studies was performed with a spiral in-and-out gradient echo sequence. Results: Quantitation stability of a 68Ge flood phantom was demonstrated within 0.34%. Normalized sensitivity was stable during simultaneous scanning within 0.3%. Scatter fraction measured with a 68Ge line source in the scatter phantom was stable within the range of 40.4%-40.6%. Contrast recovery and uniformity were comparable for PET images acquired simultaneously with multiple MR conditions. Peak noise equivalent count

  6. Software-based PET-MR image coregistration: combined PET-MRI for the rest of us

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Matthew S.; Liu, Xinyang; Vyas, Pranav K.; Safdar, Nabile M. [Children' s National Health System, Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Washington, DC (United States); Plishker, William; Zaki, George F. [IGI Technologies, Inc., College Park, MD (United States); Shekhar, Raj [Children' s National Health System, Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Washington, DC (United States); IGI Technologies, Inc., College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-10-15

    With the introduction of hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI), a new imaging option to acquire multimodality images with complementary anatomical and functional information has become available. Compared with hybrid PET/computed tomography (CT), hybrid PET/MRI is capable of providing superior anatomical detail while removing the radiation exposure associated with CT. The early adoption of hybrid PET/MRI, however, has been limited. To provide a viable alternative to the hybrid PET/MRI hardware by validating a software-based solution for PET-MR image coregistration. A fully automated, graphics processing unit-accelerated 3-D deformable image registration technique was used to align PET (acquired as PET/CT) and MR image pairs of 17 patients (age range: 10 months-21 years, mean: 10 years) who underwent PET/CT and body MRI (chest, abdomen or pelvis), which were performed within a 28-day (mean: 10.5 days) interval. MRI data for most of these cases included single-station post-contrast axial T1-weighted images. Following registration, maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) values observed in coregistered PET (cPET) and the original PET were compared for 82 volumes of interest. In addition, we calculated the target registration error as a measure of the quality of image coregistration, and evaluated the algorithm's performance in the context of interexpert variability. The coregistration execution time averaged 97±45 s. The overall relative SUV{sub max} difference was 7% between cPET-MRI and PET/CT. The average target registration error was 10.7±6.6 mm, which compared favorably with the typical voxel size (diagonal distance) of 8.0 mm (typical resolution: 0.66 mm x 0.66 mm x 8 mm) for MRI and 6.1 mm (typical resolution: 3.65 mm x 3.65 mm x 3.27 mm) for PET. The variability in landmark identification did not show statistically significant differences between the algorithm and a typical expert. We have presented a software

  7. Simultaneous Multiparametric PET/MRI with Silicon Photomultiplier PET and Ultra-High-Field MRI for Small-Animal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Guen Bae; Yoon, Hyun Suk; Kim, Kyeong Yun; Lee, Min Sun; Yang, Bo Yeun; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo; Song, In Chan; Kim, Seok-Ki; Kim, Daehong; Lee, Jae Sung

    2016-08-01

    Visualization of biologic processes at molecular and cellular levels has revolutionized the understanding and treatment of human diseases. However, no single biomedical imaging modality provides complete information, resulting in the emergence of multimodal approaches. Combining state-of-the-art PET and MRI technologies without loss of system performance and overall image quality can provide opportunities for new scientific and clinical innovations. Here, we present a multiparametric PET/MR imager based on a small-animal dedicated, high-performance, silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) PET system and a 7-T MR scanner. A SiPM-based PET insert that has the peak sensitivity of 3.4% and center volumetric resolution of 1.92/0.53 mm(3) (filtered backprojection/ordered-subset expectation maximization) was developed. The SiPM PET insert was placed between the mouse body transceiver coil and gradient coil of a 7-T small-animal MRI scanner for simultaneous PET/MRI. Mutual interference between the MRI and SiPM PET systems was evaluated using various MR pulse sequences. A cylindric corn oil phantom was scanned to assess the effects of the SiPM PET on the MR image acquisition. To assess the influence of MRI on the PET imaging functions, several PET performance indicators including scintillation pulse shape, flood image quality, energy spectrum, counting rate, and phantom image quality were evaluated with and without the application of MR pulse sequences. Simultaneous mouse PET/MRI studies were also performed to demonstrate the potential and usefulness of the multiparametric PET/MRI in preclinical applications. Excellent performance and stability of the PET system were demonstrated, and the PET/MRI combination did not result in significant image quality degradation of either modality. Finally, simultaneous PET/MRI studies in mice demonstrated the feasibility of the developed system for evaluating the biochemical and cellular changes in a brain tumor model and facilitating the

  8. Measurement of SUVs-Maximum for Normal Region Using VOI in PET/MRI and PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Kyu Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to establish an overall data set associated with the VOI (Volume of Interest, which is available for simultaneous assessment of PET/MRI and PET/CT regardless of the use of contrast media. The participants as objects of this investigation are 26 healthy examinees in Korea, SUV (standardized-uptake-values-maximum evaluation for whole-body F-18 FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose PET/MRI image using VOI of normal region has exhibited very significant difference to that for whole-body F-18 FDG PET/CT image (significant probability value (P0.8. It is shown that one needs to decide SUVs-maximum for PET/MRI with the reduction of 25.0~26.4% from their evaluated value and needs to decide with the reduction of 28.8~29.4% in the same situation but with the use of contrast media. The use of SUVLBM-maximum (SUVLean Body Mass-maximum is very advantageous in reading overall image of PET/CT and PET/MRI to medical doctors and researchers, if we consider its convenience and efficiency. We expect that this research enhances the level of the early stage accurate diagnosis with whole-body images of PET/MRI and PET/CT.

  9. Demography of the pet dog and cat population on the island of Ireland and human factors influencing pet ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Martin; Canty, Mary J; More, Simon J

    2009-11-01

    Published data on aspects of domestic pet demographics are available in many countries. Several of these studies have linked household demographics, such as the presence of children in the household, to pet ownership. There is very little published information about the demography of domestic pets on the island of Ireland (the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland). This study was conducted to describe the demography of the pet dog and cat populations on the island of Ireland and to identify human factors influencing pet ownership. A questionnaire was designed and administered to households to collect data about the demographics of households and their dogs and cats. The questions related to location, building structure, social class, nationality and family structure of the household, and the sex, age and source of each pet dog and/or cat. The survey was administered by a commercial company, using computer-assisted telephone interview techniques to 1250 households selected using random digit dialling and quota controls. In this study, a pet dog was defined as a dog that was been fed by a household and considered a pet by the participant of the study. A pet cat was defined as a cat that was both fed by the household and allowed into the house. The results show that 35.6% of households in Ireland have one or more pet dogs and 10.4% of households have one or more pet cats. In total, 47.3% of pet dogs and 76.1% of pet cats were neutered. Females of both species are more likely to be neutered than males. Factors associated with dog ownership included location, house type, household social class, household composition, the presence of school children in the house, and the presence of a cat in the house. Factors associated with pet cat ownership included the type of house structure, the presence of a dog in the house and the gender and age of the participant. Cats tend to stray into households. This study was the first to provide detailed information about the

  10. Pet ownership, dog types and attachment to pets in 9–10 year old children in Liverpool, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic differences in childhood ownership and attitudes to pets. The objective of this study was to describe the factors associated with living with different pet types, as well as factors that may influence the intensity of relationship or ‘attachment’ that children have to their pet. Data were collected using a survey of 1021 9–10 year old primary school children in a deprived area of the city of Liverpool, UK. Results Dogs were the most common pet owned, most common ‘favourite’ pet, and species most attached to. Twenty-seven percent of dog-owning children (10% of all children surveyed) reported living with a ‘Bull Breed’ dog (which includes Pit Bulls and Staffordshire Bull Terriers), and the most popular dog breed owned was the Staffordshire Bull Terrier. Multivariable regression modelling identified a number of variables associated with ownership of different pets and the strength of attachment to the child’s favourite pet. Girls were more likely to own most pet types, but were no more or less attached to their favourite pet than boys. Children of white ethnicity were more likely to own dogs, rodents and ‘other’ pets but were no more or less attached to their pets than children of non-white ethnicity. Single and youngest children were no more or less likely to own pets than those with younger brothers and sisters, but they showed greater attachment to their pets. Children that owned dogs lived in more deprived areas than those without dogs, and deprivation increased with number of dogs owned. ‘Pit Bull or cross’ and ‘Bull Breed’ dogs were more likely to be found in more deprived areas than other dog types. Non-whites were also more likely to report owning a ‘Pit Bull or cross’ than Whites. Conclusions Gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status were associated with pet ownership, and sibling status with level of attachment to the pet. These are important to consider when

  11. Pet ownership, dog types and attachment to pets in 9-10 year old children in Liverpool, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Boddy, Lynne M; Stratton, Gareth; German, Alexander J; Gaskell, Rosalind M; Coyne, Karen P; Bundred, Peter; McCune, Sandra; Dawson, Susan

    2013-05-13

    Little is known about ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic differences in childhood ownership and attitudes to pets. The objective of this study was to describe the factors associated with living with different pet types, as well as factors that may influence the intensity of relationship or 'attachment' that children have to their pet. Data were collected using a survey of 1021 9-10 year old primary school children in a deprived area of the city of Liverpool, UK. Dogs were the most common pet owned, most common 'favourite' pet, and species most attached to. Twenty-seven percent of dog-owning children (10% of all children surveyed) reported living with a 'Bull Breed' dog (which includes Pit Bulls and Staffordshire Bull Terriers), and the most popular dog breed owned was the Staffordshire Bull Terrier. Multivariable regression modelling identified a number of variables associated with ownership of different pets and the strength of attachment to the child's favourite pet. Girls were more likely to own most pet types, but were no more or less attached to their favourite pet than boys. Children of white ethnicity were more likely to own dogs, rodents and 'other' pets but were no more or less attached to their pets than children of non-white ethnicity. Single and youngest children were no more or less likely to own pets than those with younger brothers and sisters, but they showed greater attachment to their pets. Children that owned dogs lived in more deprived areas than those without dogs, and deprivation increased with number of dogs owned. 'Pit Bull or cross' and 'Bull Breed' dogs were more likely to be found in more deprived areas than other dog types. Non-whites were also more likely to report owning a 'Pit Bull or cross' than Whites. Gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status were associated with pet ownership, and sibling status with level of attachment to the pet. These are important to consider when conducting research into the health benefits and risks of the

  12. Un guijarro no es un canto rodado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coronado Castillo, Ángel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The sense or meaning of a word resides in thought and only manifests itself when the word is used. Yet the sense conveyed can be equivocal if the word is taken out of its context, spatial as well as temporal. Considering the present time then, we are dealing with the determination of a space, with exploring around the contextual area. The study that resulted in this paper involves geography, but is no geographical research; at most research on human geography. Although it involves speech, its direct object is not language. Neither it is, in strictness, ethnography nor cultural anthropology. But it concerns all of these fields and, therefore, cannot stay away from any of them. Only one concept, perhaps, overrides the whole undertaking and meets the double condition of being simple and complex at the same time: the concept of elementary area. This concept rests upon the seminal idea of taking the sense and meaning of something (in this case, a name or a noun as the use given to such something (such name or noun in a particular space: a here and a now. One word or signifier, one single meaning; that is all there is. Yet it is this extreme simplification that which allows freedom of speculation, clear and refined.

    El sentido de una palabra está en el pensamiento y sólo se hace manifiesto a través de dicha palabra. Pero la información que conlleva la misma es equívoca si hacemos abstracción de un lugar y de un tiempo. Sea el tiempo actual. Se trata, pues, de la determinación de un lugar, de indagar acerca del territorio. El estudio propuesto trata, pues, de geografía, pero no es geografía; acaso geografía humana. Concierne al habla, pero su objeto directo no es la lengua. No es tampoco, en sentido estricto, etnografía ni antropología cultural. Pero siendo un poco todo ello, no puede prescindir de nada. Sólo uno de sus conceptos, quizá, presida todo el conjunto y reúna la doble condición de ser complejo y a la vez simple:

  13. Un futuro sin memoria

    OpenAIRE

    Espuelas, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    La puesta en cuestión de la arquitectura en este momento, en que ha dejado de ser una herramienta útil para los procesos de producción-consumo, tiene un paralelismo con la crisis que sufrió en los años Sesenta debido al agotamiento del Movimiento Moderno. El artículo hace un repaso a cómo el grupo radical Superstudio propuso la reducción de la arquitectura a un punto cero desde el que cuestionar el futuro de la arquitectura. ENG: The questioning of architecture at this time,...

  14. Un futuro sin memoria

    OpenAIRE

    Espuelas, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    La puesta en cuestión de la arquitectura en este momento, en que ha dejado de ser una herramienta útil para los procesos de producción-consumo, tiene un paralelismo con la crisis que sufrió en los años Sesenta debido al agotamiento del Movimiento Moderno. El artículo hace un repaso a cómo el grupo radical Superstudio propuso la reducción de la arquitectura a un punto cero desde el que cuestionar el futuro de la arquitectura. The questioning of architecture at this time,...

  15. Does owning a pet protect older people against loneliness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikhartova, Jitka; Bowling, Ann; Victor, Christina

    2014-09-20

    Pet ownership is thought to make a positive contribution to health, health behaviours and the general well-being of older people. More specifically pet ownership is often proposed as a solution to the problem of loneliness in later life and specific 'pet based' interventions have been developed to combat loneliness. However the evidence to support this relationship is slim and it is assumed that pet ownership is a protection against loneliness rather than a response to loneliness. The aim of this paper is to examine the association between pet ownership and loneliness by exploring if pet ownership is a response to, or protection against, loneliness using Waves 0-5 from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Using data from 5,210 men and women in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, cross-sectional and longitudinal regression analysis was used to assess the bi-directional relationship between loneliness and pet ownership among adults aged 50 + . In 2001 (wave 0) 41% of participants were pet owners compared with 30% in 2010 (Wave 5). The association between pet ownership and loneliness is stronger in women than men, and in both directions (i.e. pet ownership predicting loneliness and loneliness predicting pet ownership) and of the similar magnitude (OR 1.2-1.4). Age, social relationships, demographic factors and health behaviour variables have only a minimal influence upon the association between loneliness and pet ownership. The results of our longitudinal analysis showed that women who reported being lonely always in Waves 0 to 5 were more likely to have a pet in Wave 5. Reported loneliness is dependent on socio-demographic characteristics such as gender, household income, household living arrangements and health status. Taking those factors into account, owning a pet significantly influences later reporting of loneliness in women in our longitudinal analysis. In the reverse direction, reported loneliness influences pet ownership in later waves

  16. The effect of MR surface coils on PET quantification in whole-body PET/MR: results from a pseudo-PET/MR phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellmann, L; Quick, H H; Bockisch, A; Herzog, H; Beyer, T

    2011-05-01

    The use of magnetic resonance (MR) radiofrequency (RF) surface coils is a prerequisite for high-quality positron emission tomography (PET)/MR imaging. In lack of in-gantry transmission (TX) sources, the exact position of the RF coils is unknown in PET/MR, and may, therefore, lead to false attenuation correction (AC) of the emission (EM) data. The authors assess lesion and background quantification in AC-PET by mimicking different PET/MR imaging situations using a whole-body (WB) PET-only tomograph. Phantom experiments were performed on a PET tomograph with 68 Ge-rod TX sources. First, a 15-cm plastic cylinder was filled uniformly with [18F]-FDG to simulate a head study. Second, a NEMA NU-2001 image quality phantom (35 x 25 x 25 cm3) was filled uniformly with [18F]-FDG to simulate torso imaging. The phantom contained six lesions (10-38 mm diameter, lesion-to-background ratio 6:1) centred around a 5 cm diameter lung insert. EM and TX measurements were acquired with and without MR head (cylinder) and surface (NU-2001 phantom) RF coils in place. The following imaging situations were mimicked in both head and torso phantom studies: (1) PET scan without MR coils in EM and TX for reference, (2) PET scan with coils in both EM and TX, and (3) PET scan with coils in EM but without coils in TX. Two more set-ups were performed for the torso phantom: (4) PET scan with coils in EM only and phantom shifted slightly compared to (3), and (5) PET scan with coils in EM and TX following local displacement of the surface coils. PET EM data (1)-(4) were corrected for attenuation and scatter using cold TX data. Imaging situations (1)-(3) were repeated with the cylinder phantom and head coil in a combined PET/MR prototype system employing template-based AC. Head phantom: In case the MR head coils were not accounted for during AC (3), central and peripheral background activity concentration was underestimated by 13%-19% when compared to the reference setup (1). The effects of MR coil

  17. Human health concerns from pet ownership after a tornado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, S E; Champion, M

    1996-01-01

    Although 50% to 60% of North American households own pets and many of these pets are considered family members, there is little information on the impact of pet ownership on pet-owning families affected by disasters. This case report describes some of the effects of a tornado on 17 families whose dwellings were destroyed. The setting was a typical urban trailer park. After a tornado at the Sagamore Village Trailer Park in north central Indiana, 104 families were evacuated. Seventeen (16.3%) of these families owned pets. For 14 families (13.5%), pet ownership had an important impact on the families' recovery from the tornado. Public- and mental-health concerns that arose from pet ownership included failure to evacuate a dangerous site, attempts to re-enter a dangerous site, separation anxiety leading to psychosomatic disturbances, and the need for additional animal care. In urban disasters, the behaviors of families with a human-animal bond are likely to pose a significant risk to their own and others' health and safety in urban disasters. In this small study of families affected by a tornado, the most prominent public-health concerns were failure to evacuate because of a pet and attempts of re-entry to save a pet; the most common mental-health concerns resulted from separation anxiety from a pet and refusal to accept medical treatment until a pet's well-being can be assured. These are thought to be typical issues that will arise out of the human-animal bond in urban disaster situations and differ considerably from traditional public-health concerns over dog bites, spread of zoonotic diseases, and human food contamination. Medical disaster preparedness planning should consider the substantial effects that the human-animal bond is likely to have on human recovery from large-scale urban disasters.

  18. Modelisation de l'etape de chauffage infrarouge des biocomposites de type PET-Chanvre en thermoformage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamani, Ibrahime

    Dans le contexte du developpement durable, les biocomposites constitues de polymeres renforces de fibres vegetales representent pour plusieurs laboratoires, la nouvelle generation de materiaux a application specifique. L'association des fibres cellulosiques (non abrasives, resistantes, legeres, structurees) avec les materiaux classiques (metaux, plastiques, fibres synthetiques, betons, etc.) permet, generalement, la reduction du cout de fabrication de produits avec moins d'impact environnemental. Dans le domaine du thermoformage, l'utilisation des biocomposites, a matrice thermoplastique avec renforts vegetaux, n'a pas ete suffisamment etudiee. Pour ce procede, la mise en forme de ces materiaux s'effectue principalement en deux etapes : i) chauffage infrarouge (IR) dans un four et, ensuite, ii) mise en forme du produit desire a l'aide d'un moule de geometrie donnee. La qualite du produit moule depend largement de la repartition de la temperature dans la preforme lors du chauffage. Afin d'elucider la reponse thermique aux radiations infrarouges des preformes composites minces, a base d'une matrice thermoplastique semi-transparente (polyethylene terephtalate, PET) renforcee de fibres de chanvres, nous avons developpe une approche hybride. Elle est basee sur le couplage de la methode des elements finis (MEF), non lineaire en 3D (pour l'equation de conservation de l'energie), et la methode des ordonnees discrete 1D (MOD) (pour l'equation de transfert radiatif). Cette approche presente l'avantage de pouvoir s'adapter au procede dans toute sa complexite. Dans un premier temps, nous avons confronte nos resultats numeriques avec les donnees experimentales dans le cas du PET vierge. Ensuite, nous avons etudie numeriquement l'etape de chauffage infrarouge pour le thermoformage de trois types de plaque mince en biocomposites (PET-Chanvre). Les resultats obtenus par la modelisation hybride montrent une bonne concordance avec les resultats analytiques et les observations

  19. Il mondo in un giardino (e in un labirinto, in un tappeto, in un romanzo illimitato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Laino

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Per Michel Foucault il giardino è il più antico esempio di un’eterotopia che “ha il potere di giustapporre, in un unico luogo reale, diversi spazi, diversi luoghi che sono tra loro incompatibili” (Foucault 1994, 16; è un luogo sacro di tradizione millenaria che, in Oriente, rappresenta simbolicamente un microcosmo, “la più piccola particella del mondo e […] anche la totalità del mondo” (ibid. 18. Il giardino è un’eterotopia che Foucault pone in parallelo allo spazio teatrale e al cinema, che nella propria cornice pure riproducono il mondo nella sua sostanza eterogenea: nell’opera d’arte, come nel giardino, convivono diversi luoghi, le distanze sono ridotte alla geometria della propria rappresentazione, il tempo si comprime o si espande all’interno di un ordine narrativo funzionale alla rilettura dell’artista.

  20. Simultaneous PET/MRI with 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (hyperPET): phantom-based evaluation of PET quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Adam E.; Andersen, Flemming L.; Henriksen, Sarah T.

    2016-01-01

    between acquisitions with and without simultaneous 13C-MRSI was 0.83 (largest sphere) and −0.76 % (background). The average difference in net trues was −0.01 %. The average difference in 13C-MRSI SNR between acquisitions with and without simultaneous PET ranged from −2.28 to 1.21 % for all phantoms...... trues; and 13C-MRSI signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for urea and acetate phantoms. Differences between measurement conditions were evaluated using t tests. Results: PET and 13C-MRSI data acquisition could be performed simultaneously without any discernible artifacts. The average difference in PET activity...

  1. AX-PET: A novel PET concept with G-APD readout

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, M; Casella, C; Chesi, E; De Leo, R; Dissertori, G; Fanti, V; Gillam, J E; Joram, C; Lustermann, W; Nappi, E; Oliver, J F; Pauss, F; Rafecas, M; Rudge, A; Ruotsalainen, U; Schinzel, D; Schneider, T; Seguinot, J; Solevi, P; Stapnes, S; Tuna, U; Weilhammer, P

    2012-01-01

    The AX-PET collaboration has developed a novel concept for high resolution PET imaging to overcome some of the performance limitations of classical PET cameras, in particular the compromise between spatial resolution and sensitivity introduced by the parallax error. The detector consists of an arrangement of long LYSO scintillating crystals axially oriented around the field of view together with arrays of wave length shifter strips orthogonal to the crystals. This matrix allows a precise 3D measurement of the photon interaction point. This is valid both for photoelectric absorption at 511 key and for Compton scattering down to deposited energies of about 100 keV. Crystals and WLS strips are individually read out using Geiger-mode Avalanche Photo Diodes (G-APDs). The sensitivity of such a detector can be adjusted by changing the number of layers and the resolution is defined by the crystal and strip dimensions. Two AX-PET modules were built and fully characterized in dedicated test set-ups at CERN, with point-...

  2. The Maillard reaction and pet food processing: effects on nutritive value and pet health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.; Bosch, G.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Alexander, L.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    The Maillard reaction, which can occur during heat processing of pet foods or ingredients, is known to reduce the bioavailability of essential amino acids such as lysine due to the formation of early and advanced Maillard reaction products (MRP) that are unavailable for utilisation by the body.

  3. Effect of filters and reconstruction algorithms on I-124 PET in Siemens Inveon PET scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Yu, A.; Kim, Jin Su

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the effects of filtering and reconstruction on Siemens I-124 PET data. Methods: A Siemens Inveon PET was used. Spatial resolution of I-124 was measured to a transverse offset of 50 mm from the center FBP, 2D ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM2D), 3D re-projection algorithm (3DRP), and maximum a posteriori (MAP) methods were tested. Non-uniformity (NU), recovery coefficient (RC), and spillover ratio (SOR) parameterized image quality. Mini deluxe phantom data of I-124 was also assessed. Results: Volumetric resolution was 7.3 mm3 from the transverse FOV center when FBP reconstruction algorithms with ramp filter was used. MAP yielded minimal NU with β =1.5. OSEM2D yielded maximal RC. SOR was below 4% for FBP with ramp, Hamming, Hanning, or Shepp-Logan filters. Based on the mini deluxe phantom results, an FBP with Hanning or Parzen filters, or a 3DRP with Hanning filter yielded feasible I-124 PET data.Conclusions: Reconstruction algorithms and filters were compared. FBP with Hanning or Parzen filters, or 3DRP with Hanning filter yielded feasible data for quantifying I-124 PET.

  4. Comparison of F-18-FLT PET and F-18-FDG PET in esophageal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Westreenen, HL; Cobben, DCP; Jager, PL; van Dullemen, HM; Wesseling, J; Elsinga, PH; Plukker, JT

    F-18-FDG PET has gained acceptance for staging of esophageal cancer. However, FDG is not tumor specific and false-positive results may occur by accumulation of FDG in benign tissue. The tracer F-18-fluoro-3'-deoxy-3'-L-fluorothymidine (F-18-FLT) might not have these drawbacks. The aim of this study

  5. So You Want a Pet... A Mini Unit on Making Responsible Decisions About Pet Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Lorraine P.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a mini-unit designed to integrate the topic of pet ownership into the teaching of responsible decision making. Includes a general discussion on the nature of decision making, rationale for the unit, and suggested activities. Although activities are designed for upper elementary grades and older, they can be adapted for younger students.…

  6. Un trabajo interdisciplinario

    OpenAIRE

    Espósito, Marisa E.; Archuby, Fernando

    1997-01-01

    El resultado de trabajos de relevamiento interdisciplinarios gestados por la Comisión de Medio Ambiente del Centro de Estudiantes de la Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo posibilitaría la creación de una Escuela de Campo y la protección de un área integrada con el factor humano en un predio que la Universidad Nacional de La Plata posee en la provincia de Misiones. Fundación Museo La Plata

  7. Preproyecto de un videojuego

    OpenAIRE

    OTERMIN SANZ, JESÚS

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es acercarse al proceso de diseño de un videojuego, desde la preproducción del mismo hasta la producción, desarrollando una narrativa y haciendo especial hincapié en el modelado de personajes 3D y sus animaciones básicas. Otermin Sanz, J. (2014). Preproyecto de un videojuego. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/47355. Archivo delegado

  8. Effect of MR contrast agents on quantitative accuracy of PET in combined whole-body PET/MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lois, Cristina [University of Santiago de Compostela, Department of Particle Physics, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Imaging Science Institute, Tuebingen (Germany); Bezrukov, Ilja [Eberhard Karls University, Laboratory for Preclinical Imaging and Imaging Technology of the Werner Siemens Foundation, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Tuebingen (Germany); Max Plank Institute for Intelligent Systems, Department of Empirical Inference, Tuebingen (Germany); Schmidt, Holger [Eberhard Karls University, Laboratory for Preclinical Imaging and Imaging Technology of the Werner Siemens Foundation, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Tuebingen (Germany); Eberhard Karls University, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Schwenzer, Nina; Werner, Matthias K. [Eberhard Karls University, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Kupferschlaeger, Juergen [Eberhard Karls University, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Beyer, Thomas [Imaging Science Institute, Tuebingen (Germany); cmi-experts GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-11-15

    Clinical PET/MR acquisition protocols entail the use of MR contrast agents (MRCA) that could potentially affect PET quantification following MR-based attenuation correction (AC). We assessed the effect of oral and intravenous (IV) MRCA on PET quantification in PET/MR imaging. We employed two MRCA: Lumirem {sup registered} (oral) and Gadovist {sup registered} (IV). First, we determined their reference PET attenuation values using a PET transmission scan (ECAT-EXACT HR+, Siemens) and a CT scan (PET/CT Biograph 16 HI-REZ, Siemens). Second, we evaluated the attenuation of PET signals in the presence of MRCA. Phantoms were filled with clinically relevant concentrations of MRCA in a background of water and {sup 18}F-fluoride, and imaged using a PET/CT scanner (Biograph 16 HI-REZ, Siemens) and a PET/MR scanner (Biograph mMR, Siemens). Third, we investigated the effect of clinically relevant volumes of MRCA on MR-based AC using human pilot data: a patient study employing Gadovist {sup registered} (IV) and a volunteer study employing two different oral MRCA (Lumirem {sup registered} and pineapple juice). MR-based attenuation maps were calculated following Dixon-based fat-water segmentation and an external atlas-based and pattern recognition (AT and PR) algorithm. IV and oral MRCA in clinically relevant concentrations were found to have PET attenuation values similar to those of water. The phantom experiments showed that under clinical conditions IV and oral MRCA did not yield additional attenuation of PET emission signals. Patient scans showed that PET attenuation maps are not biased after the administration of IV MRCA but may be biased, however, after ingestion of iron oxide-based oral MRCA when segmentation-based AC algorithms are used. Alternative AC algorithms, such as AT and PR, or alternative oral contrast agents, such as pineapple juice, can yield unbiased attenuation maps. In clinical PET/MR scenarios MRCA are not expected to lead to markedly increased attenuation

  9. Effect of MR contrast agents on quantitative accuracy of PET in combined whole-body PET/MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lois, Cristina; Bezrukov, Ilja; Schmidt, Holger; Schwenzer, Nina; Werner, Matthias K; Kupferschläger, Jürgen; Beyer, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Clinical PET/MR acquisition protocols entail the use of MR contrast agents (MRCA) that could potentially affect PET quantification following MR-based attenuation correction (AC). We assessed the effect of oral and intravenous (IV) MRCA on PET quantification in PET/MR imaging. We employed two MRCA: Lumirem (oral) and Gadovist (IV). First, we determined their reference PET attenuation values using a PET transmission scan (ECAT-EXACT HR+, Siemens) and a CT scan (PET/CT Biograph 16 HI-REZ, Siemens). Second, we evaluated the attenuation of PET signals in the presence of MRCA. Phantoms were filled with clinically relevant concentrations of MRCA in a background of water and (18)F-fluoride, and imaged using a PET/CT scanner (Biograph 16 HI-REZ, Siemens) and a PET/MR scanner (Biograph mMR, Siemens). Third, we investigated the effect of clinically relevant volumes of MRCA on MR-based AC using human pilot data: a patient study employing Gadovist (IV) and a volunteer study employing two different oral MRCA (Lumirem and pineapple juice). MR-based attenuation maps were calculated following Dixon-based fat-water segmentation and an external atlas-based and pattern recognition (AT&PR) algorithm. IV and oral MRCA in clinically relevant concentrations were found to have PET attenuation values similar to those of water. The phantom experiments showed that under clinical conditions IV and oral MRCA did not yield additional attenuation of PET emission signals. Patient scans showed that PET attenuation maps are not biased after the administration of IV MRCA but may be biased, however, after ingestion of iron oxide-based oral MRCA when segmentation-based AC algorithms are used. Alternative AC algorithms, such as AT&PR, or alternative oral contrast agents, such as pineapple juice, can yield unbiased attenuation maps. In clinical PET/MR scenarios MRCA are not expected to lead to markedly increased attenuation of the PET emission signals. MR-based attenuation maps may be biased by oral iron

  10. TNM Staging of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Comparison of PET/MR and PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huellner, Martin W; de Galiza Barbosa, Felipe; Husmann, Lars; Pietsch, Carsten M; Mader, Cäcilia E; Burger, Irene A; Stolzmann, Paul; Delso, Gaspar; Frauenfelder, Thomas; von Schulthess, Gustav K; Veit-Haibach, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of whole-body unenhanced PET/MR with that of PET/CT in determining the stage of non-small cell lung cancer. This study was approved by the institutional review board and by national government authorities. Forty-two consecutive patients referred for the initial staging of non-small cell lung cancer underwent whole-body imaging with a sequential trimodality PET/CT/MR system. PET/MR and PET/CT datasets were evaluated separately, and a TNM stage was assigned on the basis of the image analysis. Nodal stations in the chest were identified according to the mapping system of the American Thoracic Society. The standard of reference was histopathology for the tumor stage in 20 subjects, for the nodal stage in 22 patients, and for extrathoracic metastases in 5 subjects. All other lesions were confirmed by at least 1 different imaging method. A Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used for comparing PET/MR with PET/CT. PET/MR did not provide additional information compared with PET/CT. The diagnostic accuracy of both imaging modalities was equal (T staging, P = 0.177; N staging, P = 0.114; M staging, P = 0.465), however, with advantages for PET/CT by trend. In the subgroup with histopathologic confirmation of T and N stages, the situation was similar (T staging, P = 0.705; N staging, P = 0.334). This study indicates that PET/MR using a fast MR protocol does not improve the diagnostic accuracy of the staging of non-small cell lung cancer. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  11. Calcific Tendinosis: A Potential Mimicker of Malignancy on PET

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Morrison, William; Zoga, Adam; Bergin, Diane; Gopez, Angela; Fayad, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 53 year old female with breast cancer and elevated glucose activity at the left greater trochanter on PET imaging. Further imaging with CT and MRI showed that this focus of increased FDG activity on PET was calcific tendinosis of the gluteus medius tendon, which mimicked metastatic disease in this patient.

  12. Alternative PET tracers in head and neck cancer. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedman, Jan; Pruim, Jan; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Halmos, Gyorgy; Langedijk, Johannes A.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a standard in staging Head and Neck cancer. While F-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) is the most frequently used radiopharmaceutical, glycolysis is not the only metabolic process that can be visualized. Different PET tracers can also be used to

  13. Contourlet-based active contour model for PET image segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdoli, M.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.; Zaidi, H.

    Purpose: PET-guided radiation therapy treatment planning, clinical diagnosis, assessment of tumor growth, and therapy response rely on the accurate delineation of the tumor volume and quantification of tracer uptake. Most PET image segmentation techniques proposed thus far are suboptimal in the

  14. An Evaluation of PET Using Extant Achievement Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeville, Garrett K.

    Data gathered under various statewide testing programs in South Carolina were used to assess the effects of PET (data base) training for teachers on student achievement. Reading and mathematics achievement data for students in grades 1 through 4 in South Carolina were compared for teachers who had received PET training and those who did not. A…

  15. Importance of Attenuation Correction (AC) for Small Animal PET Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ali, Henrik H.; Bodholdt, Rasmus Poul; Jørgensen, Jesper Tranekjær

    2012-01-01

    was performed. Methods: Ten NMRI nude mice with subcutaneous implantation of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were scanned consecutively in small animal PET and CT scanners (MicroPETTM Focus 120 and ImTek’s MicroCATTM II). CT-based AC, PET-based AC and uniform AC methods were compared. Results: The activity...

  16. Evaluation of cat brain infarction model using microPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. J.; Lee, D. S.; Kim, J. H.; Hwang, D. W.; Jung, J. G.; Lee, M. C [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, S. M [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    PET has some disadvantage in the imaging of small animal due to poor resolution. With the advance of microPET scanner, it is possible to image small animals. However, the image quality was not so much satisfactory as human image. As cats have relatively large sized brain, cat brain imaging was superior to mice or rat. In this study, we established the cat brain infarction model and evaluate it and its temporal change using microPET scanner. Two adult male cats were used. Anesthesia was done with xylazine and ketamine HCl. A burr hole was made at 1cm right lateral to the bregma. Collagenase type IV 10 ul was injected using 30G needle for 5 minutes to establish the infarction model. F-18 FDG microPET (Concorde Microsystems Inc., Knoxville. TN) scans were performed 1. 11 and 32 days after the infarction. In addition. 18F-FDG PET scans were performed using Gemini PET scanner (Philips medical systems. CA, USA) 13 and 47 days after the infarction. Two cat brain infarction models were established. The glucose metabolism of an infraction lesion improved with time. An infarction lesion was also distinguishable in the Gemini PET scan. We successfully established the cat brain infarction model and evaluated the infarcted lesion and its temporal change using F-18 FDG microPET scanner.

  17. Evaluation of cat brain infarction model using microPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Jin; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Yun Hui; Hwang, Do Won; Kim, Jin Su; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institite of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01

    PET has some disadvantage in the imaging of small animal due to poor resolution. With the advent of microPET scanner, it is possible to image small animals. However, the image quality was not good enough as human image. Due to larger brain, cat brain imaging was superior to mouse or rat. In this study, we established the cat brain infarction model and evaluate it and its temporal change using microPET scanner. Two adult male cats were used. Anesthesia was done with xylazine and ketamine HCI. A burr hole was made at 1 cm right lateral to the bregma. Collagenase type IV 10 {mu}l was injected using 30 G needle for 5 minutes to establish the infarction model. {sup 18}F-FDG microPET (Concorde Microsystems Inc., Knoxville, TN) scans were performed 1, 11 and 32 days after the infarction. In addition, {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans were performed using human PET scanner (Gemini, Philips medical systems, CA, USA) 13 and 47 days after the infarction. Two cat brain infarction models were established. The glucose metabolism of an infarction lesion improved with time. An infarction lesion was also distinguishable in the human PET scan. We successfully established the cat brain infarction model and evaluated the infarcted lesion and its temporal change using {sup 18}F-FDG microPET scanner.

  18. Methodology for quantitative rapid multi-tracer PET tumor characterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadrmas, Dan J; Hoffman, John M

    2013-10-04

    Positron emission tomography (PET) can image a wide variety of functional and physiological parameters in vivo using different radiotracers. As more is learned about the molecular basis for disease and treatment, the potential value of molecular imaging for characterizing and monitoring disease status has increased. Characterizing multiple aspects of tumor physiology by imaging multiple PET tracers in a single patient provides additional complementary information, and there is a significant body of literature supporting the potential value of multi-tracer PET imaging in oncology. However, imaging multiple PET tracers in a single patient presents a number of challenges. A number of techniques are under development for rapidly imaging multiple PET tracers in a single scan, where signal-recovery processing algorithms are employed to recover various imaging endpoints for each tracer. Dynamic imaging is generally used with tracer injections staggered in time, and kinetic constraints are utilized to estimate each tracers' contribution to the multi-tracer imaging signal. This article summarizes past and ongoing work in multi-tracer PET tumor imaging, and then organizes and describes the main algorithmic approaches for achieving multi-tracer PET signal-recovery. While significant advances have been made, the complexity of the approach necessitates protocol design, optimization, and testing for each particular tracer combination and application. Rapid multi-tracer PET techniques have great potential for both research and clinical cancer imaging applications, and continued research in this area is warranted.

  19. PET/MR Imaging in Cancers of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paspulati, Raj Mohan; Gupta, Amit

    2016-10-01

    PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an established hybrid imaging technique for staging and follow-up of gastrointestinal (GI) tract malignancies, especially for colorectal carcinoma. Dedicated hybrid PET/MR imaging scanners are currently available for clinical use. Although they will not replace regular use of PET/CT, they may have utility in selected cases of GI tract malignancies. The superior soft tissue contrast resolution and depiction of anatomy and the functional information obtained from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provided by MR imaging in PET/MR imaging are advantages over CT of PET/CT for T staging and follow-up of rectal carcinoma and for better characterization of liver lesions. Functional information from DWI and use of liver-specific MR imaging contrast agents are an added advantage in follow-up of liver metastases after systemic and locoregional treatment. New radiotracers will improve the utility of PET/MR imaging in staging and follow-up of tumors, which may not be [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose avid, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors. PET/MR imaging also has application in selected cases of cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, and pancreatic carcinoma for initial staging and follow-up assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dual-Modality PET/Ultrasound imaging of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Moses, William W.; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I.C.

    2005-11-11

    Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)will detect malignant tumors in the prostate and/or prostate bed, as well as possibly help determine tumor ''aggressiveness''. However, the relative uptake in a prostate tumor can be so great that few other anatomical landmarks are visible in a PET image. Ultrasound imaging with a transrectal probe provides anatomical detail in the prostate region that can be co-registered with the sensitive functional information from the PET imaging. Imaging the prostate with both PET and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) will help determine the location of any cancer within the prostate region. This dual-modality imaging should help provide better detection and treatment of prostate cancer. LBNL has built a high performance positron emission tomograph optimized to image the prostate.Compared to a standard whole-body PET camera, our prostate-optimized PET camera has the same sensitivity and resolution, less backgrounds and lower cost. We plan to develop the hardware and software tools needed for a validated dual PET/TRUS prostate imaging system. We also plan to develop dual prostate imaging with PET and external transabdominal ultrasound, in case the TRUS system is too uncomfortable for some patients. We present the design and intended clinical uses for these dual imaging systems.