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Sample records for veronii biotipo sobria

  1. Ingested Blood Contributes to the Specificity of the Symbiosis of Aeromonas veronii Biovar Sobria and Hirudo medicinalis, the Medicinal Leech

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    Indergand, Stefan; Graf, Joerg

    2000-01-01

    Hirudo medicinalis, the medicinal leech, usually carries in its digestive tract a pure culture of Aeromonas veronii bv. sobria. Such specificity is unusual for digestive tracts that are normally colonized by a complex microbial consortium. Important questions for the symbiotic interaction and for the medical application after microvascular surgery are whether other bacteria can proliferate or at least persist in the digestive tract of H. medicinalis and what factors contribute to the reported specificity. Using a colonization assay, we were able to compare experimentally the ability of clinical isolates and of a symbiotic strain to colonize H. medicinalis. The symbiotic A. veronii bv. sobria strain proliferated well and persisted for at least 7 days inside the digestive tract. In contrast, the proliferation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited inside the animal compared to growth in the in vitro control, indicating that the ingested blood was modified within the digestive tract. However, both strains were able to persist in the digestive tract for at least 7 days. For an Escherichia coli strain, the viable counts decreased approximately 1,000-fold within 42 h. The decrease of viable E. coli could be prevented by interfering with the activation of the membrane-attack complex of the complement system that is present in blood. This suggests that the membrane-attack complex remained active inside H. medicinalis and prevented the proliferation of sensitive bacteria. Thus, antimicrobial properties of the ingested vertebrate blood contribute to the specificity of the A. veronii-H. medicinalis symbiosis, in addition to modifications of the blood inside the digestive tract of H. medicinalis. PMID:11055917

  2. Strong Genomic and Phenotypic Heterogeneity in the Aeromonas sobria Species Complex

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    Jeff Gauthier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas sobria is a mesophilic motile aeromonad currently depicted as an opportunistic pathogen, despite increasing evidence of mutualistic interactions in salmonid fish. However, the determinants of its host-microbe associations, either mutualistic or pathogenic, remain less understood than for other aeromonad species. On one side, there is an over-representation of pathogenic interactions in the A. sobria literature, of which only three articles to date report mutualistic interactions; on the other side, genomic characterization of this species is still fairly incomplete as only two draft genomes were published prior to the present work. Consequently, no study specifically investigated the biodiversity of A. sobria. In fact, the investigation of A. sobria as a species complex may have been clouded by: (i confusion with A. veronii biovar sobria because of their similar biochemical profiles, and (ii the intrinsic low resolution of previous studies based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and multilocus sequence typing. So far, the only high-resolution, phylogenomic studies of the genus Aeromonas included one A. sobria strain (CECT 4245 / Popoff 208, making it impossible to robustly conclude on the phylogenetic intra-species diversity and the positioning among other Aeromonas species. To further understand the biodiversity and the spectrum of host-microbe interactions in A. sobria as well as its potential genomic diversity, we assessed the genomic and phenotypic heterogeneity among five A. sobria strains: two clinical isolates recovered from infected fish (JF2635 and CECT 4245, one from an infected amphibian (08005 and two recently isolated brook charr probionts (TM12 and TM18 which inhibit in vitro growth of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (a salmonid fish pathogen. A phylogenomic assessment including 2,154 softcore genes corresponding to 946,687 variable sites from 33 Aeromonas genomes confirms the status of A. sobria as a distinct species divided

  3. Biotipo y climaterio femenino

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    María Elena Díaz Sánchez

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisan algunos tópicos sobre el biotipo femenino y su modificación con el proceso de declinación de la función ovárica para alcanzar el climaterio. Se analiza la vinculación de estos aspectos con el arte y la evolución conceptual a través del tiempo. Se discuten las relaciones entre el perfil morfológico, la menopausia, los factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedades crónicas y el estilo de vida, en que se evidencia la asociación existente entre ellos para evaluar la calidad de vida y el bienestar de la mujer durante esta etapa.Some topics on the female biotype and its modification with the process of declination of the ovarian function to reach the climateric are reviewed. The connection of these aspects with art and the conceptual evolution through time are analized. The relations existing among the morphological profile, menopause, the risk factors for the development of chronic diseases, and the life style, are discussed and demonstrated to evaluate the quality of life and the wellbeing of women during this stage.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Aeromonas jandaei, A. schubertii, A. trota, and A. veronii biotype veronii.

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    Overman, T L; Janda, J M

    1999-03-01

    Fifty-six isolates of four Aeromonas species, which have been documented as causative agents of human infections or isolated from human clinical specimens, were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using a MicroScan WalkAway conventional (overnight incubation) gram-negative panel. The four species tested and the number of isolates of each were as follows: Aeromonas jandaei, 17; A. schubertii, 12; A. trota, 15; and A. veronii biotype veronii, 12. All isolates of A. trota were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested, except cefazolin (20% of isolates were resistant) and cefoxitin (13% of isolates were resistant). All isolates of A. schubertii and A. veronii biotype veronii, as well as 88% of A. jandaei isolates, were resistant to ampicillin. Resistance to ampicillin-sulbactam ranged from 25% of A. schubertii strains to 100% of A. veronii biotype veronii strains. Cefazolin resistance ranged from 17% of A. veronii biotype veronii isolates to 59% of A. jandaei isolates. Imipenem resistance was detected in 65% of A. jandaei strains and 67% of A. veronii biotype veronii strains. A. jandaei displayed resistance to piperacillin and ticarcillin in 53 and 71% of the isolates, respectively. A. veronii biotype veronii strains were 100% susceptible to piperacillin and 100% resistant to ticarcillin. These antibiogram data may be useful in establishing the identification of these four species when members of the genus Aeromonas are isolated from human clinical sources.

  5. Complex evolutionary history of the Aeromonas veronii group revealed by host interaction and DNA sequence data.

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    Adam C Silver

    Full Text Available Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria, Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii, and Aeromonas allosaccharophila are a closely related group of organisms, the Aeromonas veronii Group, that inhabit a wide range of host animals as a symbiont or pathogen. In this study, the ability of various strains to colonize the medicinal leech as a model for beneficial symbiosis and to kill wax worm larvae as a model for virulence was determined. Isolates cultured from the leech out-competed other strains in the leech model, while most strains were virulent in the wax worms. Three housekeeping genes, recA, dnaJ and gyrB, the gene encoding chitinase, chiA, and four loci associated with the type three secretion system, ascV, ascFG, aexT, and aexU were sequenced. The phylogenetic reconstruction failed to produce one consensus tree that was compatible with most of the individual genes. The Approximately Unbiased test and the Genetic Algorithm for Recombination Detection both provided further support for differing evolutionary histories among this group of genes. Two contrasting tests detected recombination within aexU, ascFG, ascV, dnaJ, and gyrB but not in aexT or chiA. Quartet decomposition analysis indicated a complex recent evolutionary history for these strains with a high frequency of horizontal gene transfer between several but not among all strains. In this study we demonstrate that at least for some strains, horizontal gene transfer occurs at a sufficient frequency to blur the signal from vertically inherited genes, despite strains being adapted to distinct niches. Simply increasing the number of genes included in the analysis is unlikely to overcome this challenge in organisms that occupy multiple niches and can exchange DNA between strains specialized to different niches. Instead, the detection of genes critical in the adaptation to specific niches may help to reveal the physiological specialization of these strains.

  6. A Report of Peritonitis from Aeromonas sobria in a Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) Patient with Necrotizing Fasciitis.

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    Janma, Jirayut; Linasmita, Patcharasarn; Changsirikulchai, Siribha

    2015-11-01

    A 70-years of age, male patient with underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and ischemic heart disease had undergone continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)for 3 years without any episodes of peritonitis. He was diagnosed with necrotizing fasciitis and later developed peritonitis after receiving a laceration from an aquatic injury suffered during the flood disaster of 2011. The blood culture, necrotic tissue and the clear dialysate collected upon admission had shown Aeromonas sobria. The route of peritonitis may be from the hematogenous spread of A. sobria resulting in necrotizing fasciitis. A. sobria should be considered as the pathogen of peritonitis in PD patients who have history of wounds from contaminated water. We suggest that the PD patients who present with septicemia and did not meet the criteria for peritonitis, the initial dialysate effluent should be sent for culture. The benefit of this is to allow early recognition and treatment of peritonitis.

  7. Post-translationally modified frog skin-derived antimicrobial peptides are effective against Aeromonas sobria.

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    Tv, Vineethkumar; R, Asha; G, Shyla; George, Sanil

    2017-03-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (brevinin1 HYba1 and brevinin1 HYba2) identified from the skin secretion of an endemic frog species of Western Ghats were studied against fish pathogens. Post-translational modifications such as c-terminal amidation and cyclization of the peptides were enhanced on the activity against Aeromonas sobria. Based on the Minimum inhibitory concentration (3 μM), cyclic amidated brevinin Hyba2 was identified as the most promising antimicrobial agent against A. sobria and can be developed further as a lead drug molecule. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical isolates of Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii harbor a nonfunctional gene similar to the thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin (trh) gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

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    Raghunath, Pendru; Maiti, Biswajit; Shekar, Malathi; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2010-06-01

    Thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin encoded by the trh gene is considered a major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections. In this study, we report the presence of a trh homolog in three clinical isolates of Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii. The presence of a trh homolog in these strains of A. veronii was confirmed by PCR, followed by cloning, sequencing and colony hybridization using a digoxigenin-labelled probe. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the A. veronii trh gene had an identity of 99% and 84% to the trh1 and trh2 genes of V. parahaemolyticus, respectively. However, the expression of a trh-like gene in A. veronii could not be detected by reverse transcription PCR. Hence, the role of the gene product in the virulence of A. veronii strains is not clear. Further, these A. veronii isolates were negative for the ure gene encoding urease and the transposase gene by PCR. These genes are part of the trh gene cluster in V. parahaemolyticus. However, the presence of a trh homolog in a pathogen other than V. parahaemolyticus points to the fact that detection of the trh gene in stool samples, seafood enrichments or environmental samples does not always imply that trh-carrying V. parahaemolyticus are present.

  9. Asociación entre el biotipo facial y la sobremordida. Estudio piloto

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Tito, Marco Antonio; Yañez-Chávez, Emerson Elecsi

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre el biotipo facial y el nivel de sobremordida. Material y métodos: La muestra estuvo constituida por 152 estudiantes entre 12 y 17 años con dentición permanente. Se tomaron registros fotográficos en norma frontal con los estudiantes en posición natural de la cabeza. Sobre las fotografías impresas se determinó el ángulo de apertura facial para establecer el biotipo facial. El registro de la sobremordida vertical se realizó de forma clínica con la ayuda d...

  10. Detection of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in association with an Aeromonas sobria infection of Carassius carassius (L.), in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichi, G.; Cardeti, G.; Cocumelli, C.

    2013-01-01

    anus and widespread haemorrhages in the body, fins, gills and eyes. Haemorrhages in internal organs and spleen granulomas were also observed. Bacteria isolated from the brain, kidney and spleen of affected fish were identified as A. sobria. Microscopic lesions observed in gills were characterized...

  11. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio

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    Jingjing Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control.

  12. Nucleotide sequences and characterization of haemolysin genes from Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria.

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    Hirono, I; Aoki, T; Asao, T; Kozaki, S

    1992-12-01

    Extracellular haemolysin is thought to be one of the important virulence factors in Aeromonas infection. Two extracellular haemolysin genes (AHH3 and AHH4) from Aeromonas hydrophila strain 28SA, one (AHH5) from A. hydrophila strain AH-1 and one (ASA1) from Aeromonas sobria strain 33 were cloned into cosmid and plasmid vector DNA in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequences of the open reading frames of AHH3 and AHH4 are both 1476 basepairs (bp), whereas AHH5 and ASA1 are 1455 and 1467 bp in length, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of AHH3, AHH4, AHH5 and the previously reported aerolysin from A. hydrophila showed a significant degree of sequence homology of over 90% each. The amino acid identity of the ASA1 haemolysin and those from A. hydrophila and Aeromonas trota aerolysins ranged from 58-68%. From DNA hybridization analysis using our cloned haemolysin genes as probes, we found that the AHH5 and ASA1 DNA probes hybridized with about 31 and 75% strains of motile Aeromonas species, respectively. The activity of haemolysins of cloned genes were different in medium agar containing various erythrocytes.

  13. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by Pseudomonas veronii AS41G inhabiting Annona squamosa L.

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    Baker, Syed; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2015-11-05

    Biogenic principles to nanotechnology have generated tremendous attention in recent past owing eco friendly benign process for synthesis of nanoparticles. Present investigation reports extracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles using cell free supernatant of Pseudomonas veronii AS 41G, a novel endophyte isolated from Annona squamosa L. Gold nanoparticles formation was confirmed with UV-Visible spectrophotometer. FTIR analysis predicted various functional groups responsible for reduction of metal salts and stabilization of gold nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were crystalline in nature as shown in XRD pattern. TEM analysis revealed morphological characteristics of nanoparticles with different size. Thus the present study attributes for facile process for synthesis of gold nanoparticles as an alternative for conventional methods. The study also highlights the new role of novel bacterium Pseudomonas veronii AS41G which will be very valuable as a record for the researchers working on it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Small Protein B upregulates sensor kinase bvgS expression in Aeromonas veronii

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    Zhu eLiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies reveal that Small Protein B (SmpB, a class of well-conserved tmRNA-binding proteins, is essential for the trans-translation process, which functions as a system for translation surveillance and ribosome rescue. Here, we report a previously unrecognized mechanism by which SmpB alone positively regulates the expression of a sensor kinase, BvgS, in Aeromonas veronii. A reporter plasmid was constructed in which the promoter of bvgS was used to control the expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP gene. When the reporter plasmid was co-transformed with a SmpB expression construct into E. coli, the relative fluorescence intensity increased about 3-fold. Transformation with a truncated form of smpB gene showed that the C-terminus had little effect, while N-terminus unexpectedly increased eGFP production. Next, a series of SmpB mutants were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. When the mutants SmpB (G11S or SmpB (E32AG was used in the experiment, eGFP expression dropped significantly compared with that of wild type SmpB. Further,purified SmpB was shown to bind the promoter regions of bvgS in the agarose gel retardation assay. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that eGFP transcript levels increased approximately 25-fold in the presence of SmpB. Likewise, bvgS transcripts decreased significantly in smpB knockout A. veronii. Similar to BvgS inhibition, smpB knockout in A. veronii displayed a reduced capability in salt tolerance. Collectively, the data presented here will facilitate a deeper understanding of SmpB-mediated regulatory circuits as a transcriptional factor in A. veronii.

  15. Biochemical and molecular characterization of tetracycline-resistant Aeromonas veronii isolates from catfish.

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    Nawaz, Mohamed; Sung, Kidon; Khan, Saeed A; Khan, Ashraf A; Steele, Roger

    2006-10-01

    Eighty-one tetracycline-resistant Aeromonas sp. strains were isolated from farm-raised catfish. Morphological and biochemical characteristics indicated that 23 of the 81 aeromonads were Aeromonas hydrophila, 7 isolates were Aeromonas trota, 6 isolates were Aeromonas caviae, 42 isolates were Aeromonas veronii, and 3 isolates were Aeromonas jandaei. However, the AluI and MboI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of the PCR-amplified 1.4-kb 16S rRNA gene from all 81 tetracycline-resistant aeromonads from catfish were identical to the RFLP banding patterns of A. veronii ATCC 35626, indicating that all 81 isolates were strains of A. veronii. A multiplex PCR assay successfully amplified the 5 tetracycline-resistant genes (tetA to E) from the genomic DNA of all 81 isolates. The assay determined that tetE was the dominant gene occurring in 73/81 (90.0%) of the aeromonads. Plasmids (2.0 to 20 kb) were isolated from 33 of the 81 isolates. Dendrogram analysis of the SpeI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified 15 distinct macrorestriction patterns among the isolates. Our results indicate the need for use of 16S rRNA in the identification of Aeromonas spp. and the prevalence of catfish as a reservoir of tet genes.

  16. Lactobacillus plantarum (VR1) isolated from an ayurvedic medicine (Kutajarista) ameliorates in vitro cellular damage caused by Aeromonas veronii.

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    Kumar, Himanshu; Rangrez, Ashraf Y; Dayananda, Kannayakanahalli M; Atre, Ashwini N; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2011-06-27

    Lactobacillus plantarum is considered as a safe and effective probiotic microorganism. Among various sources of isolation, traditionally fermented foods are considered to be rich in Lactobacillus spp., which can be exploited for their probiotic attribute. Antibacterial property of L. plantarum has been demonstrated against various enteric pathogens in both in vitro and in vivo systems. This study was aimed at characterizing L. plantarum isolated from Kutajarista, an ayurvedic fermented biomedicine, and assessing its antagonistic property against a common enteropathogen Aeromonas veronii. We report the isolation of L. plantarum (VR1) from Kutajarista, and efficacy of its cell free supernatant (CFS) in amelioration of cytotoxicity caused by Aeromonas veronii. On the part of probiotic attributes, VR1 was tolerant to pH 2, 0.3% bile salts and simulated gastric juice. Additionally, VR1 also exhibited adhesive property to human intestinal HT-29 cell line. Furthermore, CFS of VR1 was antibacterial to enteric pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas veronii and clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Detailed study regarding the effect of VR1 CFS on A. veronii cytotoxicity showed a significant decrease in vacuole formation and detrimental cellular changes in Vero cells. On the other hand, A. veronii CFS caused disruption of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and actin in MDCK cell line, which was prevented by pre-incubation with CFS of VR1. This is the first study to report isolation of L. plantarum (VR1) from Kutajarista and characterisation for its probiotic attributes. Our study demonstrates the antagonistic property of VR1 to A. veronii and effect of VR1 CFS in reduction of cellular damage caused by A. veronii in both Vero and MDCK cell lines. © 2011 Kumar et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  17. Lactobacillus plantarum (VR1 isolated from an Ayurvedic medicine (Kutajarista ameliorates in vitro cellular damage caused by Aeromonas veronii

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    Patole Milind S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactobacillus plantarum is considered as a safe and effective probiotic microorganism. Among various sources of isolation, traditionally fermented foods are considered to be rich in Lactobacillus spp., which can be exploited for their probiotic attribute. Antibacterial property of L. plantarum has been demonstrated against various enteric pathogens in both in vitro and in vivo systems. This study was aimed at characterizing L. plantarum isolated from Kutajarista, an ayurvedic fermented biomedicine, and assessing its antagonistic property against a common enteropathogen Aeromonas veronii. Results We report the isolation of L. plantarum (VR1 from Kutajarista, and efficacy of its cell free supernatant (CFS in amelioration of cytotoxicity caused by Aeromonas veronii. On the part of probiotic attributes, VR1 was tolerant to pH 2, 0.3% bile salts and simulated gastric juice. Additionally, VR1 also exhibited adhesive property to human intestinal HT-29 cell line. Furthermore, CFS of VR1 was antibacterial to enteric pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas veronii and clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Detailed study regarding the effect of VR1 CFS on A. veronii cytotoxicity showed a significant decrease in vacuole formation and detrimental cellular changes in Vero cells. On the other hand, A. veronii CFS caused disruption of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and actin in MDCK cell line, which was prevented by pre-incubation with CFS of VR1. Conclusions This is the first study to report isolation of L. plantarum (VR1 from Kutajarista and characterisation for its probiotic attributes. Our study demonstrates the antagonistic property of VR1 to A. veronii and effect of VR1 CFS in reduction of cellular damage caused by A. veronii in both Vero and MDCK cell lines.

  18. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Mannose Receptor in Zebra Fish (Danio rerio during Infection with Aeromonas sobria

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    Feifei Zheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mannose receptor (MR is a member of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, which plays a significant role in immunity responses. Much work on MR has been done in mammals and birds while little in fish. In this report, a MR gene (designated as zfMR was cloned from zebra fish (Danio rerio, which is an attractive model for the studies of animal diseases. The full-length cDNA of zfMR contains 6248 bp encoding a putative protein of 1428 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequences showed that zfMR contained a cysteine-rich domain, a single fibronectin type II (FN II domain, eight C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs, a transmembrane domain and a short C-terminal cytoplasmic domain, sharing highly conserved structures with MRs from the other species. The MR mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues with highest level in kidney. The temporal expression patterns of MR, IL-1β and TNF-α mRNAs were analyzed in the liver, spleen, kidney and intestine post of infection with Aeromonas sobria. By immunohistochemistry assay, slight enhancement of MR protein was also observed in the spleen and intestine of the infected zebra fish. The established zebra fish-A. sobria infection model will be valuable for elucidating the role of MR in fish immune responses to infection.

  19. Identificación y tipificación de biotipos y serotipos de Yersinia enterocolitica

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    Elizalde Castañeda Paulino

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer la existencia de Yersinia enterocolitica en suínos visiblemente sanos y sacrificados para el consumo humano. MÉTODOS: Fueron estudiadas 100 muestras de tejido linfático obtenidas en el momento del sacrifício, en un matadero del Estado de México. Fueron realizados muestreos pilotos de 20 casos, de los cuales 20% fueron positivos, permitiendo obtener una muestra estudiada (n=100. Las muestras colectadas de tejido linfático fueron acondicionadas para el aislamiento de Yersinia enterocolitica en caldo de Rappaport y en medio de cultivo de Salmonella-Shigella y MacConkey. Las identificaciones fueron efectuadas por medio de pruebas bioquímicas y serológicas, utilizándose en el caso los antisueros O:3, O:8 y O:9 para la biotipificación correspondiente. RESULTADOS: Fueron obtenidos 22 aislamientos tipificándose 8 serotipos pertenecientes al O:3 y 8 al O:9 correspondientes al biotipo 1; y, en 6 muestras no fue posible la serotipificación. No se encontró en el total de los aislados el serotipo O:8. CONCLUSIONES: En base en la metodología, se registró la presencia de Y. enterocolitica y sus serogrupos en tejido linfático de porcinos por la primera vez en México; esto es importante porque el patógeno y sus serotipos aislados están comprometidos con mayor frecuencia con problemas de salud pública.

  20. Identificación y tipificación de biotipos y serotipos de Yersinia enterocolitica

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    Paulino Elizalde Castañeda

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer la existencia de Yersinia enterocolitica en suínos visiblemente sanos y sacrificados para el consumo humano. MÉTODOS: Fueron estudiadas 100 muestras de tejido linfático obtenidas en el momento del sacrifício, en un matadero del Estado de México. Fueron realizados muestreos pilotos de 20 casos, de los cuales 20% fueron positivos, permitiendo obtener una muestra estudiada (n=100. Las muestras colectadas de tejido linfático fueron acondicionadas para el aislamiento de Yersinia enterocolitica en caldo de Rappaport y en medio de cultivo de Salmonella-Shigella y MacConkey. Las identificaciones fueron efectuadas por medio de pruebas bioquímicas y serológicas, utilizándose en el caso los antisueros O:3, O:8 y O:9 para la biotipificación correspondiente. RESULTADOS: Fueron obtenidos 22 aislamientos tipificándose 8 serotipos pertenecientes al O:3 y 8 al O:9 correspondientes al biotipo 1; y, en 6 muestras no fue posible la serotipificación. No se encontró en el total de los aislados el serotipo O:8. CONCLUSIONES: En base en la metodología, se registró la presencia de Y. enterocolitica y sus serogrupos en tejido linfático de porcinos por la primera vez en México; esto es importante porque el patógeno y sus serotipos aislados están comprometidos con mayor frecuencia con problemas de salud pública.

  1. Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Identificación de los biotipos presentes en poblaciones argentinas

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    Mónica RICCI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el comportamiento de líneas de trigo y cultivares diferenciales, portadores de genes de resistencia, a fin de determinar la composición biotípica del áfido Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov, “Pulgón Ruso del Trigo” (PRT, en Argentina; y se identifican aquellos hospederos con resistencia genética al PRT. Los 18 cultivares diferenciales y líneas Novel, se sembraron en invernáculo, en un diseño aleatorio con 2 repeticiones. Las observaciones se realizaron a los 21 y 51 días de la infestación, se determinó el grado de clorosis y de enrollamiento foliar. Los resultados se analizaron con ANOVA y el Test de Tuckey (=0,05. A los 21 días, las líneas 14 y 1 (Noveles presentaron el mejor comportamiento, pero se desconocen sus genes de resistencia. Los cultivares portadores de Dn2 y Dn7 resultaron con un alto nivel de tolerancia, mientras que Dn1 y dn3 fueron moderadamente tolerantes y las portadoras de Dn4 y Dn5, muy dañados por las poblaciones Argentinas de PRT. A los 51 días, solo Dn7 y las líneas 14 y 1 mantuvieron un comportamiento de tolerancia al áfido. Se infiere que en el país se encontrarían los biotipos 1, 2* y 5*, estos dos últimos con características diferentes a los identificados en EE.UU. Se concluye que los cultivares mejorados en otros países, pueden comportarse como susceptibles frente a las poblaciones locales.

  2. Carbapenemase-Producing Aeromonas veronii Disseminated in the Environment of an Equine Specialty Hospital.

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    Adams, Rachael J; Mathys, Dimitria A; Mollenkopf, Dixie F; Whittle, Andrea; Daniels, Joshua B; Wittum, Thomas E

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of bacterial resistance to carbapenem antibiotics is an urgent public health threat. Carbapenem drugs are a last resort treatment option for life-threatening infections. The frequent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics to treat hospitalized patients provides significant selection pressure favoring the emergence and dissemination of resistant organisms, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). CREs have been reported in animal populations, but only rarely in horses. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of CRE in the environment of a referral equine specialty hospital. Environmental samples were collected on seven different sampling dates. Four clonal carbapenemase-producing Aeromonas veronii were recovered from 315 sampled surfaces (1.3%). All four isolates harbored the carbapenemase-producing, metallo-β-lactamase gene blacphA, although corresponding minimum inhibitory concentrations were within the susceptible range for imipenem and meropenem. All had an identical multilocus sequence type with a previously unreported allelic profile and contained multiple plasmids. To our knowledge, this recovery of blacphA-harboring A. veronii is the first report of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in the environment of an equine veterinary hospital. However, the low recovery rate suggests that environmental contamination is uncommon. Appropriate hospital cleaning and disinfection protocols are necessary to maintain a low risk of contamination for patients and personnel.

  3. A Chitinase from Aeromonas veronii CD3 with the Potential to Control Myxozoan Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuchun; Zhou, Zhigang; Miao, Wei; Zhang, Yuting; Cao, Yanan; He, Suxu; Bai, Dongqing; Yao, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Background The class Myxosporea encompasses about 2,400 species, most of which are parasites of fish and cause serious damage in aquaculture. Due to the concerns about food safety issues and limited knowledge of Myxozoa life cycle and fish immune system, no chemicals, antibiotics or immune modulators are available to control myxozoa infection. Therefore, little can be done once Myxozoa establishment has occurred. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper we isolated Aeromonas veronii CD3 with significant myxospore shell valve-degrading ability from pond sediment. A 3,057-bp full-length chitinase gene was consequently cloned, and the corresponding mature, recombinant chitinase (ChiCD3) produced by Escherichia coli had substantial chitinase activity. The deduced sequence of ChiCD3 contained one catalytic domain, two chitin-binding domains, and one putative signal peptide. ChiCD3 had an optimal activity at 50°C and pH 6.0, and retained more than 50% of its optimal activity under warm water aquaculture conditions (∼30°C and pH ∼7.0). After incubation with ChiCD3, 38.0±4.8% of the myxospores had damaged shell valves, whereas myxospores incubated with commercially available chitinases remained intact. Conclusion/Significance This study reveals a new strategy to control myxozoan disease. ChiCD3 that has capacity to damage the shell valve of myxospores can be supplemented into fish feed and used to control Myxozoa-induced diseases specifically. PMID:22205999

  4. Identificación de biotipos de Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) en los departamentos de Córdoba, Meta, Tolima y Valle del Cauca mediante el gen mitocondrial Citocromo Oxidasa I (COI) y la región nuclear FR

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Calle, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Resumen: Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) es un insecto plaga del maíz, arroz, algodón, sorgo y pastizales. Presenta dos formas biológicas (biotipos o razas) (maíz y arroz) que son idénticas morfológicamente, pero que difieren en varios aspectos tales como su composición genética, su aislamiento reproductivo y su tolerancia a insecticidas y controladores biológicos. En este trabajo se realizó la identificación molecular de estos biotipos a partir de larvas recolectadas en cultivos de...

  5. Estudio fisiológico y genético de biotipos de Lolium perenne L. resistentes a glifosato

    OpenAIRE

    Yanniccari, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo se pretende dar respuesta a ciertas cuestiones que permitan aportar conocimientos de impacto para la actividad productiva, en tanto se buscará responder: ¿El deficiente control de Lolium perenne con glifosato en el sur bonaerense es un caso de resistencia? ¿Cómo afecta el glifosato a los procesos fisiológicos de biotipos presumiblemente resistentes y susceptibles hasta conducir a la muerte de la planta? ¿Por qué las plantas resistentes tolerarían al glifosato? ¿Cuál ...

  6. Capacidad de infestación en invernadero de los biotipos B y Q de Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) en plantas de tomate con y sin el gen Mi

    OpenAIRE

    Baraja, M.J.; Manchón, M.A.; Nombela, Gloria; Muñiz, Mariano; Beitia, F.

    2002-01-01

    Se han realizado experimentos de libre elección en condiciones de invernadero para obtener la relación entre el porcentaje de plantas de tomate infestadas (y) y el número de adultos de los biotipos By Qde Bemisia tabaci Gennadius(x) mediante la función linealz=-ax,siendo z= ln[1-(y/100)], utilizándose variedades de estecultivo con y sin elgen Mi de resistencia a nematodos del género Meloidogyne y al áfido de la patata, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas). Tanto el número medio de adultos como el ...

  7. Oral immunization with recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing OmpAI confers protection against Aeromonas veronii challenge in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Xing; Kang, Yuan-Huan; Chen, Long; Siddiqui, Shahrood Ahmed; Wang, Chun-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong; Shan, Xiao-Feng

    2017-11-16

    Aeromonas veronii is a gram-negative pathogen capable of infecting both fish and mammals, including humans, and natural infection in fish results in irreparable damage to the aquaculture industry. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a number of properties that make them attractive candidates as delivery vehicles for presentation to the mucosa sites of compounds with pharmaceutical interest, in particular vaccines. In this study, we generated two recombinant Lactobacillus casei (surface-displayed or secretory) expressing the OmpAI of A.veronii and evaluated the effect on immune responses in fish model. A 1022 bp gene fragment of the 42 kDa OmpAI antigen of A.veronii was cloned into pPG-1 (surface-displayed) and pPG-2 (secretory) and electrotransformed into Lactobacillus casei CC16. The recombinant plasmid in L.casei could be stably inherited over 50 generations, and production of OmpAI protein had slight limited effects on cells growth. Treatment of common carp with the recombinant vaccine candidate stimulated high serum or skin mucus specific antibody titers and induced a higher lysozyme, ACP, SOD activity, while fish fed with Lc-pPG or PBS had no detectable immobilizing immune responses. Expression of IL-10, IL-β, IFN-γ, TNF-α genes in the group immunized with recombinant L.casei were significantly (P casei strains were directly delivered and survive throughout the intestinal tract, the recombinant OmpAI was also detected in intestine mucosal. The results showed that common carp received Lc-pPG1-OmpAI (66.7%) and Lc-pPG2-OmpAI (50.0%) had higher survival rates compared with the controls after challenge with A.veronii, indicating that Lc-pPG1-OmpAI and Lc-pPG2-OmpAI had beneficial effects on immune response and enhanced disease resistance of common carp against A.veronii infection. Our study here demonstrates, for the first time, the ability of recombinant L.casei as oral vaccine against A.veronii infection in carps. The combination of OmpAI delivery and LAB

  8. Structural Studies of the Lipopolysaccharide from the Fish Pathogen Aeromonas veronii Strain Bs19, Serotype O16

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    Anna Turska-Szewczuk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analyses, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy were applied to study the structure of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS isolated from Aeromonas veronii strain Bs19, serotype O16. ESI-MS revealed that the most abundant LPS glycoforms have tetra-acylated or hexa-acylated lipid A species, consisting of a bisphosphorylated GlcN disaccharide with an AraN residue as a non-stoichiometric substituent, and a core oligosaccharide composed of Hep5Hex3HexN1Kdo1P1. Sugar and methylation analysis together with 1D and 2D 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy were the main methods used, and revealed that the O-specific polysaccharide (OPS of A. veronii Bs19 was built up of tetrasaccharide repeating units with the structure: →4-α-d-Quip3NAc-(1→3-α-l-Rhap-(1→4-β-d-Galp-(1→3-α-d-GalpNAc-(1→. This composition was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The charge-deconvoluted ESI FT-ICR MS recorded for the LPS preparations identified mass peaks of SR- and R-form LPS species, that differed by Δm = 698.27 u, a value corresponding to the calculated molecular mass of one OPS repeating unit (6dHexNAc6dHexHexHexNAc-H2O. Moreover, unspecific fragmentation spectra confirmed the sequence of the sugar residues in the OPS and allowed to assume that the elucidated structure also represented the biological repeating unit.

  9. Genetic selection of peptide aptamers that interact and inhibit both Small protein B and alternative ribosome-rescue factor A of Aeromonas veronii C4

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    Peng Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas veronii is a pathogenic gram-negative bacterium, which infects a variety of animals and results in mass mortality. The stalled-ribosome rescues are reported to ensure viability and virulence under stress conditions, of which primarily include trans-translation and alternative ribosome-rescue factor A (ArfA in A. veronii. For identification of specific peptides that interact and inhibit the stalled-ribosome rescues, peptide aptamer library (pTRG-SN-peptides was constructed using pTRG as vector and Staphylococcus aureus nuclease (SN as scaffold protein, in which 16 random amino acids were introduced to form an exposed surface loop. In the meantime both Small Protein B (SmpB which acts as one of the key components in trans-translation, and alternative ribosome-rescue factor A (ArfA were inserted to pBT to constitute pBT-SmpB and pBT-ArfA, respectively. The peptide aptamer PA-2 was selected from pTRG-SN-peptides by bacterial two-hybrid system (B2H employing pBT-SmpB or pBT-ArfA as baits. The conserved sites G133K134 and D138K139R140 of C-terminal SmpB were identified by interacting with N-terminal SN, and concurrently the residue K62 of ArfA was recognized by interacting with the surface loop of the specific peptide aptamer PA-2. The expression plasmids pN-SN or pN-PA-2, which combined the duplication origin of pRE112 with the neokanamycin promoter expressing SN or PA-2, were created and transformed into A. veronii C4, separately. The engineered A. veronii C4 which endowing SN or PA-2 expression impaired growth capabilities under stress conditions including temperatures, sucrose, glucose, potassium chloride (KCl and antibiotics, and the stress-related genes rpoS and nhaP were down-regulated significantly by Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR when treating in 2.0% KCl. Thus,the engineered A. veronii C4 conferring PA-2 expression might be potentially attenuated vaccine, and also the peptide aptamer PA-2 could develop as anti

  10. Identificación y clasificación en biotipos de las malezas asociadas con el cultivo de la palma de aceite

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Andrés Ariza; Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2012-01-01

    En dos plantaciones de palma de aceite, ubicadas en los municipios de Villanueva, Casanare, y Barranca de Upía, Meta, (Colombia), zona del Bajo Upía, se realizó un reconocimiento y clasificación en biotipos de las malezas asociadas con la palma de aceite. Para realizar el trabajo se visitaron las dos fincas, y se procedió a recoger muestras y fotografiar las malezas que se encontraban dentro del cultivo, así como en su contorno. La identificación y descripción se realizó siguiendo la metodolo...

  11. Identificación y clasificación en biotipos de las malezas asociadas con el cultivo de la palma de aceite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Ariza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available En dos plantaciones de palma de aceite, ubicadas en los municipios de Villanueva, Casanare, y Barranca de Upía, Meta, (Colombia, zona del Bajo Upía, se realizó un reconocimiento y clasificación en biotipos de las malezas asociadas con la palma de aceite. Para realizar el trabajo se visitaron las dos fincas, y se procedió a recoger muestras y fotografiar las malezas que se encontraban dentro del cultivo, así como en su contorno. La identificación y descripción se realizó siguiendo la metodología binaria latina expuesta por Linneo y especificada en el Código Internacional de Nomenclatura Botánica, reportada para las especies reconocidas, mediante los servicios del herbario de la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, y referencias de autores como Doll et al. (1972, Lemus y Lemus (2004, Rentería et al. (2006, Blair y Madrigal (2005, Fuentes et al. (1998, Kress et al. (2004, Becerra y Chaparro (1999 y Genty (1993. Para la agrupación de las malezas en biotipos (lianas, herbáceas, arbustos y árboles se tuvieron en cuenta sus características morfológicas. Se encontraron en  total 195 especies de malezas asociadas con el cultivo de la palma de aceite, 145 dicotiledóneas y 50 monocotiledóneas, pertenecientes a 43 familias.

  12. Degradation of Benzene by Pseudomonas veronii 1YdBTEX2 and 1YB2 Is Catalyzed by Enzymes Encoded in Distinct Catabolism Gene Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima-Morales, Daiana; Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Wos-Oxley, Melissa L; Jáuregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2015-10-16

    Pseudomonas veronii 1YdBTEX2, a benzene and toluene degrader, and Pseudomonas veronii 1YB2, a benzene degrader, have previously been shown to be key players in a benzene-contaminated site. These strains harbor unique catabolic pathways for the degradation of benzene comprising a gene cluster encoding an isopropylbenzene dioxygenase where genes encoding downstream enzymes were interrupted by stop codons. Extradiol dioxygenases were recruited from gene clusters comprising genes encoding a 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase necessary for benzene degradation but typically absent from isopropylbenzene dioxygenase-encoding gene clusters. The benzene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase-encoding gene was not clustered with any other aromatic degradation genes, and the encoded protein was only distantly related to dehydrogenases of aromatic degradation pathways. The involvement of the different gene clusters in the degradation pathways was suggested by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Aeromonas enteropelogenes and Aeromonas ichthiosmia are identical to Aeromonas trota and Aeromonas veronii, respectively, as revealed by small-subunit rRNA sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M D; Martinez-Murcia, A J; Cai, J

    1993-10-01

    The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the type strains of Aeromonas enteropelogenes and Aeromonas ichthiosmia were determined by polymerase chain reaction direct sequencing in order to clarify their interrelationships with other aeromonad species. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, A. enteropelogenes and A. ichthiosmia were found to be identical to Aeromonas trota and Aeromonas veronii, respectively.

  14. The Genome of the Toluene-Degrading Pseudomonas veronii Strain 1YdBTEX2 and Its Differential Gene Expression in Contaminated Sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marian; Sentchilo, Vladimir; Bertelli, Claire; Komljenovic, Andrea; Kryuchkova-Mostacci, Nadezda; Bourdilloud, Audrey; Linke, Burkhard; Goesmann, Alexander; Harshman, Keith; Segers, Francisca; Delapierre, Fabien; Fiorucci, Damien; Seppey, Mathieu; Trofimenco, Evgeniya; Berra, Pauline; El Taher, Athimed; Loiseau, Chloé; Roggero, Dejan; Sulfiotti, Madeleine; Etienne, Angela; Ruiz Buendia, Gustavo; Pillard, Loïc; Escoriza, Angelique; Moritz, Roxane; Schneider, Cedric; Alfonso, Esteban; Ben Jeddou, Fatma; Selmoni, Oliver; Resch, Gregory; Greub, Gilbert; Emery, Olivier; Dubey, Manupriyam; Pillonel, Trestan; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2016-01-01

    The natural restoration of soils polluted by aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m- and p-xylene (BTEX) may be accelerated by inoculation of specific biodegraders (bioaugmentation). Bioaugmentation mainly involves introducing bacteria that deploy their metabolic properties and adaptation potential to survive and propagate in the contaminated environment by degrading the pollutant. In order to better understand the adaptive response of cells during a transition to contaminated material, we analyzed here the genome and short-term (1 h) changes in genome-wide gene expression of the BTEX-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas veronii 1YdBTEX2 in non-sterile soil and liquid medium, both in presence or absence of toluene. We obtained a gapless genome sequence of P. veronii 1YdBTEX2 covering three individual replicons with a total size of 8 Mb, two of which are largely unrelated to current known bacterial replicons. One-hour exposure to toluene, both in soil and liquid, triggered massive transcription (up to 208-fold induction) of multiple gene clusters, such as toluene degradation pathway(s), chemotaxis and toluene efflux pumps. This clearly underlines their key role in the adaptive response to toluene. In comparison to liquid medium, cells in soil drastically changed expression of genes involved in membrane functioning (e.g., lipid composition, lipid metabolism, cell fatty acid synthesis), osmotic stress response (e.g., polyamine or trehalose synthesis, uptake of potassium) and putrescine metabolism, highlighting the immediate response mechanisms of P. veronii 1YdBTEX2 for successful establishment in polluted soil.

  15. The Genome of the Toluene-Degrading Pseudomonas veronii Strain 1YdBTEX2 and Its Differential Gene Expression in Contaminated Sand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Morales

    Full Text Available The natural restoration of soils polluted by aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m- and p-xylene (BTEX may be accelerated by inoculation of specific biodegraders (bioaugmentation. Bioaugmentation mainly involves introducing bacteria that deploy their metabolic properties and adaptation potential to survive and propagate in the contaminated environment by degrading the pollutant. In order to better understand the adaptive response of cells during a transition to contaminated material, we analyzed here the genome and short-term (1 h changes in genome-wide gene expression of the BTEX-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas veronii 1YdBTEX2 in non-sterile soil and liquid medium, both in presence or absence of toluene. We obtained a gapless genome sequence of P. veronii 1YdBTEX2 covering three individual replicons with a total size of 8 Mb, two of which are largely unrelated to current known bacterial replicons. One-hour exposure to toluene, both in soil and liquid, triggered massive transcription (up to 208-fold induction of multiple gene clusters, such as toluene degradation pathway(s, chemotaxis and toluene efflux pumps. This clearly underlines their key role in the adaptive response to toluene. In comparison to liquid medium, cells in soil drastically changed expression of genes involved in membrane functioning (e.g., lipid composition, lipid metabolism, cell fatty acid synthesis, osmotic stress response (e.g., polyamine or trehalose synthesis, uptake of potassium and putrescine metabolism, highlighting the immediate response mechanisms of P. veronii 1YdBTEX2 for successful establishment in polluted soil.

  16. Characterization and virulence potential of phenotypically diverse Aeromonas veronii isolates recovered from moribund freshwater ornamental fishes of Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Krishnan; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, Isaac Sarojani Bright

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the involvement of Aeromonas spp. in eliciting disease outbreaks in freshwater ornamental fishes across the state of Kerala, India. We investigated three incidences of disease, in which the moribund fishes exhibited clinical signs such as haemorrhagic septicemia (in gouramy, Trichogaster sp.), dropsy (in Oscar, Astronotus ocellatus) and tail rot/fin rot (in gold fish, Carassius carassius). Pure cultures (n = 20 from each fish; 60 in total) of Aeromonas spp. were recovered from the abdominal fluid as well as from internal organs of affected fishes, although they could not be identified to species level because of the variations in their phenotypic characters. The molecular fingerprinting of the isolates using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR proved the genetic diversity of the isolates from the three sites. The phylogenetic trees constructed using concatenated sequences (using 16S rRNA, gyrA, gyrB and rpoD genes) indicated that they were related to Aeromonas veronii. They exhibited marked cytotoxic and haemolytic activity, which were responsible for the pathogenic potential of the isolates. The isolates possessed multiple virulence genes such as enterotoxins (act and alt), haemolytic toxins (aerA and hlyA), genes involved in type III secretion system (ascV, aexT and ascF-ascG), glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) and a type IV pilus (tapA) gene, as determined by PCR. Virulence of representative isolates to goldfish was also tested, and we found LD(50) values of 10(4.07)-10(5.35) cfu/fish. Furthermore, the organisms could be recovered as pure cultures from the lesions as well as from the internal organs.

  17. Improvement of methyl orange dye biotreatment by a novel isolated strain, Aeromonas veronii GRI, by SPB1 biosurfactant addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Inès; Maktouf, Sameh; Fendri, Raouia; Kriaa, Mouna; Ellouze, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii GRI (KF964486), isolated from acclimated textile effluent after selective enrichment on azo dye, was assessed for methyl orange biodegradation potency. Results suggested the potential of this bacterium for use in effective treatment of azo-dye-contaminated wastewaters under static conditions at neutral and alkaline pH value, characteristic of typical textile effluents. The strain could tolerate higher doses of dyes as it was able to decolorize up to 1000 mg/l. When used as microbial surfactant to enhance methyl orange biodecolorization, Bacillus subtilis SPB1-derived lipopeptide accelerated the decolorization rate and maximized slightly the decolorization efficiency at an optimal concentration of about 0.025%. In order to enhance the process efficiency, a Taguchi design was conducted. Phytotoxicity bioassay using sesame and radish seeds were carried out to assess the biotreatment effectiveness. The bacterium was able to effectively decolorize the azo dye when inoculated with an initial optical density of about 0.5 with 0.25% sucrose, 0.125% yeast extract, 0.01% SPB1 biosurfactant, and when conducting an agitation phase of about 24 h after static incubation. Germination potency showed an increase toward the nonoptimized conditions indicating an improvement of the biotreatment. When comparing with synthetic surfactants, a drastic decrease and an inhibition of orange methyl decolorization were observed in the presence of CTAB and SDS. The nonionic surfactant Tween 80 had a positive effect on methyl orange biodecolorization. Also, studies ensured that methyl orange removal by this strain could be due to endocellular enzymatic activities. To conclude, the addition of SPB1 bioemulsifier reduced energy costs by reducing effective decolorization period, biosurfactant stimulated bacterial decolorization method may provide highly efficient, inexpensive, and time-saving procedure in treatment of textile effluents.

  18. Identificación de biotipos de Staphyloccocus aureus en vacas lecheras de producción familiar con mastitis subclínica en la región centro-este del Estado de México

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Manjarrez López; Soledad Díaz Zarco; Félix Salazar García; Benjamín Valladares Carranza; Adriana del Carmen Gutiérrez Castillo; Alberto Barbabosa Plliego; Martín Talavera Rojas; María Uxúa Alonso Fresán; Valente Velázquez Ordóñez

    2012-01-01

    La mastitis ocasiona grandes pérdidas económicas en los hatos lecheros. El Staphylococcus aureus es uno de los principales agentes causales de la enfermedad, considerado de importancia en la salud pública y la salud del hato. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de S. aureus y los biotipos predominantes en vacas con mastitis subclínica en hatos de producción lechera familiar en la región económica I, Centro-Este del Estado de México. Se condujo un estudio trasversal, en 269 va...

  19. Identificación de biotipos de Staphyloccocus aureus en vacas lecheras de producción familiar con mastitis subclínica en la región centro-este del Estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Manjarrez López

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La mastitis ocasiona grandes pérdidas económicas en los hatos lecheros. El Staphylococcus aureus es uno de los principales agentes causales de la enfermedad, considerado de importancia en la salud pública y la salud del hato. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de S. aureus y los biotipos predominantes en vacas con mastitis subclínica en hatos de producción lechera familiar en la región económica I, Centro-Este del Estado de México. Se condujo un estudio trasversal, en 269 vacas de diferentes etapas de lactación e información del hato en una encuesta cerrada. La muestra de leche se recolectó de cada vaca. La detección de mastitis se realizó mediante la prueba de California. Los biotipos de S. aureus se caracterizaron por medio de la técnica de agar tripticasa soya adicionado con cristal violeta 1:100,000. En las vacas estudiadas la prevalencia de mastitis subclínica fue del 48.3 % (IC95% 42.22 a 54.47 y de mastitis clínica 6.1 % (IC95% 3.44 a 9.48. Se obtuvieron 62 aislamientos de S. aureus, el 79 % correspondió al biotipo C (humano, el 11.3 % al A (bovino, el 6.5 % al E (canino y el 3.2 % a hospederos no específicos. El tamaño del hato resultó un factor de riesgo asociado a la mayor frecuencia de S. aureus, especialmente cuando el hato fue mayor de 13 vacas (OR=5.63, IC95% 1.72 a 18.21. Se identifico una prevalencia elevada de mastitis subclínica asociada a la infección por S. aureus Biotipos C y A considerados de importancia en la salud pública.

  20. Indolo[3,2-b]quinoline Derivatives Suppressed the Hemolytic Activity of Beta-Pore Forming Toxins, Aerolysin-Like Hemolysin Produced by Aeromonas sobria and Alpha-Hemolysin Produced by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Eizo; Fujinami, Chiaki; Kuroda, Teruo; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Miyoshi, Shin-Ichi; Arimoto, Sakae; Negishi, Tomoe; Okamoto, Keinosuke

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to discover inhibitory compounds against pore-forming toxins, some of the major toxins produced by bacteria, we herein examined the effects of four kinds of indolo[3,2-b]quinoline derivatives on hemolysis induced by the aerolysin-like hemolysin (ALH) of Aeromonas sobria and also by the alpha-hemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus. The results showed that hemolysis induced by ALH was significantly reduced by every derivative, while that induced by alpha-hemolysis was significantly reduced by three out of the four derivatives. However, the degrees of reduction induced by these derivatives were not uniform. Each derivative exhibited its own activity to inhibit the respective hemolysin. Compounds 1 and 2, which possessed the amino group bonding the naphthalene moiety at the C-11 position of indolo[3,2-b]quinoline, had strong inhibitory effects on the activity of ALH. Compound 4 which consisted of benzofuran and quinoline had strong inhibitory effects on the activity of alpha-hemolysin. These results indicated that the amino group bonding the naphthalene moiety of compounds 1 and 2 assisted in their ability to inhibit ALH activity, while the oxygen atom at the 10 position of compound 4 strengthened its interaction with alpha-hemolysin. These compounds also suppressed the hemolytic activity of the supernatant of A. sobria or A. hydrophila, suggesting that these compounds were effective at the site of infection of these bacteria.

  1. Improving extracellular production of Serratia marcescens lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase CBP21 and Aeromonas veronii B565 chitinase Chi92 in Escherichia coli and their synergism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yalin; Li, Juan; Liu, Xuewei; Pan, Xingliang; Hou, Junxiu; Ran, Chao; Zhou, Zhigang

    2017-09-07

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) can oxidize recalcitrant polysaccharides and boost the conversion of the second most abundant polysaccharide chitin by chitinase. In this study, we aimed to achieve the efficient extracellular production of Serratia marcescens LPMO CBP21 and Aeromonas veronii B565 chitinase Chi92 by Escherichia coli. Twelve signal peptides reported with high secretion efficiency were screened to assess the extracellular production efficiency of CBP21 and Chi92, with glycine used as a medium supplement. The results showed that PelB was the most productive signal peptide for the extracellular production of CBP21 and Chi92 in E. coli. Furthermore, CBP21 facilitated the degradation of the three chitin substrates (colloidal chitin, β-chitin, and α-chitin) by Chi92. This study will be valuable for the industrial production and application of the two enzymes for chitin degradation.

  2. Identificación y tipificación de biotipos y serotipos de Yersinia enterocolitica Identification and typing of Yersinia enterocolitica biotypes and serotypes isolated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino Elizalde Castañeda

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer la existencia de Yersinia enterocolitica en suínos visiblemente sanos y sacrificados para el consumo humano. MÉTODOS: Fueron estudiadas 100 muestras de tejido linfático obtenidas en el momento del sacrifício, en un matadero del Estado de México. Fueron realizados muestreos pilotos de 20 casos, de los cuales 20% fueron positivos, permitiendo obtener una muestra estudiada (n=100. Las muestras colectadas de tejido linfático fueron acondicionadas para el aislamiento de Yersinia enterocolitica en caldo de Rappaport y en medio de cultivo de Salmonella-Shigella y MacConkey. Las identificaciones fueron efectuadas por medio de pruebas bioquímicas y serológicas, utilizándose en el caso los antisueros O:3, O:8 y O:9 para la biotipificación correspondiente. RESULTADOS: Fueron obtenidos 22 aislamientos tipificándose 8 serotipos pertenecientes al O:3 y 8 al O:9 correspondientes al biotipo 1; y, en 6 muestras no fue posible la serotipificación. No se encontró en el total de los aislados el serotipo O:8. CONCLUSIONES: En base en la metodología, se registró la presencia de Y. enterocolitica y sus serogrupos en tejido linfático de porcinos por la primera vez en México; esto es importante porque el patógeno y sus serotipos aislados están comprometidos con mayor frecuencia con problemas de salud pública.OBJECTIVE: To assess the presence of Yersinia enterocolitica in otherwise healthy pigs slaughtered for human consumption. METHODS: One hundred pharyngeal tonsils were sampled in a slaughterhouse in the state of Mexico. The minimum sample size (n=100 was calculated based on a preliminary sample of 20 cases, which had 20% positive cases. The collected tonsil samples were inoculated in Rappaport broth, and Salmonella-Shigella and McConkey media. The biotyping identification process was based on biochemical and serological tests using O:3, O:8 and O:9 antisera. RESULTS: Twenty-two isolates were obtained. Most were biotype 1 (8 cases

  3. Cloning and expression of a cloxacillin-hydrolyzing enzyme and a cephalosporinase from Aeromonas sobria AER 14M in Escherichia coli: requirement for an E. coli chromosomal mutation for efficient expression of the class D enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, B A; Keeney, D; Yang, Y; Bush, K

    1994-01-01

    Two beta-lactamase genes, asbA1 and asbB1, encoding AsbA1 and AsbB1, respectively, have been cloned from Aeromonas sobria AER 14M into Escherichia coli. AsbA1 was expressed at low but detectable levels in all E. coli laboratory cloning strains tested. AsbB1 was expressed well in the E. coli cloning strain DH5 alpha. However, no enzyme activity could be detected from the same clone when placed in E. coli MC1061. Ampicillin-resistant mutants of E. coli MC1061 were obtained that expressed high levels of enzymatically active AsbB1. Four independent mutants were examined. All four mutations mapped to one locus, designated blpA (beta-lactamase permissive). The blpA locus was distinct from other known loci that play a role in beta-lactamase expression, i.e., the two loci that affect expression of the Bacteroides fragilis metallo-beta-lactamase and the ampC regulatory genes, ampD, ampE, and ampG. Sequence analysis of asbA1 and asbB1 revealed that AsbA1 was a class C beta-lactamase most closely related to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosomal cephalosporinase and probably represents the common A. sobria cephalosporinase. AsbB1 was a class D enzyme most closely related to the oxacillin-hydrolyzing enzyme OXA-1, with 34% amino acid sequence identity. Purified AsbA1 was a typical cephalosporinase with a substrate profile that reflected high rates of hydrolysis of cephaloridine compared with benzylpenicillin. Purified AsbB1 showed strong penicillinase activity, with hydrolysis rates for carbenicillin and cloxacillin 2 to 2.5 times that for benzylpenicillin. Hydrolysis of imipenem was cloxacillin-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase that has been designated here OXA-12. PMID:7811022

  4. Inducción de IgA e IgG anti-omp48 en conejos inmunizados intragástricamente con una fracción extracelular de Aeromonas veronii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ruiz-Bustos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Una proteína de membrana externa de 48 kDa (omp48 de Aeromonas veronii (A. veronii, que tiene afinidad por secreciones de la mucosa (tal como mucina, lactoferrina, inmunoglobulinas o colágeno, induce una respuesta inmune estadísticamente significativa al ser administrada intragástricamente a conejos blancos de Nueva Zelanda. Estudios posteriores mostraron una correlación positiva entre las inmunoglobulinas y la respuesta de células productoras de anticuerpo (CPA. La administración intragástrica del antígeno induce una respuesta vigorosa, tanto local como sistémica, principalmente de inmunoglobulinas A y G contra la omp48 de A. veronii. Estas se evidenciaron por la presencia de (i células productoras de anticuerpos contra omp48 en el tracto gastrointestinal, bazo y sangre, y (ii elevados niveles de anticuerpos circulantes.La estimulación del sistema inmune de mucosa mediante antígenos bacterianos inmunogénicos, puede ser una importante alternativa para el control y prevención de enfermedades asociadas a Aeromonas.

  5. Estadísticos vitales de Bemisia tabaci biotipo B en frijol e interacción con el parasitoide Amitus fuscipennis: Life history parameters and absence of hostparasitoid interaction with Amitus fuscipennis Bemisia tabaci biotype B in bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Manzano Martínez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron los estadísticos vitales de la mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci biotipo B en condiciones de laboratorio (26 °C ± 2 °C y 80 ± 5 % de HR en fríjol cultivar ICA-Pijao. Los valores promedios fueron: longevidad 34 ± 1.64 días, fecundidad de 211.4 ± 15.1 huevos/hembra y tasa de oviposición de 6.1 ± 0.28 huevos/día. La tasa neta reproductiva fue de 137.8. El tiempo generacional de 43.8 días y la tasa intrínseca de crecimiento poblacional (r m de 0.125. Estos valores son coincidentes con los reportados en la literatura e indicaron la utilidad del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L ICA-Pijao para la multiplicación de B. tabaci. No se logró la reproducción de Amitus fuscipennis en B. tabaci. Estudios de comportamiento mostraron que el parasitoide permaneció solo 617.3 seg en promedio en foliolos infestados con la mosca blanca, la mayor parte del tiempo lo invirtió en caminar (46.4%, limpiarse el cuerpo (35.6% y permanecer quieta (16.7%. A. fuscipennis solo tocó una vez accidentalmente una ninfa de B. tabaci, pero no la examinó con las antenas ni la ovipositó. Los resultados indican que A. fuscipennis no es un enemigo natural potencial de B. tabaci biotipo B.Life-history parameters of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotipo B were determined at laboratory conditions at 26 °C ± 2 °C y 80 ± 5 % de RH on bean ICA-Pijao. Mean longevity of the whitefly was 34 ± 1,64 days, mean total fecundity was 211,4 ± 15,1 eggs per female with a daily oviposition rate of 6,1 ± 0,28 eggs per day. Net reproduction rate was 137,8. Generation Time was 43,8 days and the intrinsic rate of population increase r m was 0,125. These values are according to previous ones reported and support usefulness of ICA-Pijao bean for B. tabaci rearing. It was not possible to rear Amitus fuscipennis from B. tabaci. Behaviour studies showed that the parasitoid stayed only average 617,3 s on whitefly infested leaflets. It invested most of the time walking (46

  6. Producción de ácido indol-3-acético por Pseudomonas veronii R4 y formación de raíces en hojas de vid “Thompson seedless” in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Peñafiel-Jaramillo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rizobacterias con actividad antagonista son empleadas a problemas patológicos y promueven el desarrollo de tejido radicular de especies vegetales El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la capacidad en síntesis de ácido indol-3-acetico (AIA y la formación de raíces en hojas de vid “Thompson Seedless”, por el empleo de Pseudomonas veronii R4 in vitro. La bacteria, fue incubada en medio mínimo M9 y se verificó la producción de AIA a 24, 48 y 72 h de muestreo, los sobrenadantes fueron analizandos por HPLC. Peciolos de hojas de “Thompson Seedless” fueron sumergidos por 5 min, en el tampón PBS con P. veronii R4 a (1.5 x 109 células mL-1, y evaluados a los 32 días post-inoculación. Los tratamientos fueron sujetos al análisis de varianza por DCA. Los sobrenadantes muestreados a 72 h, del cultivo de líquido con P. veronii R4, se obtuvo los mayores niveles de AIA entre 0.0231 a 0.0245 mM, al emplear 5 a 10 mM del precursor L-triptofano, del sobrenadante obtenido de P. fluorescens CHA0 la producción de AIA con 0.0174 mM a 10 mM de L-triptofano. Se obtuvo la regeneración del sistema radicular en los peciolos de hojas de “Thompson Seedless”, con un promedio de 14 raíces/planta bajo la aplicación de P. veronii R4. Estos resultados preliminares realzan la importancia de la cepa nativa P. veronii R4, que se estaría proyectando para futuras investigaciones de su empleo en condición de invernadero al desarrollo del sistema radicular en “Thompson Seedless”.

  7. Producción de ácido indol-3-acético por Pseudomonas veronii R4 y formación de raíces en hojas de vid “Thompson seedless” in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Peñafiel Jaramillo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rizobacterias con actividad antagonista son empleadas a problemas patológicos y promueven el desarrollo de tejido radicular de especies vegetales El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la capacidad en síntesis de ácido indol-3-acetico (AIA y la formación de raíces en hojas de vid “Thompson Seedless”, por el empleo de Pseudomonas veronii R4 in vitro. La bacteria, fue incubada en medio mínimo M9 y se verificó la producción de AIA a 24, 48 y 72 h de muestreo, los sobrenadantes fueron analizandos por HPLC. Peciolos de hojas de “Thompson Seedless” fueron sumergidos por 5 min, en el tampón PBS con P. veronii R4 a (1.5 x 109 células mL-1, y evaluados a los 32 días post-inoculación. Los tratamientos fueron sujetos al análisis de varianza por DCA. Los sobrenadantes muestreados a 72 h, del cultivo de líquido con P. veronii R4, se obtuvo los mayores niveles de AIA entre 0.0231 a 0.0245 mM, al emplear 5 a 10 mM del precursor L-triptofano, del sobrenadante obtenido de P. fluorescens CHA0 la producción de AIA con 0.0174 mM a 10 mM de L-triptofano. Se obtuvo la regeneración del sistema radicular en los peciolos de hojas de “Thompson Seedless”, con un promedio de 14 raíces/planta bajo la aplicación de P. veronii R4. Estos resultados preliminares realzan la importancia de la cepa nativa P. veronii R4, que se estaría proyectando para futuras investigaciones de su empleo en condición de invernadero al desarrollo del sistema radicular en “Thompson Seedless”.

  8. Análisis de la sensibilidad de biotipos de Lolium multiflorum a herbicidas inhibidores de la enzima ALS, ACCasa y Glifosato Sensitivity analysis of Lolium multiflorum biotypes to Glyphosate, ACCase and ALS-inhibiting herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diez De Ulzurrun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los avances logrados en el control de las malezas con el uso de herbicidas, el manejo de las mismas no se simplificó, sino que, al contrario, surgieron nuevos desafíos, como la aparición de resistencia a herbicidas. En 2007, se reportó en Lolium multiflorum el segundo caso de resistencia a glifosato detectado en Argentina. En el sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires se registraron fallas de control a campo en poblaciones de Lolium multiflorum debido a su resistencia a distintos herbicidas de las familias de los inhibidores de ALS y de ACCasa y al herbicida glifosato. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el nivel de resistencia a ciertos herbicidas inhibidores de la ALS y de la ACCasa y al glifosato en una población de L. multiflorum de Lobería (Bs As, Argentina supuestamente resistente (LmR. Se realizaron bioensayos en cajas de Petri y se determinó la GR50 mediante la variación en la longitud de coleoptile. Las curvas de dosis-respuesta se obtuvieron por medio de la ecuación log-logística. El biotipo LmR presentó resistencia múltiple a herbicidas con tres modos de acción diferentes: glifosato, inhibidores de ALS y de ACCasa. Dicho ensayo demostró la aparición de un biotipo de L. multiflorum con resistencia a múltiples principios activos.Despite progress in weed control using herbicides, management has not been simplified, but new challenges such as herbicides resistance have arisen. In 2007, a Lolium multiflorum population resistant to glyphosate was reported, as the second case of glyphosate resistant weeds in Argentina. In the southeast of Buenos Aires province, control failures in populations of L. multiflorum to different families of herbicide such as ALS and ACCase inhibitors and to glyphosate at field level have been registered. The aim of this study was to characterize the level of resistance to certain herbicides inhibitors of ALS, ACCase and glyphosate in a putatively resistant (LmR population of L

  9. Biotipos homeopáticos y oclusión en niños con hábito de succión digital Homeopathic biotypes and occlusion in children with finger-sucking habit

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    Liuba Gardón Delgado

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de las anomalías de la oclusión es de suma importancia en la práctica ortodóncica, y la biotipología homeopática constituye una base para el análisis e interpretación de los factores que intervienen en la etiología y patogenia de las anomalías dentofaciales, incluida la presencia de hábitos perjudiciales como la succión digital. Este trabajo descriptivo de corte transversal se propuso relacionar los principales biotipos homeopáticos con la oclusión en 55 niños de los círculos infantiles pertenecientes a las áreas de salud que atiende la Facultad de Estomatología de Ciudad de La Habana, en las edades comprendidas entre 2 y 5 años, de ambos sexos y que practicaban el hábito de succión digital. A través del examen clínico facial y de la confección de la historia clínica homeopática, se realizó la clasificación biotipológica y se determinaron las características intraorales de cada niño. El análisis de los resultados reveló una correspondencia de la oclusión con los biotipos homeopáticos.The study of occlusion abnormalities is very important in the orthodontic practice, and the homeopathic biotypology is the basis for the analysis and interpretation of the factors taking part in the etiology and pathogeny of the dentofacial abnormalities, including the presence of detrimental habits, such as finger sucking . This descriptive cross-sectional study was aimed at relating the main homeopathic biotypes to occlusion in 55 children aged 2-5 of both sexes from the day care centres corresponding to the health areas that received dental care at the Faculty of Stomatology of Havana City. All these children used to suck their fingers. By the clinicofacial examination and by the making of the homeopathic medical history, it was possible to obtain the biotypological classification, and to determine the intraoral characteristics of every child. The analysis of the results revealed a correspondance of occlusion with the

  10. Aeromonas spp. isolated from oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorea) from a natural oyster bed, Ceará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista-Barreto, Norma S; Vieira, Regine H S F; Carvalho, Fátima Cristiane T; Torres, Regina C O; Sant'Anna, Ernani S; Rodrigues, Dália P; Reis, Cristhiane M F

    2006-01-01

    Between April and October 2002, thirty fortnightly collections of oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorea) from a natural oyster bed at the Cocó River estuary in the Sabiaguaba region (Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil) were carried out, aiming to isolate Aeromonas spp. strains. Oyster samples were submitted to the direct plating (DP) and the presence/absence (P/A) methods. Aeromonas were identified in 15 (50%) samples analyzed by the DP method and in 13 (43%) analyzed by the P/A method. A. caviae, A. eucrenophila, A. media, A. sobria, A. trota, A. veronii bv. sobria, A. veronii bv. veronii and Aeromonas sp. were isolated. The predominant species was A. veronii (both biovars), which was identified in 13 (43%) samples, followed by A. media in 11 (37%) and A. caviae in seven (23%). From the 59 strains identified, 28 (48%) presented resistance to at least one of the eight antibiotics tested.

  11. Aeromonas spp. isolated from oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorea from a natural oyster bed, Ceará, Brazil Aeromonas spp. isoladas de ostras (Crassostrea rhizophorea coletadas em um criadouro natural, Ceará, Brazil

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    Norma S. Evangelista-Barreto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Between April and October 2002, thirty fortnightly collections of oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorea from a natural oyster bed at the Cocó River estuary in the Sabiaguaba region (Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil were carried out, aiming to isolate Aeromonas spp. strains. Oyster samples were submitted to the direct plating (DP and the presence/absence (P/A methods. Aeromonas were identified in 15 (50% samples analyzed by the DP method and in 13 (43% analyzed by the P/A method. A. caviae, A. eucrenophila, A. media, A. sobria, A. trota, A. veronii bv. sobria, A. veronii bv. veronii and Aeromonas sp. were isolated. The predominant species was A. veronii (both biovars, which was identified in 13 (43% samples, followed by A. media in 11 (37% and A. caviae in seven (23%. From the 59 strains identified, 28 (48% presented resistance to at least one of the eight antibiotics tested.Foram realizadas 30 coletas quinzenais, entre abril e outubro de 2002, de ostras (Crassostrea rhizophorea de um criadouro natural, no estuário do rio Cocó (Fortaleza/Ceará/Brasil, objetivando-se isolar cepas de Aeromonas spp. As amostras de ostras foram submetidas aos métodos de plaqueamento direto (PD e presença/ausência (P/A. Foram identificadas Aeromonas em 15 (50% amostras analisadas pelo método PD e em 13 (43% pelo método P/A. Foram isoladas: A. caviae, A. eucrenophila, A. media, A. sobria, A. trota, A. veronii bv. sobria, A. veronii bv. veronii e Aeromonas sp. A espécie predominate foi A. veronii (ambos biovars, identificada em 13 (43% amostras, seguida de A. media em 11 (37% e A. caviae em 7 (23%. Das 59 cepas identificadas, 28 (48% apresentaram resistência a pelo menos um, dos oitos antibióticos testados.

  12. Assesing Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotype B resistance in soybean genotypes: Antixenosis and antibiosis Evaluación de la resistencia de genotipos de soya a Bemisia tabaci (Genn. biotipo B: Antixenosis y antibiosis

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    José Paulo Gonçalves Franco da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since it was first reported in Brazil in the 1990s, the B biotype of silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn., Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae has been recognized as an important pest in soybeans (Glycine max L., reducing the productivity of this legume species in some areas of the country. As an alternative to chemical control, the use of resistant genotypes represents an important tool for integrated pest management (IPM. This study evaluated the performance of 10 soybean genotypes prior to whitefly infestation, by testing attractiveness and preference for oviposition in the greenhouse and antibiosis in the laboratory. In a multiple-choice test, 'IAC-17' was the least attractive to insects. In a no-choice test, 'IAC-17' was the least attractive for egg deposition, indicating the occurrence of non-preference for oviposition on this genotype. Trichome density was positively correlated with the oviposition site and may be associated with the resistance of 'IAC-17' to infestation. The genotypes 'IAC-PL1', 'IAC-19', 'Conquista', 'IAC-24' and 'IAC-17' extended the insect's life cycle, indicating the occurrence of a small degree of antibiosis and/or non-preference for feeding.Desde que se registró por primera vez en Brasil en la década de 1990, el biotipo B de la mosca-blanca (Bemisia tabaci Genn., Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, se reconoce como una importante plaga de la soya (Glycine max L. y es lo que reduce la productividad de estas especies de leguminosas en algunas zonas del pais. Como una alternativa al control químico, el uso de genotipos resistentes representa una herramienta importante para la gestión integrada de plagas (MIP. Este trabajo evaluó el comportamiento de 10 genotipos de soya frente al ataque de la mosca-blanca, por medio de ensayos de atractividad y preferencia para ovipostura en invernaderos y antibiosis en laboratorio. En una prueba de elección multiple, 'IAC-17' fue el menos atractivo para los insectos. En una prueba sin elecci

  13. Influência do \\'biotipo periodontal\\' na remodelação dos tecidos moles e da tábua óssea vestibular em alvéolos pós-exodontia e implantes imediatos, com e sem enxerto xenógeno

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Prado Maia

    2014-01-01

    Após exodontia e instalação de implantes imediatos o sítio edêntulo sofre uma substancial remodelação óssea. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a remodelação dos tecidos moles e da tábua óssea vestibular em alvéolos pósexodontia e em implantes imediatos em cães com um biotipo periodontal fino, com a associação de um material de enxerto. Oito cães tiveram a espessura da gengiva de um lado da mandíbula reduzida, os pré-molares mandibulares extraídos em cirurgia sem retalho e 4 implantes ...

  14. [New species of Aeromonas isolated in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, L; Monté, R J; Alfonso, V; Cabrera, N; Gómez, M; Hernández, R; García, B

    1995-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-five strains of Aeromonas isolated in the stools of children under 5 years presenting with acute diarrheal disease were studied. Using the Aerokey II system for the identification of species, 47 strains were identified as Aeromonas caviae, 58 as Aeromonas hydrophila, 23 as Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria, 14 as Aeromonas trota, 9 as Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii, 2 as Aeromonas jandaei and 2 as Aeromonas shubertii, Emphasis is placed on the advantages of this method which allowed for the classification of new species not identified previously in our country.

  15. Prevalence of thermotolerant species of Campylobacter and their biotypes in children and domestic birds and dogs in Southern Chile Prevalência de espécies termotolerantes de Campylobacter e seus biotipos em crianças, aves domésticas e cães no sul do Chile

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    Heriberto Fernández

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in diarrhoeic and healthy children as well as in dogs, hens, ducks and pigeons was determined in Southern Chile. Campylobacter were found in 34.5% of the faecal samples examined. The isolation rate of Campylobacter in diarrhoeic and healthy children was 16.3% and 6.4% respectively. Despite C.jejuni was always more frequent than C. coli, the latter was isolated with a high frequency (29% from patients with diarrhoea. C.jejuni and C. coli biotypes I and II were found in healthy and diarrhoeic children and were predominant in all the animals species studied. This may point out towards the possible origin of strains infecting children.Foi determinada, no sul do Chile, a prevalência de espécies termotolerantes de Campylobacter e seus biotipos, em crianças normais e diarréicas, bem como em cães e aves domésticas. Campylobacter foi isolado em 34,5% do total das amostras estudadas sendo sua frequência de isolamento de 16,3% e 6,4% nas crianças com diarréia e normais, respectivamente. C. jejuni foi a espécie mais freqüente. Porém, C. coli foi isolado em 29% das crianças com diarréia. Somente os biotipos I e II, tanto de C. jejuni como de C. coli, foram isolados das crianças, os quais foram também os mais frequentemente encontrados nos animais, sugerindo uma possível associação epidemiológica entre eles

  16. Distribution of cphA or related carbapenemase-encoding genes and production of carbapenemase activity in members of the genus Aeromonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossolini, G M; Zanchi, A; Chiesurin, A; Amicosante, G; Satta, G; Guglielmetti, P

    1995-02-01

    The prevalence of the cphA gene or related carbapenemase-encoding genes was investigated in 114 Aeromonas strains belonging to the six species of major clinical interest. A species-related distribution of cphA-related sequences was observed. Similar sequences were found in A. hydrophila, A. veronii bv. sobria, A. veronii bv. veronii, and A. jandaei, but not in A. caviae, A. trota, or A. schubertii. However, a single A. caviae strain (of 62 tested) was found carrying cphA-related sequences, suggesting the possibility of the horizontal transfer of this gene to species which normally do not carry it. Production of carbapenemase activity was detectable in 83% of the hybridization-positive strains but in none of the hybridization-negative ones. When it was present, carbapenemase activity was always inhibitable by EDTA. Either carbapenemase-producing or not, Aeromonas strains appeared to be susceptible to imipenem when in vitro susceptibility testing was performed with inocula of conventional size (10(5) CFU), for which MICs were always or = 4 micrograms/ml, being usually higher than the breakpoint for susceptibility. The present results indicate that the production of metallocarbapenemase activity, apparently encoded by cphA homologs, is widespread among some of the Aeromonas species of clinical interest (A. hydrophila, A. veronii bv. sobria, A. veronii bv. veronii, and A. jandaei) and that imipenem MICs for carbapenemase-producing strains are subjected to a relevant inoculum size effect.

  17. Characterization of Aeromonas species isolated from an estuarine environment

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    Norma Suely Evangelista-Barreto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty water samples were collected, at two week intervals, from the estuary of the River Cocó. The aim was to characterize the presence, distribution and types of Aeromonas spp, in the estuary of the River Cocó, Ceara, Brazil (03º46'28.83''S e 38º26'36.52''S. Aeromonas were identified in 19 (63% samples analyzed by plating and CFU counts. Presence/absence tests were positive for 11 (37% of the samples resulting in the detection of Aeromonas in a total of 23 (77% of samples. CFU counts varied from < 10 to 1.4 x 10(4 CFU mL-1 . From the isolated strains seven species of Aeromonas were identified: A. caviae (29/69, A. veronii bv. sobria (13/69, A. veronii bv. veronii (8/69, A. trota (6/69, A. media (5/69, A. sobria (4/69 and A. hydrophila and Aeromonas sp. (2/69. Of the 38 strains tested, 23 (60% showed resistance to at least one of the eight antimicrobials. Multiple resistance to antibiotics was observed in A. caviae, A. media, A. sóbria and A. veronii bv. sobria. Aeromonas caviae showed the highest multiple resistance, being resistant to four antibiotics. The presence of those microorganisms may contribute to the occurrence of gastroenteritis, mainly in children, since they are considered opportunists.

  18. Culture supernatants from V. cholerae O1 ElTor strains isolated from different geographic areas induce cell vacuolation and cytotoxicity Cepas de V. cholerae O1 biotipo ElTor aisladas de diferente origen geográfico inducen vacuolización celular y citotoxicidad

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    Jorge E Vidal

    2009-02-01

    fenotipo ampliamente distribuido en cepas epidémicas de V. cholerae O1 biotipo ElTor.

  19. Infections following the application of leeches: two case reports and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maetz Benjamin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Since the 1980s, leeches have been ingeniously used in the management of venous flap congestion. The presence of anticoagulative substances in their saliva improves the blood drainage. Their digestive tract contains several bacterial species, the main ones being Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria, which contribute to the digestion of ingested blood. These bacteria can be the cause of infections. Case presentation We report two cases of septicemia related to Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria that presented after leeches had been applied to congested transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps for delayed mammary reconstructions. Patient number 1 was a 55-year-old Caucasian woman who underwent a delayed breast reconstruction procedure. On the sixth postoperative day she showed a clinical presentation of septicemia. Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria was identified in the patient’s skin and blood bacteriological samples. Her fever ceased after 4 days of antibiotic treatment. Patient number 2 was a 56-year-old Caucasian woman who underwent a delayed breast reconstruction procedure. On the seventh postoperative day we noticed that she showed a clinical presentation of septicemia. Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria was identified in the patient’s blood cultures and local bacteriological samples. An antibiogram showed resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Her fever ceased on the eleventh postoperative day after 4 days of antibiotic treatment. Conclusion The rate of infection after application of leeches is not negligible. The concentration of Aeromonas inside the digestive tracts of leeches largely decreases when the patient is under antibiotic therapy. These germs are sensitive to third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. We recommend preventive treatment based on classical measures of asepsis and on oral antibioprophylaxy with a fluoroquinolone

  20. Aeromonas update: new species and global distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, A M; Joseph, S W

    1991-05-15

    There are currently eight proposed or validated Aeromonas spp. of which five have been implicated in human disease: A. hydrophila, A. sobria, A. caviae, A. veronii, and A. schubertii. Recent studies have extended the geographic distribution and source of isolation of the newer species and resulted in the possibility of two new species, A. jandaei and A. trota, from diarrheal, wound, blood and environmental sources.

  1. Aeromonas spp. possess at least two distinct type IV pilus families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, T C; Kirov, S M; Strom, M S; Sanderson, K

    1997-10-01

    Type IV pili have been purified from strains of most of the Aeromonas species associated with gastroenteritis (A. veronii biovar sobria, A. hydrophila, A. trota and A. caviae). They appear to be a related family (molecular mass of pilin 19 to 23 kDa) with a tendency to bundle-formation. Hence, we have designated them 'bundle-forming pili' (Bfp). A type IV pilus biogenesis gene cluster (tapABCD) recently cloned from a strain of A. hydrophila, however, encoded a 17 kDa pilin which differed significantly in its N-terminal amino acid sequence from the Bfp pilins. This paper describes the cloning of part (tapA and approximately 20% of tapB) of a homologous pilin gene cluster from a Bfp-positive strain of A. veronii biovar sobria, and presents evidence that the entire pilin gene cluster (tapABCD) is present in this strain. The predicted N-terminal amino acid sequence of the pilin encoded by the A. veronii biovar sobria tapA differed markedly from the corresponding sequence of its Bfp pilin, and those of the Bfp purified from other Aeromonas strains and species. Probing with tapA and tapD genes showed that these Bfp-positive Aeromonas strains also possessed the Tap gene cluster. TapA proteins of A. veronii biovar sobria and A. hydrophila shared 53% identity and 63% homology. We conclude that Aeromonas species are potentially able to express at least two distinct families of type IV pili (Bfp and Tap). Copyright 1997 Academic Press Limited.

  2. Aerokey II: a flexible key for identifying clinical Aeromonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, A M; Behram, S; Joseph, S W

    1991-12-01

    A small subset (n = 18) of highly discriminatory tests was derived from the feature frequency of 50 tests used in the study of 167 predominantly clinical Aeromonas strains. Seven of these eighteen tests were used to construct a flexible, dichotomous key, Aerokey II, for identifying clinical aerontonads: esculin hydrolysis, gas from glucose, acid from arabinose, indole production, acid from sucrose, Voges-Proskauer reaction, and resistance to cephalothin (30 micrograms). This schema was initially evaluated in a single-blind trial of 60 well-characterized clinical Aeromonas hydrophila (n = 21), A. caviae (n = 19), and A. veronii bv. sobria (n = 20) strains from an independent laboratory. Of the 60 strains tested, 58 (97%) were accurately identified to the species level. Aerokey II was further evaluated with 18 additional American Type Culture Collection and reference strains representing the more recently proposed taxa A. veronii bv. veronii, A. schubertii, A. jandaei, and A. trota and accurately identified all of these strains.

  3. [Mobile species of the genus Aeromonas: difficulties of identification and pathogenicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramboarina, C; Scheftel, J M; Monteil, H

    1993-01-01

    Sixty-two Aeromonas strains (39 of clinical and 23 of environmental origin) were identified. The suicide phenomenon and autoagglutination were studied. Identification is based on esculin hydrolysis; fermentation of arabinose salicin, sucrose and mannitol; gas production from glucose, indole and beta hemolysis; Voges-Proskauer and decarboxylation reactions; and finally resistance to cephalothin (30 micrograms) and colistin (4 micrograms/ml). Thirty-four per cent of A hydrophila, 33% A caviae, 28% A veronii subspecies sobria, 3% A jandaei, 2% A veronii subspecies veronii were accurately identified. Also, several new species were identified such as A trota, A enteropelogenes, A schubertii, A ichthiosmia, according to the more recently proposed taxa. This identification scheme could enhance our knowledge concerning virulence factors, pathogenicity and environmental distribution.

  4. Phenotypic study by numerical taxonomy of strains belonging to the genus Aeromonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, L; Esteve, C

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to cluster and identify a large collection of Aeromonas strains. Numerical taxonomy was used to analyse phenotypic data obtained on 54 new isolates taken from water, fish, snails, sputum and 99 type and reference strains. Each strain was tested for 121 characters but only the data for 71 were analysed using the 'SSM' and 'SJ' coefficients, and the UPGMA clustering algorithm. At SJ values of > or = 81.6% the strains clustered into 22 phenons which were identified as Aer. jandaei, Aer. hydrophila, Aer. encheleia, Aer. veronii biogroup veronii, Aer. trota, Aer. caviae, Aer. eucrenophila, Aer. ichthiosmia, Aer. sobria, Aer. allosaccharophila, Aer. media, Aer. schubertii and Aer. salmonicida. The species Aer. veronii biogroup sobria was represented by several clusters which formed two phenotypic cores, the first related to reference strain CECT 4246 and the second related to CECT 4835. A good correlation was generally observed among this phenotypic clustering and previous genomic and phylogenetic data. In addition, three new phenotypic groups were found, which may represent new Aeromonas species. The phenetic approach was found to be a necessary tool to delimitate and identify the Aeromonas species. Valuable traits for identifying Aeromonas as well as the possible existence of new Aeromonas species or biotypes are indicated.

  5. Aeromonas associated diarrhoeal disease in south Brazil: prevalence, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance Aeromonas associadas a diarréias no sul do Brasil: prevalência, fatores de virulência, e resistência a antibiótico

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    Ivani M.F. Guerra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas were isolated from 27 (6.6% of 408 patients admitted with acute gastroenteritis in two hospitals at Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Isolates were classified as A. hydrophila (51.8%, A. caviae (40.8%, and A. veronii biotype sobria (7.4%. The highest prevalence of Aeromonas associated infections occurred in lactants and children. Virulence genes (aerA -aerolysin/hemolysin, ahpA -serine-protease, satA - glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase, lipA -lipase, and ahyB -elastase and virulence factors (hemolytic, proteolitic, lipolitic activities, and biofilm formation were identified in most A. hydrophila and A. veronii biotype sobria isolates, with lower frequencies on A. caviae. All Aeromonas isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, cephalotin, and cephazolin, and most of them (>70% exhibited resistance to imipenem, carbenicillin, amoxillin/sulbactan, and piperacillin. Multiple-resistance, more than four antibiotics, was evidenced in 29.6% of the isolates. The most efficient antibiotics were the quinolones (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, and the aminoglycosides (amikacin and netilmicin.Aeromonas foram isoladas de 27 (6.6% dos 408 pacientes admitidos com gastroenterite aguda em dois hospitais do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os isolados foram classificados com A. hydrophila (51.8%, A. caviae (40.8%, e A. veronii biotype sobria (7.4%. A maior prevalência de Aeromonas ocorreu em lactantes e crianças. Genes (aerA -aerolisina/hemolisina, ahpA -serina-protease, satA - glicerofosfolipidio-colesterol aciltransferase, lipA -lipase, e ahyB -elastase e factores (atividade hemolítica, proteolítica, lipolítica, e formação de biofilme de virulência foram identificados na maioria dos isolados de A. hydrophila e A. veronii biotype sobria, com freqüências menores em A. caviae. Todos os isolados de Aeromonas apresentaram resistência a ampicilina, ticarcilina/ácido clavulânico, cefalotina e cefazolina, e a maior parte

  6. Aeromonas spp. e Plesiomonas shigelloides isoladas a partir de mexilhões (Perna perna in natura e pré-cozidos no Rio de Janeiro, RJ Aeromonas spp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides isolated from in natura and precooked mussels (Perna perna in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Soares Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O ecossistema aquático é o habitat de mexilhões (Perna perna, animais filtradores que refletem a qualidade ambiental através de análise microbiológica de sua carne. No presente trabalho avaliou-se a presença de patógenos emergentes (Aeromonas hydrophila e Plesiomonas shigelloides, em mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidos coletados por pescadores da Estação Experimental de Cultivo de Mexilhões situada em Jurujuba, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Foram analisadas 86 amostras de mexilhões (43 in natura e 43 pré-cozidos as quais foram submetidas a enriquecimento em Água Peptonada Alcalina (APA acrescida de 1 e 3% de Cloreto de Sódio (NaCl e em solução Salina de Butterfield, incubadas a 37ºC por 24 horas. Em seguida, foram semeadas em Ágar Seletivo para Pseudomonas-Aeromonas (GSP, Ágar Tiossulfato Citrato Bile Sacarose (TCBS e Ágar Inositol Bile Verde Brilhante (IBB. A análise geral dos resultados permitiu a identificação de Areomonas spp e Plesiomonas shigelloides em 86% das amostras de mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidas avaliadas. A posterior caracterização bioquímica permitiu a identificação das espécies Aeromonas media (37,10%, A. hydrophila (15,50%, A. caviae (14,80%, A. veronii biogrupo veronii (11,60%, Aeromonas sp. (7,36%, A. sobria (4,20%, A. trota (4,20%, A. schubertii (1,31%, A. jandaei (1,31%, A. veronii biogrupo sobria (0,52% e Plesiomonas shigelloides (2,10%. A relevância epidemiológica desses microrganismos em casos de gastrenterite humana, após consumo de mexilhões crus ou parcialmente cozidos, revela a importância de alertar as autoridades de Saúde Pública no Brasil, sobre a presença desses patógenos na cadeia alimentar e seus riscos para a saúde humana.The aquatic ecosystem is the habitat of mussels, filtrating animals that reflect the ambient quality through microbiological analysis. In the present investigation, we evaluated the presence of emergent pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas

  7. Enteropatógenos bacterianos em peixes criados em uma estação de reciclagem de nutrientes e no ecossistema relacionado Bacterial enteropathogens from fishes of a nutrient recycle system and its ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglaise M. Esposto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a presença de enteropatógenos bacterianos em 72 amostras obtidas a partir de peixes criados em sistema de reciclagem de nutrientes, em estação experimental, no município de Petrópolis, RJ. Paralelamente, foram obtidas amostras do lodo utilizado como adubo orgânico e da cama de aves localizada na área interna dos tanques criatórios. A metodologia empregada incluiu o pré-enriquecimento em Caldo Lactosado e Água Peptonada Tamponada, seguido de enriquecimento em Água Peptonada Alcalina (pH 8,4-8,6 e subseqüente semeadura em Agar GSP para o isolamento de Aeromonas spp. e Plesiomonas shigelloides. Para os demais microrganismos, alíquotas de 1ml foram inoculadas nos meios de enriquecimento Caldo Rappaport-Vassiliadis e Caldo Tetrationato de Kauffmann com posterior semeadura em Agar Entérico Hektoen e Agar Salmonella-Shigella. Com a finalidade de monitorar o índice de coliformes fecais, visando conhecer a qualidade da água para este sistema, paralelamente à coleta de peixes foram avaliadas amostras de água dos tanques criatórios e de macrófitas. No cômputo geral foram isoladas 116 cepas de enteropatógenos bacterianos, destacando-se Aeromonas spp (67,2% com 9 espécies (A. veronii biogrupo sobria, A. hydrophila, A. sobria, A. trota, A.eucrenophila, A. veronii biog. veronii, A. media, A. caviae e A jandaei e Aeromonas spp., seguido de Edwardsiella tarda (16,4%, Plesiomonas shigelloides (12,9% e Salmonella (3,4%. A análise da qualidade da água empregada no sistema revelou, de um modo geral, índices mais elevados de coliformes fecais nos tanques dos peixes (>1800/100 ml.The presence of bacterial enteropathogens from fishes of a nutrient recycle system from a Experimental Station in Petropolis, RJ, was evaluated in 72 samples from april 2000 to july 2001 Simultaneously was collected the mud used as organic manure and poultry beds localized next to the tanks. The isolation procedures included preenrichment in Peptone Water

  8. Characterization of Aeromonas strains isolated from Indian foods using rpoD gene sequencing and whole cell protein analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Vandan; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2013-04-01

    Aeromonas are responsible for causing gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections in humans. Twenty-two Aeromonas strains isolated from different food sources were re-identified up to species level using rpoD gene sequence analysis. Biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were insufficient to identify Aeromonas till species level. However, incorporation of additional biochemical tests lead to correct identification of 95.5 % strains up to species level. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was useful to identify Aeromonas isolates at the genus level only. Sequences of the rpoD gene showed greater discriminatory power than 16S rRNA gene and provided conclusive discrimination of the strains for which the phenotypic species identification was uncertain. All these 22 strains were accurately identified up to species level by rpoD gene as A. salmonicida (6), A. veronii bv. veronii (4), A. caviae (3), A. hydrophila (2), A. veronii bv. sobria (2), A. jandaei (1), A. trota (1), A. sobria (1), A. allosaccharophila (1) and A. bivalvium (1). All these strains were also characterized using whole cell protein (WCP) analysis by gradient SDS-PAGE and showed different whole cell protein (WCP) profile [22-28 polypeptide bands (~10 to >97 kDa)], indicating high genetic diversity. The present work emphasizes the use of molecular methods such as rpoD gene sequencing along with comprehensive biochemical tests for the rapid and accurate identification of Aeromonas isolates till species level. The WCP profile can be subsequently used to characterize Aeromonas isolates below species level.

  9. Respuesta in vitro de diferentes biotipos y explantos de Passiflora caerulea L

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Severin, Cecilia; Bueno, Mirian; Santin, Franco; Giubileo, Maria Graciela

    2011-01-01

    Passiflora caerulea L., al igual que otras especies de la familia Passifloraceae, es utilizada en la medicina popular por sus propiedades antiespasmodicas y para el tratamiento de la ansiedad, el insomnio y el nerviosismo...

  10. Putative virulence factors of the Aeromonas spp. isolated from food and environment in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Mohammad Bashir; Ahmed, M Maqbool; Bari, Abdul; Krovacek, Karel

    2006-07-01

    Thirty randomly selected Aeromonas isolates from food and the environment in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, were characterized for putative virulence determinants, such as production of cytotoxin, cytotonic toxin, and hemolysin and their capacity to adhere to and invade Henle 407 cells in vitro. Seventy percent of the tested isolates were cytotoxin producers, and 80% were hemolytic. Cytotoxin was produced by 6 of 7 A. hydrophila strains, 6 of 13 A. caviae strains, and 6 of 7 A. veronii bv. sobria strains, mostly from food sources. A. schubertii, A. jandaei, and A. trota also produced both cytotoxin and hemolysin. All of the 30 isolates tested adhered to Henle 407 cells, but none were able to invade the cells, as determined with the in vitro assay. However, no significant correlation of the presence of these putative virulence factors was found among these aeromonad food isolates.

  11. Characterization of Aeromonas species isolated from an estuarine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista-Barreto, Norma Suely; de Carvalho, Fatima Cristiane Teles; Vieira, Regine Helena S Dos Fernandes; Dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura Falavina; Macrae, Andrew; Rodrigues, Dália Dos Prazeres

    2010-04-01

    Thirty water samples were collected, at two week intervals, from the estuary of the River Cocó. The aim was to characterize the presence, distribution and types of Aeromonas spp, in the estuary of the River Cocó, Ceara, Brazil (03°46'28.83''S e 38°26'36.52''S). Aeromonas were identified in 19 (63%) samples analyzed by plating and CFU counts. Presence/absence tests were positive for 11 (37%) of the samples resulting in the detection of Aeromonas in a total of 23 (77%) of samples. CFU counts varied from trota (6/69), A. media (5/69), A. sobria (4/69) and A. hydrophila and Aeromonas sp. (2/69). Of the 38 strains tested, 23 (60%) showed resistance to at least one of the eight antimicrobials. Multiple resistance to antibiotics was observed in A. caviae, A. media , A. sóbria and A. veronii bv. sobria. Aeromonas caviae showed the highest multiple resistance, being resistant to four antibiotics. The presence of those microorganisms may contribute to the occurrence of gastroenteritis, mainly in children, since they are considered opportunists.

  12. Clinical manifestations of bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species in southern Taiwan.

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    Hung-Jen Tang

    Full Text Available This study is conducted to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species.Patients with bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species during the period 2009 to 2013 were identified from a computerized database of a regional hospital in southern Taiwan. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed.A total of 91 patients with bacteremia due to Aeromonas species were identified. In addition to 16 (17.6% primary bacteremia, the most common source of secondary infection is peritonitis (n = 27, 29.7%, followed by biliary tract infection (n = 18, 19.8%, and SSTI (n = 12, 13.2%, pneumonia (n = 9, 9.9%, catheter-related bloodstream infection (n =  5, 5.5%, and genitourinary tract infection (n = 4, 4.4%. A. hydrophila (n = 35, 38.5% was the most common pathogen, followed by A. veronii biovar sobria (n = 31, 34.1%, A. caviae (n = 14, 15.4%, and A. veronii biovar veronii (n = 9, 9.9%. Forty-three (47.3% patients were classified as healthcare-associated infections (HCAI causes by Aeromonas species, and patients with HCAI were more likely to have cancer, and receive immunosuppressant than patients with community-acquired bacteremia. The overall outcomes, including rate of ICU admission, acute respiratory failure, and mortality were 33.3%, 28.6%, and 23.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the in-hospital day mortality was significantly associated only with underlying cancer (P <.001, and initial shock (P <.001.Aeromonas species should be considered one of the causative pathogens of healthcare-associated bacteremia, especially in immunocompromised patients. In addition, it can be associated with high fatality. Cancer and initial shock were the poor prognostic factors.

  13. Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. dhakensis isolated from feces, water and fish in Mediterranean Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Consuelo; Alcaide, Elena; Blasco, María Dolores

    2012-01-01

    Eight Aeromonas hydrophila-like arabinose-negative isolates from diverse sources (i.e., river freshwater, cooling-system water pond, diseased wild European eels, and human stools) sampled in Valencia (Spain) during 2004-2005, were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and extensive biochemical testing along with reference strains of most Aeromonas species. These isolates and all reference strains of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis and A. aquariorum showed a 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 99.8-100%, and they all shared an identical phenotype. This matched exactly with that of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis since all strains displayed positive responses to the Voges-Prokauer test and to the use of dl-lactate. This is the first report of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis recovered from environmental samples, and further, from its original isolation in India during 1993-1994. This was accurately identified and segregated from other clinical aeromonads (A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila, A. caviae, A. veronii biovars veronii and sobria, A. trota, A. schubertii and A. jandaei) by using biochemical key tests. The API 20 E profile for all strains included in A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis was 7047125. The prevalence of this species in Spanish sources was higher for water (9.4%) than for feces (6%) or eels (1.3%). Isolates recovered as pure cultures from diseased eels were moderately virulent (LD(50) of 3.3×10(6) CFU fish(-1)) to challenged eels in experimental trials. They were all resistant to ticarcillin, amoxicillin-clavuranic acid, cefoxitin, and imipenem, regardless of its source. Our data point to A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis as an emerging pathogen for humans and fish in temperate countries.

  14. Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas em abatedouro de frangos

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    Costa F.N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se 200 amostras de diferentes produtos e locais do fluxograma de abate de frangos com o objetivo de identificar os pontos de contaminação da carne de frango por Aeromonas. Das 25 amostras analisadas para cada um dos oito pontos estudados foram isoladas Aeromonas spp. em nove (36% amostras de penas, em 14 (56% de fezes, em 18 (72% de carcaças não evisceradas, evisceradas e resfriadas e em 20 (80% de água do pré-resfriamento. Não foram isoladas Aeromonas spp. da água de abastecimento da indústria e da água do tanque de escaldagem. Foram identificadas as espécies, Aeromonas hydrophila em 39 (15,2% amostras, A. sobria em 69 (26,9%, A. caviae em 87 (34%, A. veronii em 18 (7%, A. schubertii em três (1,2%, A. trota em duas (0,8% e A. jandaei em uma (0,4%. O resultado sugere que independente do controle higiênico-sanitário adotado na indústria, as carcaças de frangos podem se contaminar já a partir de sua obtenção, determinando o aparecimento de Aeromonas em carcaças resfriadas e prontas para a comercialização.

  15. Genetic linkage of the penicillinase gene, amp, and blrAB, encoding the regulator of beta-lactamase expression in Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niumsup, Pannika; Simm, Alan M; Nurmahomed, Kurshid; Walsh, Timothy R; Bennett, Peter M; Avison, Matthew B

    2003-06-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila T429125, a human clinical isolate, possesses three coordinately inducible beta-lactamases encoded by ampH (class D beta-lactamase), cepH (class C beta-lactamase) and imiH (class B beta-lactamase). We report that upstream of ampH there are two genes, blrA and blrB, encoding a putative two-component regulatory system. PCR studies revealed the same blrAB-amp gene arrangement in all Aeromonas spp. isolates tested; namely, Aeromonas veronii bv. sobria, Aeromonas jandaei, Aeromonas mediae, Aeromonas salmonicida and Aeromonas trota. A dominant mutation in the predicted BlrB kinase domain results in beta-lactamase overexpression in A. hydrophila T429125, but in other beta-lactamase-overexpressing mutants blrAB remains intact. Relative to the parent strain, A. hydrophila T429125, beta-lactamase- overexpressing mutants show a clear hierarchy of increased beta-lactamase expression: ImiH > CepH > AmpH. The same hierarchy is seen following beta-lactam challenge of A. hydrophila T429125, and correlates with the number of blr-tag sequences (TTCAC) found upstream of each beta-lactamase gene: ampH (one), cepH (two) and imiH (three).

  16. Aeromonas trota sp. nov., an ampicillin-susceptible species isolated from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, A M; Chakraborty, T; Fanning, G R; Verma, D; Ali, A; Janda, J M; Joseph, S W

    1991-06-01

    Previous DNA hybridization studies established 12 Aeromonas genospecies, from which nine phenotypic species have been proposed: Aeromonas hydrophila, A. sobria, A. caviae, A. media, A. veronii, A. schubertii, A. salmonicida, A. eucrenophila, and A. jandaei. We have delineated a new Aeromonas genospecies, A. trota, on the basis of 13 strains isolated primarily from fecal specimens from southern and southeastern Asia. All strains were highly related to the proposed type strain, AH2 (ATCC 49657T): 51 to 100% (60 degrees C) and 49 to 99% (75 degrees C), with 0.2 to 2.2 divergence. AH2 was only 16 to 41% (60 degrees C) related to all other Aeromonas type strains and DNA group definition strains. The unique profile of A. trota includes negative reactions for esculin hydrolysis, arabinose fermentation, and the Voges-Proskauer test, positive reactions for cellobiose fermentation, lysine decarboxylation, and citrate utilization, and susceptibility to ampicillin, as determined by the broth microdilution MIC method and the Bauer-Kirby disk diffusion method (10 micrograms). Nine of the A. trota strains were from a single study of 165 geographically diverse aeromonads. This finding questions the efficacy of screening fecal specimens for Aeromonas spp. with ampicillin-containing media and suggests a previously unrecognized prevalence of this new species.

  17. Virulence potential and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of motile aeromonads associated with freshwater ornamental fish culture systems: a possible threat to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Krishnan; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, Isaac Sarojani Bright

    2012-04-01

    Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic organisms, associated with multitude of diseases in several species of animals, including fishes and humans. In the present study, water samples from two ornamental fish culture systems were analyzed for the presence of Aeromonas. Nutrient agar was used for Aeromonas isolation, and colonies (60 No) were identified through biochemical characterization. Seven clusters could be generated based on phenotypic characters, analyzed by the programme NTSYSpc, Version 2.02i, and identified as: Aeromonas caviae (33.3%), A. jandaei (38.3%) and A. veronii biovar sobria (28.3%). The strains isolated produced highly active hydrolytic enzymes, haemolytic activity and slime formation in varying proportions. The isolates were also tested for the enterotoxin genes (act, alt and ast), haemolytic toxins (hlyA and aerA), involved in type 3 secretion system (TTSS: ascV, aexT, aopP, aopO, ascF-ascG, and aopH), and glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat). All isolates were found to be associated with at least one virulent gene. Moreover, they were resistant to frequently used antibiotics for human infections. The study demonstrates the pathogenic potential of Aeromonas, associated with ornamental fish culture systems suggesting the emerging threat to public health.

  18. Detección de biotipos del Virus de la Diarrea Viral Bovina (VDVB a través de RT-PCR

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    Hernán Burbano C.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se describe la normalización de la prueba de RT-PCR para ser empleada como herramienta en la detección del Virus de la Diarrea Viral Bovina (VDVB. Los iniciadores utilizados amplificaron un sector de 280 pb que se encuentra dentro del extremo 5’ UTR del genoma viral. Para el proceso de normalización, se usó como control positivo, cepas de referencia de VDVB (NADL, Osloss. Para evaluar reacción cruzada se usó una cepa de virus de Enfermedad de las Fronteras (BD. La obtención del cDNA se realizó por el método de «random primers» (iniciadores aleatorios. La prueba detectó tanto cepas citopáticas, como no citopáticas del VDVB. El protocolo establecido demostró un buen funcionamiento in vitro y es la base para posteriores pruebas de validación y evaluación de la prueba diagnóstica.

  19. Diferencias entre biotipos en el retraso de la producción primaria en respuesta a la variabilidad climática

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Raúl; Alcaraz, Domingo; Reyes, Andrés; Rodrigo, Fernando S.; Cabello, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Ponencia presentada en: IX Congreso de la Asociación Española de Climatología celebrado en Almería entre el 28 y el 30 de octubre de 2014. [ES]El 5º Informe del IPCC enfatiza en la distribución espacial heterogénea que los efectos del cambio climático (calentamiento global, olas de calor, sequías, inundaciones, etc.) tendrán a lo largo del planeta. Para la cuenca mediterránea, predicen a lo largo del siglo XXI una disminución de las precipitaciones entre el 12% (invierno) y el 24%...

  20. Análise do risco da ocorrência de biotipos de plantas daninhas resistentes aos herbicidas The risk of finding herbicide resistant weed biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribas A. Vidal

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise do risco da ocorrência de biótipos de planta s daninhas resistentes aos herbicidas dispõe de fundamentos teóricos adequados, porém é limitada pela falta de mais informações genéticas das espécies daninhas. O risco de encontrar uma área infestada com biótipos de plantas daninhas resistentes aos herbicidas depende de dois aspectos: da probabilidade de seleção de um mutante resistente a certo mecanismo de ação herbicida; e da probabilidade de infestação da área com plantas resistentes, a partir daquele mutante selecionado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a influência de fatores genéticos na probabilidade de seleção de um mutante resistente a determinado mecanismo de ação herbicida e assim prever o risco de serem encontrados biótipos de plantas daninhas resistentes aos herbicidas. Os fatores que determinam a probabilidade de selecionar um mutante resistente aos herbicidas podem ser agrupados em três categorias: os relacionados à genética da resistência; os relacionados ao número de plantas daninhas sob seleção; e os relacionados ao herbicida. Os fatores relacionados à genética da resistência são dependentes da freqüência inicial do alelo de resistência, da dominância e do tipo de polinização da espécie. Os fatores relacionados ao número de indivíduos são a área tratada com o herbicida e o grau de infestação da área. Os fatores relacionados aos herbicidas são o seu mecanismo de ação e a sua freqüência de uso na área. As previsões matemáticas indicam alto risco de ocorrência de resistência em áreas com alta infestação de plantas daninhas e que são aspergidas com herbicidas cujos mecanismos de ação apresentam histórico de alta freqüência inicial do alelo de resistência nas populações de plantas daninhas.The prediction of occurrence of weed resistance to herbicides is limited by the scarcity of informat ion on weed genetics. The risk of finding a resistant weed biotype depends on two aspects : the probability of selecting a herbicide resistant mutant, and the probability of spreading the resistance in the area. The objectives of this work were to study factors that control the probability of selecting a herbicide resista NT mutant, and to predict the risk of selecting a resistant plant. The factors that control the probability of selecting a herbicide resistant mutant are grouped in three categories: those related to the genetics of resistance, those related to the number of plants under selection, and thoserelated to the herbicide. The genetics of resistance is governed by the initial frequency of the resista nt allele, dominance of the gene, and type of species pollination. The number of plants under selection depend on size of the herbicide treated area and weed density. The factors related to the herbicide are its mechanism of action, and frequency of use of the same mechanism of action in the area. Computer simulations indicate great risk of occurrence of a resistant mutant in áreas with high weed density, mainly those sprayed with herbicides whose mechanisms of action present history of high initial frequency of the resistant trait on the weed populations.

  1. Correction: Structural Studies of the Lipopolysaccharide from the Fish Pathogen Aeromonas veronii Strain Bs19, Serotype O16. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 1298–1316

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Turska-Szewczuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We found one editorial mistake in our published paper [1]. In Line 2 of Table 4, the same composition of sugars is given for the C4 and C5 species (in the C5 species, one residue: 6dHexNAc has been missed. [...

  2. A multiplex PCR for detection of enterotoxin genes in Aeromonas species isolated from foods of animal origin and human diarrhoeal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, M A; Willayat, M M; Wani, S A; Munshi, Z H; Hussain, S A

    2014-12-01

    The present study describes incidence and enterotoxin gene profile of Aeromonas spp. from human diarrhoeal samples (83) and raw meats (171). The samples were screened for isolation of Aeromonads. Aeromonas spp. contaminated raw meats of all kinds under the study and per cent contamination in chicken, mutton and beef was 14·03, 22·89 and 19·35, respectively. Of the 83 diarrhoeal samples from children, 6 (7·22%) were positive for presence of Aeromonas spp. Seven different species of Aeromonas (Aer. hydrophila, Aer. caviae, Aer. veronii bv sobria, Aer. trota, Aer. schubertii, Aer. jandaei and Aer. allosaccharophila) could be identified from foods and from diarrhoeal samples two species (Aer. caviae and Aer. hydrophila) were encountered. Unique primers were designed, and a multiplex PCR was standardized for detection of three enterotoxin genes (act, alt, ast) in the Aeromonas spp. Of the 39 isolates, 35 (89·74%) carried one or more enterotoxin genes: act, alt and ast genes were detected in 30 (76·92%), 31 (79·48%) and 4 (10·25%) isolates, respectively. The enterotoxin genes from a strain recovered from mutton were sequenced and submitted to GenBank and the accession no.s KC687135, KC633828 and KC687134 were provided for alt, ast and act, respectively, by the GenBank. The occurrence of enterotoxigenic Aeromonads in raw meats and diarrhoeal samples is a public health concern. Given the increasing evidence of involvement of Aeromonads in foodborne outbreaks, the standardization of single-step multiplex PCR will be helpful tool for detection of enterotoxin genes in Aeromonas spp. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Identificação e resistência a antimicrobianos de espécies de Aeromonas móveis isoladas de peixes e ambientes aquáticos Identification and antimicrobial resistance of motile Aeromonas isolated from fish and aquatic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Hirsch

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se verificar a diversidade de espécies de Aeromonas móveis e seu perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos em pisciculturas comerciais, foram selecionadas oito tilapiculturas localizadas na região do Alto Rio Grande, Minas Gerais. De cada propriedade foram coletadas três amostras de peixes em estádio de pré-abate (vivos e saudáveis, uma amostra de água do tanque e uma amostra da água de abastecimento do sistema. De cada peixe foram coletadas amostras de lavado superficial e do parênquima renal. Diluições seriadas adequadas de cada amostra foram plaqueadas em TSA-ampicilina (10 mg/l e as amostras de rim em Ágar Sangue de cavalo a 5%. A partir de colônias isoladas positivas para o teste da oxidase foram realizados testes para identificação do gênero (testes presuntivos e das espécies de Aeromonas (testes bioquímicos. O perfil de antibiograma foi obtido pelo teste de difusão de discos de antibióticos em Ágar Mueller Hinton. Foram obtidos 75 isolados diferenciados em nove espécies de Aeromonas: A. jandaei, A. hydrophila, A. trota, A. caviae, A. sobria, A. eucrenophila, A. veronii bt veronii, A. schubertii, A. media, além de amostras classificadas como Aeromonas atípicas. Do total isolado, oito amostras foram provenientes da superfície corpórea de peixes, 14 da água de abastecimento e 53 da água do tanque. Não houve isolamento a partir dos espécimes de parênquima renal. Em relação ao perfil de resistência, 93% dos isolados foram resistentes à eritromicina, 36% à tetraciclina, 13% ao ác. nalidíxico, 9% à gentamicina, 8% à nitrofurantoína, 8% à canamicina, 5% à norfloxacina, 4% ao cloranfenicol e 3% às sulfonamidas. Dentre os isolados analisados, 43% apresentaram índice de múltipla resistência a antimicrobianos (MAR igual ou superior a 22%, ou seja, resistência a dois ou mais drogas das nove testadas. Os dados apontam para um risco iminente, tanto pelo isolamento de amostras

  4. Identificación de biotipos de Staphyloccocus aureus en vacas lecheras de producción familiar con mastitis subclínica en la región centro-este del Estado de México

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana María Manjarrez López; Soledad Díaz Zarco; Félix Salazar García; Benjamín Valladares Carranza; Adriana del Carmen Gutiérrez Castillo; Alberto Barbabosa Plliego; Martín Talavera Rojas; María Uxúa Alonso Fresán; Valente Velázquez Ordóñez

    2012-01-01

    La mastitis ocasiona grandes pérdidas económicas en los hatos lecheros. El Staphylococcus aureus es uno de los principales agentes causales de la enfermedad, considerado de importancia en la salud...

  5. Análisis de la sensibilidad de biotipos de Lolium multiflorum a herbicidas inhibidores de la enzima ALS, ACCasa y Glifosato Sensitivity analysis of Lolium multiflorum biotypes to Glyphosate, ACCase and ALS-inhibiting herbicides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P. Diez De Ulzurrun; M.I. Leaden

    2012-01-01

    .... En el sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires se registraron fallas de control a campo en poblaciones de Lolium multiflorum debido a su resistencia a distintos herbicidas de las familias de los...

  6. New biotypes of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae E9 strain with altered conidial germination, obtained by exposition to gamma radiation; Novos biotipos de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin com germinacao alterada de conidios, obtidos pela exposicao a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.G.; Oliveira, N.T.; Luna Alves Lima, E.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Micologia

    1997-12-31

    Conidia produced by a wild strain (E9) of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae var anisopliae were exposed to gamma radiation in order to obtain new biotypes. At the 390 Gy dose there were obtained 48 colonies (MaE). On complete medium, 5 colonies (MaE 01, MaE 10, MaE 15, MaE 40) presented morphological changes in color while the colony MaE 24 lost its esporulation capacity. Twenty six colonies presented mycelial growth significantly different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation. Twelve colonies showed average of conidial germination different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation on liquid minimum medium at 25 deg C. The colony MaE started germination precociously after 5 hours of incubation. (author) 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  7. Evaluación de la transmisión del tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-MId) en hospederas alternas cultivadas y silvestres mediante el biotipo B de mosca blanca (Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Güerere Pereira, Pascual Ramón

    2013-01-01

    Durante marzo 2008 - noviembre 2009, se realizaron cuatro trabajos de investigación, el primero consistió en los análisis moleculares de muestras de tomate colectadas entre los años 2000 y 2009 provenientes de un inventario nacional de begomovirus. La extracción de ADN viral se hizo utilizando el protocolo de Gilbertson et al. (1991); para la amplificación del ADN a través de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) se utilizaron los siguientes pares de cebadores: AV494 - A...

  8. Oviposition behavior of the silver leaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B on tomato; Comportamento de oviposicao da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotipo B em tomateiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramim, Jose D. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: jdvendra@esalq.usp.br; Souza, Antonio P. de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Morfofisiologia. Lab. de Anatomia Humana]. E-mail: apsouza@nin.ufms.br; Ongarelli, Maria das G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Lab. de Fisiologia e Bioquimica Pos-Colheita]. E-mail: mgong@esalq.usp.br

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the leaf surface, the insect geotropic behavior and the type of foliar trichome on Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B oviposition on tomato leaves. Bemisia tabaci females were confined in acrylic boxes in which tomato leaflets were fixed at the bottom and top part of the boxes to allow insects to access the leaf surface to be tested (adaxial and/or abaxial) in both no-choice and free choice tests. Oviposition was always higher when the leaf was offered at the top of the box and preferably at the abaxial leaf surface. The effects of leaf trichomes (glandular and non glandular) on B. tabaci oviposition was evaluated by offering the abaxial surface of tomato leaflets to females after a 70% ethanol wash to remove glandular exsudates against a control treatment (without a ethanol wash). Oviposition was concentrated mostly near to non glandular trichomes, showing whitefly females can discriminate among the trichomes. (author)

  9. Biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) B biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on six bean genotypes; Aspectos biologicos de Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em seis genotipos de feijoeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriani, Maria A. de G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva; Vendramin, Jose D. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola; Brunherotto, Rogerio [Fundacao Municipal de Ensino Superior de Braganca Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2008-03-15

    The silverleaf whitefly is one of the most harmful pests that attack bean crops, mainly for extracting large quantities of phloem sap and transmitting the bean golden mosaic virus. Resistant germplasm plants can be an important method for controlling this pest. The biological aspects of Bemisia tabaci B biotype on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes were evaluated. The tests were conducted under laboratory conditions, with the following genotypes: Arc 1, Arc 3s, Arc 5s, G13028, G11056 and Porrillo 70. The bean plants in a stage IV-1 were infested during one day with silverleaf white flies. Afterwards the eggs and nymphs were observed until adult emergence. Longevity and fecundity of emerged insects were also evaluated. The longest development time occurred for nymphs fed on Arc 3s genotype (26.5 days), following by G11056 (25.9 days) and G13028 (25.3 days). The development period was 5.5 days longer in Arc 3s when compared with Porrillo 70. Also, the wild genotypes Arc 3s and G11056 showed higher mortality rates (94.7% and 83.1%, respectively), which may suggest antibiosis and/or feeding non preference resistance type. For this reason, although longevity and fecundity were not influenced when the whitefly fed on resistant genotypes (Arc 3s, G11056, G13028 and Arc 5s), those genotypes can be used for bean breeding program towards B. tabaci B biotype. (author)

  10. Biochemical characteristics, serogroups, and virulence factors of aeromonas species isolated from cases of diarrhoea and domestic water samples in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavandi S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to delineate the differences between the clinical and environmental Aeromonas species with respect to their biochemical characteristics, serogrouping and virulence factors, in order to find a phenotypic marker of enteropathogenicity. METHODS: A total of 55 Aeromonas spp. inclusive of 19 isolates from cases of diarrhoea, and 36 from water samples comprising, 10 isolates of A. hydrophila, 21 isolates each of A. sobria, and A. caviae, two isolates of A. jandaei and one isolate of A. veronii were subjected to analysis of their biochemical characteristics, serogrouping, and virulence factors. RESULTS: Among the differences recorded in the biochemical characteristics in the three major species, the most striking characteristic was fermentation of lactose, which was observed in all the 11 A. caviae isolates recovered from water samples. None of the 10 clinical isolates of A. caviae tested fermented lactose. The clinical Aeromonas isolates belonged to seven typable serogroups, O:13, O:14, O:16, O:21, O:27, O:32 and O:35. The environmental isolates belonged to eight different serogroups, such as, O:3, O:11, O:14, O:16, O:18, O:28, O:64 and O:78 and were predominated by serotypes O:18 and O:64. Among the virulence factors tested, 89% of the environmental isolates produced b haemolysin, while only 62.3% of clinical isolates were able to do so. There was no significant difference between the clinical and environmental aeromonads with respect to their enterotoxigenicity in suckling mice in vivo, cytotoxicity in vitro in Vero cell monolayers, and ability to produce siderophores. CONCLUSION: Efforts to delineate the differences between the clinical and environmental Aeromonas spp. did not reveal significant difference between them. However, difference was observed with respect to their ability to produce b haemolysin, wherein, higher percentage of environmental isolates was haemolytic. The results also suggest

  11. Hitchhiking of host biology by beneficial symbionts enhances transmission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ott, Brittany M; Cruciger, Michael; Dacks, Andrew M; Rio, Rita V M

    2014-01-01

    .... However, features that enable mixed transmission are poorly understood. Here, we determine the mechanistic basis for the recruitment of the beneficial bacterium, Aeromonas veronii by the leech, Hirudo verbana...

  12. Diagnóstico de las principales enfermedades reproductivas en toros de la sabana de bogotá. énfasis en rinotraqueitis infeccionesa bovina (rib)

    OpenAIRE

    Góngora, A.; Villamil, L. C.; Vera, V. J.; Ramírez, G. C.; Parra, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Con el objeto de evaluar el estado sanitario en reproductores, se utilizaron las pruebas de seroneutralización (SN) para el biotipo citopático del virus de diarrea viral bovina (VDVB-CP), doble inmunodifusión para leucosis [...

  13. Estimación mediante RAPD's de la diversidad genética en Guadua en el departamento del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacio M. Juan Diego

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Mediante RAPD's se analizaron 120 muestras foliares de 12 biotipos de Guadua angustifolia Kunth clasificados morfológicamente, procedentes de la cuenca del río Cauca, en el departamento del Cauca, Colombia, para determinar diversidad genética. El ADN se extrajo mediante el protocolo modificado de Dellaporta (1983. Se emplearon los cebadores; OPF-12, OPG-19, OPN-19 y OPP-16 con mayor número de bandas polimórficas. El índice de Shannon (HT = 0.4556 ± 0.1849 señaló diversidad genética total alta y diversidad entre los biotipos y al interior de ellos. El Índice de estructura genética (Gst = 0.5200 e Indice de migración efectiva (Nm = 0.4615 definieron biotipos bien diferenciados. El análisis de similaridad conformó tres grupos a un coeficiente de 0.64. El grupo G1 incluyó los biotipos Curvado, Rayada frecuente, Amarilla Playón, Rayada ancha, Rayada escasa, Convexa, Amarilla, Hembra, Verde irregular y algunos individuos de verde alta. El grupo G2, Verde alta y Macho. El grupo G3, Rayada negra. El estudio molecular agrupó los individuos de forma similar al estudio morfológico, con excepción de los individuos del biotipo Hembra.

    Palabras claves: Guadua angustifolia, caracterización molecular, variación genética.

  14. Identification of Iron and Heme Utilization Genes in Aeromonas and their Role in the Colonization of the Leech Digestive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eMaltz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is known that many pathogens produce high-affinity iron uptake systems like siderophores and/or genes for utilizing iron bound to heme-containing molecules, which facilitate iron-acquisition inside a host. In mutualistic digestive-tract associations, iron uptake systems have not been as well studied. We investigated the importance of two iron utilization systems within the beneficial digestive-tract association Aeromonas veronii and the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. Siderophores were detected in A. veronii using chrome azurol S. Using a mTn5, a transposon insertion in viuB generated a mutant unable to acquire iron using siderophores. The A. veronii genome was then searched for genes potentially involved in iron utilization bound to heme-containing molecules. A putative outer membrane heme receptor (hgpB was identified with a transcriptional activator, termed hgpR, downstream. The hgpB gene was interrupted in both the parent strain and the viuB mutant with an antibiotic resistance cassette, yielding a hgpB mutant and a mutant with both iron uptake systems inactivated. In vitro assays indicated that hgpB is involved in utilizing iron bound to heme and that both iron utilization systems are important for A. veronii to grow in blood. In vivo colonization assays revealed that the ability to acquire iron from heme-containing molecules is critical for A.veronii to colonize the leech gut. Since iron and specifically heme utilization is important in this mutualistic relationship and has a role as a possible virulence factor in other organisms, genomes from different Aeromonas strains (both clinical and environmental were queried with iron utilization genes of A. veronii. This analysis revealed the heme utilization genes are widely distributed among aeromonads. In addition, aeromonads posses a suite of genes involved in iron acquisition. These data further confirm symbiotic and pathogenic relationships possess similar mechanisms for interacting with

  15. [AEROMONAS BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM BITHYNIIDAE MOLLUSKS AND THEIR HABITATS: SPECIES COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES. COMMUNICATION 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, T F; Bukharin, O V; Kataeva, L V; Perunova, N B; Karpukhina, N F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the species composition and biological properties of Aeromonas bacteria isolated from Bithyniidae mollusks and their habitat (a water reservoir). The Bithyniidae mollusks and water from their habitat were the material to be studied. A total of 176 Aeromonas strains were isolated from the mollusks and water. A. veronii, A. hydrophila, and A. ichthiosmia were most common in the mollusks and A. veronii and A. ichthiosmia were in the water. All the strains isolated had hemolytic activity and no lysozyme or plasma coagulase activity. The magnitude of lecithinase and antilysozymic activities and biofilm formation of the Aeromonas bacteria varied with the isolation source of their strains.

  16. quantification of total soluble protein concentration in aeromonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    urve for protein @wialysis 0f Aumnmnas spa-fies. 6. 5 .1. 3. E Poultry. 2 i! Fish. [:1 Human. 1. U. A. hydrophila A' sobria A. caviae A. salmonicida. Figure 2: Chart showing average proteins of species of. Aeromonas isoloied fishes, poufiry and man ...

  17. Sensitivity of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and nine other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stored drinking water from villages in the South Tongu and East Dangbe Districts kept in earthenware pots (17-78 l capacity) for up to 1 week contained several species of bacteria including Acinetobacter sp., Aeromonas sobria, Chryseomonas luteola, Citrobacter amalonaticus, C. diversus, C. freundii, Edwardsiella sp., ...

  18. Aeromonas species isolated from PINTADO fish (Pseudoplatystoma sp: virulence factors and drug susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Mores Rall

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas has been described as an emergent foodborne pathogen of increasing importance. In this study, we report that 48% of 50 Pintado fish samples collected at the retail market of São Paulo city were positive for Aeromonas sp, as detected by the direct plating method. When the presence/absence method was used, the positivity was 42%. A. caviae was the most frequent species, followed by A. hydrophila and A. sobria. Production of cytotoxic enterotoxin, observed in suckling mouse assay, was detected in 67% of A. sobria strains, in 60% of A. hydrophila strains and in 40% of A. caviae strains. In vitro tests, performed with HEp-2 cells, showed that 88% of A. hydrophila, 27% of A. sobria and 13% of A. caviae strains were positive for this toxin. The in vivo production of cytotonic enterotoxin, tested after heating the filtrates at 56ºC for 20 minutes, was detected in 17% of A. sobria, in 10% of A. caviae and in none of A. hydrophila strains in vivo. All analyzed strains did not alter HEp-2 cells. 20% and 16% of A. sobria and A. caviae isolates, respectively, presented capacity to adhere to HEp-2 cells. In counterpart, invasion of HEp-2 cells was not observed in any isolate. The Aeromonas isolates were sensitive to the majority of the antimicrobiol agents tested.Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas têm sido descritas como patógenos emergentes de importância crescente em alimentos. Neste estudo, relatamos que 48% das amostras de peixe "Pintado" coletado no comércio de São Paulo, foram positivas para Aeromonas sp quando isoladas pelo método de plaqueamento direto. Quando o método Presença/Ausência foi utilizado, a porcentagem de positividade foi de 42%. A. caviae foi a espécie mais freqüente, seguida por A. hydrophila e A. sobria. Produção de enterotoxina citotóxica, determinada em camundongos recém-nascidos, foi observada em 67% das cepas de A. sobria, em 60% das de A. hydrophila e em 40% das de A. caviae. No teste in vitro em c

  19. Aplicación de PCR-RFLP para subtipificar Campylobacter jejuni PCR-RFLP for Campylobacter jejuni subtyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giacoboni

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Diez cepas de Campylobacter jejuni aisladas de fetos porcinos abortados fueron identificadas por pruebas bioquímicas: 8 como C. jejuni biotipo II de Lior, y 2 como C. jejuni biotipo I. Para poder subtipificarlas se utilizó la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR para amplificar el gen flaA y al producto obtenido se lo digirió con la enzima de restricción DdeI (RFLP. Se pudieron obtener 6 subtipos a partir de C. jejuni biotipo II, mientras que los dos aislamientos de biotipo I correspondieron a un mismo subtipo. Aunque existe una amplia variedad de técnicas de biología molecular que son aplicadas con fines epidemiológicos para Campylobacter, PCR-RFLP, demostró ser una técnica simple y accesible, capaz de subtipificar a C. jejuni.Ten Campylobacter jejuni isolates, 8 identified as C. jejuni biotype II of Lior and 2 as C. jejuni biotipe I, were recovered from aborted pig fetuses. In order to discriminate among strains, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP using DdeI of polymerase chain reaction (PCR products of flaA gen was used. C. jejuni biotype II strains could be diferenciated in 6 by PCR-RFLP, and one subtype was obtained from C. jejuni biotype I. Although there is great variability of molecular techniques applied to the Campylobacter epidemiological studies, PCR-RFLP demonstrated to be a simple and accessible technique to discriminate Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

  20. Campylobacter intestinal carriage among stray and pet dogs Disseminação de Campylobacter entre cães vadios e de estimação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Fernández

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural distribution of thermotolerant Campylobacter sp. in dogs (150 stray animals and 64 pets was studied. Campylobacters were more frequently isolated (pFoi estudada a distribuição natural de espécies termotolerantes de Campylobacter em 159 cães vadios e em 64 cães de companhia em confinamento permanente. Espécies de Campylobacter foram isoladas mais freqüentemente (p<0,01 dos cães vadios (51,3% do que dos cães de companhia (21,9%. Todos os biotipos descritos por Lior para C. jejuni e C. coli foram encontrados entre as amostras isoladas dos cães vadios. Nas amostras isoladas dos cães mantidos em confmamento permanente somente foram encontrados os biotipos I e II de C. jejuni e o biotipo II do C. coli. Salienta-se a necessidade de realizar outros estudos para estabelecer a relação entre as condições de saneamento ambiental e a disseminação das espécies termotolerantes de Campylobacter.

  1. Possible virulence factors of Aeromonas spp. from food and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granum, P E; O'Sullivan, K; Tomás, J M; Ormen, O

    1998-06-01

    Thirty-one isolates of Aeromonas spp. from food and water in Norway were classified and tested for possible virulence factors including cytotoxins (tissue cultures, PCR), enterotoxins (PCR) and invasion ability (Caco-2 cells). Five different species were recorded, A. caviae (9/31), A. hydrophila (15/31), A. schubertii (3/31), A. trota (3/31) and A. veronii biovar veronii (1/31). One of the A. hydrophila strains was probably responsible for a small outbreak of food poisoning caused by ingestion of raw fermented fish. All the A. hydrophila strains produced and secreted cytotoxins at 37 degrees C, as well as two A. trota strains and the single A. veronii biovar veronii strain. In some cases increased cytotoxin secretion was observed under osmotic stress. The majority of the A. caviae strains which produced cytotoxins at 30 degrees C were unable to produce and/or secrete cytotoxins at 37 degrees C. One A. schubertii strain and one A. caviae strain were invasive.

  2. Impugnación al impreso del ciudadano Miguel Pombo: ensayo inédito de un escritor realista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gómez Hoyos

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available En 1960, en plena celebración del Sesquicentenario de la Independencia, publicó el académico Guillermo Hernández de Alba, un libro interesantísimo, debido a la pluma erudita y sobria del presbítero doctor José Antonio de Torres y Peña, ardoroso defensor de la monarquía española.

  3. Properties of hemolysin and protease produced by Aeromonas trota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eizo Takahashi

    Full Text Available We examined the properties of exotoxins produced by Aeromonas trota (A. enteropelogenes, one of the diarrheagenic species of Aeromonadaceae. Nine of 19 A. trota isolates that grew on solid media containing erythrocytes showed hemolytic activity. However, the hemolytic activities of the culture supernatants of these hemolytic strains of A. trota were markedly lower than those of A. sobria when cultured in liquid medium, and the amount of hemolysin detected by immunoblotting using antiserum against the hemolysin produced by A. sobria was also low. A mouse intestine loop assay using living bacterial cells showed that A. trota 701 caused the significant accumulation of fluid, and antiserum against the hemolysin produced suppressed the enterotoxic action of A. trota 701. These results indicated that A. trota 701 was diarrheagenic and the hemolysin produced was the causative agent of the enterotoxic activity of A. trota. The hemolysin in A. sobria was previously shown to be secreted in a preform (inactive form and be activated when the carboxy-terminal domain was cleaved off by proteases in the culture supernatant. Since mature hemolysin was detected in the culture supernatants of A. trota, we analyzed the extracellular protease produced by A. trota. Fifteen of 19 A. trota isolates that grew on solid media containing skim milk showed proteolytic activity. We subsequently found that most A. trota isolates possessed the serine protease gene, but not the metalloprotease gene. Therefore, we determined the nucleotide sequence of the serine protease gene and its chaperone A. trota gene. The results obtained revealed that the deduced amino acid sequences of serine protease and the chaperone were homologous to those of A. sobria with identities of 83.0% and 75.8%, respectively.

  4. Properties of hemolysin and protease produced by Aeromonas trota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Eizo; Ozaki, Haruka; Fujii, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Hidetomo; Yamanaka, Hiroyasu; Arimoto, Sakae; Negishi, Tomoe; Okamoto, Keinosuke

    2014-01-01

    We examined the properties of exotoxins produced by Aeromonas trota (A. enteropelogenes), one of the diarrheagenic species of Aeromonadaceae. Nine of 19 A. trota isolates that grew on solid media containing erythrocytes showed hemolytic activity. However, the hemolytic activities of the culture supernatants of these hemolytic strains of A. trota were markedly lower than those of A. sobria when cultured in liquid medium, and the amount of hemolysin detected by immunoblotting using antiserum against the hemolysin produced by A. sobria was also low. A mouse intestine loop assay using living bacterial cells showed that A. trota 701 caused the significant accumulation of fluid, and antiserum against the hemolysin produced suppressed the enterotoxic action of A. trota 701. These results indicated that A. trota 701 was diarrheagenic and the hemolysin produced was the causative agent of the enterotoxic activity of A. trota. The hemolysin in A. sobria was previously shown to be secreted in a preform (inactive form) and be activated when the carboxy-terminal domain was cleaved off by proteases in the culture supernatant. Since mature hemolysin was detected in the culture supernatants of A. trota, we analyzed the extracellular protease produced by A. trota. Fifteen of 19 A. trota isolates that grew on solid media containing skim milk showed proteolytic activity. We subsequently found that most A. trota isolates possessed the serine protease gene, but not the metalloprotease gene. Therefore, we determined the nucleotide sequence of the serine protease gene and its chaperone A. trota gene. The results obtained revealed that the deduced amino acid sequences of serine protease and the chaperone were homologous to those of A. sobria with identities of 83.0% and 75.8%, respectively.

  5. Purification and characterization of inducible beta-lactamases in Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaconis, J P; Sanders, C C

    1990-01-01

    beta-Lactamases from Aeromonas hydrophila and A. sobria were purified and characterized. Both species produced beta-lactamases that were inducible by either cefoxitin or imipenem. These species were resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin but not imipenem. Isoelectric focusing of sonic extracts revealed one band at pI 8.0 and a second band at pI 7.0 for A. hydrophila. Likewise, A. sobria produced two bands, one at pI 8.4 and the other at pI 7.0. Two enzymes from each species were separated by flatbed electrofocusing gel and purified to homogeneity. The molecular weight of the pI 7.0 enzyme (A1) from both species was estimated to be 42,500, whereas the pI 8.0 (A2h) and 8.4 (A2s) enzymes of A. hydrophila and A. sobria had molecular weights of 31,500 and 35,000, respectively, on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The relative Vmax values for cephalothin, penicillin, and imipenem for these enzymes indicated that A1 was primarily a cephalosporinase while A2h and A2s were penicillinases highly active against carbapenems. A1 was susceptible to inhibition by cloxacillin, while the A2 enzymes were inhibited by clavulanic acid and EDTA and required zinc for activity. Thus, there appear to be two distinct inducible beta-lactamases in A. hydrophila and A. sobria that play an important role in the beta-lactam resistance of these species.

  6. Bioensaio rápido de determinação da sensibilidade da acetolactato sintase (ALS a herbicidas inibidores Rapid bioassay to determine the sensitivity of acetolactate synthase (ALS to inhibitor herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Andrea Monqueiro

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a atividade da acetolactato sintase (ALS, em plantas resistentes e suscetíveis de B. pilosa e A. quitensis após a aplicação de herbicidas inibidores da ALS. O método baseia-se na utilização do ácido ciclopropanodicarboxílico (CPCA para inibir a cetoácido reductoisomerase (KARI, enzima que catalisa a reação seguinte do acetolactato na cadeia de biossíntese dos aminoácidos valina, leucina e isoleucina, provocando assim, o acúmulo de acetolactato, que na presença de um ácido forte forma acetoína. A base para a distinção entre os biotipos resistentes e suscetíveis é a quantidade de acetoína formada, que será maior nos biotipos em que a enzima ALS não sofreu inibição, ou seja, nos biotipos resistentes. A quantificação da acetoína acumulada ocorreu através da formação de um complexo colorido vermelho, devido a reação entre acetoína, creatina e naftol, cuja densidade ótica a 530 nm é proporcional à concentração do acetolactato formado na reação. Sendo assim, foi desenvolvido um ensaio utilizando este método após a aplicação dos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl e imazethapyr nos biotipos R e S de Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus quitensis no estádio de dois pares de folhas. O bioensaio demonstrou que a enzima ALS dos biotipos resistentes é insensível aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS e que este tipo de bioensaio é uma forma rápida e eficaz de diferenciação entre biotipos resistentes e suscetíveis.In order to compare the acetolactate synthase (ALS activity of resistant and susceptible biotypes of Bidens pilosa and Amaranthus quitensis to ALS inhibitor herbicides, a method based on ciclopronocarboxilic acid (CPCA to inhibit the enzyme ketoacidredutoisomerase (KARI is used. This enzyme catalyzes the reaction after acetolactate in the biosynthesis reaction chain of the aminoacids valine, leucine and isoleucine. In the presence of a KARI inhibitor, carbon from pyruvate flows through the branched chain

  7. Qualidade da carne do músculo longissimus dorsi de novilhos superjovens Aberdeen Angus de biótipo pequeno e médio abatidos com o mesmo estágio de acabamento na carcaça = Meat quality of the longissimus dorsi muscle of Aberdeen Angus steers of small and medium frame score, slaughtered at the same carcass finishing stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguelangelo Ziegler Arboitte

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influencia do biotipo pequeno e medio de novilhos Aberdeen Angus superjovens na composicao da carne do longissimus dorsi (LD. Foram utilizadas seccoes do LD de oito novilhos com biotipo pequeno e dez com biotipo medio, confinados por 158 dias, apresentando ao abate idade e peso vivo medio de 456 dias e 429 kg. A alimentacao foi constituida de silagem de sorgo e concentrado na relacao 60:40 nos primeiros 63 dias e apos 50:50 ate o abate. O biotipo foi calculado por meio da formula: B = -11,548 +(0,4878 x h - (0,0289 x ID + (0,0000146 x (ID2 + (0,0000759 x h x ID; h = altura em polegadas e ID=idade em dias. A carne do LD apresentou gordura intramuscular media (10,11 pontos; p = 0,7034, coloracao vermelha (4,33 pontos; p = 0,3724, textura com tendenciaa muito fina (4,61 pontos; p = 0,3075 e forca ao cisalhamento de 2,72 kgf cm-2 (p = 0,4009. A carne apresentou 72,27% (p = 0,4355 de umidade, 19,34% (p = 0,4150 de proteina bruta, 3,96% (p = 0,9071 de lipidios, 4,43% (p = 0,9842 de minerais e 0,25 mg 100g-1 de carne(p = 0,2375 de colesterol. Os biotipos nao influenciaram na concentracao dos acidos graxos palmitico (p = 0,0790, estearico (p = 0,2455, oleico (p = 0,3046, linoleico (p = 0,9456, ocorrendo alteracao na participacao do acido graxo miristico (. = 1,85 + 0,12B; p = 0,043. O estudo do biotipo na composicao da carne e importante para a identificacao de melhores caracteristicas nutraceuticas.The objective of this work was to assess the influence of small and medium frame scores in the meat composition of the longissimus dorsi (LD muscle of Abredeen Angus steers. We used LD sections from eight small-framed steers and ten medium-framed steers, confined for 158 days, with mean slaughter age of 457 days and 429 kg live weight. The feed was composed of sorghum silage and concentrate in a 60:40 ratio for the first 63 days, and 50:50 thereafter until slaughter. Frame wascalculated using the formula: F=-11

  8. Variabilidad genética de Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime y Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae en variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Osorio-Solano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causante de la ‘escoba de bruja’ en cacao (Theobroma cacao, presenta una elevada variabilidad genética y discrepancias en su taxonomía y es una de las enfermedades más importantes en plantaciones cacaoteras que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial cercanas a 70%, y de 40% a nivel nacional. La caracterización de la diversidad genética de los biotipos es importante para la ejecución de proyectos encaminados al manejo de este patógeno y el desarrollo de materiales resistentes de cacao. En este estudio se analizaron 12 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de diferentes materiales de cacao. Cada una de las muestras se evaluó con marcadores moleculares que tienen como blanco una región del ADN ribosomal (ADNr nuclear conocida como ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer, una región intergénica (IGS-1 y cinco secuencias simples repetidas (SSR. El marcador IGS-1 permitió la determinación del biotipo C, no obstante se encontró una variabilidad genética evidente dentro de este biotipo, aún no registrada. El análisis de la diversidad genética de M. perniciosa por medio de marcadores microsatélite arrojó un valor total de 0.4260, una heterocigosidad total de 0.6143 y un índice de información polimórfica (PIC de 0.3407, valores considerados de rango medio a alto para los aislamientos estudiados y que estiman la variabilidad genética presente en M. perniciosa.

  9. Variabilidad genética de Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime y Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae en variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorio Solano Carolina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causante de la 'escoba de bruja' en cacao (Theobroma cacao, presen- ta una elevada variabilidad genética y discrepancias en su taxonomía y es una de las enfermedades más importantes en plantaciones cacaoteras que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial cer- canas a 70%, y de 40% a nivel nacional. La caracterización de la diversidad genética de los biotipos es importante para la ejecución de proyectos encaminados al manejo de este patógeno y el desarrollo de materiales resistentes de cacao. En este estudio se analizaron 12 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de diferentes materiales de cacao. Cada una de las muestras se evaluó con marcadores moleculares que tienen como blanco una región del ADN ribosomal (ADNr nuclear conocida como ITS (Internal Trans- cribed Spacer, una región intergénica (IGS-1 y cinco secuencias simples repetidas (SSR. El marcador IGS-1 permitió la determinación del biotipo C, no obstante se encontró una variabilidad genética evi- dente dentro de este biotipo, aún no registrada. El análisis de la diversidad genética de M. perniciosa por medio de marcadores microsatélite arrojó un valor total de 0.4260, una heterocigosidad total de

    0.6143 y un Indice de información polimórfica (PIC de 0.3407, valores considerados de rango medio a

    alto para los aislamientos estudiados y que estiman la variabilidad genética presente en M. perniciosa.

  10. Haemophilus influenzae : Caracterización de aislamientos recuperados de enfermedades invasivas en Cuba durante el período 2008-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Toraño

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de caracterizar los aislamientos de Haemophilus influenzae, responsables de enfermedades invasivas en Cuba, en la etapa posterior a la vacunación se estudió el total de los recuperados durante el período 2008-2011, remitidos al Instituto "Pedro Kourí" desde diferentes provincias del país. La confirmación de especie y determinación de serotipos se realizó atendiendo al requerimiento de los factores V y X y empleando el método de aglutinación en lámina, respectivamente. Se definieron los biotipos a través de las pruebas de indol, urea y ornitina; se determinó la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI mediante la prueba del elipsómetro para la ampicilina, la ceftriaxona, el cloranfenicol y la rifampicina. Para 23 aislamientos se corroboró la identificación como H. influenzae : 21 fueron serotipables y 2 no tipables (HNT. El 90,4% de los serotipables fueron serotipo b y se detectaron dos serotipos a. Nueve aislamientos de H. influenzae b pertenecieron al biotipo I y los aislamientos, serotipo a y HNT, al biotipo II. En una cepa se demostró producción de la enzima ß-lactamasa y resistencia para la ampicilina y el cloranfenicol, con valores de CMI= 8 y 12 µg/mL, respectivamente. Se puso en evidencia que a pesar de la disminución de la incidencia de la enfermedad invasiva por Hib, este serotipo aún constituye el más frecuente y se alerta sobre la necesidad de una vigilancia sostenida que permita detectar fallos vacunales. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana demostrada para este período pudiera considerarse como un beneficio adicional de la introducción de la vacunación en Cuba.

  11. Los tiempos del cólera

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo C., Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    En Colombia la epidemia del cólera se inició en marzo de 1991. Todas las muestras positivas desde el punto de vista bacteriológico correspondieron, como en la totalidad de América Latina, al Vibrio cholerae 01, biotipo El Tor, serotipo Inaba. Un estudio de epidemiología molecular sugiere que la bacteria aislada probablemente corresponde a una variante del clon que ha producido la séptima pandemia, el cual es diferente de los clones involucrados en la endemia de la costa del golfo de Estados U...

  12. Matriz de acetato como opción para reconstrucción de coronas y restitución de la guía anterior en dentición primaria

    OpenAIRE

    Zendy Sosa Vilca; Jesús Cóndor Astucuri; Mario Elías Podestá

    2015-01-01

    Los objetivos de este estudio han sido restituir la guía anterior de la dentición primaria, mediante el uso de la matriz de acetato que es una de las alternativas de toda esta gama para la reconstrucción; alinear los dientes de acuerdo al biotipo facial, logrando una estética apropiada y permitir también una correcta fonación; devolver una de las funciones de los dientes anteriores que es la de corte y así favorecer la correcta masticación; lograr recuperar la autoestima, pues el niño era obj...

  13. La reactividad constitucional del sujeto: Una "piedra de rosetta" interdisciplinaria

    OpenAIRE

    Magliozzi,Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Aprender a identificar de manera integral, mixta y dinámica la constitución de un sujeto significa, por un lado, ayudarlo a autoconocerse en su manera de reaccionar (por eso se habla de reactividad constitucional y no más de biotipos o rasgos), de desarrollarse (madurar o destruirse), de relacionarse y aceptar a los demás tal como son; por otro lado, sirve para personalizar diagnóstico, terapia y pronóstico. La historia del constitucionalismo y un esquema sinóptico interdisciplinario (filosof...

  14. El perfil antropométrico de la gimnasia rítmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Romero Quintero

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio realizado pretende analizar el biotipo de la gimnasta de rítmica, relacionar su rendimiento de competición con algunos valores de la condición física y valores antropométricos. La comparativa se ha realizado mediante la técnica de árboles de clasificación, significando la pertenencia de club, el pliegue suprailíaco, el pliegue del muslo y el salto vertical como favorables de buenos resultados. El salto específico “gacela” presenta valores inferiores respecto al salto vertical.

  15. Variabilidad genética de Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel) Aime y Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae) en variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Osorio-Solano; Carlos Alberto Orozco-Castaño; Germán Ariel López-Gartner; Fredy Arvey Rivera-Páez

    2012-01-01

    Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causante de la 'escoba de bruja' en cacao (Theobroma cacao), presen- ta una elevada variabilidad genética y discrepancias en su taxonomía y es una de las enfermedades más importantes en plantaciones cacaoteras que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial cer- canas a 70%, y de 40% a nivel nacional. La caracterización de la diversidad genética de los biotipos es importante para la ejecución de proyectos en...

  16. SUPRESSIVIDADE NATURAL DE SOLOS DA REGIÃO CENTRO-OESTE A Rhizoctonia solani KÜHN NATURAL SUPPRESSIVENESS OF SOILS FROM WEST CENTRAL BRAZIL TO Rhizoctonia solani Kühn

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Andrade Botelho; Carlos Agustin Rava; Wilson Mozena Leandro; Jefferson Luis da Silva Costa

    2007-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani é um fungo cosmopolita que habita o solo, com vasto número de hospedeiros, e causa importantes doenças na maioria das plantas cultivadas em todo o mundo. É uma espécie complexa, com muitos biotipos que diferem quanto à patogenicidade, aos hospedeiros, à distribuição na natureza e à aparência em meio de cultura. O feijoeiro comum é suscetível a este patógen...

  17. Detection and diversity of aeromonads from treated wastewater and fish inhabiting effluent and downstream waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topic Popovic, Natalija; Kazazic, Snjezana P; Strunjak-Perovic, Ivancica; Barisic, Josip; Sauerborn Klobucar, Roberta; Kepec, Slavko; Coz-Rakovac, Rozelinda

    2015-10-01

    A two-season investigation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, of related waters, sludge and fish across a wide area and 11 stations, with emphasis on Aeromonas spp. was conducted. Aeromonas veronii was the prevailing aeromonad isolated by MALDI TOF MS in the summer period. A rise of Aeromonas hydrophila was observed in summer in raw sewage, treated wastewater and effluent-carrying canal. The ratio of aeromonad species retrieved from fish tissues did not correspond with the water and sludge findings, as in spring in the effluent-carrying canal fish carried Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida and Aeromonas bestiarum, while in summer mainly A. veronii and Acinetobacter johnsonii were isolated from fish tissues in the same location. No correlation was established between fecal coliforms/enterococci and aeromonad occurrence. All retrieved Aeromonas species demonstrated a distinct spectral pattern, with peaks showing unique mass distribution ranging from 4000 to 10,000Da. Hierarchical clustering separated aeromonads of all isolated species and clustered closely related strains together. Resistance was determined towards amoxicillin, and frequently towards sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. In summer, a high proportion of water and sludge Aeromonas species demonstrated multiple resistance patterns towards five or more antimicrobials. The quinolone resistance of water aeromonads was mostly related to A. veronii. There are potential health concerns regarding aeromonad exposure amongst recreational fishermen who come into contact with fish inhabiting waters downstream from the WWTP, and WWTP workers who are occupationally exposed to wastewaters and their aerosols. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genio y figura de don Alfonso Reyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carranza

    1968-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre varias, escojo esta: por sobria y conmovida a un tiempo. La escribió Juan Fernández Figueroa para su revista " Indice", de Madrid. Nos parece ver a don Alfonso en el rellano de la escalera -al fondo, sus libros; más allá, toda su vida, noble y pura- nos parece verle por última vez, inclinado ya sobre la baranda de la muerte. Tiene la calidad y el dinamismo de unos cuantos dibujos rápidos, nerviosos, esta imagen última de don Alfonso Reyes.

  19. Las guerras del contenido: Compras y fusiones mediáticas a nivel mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Helena Barrera Agarwal

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Wall Street Journal es considerado un bastión de la prensa sobria e investigadora. La estrategia de Rupert Murdoch, convertido en sinónimo de corrupción periodística de la peor prensa amarillista para adquirir Dow Jones, entidad propietaria de The Wall Street Journal fue de sencillez obnubilante. Otra fusión se dio entre el The Thomson Corporation y Reuters considerada uno de los proveedores de contenidos financieros más importantes del mundo.

  20. El fenómeno suicida en cepas de Aeromonas mesófilas aisladas de muestras clínicas [The suicide phenomenon in strains of mesophilic Aeromonas isolated from clinical specimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmetti, P; Zanchi, A; Figura, N; Bravo, L; Monté, R

    1993-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the occurrence of the suicide phenomenon in Aeromonas spp strains, isolated from clinical samples, and to establish its relationship with the clinical manifestations of diarrheal diseases. 23 strains were studied: 10, of Aeromonas sobria; 7, of Aeromonas hydrophila; and 6, of Aeromonas caviae. All suicidal strains were isolated from patients with acute diarrheal disease. 3 out of 8, isolated from non-diarrheic feces, showed an intermediate phenotypic profile. Various growth patterns associated to the suicide phenomenon were reported.

  1. Vigilancia de serotipos en infecciones invasivas por Haemophilus influenzae en la Argentina en la era de la vacuna conjugada contra el serotipo b durante el período 2005-2010

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    Adriana M. Efron

    Full Text Available La introducción de la vacuna contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b en los programas de inmunización de muchos países produjo una reducción marcada en la incidencia de enfermedad invasiva causada por este serotipo y en su portación y un incremento de otros tipos capsulares y de aislamientos no capsulados. Se estudiaron 313 aislamientos de H. influenzae recuperados de sitio estéril, provenientes de pacientes pediátricos y adultos con enfermedad invasiva atendidos en 90 hospitales de la Red Nacional de Laboratorios para Meningitis e Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas Bacterianas durante el período 2005-2010. Las patologías más frecuentes fueron neumonía, 40,3 % (n = 126, meningitis, 30,0 % (n = 94 y bacteriemia, 26,5 % (n = 83. En los pacientes pediátricos (n = 279, la mayor frecuencia de aislamientos correspondió a menores de 2 años, 74,5 % (n = 208. Con respecto a la distribución de tipos, el 61,3 %, correspondió a H. influenzae no capsulados (n = 192; el 20,1 % al b (n = 63; 11,2 % al a (n = 35; 4,8 % al f y 2,6 % a otros. En meningitis predominaron H. influenzae capsulados mientras que en neumonía y bacteriemia resultaron dominantes los tipos no capsulados. Se determinó el biotipo en 306 aislamientos. Todos los aislamientos de tipo a correspondieron al biotipo II; el 66,7 % de los tipo b pertenecieron al biotipo I. Mediante las técnicas de aglutinación en lámina y PCR se estudiaron 220 aislamientos; la concordancia entre ambas fue de 0,982 (IC: 0,92-1,00. En el último año se encontró un aumento significativo del tipo b, lo cual indica la importancia de mantener la vigilancia clínica y laboratorial de la enfermedad invasiva por H. influenzae.

  2. Análisis de Carrea en niños con dentición temporal completa en el municipio de Mocoa (Putumayo

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    Jorge Bernal García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen pocos índices para predecir el desarrollo de la arcada dental aplicados en dentición temporal lo que dificulta el diagnóstico de maloclusiones a temprana edad. Objetivo: Establecer la relación entre las discrepancias transversales y sagitales de las arcadas dentales, mediante índices de Carrea, facial morfológico y masa corporal de niños de 3 a 5 años en hogares infantiles del ICBF del municipio de Mocoa. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en niños entre 3 y 5 años de hogares infantiles del ICBF, la muestra fue de 70 infantes de 13 jardines del área urbana, seleccionados según los siguientes criterios de inclusión: dentición temporal completa, sin caries interproximal según criterios Ceo-d y consentimiento informado firmado, se determinaron alteraciones sagitales y transversales según el índice de Carrea, talla, peso y biotipo facial para establecer la relación con estos indicadores antropométricos, los datos obtenidos fueron analizados utilizando STATA Versión 12. Resultados: Se examinaron 70 niños entre 3 y 5 años, el 54.3% de sexo femenino, en su mayoría de 4 años (44.3%, un 15.7% se encontraba en sobrepeso, el biotipo facial más frecuente fue Euriprosopo (50%. Conclusiones: Se encontró una relación leve entre las discrepancias transversales y sagitales de las arcadas dentales con los indicadores antropométricos faciales y de IMC en 70 niños entre 3 y los 5 años del ICBF de Mocoa. Se halló una relación de leve a moderada entre el IMC y el biotipo facial (coeficiente de correlación de Spearman 0.35 IC95% (0.12 a 0.54.

  3. Aeromonas species isolated from medicinal leeches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D R; Manders, E K; Saggers, G C; Banducci, D R; Prinsloo, J; Klugman, K

    1999-03-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila infections are a recognized complication of the use of medicinal leeches. The authors performed an experiment designed to find a safe and practical way to sterilize the leech gut of pathogenic organisms. Leeches were incubated for a 12-hour period in solutions of antibiotic effective against A. hydrophila. The incubations in the antibiotic solutions failed to eradicate pathogenic bacteria from the gut of the leeches. The authors examined cultures of bacteria isolated from the guts of the commonly used Hirudo medicinalis (European leech) and found a wide variety of pathogenic organisms. A. hydrophila is widely believed to be the most common enteric pathogen, but the authors found A. sobria more frequently in their experiment. They also cultured the guts of the leech H. michaelseni recently used clinically in South Africa. A. caviae was the most common pathogen encountered in these leeches. A. caviae and A. sobria cause a spectra of disease similar to A. hydrophila. The authors endorse the current recommendation that all patients who have leech therapy for congested flaps or replants receive broad-spectrum prophylactic antibiotics. This appears to be the safest and simplest way to prevent leech-related infections.

  4. Neuropatías periféricas en prótesis total de cadera

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Escobar, Humberto; Fernández Sabaté, Alfons; Tur Rosello, J.; Vilà i Ferrer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Se estudian seis casos de neuropatía periférica como complicación de la artroplastia de cadera. Para investigar la posible causa de la lesión se observa el biotipo del paciente, protocolo de la intervención quirúrgica, radiografía postoperatoria y evolución clínica y electromiográfica de la lesión nerviosa. Los autores encuentran una relación entre la obesidad y la lesión del nervio femoral. La etiología de la lesión de este nervio está en clara relación con la colocación de los separadores n...

  5. Diarrea viral bovina: patogénesis e inmunopatología

    OpenAIRE

    Iang Rondón

    2006-01-01

    La diarrea viral bovina (DVB) representa un problema de ámbito mundial que causa considerables pérdidas tanto en ganado de carne como lechero, afectándolo de diversas formas las cuales están supeditadas a la edad del animal, estado inmunológico y momento de la gestación en el que se produce la infección. La DVB es causada por un virus ARN, género Pestivirus, familia Flaviviridae, el cual ha sido clasificado en 2 biotipos (citopático y no citopático) según su comportamiento en células de culti...

  6. Ancient bacteria of the Ötzi's microbiome: a genomic tale from the Copper Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Milani, Christian; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Turroni, Francesca; Ferrario, Chiara; Duranti, Sabrina; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2017-01-17

    Ancient microbiota information represents an important resource to evaluate bacterial evolution and to explore the biological spread of infectious diseases in history. The soft tissue of frozen mummified humans, such as the Tyrolean Iceman, has been shown to contain bacterial DNA that is suitable for population profiling of the prehistoric bacteria that colonized such ancient human hosts. Here, we performed a microbial cataloging of the distal gut microbiota of the Tyrolean Iceman, which highlights a predominant abundance of Clostridium and Pseudomonas species. Furthermore, in silico analyses allowed the reconstruction of the genome sequences of five ancient bacterial genomes, including apparent pathogenic ancestor strains of Clostridium perfringens and Pseudomonas veronii species present in the gut of the Tyrolean Iceman. Genomic analyses of the reconstructed C. perfringens chromosome clearly support the occurrence of a pathogenic profile consisting of virulence genes already existing in the ancient strain, thereby reinforcing the notion of a very early speciation of this taxon towards a pathogenic phenotype. In contrast, the evolutionary development of P. veronii appears to be characterized by the acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes in more recent times as well as an evolution towards an ecological niche outside of the (human) gastrointestinal tract.

  7. The occurrence of enteric pathogens and Aeromonas species in organic vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, M A; Wilson, I G

    2001-10-22

    A range of commercially available organic vegetables (n = 86) was examined for the presence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, E. coli O 157. Listeria and Aeromonas spp., to provide information on the occurrence of such organisms in organic vegetables in Northern Ireland. The study was not designed to quantify such organisms or to compare occurrence with conventionally farmed vegetables. Standard enrichment techniques were used to isolate and identify enteric pathogens and Aeromonas species. No Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli. E. coli O 157, Listeria were found in any of the samples examined. Aeromonas species were isolated from 34% of the total number of organic vegetables examined. Many (64%) of the organic vegetables examined were "ready-to-eat" after minimal processing, i.e., washing. Aeromonas spp. was isolated from 41% of these vegetables. Aeromonas spp. was not recovered from certain vegetable types. The most commonly isolated species of Aeromonas was Aeromonas schubertii with 21.0% of all samples contaminated with this species; 5.8% of samples contained A. hydrophila, 5.8% A. trota, 3.5% A. caviae and 2.3% contained A. veronii biovar veronii. Although Aeromonas species are frequently detected in organic vegetables, the absence of accepted enteric pathogens was encouraging, and does not support the allegation of organic foods being of high risk due to the farming methods used.

  8. Los itinerarios de la trasformación urbana Bogotá, 1820-1910

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    Germán Mejía Pavony

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen imágenes que perduran sin importar las evidencias que demuestran su inexactitud. Bogotá durante el siglo XIX es uno de tales casos. La idea que aún hoy se tiene de ella es que era una ciudad alejada del mundo por estar situada en un alto e incomunicado refugio andino; conventual por el predominio de las iglesias y de lo religioso en su paisaje; melancólica por el ritmo de vida pausado que se desenvolvia en un ambiente de calles y plazuelas apenas abiertas entre los resquebrajados muros de las edificaciones; recatada por la alta valoración que los bogotanos tenían de la vivienda como espacio propio y las sobrias costumbres que practicaban sus habitantes; en fin, aldeana por no haber introducido en su utillaje todas las innovaciones del siglo.

  9. Biotyping of Aeromonas isolates as a correlate to delineating a species-associated disease spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, J M; Reitano, M; Bottone, E J

    1984-01-01

    A group of 147 Aeromonas isolates from diverse clinical and environmental sources was subjected to the biotyping scheme of Popoff and Veron. Of the 147 isolates biotyped, 137 (93%) could be identified, with Aeromonas hydrophila predominating (48%) and equal percentages (25 to 27%) of the other two species (Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas caviae). A number of additional biochemical properties were found to be significantly associated with one or more of these three species. These included lysine decarboxylase activity, hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes, lecithinase production, staphylolytic activity, arbutin hydrolysis, and acid production from utilization of various carbohydrates. By incorporating these phenotypic properties into an extended biotyping system, 98% of the isolates were identified. Selective distribution of individual species with respect to certain body sites was noted. PMID:6690467

  10. [Identification of aeromonads from water sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlácek, I; Jaksl, V; Prepechalová, H

    1994-05-01

    A total of 102 Aeromonas strains isolated from water were identified by both commercial ENTEROtest 1 & 2 kits and by several conventional tests. 83 strains (81.4%) were identified to the species level according to a differentiation table. A. hydrophila (36 strains), A. caviae (26 strains) and A. sobria (10 strains) species were isolated most frequently. Strains identified as A. allosaccharophila, A. eucrenophila, A. jandaei, A. media and A. trota were very rare. The remaining 19 strains could not be identified. The ENTEROtest kit without additional tube test was insufficient for the identification of Aeromonas strains to the species level. The arginine dihydrolase test and hydrolysis of esculin from the ENTEROtest kit were found to be the least reliable tests.

  11. Gastroenteritis caused by Aeromonas trota in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, J; Lopez, A

    1996-02-01

    A case of acute diarrhoea caused by Aeromonas trota (formerly HG 13 group) in a Spanish child is reported. The strain was isolated in the faeces using the CIN agar (cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin) culture media. The strain was initially identified as A sobria by the commercial GNI card and API 20E biochemical systems. The strain was, however, VogesProskauer and sucrose negative, so complementary tests of cellobiose fermentation and gluconate oxidation were performed. These tests, together with the strain susceptibility to ampicillin (MIC 1 microgram/ml) and carbenicillin (MIC trota. The microbiological characteristics of this new species and the principal tests required for its identification are presented. The isolation, for the first time, of A trota in the Mediterranean area confirms the suspected worldwide distribution of this species.

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility, hemolysis, and hemagglutination among Aeromonas spp. isolated from water of a bovine abattoir Perfil de resistência/sensibilidade e virulência de espécies de Aeromonas isoladas de amostras de água obtidas em abatedouro bovino

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    Delmar Bizani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Aeromonas spp. in food has been demonstrated. They are often introduced from water, which is the natural habitat of many species and is thought to be the main source of contamination. The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. was investigated in 70 water samples of a bovine abattoir. Aeromonas spp. were present in 21.4% of water samples. A. hydrophila was isolated from 11.4% of supplying water samples and from 25.7% of the water drained from carcasses, whereas A. sobria was sole isolated from 5.7% of supplying water samples. Although greater number of positive samples were from water drained from carcasses, only A. hydrophila isolates were present. This suggests that the supplying water is the source of contamination. The antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed all strains were resistant to b-lactam antibiotics. However, the susceptibility to other antimicrobials was variable, being A. hydrophila more resistant than A. sobria strains. The investigation for virulence factors revealed positive reactions of hemolysis and hemagglutination. The results indicate that Aeromonas spp. are present in the supplying water system. These microorganisms may be a potential contaminant of carcasses and widespread in derived food.A presença de bactérias do gênero Aeromonas nos alimentos tem sido demonstrada. Normalmente destacam-se os alimentos que durante sua industrialização entraram em contato com a água, a qual é tida como habitat natural das diversas espécies e principal fonte de contaminação. Objetivando determinar a ocorrência de espécies de Aeromonas, bem como aspectos relacionados a sua virulência como capacidade de hemólise e hemoaglutinação, foram analisadas 70 amostras de água divididas entre água de abastecimento e de escoamento de lavagem das carcaças. De acordo com os resultados obtidos verificou-se a ocorrência de Aeromonas spp. em 21,4% das amostras. A. hydrophila obteve o maior índice de isolamento, 11,4% em

  13. Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression in Escherichia coli of a hemolytic toxin (aerolysin) gene from Aeromonas trota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A A; Kim, E; Cerniglia, C E

    1998-07-01

    Aeromonas trota AK2, which was derived from ATCC 49659 and produces the extracellular pore-forming hemolytic toxin aerolysin, was mutagenized with the transposon mini-Tn5Km1 to generate a hemolysin-deficient mutant, designated strain AK253. Southern blotting data indicated that an 8.7-kb NotI fragment of the genomic DNA of strain AK253 contained the kanamycin resistance gene of mini-Tn5Km1. The 8.7-kb NotI DNA fragment was cloned into the vector pGEM5Zf(-) by selecting for kanamycin resistance, and the resultant clone, pAK71, showed aerolysin activity in Escherichia coli JM109. The nucleotide sequence of the aerA gene, located on the 1.8-kb ApaI-EcoRI fragment, was determined to consist of 1,479 bp and to have an ATG initiation codon and a TAA termination codon. An in vitro coupled transcription-translation analysis of the 1.8-kb region suggested that the aerA gene codes for a 54-kDa protein, in agreement with nucleotide sequence data. The deduced amino acid sequence of the aerA gene product of A. trota exhibited 99% homology with the amino acid sequence of the aerA product of Aeromonas sobria AB3 and 57% homology with the amino acid sequences of the products of the aerA genes of Aeromonas salmonicida 17-2 and A. sobria 33.

  14. Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression in Escherichia coli of a hemolytic toxin (aerolysin) gene from Aeromonas trota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.A.; Kim, E.; Cerniglia, C.E. [Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR (United States). National Center for Toxicological Research

    1998-07-01

    Aeromonas trota AK2, which was derived from ATCC 49659 and produces the extracellular pore-forming hemolytic toxin aerolysin, was mutagenized with the transposon mini-Tn5Km1 to generate a hemolysin-deficient mutant, designated strain AK253. Southern blotting data indicated that an 8.7-kb NotI fragment of the genomic DNA of strain AK253 contained the kanamycin resistance gene of mini-Tn5Km1. The 8.7-kb NotI DNA fragment was cloned into the vector pGEM5Zf({minus}) by selecting for kanamycin resistance, and the resultant clone, pAK71, showed aerolysin activity in Escherichia coli JM109. The nucleotide sequence of the aerA gene, located on the 1.8-kb ApaI-EcoRI fragment, was determined to consist of 1,479 bp and to have an ATG initiation codon and a TAA termination codon. An in vitro coupled transcription-translation analysis of the 1.8-kb region suggested that the aerA gene codes for a 54-kDa protein, in agreement with nucleotide sequence data. The deduced amino acid sequence of the aerA gene product of A. trota exhibited 99% homology with the amino acid sequence of the aerA product of Aeromonas sobria AB3 and 57% homology with the amino acid sequences of the products of the aerA genes of Aeromonas salmonicida 17-2 and A. sobria 33.

  15. Phenotypic polomorphism in indigenous strains of sporothrix schenckii Polimorfismo fenotípico de cepas autóctonas de Sporothrix schenckii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Montoya Maya

    1996-02-01

    características de pigmentación. El 85% de las cepas en mycosel fueron café claras, café oscuras, plisadas o plisadas y umbilicadas. Todas las cepas asimilaron D-glucosa, glicerol y D-xilosa en el sistema Api 20C y 25 cepas se clasificaron en 9 biotipos de asimilación de la A a la I. La mayoría de las cepas tanto pigmentadas como albinas, resultaron virulentas para ratones. En éstos predominaron los cuerpos en cigarro en forma de naveta y no se visual izaron cuerpos asteroides en los exudados testiculares. Se demuestra así la gran heterogeneidad fenotípica de las cepas autóctonas de S. schenckii, se plantea la importancia de correlacionar estos hallazgos con los patrones de heterogeneidad gen ética informados por investigadores Japoneses y quizás explicar por esta diversidad fenotípica y genotípica, el polimorfismo clínico de la enfermedad y establecer mapas de distribución de los diferentes biotipos o genotipos en Colombia y América Latina. Incluso el cruzar cepas distantes en su biotipo o genotipo podría facilitar la obtención de la forma de reproducción sexual del microorganismo.

  16. Variabilidad genética de Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime y Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae en variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. Genetic variability of Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime & Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae in varieties of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Osorio-Solano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causante de la ‘escoba de bruja’ en cacao (Theobroma cacao, presenta una elevada variabilidad genética y discrepancias en su taxonomía y es una de las enfermedades más importantes en plantaciones cacaoteras que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial cercanas a 70%, y de 40% a nivel nacional. La caracterización de la diversidad genética de los biotipos es importante para la ejecución de proyectos encaminados al manejo de este patógeno y el desarrollo de materiales resistentes de cacao. En este estudio se analizaron 12 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de diferentes materiales de cacao. Cada una de las muestras se evaluó con marcadores moleculares que tienen como blanco una región del ADN ribosomal (ADNr nuclear conocida como ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer, una región intergénica (IGS-1 y cinco secuencias simples repetidas (SSR. El marcador IGS-1 permitió la determinación del biotipo C, no obstante se encontró una variabilidad genética evidente dentro de este biotipo, aún no registrada. El análisis de la diversidad genética de M. perniciosa por medio de marcadores microsatélite arrojó un valor total de 0.4260, una heterocigosidad total de 0.6143 y un índice de información polimórfica (PIC de 0.3407, valores considerados de rango medio a alto para los aislamientos estudiados y que estiman la variabilidad genética presente en M. perniciosa.Moniliophthora perniciosa, the founder agent of the ‘witch’s broom’ on cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. is one of the most important diseases in cocoa plantations, causing economic losses close to 70% worldwide and 40% nationwide. It shows a high genetic variability and discrepancies in its taxonomy. Characterization of the genetic diversity of biotypes is important for projects aimed towards the handling of this pathogen and the development of resistant cocoa materials. Twelve isolations of the fungus were analyzed in this study from different

  17. Plesiomonasshigelloides and Aeromonadaceae family pathogens isolated from marine mammals of Southern and Southeastern Brazilian coast Plesiomonasshigelloides e patógenos da família Aeromonadaceae isolados de mamíferos marinhos da costa sul e sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane S. Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic environment is the habitat of many microorganisms, including Plesiomonasshigelloides and Aeromonas species which are pathogenic to human and animals. In the present investigation, we evaluated the occurrence of these pathogens from marine mammals beached or accidentally captured by fishing net in southeastern (RJ and southern (RS coastal Brazilian regions. A total of 198 swabs from 27 specimens of marine mammals, including 11 different species, were collected by DEENSP and GEMARS-CECLIMAR/UFRGS Institutes and sent to LRNCEB/IOC/FIOCRUZ. The samples were enriched in Alkaline Peptone Water (APW added with 1% of sodium chloride (NaCl, APW plus 3% NaCl and incubated at 37ºC for 18-24 hours. Following, samples were streaked onto Pseudomonas-Aeromonas Selective Agar Base (GSP Agar and suspected colonies were biochemically characterized. The results revealed 114 strains, including ten Aeromonas species and P.shigelloides. The main pathogens isolated were A.veronii biogroup veronii (19.3%, A. caviae (12.3%, A. hydrophila (9.6% and P.shigelloides (7%. The pathogens were isolated in both coastal and offshore marine mammals. These data point the importance of epidemiological surveillance and microbiological monitoring and reinforce the need to implement environmental protection programs, especially related to endangered cetacean species.O ambiente aquático é o habitat de vários microrganismos, incluindo Plesiomonasshigelloides e espécies de Aeromonas, os quais são patogênicos para o homem e os animais. Na presente investigação, foi avaliada a ocorrência destes patógenos a partir de swabs coletados de mamíferos marinhos encalhados ou capturados acidentalmente em redes de pesca nas regiões costeiras do sudeste (RJ e sul (RS do Brasil. O total de 198 swabs de 27 espécimes de mamíferos marinhos, incluindo 11 espécies distintas, foi coletado por profissionais dos institutos DEENSP, GEMARS-CECLIMAR/UFRGS e enviado ao LRNCEB

  18. Isolation and identification of aeromonas from patients with acute diarrhoea in Kolkata, India

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    Kannan S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of diarrhoea causing Aeromonas was carried out in the division of Active Surveillance, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases (NICED, Kolkata for a period of 12 months from January 1999 to December 1999. Out of 602 stool samples collected from patients with acute diarrhoea admitted in Infectious Diseases (ID Hospital, Kolkata, 64 (10.6% samples were identified positive for Aeromonas as the pathogen. The different isolated and identified species from patients with acute diarrhoea were A. hydrophila (60%, A. caviae (20%, A. veronii (10%, A. schubertii (4%, A. jandaei (3%, and A. trota (3%. Most of the isolated Aeromonas strains showed resistance to commonly employed antibiotics. All the clinical isolates of Aeromonas possessed virulence genes encoding for aerolysin and cytotonic enterotoxin genes. Except A. schubertii and A. jandaei, all the other species possessed the gene for haemolysis.

  19. Isolation and identification of Aeromonas from patients with acute diarrhoea in Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, S; Chattopadhyay, U K; Pal, D; Shimada, T; Takeda, Y; Bhattacharya, S K; Ananthanarayanan, P H

    2001-01-01

    Isolation of diarrhoea causing Aeromonas was carried out in the division of Active Surveillance, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases (NICED), Kolkata for a period of 12 months from January 1999 to December 1999. Out of 602 stool samples collected from patients with acute diarrhoea admitted in Infectious Diseases (ID) Hospital, Kolkata, 64 (10.6%) samples were identified positive for Aeromonas as the pathogen. The different isolated and identified species from patients with acute diarrhoea were A. hydrophila (60%), A. caviae (20%), A. veronii (10%), A. schubertii (4%), A. jandaei (3%), and A. trota (3%). Most of the isolated Aeromonas strains showed resistance to commonly employed antibiotics. All the clinical isolates of Aeromonas possessed virulence genes encoding for aerolysin and cytotonic enterotoxin genes. Except A. schubertii and A. jandaei, all the other species possessed the gene for haemolysis.

  20. An innovative approach to bioremediation of mercury contaminated soils from industrial mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Damien; Edwards, Grant C; Gustin, Mae S; Care, Andrew; Miller, Matthieu B; Sunna, Anwar

    2017-10-01

    Soils contaminated with mercury (Hg) have proved expensive and logistically difficult to remediate. Research continues into finding suitable environmentally-friendly and efficient ways of achieving this end. Bioremediation is an option, which employs the strategies microorganisms have evolved to deal with Hg. One microbial strategy involves uptake and intracellular volatilisation of mercuric ions, which passively diffuse from the cell and back into the atmosphere. In this work, Pseudomonas veronii cells grown to stationary phase were immobilised in a xanthan gum-based biopolymer via encapsulation. The P. veronii-biopolymer mix was then coated onto natural zeolite granules. Zeolite immobilised cells remained viable for at least 16 weeks stored under ambient room temperature. Furthermore, the immobilised cells were shown to retain both viability and Hg volatilisation functionality after transportation from Australia to the USA, where they were applied to Hg contaminated soil. Maximum flux rates exceeded 10 μg Hg m 2  h -1 from mine tailings (≈7 mg kg -1  Hg with 50% v/v water). This was 4 orders of magnitude above background flux levels. It is envisioned that emitted gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) can be readily captured, and transformed back into metallic Hg, which can then be stored appropriately or recycled. This breaks the Hg cycle, as GEM is no longer translocated back to the atmospheric compartment. The immobilising excipients used in this research overcome many logistical issues with delivery of suitable microbial loads to locations of mercury contamination and presents a facile and inexpensive method of augmenting contaminated sites with selected microbial consortia for bioremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determinación de factores de virulencia en cepas de Aeromonas spp., aisladas a partir de pescado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Suárez Q.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Investigar la incidencia de cinco marcadores fenotípicos de virulencia en cepas de Aeromonas aisladas a partir de muestras de pescado expendido en Pamplona, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 47 cepas identificadas previamente. Se evaluaron: actividad hemolítica en agar sangre, suplementado con 5% de eritrocitos de cordero y agar sangre suplementado con 5% eritrocitos de sangre humana; actividad proteolítica en agar Mueller-Hinton suplementado al 10% (p/v con leche descremada, actividad lipolítica en agar tributirina; actividad desoxirribonucleasas en agar DNAsa. Resultados. Se encontró que las cepas de A. hydrophila, A. veronii GH 8, A. jandaei, A. veronii GH 10 y A. eucrenophila, demostraron capacidad hemolítica, proteolítica, lipolítica y nucleasa. Todas las cepas de A. popoffii fueron β-hemolíticas en agar sangre humana, proteolíticas y con actividad DNAsa. Las cepas de A. caviae, coincidieron en ser hemolíticas y lipolitícas, mientras que la cepa de A. schubertii, manifestó la presencia de actividad hemolítica y DNAsa. Conclusiones. La frecuencia de los factores de virulencia en las cepas estudiadas fue: el 87% demostraron producción de nucleasas; el 83% fueron β-hemolíticas sobre eritrocitos humanos; el 68% expresaron producción de lipasas, el 63% fueron proteolíticas y el 53% resultaron ser hemolíticas sobre eritrocitos de cordero, indicando estos datos el posible potencial patógeno de las cepas. Estos resultados mostraron que el pescado comercializado en Pamplona, puede ser una fuente importante de especies de Aeromonas que expresan factores asociados a la virulencia para el hombre.

  2. Control químico del arroz rojo (oryza sativa l. en arroz, con herbicidas no selectivos-protectantes a la semilla

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    Valent\\u00EDn A. Esqueda

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Control químico del arroz rojo (Oryza sativa L. en arroz, con herbicidas no selectivos-protectantes a la semilla. Se establecieron tres ensayos en invernadero con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto protectivo del tratamiento a la semilla de arroz Milagro Filipino (MF con anhídrido naftálico (0,5 y 0,75%, flurazole (0,1 y 0,2% y oxabetrinil (0,1 y 0,2% en comparación con herbicidas no selectivos para arroz [atrazina (1,8 kg/ha, atrazina/metolaclor (0,78/0,75 kg- /ha, acetoclor (2,1 kg/ha, alaclor (2,5 kg/ha y metolaclor (1,92 kg/ha]. Asimismo se determinó el efecto del alaclor en cuatro biotipos de arroz rojo y del arroz MF tratado con anhídrido naftálico. El flurazole y el oxabetrinil no protegieron al arroz de ninguno de los herbicidas, sólo se observó un efecto protectivo del anhídrido naftálico (0,75% al herbicida alaclor (2,5 kg/ha. Alaclor (2 kg/ha redujo temporalmente la altura de las plántulas de arroz, pero a partir de los 25 DDA no existió diferencia en altura con las plantas testigo. El peso seco de las plantas testigo de arroz MF fue estadísticamente semejante al obtenido de las plantas provenientes de semillas tratadas con anhídrido naftálico (0,75% y con aplicación de 1, 1,5 y 2 kg/ha de alaclor. A los 7 DDA, el control de los diferentes biotipos de arroz rojo varió de 40 a 80% con alaclor a 1 kg/ha, de 80 a 98% con 1,5 kg/ha y de 98 a 99% con 2 kg- /ha. A su vez, a los 25 DDA, los controles variaron de 30 a 62% con alaclor a 1 kg/ha, de 43 a 83% con 1,5 kg/ha y de 58 a 96% con 2 kg/ha

  3. CATÁLOGO COMENTADO DE LA FLORA VASCULAR DE LA FRANJA TROPICAL (500-1200m DEL CAÑÓN DEL RÍO CHICAMOCHA (BOYACÁ-SANTANDER, COLOMBIA. PRIMERA PARTE

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    ALBESIANO SOFÍA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La flora vascular de la región semiárida del cañón del río Chicamocha se encuentrarepresentada por 76 familias, 297 géneros y 429 especies, siendo las familias másdiversas: Poaceae (21géneros/34especies, Asteraceae (28/30, Fabaceae (19/29,Malvaceae (11/24, Euphorbiaceae (11/23 y Cactaceae (13/20. Los géneros másricos en especies son: Sida con 10, Lantana (6, Euphorbia y Solanum (5; noobstante, el 87,2% de los géneros presenta sólo 1-2 especies. El biotipo dominanteson las hierbas (176 spp., 41%, seguido de los arbustos (106, 25% y subarbustos(46, 11%. Un grupo importante son las plantas suculentas (54 spp., 12,9%, en sumayoría pertencientes a la familia Cactaceae (20 y Euphorbiaceae (8. Se incluyetambién información sobre las especies más características de los diferentes tipos dehábitat respresentados en la región y sobre las novedades taxonómicas y corológicasque resultaron del estudio de esta flora.

  4. Características psicomotoras e clínicas de crianças pre-escolares com e sem Bruxismo de escolas privadas de Assunção – Paraguaia

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    Nilse Pangrazio de Kegler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron, determinar la prevalencia de bruxismo en niños preescolares de colegios privados de Asunción-Paraguay utilizando un cuestionario de autocumplimiento aplicado a los padres, en una muestra de 432 niños. Con un estudio de casos y controles se estableció la asociación entre el bruxismo y las características Psicomotoras antes y durante el sueño. Con la inspección clínica se determinó la presencia y el grado de asociación de los dolores de cabeza, dolores musculares (Maseteros–Temporales y desgastes dentarios .La prevalencia fue de 41% siendo el bruxismo nocturno el más prevalente 38%, siendo altamente significativo los resultados con respecto a “movimiento durante el sueño” p< 0,000001, “sueño interrumpido” p= 0,0001 ,”dificultad para iniciar el sueño”p= 0,001. El signo con mayor asociación fue el desgaste dentario de grado 1 y 2 en dientes anteriores y posteriores, siendo el más significativo el de grado 2 en el sector anterior, p<0,000001 y en posterior, p= 0,00001. Los otros síntomas mencionados no demostraron relación de significancia con el bruxismo, ni relación con el biotipo facial.

  5. Características Psicomotoras y Clínicas en Niños Bruxómanos y no Bruxómanos, Prescolares de Colegios Privados de Asunción-Paraguay

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    Nilse Pangrazio de Kegler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron, determinar la prevalencia de bruxismo en niños preescolares de colegios privados de AsunciónParaguay utilizando un cuestionario de autocumplimiento aplicado a los padres, en una muestra de 432 niños. Con un estudio de casos y controles se estableció la asociación entre el bruxismo y las características Psicomotoras antes y durante el sueño. Con la inspección clínica se determinó la presencia y el grado de asociación de los dolores de cabeza, dolores musculares (Maseteros –Temporales y desgastes dentarios. La prevalencia fue de 41% siendo el bruxismo nocturno el más prevalente 38%, siendo altamente significativo los resultados con respecto a “movimiento durante el sueño” p< 0,000001, “sueño interrumpido” p= 0,0001,”dificultad para iniciar el sueño”p= 0,001. El signo con mayor asociación fue el desgaste dentario de grado 1 y 2 en dientes anteriores y posteriores, siendo el más significativo el de grado 2 en el sector anterior, p<0,000001 y en posterior, p= 0,00001. Los otros síntomas mencionados no demostraron relación de significancia con el bruxismo, ni relación con el biotipo facial.

  6. DIARREA VIRAL BOVINA: PATOGÉNESIS E INMUNOPATOLOGÍA

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    Iang Rondón

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available La diarrea viral bovina (DVB representa un problema de ámbito mundial que causa considerables pérdidastanto en ganado de carne como lechero, afectándolo de diversas formas las cuales están supeditadas ala edad del animal, estado inmunológico y momento de la gestación en el que se produce la infección.La DVB es causada por un virus ARN, género Pestivirus, familia Flaviviridae, el cual ha sido clasificado en2 biotipos (citopático y no citopático según su comportamiento en células de cultivo y en 2 genotipos (Iy II basados en su secuencia genética. Dependiendo de las cepas infectantes se presenta un cuadroclínico particular variando en severidad desde una forma subclínica, pasando por la forma clínica eincluso produciendo la fatal enfermedad de las mucosas o causando efectos deletéreos sobre el feto. Apesar de que en nuestro medio ya existen estudios sobre esta entidad, la implementación de metodologíasdiagnósticas constituye una limitante para el manejo de la misma. La presente revisión se enfoca en lapatogenia e inmunopatología de la DVB.

  7. Caracterización molecular de un begomovirus del tomate en el Valle del Cauca, Colombia, y búsqueda de fuentes de resistencia para el mejoramiento de la variedad Unapal Maravilla

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    Ana Karine Martínez A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó un virus transmitido por la mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci al tomate en el Valle del Cauca como una variante del Virus del mosaico amarillo del tomate (Tomato yellow mosaic virus = ToYMV. Plantas de tomate (FLA 496-11-6-1-0, FLA 478-6-3-1-11, FLA 456-4 y FLA 653-3-1-0 de 20 días de edad se confinaron en jaulas individuales con 10 individuos virulíferos de B. tabaci (biotipo B por planta, en condiciones de invernadero. La infección por el virus se confirmó por el desarrollo de los síntomas y las pruebas moleculares de PCR e hibridación dot blot. Las características agromorfológicas se evaluaron en campo en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Las líneas FLA 653-3-1-0, FLA 496-11-6-1-0 y FLA 478-6-3-1-11 desarrollaron síntomas muy leves; el ADN viral fue apenas detectable para algunos individuos y presentaron características del fruto y rendimientos deseables.

  8. Detección de Escherichia coli O157:H7 en aguas abiertas, heces y rumen de bovinos en las proximidades de casco urbano

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    José D. Tanaro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la presencia de Escherichia coli O157:H7 en 35 muestras de agua provenientes del Río Gualeguaychú y de pequeños afluentes, 25 muestras de heces bovinas y 40 muestras de rumen. El esquema adoptado consistió en un enriquecimiento selectivo en caldo EC modificado adicionado de novobiocina, incubando a 42ºC durante 18 - 24 h, seguido de una inmunoconcentración magnética y posterior aislamiento en Agar MacConkey sorbitol adicionado de Telurito de potasio y en medio ID® incubando a 37ºC durante 18 - 24 h. Las colonias presuntivas fueron sometidas a etapas sucesivas de tamizaje bioquímico y serológico para después realizar pruebas complementarias de confirmación. Los aislamientos fueron caracterizados fenotípica y genotípicamente. Se obtuvieron 7 aislamientos a partir de agua y uno de contenido ruminal. Cinco cepas resultaron O157:H7 biotipo C toxigénicas, ß- Glucuronidasa (-, EHEC-hly (+, cuatro de ellas productoras de Stx ½ y la restante sólo productora de Stx2. Otras tres cepas resultaron no toxigénicas ni portadoras de los factores de virulencia eae y EHEC-hly, pero pertenecientes al serotipo O157.

  9. Effects of double-stranded RNA on virulence of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes against the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci strain B (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae

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    Andréia Cristiane Souza Azevedo

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Bands of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA were detected in three out of twelve isolates of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. Identity of these bands was confirmed by RNAse, DNAse and S1 nuclease treatments. The cure of dsRNA for one isolate (P92 was successfully carried out for a single conidium subculture. Isogenic strains, with or without dsRNA, were submitted to virulence tests against the whitefly Bemisia tabaci strain B. In contrast to findings for some phytopathogenic fungi, these dsRNA fragments did not cause hypovirulence in P. fumosoroseus.Bandas de dsRNA foram detectadas em três dos doze isolados de Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. A identidade destas bandas foi provada através de tratamentos com RNAse, DNAse e S1 nuclease. A cura do dsRNA para um dos isolados (P92 foi obtida através do isolamento de colônias monospóricas. Linhagens isogênicas, com e sem dsRNA, foram submetidas ao teste de virulência contra a mosca branca Bemisia tabaci biotipo B. Ao contrário do que ocorre para vários fungos fitopatogênicos, os fragmentos de dsRNA não causaram hipovirulência em P. fumosoroseus.

  10. Antibacterial efficacy of recombinant Siganus oramin L-amino acid oxidase expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijun; Li, Anxing

    2014-12-01

    Siganus oraminl-amino acid oxidase is a novel natural protein (named SR-LAAO) isolated from serum of the rabbitfish (S. oramin), which showed antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and had a lethal effect on the parasites Cryptocaryon irritans, Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. In order to test whether recombinant SR-LAAO (rSR-LAAO) produced by the eukaryotic expression system also has antimicrobial activity, the yeast Pichia pastoris was used as the expression host to obtain rSR-LAAO in vitro. Crude rSR-LAAO produced by P. pastoris integrated with the SR-LAAO gene had antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as shown by inhibition zone assay of the antibacterial spectrum on agar plates. The average diameter of the inhibition zone of crude rSR-LAAO against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae was 1.040 ± 0.045 cm and 1.209 ± 0.085 cm, respectively. For the Gram-negative bacteria Aeromonas sobria, Escherichia coli, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio cholera and Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida, the average diameter of inhibition zone was 1.291 ± 0.089 cm, 0.943 ± 0.061 cm, 0.756 ± 0.057 cm, 0.834 ± 0.023 cm and 1.211 ± 0.026 cm, respectively. These results were obtained at the logarithmic growth phase of S. agalactiae and A. sobria cell suspensions after incubation with 0.5 mg/mL crude rSR-LAAO for 24 h. The final bacterial growth rate was decreased significantly. The relative inhibition rate can reach 50% compared to crude products from P. pastoris integrated with an empty vector at the same concentration of protein. The antimicrobial activity of crude rSR-LAAO was likely associated with H2O2 formation, because its inhibition zones were disturbed significantly by catalase. Scanning electron microscopy results showed crude rSR-LAAO-treated bacterial surfaces became rough and particles were attached, cell walls were

  11. Modernist Realism and its Enemies: John Coetzee and Philosophy

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    Ana Falcato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dispassionate and sober, J. M. Coetzee’s prose is a space in which literary identities are continually unsettled, methodological subtleties both revealed and explored. Given these features, philosophers have described Coetzee’s style as “modernist realist”. In this paper, I discuss the relevance of Coetzee’s use of the split page in Diary of a Bad Year, focusing on its role in undermining “ersatz ethical thought”. In the second part of the paper, I develop a model for explaining Coetzee’s modernist realism. This model is situated within a broader, self-critical project that traces the significance of my analysis for the form of philosophical discourse.Desapasionada y sobria, la prosa de J. M. Coetzee es un espacio en que las identidades literarias se muestran constantemente inestables y las sutilezas metodológicas se revelan y exploran. Partiendo de estas características, los filósofos han descrito el estilo de Coetzee como “realista modernista”. En este artículo discuto la relevancia del uso que hace Coetzee de la página dividida en Diary of a Bad Year, prestando especial atención a cómo sirve para debilitar el “ersatz ethical thought”. En la segunda parte del artículo desarrollo un modelo para explicar el realismo modernista de Coetzee. Este modelo se emplaza en mi amplio proyecto crítico de análisis del significado de la forma en el discurso filosófico.Sobria e spassionata, la prosa di J. M. Coetzee è uno spazio nel quale le identità letterarie si mostrano costantemente instabili e le sottigliezze metodologiche sono rivelate ed esplorate. Partendo da queste caratteristiche, i filosofi hanno descritto lo stile di Coetzee come "realista modernista". In questo articolo discuto la rilevanza dell'uso che Coetzee fa della pagina divisa in Diary of a Bad Year, prestando particolare attenzione a come essa serve a debilitare l'ersatz ethical thought. Nella seconda parte dell'articolo, poi, delineo un modello per

  12. Rizobacterias que promueven el desarrollo e incremento en productividad de Glycine max L.

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    Damián Antonio Cedeño Saavedra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos agrícolas destinados al cultivo de especies vegetales de ciclo corto, carecen de materia orgánica por efecto del excesivo empleo de agroquímicos, estos fertilizantes edáficos de origen químico ocasionan cambios en la estructura y la biodiversidad del suelo. La incorporación de rizobacterias en la agricultura permite mejorar la productividad de cultivos de leguminosas por la formación de un complejo de simbiosis rhizobio-planta que permite la fijación de nitrógeno. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Pseudomonas veronii R4 y Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 para promover el desarrollo e incremento de productividad en tres variedades de soja: ICA-P34; INIAP-308; INIAP-307. A los 7 y 30 días se evaluó el desarrollo radicular y formación de nódulos, por co-inoculación de rizobacterias y sin inoculantes, también se determinó el rendimiento en kgha-1. En condiciones in vitro se incrementó el tejido radicular con 5, 3 y 9 cm de largo, por B. japonicum en ICA-P34, INIAP-308 y INIAP-307. En plántulas se observó raíces de 21 y 20 cm en INIAP-307 con P. veronii R4 y P. fluorescens CHA0. Inoculando las tres variedades con B. japonicum, se obtuvo 10, 14 y 10 nódulos por planta, cuando se aplicó Pseudomonas spp no existió formación de nódulos. El rendimiento de granos por hectárea fue 3700, 2890 y 3929 kgha-1, con B. japonicum, sin inoculo bacteriano los rendimientos disminuyen a 2006, 1611 y 1842 kgha-1. B. japonicum coloniza el sistema radicular influyendo con cambios morfológicos y fisiológicos, que positivamente incrementa el rendimiento en semillas de soja.

  13. Metagenomic Analysis of the Medicinal Leech Gut Microbiota

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    Michele A Maltz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are trillions of microbes found throughout the human body and they exceed the number of eukaryotic cells by ten-fold. Metagenomic studies have revealed that the majority of these microbes are found within the gut, playing an important role in the host’s digestion and nutrition. The complexity of the animal digestive tract, unculturable microbes and the lack of genetic tools for most culturable microbes make it challenging to explore the nature of theses microbial interactions within this niche. The medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, has been shown to be a useful tool in overcoming these challenges, due to the simplicity of the microbiome and the availability of genetic tools for one of the two dominant gut symbionts, Aeromonas veronii. In this study, we utilize 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to further explore the microbial composition of the leech digestive tract, confirming the dominance of two taxa, the Rikenella-like bacterium and A. veronii. The deep sequencing approach revealed the presence of additional members of the microbial community that suggests the presence of a moderately complex microbial community with a richness of 36 taxa. The presence of a Proteus strain as a newly identified resident in the leech crop was confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. The metagenome of this community was also pyrosequenced and the contigs were binned into the following taxonomic groups: Rikenella-like (3.1 MB, Aeromonas (4.5 MB, Proteus (2.9 MB, Clostridium (1.8 MB, Eryspelothrix (0.96 MB, Desulfovibrio (0.14 MB and Fusobacterium (0.27 MB. Functional analyses on the leech gut symbionts were explored using the metagenomic data and MG-RAST. A comparison of the COG and KEGG categories of the leech gut metagenome to that of other animal digestive-tract microbiomes revealed that the leech digestive-tract had a similar metabolic potential to the human digestive-tract, supporting the usefulness of this system as a model for studying

  14. Metagenomic analysis of the medicinal leech gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Michele A; Bomar, Lindsey; Lapierre, Pascal; Morrison, Hilary G; McClure, Emily Ann; Sogin, Mitchell L; Graf, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    There are trillions of microbes found throughout the human body and they exceed the number of eukaryotic cells by 10-fold. Metagenomic studies have revealed that the majority of these microbes are found within the gut, playing an important role in the host's digestion and nutrition. The complexity of the animal digestive tract, unculturable microbes, and the lack of genetic tools for most culturable microbes make it challenging to explore the nature of these microbial interactions within this niche. The medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, has been shown to be a useful tool in overcoming these challenges, due to the simplicity of the microbiome and the availability of genetic tools for one of the two dominant gut symbionts, Aeromonas veronii. In this study, we utilize 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to further explore the microbial composition of the leech digestive tract, confirming the dominance of two taxa, the Rikenella-like bacterium and A. veronii. The deep sequencing approach revealed the presence of additional members of the microbial community that suggests the presence of a moderately complex microbial community with a richness of 36 taxa. The presence of a Proteus strain as a newly identified resident in the leech crop was confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The metagenome of this community was also pyrosequenced and the contigs were binned into the following taxonomic groups: Rikenella-like (3.1 MB), Aeromonas (4.5 MB), Proteus (2.9 MB), Clostridium (1.8 MB), Eryspelothrix (0.96 MB), Desulfovibrio (0.14 MB), and Fusobacterium (0.27 MB). Functional analyses on the leech gut symbionts were explored using the metagenomic data and MG-RAST. A comparison of the COG and KEGG categories of the leech gut metagenome to that of other animal digestive-tract microbiomes revealed that the leech digestive tract had a similar metabolic potential to the human digestive tract, supporting the usefulness of this system as a model for studying digestive

  15. Flora bacteriana de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus, cultivada em sistema semi-intensivo - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2007 Bacterial microflora in the gastrointestinal tract of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, cultured in a semi-intensive system- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2007

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    Benetido Prado Dias Filho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A flora bacteriana de diferentes partes do trato gastrintestinal de tilápia Oreochomis niloticus L. (Cichlidae foi determinada. O número médio de bactérias foi maior no intestino anterior e posterior quando comparado ao estômago. A porcentagem total de espécies bacterianas isoladas e a porcentagem de espécies isoladas em uma espécie particular variaram significativamente entre as regiões do trato gastrintestinal. Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii, Burkholderia cepacia, Chromobacterium violaceum, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Flavimonas oryzihabitans e Plesiomonas shigelloides foram os bacilos Gram-negativos encontrados com maior freqüência. Destas espécies, somente Plesiomonas shigelloides esteve presente em cada região do trato gastrintestinal, apresentando maior número no intestino posterior (76%, quando comparado com o intestino anterior (4.8% e o estômago (0.6%. Aeromonas hydrophila (0.6%, Escherichia coli (7.4%, e Flavimonas oryzihabitans foram isoladas somente do estômago, e Citrobacter freundii e Burkholderia cepacia foram encontradas somente no intestino posterior. Chromobacterium violaceum foi a espécie dominante isolada do estômago e do intestino anterior com 90% e 55%, respectivamente. Organismos não identificados compreendem 0 – 39.3% da microbiota gastrintestinalThis experiment measured total bacterial numbers in the gastrointestinal regions of semi-intensively cultured tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. Mean bacterial numbers were higher in both anterior and posterior gut than in stomach. The percentage of isolated species and the percentage of isolates from any particular species varied significantly among gastrointestinal tract regions. Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii, Burkholderia cepacia, Chromobacterium violaceum, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Flavimonas oryzihabitans and Plesiomonas shigelloides were the most frequently isolated Gram-negative bacilli. From

  16. Monitoring of drug resistance amplification and attenuation with the use of tetracycline-resistant bacteria during wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnisz, Monika; Korzeniewska, Ewa; Niestępski, Sebastian; Osińska, Adriana; Nalepa, Beata

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor changes (amplification or attenuation) in antibiotic resistance during wastewater treatment based on the ecology of tetracycline-resistant bacteria. The untreated and treated wastewater were collected in four seasons. Number of tetracycline-(TETR) and oxytetracycline-resistant (OTCR) bacteria, their qualitative composition, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), sensitivity to other antibiotics, and the presence of tet (A, B, C, D, E) resistance genes were determined. TETR and OTCR counts in untreated wastewater were 100 to 1000 higher than in treated effluent. OTCR bacterial counts were higher than TETR populations in both untreated and treated wastewater. TETR isolates were not dominated by a single bacterial genus or species, whereas Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria were the most common in OTCR isolates. The treatment process attenuated the drug resistance of TETR bacteria and amplified the resistance of OTCR bacteria. In both microbial groups, the frequency of tet(A) gene increased in effluent in comparison with untreated wastewater. Our results also indicate that treated wastewater is a reservoir of multiple drug-resistant bacteria as well as resistance determinants which may pose a health hazard for humans and animals when released to the natural environment.

  17. A note on Aeromonas spp. from chickens as possible food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, S M; Anderson, M J; McMeekin, T A

    1990-04-01

    The possible role of Aeromonas spp. as potential food-borne psychrotrophic pathogens was investigated by examining organisms isolated from processed raw chicken for their biochemical characteristics, ability to produce exotoxins and to grow at chill temperatures. These strains, in particular A. sobria, with identical characteristics to human diarrhoea-associated aeromonads were readily found. Chicken, and human and environmental (water) strains characterized in a previous study, were investigated for their ability to grow at refrigeration temperatures (5 +/- 2 degrees C) and, for selected strains, the theoretical minimum temperature for growth (Tmin) was determined from the growth pattern in a temperature gradient incubator. All enterotoxigenic chicken strains tested were typical mesophiles, with an optimal growth temperature of approximately 37 degrees C and Tmin values approximately 4.5 degrees C. They were rapidly outgrown by a psychrotrophic Pseudomonas sp. typical of spoilage biota found on food. Enterotoxin was not produced below 15 degrees C by any of the toxigenic food strains tested. The Aeromonas strains isolated from chickens in this study seem unlikely therefore to be a significant health risk, provided the chickens are properly stored and cooked. This would appear to be substantiated by the lack of reports of food-associated outbreaks of illness from these sources.

  18. Bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) production in Aeromonas hydrophila water isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messi, Patrizia; Guerrieri, Elisa; Bondi, Moreno

    2003-03-14

    30 Aeromonas hydrophila water isolates were tested for bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) production using a target panel of closely related microorganisms and other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including food-borne pathogens. A. hydrophila showed antibacterial activity against one or more indicator microorganisms, but the activity emerged only with non-phylogenetically related genera or species. In particular all A. hydrophila showed antibacterial activity against one or more of the tested Staphylococcus strains, five against Listeria spp. (Listeria seeligeri, Listeria welshimeri and Listeria ivanovii), and eight presented a weak antagonistic activity towards Streptococcus agalactiae and Lactobacillus spp. Inhibitory activity was not observed against the other Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua and Enterococcus spp.) and Gram-negative tested strains, including Aeromonas sobria, Aeromonas caviae and the same A. hydrophila, when used as indicator. Anti-staphylococcal activity was observed with a gradual increase of the inhibition zone during incubation and seemed to be influenced by A. hydrophila hemolytic expression. Extrachromosomal analysis showed the presence, in 70% of the strains, of one to five plasmids with molecular masses ranging from 2.1 to 41.5 MDa, but it was not possible to relate this result with BLS production.

  19. Marine Bacteria with antimicrobials capacity isolated from cultures of bivalve mollusks

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    Fabiola Pellon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have commonly been studied as producers of antibacterial substances; yet they are also considered producers of antifungic, antiviral, antiparasitic, citotoxics and inhibitory of other forms of cellular growth substances. This paper describes the isolation, inhibitory potential and phenotipic characterization of native bacterial strains associated to bivalve mollusks such as Argopecten purpuratus “concha de abanico” and Crassostrea gigas “ostra” in cultivation systems. From 345 marine strains collected, 20 strains were recovered that had the ability of inhibiting a wide spectrum of fish, mollusks and shellfish pathogenic bacteria; being the most sensitive pathogens Aeromonas sobria P-281, Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966, Vibrio vulnificus ATCC 27562 and Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17803. The phenotipic characterization of this strains with inhibitory capacity allowed the identification of the following genera: Vibrio (40%, Aeromonas (15%, Flavobacterium (10%, Pseudomonas (5%, Moraxella (5%, Flexibacter (5%. A 20% could not be identified. The results suggest that the isolated bacteria could be used as probiotics agents for the biological control of pathogens from marine organisms of interest in mariculture.

  20. The In Vitro Activity of a Range of Natural Bioflavonoids Against Five Species of Pathogenic Fish Bacteria

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    Gil Ha Yoon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antibacterial activity of thirty two plant-derived compounds (26 crude herbal extraction and 6 pure citrus-based bioflavonoids were tested on five different species of aquatic bacterial pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, A. salmonicida, A. sobria, Edwardsiella ictaluri, and E. tarda over a period of 72 hours at 22 oC. From the agar diffusion test, six pure citrus-based bioflavonoids (apigenin, catechin, hesperidin, morin, naringin and quercetin appeared to impact on growth when used at concentrations ranging from 10 ppm - 1000 ppm. To confirm their effect on the growth dynamics of each bacteria, a 1000 ppm dose of the appropriate bioflavonoid was added to a bacterial culture and daily changes in culture growth were measured. Quercetin was found to be bacteriocidal against all the bacterial strains. Morin was found to be bacteriocidal against only 4 out of 6 strains while hesperidin was found to affect the growth of all the tested bacterial strains, working both as a bacteriocidal and as a bacteriostatic agent. Apigenin performed poorly and had no effect on the growth of any bacterial strain while catechin and naringin were found to be generally bacteriostatic in action but had little impact on the growth of the Aeromonad strains. From the current in vitro work, it was concluded that certain plant extracts do have an impact on the growth dynamics of select bacteria and show potential as alternatives to the use of antimicrobials, but further research is required to assess their performance in vivo.

  1. Peut-on vieillir sans médecins ? La réponse des auteurs de régimes de santé ou « conseils pour vivre longtemps » aux xviie et xviiie siècles

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    Claire Crignon-De Oliveira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available L’examen du corpus constitué par les régimes de santé en Europe, entre la fin du xvie siècle et le xviiie siècle, permet d’apporter des réponses intéressantes à la question de savoir si l’on peut vieillir sans médecins. Depuis le Trattato de vita sobria de l’Italien Luigi Cornaro (1558 jusqu’à The History of Health and the Art of Preserving it (1758 rédigée par l’Écossais James MacKenzie, on assiste à un effort pour distinguer le processus naturel du vieillissement de la vieillesse comme maladie. L’approche médicale préventive et diététique du vieillissement se trouve ainsi intégrée au sein d’une réflexion anthropologique et le projet de prolongation de la vie justifiée d’un point de vue théologique. L’enjeu est bien de s’efforcer de penser le sens moral, politique et plus généralement existentiel d’une vie humaine prolongée.

  2. Meningoencephalitis in farmed monosex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. caused by Streptococcus agalactiae

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    Adikesavalu Harresh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture of tilapia is a new research venture in India. With intensification in farming practices, tilapia are increasingly susceptible to bacterial infections. This article describes the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria from cultured monosex Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L., that experienced moderate to severe mortalities in West Bengal, India between September and August 2014 and histopathological alterations in various organs. Gram-positive diplococci, identified as Streptococcus agalactiae with Streptococcus identification kits and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis, were isolated from the brain, operculum, and kidney. Other bacteria from the kidney were identified as Aeromonas sobria, A. caviae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter cloacae. Staphylococcus epidermis was isolated from opercular hemorrhages. Histological sections of the infected tilapia brain revealed meningoencephalitis and granulomatous lesions. Sections from other organs indicated congestion, hemorrhagic and hyperplastic cells, necrosis, vacuolation, hemosiderin deposition, hypertrophic nuclei, melanomacrophage aggregation, and ruptured veins. This report is the first description of S. agalactiae as a primary pathogen causing meningoencephalitis in cultured tilapia in India.

  3. Molecular detection of the Aeromonas virulence aerolysin gene in retail meats from different animal sources in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia; Aly, Magdy; Kheader, Afaf; Mabrok, Khaled

    2012-05-01

    Meat commonly contain the same Aeromonas spp. which occur in human diarrhoeal and non-diarrhoeal faecal samples. Motile Aeromonas were isolated from 5.6% of total 302 samples. The distribution of the isolates were 5.9 and 5.2% in fresh and frozen samples, respectively. Of the 302 samples taken of the four animal meat species investigated, the genus Aeromonas were isolated in 12.3% of the fresh samples collected from buffalo meat, in 6.5% of the samples collected from sheep meat and 14.0% from the samples collected from the cattle frozen meat samples. The camel meat did not reveal any Aeromonas isolates. Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated as the most prevalent species with 6.8%, followed by Aeromonas caviae with 2.7% and Aeromonas sobria with 2.1% from the total meat samples. Aerolysin toxin gene (aerA) was detected in 3/17 isolates of A. hydrophila isolated from contaminated meat. Infection due to bacterial pathogen with such virulent factor through contact with contaminated meat while handling them, poses health hazards to humans.

  4. The occurrence of Aeromonas species in drinking water supplies of an area of the Dolomite Mountains, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legnani, P; Leoni, E; Soppelsa, F; Burigo, R

    1998-08-01

    A study was made of the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in drinking water supplies in a mountain area in northeast Italy (the Dolomites). On account of its location, the water in question is exposed to a low level of pollution and systematic chemical disinfection is not necessary. Out of 7395 water samples analysed over a 3 year period, 1623 (21 x 95%) were found to be positive for Aeromonas, with levels ranging from 1 to 240 cfu 100 ml-1; 72 x 4% of the strains were identified as Aer. hydrophila, 14 x 7% as Aer. caviae and 12 x 9% as Aer. sobria. The percentage of recovery from surface water (approximately 40%) was found to be higher than that of ground water (springs: 24 x 9%; wells : 28x 6%). Aeromonas spp. were isolated from 21 x 7% of samples from the distribution network and showed no significant variations compared with water from reservoirs. There was no evidence, therefore, of after-growth in the distribution system. No correlation was found between the concentration of Aeromonas spp. and faecal indicator organisms. As the distribution of Aeromonas spp. was unrelated to anthropic pollution, it is believed that the search for these micro-organisms should be adopted as a further indicator of drinking water quality, especially in waters such as those in the present investigation not undergoing systematic purification treatment.

  5. Biochemical identification and numerical taxonomy of Aeromonas spp. isolated from environmental and clinical samples in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñana-Galbis, D; Farfán, M; Lorén, J G; Fusté, M C

    2002-01-01

    To study the phenotypic characteristics of Aeromonas spp. from environmental and clinical samples in Spain and to cluster these strains by numerical taxonomy. A collection of 202 Aeromonas strains isolated from bivalve molluscs, water and clinical samples was tested for 64 phenotypic properties; 91% of these isolates were identified at species level. Aeromonas caviae was predominant in bivalve molluscs and Aerom. bestiarum in freshwater samples. Cluster analyses revealed eight different phena: three containing more than one DNA-DNA hybridization group but including strains that belong to the same phenospecies complex (Aerom. hydrophila, Aerom. sobria and Aerom. caviae), Aerom. encheleia, Aerom. trota and three containing unidentified Aeromonas strains isolated from bivalve molluscs. Aeromonas spp. are widely distributed in environmental and clinical sources. A selection of 16 of the phenotypical tests chosen allowed the identification of most isolates (91%), although some strains remain unidentified, mainly isolates from bivalve molluscs, suggesting the presence of new Aeromonas species. Numerical taxonomy was not in total concordance with the identification of the studied strains. Numerical taxonomy of Aeromonas strains isolated from different sources revealed the presence of potentially pathogenic Aeromonas spp., especially in bivalve molluscs, and phena with unidentified strains that suggest new Aeromonas species.

  6. Molecular studies on the aerolysin gene of Aeromonas species and discovery of a species-specific probe for Aeromonas trota species nova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husslein, V; Chakraborty, T; Carnahan, A; Joseph, S W

    1992-05-01

    A large group of aeromonads and other enteric microorganisms were assayed for the presence of the aerolysin gene with use of DNA-DNA hybridization. Two DNA fragments corresponding to the regulatory region (aerC) and the structural gene (aerA) were used as probes for the detection of the aerolysin gene in these strains. Sequences corresponding to the aerolysin structural gene were widespread among Aeromonas isolates. In contrast, the aerC probe was much more selective, and sequences corresponding to the aerC region were detected in only a small subset of strains. Concurrent studies using numerical taxonomy and DNA hybridization with the aerC probe on a larger set of strains led to the identification of a distinct cluster of 14 presumed atypical Aeromonas sobria strains. These strains have recently been grouped into a new species designated Aeromonas trota. Hence, the DNA fragment aerC used in the study is a species-specific gene probe for A. trota. The ability of the aerC probe to detect strains belonging to a single species suggests that there is selection pressure to maintain the clonality of this species. These results have important implications with respect to the evolution of "pathogenic profiles" among these medically important bacteria.

  7. Determination of Spoilage Microbiota of Pacific White Shrimp During Ambient and Cold Storage Using Next-Generation Sequencing and Culture-Dependent Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Ping; Xie, Jing; Qian, Yun-Fang

    2017-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the initial and spoilage microbiota of Pacific white shrimp during ambient and cold storage using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and a culture-dependent method. The quality changes were also evaluated by sensory analysis and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values. After 1 d of storage, the psychrotrophic bacteria were only 5.97 log CFU/g, accounting for 1.1% of the mesophilic bacteria counts (7.94 log CFU/g). The psychrotrophic bacteria counts exceeded the counts of mesophilic bacteria for shrimp stored at 4 °C after 6 d of storage, indicating that psychrotrophic bacteria became predominant. The NGS was used to identify the bacterial species in samples stored at 25 and 4 °C. The results showed that the dominant microorganisms were Vibrio at 25 °C, and Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter, and Shewanella at 4 °C. By the culture-dependent method based on 16S rRNA gene and VITEK®2 CompactA system, it showed that the dominant microorganisms were Proteus spp. at 25 °C, and Shewanella putrefaciens, Acinetobacter johnsonii, and Aeromonas sobria at 4 °C. In conclusion, differences in results of microbiota analyzed by culture dependent and independent approaches were observed. The combination of both methodologies may provide more comprehensive information about the dominant spoilage microbiota in Pacific white shrimp during ambient and cold storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. STATUS KESEHATAN IKAN SIDAT (Anguilla sp. PADA PERAIRAN UMUM DAN WADAH PEMELIHARAAN SEMENTARA

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    Agung Cahyo Setyawan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Status kesehatan ikan sidat (Anguilla sp. telah dianalisis untuk menunjukkan terjadinya penurunan stok karena infeksi patogen dan penangkapan benih berlebihan untuk budidaya. Di Indonesia, ketiadaan standar penangkapan, pemeliharaan dan budidaya menyebabkan terjadinya penurunan kualitas dan kuantitas produksi ikan sidat. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi status kesehatan ikan sidat di perairan Indonesia dengan sampel dari Kabupaten Banyumas dan Cilacap, Jawa Tengah. Sampling dilakukan pada awal musim penghujan, yaitu bulan September hingga November 2012. Sebanyak 113 ekor ikan sidat ditangkap dan dianalisis dalam penelitian ini, dengan perincian 57 ekor diamati langsung setelah ditangkap dan 56 ekor diamati setelah dipelihara selama 10 hari oleh pengepul. Pengamatan dilakukan dengan metode observasi langsung menggunakan mikroskop untuk parasit, kit API 20NE (Biomeureux® untuk bakteri dan pewarnaan standar haematoxylin-eosin untuk histopatologi. Terdapat empat jenis parasit (Nematoda: Camallanidae dan Anguillicoloides; Platyhelminthes: Monogenea dan Digenea dan lima bakteri (Aeromonas hydrophylla, Pseudomonas luteola, Vibrio fluvialis, Aeromonas sobria, dan Aeromonas caviae dari sampel ikan sidat dalam penelitian ini. Tidak terdapat perbedaan dalam komposisi patogen, namun terjadi perubahan dalam kondisi histopatologi sehingga pemeliharaan sementara oleh pengepul sebelum ikan sidat dibudidayakan memiliki potensi menurunkan kualitas benih untuk budidaya.

  9. Spoilage yeasts in Patagonian winemaking: molecular and physiological features of Pichia guilliermondii indigenous isolates Levaduras contaminantes en vinos patagónicos: características moleculares y fisiológicas de los aislamientos indígenas de Picchia guilliermondii

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    C. A. Lopes

    2009-09-01

    producir fenoles volátiles en ensayos sobre mosto de 23 aislamientos de P. guilliermondii provenientes de superficie de uvas y de mostos de fermentación de vinos tintos. Asimismo, se analizó la relación entre los patrones moleculares (RAPD y fisiológicos (biotipo killer de estos aislamientos y la producción de fenoles volátiles. Se detectaron diferentes niveles de producción de 4-etilfenol, 4-vinilguayacol y 4-etilguayacol entre los aislamientos de P. guilliermondii analizados; sin embargo, los valores obtenidos fueron en todos los casos inferiores a los producidos por D. bruxellensis cepa de referencia en las mismas condiciones. En general, se detectaron altos niveles de 4-vinilfenol en los mostos fermentados con los aislamientos indígenas de P. guilliermondii. El uso combinado de RAPD-PCR y el biotipo killer permitió identificar los aislamientos que producen los niveles más altos de fenoles volátiles.

  10. Cefalometría lateral de Ricketts en adolescentes de 12 a 14 años con oclusión normal, 2001-2003 Rickett´s lateral cephalometry in 12-14 years-old adolescents with normal occlusion, 2001-2003

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    Zoila Rosa Podadera Valdés

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal en niños de 12 a 14 años de edad del área de salud perteneciente a la Clínica Estomatológica Docente "Ormani Arenado", en el período comprendido de julio de 2001 a julio de 2003, con el objetivo de describir el comportamiento de las normas cefalométricas del análisis lateral de Ricketts. El universo estuvo constituido por 1 683 niños matriculados en los centros de educación primaria y secundaria de dicha área de salud, de los cuales se obtuvo una muestra por factibilidad de 50 niños (21 masculinos y 29 femeninos con oclusión normal, sin antecedentes de haber recibido tratamiento ortodóncico. Se examinaron los niños objeto de estudio y se analizaron las variables: edad, sexo, medidas del cefalograma lateral de Ricketts y biotipo facial. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante tablas de distribución de frecuencia, estadígrafos de tendencia central, de dispersión y coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Se obtuvo que existió coincidencia en el comportamiento del crecimiento mandibular con lo propuesto por Ricketts en los grupos de edad de 12 y 14 años, mientras que en el de 13 años, se observó un retrognatismo mandibular. Además, se pusieron de manifiesto las características de protrusión maxilar, mesogresión, vestibuloversión de incisivos y protrusión labial marcadas en la muestra estudiada. Se observó una elevada correlación entre las distintas variables que determinan el biotipo facial. En la distribución biotipológica el patrón más representado fue el mesofacial, seguido por el dolicofacial. Se concluye que existieron variaciones en nuestra población en cuanto a las medidas del cefalograma lateral propuesto por Ricketts que representa el estándar internacional.A descriptive cross-sectional study of 12-14 years-old adolescents from the health care area cared for by "Ormani Arenado" teaching dental clinic was carried out from July 2001 to July 2003, with

  11. Efecto de extractos vegetales de Polygonum hydropiperoides, Solanum nigrum y Calliandra pittieri sobre el gusano cogollero (Spodoptera frugiperda

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    Lizarazo H. Karol

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El gusano cogollero Spodoptera frugiperda es una de las plagas que más afectan los cultivos en la región de Sumapaz (Cundinamarca, Colombia. En la actualidad se controla principalmente aplicando productos de síntesis química, sin embargo la aplicación de extractos vegetales surge como una alternativa de menor impacto sobre el ambiente. Este control se emplea debido a que las plantas contienen metabolitos secundarios que pueden inhibir el desarrollo de los insectos. Por tal motivo, la presente investigación evaluó el efecto insecticida y antialimentario de extractos vegetales de barbasco Polygonum hydropiperoides (Polygonaceae, carbonero Calliandra pittieri (Mimosaceae y hierba mora Solanum nigrum (Solanaceae sobre larvas de S. frugiperda biotipo maíz. Se estableció una cría masiva del insecto en el laboratorio utilizando una dieta natural con hojas de maíz. Posteriormente se obtuvieron extractos vegetales utilizando solventes de alta polaridad (agua y etanol y media polaridad (diclorometano los cuales se aplicaron sobre las larvas de segundo instar. Los resultados más destacados se presentaron con extractos de P. hydropiperoides, obtenidos con diclorometano en sus diferentes dosis, con los cuales se alcanzó una mortalidad de 100% 12 días después de la aplicación y un efecto antialimentario representado por un consumo de follaje de maíz inferior al 4%, efectos similares a los del testigo comercial (Clorpiriphos.

  12. Infección por Campylobacter y Shigella como causa de Diarrea Aguda Infecciosa en niños menores de dos años en el Distrito de la Victoria, Lima-Perú

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    María Perales D

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de Campylobacter y Shigella como agentes etiológicos en diarrea aguda acuosa en niños menores de dos años atendidos en 4 centros de salud del distrito de La Victoria (Lima, Perú Materiales y métodos: en este estudio transversal analítico se realizaron coprocultivos bajo técnica microbiológica estándar a los niños menores de dos años con diarrea aguda acuosa atendidos en 4 centros de salud de La Victoria entre abril y octubre de 2001. Fueron excluidos aquellos niños con disentería y aquellos que habían recibido tratamiento antibiótico previo a la atención. Resultados: se estudiaron un total de 248 casos, de los cuales 48 (19,4% coprocultivos fueron positivos: 33 (13.3% a Campylobacter, 12 (4,8% a Shigella y 3 (1,2% a Salmonella. No se identificaron otros patógenos. Las especies de Shigella identificadas fueron: Shigella flexneri en 9 (75,0% casos y Shigella sonnei en 3 (25,0% La única especie de Campylobacter identificada fue Campylobacter jejuni siendo el biotipo I el más frecuente (84,6% Conclusiones: Campylobacter y Shigella juegan un importante papel como agentes etiológicos causantes de diarrea aguda acuosa en niños menores de dos años.

  13. Toxinas killer e produção de enzimas por Candida albicans isoladas da mucosa bucal de pacientes com câncer Killer toxin sensitiviy and production of enzymes by Candida albicans isolated from the oral mucosa of patients with cancer

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    Elida Elias de Oliveira

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Infecções oportunistas da cavidade bucal são primariamente causadas por fungos do gênero Candida e freqüentemente ocorrem em pacientes com câncer que estão sobtratamento quimioterápico e antibacteriano. De 44 amostras coletadas da mucosa oral de pacientes com câncer, observou-se o isolamento de 25 leveduras do gênero Candida em cultivo realizado em ágar Sabouraud-dextrose. Foram identificados Candida albicans em 24 (96% isolados e C. krusei em 1 (4%. As características fenotípicas das amostras de Candida albicans mostraram que todos os isolados foram fortemente proteolíticos, capazes de produzir fosfolipases e possuíam os biotipos caracterizados como 811(95,8% e 511 (4,2% em relação a susceptibilidade às toxinas killer.Opportunistic infections of the oral cavity are primarily caused by Candida and frequently occur in patients with cancer who are undergoing chemotherapy and antibiotic treatment. Of the specimens received from the oral mucosa of 44 patients with cancer, 25 (56.8% yielded Candida on culture in Sabouraud agar. Twenty four of these isolates were identified as C. albicans (96% and 1 as C. krusei (4%. The phenotypic characteristics of these isolates showed that all of them were strongly proteolytic, had a high ability to produce phospholipase, and presented the byotypes characterized as 811 (95.8% and 511 (4.2% in terms of susceptibility to killer toxins.

  14. Caracterización molecular de un begomovirus del tomate en el Valle del Cauca, Colombia, y búsqueda de fuentes de resistencia para el mejoramiento de la variedad Unapal Maravilla

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    Martínez Ana Karine

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó un virus transmitido por la mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci al tomate en el Valle del Cauca como una variante del Virus del mosaico amarillo del tomate (Tomato yellow mosaic virus = ToYMV. Plantas de tomate (FLA 496-11-6-1-0, FLA 478-6-3-1-11, FLA 456-4 y FLA 653-3-1-0 de 20 días de edad se confinaron en jaulas individuales con 10 individuos virulíferos de B. tabaci (biotipo B por planta, en condiciones de invernadero. La infección por el virus se confirmó por el desarrollo de los síntomas y las pruebas moleculares de PCR e hibridación dot blot. Las características agromorfológicas se evaluaron en campo en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Las líneas FLA 653-3-1-0, FLA 496-11-6-1-0 y FLA 478-6-3-1-11 desarrollaron síntomas muy leves; el ADN viral fue apenas detectable para algunos individuos y presentaron características del fruto y rendimientos deseables.

  15. Revisión de los hospederos del gusano cogollero del maíz, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Augusto CASMUZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de actualizar los hospederos citados para Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica. La búsqueda de hospederos fue agrupada por zona y país. Para el norte del Continente Americano, se incluyeron las citas encontradas para EE.UU., México, América Central e islas del Caribe. En Sudamérica, se agruparon todos los países del cono sur, a excepción de la Argentina, la cual fue considerada por separado. Se encontraron un total de 186 hospederos, repartidos en 42 familias. Entre los hospederos más citados, el 35,5% perteneció a la familia Poaceae, el 11,3% a la familia Fabaceae, a la familia Solanaceae y Asteraceae un 4,3 % cada una, siguiéndoles las Rosaceae y Chenopodiaceae con un 3,7% cada una y, finalmente, las Brassicaceae y Cyperaceae con un 3,2%. Del total de plantas encontradas (186 el 64% se hallaron presentes en Norteamérica y Centroamérica, un 53% en Sudamérica y un 32% en Argentina. Las especies más citadas fueron (en orden decreciente para Norteamérica: maíz, sorgo, maní, grama bermuda, caña de azúcar y arroz; para Sudamérica: maíz, arroz, sorgo, poroto, algodón y maní; y por último, en Argentina fueron: maíz, soja, algodón, alfalfa, tomate, lino, papa y sorgo. También se aporta información sobre su ciclo de vida, hábitos y comportamiento sobre los principales hospederos, migración y biotipos.

  16. Desarrollo de un ensayo de PCR para detectar los genes codificadores de la toxina del cólera (ctxAB en preparaciones del candidato vacunal vivo atenuado CV638 contra el cólera

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    Heidy Peidro-Guzmán

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available El candidato vacunal vivo oral atenuado CV638 se produce siguiendo los criterios de las guías de Buenas Prácticas de Producción específicas para vacunas. El ingrediente activo de este candidato vacunal es la cepa atenuada genéticamente Vibrio cholerae 638; desarrollada por investigadores del Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de Cuba (CNIC, a partir de la cepa toxigénica de V. cholerae serogrupo O1, biotipo El Tor C7258, (Perú, 1991, mediante la remoción de los genes que codifican la producción de la toxina del cólera (ctxAB. Dado que la cepa 638 carece de estos genes en su genoma, la presencia de ctxAB en las preparaciones vacunales estaría dada por una contaminación con una cepa toxigénica de V. cholerae. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo desarrollar un PCR específico para detectar los genes ctxAB a partir de ADN aislado de preparaciones del candidato vacunal CV638 contaminado artificialmente con V. cholerae toxigénico. La sensibilidad del ensayo de PCR empleando como molde ADN de la cepa toxigénica fue de 1 picogramo (pg de ADN genómico por reacción, correspondiente a ~200 copias del genoma de la bacteria. La sensibilidad del método de PCR para detectar cepas toxigénicas en preparaciones vacunales de la cepa 638, contaminadas con una cepa toxigénica fue de ~7 x 103 unidades formadoras de colonia (UFC de la cepa toxigénica por dosis del candidato vacunal CV638. Este método, una vez validado, pudiera emplearse en el control de la calidad de la producción del candidato vacunal vivo CV638.

  17. DIPHTHERIA IN A VACCINATED ADULT IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL Difteria em adulto vacinado no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Ana Luiza Mattos-Guaraldi

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1999, a case of diphtheria in a 32-year-old woman was reported. The patient developed a sore throat immediately after participating of a five-day meeting with European workers in Rio de Janeiro. Her history included complete pediatric immunization (DTP and three doses of adult formulation tetanus and diphtheria toxoid (dT two years earlier. Clinical diagnosis of diphtheria was not made until microbiologic examination of specimens confirmed toxigenicity of Corynebacterium diphtheriae var. gravis, a biotype currently found circulating within Europe where diphtheria remains epidemic. This case reinforces the potential susceptibility of Brazilian adults to epidemic diphtheria in the vaccine era.Um caso de difteria ocorreu, em 1999, em mulher de 32 anos de idade. A paciente iniciou episódio de dor de garganta imediatamente após participação em reunião com profissionais europeus durante cinco dias consecutivos, no Rio de Janeiro. Ela declarou ter sido submetida ao esquema completo de imunização contra difteria (DTP-tríplice bacteriana na infância e a doses de reforço (dT-dupla adulto há dois anos. O diagnóstico clínico da doença só foi firmado após o laboratório de microbiologia ter confirmado a capacidade de produção de toxina pela amostra isolada de Corynebacterium diphtheriae var. gravis, biotipo não fermentador de sacarose comumente encontrado em diversos países europeus e responsável pela atual epidemia na região correspondente a antiga União Soviética. Na era da vacinação antidiftérica, indivíduos adultos de nossa comunidade podem apresentar-se potencialmente susceptíveis a difteria.

  18. Identificación, biotipificación y caracterización de cepas de Pasteurella multocida aisladas en la Argentina Identification, biotypification and characterization of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Leotta

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Treinta cepas de Pasteurella multocida aisladas en la Argentina a partir de muestras de origen humano y animal fueron identificadas, biotipificadas y caracterizadas. Veintidós de ellas (73% correspondieron a P. multocida subsp. multocida; cinco (17% a P. multocida subsp. gallicida y tres (10% a P. multocida subsp. septica. Todas las cepas fueron agrupadas en 8 biotipos; el 70% presentó el tipo capsular A. Los serotipos somáticos más frecuentes fueron el 1 (n:11 y el 3 (n:9. Las cepas de origen porcino fueron resistentes a tiamulina, estreptomicina y tetraciclina. La caracterización de las cepas de P. multocida aisladas en la Argentina es el primer paso para concretar futuros estudios destinados a la prevención y al tratamiento de la pasteurelosis en medicina humana y veterinaria.Thirty Pasteurella multocida strains isolated in Argentina from human and animal samples were identified, biotypified and characterized. Twenty-two (73% strains were identified as P. multocida subsp. multocida, 5 (17% as P. multocida subsp. gallicida, and 3 (10% as P. multocida subsp. septica. All strains were grouped in 8 biotypes, and 70% of the strains presented capsular type A. The most frequent somatic serotypes were 1 (n:11 and 3 (n:9. P. multocida strains from swine source were resistant to tiamulin, streptomycin and tetracycline. Characterization of P. multocida strains isolated in Argentina is the first step to conduct future studies intended for the prevention and treatment of pasteurellosis in human and veterinary medicine.

  19. INFLUENCIA DE COBERTURAS EN SUELO SOBRE LA SELECCIÓN DEL HOSPEDANTE POR Bemisia tabaci, EN CONDICIONES DE INVERNADERO

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    Luko Hilje

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque varios tipos de coberturas en suelo (inertes o vivas pueden reducir la afluencia de adultos de B. tabaci en plantas de tomate, se desconoce el mecanismo específico de acción de cada una de ellas. Por tanto, se realizó un experimento en un invernadero en Turrialba, Costa Rica, para determinar su respuesta tanto a coberturas inertes (metal verde y plástico plateado y amarillo como vivas: maní forrajero (Arachis pintoi, Fabaceae, cinquillo (Drymaria cordata, Caryophyllaceae y culantro (Coriandrum sativum, Umbelliferae. Se les comparó con un testigo (suelo desnudo. Hubo 4 repeticiones de cada tratamiento. Cada cobertura se sembró en una maceta grande, rodeado de una plántula de tomate de 15 cm de altura. Las macetas se colocaron sobre el piso del invernadero, espaciadas 40 cm entre sí. Cada experimento se repitió en 4 días consecutivos, para lo cual los tratamientos se aleatorizaron todos los días. Se utilizó un diseño de parcelas divididas, con las coberturas como la parcela principal y las fechas como las subparcelas. La víspera de cada repetición se liberaron 1200 adultos de B. tabaci (biotipo A en el área experimental y al día siguiente se registraron sus datos tanto en la planta de tomate como en cada cobertura. Los números de adultos fueron mucho mayores (p0,05. Aunque todas interfieren con la habilidad de los adultos para localizar las plantas de tomate, el mecanismo específico de acción difirió según la naturaleza de cada una, excepto en las coberturas vivas, que parecen compartir el mismo mecanismo.

  20. Potential enterotoxicity and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Aeromonas species isolated from pet turtles and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalasena, S H M P; Shin, Gee-Wook; Hossain, Sabrina; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2017-05-23

    To investigate the potential enterotoxicity and antimicrobial resistance of aeromonads from pet turtles as a risk for human infection, one hundred and two Aeromonas spp. were isolated from the feces, skin and rearing environments of pet turtles and identified by biochemical and gyrB sequence analyses. Aeromonas enteropelogenes was the predominant species among the isolates (52.9%) followed by A. hydrophila (32.4%), A. dharkensis (5.9%), A. veronii (4.9%) and A. caviae (3.9%). Their potential enterotoxicities were evaluated by PCR assays for detecting genes encoding cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) and two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast). 75.8% of A. hydrophila isolates exhibited the act+/alt+/ast+ genotype, whereas 94.4% of A. enteropelogenes isolates were determined to be act-/alt-/ast-. In an antimicrobial susceptibility test, most isolates were susceptible to all tested antibiotics except amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Non-susceptible isolates to penicillins (ampicillin and amoxicillin) and fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin) were frequently observed among the A. enteropelogenes isolates. Few isolates were resistant to imipenem, amikacin, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. Collectively, these results suggest that pet turtles may pose a public health risk of infection by enterotoxigenic and antimicrobial resistant Aeromonas strains.

  1. Unusual microorganisms and antimicrobial resistances in a group of Syrian migrants: Sentinel surveillance data from an asylum seekers centre in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Silvia; Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Vita, Serena; Dicuonzo, Giordano; Lopalco, Maurizio; Dedej, Etleva; Blasi, Aletheia; Antonelli, Francesca; Conti, Alessia; De Cesaris, Marina; Farchi, Francesca; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Three years of civil war in Syria have caused death and increase of communicable diseases. The suffering population has been forced to migrate creating a fertile condition for epidemic spread of infection within the refugee camps. Forty-eight Syrian migrants, upon their arrival in Italy, were accommodated at the asylum seekers centre of Castelnuovo di Porto. They received a physical examination and were subjected to microbiological surveillance by blood, rectal, pharyngeal and nasal swabs collection and delivering to the Clinical Pathology and Microbiology Laboratory of the University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome. All refugees resulted negative for HBV, HCV and HIV infections. In swabs a large number of unusual gram-negative bacteria species were isolated, such as Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas monteilii, Pseudomonas fulva, Pseudomonas moselii, Aeromonas veronii, Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Acinteobacter guilloviae, Acinteobacter lowffii; Acinetobacter johnsonii; Acinteobacter tjernbergae; Pantoea agglomerans; Pantoea calida. Among isolates, strains resistant to carbapenems, ESBL producers and methicillin resistant were found. The microbiological surveillance performed represents a useful action to understand refugees health status and to trace unusual microorganisms movement even carriers of antimicrobial resistance during migrants traveling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel components of leaf bacterial communities of field-grown tomato plants and their potential for plant growth promotion and biocontrol of tomato diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Fernando M; Marina, María; Pieckenstain, Fernando L

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed to characterize potentially endophytic culturable bacteria from leaves of cultivated tomato and analyze their potential for growth promotion and biocontrol of diseases caused by Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae. Bacteria were obtained from inner tissues of surface-disinfected tomato leaves of field-grown plants. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences identified bacterial isolates related to Exiguobacterium aurantiacum (isolates BT3 and MT8), Exiguobacterium spp. (isolate GT4), Staphylococcus xylosus (isolate BT5), Pantoea eucalypti (isolate NT6), Bacillus methylotrophicus (isolate MT3), Pseudomonas veronii (isolates BT4 and NT2), Pseudomonas rhodesiae (isolate BT2) and Pseudomonas cichorii (isolate NT3). After seed inoculation, BT2, BT4, MT3, MT8, NT2 and NT6 were re-isolated from leaf extracts. NT2, BT2, MT3 and NT6 inhibited growth of Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in vitro, produced antimicrobial compounds and reduced leaf damage caused by B. cinerea. Some of these isolates also promoted growth of tomato plants, produced siderophores, the auxin indole-3-acetic and solubilized inorganic phosphate. Thus, bacterial communities of leaves from field-grown tomato plants were found to harbor potentially endophytic culturable beneficial bacteria capable of antagonizing pathogenic microorganisms and promoting plant growth, which could be used as biological control agents and biofertilizers/biostimulators for promotion of tomato plant growth. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Screening for biosurfactant production by 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene-transforming bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Arias, H; Avellaneda, H; Garzón, V; Rodríguez, G; Arbeli, Z; Garcia-Bonilla, E; Villegas-Plazas, M; Roldan, F

    2017-08-01

    To isolate and identify TNT-transforming cultures from explosive-contaminated soils with the ability to produce biosurfactants. Bacteria (pure and mixed cultures) were selected based on their ability to transform TNT in minimum media with TNT as the sole nitrogen source and an additional carbon source. TNT-transforming bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. TNT transformation rates were significantly lower when no additional carbon or nitrogen sources were added. Surfactant production was enabled by the presence of TNT. Fourteen cultures were able to transform the explosive (>50%); of these, five showed a high transformation capacity (>90%), and six produced surfactants. All explosive-transforming cultures contained Proteobacteria of the genera Achromobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, Raoultella, Rhizobium and Methylopila. These cultures transformed TNT when an additional carbon source was added. Remarkably, Achromobacter spanius S17 and Pseudomonas veronii S94 have high TNT transformation rates and are surfactant producers. TNT is a highly toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic nitroaromatic explosive; therefore, bioremediation to eliminate or mitigate its presence in the environment is essential. TNT-transforming cultures that produce surfactants are a promising method for remediation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that links surfactant production and TNT transformation by bacteria. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Long-term salinity tolerance is accompanied by major restructuring of the coral bacterial microbiome

    KAUST Repository

    Röthig, Till

    2016-02-03

    Scleractinian corals are assumed to be stenohaline osmoconformers, although they are frequently subjected to variations in seawater salinity due to precipitation, freshwater runoff, and other processes. Observed responses to altered salinity levels include differences in photosynthetic performance, respiration, and increased bleaching and mortality of the coral host and its algal symbiont, but a study looking at bacterial community changes is lacking. Here we exposed the coral Fungia granulosa to strongly increased salinity levels in short- and long-term experiments to disentangle temporal and compartment effects of the coral holobiont (i.e. coral host, symbiotic algae, and associated bacteria). Our results show a significant reduction in calcification and photosynthesis, but a stable microbiome after short-term exposure to high salinity levels. By comparison, long-term exposure yielded unchanged photosynthesis levels and visually healthy coral colonies indicating long-term acclimation to high salinity levels that were accompanied by a major coral microbiome restructuring. Importantly, a bacterium in the family Rhodobacteraceae was succeeded by Pseudomonas veronii as the numerically most abundant taxon. Further, taxonomy-based functional profiling indicates a shift in the bacterial community towards increased osmolyte production, sulfur oxidation, and nitrogen fixation. Our study highlights that bacterial community composition in corals can change within days to weeks under altered environmental conditions, where shifts in the microbiome may enable adjustment of the coral to a more advantageous holobiont composition.

  5. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of c-type lysozyme from Indian shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus

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    Viswanathan Karthik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the multitudinal antimicrobial effects of recombinant lysozyme from Fenneropenaeus indicus (rFi-Lyz in comparison with commercially available recombinant hen egg white lysozyme (rHEWL. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant rFi-Lyz using several Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and fungi in comparison with rHEWL has been evaluated. rFi-Lyz was expressed and purified using Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The effect of rFi-Lyz in the growth of yeast Candida krusei, plant molds Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani was assessed by well diffusion assay in petri plates with potato dextrose agar. Results: rFi-Lyz exhibited high inhibitory activity on Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Among various Gram negative bacteria tested Klebsiella pneumoniae exhibited the highest inhibition followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae. rFi-Lyz also exhibited significant inhibition on two marine pathogens Aeromonas veronii and Vibrio alginolyticus. Among the various fungal strains tested, rFi-Lyz inhibited the growth of budding yeast Candida krusei significantly. Further the growth of two other plants fungus Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum were retarded by rFi-Lyz in the plate inhibition assay. Conclusions: rFi-Lyz exhibits a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity like a natural antibiotic on various pathogenic bacteria and fungal strains.

  6. Engineering Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 for nitrogen fixation and its application to improve plant growth under nitrogen-deficient conditions.

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    Lorena Setten

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is the second most critical factor for crop production after water. In this study, the beneficial rhizobacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 was genetically modified to fix nitrogen using the genes encoding the nitrogenase of Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501 via the X940 cosmid. Pf-5 X940 was able to grow in L medium without nitrogen, displayed high nitrogenase activity and released significant quantities of ammonium to the medium. Pf-5 X940 also showed constitutive expression and enzymatic activity of nitrogenase in ammonium medium or in nitrogen-free medium, suggesting a constitutive nitrogen fixation. Similar to Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas veronii and Pseudomonas taetrolens but not Pseudomonas balearica and Pseudomonas stutzeri transformed with cosmid X940 showed constitutive nitrogenase activity and high ammonium production, suggesting that this phenotype depends on the genome context and that this technology to obtain nitrogen-fixing bacteria is not restricted to Pf-5. Interestingly, inoculation of Arabidopsis, alfalfa, tall fescue and maize with Pf-5 X940 increased the ammonium concentration in soil and plant productivity under nitrogen-deficient conditions. In conclusion, these results open the way to the production of effective recombinant inoculants for nitrogen fixation on a wide range of crops.

  7. Biogenic nanoparticles bearing antibacterial activity and their synergistic effect with broad spectrum antibiotics: Emerging strategy to combat drug

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    Syed Baker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study emphasizes on synthesis of bimetallic silver–gold nanoparticles from cell free supernatant of Pseudomonas veronii strain AS41G inhabiting Annona squamosa L. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using hyphenated techniques with UV–Visible spectra ascertained absorbance peak between 400 and 800 nm. Possible interaction of biomolecules in mediating and stabilization of nanoparticles was depicted with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. X-ray diffraction (XRD displayed Bragg’s peak conferring the 100, 111, 200, and 220 facets of the face centered cubic symmetry of nanoparticles suggesting that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. Size and shape of the nanoparticles were determined using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM microgram with size ranging from 5 to 50 nm forming myriad shapes. Antibacterial activity of nanoparticles against significant human pathogens was conferred with well diffusion assay and its synergistic effect with standard antibiotics revealed 87.5% fold increased activity with antibiotic “bacitracin” against bacitracin resistant strains Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by kanamycin with 18.5%, gentamicin with 11.15%, streptomycin with 10%, erythromycin with 9.7% and chloramphenicol with 9.4%. Thus the study concludes with biogenic and ecofriendly route for synthesizing nanoparticles with antibacterial activity against drug resistant pathogens and attributes growing interest on endophytes as an emerging source for synthesis of nanoparticles.

  8. Diversity and antibiotic resistance of Aeromonas spp. in drinking and waste water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Vânia; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Silva, Márcia; Manaia, Célia M

    2011-11-01

    The taxonomic diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of aeromonads were examined in samples from drinking and waste water treatment plants (surface, ground and disinfected water in a drinking water treatment plant, and raw and treated waste water) and tap water. Bacteria identification and intra-species variation were determined based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and cpn60 gene sequences. Resistance phenotypes were determined using the disc diffusion method. Aeromonas veronii prevailed in raw surface water, Aeromonas hydrophyla in ozonated water, and Aeromonas media and Aeromonas puntacta in waste water. No aeromonads were detected in ground water, after the chlorination tank or in tap water. Resistance to ceftazidime or meropenem was detected in isolates from the drinking water treatment plant and waste water isolates were intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid. Most of the times, quinolone resistance was associated with the gyrA mutation in serine 83. The gene qnrS, but not the genes qnrA, B, C, D or qepA, was detected in both surface and waste water isolates. The gene aac(6')-ib-cr was detected in different waste water strains isolated in the presence of ciprofloxacin. Both quinolone resistance genes were detected only in the species A. media. This is the first study tracking antimicrobial resistance in aeromonads in drinking, tap and waste water and the importance of these bacteria as vectors of resistance in aquatic environments is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer of Aeromonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    łaganowska, Marzena; Kaznowski, Adam

    2004-09-01

    We analyzed restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) of Aeromonas species. A total of 69 isolates belonging to 18 DNA hybridization groups (HG; equivalent of genomic species) were used in this study. ISRs were amplified by PCR and the products were digested with four restriction endonucleases: Hin6I, Csp6I, TaqI, and TasI. The RFLP patterns obtained after digesting by particular enzymes revealed ISR polymorphism of isolates allocated to individual genomic species. The combined Hin6I, Csp6I, TaqI, and TasI restriction profiles were examined by Dice coefficient (SD) and unweighted pair group method of clustering (UPGMA). The isolates were allocated into 15 groups, three strains were unclustered. The strains belonging to the following genomic species: A. hydrophila, A. bestiarum, A. salmonicida, A. caviae, A. media, A. schubertii, A. allosaccharophila, A. popoffii, and A. culicicola formed distinct clusters. Strains belonging to HG 6, HG 7, HG 11, and HG 16 revealed similar combined RFLP patterns and constituted one group. Similarly, the strains of A. jandaei (HG 9) and the type strain of A. trota were allocated into one cluster. Two isolates of HG 14 formed distinct cluster. We noticed a genetic diversity among A. veronii isolates, the strains were clustered in two groups. Our study showed that combined ISR-RFLP analysis may be used for identification of some species of Aeromonas.

  10. Direct detection of diarrheagenic Aeromonas from faeces by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting aerolysin toxin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, S; Suresh Kanna, P; Karkuzhali, K; Chattopadhyay, U K; Pal, D

    2001-01-01

    Detection of diarrheagenic Aeromonas specific aerolysin toxin (Aer) gene by PCR based assay and isolation, identification of diarrhea causing Aeromonas from faeces by culture methods were carried out in the Division of Active Surveillance, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases (NICED), Kolkata, India for a period of 12 months. Out of 602 faecal samples collected from patients with acute diarrhea admitted in Infectious Diseases (ID) Hospital, Kolkata, 68 (11.29%) samples were found to be possessing Aer gene by PCR technique. The conventional culture methods using selective media yielded only 64 (10.6%) Aeromonas strains from the same faecal samples. The different Aeromonas species possessing Aer gene identified by PCR based technique include A. hydrophila (55.8%), A. caviae (17.6%), A. veronii (10.2%), A. schubertii (4.4%), A. jandaei (2.9%) and A. trota (8.8%). The isolation and identification of Aeromonas by routine culture did not detect enterotoxigenic A. trota present in four diarrheal faecal samples. The failure of the growth of enterotoxigenic A. trota on selective media may be attributed to the ampicillin susceptibility of those strains. The quality control studies revealed that PCR method for the direct detection of Aer gene from the faeces has the sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 98%.

  11. The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in waters of the Lower Ballona Creek Watershed, Los Angeles County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawecki, Stephanie; Kuleck, Gary; Dorsey, John H; Leary, Christopher; Lum, Michelle

    2017-06-01

    Screening for the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) was done at the Ballona Creek and Wetlands, an urban-impacted wetland system in Los Angeles, California. The goals were (1) to assess the overall prevalence of ARB, and (2) compare differences in ARB abundance and the types of antibiotic resistance (AR) among the following sample types: lagoon water from Del Rey Lagoon, urban runoff from Ballona Creek, and water from the Ballona Wetlands (tidal water flooding in from the adjacent estuary, and ebbing out from the salt marsh). Antibiotic resistance distributions were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to develop the cumulative frequency of bacteria having resistance of up to eight antibiotics. Distributions from the environmental water samples were compared to unchlorinated secondary effluent from the Hyperion Water Reclamation Plant that was used as comparator samples likely to have an abundance of ARB. As expected, densities of total and ARB were highest in secondary effluent, followed by urban runoff. Samples of water flooding into the wetlands showed similar results to urban runoff; however, a reduction in densities of total and ARB occurred in water ebbing out of the wetlands. During preliminary work to identify ARB species, several bacterial species of relevance to human illness (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus hirae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas veronii, Enterobacter cancerogenus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Staphylococcus intermedius) were isolated from sampled waters. If wetlands are a sink for ARB, construction and restoration of wetlands can help in the mediation of this human and environmental health concern.

  12. Diaryl-substituted azolylthioacetamides: Inhibitor discovery of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Lin; Yang, Ke-Wu; Zhou, Ya-Jun; LaCuran, Alecander E; Oelschlaeger, Peter; Crowder, Michael W

    2014-11-01

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens is a global public health problem. Metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs) such as New Delhi MβL-1 (NDM-1) are principle contributors to the emergence of resistance because of their ability to hydrolyze almost all known β-lactam antibiotics including penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. A clinical inhibitor of MBLs has not yet been found. In this study we developed eighteen new diaryl-substituted azolylthioacetamides and found all of them to be inhibitors of the MβL L1 from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Ki < 2 μM), thirteen to be mixed inhibitors of NDM-1 (Ki < 7 μM), and four to be broad-spectrum inhibitors of all four tested MβLs CcrA from Bacteroides fragilis, NDM-1 and ImiS from Aeromonas veronii, and L1 (Ki < 52 μM), which are representative of the B1a, B1b, B2, and B3 subclasses, respectively. Docking studies revealed that the azolylthioacetamides, which have the broadest inhibitory activity, coordinate to the Zn(II) ion(s) preferentially via the triazole moiety, while other moieties interact mostly with the conserved active site residues Lys224 (CcrA, NDM-1, and ImiS) or Ser221 (L1). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of motile aeromonads isolated from freshwater ornamental fish showing signs of septicaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoda, S S S de S; Wijewardana, T G; Arulkanthan, A; Igarashi, Y; Tan, E; Kinoshita, S; Watabe, S; Asakawa, S

    2014-05-13

    A total of 74 phenotypically identified presumptive motile Aeromonas isolates recovered from septicaemic freshwater ornamental fish in Sri Lanka were genetically characterized by sequencing of rpoD and gyrB genes. rpoD/gyrB phylogeny confirmed only 53 isolates as Aeromonas, among which A. veronii was the predominant species (79.2%), followed by A. hydrophila (7.5%), A. caviae (5.7%), A. jandaei (1.9%), A. dhakensis (3.8%) and A. entero pelogenes (1.9%). The aeromonads confirmed by sequencing were further subjected to 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP which substantiated sequencing results for 83% of isolates. Fingerprinting of A. enteropelogenes (n = 42) using ERIC-PCR revealed no dominant clones, and the majority were genetically distinct. All isolates were screened by PCR for 7 virulence determinant genes (aer, act, ast, alt, fla, ser, exu) and 2 integrase encoding genes (intI1, intI2). Each isolate contained ≥3 of the virulence genes tested for, with a heterogeneous distribution. Of the isolates, 77% harboured the intI1 gene, while none had intI2. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed highest resistances towards tetracycline (58.5%) and erythromycin (54.7%). Our results indicate the diverse range of aeromonads that could potentially be associated with motile aeromonad septicaemia in ornamental fish. This is the first isolation of A. dhakensis from a septicaemic ornamental fish since its original description from the same host.

  14. Microbial diversity and potential pathogens in ornamental fish aquarium water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine F; Schmidt, Victor; Rosen, Gail E; Amaral-Zettler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Ornamental fishes are among the most popular and fastest growing categories of pets in the United States (U.S.). The global scope and scale of the ornamental fish trade and growing popularity of pet fish in the U.S. are strong indicators of the myriad economic and social benefits the pet industry provides. Relatively little is known about the microbial communities associated with these ornamental fishes or the aquarium water in which they are transported and housed. Using conventional molecular approaches and next generation high-throughput amplicon sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions, we characterized the bacterial community of aquarium water containing common goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Chinese algae eaters (Gyrinocheilus aymonieri) purchased from seven pet/aquarium shops in Rhode Island and identified the presence of potential pathogens. Our survey identified a total of 30 phyla, the most common being Proteobacteria (52%), Bacteroidetes (18%) and Planctomycetes (6%), with the top four phyla representing >80% of all sequences. Sequences from our water samples were most closely related to eleven bacterial species that have the potential to cause disease in fishes, humans and other species: Coxiella burnetii, Flavobacterium columnare, Legionella birminghamensis, L. pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, V. mimicus. V. vulnificus, Aeromonas schubertii, A. veronii, A. hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Our results, combined with evidence from the literature, suggest aquarium tank water harboring ornamental fish are an understudied source for novel microbial communities and pathogens that pose potential risks to the pet industry, fishes in trade, humans and other species.

  15. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE CEPAS NATIVAS CON POTENCIAL PARA OBTENCIÓN DE POLIHIDROXIALCANOATOS -(PHAsEN LODOS ACTIVADOS

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    ANA LORENA ARROYAVE R.

    Full Text Available Los Polihidroxialcanoatos son poliésteres naturales que se han convertido en una excelente alternativa para remplazar los plásticos convencionales. Son biocompatibles y biodegradables y en corto tiempo pueden ser reducidos a dióxido de carbono y agua. Son sintetizados intracelularmente por diferentes bacteriasy pueden ser obtenidos a partir de una gran variedad de sustratos, en los que se incluyen algunos desechos agroindustriales. Con el objetivo de identificar cepas nativas con potencial para la producción de Polihidroxialcanoatos se llevó a cabo una bioprospección en los lodos de la Planta deTratamiento de Aguas Residuales de San Fernando (Itagüí-Antioquia. Se aislaron en agar selectivo 19 colonias, de las cuales se seleccionaron las colonias con oxidasa positiva. Se realizó la activación y siembra de las bacteriasen medio mínimo de sales (MSM líquido, para establecer el porcentaje de acumulación de los Polihidroxialcanoatos.Las cepas LM-3D, LAR-4D, LAR-5B,LAR-5E, presentaron un porcentaje de acumulación de PHAs de 2, 10, 4, 3 %, respectivamente y la cepaLM-3F presentó un porcentaje de acumulación del 25%, con respecto a los otros aislados. Tras el análisis bioquímico se determinó que las cepas productoras de PHAs fueron Shingomonas paucemobilis, Aeromonas hydrophila y Aeromonas sobria.

  16. Secondary bacterial infections and antibiotic resistance among tungiasis patients in Western, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyangacha, Ruth Monyenye; Odongo, David; Oyieke, Florence; Ochwoto, Missiani; Korir, Richard; Ngetich, Ronald Kiprotich; Nginya, Gladys; Makwaga, Olipher; Bii, Christine; Mwitari, Peter; Tolo, Festus

    2017-09-01

    Tungiasis or jigger infestation is a parasitic disease caused by the female sand flea Tunga penetrans. Secondary infection of the lesions caused by this flea is common in endemic communities. This study sought to shed light on the bacterial pathogens causing secondary infections in tungiasis lesions and their susceptibility profiles to commonly prescribed antibiotics. Participants were recruited with the help of Community Health Workers. Swabs were taken from lesions which showed signs of secondary infection. Identification of suspected bacteria colonies was done by colony morphology, Gram staining, and biochemical tests. The Kirby Bauer disc diffusion test was used to determine the drug susceptibility profiles. Out of 37 participants, from whom swabs were collected, specimen were positive in 29 and 8 had no growth. From these, 10 different strains of bacteria were isolated. Two were Gram positive bacteria and they were, Staphylococcus epidermidis (38.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (21.3%). Eight were Gram negative namely Enterobacter cloacae (8.5%), Proteus species (8.5%), Klebsiellla species (6.4%), Aeromonas sobria (4.3%), Citrobacter species (4.3%), Proteus mirabillis(4.3%), Enterobacter amnigenus (2.1%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.1%). The methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated were also resistant to clindamycin, kanamycin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, trimethorprim sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline. All the Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and norfloxacin drugs. Results from this study confirms the presence of resistant bacteria in tungiasis lesions hence highlighting the significance of secondary infection of the lesions in endemic communties. This therefore suggests that antimicrobial susceptibility testing may be considered to guide in identification of appropriate antibiotics and treatment therapy among tungiasis patients.

  17. Secondary bacterial infections and antibiotic resistance among tungiasis patients in Western, Kenya.

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    Ruth Monyenye Nyangacha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tungiasis or jigger infestation is a parasitic disease caused by the female sand flea Tunga penetrans. Secondary infection of the lesions caused by this flea is common in endemic communities. This study sought to shed light on the bacterial pathogens causing secondary infections in tungiasis lesions and their susceptibility profiles to commonly prescribed antibiotics. Participants were recruited with the help of Community Health Workers. Swabs were taken from lesions which showed signs of secondary infection. Identification of suspected bacteria colonies was done by colony morphology, Gram staining, and biochemical tests. The Kirby Bauer disc diffusion test was used to determine the drug susceptibility profiles. Out of 37 participants, from whom swabs were collected, specimen were positive in 29 and 8 had no growth. From these, 10 different strains of bacteria were isolated. Two were Gram positive bacteria and they were, Staphylococcus epidermidis (38.3% and Staphylococcus aureus (21.3%. Eight were Gram negative namely Enterobacter cloacae (8.5%, Proteus species (8.5%, Klebsiellla species (6.4%, Aeromonas sobria (4.3%, Citrobacter species (4.3%, Proteus mirabillis(4.3%, Enterobacter amnigenus (2.1% and Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.1%. The methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA isolated were also resistant to clindamycin, kanamycin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, trimethorprim sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline. All the Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and norfloxacin drugs. Results from this study confirms the presence of resistant bacteria in tungiasis lesions hence highlighting the significance of secondary infection of the lesions in endemic communties. This therefore suggests that antimicrobial susceptibility testing may be considered to guide in identification of appropriate antibiotics and treatment therapy among tungiasis patients.

  18. Efficacy of Spirulina platensis diet supplements on disease resistance and immune-related gene expression in Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to herbicide atrazine.

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    Khalil, Samah R; Reda, Rasha M; Awad, Ashraf

    2017-08-01

    The present study evaluated the immunotoxicological effects of the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) at sub-lethal concentrations and the potential ameliorative influence of Spirulina platensis (SP) over a sub-chronic exposure period on Cyprinus carpio L., also known as common carp. Common carp was sampled after a 40-days exposure to ATZ (428 μg/L) and SP (1%), individually or in combination to assess the non-specific immune response, changes in mRNA expression of immune-related genes [lysozyme (LYZ), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and complement component 3 (C3)] in the spleen, and inflammatory cytokines (interleukins IL-1ß and IL-10) in the head kidney using real-time PCR. Additionally, disease resistance to Aeromonas sobria was evaluated. The results revealed that ATZ exposure caused a significant decline in most of the hematological variables, lymphocyte viability, and lysozyme and bactericidal activity. Moreover, ATZ increased the susceptibility to disease, reflected by a significantly lower post-challenge survival rate of the carp. ATZ may induce dysregulated expression of immune-related genes leading to downregulation of mRNA levels of IgM and LYZ in the spleen. However, expression of C3 remained unaffected. Of the cytokine-related genes examined, IL-1B was up-regulated in the head kidney. In contrast, the expression of IL-10 gene was down-regulated in the ATZ-exposed group. The SP supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in most indices; however, these values did not match with that of the controls. These results may conclude that ATZ affects both innate and adaptive immune responses through the negative transcriptional effect on genes involved in immunity and also due to the inflammation of the immune organs. In addition, dietary supplements with SP could be useful for modulation of the immunity in response to ATZ exposure, thereby presenting a promising feed additive for carps in aquaculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Etiological aspects of acute gastroenteritis--a ten-year review (1.01. 2001-31.12.2010)].

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    Luca, Cătălina Mihaela; Nemescu, Roxana; Teodor, Andra; Fântânaru, Rodica; Petrovici, Cristina Mirela; Dorobăţ, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Acute gastroentritis is one of the most common diseases in humans, and continues to be a significant cause of morbidity worldwide. To determine the bacterial pathogens associated with gastroenteritis in patients admitted to the Iasi Infectious Diseases Hospital in the last ten years. A total of 40481 stool samples were examined using conventional methods. Bacteria were found in 7.36% of cases, and parasites in 9.64%; 83% of the cases were viral, micotic, or disbiotic. The bacterial etiology was dominated by Salmonella spp. (58.34%), Shigella spp. (27.08%), Yersinia enterocolitica 03 (8.53%), Campylobacter spp. (1.31%), other bacterial pathogens (EPEC, Aeromonas hydrophilla/caviae/sobria, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, etc) being detected in 3.74% of the cases. Of the Salmonella species, group B (51.99%) followed by group D (45.23%) were most common. Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri were found in almost the same proportion (49.45% and 49.70%, respectively); Shigella boydii was isolated in only 0.85% of cases. The trend of gastroenteritis caused by bacterial pathogens is decreasing: from 355 cases in 2001 to 105 cases in 2010; three peaks have been recorded in 2002, 2005 (when Salmonella typhi was isolated in a patient), and 2008 (469, 409, and 252 cases, respectively). Bacterial gastroenteritis affected both sexes almost equally (122 males and 118 females). The most affected age groups were: 0 - 4 years, 15 - 24 years, 5 - 14 years and 25 - 39 years. Laboratory investigations are essential in determining the etiology of gastroenteritis. Its unpredictable incidence justifies the human and material efforts aimed at controlling the spread of potentially epidemic acute gastroenteritis.

  20. Uptake of Carbamazepine by rhizomes and endophytic bacteria of Phragmites australis

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    Andres eSauvetre

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbamazepine is an antiepileptic and mood-stabilizing drug which is used widely in Europe and North America. In the environment, it is found as a persistent and recalcitrant conta¬mi-nant, being one of the most prominent hazardous pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs in effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. Phragmites australis is one of the species with both, the highest potential of detoxification and phytoremediation. It has been used successfully in the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Recently, the identification of endophytic micro¬organisms from different plant species growing in contaminated sites has provided a list of candidates which could be used as bio-inoculants for bioremediation of difficult compounds. In this study, Phragmites australis plants were exposed to 5 mg/L of carbamazepine. After 9 days the plants had removed 90% of the initial concentration. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from these plants and further characterized. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the majority of these isolates belong to three groups: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Carbamazepine uptake and plant growth promoting (PGP traits were analyzed among the isolates. Ninety percent of the isolates produce indole acetic acid (IAA and all of them possess at least one of the PGP traits tested. One isolate identified as Chryseobacterium taeanense combines good carbamazepine uptake and all of the PGP traits. Rhizobium daejeonense can remove carbamazepine and produces 23 µg/mL of IAA. Diaphorobacter nitroreducens and Achromobacter mucicolens are suitable for carbamazepine removal while both, Pseudomonas veronii and Pseudomonas lini show high siderophore production and phosphate solubilization. Alone or in combination, these isolates might be applied as inoculates in constructed wetlands in order to enhance the phyto-remediation of carbamazepine during wastewater

  1. Microbiological changes, shelf life and identification of initial and spoilage microbiota of sea bream fillets stored under various conditions using 16S rRNA gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlapani, Foteini F; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar; Boziaris, Ioannis S

    2015-09-01

    Sea bream fillets are one of the most important value-added products of the seafood market. Fresh seafood spoils mainly owing to bacterial action. In this study an exploration of initial and spoilage microbiota of sea bream fillets stored under air and commercial modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 0 and 5 °C was conducted by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of isolates grown on plates. Sensory evaluation and enumeration of total viable counts and spoilage microorganisms were also conducted to determine shelf life and bacterial growth respectively. Different temperatures and atmospheres affected growth and synthesis of spoilage microbiota as well as shelf life. Shelf life under air at 0 and 5 °C was 14 and 5 days respectively, while under MAP it was 20 and 8 days respectively. Initial microbiota were dominated by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Psychrobacter and Macrococcus caseolyticus. Different temperatures and atmospheres affected the synthesis of spoilage microbiota. At the end of shelf life, different phylotypes of Pseudomonas closely related to Pseudomonas fragi were found to dominate in most cases, while Pseudomonas veronii dominated in fillets under MAP at 0 °C. Furthermore, in fillets under MAP at 5 °C, new dominant species such as Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Carnobacterium divergens and Vagococcus fluvialis were revealed. Different temperature and atmospheric conditions affected bacterial growth, shelf life and the synthesis of spoilage microbiota. Molecular identification revealed species and strains of microorganisms that have not been reported before for sea bream fillets stored under various conditions, thus providing valuable information regarding microbiological spoilage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. A molecular study on the prevalence and virulence potential of Aeromonas spp. recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea in Israel.

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    Yigal Senderovich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Species of the genus Aeromonas are native inhabitants of aquatic environments and have recently been considered emerging human pathogens. Although the gastrointestinal tract is by far the most common anatomic site from which aeromonads are recovered, their role as etiologic agents of bacterial diarrhea is still disputed. Aeromonas-associated diarrhea is a phenomenon occurring worldwide; however, the exact prevalence of Aeromonas infections on a global scale is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The prevalence and virulence potential of Aeromonas in patients suffering from diarrhea in Israel was studied using molecular methods. 1,033 diarrheal stools were sampled between April and September 2010 and Aeromonas species were identified in 17 (∼2% patients by sequencing the rpoD gene. Aeromonas species identity and abundance was: A. caviae (65%, A. veronii (29% and Aeromonas taiwanensis (6%. This is the first clinical record of A. taiwanensis as a diarrheal causative since its recent discovery from a wound infection in a patient in Taiwan. Most of the patients (77% from which Aeromonas species were isolated were negative for any other pathogens. The patients ranged from 1 to 92 years in age. Aeromonas isolates were found to possess different virulence-associated genes: ahpB (88%, pla/lip/lipH3/apl-1 (71%, act/hlyA/aerA (35%, alt (18%, ast (6%, fla (65%, lafA (41%, TTSS ascV (12%, TTSS ascF-ascG (12%, TTSS-dependent ADP-ribosylating toxins aexU (41% and aexT (6% in various combinations. Most of the identified strains were resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics but susceptible to third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Aeromonas may be a causative agent of diarrhea in patients in Israel and therefore should be included in routine bacteriological screenings.

  3. Rabbit meat as a source of bacterial foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Calleja, Jose M; García-López, Isabel; García-López, María-Luisa; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés

    2006-05-01

    Even though worldwide production of rabbit meat is >1,000,000 tons, little information is available for rabbit meat microbiology. This study provides data on the prevalence of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria spp., motile Aeromonas spp., and Staphylococcus aureus on rabbit meat. A total of 24 rabbit carcasses from two abattoirs and 27 rabbit meat packages from supermarket displays were examined. In addition to culturing methods, associated virulence genes were investigated by PCR in suspect isolates and samples. Neither Salmonella nor E. coli O157:H7 was detected. All samples were negative for virulence-associated invA, stx1, and stx2 genes. At one abattoir, two carcasses (3.9%) carried Y. enterocolitica yst-, and two were positive for the yst gene, although viable Y. enterocolitica cells were not recovered from these samples. Seven samples (13.7%) were contaminated with Listeria. Of them, three were positive for hly and iap genes (Listeria monocytogenes hly+ / iap+), two carried Listeria seeligeri, one carried Listeria ivanovii, and one carried Listeria innocua. For detectable motile Aeromonas spp. (average count, 1.77 +/- 0.62 log CFU/g), the contamination rate was 35.3%, although ca. 90% of the samples were positive for the aerA and/or hlyA genes. The majority of aeromonad isolates were Aeromonas hydrophila aerA+ / hlyA+. Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas popoffii, Aeromonas schubertii, and the two biovars of Aeromonas veronii were also isolated. The prevalence of S. aureus contamination (average count, 1.37 +/- 0.79 log CFU/g) was 52.9%. Among 27 S. aureus isolates, two harbored genes for staphylococcal enterotoxin B (seb), and two harbored genes for staphylococcal enterotoxin C (sec). The remaining isolates were negative for sea, seb, sec, sed, and see.

  4. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Aeromonas from food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Vandan; Bandekar, Jayant R.

    2011-08-01

    Genus Aeromonas has emerged as an important human pathogen because it causes a variety of diseases including gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal infections. Contaminated water, sprouts, vegetables, seafood and food of animal origin have been considered to be the important sources of Aeromonas infection. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of Aeromonas spp. from different food samples was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D10) values of different Aeromonas isolates in saline at 0-4 °C were in the range of 0.031-0.046 kGy. The mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were inoculated with a cocktail of five most resistant isolates (A. salmonicida Y567, A. caviae A85, A. jandaei A514A, A. hydrophila CECT 839T and A. veronii Y47) and exposed to γ radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Aeromonas. D10 values of Aeromonas cocktail in mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples were found to be 0.081±0.001, 0.089±0.003 and 0.091±0.003 kGy, respectively. Radiation treatment with a 1.5 kGy dose resulted in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples. No recovery of Aeromonas was observed in the 1.5 kGy treated samples stored at 4 °C up to 12 (mixed sprouts) and 7 days (chicken and fish samples), even after enrichment and selective plating. This study demonstrates that a 1.5 kGy dose of irradiation treatment could result in complete elimination of 105 CFU/g of Aeromonas spp. from mixed sprouts, chicken and fish samples.

  5. Efficacy and toxicity of iodine disinfection of Atlantic salmon eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Ketola, H.G.; Starliper, C.E.; Gallagher, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in the restoration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Great Lakes has given rise to new culture techniques and management programs designed to reduce pathogen transmission while stabilizing and enhancing wild populations. We examined the toxicity of iodine to Atlantic salmon eggs and its effectiveness as a disinfectant against bacteria on egg surfaces. We spawned and fertilized eight gravid Atlantic salmon from Cayuga Lake, New York, and exposed their eggs to 10 concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, 100, 500, 750, 1,000, 5,000, and 7,500 mg/L) for 30 min during water hardening. An additional subsample of unfertilized eggs was also exposed to some of the same concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to determine the efficiency of disinfection. Viable eggs were only obtained from four females. Survival of eggs to the eyed stage and hatch tended to be reduced at iodine concentrations of 50 and 75 mg/L and was significantly reduced at concentrations of 100 mg/L iodine or more. We calculated the concentrations of iodine that killed 50% of the Atlantic salmon eggs at eye-up and hatch to be 175 and 85 mg/L, respectively. Aeromonas veronii, A. schubertii, A. hydrophila, A. caviae, Plesiomonas shiggeloides, and Citrobacter spp. were the predominant bacteria present on the surface of green eggs and were significantly reduced by an iodine immersion. The use of iodine as a disinfectant on Atlantic salmon eggs was effective at low concentrations (50–75 mg/L), for which toxicity to Atlantic salmon was minimal.

  6. Resistensi Bakteri Aeromonas sp. Isolat Ikan Piranha (Pygosentrus nattereri Bali Safari And Marine Park terhadap Antibiotik

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    Ni Made Herawati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Piranha (Pygosentrus nattereri is a fish that has been conserved at Conservation Center of Bali Safari and Marine Park. In May 2012 there was a case that twelve Piranhas suffered from illness and two of them died without any specific clinical signs. The dead Piranhas were necropsied and the tissues or parts of organs were collected for microbial examination interests. Spesies specific bacterial examination was also included using Microgen GNA TM + B-ID system test The bacterial examination found that the fishes were infected by Aeromonas hydropila and Aeromonas veronii. Further examination about antibiotic resistance tests showed that those Aeromonas spp were resistant to chloramphenicol and a combination of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole. It can be suggested that, next, the usage of other antibiotics is strongly recommended for the case of Piranha infected by Aeromonas spp at Bali Safari and Marine Park. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; line-height:150%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  7. Phenotypic and Genetic Diversity of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Fresh Water Lakes in Malaysia.

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    Wei Ching Khor

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Aeromonas are primarily inhabitants of the aquatic environment. Humans acquire this organism from a wide range of food and water sources as well as during aquatic recreational activities. In the present study, the diversity and distribution of Aeromonas species from freshwater lakes in Malaysia was investigated using glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT and RNA polymerase sigma-factor (rpoD genes for speciation. A total of 122 possible Aeromonas strains were isolated and confirmed to genus level using the API20E system. The clonality of the isolates was investigated using ERIC-PCR and 20 duplicate isolates were excluded from the study. The specific GCAT-PCR identified all isolates as belonging to the genus Aeromonas, in agreement with the biochemical identification. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the rpoD gene sequence and all 102 isolates were identified as: A. veronii 43%, A. jandaei 37%, A. hydrophila 6%, A. caviae 4%, A. salmonicida 2%, A. media 2%, A. allosaccharophila 1%, A. dhakensis 1% and Aeromonas spp. 4%. Twelve virulence genes were present in the following proportions--exu 96%, ser 93%, aer 87%, fla 83%, enolase 70%, ela 62%, act 54%, aexT 33%, lip 16%, dam 16%, alt 8% and ast 4%, and at least 2 of these genes were present in all 102 strains. The ascV, aexU and hlyA genes were not detected among the isolates. A. hydrophila was the main species containing virulence genes alt and ast either present alone or in combination. It is possible that different mechanisms may be used by each genospecies to demonstrate virulence. In summary, with the use of GCAT and rpoD genes, unambiguous identification of Aeromonas species is possible and provides valuable data on the phylogenetic diversity of the organism.

  8. Engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum to utilize methyl acetate, a potential feedstock derived by carbonylation of methanol with CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Seungjung; Um, Youngsoon; Han, Sung Ok; Woo, Han Min

    2016-04-20

    The possibilities to utilize one-carbon substrates (C1) like CO, methane and methanol have been explored as a cheap alternative feedstock in the biotechnology. For the first time, methyl acetate (MeOAc), which can be formed from carbonylation of methanol with CO, was demonstrated to be an alternative carbon source for the cell growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum as a model microbial cell factory. To do so, a carboxyl esterase activity was necessary to hydrolyze MeOAc to methanol and acetate. Although the wild-type has an unknown esterase activity to MeOAc, the activity was not high enough to grow from 270mM MeOAc as sole carbon source, reaching OD600 of 5.28±0.2 in 32h. Based on the literatures studied for the esterase, we chose three esterases (MekB of Pseudomonas veronii MEK700, AcmB of Gordonia sp. Strain TY-5, and Est of Pyrobaculum calidifontis VA1) and cloned into the wild-type. As a result, the recombinant C. glutamicum expressing the highly active MekB esterase (28.6±0.77U/mg protein) showed complete degradation of MeOAc and utilization of acetate, resulting in OD600 of 16.5±0.02at 24h. In addition, the recombinant strain exhibited the rapid degradation of MeOAc to methanol and acetate in 2h under anaerobic condition. Therefore, MeOAc can be used as another C1-derived carbon source in the biotechnology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [The relevance of correct identification and interpretation of susceptibility testing of Aeromonas spp. bacteremia isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Castillo, Ana; Lepe-Jiménez, José Antonio; Torres-Sánchez, María José; Artacho-Reinoso, María José; Aznar-Martín, Javier

    2016-02-01

    To assess the relevance of correct identification and interpretation of susceptibility testing of Aeromonas spp. bacteremia isolates using newly developed molecular methods in comparison to previous conventional methods. The study included 22 patients with bacteremia due to Aeromonas hydrophila group, microbiologically characterized using the MicroScan system. Further identification to species level was performed by mass spectrometry, and confirmed by sequencing the rpoB gene. The MIC of imipenem, cefotaxime, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole was studied using a commercial broth microdilution and antibiotic gradient strips with low and high inocula. Detection of carbapenemase production was performed using the modified Hodge test, and was confirmed by amplifying the cphA gene by PCR. A total of 9 (40.9%) isolates were identified as Aeromonas hydrophila, 8 (36.4%) as Aeromonas veronii, and the remaining 5 (22.7%) isolates as Aeromonas caviae. Resistance to beta-lactams according to both the commercial microdilution and MIC gradient strips methods was: 36%-50% to imipenem; 4%-56% to cefotaxime, and 27%-56% to piperacillin/tazobactam. The agreement between results generated by the automated system and the diffusion antibiotic gradient strip was, for all 3 species, 68% for imipenem, 50% to cefotaxime, and 46% to piperacillin/tazobactam. No resistance to cotrimoxazole and ciprofloxacin was found by either of the two methods, although 22.7% of the strains were resistant to nalidixic acid. It is essential to identify the isolates of Aeromonas spp. at the species level, due to the fact that beta-lactam resistance is species- and method-dependent. The high rate of resistance to beta-lactam and quinolones reduce their application as empiric treatments for invasive infection by Aeromonas ssp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional characterization and application of a tightly regulated MekR/P mekA expression system in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Nadja; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2013-09-01

    A methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)-inducible system based on the broad-host-range plasmid pBBR1MCS2 and on the P mekA promoter region of the MEK degradation operon of Pseudomonas veronii MEK700 was characterized in Escherichia coli JM109 and Pseudomonas putida KT2440. For validation, β-galactosidase (lacZ) was used as a reporter. The novel system, which is positively regulated by MekR, a member of the AraC/XylS family of regulators, was shown to be subject to carbon catabolite repression by glucose, which, however, could not be attributed to the single action of the global regulators Crc and PtsN. An advantage is its extremely tight regulation accompanied with three magnitudes of fold increase of gene expression after treatment with MEK. The transcriptional start site of P mekA was identified by primer extension, thereby revealing a potential stem-loop structure at the 5' end of the mRNA. Since MekR was highly insoluble, its putative binding site was identified through sequence analysis. The operator seems to be composed of a 15-bp tandem repeat (CACCN5CTTCAA) separated by a 6-bp spacer region, which resembles known binding patterns of other members of the AraC/XylS family. Subsequent mutational modifications of the putative operator region confirmed its importance for transcriptional activation. As the -35 promoter element seems to be overlapped by the putative operator, a class II activation mechanism is assumed.

  11. Genetic diversity and virulence potential of clinical and environmental Aeromonas spp. isolates from a diarrhea outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lívia Christina Alves da; Leal-Balbino, Tereza Cristina; Melo, Beatriz Souza Toscano de; Mendes-Marques, Carina Lucena; Rezende, Antonio Mauro; Almeida, Alzira Maria Paiva de; Leal, Nilma Cintra

    2017-08-18

    Aeromonas spp. are gram-negative bacteria that can cause a variety of infections in both humans and animals and play a controversial role in diarrhea outbreaks. Our aim was to identify clinical and environmental Aeromonas isolates associated with a cholera outbreak in a northeast county of Brazil at the species level. We also aimed to determine the genetic structure of the bacterial population and the virulence potential of the Aeromonas isolates. Analysis based on concatenated sequences of the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes suggested the classification of the 119 isolates studied into the following species: A. caviae (66.9%), A. veronii (15.3%), A. aquariorum (9.3%), A. trota (3.4%), A. hydrophila (3.4%) and A. jandaei (1.7%). One isolate did not fit any Aeromonas species assessed, which might indicate a new species. The haplotype network based on 16S rRNA gene sequences identified 59 groups among the 119 isolates and 26 reference strains, and it clustered almost all A. caviae isolates into the same group. The analysis of the frequency patterns of seven virulence-associated genes (alt, ast, hlyA, aerA, exu, lip, flaA/B) revealed 29 virulence patterns composed of one to seven genes. All the isolates harbored at least one gene, and three of them harbored all seven virulence genes. The results emphasize the need to improve local water supply and maintain close monitoring of possible bacterial contamination in the drinking water.

  12. Molecular characterization of clinical isolates of Aeromonas species from Malaysia.

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    S D Puthucheary

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aeromonas species are common inhabitants of aquatic environments giving rise to infections in both fish and humans. Identification of aeromonads to the species level is problematic and complex due to their phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Aeromonas hydrophila or Aeromonas sp were genetically re-identified using a combination of previously published methods targeting GCAT, 16S rDNA and rpoD genes. Characterization based on the genus specific GCAT-PCR showed that 94 (96% of the 98 strains belonged to the genus Aeromonas. Considering the patterns obtained for the 94 isolates with the 16S rDNA-RFLP identification method, 3 clusters were recognised, i.e. A. caviae (61%, A. hydrophila (17% and an unknown group (22% with atypical RFLP restriction patterns. However, the phylogenetic tree constructed with the obtained rpoD sequences showed that 47 strains (50% clustered with the sequence of the type strain of A. aquariorum, 18 (19% with A. caviae, 16 (17% with A. hydrophila, 12 (13% with A. veronii and one strain (1% with the type strain of A. trota. PCR investigation revealed the presence of 10 virulence genes in the 94 isolates as: lip (91%, exu (87%, ela (86%, alt (79%, ser (77%, fla (74%, aer (72%, act (43%, aexT (24% and ast (23%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study emphasizes the importance of using more than one method for the correct identification of Aeromonas strains. The sequences of the rpoD gene enabled the unambiguous identication of the 94 Aeromonas isolates in accordance with results of other recent studies. Aeromonas aquariorum showed to be the most prevalent species (50% containing an important subset of virulence genes lip/alt/ser/fla/aer. Different combinations of the virulence genes present in the isolates indicate their probable role in the pathogenesis of Aeromonas infections.

  13. High-resolution genotypic analysis of the genus Aeromonas by AFLP fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, G; Coopman, R; Janssen, P; Kersters, K

    1996-04-01

    We investigated the ability of a recently developed genomic fingerprinting technique, named AFLP, to differentiate the 14 currently defined DNA hybridization groups (HGs) in the genus Aeromonas. We also determined the taxonomic positions of the phenospecies Aeromonas allosaccharophila, Aeromonas encheleia, Aeromonas enteropelogenes, and Aeromonas ichthiosmia, which have not been assigned to HGs yet. A total of 98 Aeromonas type and reference strains were included in this study. For the AFLP analysis, the total genomic DNA of each strain was digested with restriction endonucleases ApaI and TaqI. Subsequently, restriction fragments were selectively amplified under high-stringency PCR conditions. The amplification products were electrophoretically separated on a polyacrylamide gel and visualized by autoradiography. Following high-resolution densitometric scanning of the resulting band patterns, AFLP data were further processed for a computer-assisted comparison. A numerical analysis of the digitized fingerprints revealed 13 AFLP clusters which, in general, clearly supported the current Aeromonas taxonomy derived from DNA homology data. In addition, our results indicated that there is significant genotypic heterogeneity in Aeromonas eucrenophila (HG6), which may lead to a further subdivision of this species. A. allosaccharophila and A. encheleia did not represent a separate AFLP cluster but were found to be genotypically related to HG8/10 and HG6, respectively. In addition, the results of the AFLP analysis also confirmed the phylogenetic findings that A. enteropelogenes and A. ichthiosmia are in fact identical to Aeromonas trota (HG13) and Aeromonas veronii (HG8/10), respectively. The results of this study clearly show that the AFLP technique is a valuable new high-resolution genotypic tool for classification of Aeromonas species and also emphasize that this powerful DNA fingerprinting method is important for bacterial taxonomy in general.

  14. [Phenotypes of beta-lactam resistance in the genus Aeromonas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, T; Giraud-Morin, C; Madinier, I

    2003-07-01

    This work aimed to investigate resistance profiles towards beta-lactam antibiotics in correlation with beta-lactamases production in the genus Aeromonas. In a series of 417 wild-type strains, biochemical identification and testing with 11 beta-lactams by the disk-diffusion method revealed 5 predominant phenotypes: A. hydrophila complex/class B, C and D beta-lactamases; A. caviae complex/class C and D beta-lactamases; A. veronii complex/class B and D beta-lactamases; A. schubertii spp./class D beta-lactamase; A. trota spp./class C beta-lactamase. A subgroup of 64 representative strains was submitted to MIC determination with 8 beta-lactam compounds alone and in combination with 3 beta-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid, tazobactam and BRL 42715). Visualisation of beta-lactamases and pI determination were performed in all these 64 isolates by isoelectric focusing from crude extracts. The different Aeromonas species produced 1 to 3 of the following inducible enzymes: an imipenemase with low expression, which is difficult to detect with routine phenotype studies (class B, pI 8, imipenem MIC > 2 micrograms/ml), a cephalosporinase (class C, pI > 7 +/- 0.5, cephalothin MIC > 256 micrograms/ml), and an oxacillinase widely produced in the genus Aeromonas (class D, pI > 8.5, ticarcillin MIC > 256 micrograms/ml). In Aeromonas spp. resistance profile to beta-lactam antibiotics is correlated with naturally occurring phenotypes of beta-lactamases production. As a conclusion, the characterisation of these different enzymes is of therapeutic and taxonomic interest, in species notoriously difficult to identify.

  15. Molecular characterization of clinical isolates of Aeromonas species from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthucheary, S D; Puah, Suat Moi; Chua, Kek Heng

    2012-01-01

    Aeromonas species are common inhabitants of aquatic environments giving rise to infections in both fish and humans. Identification of aeromonads to the species level is problematic and complex due to their phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity. Aeromonas hydrophila or Aeromonas sp were genetically re-identified using a combination of previously published methods targeting GCAT, 16S rDNA and rpoD genes. Characterization based on the genus specific GCAT-PCR showed that 94 (96%) of the 98 strains belonged to the genus Aeromonas. Considering the patterns obtained for the 94 isolates with the 16S rDNA-RFLP identification method, 3 clusters were recognised, i.e. A. caviae (61%), A. hydrophila (17%) and an unknown group (22%) with atypical RFLP restriction patterns. However, the phylogenetic tree constructed with the obtained rpoD sequences showed that 47 strains (50%) clustered with the sequence of the type strain of A. aquariorum, 18 (19%) with A. caviae, 16 (17%) with A. hydrophila, 12 (13%) with A. veronii and one strain (1%) with the type strain of A. trota. PCR investigation revealed the presence of 10 virulence genes in the 94 isolates as: lip (91%), exu (87%), ela (86%), alt (79%), ser (77%), fla (74%), aer (72%), act (43%), aexT (24%) and ast (23%). This study emphasizes the importance of using more than one method for the correct identification of Aeromonas strains. The sequences of the rpoD gene enabled the unambiguous identication of the 94 Aeromonas isolates in accordance with results of other recent studies. Aeromonas aquariorum showed to be the most prevalent species (50%) containing an important subset of virulence genes lip/alt/ser/fla/aer. Different combinations of the virulence genes present in the isolates indicate their probable role in the pathogenesis of Aeromonas infections.

  16. Molecular characterization of Aeromonas species isolated from farmed eels (Anguilla japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Seung-Won; You, Myung-Jo; Cho, Ho-Seong; Lee, Chang-Seop; Kwon, Joong-Ki; Shin, Gee-Wook

    2013-05-31

    Seventy Aeromonas strains were identified by phylogenetic analysis using housekeeping genes (gyrB and rpoD) in order to investigate etiological agents for aeromoniasis in farmed eels (Anguilla japonica). The phylogenetic analysis showed that Aeromonas aquariorum (n=22, 31.4%) was the predominant species among the investigated eel strains, followed by Aeromonas caviae (n=16, 22.9%), A. veronii (n=13, 18.6%), A. hydrophila (n=12, 17.1%), A. jandaei (n=4, 5.7%), A. media (n=2, 2.9%), and A. trota (n=1, 1.4%). The potential virulence of the present strains was estimated by performing PCR assays using the following seven virulence genes: cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast), glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcaT), DNase (exu), lipase (lip), and flagellin (fla). The detection rates of act, alt, ast, gcaT, exu, lip, and fla among all 70 strains were 91.4%, 55.7%, 27.1%, 97.1%, 95.7%, 100%, and 98.6%, respectively. In genotyping of enterotoxin genes, act(+)/alt(+)/ast(+), act(+)/alt(+)/ast(-), and act(+)/alt(-)/ast(-) genotypes were prevalent in A. hydrophila (8/12 strains), A. aquariorum (13/22 strains), and A. caviae (14/16 strains), respectively, suggesting a high heterogeneity among Aeromonas species. In this study, A. aquariorum, which has been an unrecorded species in Korea, can be an etiological agent for aeromoniasis of eel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Identifikasi Penyakit Aeromonad pada Budi Daya Ikan Air Tawar di Bali (IDENTIFICATION OF AEROMONAD DISEASE IN FRESH WATER AQUACULTURE IN DENPASAR, BALI

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    Surya Amanu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water and marine fish horticulture in Bali is often harmed by the outbreak of diseases such asthose caused by Aeromonas sp (aeromonad disease.Aims ofstudy were 1 to find out the primary agent ofthe aeomonad disease in the fresh water aquaculture in Bali based on conventional and molecularidentification, 2 to find out the genetic variability of Aeromonas species, 3 to determine the effectiveantibiotic against the agent. Samples of fishes were collected from 5 different locations of fresh wateraquaculture that had high number of morbidity and mortality. Many different fishes which showed clinicalsign such as skin lesion and exophthalmus were collected.Aeromonas hydrophila and A. salmonicida wereisolated and identified from fishes, they were then identified molecularly with DNA extraction, DNAamplification in 16S rRNA gene, purification and sequencing. Sequences of both Aeromonas species fromdifferent location were analysed to create the phylogenetic tree with Maximum Parsimony and NeighborJoining method. Sensitivity of 5 antibiotics to both species of Aeromonas were done to determine the bestantibiotic against the disease. Aeromonad disease were found only in 3 regions in Bali. As many as 10isolates of A.salmonicida and 11 isolates of A.hydrophila were examined. The histopathological examinationshowed dermatitis, epicarditis, retinitis, liver and kidney congestion in fish.There were two clusters ofA.salmonicida, subspecies smithiaand subspecies achromogenes.Aeromomas hydrophyla had a close relationwith A. veronii.Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida has not been found in Bali. Enrofloxacineand gentamycin was the best antibiotic for treating the Aeromonad disease which were more effective ascompared to3 other antibiot ics (Ampicillin, Doxycycline, and Eritromycin.

  18. Campylobacter jejuni occurrence in chicken fecal samples from small properties in Pelotas, southern of Brazil Ocorrência de Campylobacter jejuni em amostras fecais de galinhas em pequenas propriedades de Pelotas, sul do Brasil

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    Fabiane R. Gomes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of thermophilic Campylobacter species in broiler flocks from 26 small properties located near the campus of Federal University of Pelotas, RS, Brazil. A total of 404 chicken fecal samples were analyzed and after isolation, identification and biotyping was performed according to Lior´s scheme. Twenty one strains (5.2% of Campylobacter jejuni biotype II were isolated from animals from seven properties (26.9%, with a variation from 3% to 34.6% among the positive properties. We also analyzed twelve C. jejuni isolates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, using specific primers that generate a fragment of 402 pb. Our study allowed us to observe that chickens raised in non-industrial establishments without sanitary attention can harbour C. jejuni in their intestinal tract, and by doing so, they could be a serious health risk to humans.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de espécies termofílicas de Campylobacter em galinhas de 26 pequenas propriedades localizadas próximo ao campus da Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS, Brasil. Um total de 404 amostras fecais de galinhas foram analisadas e após o isolamento, a identificação e a biotipificação foram realizadas de acordo com o esquema de Lior. Vinte e uma amostras (5,2% de Campylobacter jejuni biotipo II foram isoladas de animais de sete propriedades (26,9%, com uma variação de 3,3% a 34,6% entre as propriedades positivas. Primers específicos, que geram um fragmento de 402pb, foram usados em PCR para analisar 12 isolados de C. jejuni. Concluímos que galinhas criadas em estabelecimentos não industriais e sem atenção sanitária, são portadoras de C. jejuni e, desta forma, podem ser consideradas um fator de risco para infecção humana.

  19. Obtención de extractos de membrana externa de Vibrio cholerae O1, mediante el uso de diferentes detergentes

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    José Luis Pérez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad existen dos variantes principales de vacunas orales contra el cólera: una basada en células inactivadas de diferentes biotipos y serotipos y otra basada en la administración de cepas vivas genéticamente atenuadas. Una vacuna por subunidades pudiera ser una variante muy atractiva. Este trabajo describe la purificación parcial y caracterización preliminar de extractos de proteínas de membrana externa-lipopolisacárido (PME-LPS, obtenidos a partir de Vibrio cholerae O1, con el interés de seleccionar un proteoliposoma que posteriormente será estructurado en forma de cocleatos para su uso por vía oral en humanos. Las preparaciones fueron obtenidas a través del uso de diferentes detergentes. La cantidad de LPS en cada preparación fue estimada mediante la determinación de las unidades endotóxicas en el ensayo del Limulus (LAL. La composición de cada muestra fue evaluada mediante SDS-PAGE y Dot Blot. La inoculación intranasal (IN en ratones Balb/c se utilizó para la evaluación de la inmunogenicidad de las preparaciones, y la respuesta inmune fue determinada por ELISA y el título de anticuerpos vibriocidas. El tamaño molecular de la preparación con mejores resultados en inmunogenicidad se estimó mediante la cromatografía en Sephacryl S-1000. Se obtuvieron diferentes perfiles electroforéticos de acuerdo con el tipo de detergente utilizado. El LPS fue identificado en todas las preparaciones y aquella obtenida con el SDS al 15% mostró la más baja relación proteínas/LPS y los mejores resultados en los ensayos de inmunogenicidad. Adicionalmente se comprobó que su tamaño molecular es similar al observado en el proteoliposoma de VAMENGOC- BC. La preparación obtenida con el SDS al 15% constituye un proteoliposoma, con capacidad para estimular altos niveles de anticuerpos IgG anti-LPS y altos títulos de anticuerpos vibriocidas, luego de su administración por vía intranasal en ratones. Estos resultados constituyen

  20. Evaluación de dos técnicas de subtipificación molecular para el estudio de Pasteurella multocida Evaluation of two techniques of molecular subtyping to study Pasteurella multocida

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    G. A. Leotta

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la tipibilidad, la reproducibilidad y el poder discriminatorio de ERIC-PCR y ApaI-PFGE para establecer la relación genética de cepas de Pasteurella multocida. Se estudiaron 49 cepas de diferente origen, subespecie, biotipo, grupo capsular, serotipo somático y perfil de resistencia antimicrobiana. Por ERIC-PCR se establecieron 31 patrones, los que presentaron entre 10 y 14 bandas en un rango comprendido entre 0,2 y 1,2 kb. Por ApaI-PFGE se detectaron 37 patrones de restricción, los cuales presentaron entre 7 y 15 bandas bien definidas de 34 a 450 kb. La tipibilidad de ERIC-PCR fue del 100% (T=1 y la de ApaI-PFGE del 94% (T=0,94. La reproducibilidad de ambas técnicas fue del 100% (R=1; sin embargo, el poder discriminatorio de ERIC-PCR fue 93% (D=0,93 y el de ApaI-PFGE 98% (D=0,98. Mediante ambas técnicas fue posible agrupar las cepas con relación epidemiológica y diferenciar claramente las cepas no relacionadas. Se demostró el valor de ERIC-PCR y ApaI-PFGE para complementar estudios epidemiológicos, principalmente si las cepas en estudio son analizadas por ambas técnicas.Typeability, reproducibility, and discriminatory power of ERIC-PCR and ApaI-PFGE to establish the genetic relation of P. multocida strains were determined. Forty-nine strains of different source, biotype, capsular group, somatic serotype, and resistance to antimicrobials were studied. By ERIC-PCR, 31 patterns were defined with 10 to 14 bands in a rank of 0.2 and 1.2 kb. By ApaI-PFGE, 37 restriction patterns were established with 7 to 15 bands of 34 to 450 kb. Typeability was 100% (T=1 for ERIC-PCR, and 94% (T=0.94 for ApaI-PFGE. Reproducibility of both techniques was 100% (R=1. Discriminatory power was 93% (D=0.93 for ERIC-PCR, and 98% (D=0.98 for ApaI-PFGE. By using both techniques, epidemiologically related strains were grouped, and unrelated strains were clearly differentiated. The value of ERIC-PCR and ApaI-PFGE as complements to epidemiologic studies

  1. Salmonella typhi: lisotipia VI e biotipificação em amostras oriundas de algumas regiões do Brasil Salmonella typhi: lysotype VI and biotyping in sample from some regions of Brazil

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    Ernesto Hofer

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available Fez-se uma análise da distribuicão da frequência dos lisotipos VI e dos tipos fermentativos segundo o esquema de Kristensen, em 1.150 amostras de Salmonella typhi, isoladas de diferentes regiões do Brasil (Pará, Pernambuco, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo e Rio Grande do Sul. No computo geral, observou-se a prevalência dos lisotipos A (38,1%; Ela (18,9%; amostras VI negativas (16,6%; D6 (8,7% I + IV (4,6%; T (2,3% e C1 (2,1% e a ocorrência de alguns tipos fágicos característicos para determinadas áreas (B3, C4 e 40 na Bahia; E1b, F2, G1 e L1 em São Paulo; E4 e 28 no Rio de Janeiro. Quanto a classificacão bioquímica, 55,2% das amostras caracterizaram-se no biotipo II (xilose e arabinose negativas, 44,2% no tipo fermentativo I (xilose positiva e arabinose negativas e 0,52% no tipo III (xilose e arabinose positivas, respectivamente.The frequency of Vi-phage types and fermentative types according to Kristensen's scheme was studied among 1,150 strains of Salmonella typhi isolated from different areas in Brazil (states of Pará, Pernambuco, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul. The most prevalent phage types encountered in this study were: A (38.1%; Ela (18.9%, D6 (8.7%, T (2.3% and C1 (2.1%, including categories of untypable strains (group I + IV-4.6%, and Vi negative (16.6%. There was,however, some types characteristics of particular areas (B3, C4, 40 from Bahia; Elb, F2,G1, L1 from São Paulo; E4 and 28 from Rio de Janeiro. In respect to the biochemical classification, 55.2% of the strains were classified as a biotype II (xylose and arabinose negative, 44,2% as of type I (xylose positive and negative0 and 0.52% as a type III (xylose and arabinose positive, respectively.

  2. Evaluación de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para el diagnóstico de la brucelosis en un rebaño lechero infectado con Brucellaspp Assessment of polymerase chain reaction (PCR to diagnose brucellosis in a Brucella infected herd

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    O. Lavaroni

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Para el diagnóstico de la brucelosis bovina en muestras de sangre y/o leche, se comparó la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR con el aislamiento in vitro de Brucella abortus, las pruebas serológicas defijación del complemento (FC e inmunoenzimáticas de competición (ELISA-C en suero e indirecto (ELISA-I en leche. Se analizaron muestras de vacas lecheras de un rebaño infectado “A”, vacunadas con B. abortus cepa 19 antes de los 8 meses de edad y revacunadas con B. abortus cepa RB51 como adultas (n= 99 y de otro “B”, libre de brucelosis (n=100, como control. En A, la PCR identificó 14 vacas infectadas con B. abortus: nueve con cepa silvestre y cinco con cepa silvestre y RB51. No se identificó B. abortus cepa 19. El biotipo 1 se aisló en un caso. Las 14 vacas infectadas con la cepa silvestre resultaron positivas en las tres pruebas serológicas. En B, por PCR no se identificó Brucella. Las pruebas serológicas mostraron una sensibilidad del 100% respecto de PCR. La especificidad para FC, ELISA-C y ELISA-I fue del 100%, 99% y 95%, respectivamente. Se concluye que la PCR sería útil como complemento de las pruebas serológicas o cuando no hay un resultado concluyente.The diagnosis of bovine brucellosis using PCR in blood and milk samples from two dairy herds were compared to in vitro isolation, complement fixation test (CF, competitive ELISA (C-ELISA in serum, and indirect ELISA (I-ELISA in milk. Samples were obtained from 99 cows vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19, from a naturally infected herd (A, whose cows were also vaccinated with B. abortus strain RB51 as adults, and 100 from brucellosis free herd (B. In herd A, PCR identified 14 B. abortus infected cows: nine infected with wild type, and five with wild type and RB51, B. abortus S 19 was not identified. B. abortus biotype 1 was isolated from one cow. All cows infected with a wild strain of B. abortus were positive in serologic tests. Brucella was not found in

  3. Brote de enfermedad diarreica aguda causado por Shigella flexneri en una escuela de Madrid, Cundinamarca: caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de los aislamientos.

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    Marylin Hidalgo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available La shigelosis es una enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA que causa alta morbimortalidad en países en vías de desarrollo. En 1997, el Grupo de Microbiología inició un programa en red con los Laboratorios de Salud Pública (LSP del país para la vigilancia de los principales patógenos causantes de la EDA. Como actividad de este programa, en mayo de 2001, el LSP de Cundinamarca estudió e informó un brote de intoxicación alimentaria en una comunidad escolar en Madrid. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar con técnicas fenotípicas y genotípicas los aislamientos recuperados en el brote, con el fin de establecer la relación clonal entre ellos. Se realizaron coprocultivos en 22 de 195 individuos afectados; los aislamientos se identificaron bioquímica y serológicamente y se determinó el patrón de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a cloranfenicol, trimetoprim-sulfametoxasol (SXT, tetraciclina, cefotaxima, gentamicina, ampicilina y ciprofloxacina. Se realizó electroforesis en gel de campo pulsado (PFGE según la metodología descrita por los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC de Atlanta, con el empleo de la enzima de restricción XbaI y se utilizó como cepa control Shigella sonnei CDC F2353 y como marcador de peso molecular el fago lambda. En 15 (68,2% pacientes se identificó Shigella flexneri serotipo 6, biotipo Newcastle, con patrón de resistencia a cloranfenicol, SXT y tetraciclina. La PFGE reveló que 3 (20% aislamientos fueron idénticos (distancia genética de 100% y los 12 (80% restantes estuvieron estrechamente relacionados (distancia genética de 86 a 100%. El sistema de vigilancia en red con los LSP permitió recuperar los aislamientos y los estudios fenotípicos y genotípicos permitieron establecer la relación clonal de los aislamientos involucrados en el brote.

  4. Mannheimiose pulmonar experimental em bezerros: swab nasal e nasofaringeano como auxílio diagnóstico Experimental pneumonic mannheimiosis in calves: nasal and nasopharingeal swabs for diagnostic

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    Adriana de Souza Coutinho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Um modelo experimental de mannheimiosepneumônica bovina (MPB foi utilizado com o objetivo de avaliar as espécies bacterianas das cavidades nasais e nasofaringeanas em diferentes momentos do curso da doença, bem como verificar a eficiência diagnóstica do exame microbiológico dos swabs nasais (SN e nasofaringeanos (SNF. Um total de 28 bezerros foi distribuído aleatoriamente em quatro grupos experimentais (G1 a G4. SN e SNF foram colhidos sete dias antes e 12 (G1, 24 (G2, 48 (G3 e 72 (G4 horas após a inoculação intrabronquial de Mannheimia haemolytica. Após a indução da MPB, a bactéria M. haemolytica biotipo A foi predominante nos SN e SNF, sendo isolada em todos os momentos avaliados, com exceção de um SN colhido 24 horas após a indução da infecção. Não houve diferença significativa nas taxas de isolamento de Pasteurella multocida nos SN ou SNF, colhidos antes e após a indução da MPB. Contudo, esta bactéria passou a ser isolada mais freqüentemente após a indução da MPB, principalmente no SNF. Portanto, pode-se concluir que o exame microbiológico de SN e SNF é um teste auxiliar no diagnóstico da MPB.An experimental model of bovine pneumonic mannheimiosis (BPM was used to evaluate the nasal and nasopharynx bacterial species of calves during the course of the disease and for checking the diagnostic efficiency of nasal swab (NS and nasopharingeal swab (NPS microbiological exams. A total of 28 calves were randomized into four experimental groups (G1-G4. NS and NPS were obtained 7 days before and 12 (G1, 24 (G2, 48 (G3 e 72 (G4 hours after intrabronchial inoculation of Mannheimia haemolytica. After the induction of BPM, M. haemolytica biotype A was the predominant isolated bacterium in NS and NPS in all evaluated sampling times, except for one NS (harvested 24 hours. There were no significant statistical differences for the rates of Pasteurella multocida isolation in NS and NPS, harvested before and after the induction

  5. Caracterización molecular de un begomovirus del tomate en el Valle del Cauca, Colombia, y búsqueda de fuentes de resistencia para el mejoramiento de la variedad Unapal Maravilla Molecular characterization of a begomovirus affecting tomato in the Cauca Valle - Colombia and identification of sources of resistance to improve the variety Unapal Maravilla

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    Ana Karine Martínez A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó un virus transmitido por la mosca blanca Bemisia tabaci al tomate en el Valle del Cauca como una variante del Virus del mosaico amarillo del tomate (Tomato yellow mosaic virus = ToYMV. Plantas de tomate (FLA 496-11-6-1-0, FLA 478-6-3-1-11, FLA 456-4 y FLA 653-3-1-0 de 20 días de edad se confinaron en jaulas individuales con 10 individuos virulíferos de B. tabaci (biotipo B por planta, en condiciones de invernadero. La infección por el virus se confirmó por el desarrollo de los síntomas y las pruebas moleculares de PCR e hibridación dot blot. Las características agromorfológicas se evaluaron en campo en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Las líneas FLA 653-3-1-0, FLA 496-11-6-1-0 y FLA 478-6-3-1-11 desarrollaron síntomas muy leves; el ADN viral fue apenas detectable para algunos individuos y presentaron características del fruto y rendimientos deseables.A virus transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci to tomato was characterized in the Cauca Valley like a variant of Tomato yellow mosaic virus (ToYMV. Artificial whitefly-mediated inoculation in the greenhouse was done with 20 days-old tomato plants (FLA 496-11-6-1-0, FLA 478-6-3-1-11, FLA 456-4 y FLA 653-3-1-0 exposed to 10 viruliferous individuals of B. tabaci (biotype B per plant in individual insect-proof cages. The presence of the begomovirus was evaluated by symptoms development and was confirmed using dot blot hybridization and PCR. Agronomical characteristics were evaluated in the field in a completely randomized blocks design with 3 replications. The lines FLA 653-3-1-0, FLA 496-11-6-1-0 and FLA 478-6-3-1-11 developed mild symptoms, viral DNA was barely detectable in some individuals, and they showed characteristics of the fruit and desirable yield.

  6. Acute Contact Toxicity Test of Oxalic Acid on Honeybees in the Southwestern Zone of Uruguay Prueba de Toxicidad Aguda por Contacto de Ácido Oxálico en Abejas de la Zona Sudoeste de Uruguay

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    Leonidas Carrasco-Letelier

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the acute contact toxicity of oxalic acid (OA on a honeybee polyhybrid subspecies (Apis mellifera, which is the dominant biotype in southwestern zone of Uruguay (SWZU and the country's most important honey-producing region. We determined the mean lethal dose (LD50, as well as the no observed effect level (NOEL and the lowest observed effect level (LOEL values. We also estimated the total number of honeybees per hive in the test area. The aim was to assess the relationship between the maximum OA dose used in Uruguay (3.1 g OA per hive and the toxicological parameters of honeybees from SWZU. The current dose of 3.1 g OA per hive corresponds to 132.8 OA per honeybee since determined NOEL is 400 OA per honeybee; our results indicate that the current dose could be increased to 9.3 g OA per hive. The results also highlight some differences between the LD50 value in SWZU honeybees (548.95 OA per honeybee and some published LD50 values for other honeybee subspecies.Este trabajo estudió la toxicidad aguda por contacto del ácido oxálico (AO sobre una subespecie poli-híbrida de abejas (Apis mellifera, la cual es el biotipo dominante en la zona sudoeste de Uruguay (SWZU, la región más importante para la producción de miel en este país. Este estudio determinó la dosis letal 50 (DL50, así como el nivel de efecto no observado (NOEL, el nivel de efecto mínimo observado (LOEL, y el número total de individuos por colmena. El propósito fue evaluar la relación entre la dosis máxima de AO usada en Uruguay (3.1 g AO por colmena y los parámetros toxicológicos de las abejas de la SWZU. Los resultados mostraron que es posible elevar la dosis actual de AO por colmena a 9.3 g, ya que la dosis actual de 3.1 g de AO corresponde a 132.8 AO por abeja, y el NOEL determinado es 400 AO por abeja. Los resultados también destacaron algunas diferencias entre la DL50 de las abejas del SWZU (548.95 AO por abeja y algunos valores de DL50 publicados

  7. Matriz de acetato como opción para reconstrucción de coronas y restitución de la guía anterior en dentición primaria

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    Zendy Sosa Vilca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este estudio han sido restituir la guía anterior de la dentición primaria, mediante el uso de la matriz de acetato que es una de las alternativas de toda esta gama para la reconstrucción; alinear los dientes de acuerdo al biotipo facial, logrando una estética apropiada y permitir también una correcta fonación; devolver una de las funciones de los dientes anteriores que es la de corte y así favorecer la correcta masticación; lograr recuperar la autoestima, pues el niño era objeto de burlas por parte de sus compañeros de clases y amigos del vecindario. El paciente fue de sexo masculino, de 5 años y 3 meses de edad que acudió a la Clínica de la Segunda Especialidad de Odontopediatría de la Universidad Continental en Huancayo, éste presentaba lesiones cariosas amplias en el sector anterosuperior; al elaborar la Historia Clínica, la madre informa que el paciente padece de Asma desde la edad de 12 meses. En la anamnesis relató que la alimentación fue lactancia mixta y amamantamiento nocturno con ausencia de limpieza bucal; el estudio radiográfico confirmó lo observado clínicamente: caries amplias mesiales y distales a nivel de la corona. Al finalizar la intervención se puede mencionar que los resultados fueron óptimos en la parte clínica, estética y funcional. La matriz de acetato es una alternativa óptima para la confección de las coronas de resina y así se reestableció la guía anterior, masticación, fonación, estética, logrando recuperar el autoestima y la confianza perdida en sí mismo debido a las burlas en su entorno escolar, consiguiendo un cambio positivo en su personalidad.

  8. Whole-cell protein profiles are useful for distinguishing enterococcal species recovered from clinical specimens Los perfiles de proteínas totales son útiles para distinguir especies de enterococos recuperados de muestras clínicas

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    R. Massa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Whole-cell protein analysis was performed for differentiating 150 enterococcal isolates to the species level, which had previously been identified by extended phenotypic conventional tests. Whole-cell protein profile (WCPP showed a high degree of similarity within species and comparison between species revealed important differences in band profiles. All Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates were properly located into their corresponding species, regardless of their clinical source and susceptibility pattern. Moreover, WCPP allowed relocation of some isolates that had erroneously been identified by the usual conventional scheme (i.e. two atypical arginine-negative E. faecalis isolates. WCPP proved to be a simple method to ascertain the various enterococcal species, especially those other than E. faecalis, and may be a suitable tool for high-complexity or reference clinical laboratories.La comparación del perfil de proteínas totales permitió agrupar 150 aislamientos de enterococos dentro de la especie en la que habían sido ubicados por el esquema convencional de pruebas bioquímicas. Los patrones de proteínas totales, comparados visualmente, se mantuvieron con alto grado de similitud intraespecie y revelaron diferencias notorias en la comparación interespecie. Todos los aislamientos de Enterococcus faecalis y Enterococcus faecium, independientemente de los sitios de aislamiento, cuadro clínico del paciente, biotipo o antibiotipo, fueron fácilmente encuadrados en su especie. Asimismo, el estudio del perfil de proteínas totales de enterococos permitió reubicar taxonómicamente aislamientos que habían sido incorrectamente identificados por los métodos bioquímicos convencionales, como por ejemplo dos aislamientos atípicos de E. faecalis arginina negativos. Dado que la metodología empleada es económica y rápida, la comparación de perfiles de proteínas totales en SDS-PAGE podría ser considerada una herramienta

  9. Genome Sequence Analysis of Vibrio cholerae clinical isolates from 2013 in Mexico reveals the presence of the strain responsible for the 2010 Haiti outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Quiñonez, José Alberto

    2017-01-01

    La primera semana de septiembre de 2013, el Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica identificó dos casos de cólera en Ciudad de México. Los cultivos de ambas muestras se confirmaron como Vibrio cholerae serogrupo O1, serotipo Ogawa, biotipo El Tor. Los análisis iniciales por electroforesis por campos pulsados y por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa indicaron que ambas cepas eran similares, pero diferentes de las previamente reportadas en México. La semana siguiente se identificaron cuatro casos más en una comunidad del Estado de Hidalgo, ubicada a 121 kilómetros al noreste de Ciudad de México. Posteriormente se inició un brote de cólera en la región de La Huasteca. Los análisis genómicos de cuatro cepas obtenidas en este estudio confirmaron la presencia de las islas de patogenicidad VPI -1 y VPI-2, VSP-1 y VSP-2, y del elemento integrador SXT. La estructura genómica de los cuatro aislamientos fue similar a la de V. cholerae cepa 2010 EL-1786, identificada durante la epidemia en Haití en 2010. Este estudio pone de manifiesto que la epidemiología molecular es una herramienta muy poderosa para vigilar, prevenir y controlar enfermedades de importancia en salud pública en México. The first week of September 2013, the National Epidemiological Surveillance System identified two cases of cholera in Mexico City. The cultures of both samples were confirmed as Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor. Initial analyses by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and by polymerase chain reaction-amplification of the virulence genes, suggested that both strains were similar, but different from those previously reported in Mexico. The following week, four more cases were identified in a community in the state of Hidalgo, located 121 km northeast of Mexico City. Thereafter a cholera outbreak started in the region of La Huasteca. Genomic analyses of the strains obtained in this study confirmed the presence of pathogenicity islands VPI-1 and

  10. Mejoramiento Genético de la Papa en Colombia, para Resistencia a la "Gota" Causada por el PhytophthoraInfestans, (Mont. de Bary

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    Estrada Ramos Nelson

    1954-06-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión de la literatura más importante y reciente publicada en EE. UU., Inglaterra, Holanda, Alemania y Rusia, países que más sehan preocupado por resolver el problema del Phytophthora en la papa, y la relacionada especialmente con el aspecto de pérdidas que causa, razas del parásito, métodos genéticos para la obtención de variedades resistentes y sistemas de prueba de la resistencia. Además se incluyen datos estadísticos para demostrar la importancia del Cultivo en el país. Se indican los métodos seguidos en Colombia para el mejoramiento, partiendo especialmente de líneas de la especie silvestre. S. demíssumcombinándola con las variedades nativas cultivadas del tipo andigenumadaptadas a grandes alturas y a los días cortos de los trópicos. Los resultados hasta la fecha indican la posibilidad de obtener después de 3 ó4 generaciones de retrocruzamientos, una buena variedad para cultivo y altamente resistente a la enfermedad. También se aconseja el empleo de líneas y variedades extranjeras resistentes, una vez que se hayan probado a las razas de Phytophthorapropias de Colombia. . Se indica que ya existe material de fitomejoramiento bastante avanzado que es prácticamente inmune pero que requiere subsiguiente mejoramiento. Hay probabilidades así, de obtener variedades inmunes o altamente resistentes a las razas actualmente existentes aunque su identidad parece no corresponder exactamente con las de otros países como Holanda, Inglaterra y Estados Unidos. Se establece una falta de identidad entre las pruebas de campo y las del laboratorio aunque pueden complementarse. Puede suponerse, de acuerdo con las reacciones obtenidas en el material extranjero resistente, la posibilidad de existencia de varias razas, pero no tan virulentas como en los países que tienen variedades resistentes. Es aconsejable el mejoramiento permanente de las variedades, para poder combatir los nuevos biotipos del pat

  11. La generación del diluvio según la descripción del Midrás Levítico Rabbá

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    Miralles Maciá, Lorena

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the image of the Flood Generation as portrayed in Midrash Leviticus Rabbah. In addition to the early description of the Antediluvians provided by the book of Genesis, later literary texts added new traditions, trying to answer relevant matters that go unmentioned in the Biblical text, such as, for instance: What kind of sins did they commit in order to arouse God’s wrath? What were the virtues and the faults of the Flood Generation? Did they suffer additional punishments? Several of these literary traditions are already found in the Bible, and experienced an intricate development, while others were created later on. We can observe in Leviticus Rabbah several passages which, compared to Gen 6-8, do offer us a novel perception of the Flood Generation.

    El presente estudio se ocupa de la visión de la generación del diluvio que nos transmite el Midrás Levítico Rabbá. Frente a la sobria descripción que el Génesis presenta de los antediluvianos, la literatura posterior recoge nuevas tradiciones que intentaron dar respuesta a importantes cuestiones sobre las que el texto bíblico había guardado silencio. Por ejemplo, ¿cuáles fueron los actos que cometieron para despertar la ira en Dios? ¿qué virtudes y defectos poseían hombres de esta generación? ¿sufrieron otras penas además del diluvio? Algunas de estas tradiciones, que tienen su origen en el relato bíblico, experimentaron un gran desarrollo, mientras que otras fueron creadas con posterioridad. Así, en Levítico Rabbá nos encontramos con varios pasajes que aluden a la generación del diluvio y que muestran una visión totalmente novedosa respecto a la imagen de Gn 6-8.

  12. Residencia de David Reiss Bridgetiampton - Nueva York

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    Jaffe, Norman

    1979-08-01

    Full Text Available The building, representative of this architect's work, stands on a property facing the ocean. The complex is formed by the main house, an annex smaller building and a centrally located swimming pool surrounded by terraces and yards. The main house is arranged in three basic floors. The lower one contains the children's quarters, the intermediate level houses the common areas — living room and kitchen — and the master bedroom occupies the upper floor. Additionally an in — between level, connected to the Iiving room, is used for a library and a semi-basement, connected with the kitchen is used for supplies storage. The large sloping planes of the roof determine the external personality of the house which, with sober and pleasing shapes try to integrate the building into the surrounding rustic architecture. Internally, the generous sizing of spaces stands out, with integrated traffic patterns, as well as the liberal use of timber for structural members and finishing details.

    Situada en una parcela próxima a la costa, se trata de una obra claramente representativa de este arquitecto. El conjunto lo componen: la vivienda, una construcción anexa —de menor porte—, y una piscina central rodeada de explanadas y terrazas. La vivienda propiamente dicha consta de tres niveles fundamentales, de los cuales el inferior lo ocupan los dormitorios de los niños, y el central las zonas comunes —estar, cocina y comedor—, reservándose el más alto para el dormitorio principal. A estos niveles se suman una entreplanta vinculada al salón, dedicada a biblioteca, y un semisótano conectado con la cocina que se destina a almacén de provisiones. Los grandes planos inclinados de la cubierta configuran la personalidad exterior de la casa que, con sus formas sobrias y agradables, procura la integración con la rústica arquitectura del entorno. Interiormente destaca el tratamiento liberal dado a los espacios, con circulaciones

  13. José Gómez Caffarena: una filosofía de la religión

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    Gómez, Carlos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available After recalling the great intellectual work accomplished by José Gómez Caffarena, the following text analyses the structure and basic thesis of his masterpiece Enigma and mystery. A philosophy of religion. The book adds to its view on the history and structure of the religious fact a comprehensive inquiry about several philosophical approaches to religion, according to a well known framework inspired by Dilthey. Finally, it sketches an accurate sustaining the philosophical plausibility of the belief in God, wich deals a lot of problems concerning philosophy of religion (pantheism, providence, physical and moral evil, etcetera.. Backed by a consistent knowledge of the scholastic tradition and modern philosophy (from Kant to the main currents of the twentieth century, Caffarena offers a serious and nuanced programme wich advocates the possible combination of the cautioness for reason with the encouragement of hope.

    Tras recordar la intensa labor intelectual desarrollada por José Gómez Caffarena, se analizan la estructura y tesis fundamentales de su obra El enigma y el misterio. Una filosofía de la religión. A las consideraciones sobre la historia y estructura del hecho religioso se agrega un amplio estudio sobre las diversas posiciones ante lo religioso, conforme a una triple tipología inspirada en Dilthey, para articular finalmente una elaborada propuesta sobre la plausibilidad filosófica de la fe en Dios, en la que se abordan muy diversos problemas de la filosofía de la religión (panteísmo, providencia, mal físicio y moral, etc.. Con un sólido conocimiento de la tradición escolástica y de la filosofía moderna (de Kant a las principales tendencias del pensamiento del siglo XX, Caffarena ofrece una sobria y matizada propuesta en la que defiende la posible conjugación de las cautelas de la razón con el aliento de la esperanza.

  14. Properties of aeromonads and their occurrence and hygienic significance in drinking water.

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    van der Kooij, D

    1988-11-01

    In the Netherlands, aeromonads in drinking water have attracted much attention in recent years. This development was caused by a sudden increase of the Aeromonas density in the drinking water of the municipal Dune Waterworks of The Hague and reports about the possible health significance of these organisms in drinking water. Literature data indicate that representatives of the motile Aeromonas species A. hydrophila, A. sobria and A. caviae generally have been observed in larger percentages of diarrheal feces than in normal stools, with isolation rates ranging from less than 1% to more than 20%. These data and the virulence properties of the aeromonads, viz. hemolytic activity, cytotoxicity and enterotoxicity, as tested in the suckling mouse assay or the rabbit ileal loop, strongly suggest that these aeromonads are potential enteric pathogens for susceptible hosts, including young children and immunocompromised persons. Aeromonads are ubiquitously present in fresh water environments, with densities depending on pollution with sewage, trophic state and temperature. About 100 years ago, bacteria identical with Aeromonas spp. have already been isolated from drinking water. Depletion of free chlorine residuals in drinking water generally results in increasing Aeromonas densities, particularly in the summer months. Investigations in the Netherlands have shown that Aeromonas densities in drinking water increase with increasing residence time. Furthermore, the aeromonads constitute a minor fraction of the heterotrophic bacterial population in drinking water. Growth measurements with pure cultures of A. hydrophila revealed that certain compounds, e.g. oleate as present in soft soap, promote the growth of the organism at substrate concentrations of a few micrograms per liter. Based on a number of surveys on the presence of aeromonads in drinking water, the health authorities in the Netherlands have defined so-called indicative maximum values for Aeromonas densities in

  15. Multilocus genetics to reconstruct aeromonad evolution

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    Roger Frédéric

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aeromonas spp. are versatile bacteria that exhibit a wide variety of lifestyles. In an attempt to improve the understanding of human aeromonosis, we investigated whether clinical isolates displayed specific characteristics in terms of genetic diversity, population structure and mode of evolution among Aeromonas spp. A collection of 195 Aeromonas isolates from human, animal and environmental sources was therefore genotyped using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA based on the dnaK, gltA, gyrB, radA, rpoB, tsf and zipA genes. Results The MLSA showed a high level of genetic diversity among the population, and multilocus-based phylogenetic analysis (MLPA revealed 3 major clades: the A. veronii, A. hydrophila and A. caviae clades, among the eleven clades detected. Lower genetic diversity was observed within the A. caviae clade as well as among clinical isolates compared to environmental isolates. Clonal complexes, each of which included a limited number of strains, mainly corresponded to host-associated subsclusters of strains, i.e., a fish-associated subset within A. salmonicida and 11 human-associated subsets, 9 of which included only disease-associated strains. The population structure was shown to be clonal, with modes of evolution that involved mutations in general and recombination events locally. Recombination was detected in 5 genes in the MLSA scheme and concerned approximately 50% of the STs. Therefore, these recombination events could explain the observed phylogenetic incongruities and low robustness. However, the MLPA globally confirmed the current systematics of the genus Aeromonas. Conclusions Evolution in the genus Aeromonas has resulted in exceptionally high genetic diversity. Emerging from this diversity, subsets of strains appeared to be host adapted and/or “disease specialized” while the A. caviae clade displayed an atypical tempo of evolution among aeromonads. Considering that A. salmonicida has been

  16. Evidence of increased antibiotic resistance in phylogenetically-diverse Aeromonas isolates from semi-intensive fish ponds treated with antibiotics

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    Hemant J Patil

    2016-11-01

    identified, including an A. salmonicida cluster that harbored all characterized fish skin ulcer samples. Subsequent to stocking diversity was much lower and most water column isolates in both facilities segregated into an A. veronii-associated cluster. This study demonstrated a strong correlation between aquaculture, Aeromonas diversity and antibiotic resistance. It provides strong evidence for linkage between prophylactic and systemic use of antibiotics in aquaculture and the propagation of antibiotic resistance.

  17. Impact of hydrocarbons, PCBs and heavy metals on bacterial communities in Lerma River, Salamanca, Mexico: Investigation of hydrocarbon degradation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Elcia M S; De la Cruz Barrón, Magali; Caretta, César A; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Andrade, Leandro H; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Malm, Olaf; Torres, João P M; Simon, Maryse; Guyoneaud, Remy

    2015-07-15

    Freshwater contamination usually comes from runoff water or direct wastewater discharges to the environment. This paper presents a case study which reveals the impact of these types of contamination on the sediment bacterial population. A small stretch of Lerma River Basin, heavily impacted by industrial activities and urban wastewater release, was studied. Due to industrial inputs, the sediments are characterized by strong hydrocarbon concentrations, ranging from 2 935 to 28 430μg·kg(-1) of total polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These sediments are also impacted by heavy metals (e.g., 9.6μg·kg(-1) of Cd and 246μg·kg(-1) of Cu, about 8 times the maximum recommended values for environmental samples) and polychlorinated biphenyls (ranging from 54 to 123μg·kg(-1) of total PCBs). The bacterial diversity on 6 sediment samples, taken from upstream to downstream of the main industrial and urban contamination sources, was assessed through TRFLP. Even though the high PAH concentrations are hazardous to aquatic life, they are not the only factor driving bacterial community composition in this ecosystem. Urban discharges, leading to hypoxia and low pH, also strongly influenced bacterial community structure. The bacterial bioprospection of these samples, using PAH as unique carbon source, yielded 8 hydrocarbonoclastic strains. By sequencing the 16S rDNA gene, these were identified as similar to Mycobacterium goodii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas lundensis or Aeromonas veronii. These strains showed high capacity to degrade naphthalene (between 92 and 100% at 200mg·L(-1)), pyrene (up to 72% at 100mg·L(-1)) and/or fluoranthene (52% at 50mg·L(-1)) as their only carbon source on in vitro experiments. These hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were detected even in the samples upstream of the city of Salamanca, suggesting chronical contamination, already in place longer before. Such microorganisms are clearly potential candidates for hydrocarbon degradation in the

  18. Análisis de la ubicación vertical y profundización del pin frontal en cirugía ortognática Analysis of the vertical position and depth of the external pin in orthognatic surgery

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    Pedro Solé

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Al reposicionar verticalmente el maxilar es necesario contar con un aditamento externo llamado pin, que permite realizar las mediciones durante la cirugía, y así movilizar el maxilar según lo planificado. Los sitios más utilizados para introducir el pin son el nasion y glabela, pero ¿cuál de estos es el ideal?, siendo ideal aquella zona que de mayor retención, estabilidad y menor posibilidad de complicaciones. Objetivo: Analizar desde un punto de vista anatómico el mejor sitio para la introducción del pin, y proponer una ubicación única universal tanto en sentido vertical como sagital, utilizable para todo tipo de paciente. Material y método: Se realizó un estudio exploratorio, seleccionando al azar 99 pacientes de edad entre los 21 a los 27 años, todos estudiantes de odontología de la Universidad de los Andes Santiago de Chile, a los cuales se les efectuó una radiografía de perfil, midiendo el grosor de tejido óseo y blando a nivel del nasion y glabela. Se dividió a los pacientes por sexo y biotipo con el fin de evaluar similitudes en las mediciones de grosores. Resultados: Se encontró gran diferencia de los grosores en los distintos grupos tanto en nasion como en glabela. Se determinó un mayor grosor de tejido óseo y blando a nivel de nasion, resultando un grosor mínimo total de 13,83mm en nasion y 6,37mm en glabela. Conclusión: Debido al gran margen de grosores es muy difícil determinar un valor único estándar en la introducción del pin, considerando como sitio de elección el nasion.Introduction: To vertically reposition the maxilla it is necessary to have an attachment called the external pin, which allows for measurements to be taken during surgery. The sites most often used to insert the pin are the nasion and glabella, but the question remains as to which of these two sites is the optimum as regards increased retention, stability, and less chance of intraoperative and postoperative complications

  19. Morfhological assesment in elite argentineans male gymnasts

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    Francisco José Berral de la Rosa

    2006-12-01

    , maiores de 18 anos, pertencentes às categorias juvenil e sênior. Foram estudadas 43 variáveis antropométricas: peso, alturas, comprimentos, diâmetros ósseos, perímetros corporais e dobras cutâneas. O somatotipo foi calculado de acordo com o método antropométrico de Heath-Carter. A composicão corporal segundo a tática de fracionamento de massas de Kerr e foi analisada a proporcionalidade através da estratégia Phantom de Ross. Os procedimentos antropométricos usados foram os recomendados pela ISAK. Na composição corporal foi estimada uma massa muscular de 54% e uma massa de gordura de 17,5%. Os resultados indicam que os ginastas argentinos possuem um biotipo de características similares ao resto dos ginastas de nível internacional. Porém, costumam ser mais baixos, com maior peso corporal e com os perímetros de tórax, cintura, coxa e panturrilha mais elevados. Isto nos tenderia a supor que estes ginastas têm uma desvantagem biomecânica que prejudica a performance nos eventos de ginástica artística desportiva.

  20. Detección, aislamiento y caracterización de Escherichia coli productor de toxina Shiga a partir de carne molida fresca proveniente de carnicerías de Concepción, provincia de Tucumán Detection, isolation and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC in fresh ground beef from butcher shops in Concepción, Tucumán Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Jure

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli productor de toxina Shiga (STEC es un patógeno emergente transmitido por alimentos. Existen numerosos serotipos de STEC asociados a enfermedad en humanos, entre los cuales prevalece el serotipo O157:H7. La carne molida es el principal vehículo de transmisión. En la ciudad de Concepción, provincia de Tucumán, entre setiembre y diciembre de 2004 se diagnosticaron dos casos de síndrome urémico hemolítico (SUH. El objetivo de este trabajo fue detectar, aislar y caracterizar STEC O157 y no-O157 a partir de muestras de carne molida fresca obtenidas en las bocas de expendio. Entre los meses de setiembre y diciembre de 2004 se recolectaron 53 muestras de carne molida fresca en carnicerías de la ciudad de Concepción. Para la detección, el aislamiento y la caracterización de STEC O157:H7 se utilizó la metodología USDA-FSIS 2002. Para la detección de E. coli no-O157 se utilizaron dos técnicas de PCR; para el aislamiento y la caracterización se utilizó una metodología previamente validada en una etapa intralaboratorio. Siete muestras fueron positivas para el gen stx2, de las cuales 4 también fueron positivas para el gen rfbO157. Sin embargo, solo se aisló una cepa de E. coli O157:H7 biotipo C, portadora de los genes eae, stx2 y ehxA. El presente trabajo refleja la importancia de implementar técnicas que permitan detectar este grupo de patógenos emergentes a partir de productos cárnicos.Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is an emerging foodborne pathogen. There are many STEC serotypes associated with human diseases, being the O157:H7 serotype the most prevalent. Ground beef is the main transmission vehicle. In Concepción city, Tucumán Province, between September and December 2004, two hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS cases were diagnosed. The main objective of this work was to detect, isolate and characterize STEC O157 and non-O157 strains in fresh ground beef. Between September and December 2004, 53 fresh ground

  1. Somatotipo y composición corporal en gimnastas de Trampolín masculino español de alto nivel. (Somatotype and body composition in elite male Spanish Trampoline.

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    Jesús López Bedoya

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio pretende describir y establecer datos de referencia de gimnastas españoles de la especialidad de Trampolín, centrándonos en el somatotipo y la composición corporal de varones en los distintos grupos de edad competitivos. Fueron evaluados 41 varones: 23 de categoría Sub-15 (11,95±1,79 años y 18 de categoría Absoluta (20,72±4,66 años, todos dentro de la élite nacional. Se estudiaron 15 variables antropométricas: peso, talla, 6 pliegues, 5 diámetros y 2 perímetros; todas obtenidas según el protocolo de la ISAK con investigadores certificados. El somatotipo fue calculado según el método de Heath-Carter y la composición corporal según las recomendaciones del GREC. En categoría Absoluta se obtuvo un 47,83% de masa muscular y 11,04% de grasa, con un somatotipo 2,4 – 4,7 – 2,8; en Sub-15 se obtuvo un 46,37%, 10,38% de grasa y un somatotipo 2,8 – 5 – 2,8. Los resultados presentan un biotipo medio mesomorfo balanceado con un SDI elevado de 3,54 en Sub-15 y 3,28 en Absoluta, distinto a los valores de referencia de gimnastas de la especialidad de Gimnasia Artística Masculina mucho más ecto-mesomorfos.AbstractThe present study seeks to describe and establish reference data of Spanish Trampoline gymnasts, focusing on the somatotype and body composition of male gymnasts in several competitive age groups. 41 males: 23 Under-15 category (11.95±1.79 years and 18 Absolute category (20.72±4.66 years, all in the national elite, were evaluated. 15 anthropometric variables were studied: body mass, height, 6 skinfolds, 5 breadths and 2 girths; all obtained according to the ISAK supervised by certified researches. The somatotype was calculated by the Heath-Carter method and body composition following GREC recommendations. In Absolute category the results showed 47.83% muscular mass and 11.04% of fat were obtained, with a somatotype 2.4 – 4.7 – 2.8; while in Under-15 category, the figures were 46.37%, 10

  2. Cólera en Bolívar de 1991 a 1997

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    Delfina Urbina

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available El cólera, que se ha presentado a través de los siglos en forma endémica y epidémica, continúa siendo un problema de salud pública. Desde 1991, cuando el cólera apareció por primera vez en nuestro país en este siglo, el departamento de Bolívar ha sido uno de los más afectados en la costa atlántica. A partir de entonces, las autoridades de salud del departamento (Dasalud solicitaron apoyo tecnológico parael diagnóstico microbiológico y capacitación del recurso humano al Laboratorio del Posgrado de Microbiología de la Universidad de Cartagena. Se adelantó este trabajo descriptivo de cooperación interinstitucional con el propósito de analizar el comportamiento del cólera en los municipios de Bolívar. A partir del caso índice, se inició la recolección de muestras en pacientes sospechosos provenientes de las cinco regionales de Dasalud. El diagnóstico de la enfermedad se hizo con base en los criterios clínicos, microbiológicos y epidemiológicos establecidos. Las heces recolectadas en el medio de transporte fueron procesadas para su aislamiento e identificación en medios de cultivos bacteriológicos, bioquímicos y serotipificación con antisueros específicos. De septiembre de 1991 al octavo período de 1997, se informaron 3.470 casos en 38 de 42 municipios y 94,6% ocurrió en las regionales 1 y 3; 60,2% correspondió a varones, 39,8% a mujeres y 792% fueron mayores de 14 años; hubo 33 defunciones; 39,8% de los casos fue diagnosticado microbiológicamente, con el hallazgo de Vibrio choleraeO1, biotipo El Tor, serotipos lnaba y Ogawa. V. cholerae 01, serotipo Ogawa, presente en el brote de 1995 desplazó al serotipo lnaba predominante en 1991. En 1991, el número de casos fue nueve veces mayor que en el brote de 1995 y, en 1997, aumentó 45,2% con relación a los dos últimos años; la letalidad, a su vez, mostró índices preocupantes a partir de 1992. Los municipios más afectados fueron: Cartagena, Mahates

  3. Revisión de los hospederos del gusano cogollero del maíz, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Review of the host plants of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Augusto Casmuz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de actualizar los hospederos citados para Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica. La búsqueda de hospederos fue agrupada por zona y país. Para el norte del Continente Americano, se incluyeron las citas encontradas para EE.UU., México, América Central e islas del Caribe. En Sudamérica, se agruparon todos los países del cono sur, a excepción de la Argentina, la cual fue considerada por separado. Se encontraron un total de 186 hospederos, repartidos en 42 familias. Entre los hospederos más citados, el 35,5% perteneció a la familia Poaceae, el 11,3% a la familia Fabaceae, a la familia Solanaceae y Asteraceae un 4,3 % cada una, siguiéndoles las Rosaceae y Chenopodiaceae con un 3,7% cada una y, finalmente, las Brassicaceae y Cyperaceae con un 3,2%. Del total de plantas encontradas (186 el 64% se hallaron presentes en Norteamérica y Centroamérica, un 53% en Sudamérica y un 32% en Argentina. Las especies más citadas fueron (en orden decreciente para Norteamérica: maíz, sorgo, maní, grama bermuda, caña de azúcar y arroz; para Sudamérica: maíz, arroz, sorgo, poroto, algodón y maní; y por último, en Argentina fueron: maíz, soja, algodón, alfalfa, tomate, lino, papa y sorgo. También se aporta información sobre su ciclo de vida, hábitos y comportamiento sobre los principales hospederos, migración y biotipos.In order to update records of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith host plants, a bibliographic review was made. Host plant search was organized into groups per zones and countries. Records from the U.S., Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean Islands were grouped together as belonging to Northern America. As South American records, all reports were included except for those from Argentina. 186 host plants were found and they belong to 42 different families. The most cited hosts are part of the following families: Poaceae (35.5%, Fabaceae (11.3%, Solanaceae and

  4. Análisis corológico de la flora endémica de la Serranía de Perijá, Colombia

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    Rivera Díaz, Orlando

    2003-12-01

    áramo concentra el 46% de los táxones endémicos y, en cuanto a biotipos, dominan las plantas herbáceas y los arbustos, con el 46% y el 41% del total, respectivamente. Por último, 15 táxones que se consideraban endémicos de Perijá o de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, se registran en este estudio para ambos macizos.

  5. Manejo de defectos óseos anteroposteriores en el frente estético Management of anteroposterior bone defects in aesthetic restoration of the front teeth

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    J. Caubet Biayna

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Desarrollar un protocolo clínico para el manejo de defectos óseos anteroposteriores en el frente estético para la posterior rehabilitación con implantes osteointegrados. Material y método: Repasamos conceptos anatómicos que caracterizan el frente estético, de colocación y relación tridimensional de los implantes y hacemos una revisión bibliográfica actualizada sobre las distintas técnicas reconstructivas óseas y de partes blandas centradas en el frente estético. Recogemos nuestra experiencia tras 8 años de manejo con distintos tipos de injertos en el manejo de estos defectos. Resultados: En función de la magnitud del defecto óseo (pequeño que no compromete la colocación del implante, de una pared que compromete la colocación del implante o de dos o tres paredes y del biotipo periodontal del paciente exponemos un protocolo de tratamiento de defectos óseos para la rehabilitación con implantes osteointegrados en el frente estético. Conclusiones: En el sector estético deben tomarse las máximas precauciones en la colocación de cualquier implante. Estas precauciones deben ser aún mayores en los casos de injertos óseos. El adecuado manejo de los injertos óseos nos permitirá colocar los implantes de modo tridimensional correcto para conseguir resultados estéticos en las restauraciones.Objective: Development of a clinical protocol for the management of anteroposterior bone defects in the front teeth followed by later rehabilitation with osseointegrated implants. Material and method: The anatomic concepts that characterize the front teeth and the placement and three-dimensional relations of implants were reviewed. Recent literature on bone and soft-tissue reconstruction techniques for the front teeth was reviewed. We present our 8-year experience in managing these defects with different types of grafts. Results: A protocol for the treatment of bone defects for rehabilitation of the front teeth with osseointegrated

  6. Eugenia negativa e positiva: significados e contradições Eugenesia negativa y positiva: significados y contradicciones Negative and positive eugenics: meanings and contradictions

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    Lilian Denise Mai

    2006-04-01

    produjeron contradicciones, como la discriminación y eliminación de muchas personas delante un biotipo de hombre, la biologización de factores eminentemente sociales, la defensa de una pretensa neutralidad científica y el uso indiscriminado del derecho de opción reproductiva.Eugenics constitutes an important subject of debate, associated with current biogenetics improvements. Considering that the central point in eugenics has always been the preoccupation with future generations' health and constitution, and that the use of scientific means and knowledge for the birth of a physically and mentally healthy child can be considered a eugenic action, this paper tries to analyze the meanings and contradictions of negative and positive eugenics actions, constructed concomitantly with 20th-century technical-scientific improvements. The meanings range, respectively, between limiting or stimulating human reproduction, at the beginning of this century, and preventing diseases or improving physical and mental characteristics, nowadays. In the implantation of actions, contradictions were produced, such as the discrimination and elimination of many people in view of one ideal man, the biologization of eminently social factors, the defense of a supposed scientific neutrality and the indiscriminate use of the reproductive choice right.

  7. Polyphasic approach to characterize heterotrophic bacteria of biofilms and patina on walls of the Suburban Bath of the Herculaneum's archaeological excavations in Italy

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    Ventorino, V.; Pepe, O.; Sannino, L.; Blaiotta, G.; Palomba, S.

    2012-04-01

    plates were purified in the same growth medium by streaking and differentiated by assessing their morphological (phase-contrast microscopy) and biochemical characteristics (Gram-stains KOH-lysis and catalase activity). Cultural-based method allow us to identify by 16S and 26S rRNA partial sequence analysis, heterotrophic bacteria belonging to different genera as Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas and Microbacterium. By using this approach, Bacillus-related species (B. benzoevorans, B. megaterium and B. pumilis and B. megaterium/B. simplex group) as well as Aeromonas sobria/Aeromonas salmonicida/Aeromonas hydrophila group, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida and Microbacterium esteraromaticum were isolated in different sample points analysed. DGGE analysis of PCR amplified V3 region of rDNA from DNA directly recovered from samples of biofilms and patina, enabled identification of bacterial species not found using culturable technology, as those closest related to Aeromonas, Paenibacillus, Brevibacterium, Exiguobacterium, Microbacterium, Brevibacterium, Stenothophomonas and Streptomyces. Combination of culture-dependent and independent methods provide a better characterization of heterotrophic microbiota that colonize the surface of ancient decorated walls and can contribute to understand the potential of biodeterioration activity by heterotrophic microorganisms.

  8. Aspects of constitutive and acquired antibioresistance in Aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from water sources.

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    Balotescu, Carmen; Israil, Anca; Radu, Roxana; Alexandru, Ionela; Dobre, Georgeta

    2003-01-01

    Over the last three decades, the literature pointed out the implications of Aeromonas species in human pathology. These species were described as being involved in intestinal (several outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis of choleric/dysenteric form or chronic diarrhoea, ulcerative colitis, etc.) in normal adults or children, as well as in extraintestinal infections in immunocompromised hosts. This last aspect included a large range of cutaneous injuries (micronecrosis, abscesses, bums, cellulites, furunculosis), joint, bones, respiratory, urinary tract, ocular infections up to meningitis, endocarditis, peritonitis, hepatobilliary disease, endotoxic shock and septicemia (as consequence of leech microvascular surgery). During the last decade, the literature reported a high mortality in Aeromonas infections determined by certain phenospecies (A. hydrophila and A. veronii) especially in extraintestinal infections in immunocompromised patients. In microbiologists' opinion this high rate of mortality was probably due to poor knowledge concerning the aspects of antibioresistance in Aeromonas strains, to empiric treatments with antibiotics to which these bacteria exhibiting constitutive resistance lead to insuccessful results, and at last to the increasing trend of aeromonads resistance to certain antibiotics after 1996. The literature mentioned also that for a great number of Beta-lactamase producing Aeromonas strains, the use of microdilution method (by comparison to disk diffusion in agar medium) giving false results made more difficult the true knowledge of Aeromonas antibioresistance patterns. At the same time, in 2002, the literature mentioned 4 ecological compartments considered as "reservoirs for dissemination and transfer of microbial antibioresistance i.e. humans, animals, plants and natural soil and water. In the last time, more and more data of the literature revealed that some bacteria with role of reservoir of antibioresistance in the natural environment, even

  9. Caracterização preliminar de amostras do vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina (BVDV isoladas no Brasil Preliminary characterization of brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV

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    Sônia A. Botton

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo relata a caracterização inicial de 19 amostras do vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina (BVDV isoladas no Brasil, com relação a aspectos biológicos, antigênicos e moleculares. Onze amostras foram isoladas de fetos bovinos, seis foram obtidas do sangue de animais clinicamente saudáveis de rebanhos com problemas reprodutivos e duas amostras foram isoladas de casos clínicos de enfermidade gastrentérica. Os casos de doença entérica afetaram animais jovens e cursaram com diarréia, às vezes sanguinolenta, erosões e ulcerações na mucosa oronasal e do trato digestivo, e eventualmente hemorragias digestivas e petéquias na vulva. Dezesseis amostras (84,2%, incluindo aquelas isoladas de fetos e dos casos clínicos, pertencem ao biotipo não-citopático (ncp. A replicação de outras três amostras (15,8%, foi caracterizada pelo aparecimento de vacuolização e destruição progressiva do tapete celular. A análise das amostras que produziram citopatologia, após clonagem, revelou tratar-se de populações mistas composta de vírus citopáticos (cp e não-citopáticos. A análise de polipeptídeos virais através de SDS-PAGE seguida de "Western-immunoblot" revelou a produção da proteína não-estrutural NS3/p80 em células infectadas com as amostras cp. Em contraste, não se evidenciou a geração da NS3/p80 em células infectadas com as amostras ncp que produziram apenas o polipeptídeo precursor NS23/p125. A subsequente análise de reatividade frente a um painel de 15 anticorpos monoclonais (AcMs revelou uma diversidade antigênica marcante entre os isolados, sobretudo na glicoproteína E2/gp53. Embora um AcM contra essa glicoproteína reagiu com 18 isolados (94,7%, outros nove AcMs anti-E2/gp53 reconheceram entre zero e 57,9% das amostras brasileiras. A grande variabilidade antigênica detectada entre as amostras brasileiras do BVDV pode ter importantes implicações para o diagnóstico e estratégias de controle e imuniza

  10. Formando lotes uniformes de reprodutores múltiplos e usando-os em acasalamentos dirigidos, em populações Nelore Forming uniform lots of multiple sires and using them in designed matings in a Nelore population

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    Vânia Cardoso

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Um programa com base em análise de conglomerados foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de formar lotes de touros geneticamente semelhantes para serem empregados como grupos de reprodutores múltiplos em acasalamentos dirigidos. Para o cálculo das distâncias entre os animais, as diferenças esperadas na progênie (DEPs de nove características pré e pós-desmama foram padronizadas pelos respectivos desvios-padrão e ponderadas pelos mesmos fatores usados na construção do índice de seleção. O critério de formação dos lotes foi o de minimizar o somatório de todas as distâncias entre todos os possíveis pares de touros. O programa foi testado com 158 touros destaques de um rebanho Nelore. Um conjunto de 4740 vacas do mesmo rebanho foi utilizado para avaliar três situações de acasalamentos, quanto à produção de animais geneticamente superiores: (1 ao acaso; (2 dirigido, por meio do programa de acasalamentos dirigidos (PAD, com monta controlada; e (3 dirigido, por meio do PAD, com grupos de reprodutores múltiplos. Por meio de análise de componentes principais, foram avaliados os biotipos genéticos existentes nestas categorias de animais. Os valores extremos das médias das DEPs dos lotes e as do conjunto de touros foram muito semelhantes, indicando a capacidade do programa de preservar a maior parte da variância total. O uso do PAD, em relação à opção de acasalamentos ao acaso, fez com que as variâncias das DEPs dos produtos fossem triplicadas e, assim, permitiu incremento de 70% no número de animais a receberem o Certificado Especial de Identificação e Produção (CEIP quando estipulou-se, como valor mínimo para a emissão deste, o menor índice dos 20% melhores produtos dos acasalamentos ao acasos. O primeiro componente principal das vacas indicou que dias para ganhar 240 kg pós-desmama e perímetro escrotal ajustado para idade e peso foram as características menos relevantes para explicar a variabilidade total no pr

  11. El rápido descenso de la fecundidad en Costa Rica

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    Gómez Barrantes, Miguel

    2009-07-01

    la segunda mitad del Siglo XX: la revolución silenciosa en patrones reproductivos existentes desde siempre y que estaban apuntalados por normas religiosas, culturales y sociales que parecían en su momento inamovibles.El artículo tiene el mérito de ser el primer estudio serio que mostró que la natalidad en Costa Rica estaba cayendo en picada. Lo hizo en tiempos en que tirios y troyanos creían que una caída de esa magnitud no era posible en un país poco desarrollado y supuestamente muy católico como Costa Rica.La cuidadosa evaluación de las estadísticas de nacimientos del país incluida en la primera parte del artículo –referencia obligada desde entonces para todos quienes usamos estas estadísticas– le permite al autor hacer a un lado las objeciones de que la revolución reproductiva en curso era un espejismo de estadísticas falaces. Hace 40 años no era fácil hablar en público de métodos anticonceptivos o de la planificación familiar y menos en una universidad con fuertes sesgos ideológicos que veía estos asuntos como una conspiración del imperialismo yanqui. Esto se nota en el modo algo reticente en que Miguel aborda este tema en el artículo. Pero lo hace de manera sobria y con respaldo científico de datos, demostrando que la caída de la natalidad se debía a que entre las mujeres costarricenses se estaba difundiendo rápidamente el uso de anticonceptivos: estaban teniendo relaciones sexuales para fines distintos que la procreación, es decir de manera pecaminosa y en abierta desobediencia de las enseñanzas de la iglesia católica! Y aunque la anticoncepción –eufemísticamente rebautizada como “planificación familiar” primero y “salud reproductiva” más tarde – había recibido el espaldarazo del gobierno uno o dos años antes, el artículo muestra que el proceso se inició con anterioridad y de forma casi espontánea en la esfera privada con el apoyo de farmacias comerciales y médicos particulares exclusivamente.Hoy no nos

  12. Clínica del Método Electro Cardiográfico

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    Luis Guillermo Forero Nougués

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Cuando en 1942 tuve el honor de ser galardonado con el Premio Carlos Esguerra, instituido por primera vez en ese mismo año por la Academia Nacional de Medicina, se acució en mí el ferviente deseo, nacido con este primer contacto con esta benemérita institución, de tener un día el gran honor de ocupar uno de los puestos que tan gloriosas figuras han prestigiado desde su fundación el tres de enero de 1873.

    Para cumplir decorosamente con esta sobria ceremonia de posesión de Miembro Honorario de la Academia Nacional de Medicina, quiero, antes que todo, agradecer la generosa elección con la cual me han honrado. Realmente, no tengo más título que el de ser un médico que ve enfermos, que ha sido y es un docente, cumpliendo el deber de enseñar, señalado por los maestros de la Medicina de todos los tiempos.

    Para esta presentación académico-clínica quiero hablar sobre el método electrocardiográfico tal como lo hemos utilizado con nuestros enfermos desde hace más de cincuenta años cuando hicimos nuestros primeros contactos con el galvanómetro de cuerda de Einthoven. Sea ésta la oportunidad de rendir homenaje a los dos maestros chilenos que nos iniciaron en el método: los Profesores de Medicina Alejandro Garretón Silva y Luis Herve Lelievre.

    No pretendo hablar de la historia detallada del método, ni la universal ni la de nuestro país, pero si haré algunas menciones indispensables para la unidad de la exposición.

    Para esta presentación se han evitado discusiones ociosas, hipótesis estériles y otras impedimenta que sobrecarguen inútilmente el tiempo disponible. En lo posible se da valor a los hechos; se exponen tendencias científicas y se juzgan los progresos alcanzados.

    Me permito sí apelar a la indulgencia de este académico-auditorio con la esperanza de que la bondad del mismo supla la insuficiencia de mi esfuerzo.

    Antes de entrar a lo electrocardiográfico propiamente tal, queremos

  13. Materia y Pobreza = Matter and Poverty

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    María Teresa Muñoz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa acumulación material es uno de los signos más identificables de la pobreza. El pobre vive apegado a la tierra, esa es su única posesión y a partir de ella construirá sus refugios, sus habitaciones, sus utensilios. Las construcciones de arcilla, de barro, moldeadas con gran abundancia de materia  se encuentran en los poblados primitivos, pero cualquier situación marcada por la extrema pobreza lo estará también por las acumulaciones de material. Resulta inimaginable una situación de pobreza que no implique la acumulación de materia y esto es particularmente evidente en las sociedades desarrolladas, donde un mendigo es reconocible por su montaña de ropas, calzado o enseres de todo tipo.Resulta, sin embargo, significativo que en los discursos de los ideólogos de la modernidad, la identificación de ésta con el advenimiento de una sociedad sin clases venga acompañada de una apelación a la pobreza, una nueva pobreza fría y sobria, propia de una habitación humana abierta y transparente, casi desnuda, e igualitaria para todos los hombres sin distinción de clases sociales. Así, la pobreza moderna estaría ligada al material, a los nuevos materiales, pero no es una condición impuesta, sino elegida, o al menos aceptada como inevitable por el nuevo hombre.La convivencia entre una pobreza de la acumulación material y una pobreza de ascetismo y renuncia es un hecho tanto en los discursos como en las obras de las vanguardias del siglo XX. La acumulación de materia informe y trabajada manualmente tiene lugar al mismo tiempo que la exhibición de la desnudez y la frialdad de los materiales producidos por la industria.  Y en ambos casos, se apela a la pobreza como última referencia para las obras que tratan de ser una expresión fiel de las aspiraciones de su época.Palabras clavemateria, pobreza, material, acumulación, modernidad, sociedadAbstractAccumulation of matter is one of the most recognizable signs of poverty. The poor

  14. Discurso de Posesión del Académico José Félix Patiño Restrepo.

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    Victoria Rodriguez

    1998-08-01

    fervor, a su dedicación y a su lealtad con los mejores intereses de la profesión.

    Significativo es que la Academia se reúna hoy en esta sede de sobria elegancia. Representa el esfuerzo y la mística, principalmente de los anteriores presidentes, muy especialmente de Jorge Cavelier Gaviria y de Efraím Otero Ruiz, Juan Jacobo Muñoz y Gilberto Rueda, con el apoyo de todos los académicos y en especial de nuestro admirado Secretario Perpetuo, el profesor César Augusto Pantoja, cuya figura tutelar preside este salón.

    En este severo recinto de la Academia Nacional de Medicina se mantiene además viva la memoria de las figuras que hicieron historia en la medicina colombiana.

    Esta noche deseo evocar dos de ellas: la de Nicolás Osorio Ricaurte, hijo del prócer Alejandro Osorio Uribe. Nicolás Osorio fue uno de los seis fundadores, en 1873, de la Sociedad de Medicina y Ciencias Naturales, hoy Academia Nacional de Medicina, y quien trajo al país en el siglo pasado un enorme bagaje de conocimientos adquiridos en la Universidad de París (La Sorbona, donde obtuvo su grado de médico con su amigo y condiscípulo Georges Clemenceau...


  15. SUPRESSIVIDADE NATURAL DE SOLOS DA REGIÃO CENTRO-OESTE A Rhizoctonia solani KÜHN NATURAL SUPPRESSIVENESS OF SOILS FROM WEST CENTRAL BRAZIL TO Rhizoctonia solani Kühn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Andrade Botelho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Rhizoctonia solani é um fungo cosmopolita que habita o solo, com vasto número de hospedeiros, e causa importantes doenças na maioria das plantas cultivadas em todo o mundo. É uma espécie complexa, com muitos biotipos que diferem quanto à patogenicidade, aos hospedeiros, à distribuição na natureza e à aparência em meio de cultura. O feijoeiro comum é suscetível a este patógeno e a sua suscetibilidade é inversamente proporcional ao desenvolvimento da planta. A atividade microbiana de alguns solos pode prevenir o estabelecimento de fungos fitopatogênicos. Solos com esta propriedade são denominados antagônicos, de longa vida, resistentes ou supressivos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os níveis de supressividade natural a R. solani de alguns solos classificados como latossolo roxo, latossolo vermelho-escuro, areia quartzoza e latossolo roxo, respectivamente, coletados nos municípios de Itumbiara, Silvânia, Jussara e Santa Helena de Goiás, no Estado de Goiás, em três áreas contíguas com os seguintes históricos de uso: a solo cultivado com feijão irrigado via pivô central por mais de quatro anos consecutivos; b solo sob vegetação nativa; e c solo sob pastagem de Brachiaria decubens. Os solos foram coletados na camada de 0-20 cm e armazenados em casa de vegetação. Para a inoculação dos solos foram utilizados grãos de sorgo, inoculados com Rhizoctonia solani, em seis densidades – 0, 100, 500, 1.000, 5.000 e 10.000 propágulos/g de solo – e triturados. O experimento foi conduzido sob condições de casa de vegetação, em um delineamento de blocos completos casualizados e esquema fatorial 6 x 4 x 3. A unidade experimental foi constituída de bandejas plásticas com 4 kg de solo e 40 plantas. Quinze dias após a emergência, as plantas foram arrancadas e avaliadas

  16. Centenario del profesor Alfonso Esguerra Gómez

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    Gilberto Rueda Pérez

    1994-09-01

    sacrificio que habría de ser imprescindible en el ejercicio de la profesión médica que con ilusión inquebrantable habían escogido.

    En el Laboratorio de Fisiología de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional, con la guía suave pero al mismo tiempo positiva y claramente docente del profesor Esguerra, aprendía el alumno Sin sobresaltos pero con disciplina el funcionamiento de las células, de los tejidos, de los órganos vivientes. Investigaba la contracción muscular provocada por la descarga eléctrica, cuyo testimonio dejaba grabado en tambores inscriptores, ahumados y armados por él mismo, incipiente rudimento de los actuales oscilómetros electrónicos e inscriptores LÁSER.

    Aprendía la conducción del sistema nervioso de la rana descerebrada, pequeño batracio sabanero que perseguíamos con saña por los potreros y los charcos tan cercanos a la ciudad, en esas épocas mejores de Bogotá. Jugaba con el sentido de la estereognosia en sana competencia con los compañeros de grupo. Investigaba, tabulaba y aprendía la asimetría del cuerpo humano con la huella dejada en el espejo de plata por la exhalación nasal.

    y muchas otras cosas …

    Su temperamento, a veces irónico y juguetón, lo llevaba a preparar y a producir determinados sobresaltos en sus alumnos, uno de los cuales quiero citar como ejemplo anecdótico.

    Tengo en mis manos un libro muy poco conocido, diría yo, ejemplar único posiblemente; es una tesis de grado que bajo la presidencia del profesor fue desarrollada entre 1951 y 1952.

    El aspirante a médico traía entre sus apuntes del rural, una serie de datos biométricos de los escolares, de la paradisíaca región de clima medio que había atendido, en lo que a medicina preventiva se refiere, en ese grato y aleccionador período de servicio social.

    Acudió con ellos al profesor en busca de consejo y encontró en él al sabio maestro que lo indujo a tratar de analizar, con esos datos, el biotipo del