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Sample records for verification group athlet

  1. Gender verification of female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsas, L J; Ljungqvist, A; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Simpson, J L; Genel, M; Carlson, A S; Ferris, E; de la Chapelle, A; Ehrhardt, A A

    2000-01-01

    The International Olympic Committee (IOC) officially mandated gender verification for female athletes beginning in 1968 and continuing through 1998. The rationale was to prevent masquerading males and women with "unfair, male-like" physical advantage from competing in female-only events. Visual observation and gynecological examination had been tried on a trial basis for two years at some competitions leading up to the 1968 Olympic Games, but these invasive and demeaning processes were jettisoned in favor of laboratory-based genetic tests. Sex chromatin and more recently DNA analyses for Y-specific male material were then required of all female athletes immediately preceding IOC-sanctioned sporting events, and many other international and national competitions following the IOC model. On-site gender verification has since been found to be highly discriminatory, and the cause of emotional trauma and social stigmatization for many females with problems of intersex who have been screened out from competition. Despite compelling evidence for the lack of scientific merit for chromosome-based screening for gender, as well as its functional and ethical inconsistencies, the IOC persisted in its policy for 30 years. The coauthors of this manuscript have worked with some success to rescind this policy through educating athletes and sports governors regarding the psychological and physical nature of sexual differentiation, and the inequities of genetic sex testing. In 1990, the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) called for abandonment of required genetic screening of women athletes, and by 1992 had adopted a fairer, medically justifiable model for preventing only male "impostors" in international track and field. At the recent recommendation of the IOC Athletes Commission, the Executive Board of the IOC has finally recognized the medical and functional inconsistencies and undue costs of chromosome-based methods. In 1999, the IOC ratified the abandonment of on

  2. Gender verification of female Olympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Barry D; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B; Turner, Patricia L; Woods, Gary L

    2002-10-01

    Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Problems include invalid screening tests, failure to understand the problems of intersex, the discriminatory singling out of women based only on laboratory results, and the stigmatization and emotional trauma experienced by individuals screened positive. Genuine sex-impostors have not been uncovered by laboratory-based genetic testing; however, gender verification procedures have resulted in substantial harm to a number of women athletes born with relatively rare genetic abnormalities. Individuals with sex-related genetic abnormalities raised as females have no unfair physical advantage and should not be excluded or stigmatized, including those with 5-alpha-steroid-reductase deficiency, partial or complete androgen insensitivity, and chromosomal mosaicism. In 1990, the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) called for ending genetic screening of female athletes and in 1992 adopted an approach designed to prevent only male impostors from competing. The IAAF recommended that the "medical delegate" have the ultimate authority in all medical matters, including the authority to arrange for the determination of the gender of the competitor if that approach is judged necessary. The new policy advocated by the IAAF, and conditionally adopted by the International Olympic Committee, protects the rights and privacy of athletes while safeguarding fairness of competition, and the American Medical Association recommends that it become the permanent approach.

  3. Verification of the computer code ATHLET in the framework of the external verification group ATHLET BETHSY test 5.2c - total loss of feedwater. Final report; Verifikation des ATHLET-Rechenprogramms im Rahmen der externen Verifikationsgruppe ATHLET BETHSY Test 5.2c - Totalverlust des Speisewassers. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krepper, E.; Schaefer, F. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR) (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung

    1998-08-01

    In the framework of the external validation of the thermohydraulic code ATHLET Mod 1.1 Cycle D, which has been developed by the GRS, post test analyses of two experiments were done, which were performed at the French integral test facility BETHSY. The BETHSY experiment 5.2c investigates the accident procedures in case of a total loss of feedwater at the steam generator secondary side. In such an accident the emergency cooling of the reactor core with primary bleed and feed, the behaviour of the steam generators in case of dry out and the long time behaviour of the test facility are special subjects of interest. During the experiment the high pressure injection system, the hydroaccumulators and the low pressure injection system were available. The evaluation of the calculated results shows, that all main phenomena can be calculated in a good quality compared with the experiment. Resulting from various calculations it should be noticed that the quality of the results strongly depends on the modelling of the heat losses of the facility, which were partly compensated by the trace heating. This trace heating was changed several times in the experiment to compensate the changing heat losses. The exact modelling of the resulting heat losses has a strong influence on the course of the whole transient. In this test the unsufficient modelling of the resulting heat losses may be the reason for deviations of the calculated transient from the observed transient. The results shows, that the safety relevant statement of the experiment could be reproduced by the code ATHLET. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der externen Validierung des von der Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit entwickelten Stoerfallcodes ATHLET, der in der Version Mod 1.1 Cycle D vorlag, wurden zwei Experimente nachgerechnet und analysiert, die an der franzoesischen Versuchsanlage BETHSY durchgefuehrt wurden. Das Experiment 5.2c dient der Untersuchung der Notfallprozeduren beim Totalausfall der

  4. Gender, Legitimation, and Identity Verification in Groups

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    Burke, Peter J.; Stets, Jan E.; Cerven, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Drawing upon identity theory, expectation states theory, and legitimation theory, we examine how the task leader identity in task-oriented groups is more likely to be verified for persons with high status characteristics. We hypothesize that identity verification will be accomplished more readily for male group members and legitimated task leaders…

  5. Psychological characteristics of group cohesion athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheriff Sarhan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic components of group cohesion in sport teams. An analysis of publications on cohesion within the groups where an interconnection of individual goals of each participant group with common goals and the end result of teamwork. The concept of harmony in the team sports, where the rate of group cohesion is dependent on such integrative index as psychological climate. It is established that a number of athletes to achieve high results require high cohesion, unity, value-normative orientation, deep identification and responsibility for the results of the joint group activities.

  6. Increasing the Athletic Group Play of Children with Autism

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    Miltenberger, Catherine A.; Charlop, Marjorie H.

    2014-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across three children with autism and within child across activity was used to assess the effects of interventions designed to teach children with autism to play two common athletic group games, handball and 4-square. Treatment consisted of two phases. In Phase I, athletic skills training, the children participated in…

  7. Modelling horizontal steam generator with ATHLET. Verification of different nodalization schemes and implementation of verified constitutive equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beliaev, J.; Trunov, N.; Tschekin, I. [OKB Gidropress (Russian Federation); Luther, W. [GRS Garching (Germany); Spolitak, S. [RNC-KI (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Currently the ATHLET code is widely applied for modelling of several Power Plants of WWER type with horizontal steam generators. A main drawback of all these applications is the insufficient verification of the models for the steam generator. This paper presents the nodalization schemes for the secondary side of the steam generator, the results of stationary calculations, and preliminary comparisons to experimental data. The consideration of circulation in the water inventory of the secondary side is proved to be necessary. (orig.). 3 refs.

  8. Rule groupings: An approach towards verification of expert systems

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    Mehrotra, Mala

    1991-01-01

    Knowledge-based expert systems are playing an increasingly important role in NASA space and aircraft systems. However, many of NASA's software applications are life- or mission-critical and knowledge-based systems do not lend themselves to the traditional verification and validation techniques for highly reliable software. Rule-based systems lack the control abstractions found in procedural languages. Hence, it is difficult to verify or maintain such systems. Our goal is to automatically structure a rule-based system into a set of rule-groups having a well-defined interface to other rule-groups. Once a rule base is decomposed into such 'firewalled' units, studying the interactions between rules would become more tractable. Verification-aid tools can then be developed to test the behavior of each such rule-group. Furthermore, the interactions between rule-groups can be studied in a manner similar to integration testing. Such efforts will go a long way towards increasing our confidence in the expert-system software. Our research efforts address the feasibility of automating the identification of rule groups, in order to decompose the rule base into a number of meaningful units.

  9. The FTO A/T Polymorphism and Elite Athletic Performance: A Study Involving Three Groups of European Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynon, Nir; Nasibulina, Emiliya S.; Banting, Lauren K.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Bondareva, Elvira A.; Shagimardanova, Roza R.; Raz, Maytal; Sharon, Yael; Williams, Alun G.; Ahmetov, Ildus I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609) is a strong candidate to influence obesity-related traits. Elite athletes from many different sporting disciplines are characterized by low body fat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether athletic status is associated with the FTO A/T polymorphism. Subjects and Methods A large cohort of European Caucasians from Poland, Russia and Spain were tested to examine the association between FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609) and athletic status. A total of 551 athletes were divided by type of sport (endurance athletes, n = 266 vs. sprint/power athletes, n = 285) as well as by level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level). The control group consisted of 1,416 ethnically-matched, non-athletic participants, all Europeans. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between FTO A/T genotypes and athletic status/competition level. Results There were no significantly greater/lesser odds of harbouring any type of genotype when comparing across athletic status (endurance athletes, sprint/power athletes or control participants). These effects were observed after controlling for sex and nationality. Furthermore, no significantly greater/lesser odds ratios were observed for any of the genotypes in respect to the level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level). Conclusion The FTO A/T polymorphism is not associated with elite athletic status in the largest group of elite athletes studied to date. Large collaborations and data sharing between researchers, as presented here, are strongly recommended to enhance the research in the field of exercise genomics. PMID:23573268

  10. Achievement of VO2max criteria during a continuous graded exercise test and a verification stage performed by college athletes.

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    Mier, Constance M; Alexander, Ryan P; Mageean, Amanda L

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of meeting specific VO2max criteria and to test the effectiveness of a VO2max verification stage in college athletes. Thirty-five subjects completed a continuous graded exercise test (GXT) to volitional exhaustion. The frequency of achieving various respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and age-predicted maximum heart rate (HRmax) criteria and a VO2 plateau within 2 and 2.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) (VO2max plateau was 5 (≤2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and 7 (≤2.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), RER criteria 34 (≥1.05), 32 (≥1.10), and 24 (≥1.15), HRmax criteria, 35 (VO2max and HRmax did not differ between GXT and the verification stage (53.6 ± 5.6 vs. 55.5 ± 5.6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) and 187 ± 7 vs. 187 ± 6 b·min(-1)); however, the RER was lower during the verification stage (1.15 ± 0.06 vs. 1.07 ± 0.07, p = 0.004). Six subjects achieved a similar VO2 (within 2.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), whereas 4 achieved a higher VO2 compared with the GXT. These data demonstrate that a continuous GXT limits the college athlete's ability to achieve VO2max plateau and certain RER and HR criteria. The use of a verification stage increases the frequency of VO2max achievement and may be an effective method to improve the accuracy of VO2max measurements in college athletes.

  11. EPHEDRA USE IN A SELECT GROUP OF ADOLESCENT ATHLETES

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    Michael P. Schaefer

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Ephedra-containing dietary supplements are consumed to improve sports performace, but may carry risks of cardiac and neurological adverse events. Little is known of their use by young athletes. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and patterns of ephedra use among high school athletes. An anonymous survey was performed in Rochester, Minnesota on high school athletes who participated in fall sports during 2003-04. Parental consent was obtained for athletes under age 18 years. Surveys were distributed at preparticipation examinations and in- school survey stations. The response rate to the survey was 68.2%, or 311 respondents out of a possible 456 with consent (or 26% of all 1197 athletes eligible prior to the consent process. Seven of 311 (2.3% respondents used dietary supplements containing ephedra. Only one of seven users (14.3% knew that the supplements they used contained ephedra. Ephedra use was more common in boys (five than girls (two. Ephedra use was only found in 17 and 18-year-olds. The most common sports among ephedra users were football, track and field, and weightlifting. This study suggests that Ephedra use was infrequent among the young athletes in this population. However, ephedra users were generally unaware that the dietary supplements they consumed contained ephedra. Users were more likely to participate in football, track and field, and weightlifting. Ephedra users were likely to obtain supplements from their peers, and were largely uninformed of the content of their supplements

  12. Small-Group Standardized Patient Encounter Improves Athletic Training Students' Psychosocial Intervention and Referral Skills

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    Walker, Stacy E.; Weidner, Thomas G.; Thrasher, Ashley B.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Athletic trainers provide psychological support, counseling, intervention, and referral to patients during clinical practice. However, students are rarely exposed to real-life opportunities to develop these skills. Objective: To determine if a small-group standardized patient (SP) encounter improved athletic training students'…

  13. Performance-influencing factors in homogeneous groups of top athletes: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ingen Schenau, G.J.; Bakker, F.C.; de Koning, J.J.; de Groot, G.

    1996-01-01

    Sport scientists have identified many factors as prerequisites for a good athletic performance in various sports. It is not clear whether these factors also influence the best performers in the homogeneous groups of top athletes selected for national teams. In this study, this issue is addressed

  14. Gender differences of athletes in different classification groups of sports and sport disciplines

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    Olena Tarasevych

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the percentage of masculine, androgynous and feminine figures in different classification groups, sports and sports disciplines, depending on the sport qualification. Material & Methods: the study was conducted on the basis of the Kharkiv State Academy of Physical Culture among students – representatives of different sports that have different athletic skills using analysis and compilation of scientific and methodical literature, survey, testing the procedure S. Bam "Masculinity / femininity "Processing and statistical data. Results: based on the testing method established S. Bam percentage masculine, androgynous and feminine personalities among athletes and athletes in various sports classification groups depending on their athletic skills. Conclusions: among sportsmen and women in a variety of classification groups of sports is not revealed feminine personalities; masculine identity, among both men and women predominate in sports; androgyny attitude towards men and women are different.

  15. An Echocardiographic Study of Heart in a Group of Male Adult Elite Athletes

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    Ahmad Mohebi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe and prolonged physical training is associated with morphological and physiological cardiac changes, often termed as the “athlete’s heart”. Echocardiographic features peculiar to elite Iranian athletes have not been previously described. The aim was to examine the echocardiographic characteristics of highly trained Iranian athletes involved in three different sports. Methods: We studied cardiac morphology and function as assessed by rest echocardiography in 50 elite adult male athletes referring to a university hospital in Tehran between February 2001 and March 2006. Resting ejection fraction, interventricular septal wall thickness (IVSWT, left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT, left ventricular internal end diastolic dimension (LVEdD, left ventricular internal systolic dimension (LVIsD, left ventricular (LV mass, and relative wall thickness (RWT were measured. The control group consisted of 50 age- and weight-matched normal healthy men. Results: Of the athletes, 38 were engaged in predominantly dynamic (running and soccer and 12 in predominantly static (weightlifting sports. The overall mean LVEdD (51.06±5.49mm and IVSWT (10.24±1.43mm were higher in the athletes than those in the normal subjects. The mean of IVSWT in the 38 endurance-trained athletes was significantly more than that of the 12 strength-trained athletes (11.1 mm vs. 10.3 mm, P<0.05. LVEdD was also greater in the endurance-trained athletes, but the difference was not statistically significant (51.2 mm vs. 50.6 mm. Conclusion: Our results of higher LVEdD and IVSWT in Iranian male athletes are in line with previous reports. To generalize the results, we require more studies with larger sample sizes (with female athletes included.

  16. Functional movement screen scores in a group of running athletes.

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    Loudon, Janice K; Parkerson-Mitchell, Amy J; Hildebrand, Laurie D; Teague, Connie

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mean values of the functional movement screen (FMS) in a group of long-distance runners. The secondary aims were to investigate whether the FMS performance differed between sexes and between young and older runners. Forty-three runners, 16 women (mean age = 33.5 years, height = 165.2 cm, weight = 56.3 kg, and body mass index [BMI] = 20.6) and 27 men (mean age = 39.3 years, height = 177.6 cm, weight = 75.8 kg, and BMI = 24.2) performed the FMS. All the runners were injury-free and ran >30 km·wk. Independent t-tests were performed on the composite scores to examine the differences between men and women and also between young (40 years). Contingency tables (2 × 2) were developed for each of the 7 screening tests to further look at the differences in groups for each single test. The χ values were calculated to determine significant differences. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. There was no significant difference in the composite score between women and men. There were significant differences between the sexes in the push-up and straight leg test scores, with the women scoring better on each test. A significant difference was found in the composite scores between younger and older runners (p screened with this tool.

  17. Comparing risk factors in a group of obese children and group of athlets

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    Dalibor Pastucha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasing problem that more and more often affects children, thus not only the adult population. The aim of this thesis is to compare various elements and life habits of obese children with elements and habits of children practising athletics. These processes are physical activity, healthstate, eating habits, physical condition, breast-feeding period duration and the BMI of the children's parents. We have come upon an agreement with other authors that while comparing the BMI results of the parents, the two sets differed significantly. It was clearly indicated that obese children also have overweight or obese parents. Therefore it can be said that obesity is usually a problem of the whole actual family and its life-style. Regarding birth-weight, breast-feeding period duration, participation in P.E. class or a time spent watching TV or playing a computer, no major differences were noted. However, slight differences in favour to the athletes were seen in their good eating habits, their body-posture and their interest in sports in general. Here, the intensity with which active children practise sports and the time they devote to it are much higher and bigger than the energy and time spent on sports by obese children.

  18. Differences in morphological parameters of judo athletes of different age groups and performance level

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    Miloš Štefanovský

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have pointed out the influence of morphological parameters on judo performance, however the relationship between morphological variables and performance status have not yet been confirmed. In addition, there is a lack of studies focused on morphological comparison of different age categories. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess differences in the morphological parameters of judo athletes of different age and performance level. Methods: The research sample was composed of 47 male judokas (age 19.15 ± 2.93 years; body weight 77.16 ± 11.39 kg; height 178.91 ± 6.39 cm; sport age 11.47 ± 2.74 years. It was divided by: (1 age, into cadets (15-17 years, n = 19, juniors (18-20 years, n = 15, and seniors (21+ years, n = 13 category and (2 performance status (elite, n = 10; non-elite, n = 37. In all participants, body fat, and the circumference measurement of wrist, forearm, flexed arm, and calf were observed. A personal interview was used to gain information about the athlete's performance status. Results: We found out that there are significant differences in arm circumference between cadets and seniors, cadets and juniors, juniors and seniors; and in the circumference of forearm between cadets and seniors; cadets and juniors, as well. According to the performance status, we have discovered significantly higher circumference of forearm and wrist in the elite group compared to the non-elite group. Conclusion: Forearm and wrist circumference is a reliable discriminative factor and should be taken into consideration, especially when selecting judo athletes into elite teams. However, we did not confirm that subcutaneous fat is a parameter able to distinguish between judo athletes of different performance status across various age categories.

  19. Cardiac responses to swim bench exercise in age-group swimmers and non-athletic children.

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    Rowland, Thomas; Bougault, Valérie; Walther, Guillaume; Nottin, Stéphane; Vinett, Agnes; Obert, Philippe

    2009-03-01

    The effect of body posture (e.g., gravity) on circulatory responses to exercise remains to be clarified. This study was designed to examine cardiovascular dynamics during prone swim bench exercise in age-group swimmers and to compare these responses to those of matched non-athletic children. Fourteen trained swimmers (mean age 11.3+/-0.5 years) performed progressive exercise to exhaustion during simulated butterfly stroke exercise on a swim bench. Stroke volume was assessed by the Doppler ultrasound technique. Standard echocardiographic measures of left ventricular dimensions and function were recorded at rest prior to exercise. Swimmers were compared to a group of 11 non-athletic children matched for age, gender, and anthropometric measures. Compared to the nonathletes, the swimmers demonstrated larger resting left ventricular diastolic dimension and mass (adjusted for body size) but no differences in systolic or diastolic function. Mean peak VO(2) was 23.2+/-4.1mlkg(-1)min(-1) and 17.8+/-4.4mlkg(-1)min(-1) in the swimmers and nonathletes, respectively (pgroup, with values consistently greater in the swimmers (peak 37+/-6mlm(-2) versus 31+/-5mlm(-2) in the untrained subjects). Failure of stroke volume to rise during a progressive simulated swim test is consistent with a model of peripheral facilitation of circulatory responses to exercise.

  20. ESC study group of sports cardiology position paper on adverse cardiovascular effects of doping in athletes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deligiannis, A.; Bjornstad, H.; Carre, F.; Heidbuchel, H.; Kouidi, E.; Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, N.M.; Pigozzi, F.; Schanzer, W.; Hees, L. van

    2006-01-01

    The use of doping substances and methods is extensive not only among elite athletes, but also among amateur and recreational athletes. Many types of drugs are used by athletes to enhance performance, to reduce anxiety, to increase muscle mass, to reduce weight or to mask the use of other drugs

  1. Body composition and somatotype of judo athletes and untrained male students as a reference group for comparison in sport

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    Buśko Krzysztof

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of this study was to determine the body composition and somatotype of untrained male students studying at Warsaw University of Technology in 2011, in order to create a current reference group for comparison, and to investigate the difference in body build of male judoists compared with the non-athlete group.

  2. A group-enhanced sprint interval training program for amateur athletes.

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    Martin, Luc J; Anderson, Scott H; Schmale, Matthew S; Hallworth, Jillian R; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-08-01

    Sprint interval training (SIT) can elicit improvements in aerobic and anaerobic capacity. While variations in SIT protocols have been investigated, the influence of social processes cannot be overlooked. As research supports the use of groups to influence individual cognitions and behaviours, the current project assessed the effectiveness of a group-based intervention with participants conducting SIT. Specifically, 53 amateur athletes (age, 21.9 ± 2.9 years; 53% females) took part in a 4-week training program (3 sessions per week, 30-s "all-out" efforts with 4 min active recovery, repeated 4-6 times per session), and were assigned to "true group", aggregate, or individual conditions. Results indicated no significant differences between groups for the physiological measures. With regards to training improvements from baseline for all participants- regardless of condition - significant main effects for time were identified for maximal oxygen uptake (2.5-2.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), p motivation (p = 0.033, η(2) = 0.13), task self-efficacy (p = 0.018, η(2) = 0.15), and scheduling self-efficacy (p = 0.003, η(2) = 0.22). The true group experienced greater improvements in motivation than the individual condition, but the aggregate and individual conditions demonstrated greater increases in task and scheduling self-efficacy. Though the SIT paradigm employed induced training improvements similar to previous work, the group intervention was not able to further these improvements.

  3. Athletics, Athletic Leadership, and Academic Achievement

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    Yeung, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between athletics, athletic leadership, and academic achievement. This is likely to be a tricky issue as athletes and athletic leaders are not likely to be a random group of students. To address this issue I control for school fixed effects and instrument the endogenous variables with height. I find that…

  4. Comparing sports vision among three groups of soft tennis adolescent athletes: Normal vision, refractive errors with and without correction

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    Shih-Tsun Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of correcting static vision on sports vision is still not clear. Aim: To examine whether sports vision (depth perception [DP], dynamic visual acuity [DVA], eye movement [EM], peripheral vision [PV], and momentary vision [MV], were different among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision (Group A, with refractive error and corrected with (Group B and without eyeglasses (Group C. Setting and Design: A cross-section study was conducted. Soft tennis athletes aged 10–13 who played softball tennis for 2–5 years, and who were without any ocular diseases and without visual training for the past 3 months were recruited. Materials and Methods: DPs were measured in an absolute deviation (mm between a moving rod and fixing rod (approaching at 25 mm/s, receding at 25 mm/s, approaching at 50 mm/s, receding at 50 mm/s using electric DP tester. A smaller deviation represented better DP. DVA, EM, PV, and MV were measured on a scale from 1 (worse to 10 (best using ATHLEVISION software. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the data among the three study groups. Results: A total of 73 athletes (37 in Group A, 8 in Group B, 28 in Group C were enrolled in this study. All four items of DP showed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0051, 0.0004, 0.0095, 0.0021. PV displayed significant difference among the three study groups (P = 0.0044. There was no significant difference in DVA, EM, and MV among the three study groups. Conclusions: Significant better DP and PV were seen among soft tennis adolescent athletes with normal vision than those with refractive error regardless whether they had eyeglasses corrected. On the other hand, DVA, EM, and MV were similar among the three study groups.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS, POLYMER GROUP, INC., DURAPEX PET FILTER SAMPLE

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    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of the size of those particles equal to and smalle...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS, BHA GROUP, INC., QP131 FILTER SAMPLE

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    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of the size of those particles equal to and smalle...

  7. Sprint Running Performance and Technique Changes in Athletes During Periodized Training: An Elite Training Group Case Study.

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    Bezodis, Ian N; Kerwin, David G; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Salo, Aki I T

    2017-11-15

    To understand how training periodization influences sprint performance and key step characteristics over an extended training period in an elite sprint training group. Four sprinters were studied during five months of training. Step velocities, step lengths and step frequencies were measured from video of the maximum velocity phase of training sprints. Bootstrapped mean values were calculated for each athlete for each session and 139 within-athlete, between-session comparisons were made with a repeated measures ANOVA. As training progressed, a link in the changes in velocity and step frequency was maintained. There were 71 between-session comparisons with a change in step velocity yielding at least a large effect size (>1.2), of which 73% had a correspondingly large change in step frequency in the same direction. Within-athlete mean session step length remained relatively constant throughout. Reductions in step velocity and frequency occurred during training phases of high volume lifting and running, with subsequent increases in step velocity and frequency happening during phases of low volume lifting and high intensity sprint work. The importance of step frequency over step length to the changes in performance within a training year was clearly evident for the sprinters studied. Understanding the magnitudes and timings of these changes in relation to the training program is important for coaches and athletes. The underpinning neuro-muscular mechanisms require further investigation, but are likely explained by an increase in force producing capability followed by an increase in the ability to produce that force rapidly.

  8. Reasons for Discontinuing Hashish Use in a Group of Central European Athletes.

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    Duncan, David F.

    1988-01-01

    Examined self-reported reasons for discontinuing marijuana use among 61 former marijuana using students at central European sports training facility. Most common reasons given for discontinuing marijuana use were dislike of effects, athletic training regimen, health reasons, and mental/emotional problems. (Author/NB)

  9. São paulo judo team: study of competitive behavior tendency between athlets of differents groups

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    Helio Serassuelo Junior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to identify the competitive behavior tendency of Judo players according to personal tendencies of competing, winning and setting goals. The samples were separated by circumstantially being part (n=15 or not (n=37 of São Paulo State Team, in two different groups, A and B specifi cally, from different social background and between 14 and 21 years old. The evaluation tools were: Evaluation System ACS – 2 to collect information about competitive tendency; and a second one to obtain Sportive and Personal information about age, practice time and performance level. The Spearman Coeffi cient was used to analyze the intra-group relations between qualitative variables (tendencies of winning, competing and setting goals, and quantitative variables (age, practice time, performance level. The Q-Square was used to analyze the qualitative variables between groups and the test t for the quantitative variables. The results showed that there are signifi cant differences in the variables involved in this study between groups A and B, except for competing tendencies. In conclusion, no differences had been found between qualitative and quantitative variables, in the intra-group analyses but in inter-groups analyses there are signifi cant differences that showed the athletes with more age, practice time and performance level obtain best scores for the competitive tendencies analyzed, these elements can indicate possibilities to reach best results in sport competitions. The Evaluation System ACS – 2 was shown as a good and effi cient model to identify the different competitive behavior tendencies employed by male Judo players. RESUMO O presente estudo teve como objetivo principal identifi car as tendências de comportamento competitivo de atletas masculinos de Judô, em relação às suas tendências pessoais em vencer, competir e estabelecer metas. Os dados foram coletados, utilizando o Sistema de Avaliação ACS – 2 e o

  10. Level of athlete satisfaction and group cohesion in adult indoor soccer teams. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n2p138

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Andrade do Nascimento Junior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study investigated the levels of athlete satisfaction and group cohesion in adult indoor soccer teams. Fifty-eight male athletes of the Parana indoor soccer. Championship participated in the study. The Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Group Environment Questionnaire were used for assessment. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Cronbach’s alpha, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Manova, and the post hoc Scheffe test were used for data analysis (p < 0.05. The results showed that teams with higher levels of athlete satisfaction had higher perception of group cohesion. Teams with low levels of personal satisfaction had lower perception of group cohesion. Comparison of the teams showed differences in three dimensions of satisfaction (training-education, team performance, and strategy and in all dimensions of cohesion. The more satisfied the athletes were with the instruction of the coach, personal treatment and strategies, the more cohesive were the teams for the task. It was concluded that the level of athlete satisfaction plays a key role in the perception of cohesion in sport teams, with a predominance of aspects related to the group-task dimensions over social-group dimensions.

  11. Level of athlete satisfaction and group cohesion in adult indoor soccer teams. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n2p138

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Andrade do Nascimento Junior

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study investigated the levels of athlete satisfaction and group cohesion in adult indoor soccer teams. Fifty-eight male athletes of the Parana indoor soccer. Championship participated in the study. The Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Group Environment Questionnaire were used for assessment. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Cronbach’s alpha, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Manova, and the post hoc Scheffe test were used for data analysis (p < 0.05. The results showed that teams with higher levels of athlete satisfaction had higher perception of group cohesion. Teams with low levels of personal satisfaction had lower perception of group cohesion. Comparison of the teams showed differences in three dimensions of satisfaction (training-education, team performance, and strategy and in all dimensions of cohesion. The more satisfied the athletes were with the instruction of the coach, personal treatment and strategies, the more cohesive were the teams for the task. It was concluded that the level of athlete satisfaction plays a key role in the perception of cohesion in sport teams, with a predominance of aspects related to the group-task dimensions over social-group dimensions.

  12. Analysis of Consumption of Energy Drinks by a Group of Adolescent Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Nowak; Artur Jasionowski

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drinks (EDs) have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other sources of caffeine, may pose a threat to the health of young people. Hence, our objective was to analyze the consumption of EDs among teenagers engaged in sports, including quantity consumed, identification of ...

  13. Analysis of Consumption of Energy Drinks by a Group of Adolescent Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Nowak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks (EDs have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other sources of caffeine, may pose a threat to the health of young people. Hence, our objective was to analyze the consumption of EDs among teenagers engaged in sports, including quantity consumed, identification of factors influencing consumption, and risks associated with EDs and EDs mixed with alcohol (AmEDs. Methods: The study involved a specially designed questionnaire, which was completed by 707 students, 14.3 years of age on average, attending secondary sports schools. Results: EDs were consumed by 69% of the young athletes, 17% of whom drank EDs quite often: every day or 1–3 times a week. Most respondents felt no effects after drinking EDs, but some reported symptoms, including insomnia, anxiety, tachycardia, nervousness and irritability. The major determinant of the choice of EDs was taste (47%, followed by price (21%. One in ten respondents admitted to consumption of AmEDs. Among the consequences reported were: abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, amnesia, headache, and hangover. Conclusions: EDs consumption among adolescent athletes was relatively high. Considering the habit of AmEDs and literature data, it is worth emphasizing that it may lead to health problems in the near future, alcohol- or drug-dependence, as well as other types of risk behaviour.

  14. Analysis of Consumption of Energy Drinks by a Group of Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur

    2016-07-29

    Energy drinks (EDs) have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other sources of caffeine, may pose a threat to the health of young people. Hence, our objective was to analyze the consumption of EDs among teenagers engaged in sports, including quantity consumed, identification of factors influencing consumption, and risks associated with EDs and EDs mixed with alcohol (AmEDs). The study involved a specially designed questionnaire, which was completed by 707 students, 14.3 years of age on average, attending secondary sports schools. EDs were consumed by 69% of the young athletes, 17% of whom drank EDs quite often: every day or 1-3 times a week. Most respondents felt no effects after drinking EDs, but some reported symptoms, including insomnia, anxiety, tachycardia, nervousness and irritability. The major determinant of the choice of EDs was taste (47%), followed by price (21%). One in ten respondents admitted to consumption of AmEDs. Among the consequences reported were: abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, amnesia, headache, and hangover. EDs consumption among adolescent athletes was relatively high. Considering the habit of AmEDs and literature data, it is worth emphasizing that it may lead to health problems in the near future, alcohol- or drug-dependence, as well as other types of risk behaviour.

  15. The Association between Coach and Teammate Injunctive Norm Reference Groups and College Student-Athlete Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Christopher M.; Wyrick, David L.; Rulison, Kelly L.; Strack, Robert W.; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed perceptions about teammate and coach approval of alcohol and other drug use (i.e., injunctive norms) among a sample of 3,155 college student-athletes in their first year of athletic eligibility. Student-athletes perceived that their teammates were more approving of alcohol and other drug use as compared to coaches. A…

  16. [Study on balance group in steady-state extraction process of Chinese medicine and experimental verification to Houttuynia cordata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenlong; Zhang, Xili; He, Fuyuan; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Haiqin; Wu, Dezhi; Chen, Zuohong

    2011-11-01

    To establish and experimental verification the mathematical model of the balance groups that is the steady-state of traditional Chinese medicine in extraction. Using the entropy and genetic principles of statistics, and taking the coefficient of variation of GC fingerprint which is the naphtha of the Houttuynia cordata between strains in the same GAP place as a pivot to establish and verify the mathematical model was established of the balance groups that is the steady-state of traditional Chinese medicine in extraction. A mathematical model that is suitable for the balance groups of the steady-state of traditional Chinese medicine and preparation in extraction, and the balance groups which is 29 683 strains (approximately 118.7 kg) were gained with the same origin of H. cordata as the model drug. Under the GAP of quality control model, controlling the stability of the quality through further using the Hardy-Weinberg balance groups of the H. cordata between strains, the new theory and experiment foundation is established for the steady-state of traditional Chinese medicine in extraction and quality control.

  17. Some views of elite athletes on cooperation with the media and the media's influence on sports and private lives

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    Marko Zadražnik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Today, sport represents an element of the quality of life as it is often an indicator of a country's civilisational, societal and economic development. The public is mostly interested in elite sport which has effects for both society as well the lives of individuals as the public is not only interested in sports achievements but also in athlete's private lives. The border between the public and private is difficult to establish. The interlinked work of elite athletes and the media often results in misunderstandings as the media intrudes on the private lives of athletes, which in turn impacts both the private and professional lives of athletes. OBJECTIVE: The study's main purpose was to identify the attitude of elite athletes to the media and the influence of the media on the private and professional lives of athletes. The study also evaluated the qualities of an ideal journalist in the eyes of athletes. METHODS: Differences between more and less experienced elite athletes were studied on a sample of 67 Slovenian athletes from team sports. The data were collected through a questionnaire. The findings were further interpreted in line with the opinions of ten leading athletes from individual sports, which were collected through a semi-structured interview. RESULTS: Differences between groups of more and less experienced athletes were detected in answers to the question, "When do athletes decide to cooperate with the media?" and "Have you already been offended by the media?". Elite athletes like to cooperate with the media and usually give information away freely. Similarly, journalists largely understand that athletes desire peace and quiet prior to a competition. Athletes perceive precision and verification of information as the most important qualities of journalists, while they consider some personal qualities and materialistic characteristics as less important. CONCLUSIONS: The study's results show that in the future athletes would

  18. The differences in electrocardiogram interpretation in top-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubiak, Agnieszka A; Burkhard-Jagodzińska, Krystyna; Król, Wojciech; Konopka, Marcin; Bursa, Dominik; Sitkowski, Dariusz; Kuch, Marek; Braksator, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Poland recommends electrocardiogram (ECG)-based cardiovascular screening in athletes, but so far there has been a lack of guidelines on preparticipation assessment. We compared different criteria of ECG screening assessment in a group of top-level athletes. The aims were to evaluate the prevalence of ECG changes in athletes that necessitate further cardiological work-up according to three criteria in various age groups as well as to identify factors determining the occurrence of changes related and unrelated to the training. 262 high-dynamic, high-static Polish athletes (rowers, cyclists, canoeists) were divided into two age categories: young (≤ 18 years of age; n = 177, mean age 16.9 ± 0.8; 15-18 years) and elite (> 18 years of age; n = 85, mean age 22.9 ± 3.4; 19-34 years). All sports persons had a 12-lead ECG performed and evaluated according to 2010 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) recommendations, 2012 Seattle criteria, and 2014 Refined criteria. The Refined criteria reduced (p < 0.001) the number of training-unrelated ECG findings to 8.0% vs. 12.6% (Seattle criteria) and 30.5% (ESC recommendations). All three criteria revealed more training-related changes in the group of older athletes (76.5% vs. 55.9%, p = 0.001). Predictors that significantly (p < 0.005) affected the occurrence of adaptive changes were the age of the athlete, training duration (in years), and male gender. 1. The ESC criteria identified a group of athletes that was unacceptably large, as for the screening test, requiring verification with other methods (every fourth athlete). 2. The use of the Refined criteria helps to significantly reduce the frequency and necessity for additional tests. 3. The dependence of adaptive changes on training duration and athletes' age confirms the benign nature of those ECG findings.

  19. Analysis of participation and performance in athletes by age group in ultramarathons of more than 200 km in length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zingg MA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Matthias Zingg,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Christoph A Rüst,1 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers3 1Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U1093, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France Background: Participation and performance trends for athletes by age group have been investigated for marathoners and ultramarathoners competing in races up to 161 km, but not for longer distances of more than 200 km. Methods: Participation and performance trends in athletes by age group in the Badwater (217 km and Spartathlon (246 km races were compared from 2000 to 2012. Results: The number of female and male finishers increased in both races across years (P 0.05. In Spartathlon, the age of the annual five fastest finishers was unchanged at 39.7 ± 2.4 years for men and 44.6 ± 3.2 years for women (P > 0.05. In Badwater, running speed increased in men from 7.9 ± 0.7 km/hour to 8.7 ± 0.6 km/hour (r2 = 0.51, P 0.05. In Badwater, the number of men in age groups 30–34 years (r2 = 0.37, P = 0.03 and 40–44 years (r2 = 0.75, P < 0.01 increased. In Spartathlon, the number of men increased in the age group 40–44 years (r2 = 0.33, P = 0.04. Men in age groups 30–34 (r2 = 0.64, P < 0.01, 35–39 (r2 = 0.33, P = 0.04, 40–44 (r2 = 0.34, P = 0.04, and 55–59 years (r2 = 0.40, P = 0.02 improved running speed in Badwater. In Spartathlon, no change in running speed was observed. Conclusion: The fastest finishers in ultramarathons more than 200 km in distance were 40–45 years old and have to be classified as “master runners” by definition. In contrast to reports of marathoners and ultramarathoners competing in races of 161 km in distance, the increase in participation and the improvement in performance by age group were less pronounced in ultramarathoners competing in races of more than 200 km. Keywords: ultra

  20. A group-enhanced sprint interval training program for amateur athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hallworth, Jillian R; Martin, Luc J; Hazell, Tom J; Anderson, Scott H; Schmale, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    .... As research supports the use of groups to influence individual cognitions and behaviours, the current project assessed the effectiveness of a group-based intervention with participants conducting SIT...

  1. Comparison of Effect of One Course of Intense Exercise (Wingate test) on Serum Levels of Interleukin-17 in Different Groups of Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofighee, Asghar; Khazaei, Hossein Ali; Jalili, Arman

    2014-12-01

    Research on the effects of exercise on immune function, has a wide range of sporting activities. Study on the long-term effects of regular exercise on serum levels of cytokines such as interleukin-17 have shown that moderate and regular exercise, has an important role in the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Exhaustive exercise has a deep effect on cellular, humoral, innate immunity and the amount of cytokines of an athlete's immune system. So this study was designed to compare the effect of one course of exhaustive exercise on serum levels of interleukin (IL)-17 in different groups of athletes. Forty professional athletes with a mean age of 25.1 ± 5.0 years, divided equally in 4 groups (handball, volleyball, Sepak-takraw and climbing) were selected for this purpose. 30 second Wingate test for each athlete was used to assess anaerobic power. Blood samples before, immediately after and 2 hours after exercise was collected and the amount of serum IL-17 was measured. The results showed that the level of IL-17 in the study groups before and after the two hours exercise did not significantly change in all four groups. The results showed that short anaerobic exercise has no effect on the level of IL-17.

  2. Allocation algorithm for athletes group to form tactical tasks in game team sports using the methods of multivariate analysis (illustrated women Ukrainian team basketball with hearing impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : develop and prove experimentally allocation algorithm athletes in groups to form a tactical tasks in team sports game using methods of multivariate analysis. Material : The study involved 12 basketball hearing impaired 20-25 years old - female players team of Ukraine on basketball. Analyzed the results of testing and competitive activity 12 basketball players with hearing impairments - Lithuanian team players. Results : An algorithm for distribution by groups of athletes for the formation of tactical tasks. The algorithm consists of the following steps: 1 - testing of athletes; 2 - A hierarchical cluster analysis performance testing; 3 - Distribution of sportsmen groups, analysis of the characteristics of athletes, the formation of tactical tasks. Found higher rates of reaction rate at the offensive players. We pivot revealed a higher level of absolute strength. The defenders found a higher frequency of movement and jumping. Conclusions : The algorithm is the basis for determining the best options mutual combination players in the development and implementation of tactical combinations, the selection of partners when working in pairs and triples in training.

  3. Annual age-grouping and athlete development: a meta-analytical review of relative age effects in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, Stephen; Baker, Joseph; Wattie, Nick; McKenna, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Annual age-grouping is a common organizational strategy in sport. However, such a strategy appears to promote relative age effects (RAEs). RAEs refer both to the immediate participation and long-term attainment constraints in sport, occurring as a result of chronological age and associated physical (e.g. height) differences as well as selection practices in annual age-grouped cohorts. This article represents the first meta-analytical review of RAEs, aimed to collectively determine (i) the overall prevalence and strength of RAEs across and within sports, and (ii) identify moderator variables. A total of 38 studies, spanning 1984-2007, containing 253 independent samples across 14 sports and 16 countries were re-examined and included in a single analysis using odds ratios and random effects procedures for combining study estimates. Overall results identified consistent prevalence of RAEs, but with small effect sizes. Effect size increased linearly with relative age differences. Follow-up analyses identified age category, skill level and sport context as moderators of RAE magnitude. Sports context involving adolescent (aged 15-18 years) males, at the representative (i.e. regional and national) level in highly popular sports appear most at risk to RAE inequalities. Researchers need to understand the mechanisms by which RAEs magnify and subside, as well as confirm whether RAEs exist in female and more culturally diverse contexts. To reduce and eliminate this social inequality from influencing athletes' experiences, especially within developmental periods, direct policy, organizational and practitioner intervention is required.

  4. Analysis of group cohesion levels and pre-competitive psychological stress in volleyball athletes.. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n6p704

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Moraes Balbim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study was designed to analyze the level of group cohesion and pre-competitive psychological stress of adult volleyball athletes. The subjects consisted of 155 male and female athletes from the state of Parana who played in the JAPS/ 1st division (A, and 2nd division (B. The assessment instruments used were the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ and the Volleyball Psychic Stress Test (V-PST. For data analysis, the following tools were used: Cronbach’s alpha, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney, one-way Anova, and Tukey’s post hoc (p<0.05. The results revealed that athletes of division A were more negatively influenced by stress factors than the athletes of division B; in terms of individual attraction to the social group (p=0.014 and tasks (p=0016 athletes of division B had higher levels of group cohesion than athletes from division A; athletes with low social cohesion were negatively impacted by factors of "inappropriate physical conditioning" and "excessive nervousness;" athletes with low levels of cohesion for the task were negatively influenced by the factors of "Pressure from other people to win" and positively by the factor "Behavior of the fans in the game outside." It was concluded that group cohesion is demonstrated to be an intervening factor in pre-competitive stress thereby demonstrating that the higher the dispute level, the higher the negative influence of stress.

  5. Dosage Effects of Neuromuscular Training Intervention to Reduce Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Female Athletes: Meta-and Sub-group Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; Myer, Gregory D.; Barber Foss, Kim D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although a series of meta-analysis demonstrated neuromuscular training (NMT) is an effective intervention to reduce anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in female athletes, the potential existence of a dosage effect remains unknown. Objective To systematically review previously published clinical trials and evaluate potential dosage effects of NMT for ACL injury reduction in female athletes. Design Meta- and Sub-group analyses Setting The key words “knee”, “anterior cruciate ligament”, “ACL”, “prospective”, “neuromuscular”, “training”, “female”, and “prevention” were utilized in PubMed and EBSCO host for studies published between 1995 and May 2012. Participants Inclusion criteria set for studies in the current analysis were: 1) recruited female athletes as subjects, 2) documented the number of ACL injuries, 3) employed a NMT intervention aimed to reduce ACL injuries, 4) had a control group, 5) used a prospective control trial design and 6) provided NMT session duration and frequency information. Main outcome measures The number of ACL injuries and female athletes in each group (control and intervention) were compared based on duration, frequency, and volume of NMT through odds ratio (OR). Results A total of 14 studies were reviewed. Analyses that compared the number of ACL injuries with short versus long NMT duration showed greater ACL injury reduction in female athletes who were in the long NMT duration (OR:0.35, 95%CI: 0.23, 0.53, p=0.001) than the short NMT duration (OR: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.41, 0.90, p=0.013) group. Analysis that compared single versus multi NMT frequency indicated greater ACL injury reduction in multi NMT frequency (OR: 0.35, 95%CI: 0.23, 0.53, p=0.001) compared to single NMT frequency (OR: 0.62, 95%CI:0.41, 0.94, p=0.024). Combining the duration and frequency of NMT programs, an inverse dose-response association emerged among low (OR: 0.66, 95%CI: 0.43, 0.99, p=0.045), moderate (OR: 0.46, 95%CI: 0.21, 1

  6. Gender verification in competitive sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J L; Ljungqvist, A; de la Chapelle, A; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Genel, M; Carlson, A S; Ehrhardt, A A; Ferris, E

    1993-11-01

    The possibility that men might masquerade as women and be unfair competitors in women's sports is accepted as outrageous by athletes and the public alike. Since the 1930s, media reports have fuelled claims that individuals who once competed as female athletes subsequently appeared to be men. In most of these cases there was probably ambiguity of the external genitalia, possibly as a result of male pseudohermaphroditism. Nonetheless, beginning at the Rome Olympic Games in 1960, the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) began establishing rules of eligibility for women athletes. Initially, physical examination was used as a method for gender verification, but this plan was widely resented. Thus, sex chromatin testing (buccal smear) was introduced at the Mexico City Olympic Games in 1968. The principle was that genetic females (46,XX) show a single X-chromatic mass, whereas males (46,XY) do not. Unfortunately, sex chromatin analysis fell out of common diagnostic use by geneticists shortly after the International Olympic Committee (IOC) began its implementation for gender verification. The lack of laboratories routinely performing the test aggravated the problem of errors in interpretation by inexperienced workers, yielding false-positive and false-negative results. However, an even greater problem is that there exist phenotypic females with male sex chromatin patterns (e.g. androgen insensitivity, XY gonadal dysgenesis). These individuals have no athletic advantage as a result of their congenital abnormality and reasonably should not be excluded from competition. That is, only the chromosomal (genetic) sex is analysed by sex chromatin testing, not the anatomical or psychosocial status. For all the above reasons sex chromatin testing unfairly excludes many athletes. Although the IOC offered follow-up physical examinations that could have restored eligibility for those 'failing' sex chromatin tests, most affected athletes seemed to prefer to 'retire'. All

  7. Return to Play and Future ACL Injury Risk Following ACL Reconstruction In Soccer Athletes From the MOON Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H.; Schmitz, Leah; Wright, Rick W.; Dunn, Warren R.; Parker, Richard D.; Andrish, Jack T.; McCarty, Eric C.; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited information on outcomes and return to play (RTP) after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) in soccer athletes. Hypothesis The purpose of this study was to (i) test the hypotheses that player sex, side of injury and graft choice do not influence RTP, and (ii) define the risk for future ACL injury in soccer players after ACLR. Study design Retrospective cohort study, Level II. Methods Soccer players in a prospective cohort were contacted to determine RTP following ACLR. Information regarding if and when they returned to play, their current playing status, the primary reason they stopped playing soccer (if relevant) and incidence of subsequent ACL surgery was recorded. Results Initially, 72% of 100 soccer athletes (55 male, 45 female) with a mean age of 24.2 years at the time of ACL reconstruction returned to soccer. At average follow up of 7.0 years, 36% were still playing, a significant decrease compared to initial RTP (psoccer athletes had undergone further ACL surgery, including 9 on the contralateral knee and 3 on the ipsilateral knee. In a univariate analysis, females were more likely to have future ACL surgery (20% v. 5.5%, p=0.03). Soccer athletes who underwent ACLR on their non-dominant limb had a higher future rate of contra-lateral ACLR (16%) than soccer athletes who underwent ACLR on their dominant limb (3.5%) (p=0.03). Conclusion Younger and male soccer players are more likely to return to play after ACL reconstruction. Return to soccer following ACLR declines over time. PMID:23002201

  8. Eating Disorders among High Performance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutjesdyk, Dexa; Jevne, Ronna

    1993-01-01

    Whether athletes in sports that emphasize leanness differ from athletes in other sports with regard to eating attitudes and disposition toward eating disorders was studied for 104 female and 87 male postsecondary level athletes. Results indicate that different groups of athletes may be at different risks of eating disorders. (SLD)

  9. Athlete's Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athlete's foot is a common infection caused by a fungus. It most often affects the space between the toes. ... skin between your toes. You can get athlete's foot from damp surfaces, such as showers, swimming pools, ...

  10. Safety analysis of RBMK design basis accidents by coupled neutronics thermal hydraulics codes QUABOX/CUBBOX-ATHLET and SADCO-ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, M.; Langenbuch, S.; Velkov, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Garching (Germany); Kuznetcov, P.; Panin, V.; Roghdestvensky, M.; Sakharova, T.; Stenbock, I. [Research and Development Inst. of Power Engineering (RDIPE), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    One of the most important issues of safety analysis is the validation and verification (V and V) of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics codes used to study NPP transients and accidental processes. Risks and difficulties of a straight experimental investigation of such regimes of operating NPPs for V and V purposes give rise to the application of coupled 3D code packages cross-verification. - Codes for V and V: Thermal hydraulics and fluid mechanics calculations were performed by the ATHLET code (Analysis of Thermal-hydraulics of Leaks and Transient). Right and left loops of RBMK Main Coolant Circuit (MCC) connected by a steam line system were simulated. The following elements of each loop are reproduced as one group each: 2 Steam Drums, Downcomers and 3 Main Coolant Pumps. 22 Distribution Group Headers are modeled as one group for RIAs; however for LOCAs accidental and neighbouring channels are described separately. Fuel Channels (and the Lower Water Lines) are grouped according to the reactor core power distribution. In a first approach the core power in the ATHLET2.0A input model was simulated by a point kinetics model, which was replaced later by the 3D-core models SADCO from NIKIET and QUABOX/CUBBOX (Q/C) from GRS. - Results of Calculations: A comparison of Q/C and SADCO-ATHLET calculations for the NPP Kursk-1 are presented as example of 3D coupled codes cross-verification, showing a rod withdrawal accident. In the ATHLET model the RBMK core is represented by 6 regions, however the fuel channels around the accidental rod were analyzed separately, resulting in a total number of 79 thermal hydraulic channels in ATHLET to describe the core. The detailed description of modernized control and protection system (CPS) was included in the model. - Conclusions: 1. The results show that coupled codes cross-verification provides a reliable methodology of testing such codes for transient and accident analyses. 2. ATHLET is an effective calculational tool for analyses of

  11. female collegiate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Ayers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  12. Vegetarian athletes: Special requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Ongan; Gülgün Ersoy

    2012-01-01

    Vegetarian diets have been mentioned on having long and short term beneficial effects while they are important parts of the Western countries. Vegetarians are not homogeneous groups and subjects are motivated to be on a vegetarian diet because of culturel and regional reasons, ethical concerns including animal rights, health parameters and environmental situations. And these reasons differ from vegetarian and omnivour athletes. Athletes, especially endurance ones (sprinters, cyclists, triathl...

  13. Secondary elements of blood pH variation can influence the effort effectiveness based on adaptive changes within a group of elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ştefan Adrian; Tomescu, Valeriu; Voidăzan, Septimiu

    2016-01-01

    pH is the direct indicator of the body reaction following the activities performed. Establishing precise correlations between pH and blood biochemical parameters might support the balancing of values during periods of marked physical activity. We conducted a case study in a group of elite rowers. Twelve athletes were included in the study. Monitoring was carried out by collecting biological samples several times a day: in the morning, 80 minutes pre-workout, 12 hours after the last physical effort performed, at two different times, 10 days apart. Determinations were aimed at adapting the reported biochemical parameters depending on the effort performed. The following parameters were monitored: pH, HCO3, pCO2, pO2, BE, SBE, SBC, Ca++, Mg++, LDH, GPT, T-Pro, and Alb. The mean value of pH found in athletes was 7.41±0.024. The value obtained was significantly correlated to biochemical parameters such as BE (2.32±1.79), SBC (1.67±1.45), SBE (2.70±1.75). However, bicarbonate (HCO3) was statistically significantly related with SBE, SBC, SBE, and pO2, but did not present a strong association with the pH value (p=0.094). However, values such as Alb, Ca++, LDH, BE, SBC are related to pH value as a result of variations in the data submitted. The processed data evidence the fact that blood pH, in this case, is significantly influenced by a number of indices that correlate energy system activity, individual adaptation to effort, and the recovery process. The parameters under investigation (SBE, SBC, SBE, CPK, LDH) are associated with pH changes that could confirm the recovery efficiency of the athlete, along with a possible metabolic acidosis/alkalosis.

  14. [The ECG of athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löllgen, Herbert

    2015-09-01

    There has been a long standing controversy on the role of a resting electrocardiogram (ECG) in the preparticipation examination of athletes, as well as in children and adolescents, in leisure time and competitive athletes. Besides other arguments, this was due to the limited validity, which led to false positive and false negative findings. Recent studies from different research groups yielded a significant improvement in establishing ECG criteria in athletes to discriminate normal from abnormal or pathological findings in athletes. This is additionally supported and improved by a software-based ECG device considering the new Seattle criteria. These new criteria from the Seattle conference reliably discriminate normal from abnormal findings. Frequent ECG findings in athletes, especially in those engaged in endurance sports are sinus bradycardia, atrioventricular (AV) block and signs of left ventricular hypertrophy. Abnormal findings are related to structural left ventricular alterations due to cardiomyopathy, mainly hypertrophic with or without outflow tract obstruction, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and dilated cardiomyopathy. The ECG findings suggestive of electrical conductance disorders are observed in channelopathies, Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome supraventricular arrhythmias or disturbances of cardiac conduction. The main diseases are long or short QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Atrial fibrillation, mostly paroxysmal, is also now more frequently observed especially in middle aged endurance athletes. Interpretation of ECG in young and older athletes requires in-depth knowledge in cardiology and sports medicine. The interpretation can only be carried out by considering medical history, clinical examination and ethnicity. Profound and long-term experience of athlete's ECG interpretation is required to protect athletes and to prevent cardiac emergencies.

  15. Cardiovascular pre-participation screening of young competitive athletes for prevention of sudden death: proposal for a common European protocol. Consensus Statement of the Study Group of Sport Cardiology of the Working Group of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology and the Working Group of Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Domenico; Pelliccia, Antonio; Bjørnstad, Hans Halvor; Vanhees, Luc; Biffi, Alessandro; Borjesson, Mats; Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, Nicole; Deligiannis, Asterios; Solberg, Erik; Dugmore, Dorian; Mellwig, Klaus P; Assanelli, Deodato; Delise, Pietro; van-Buuren, Frank; Anastasakis, Aris; Heidbuchel, Hein; Hoffmann, Ellen; Fagard, Robert; Priori, Silvia G; Basso, Cristina; Arbustini, Eloisa; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina; McKenna, William J; Thiene, Gaetano

    2005-03-01

    The 1996 American Heart Association consensus panel recommendations stated that pre-participation cardiovascular screening for young competitive athletes is justifiable and compelling on ethical, legal, and medical grounds. The present article represents the consensus statement of the Study Group on Sports Cardiology of the Working Group on Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology and the Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial diseases of the European Society of Cardiology, which comprises cardiovascular specialists and other physicians from different European countries with extensive clinical experience with young competitive athletes, as well as with pathological substrates of sudden death. The document takes note of the 25-year Italian experience on systematic pre-participation screening of competitive athletes and focuses on relevant issues, mostly regarding the relative risk, causes, and prevalence of sudden death in athletes; the efficacy, feasibility, and cost-effectiveness of population-based pre-participation cardiovascular screening; the key role of 12-lead ECG for identification of cardiovascular diseases such as cardiomyopathies and channelopathies at risk of sudden death during sports; and the potential of preventing fatal events. The main purpose of the consensus document is to reinforce the principle of the need for pre-participation medical clearance of all young athletes involved in organized sports programmes, on the basis of (i) the proven efficacy of systematic screening by 12-lead ECG (in addition to history and physical examination) to identify hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-the leading cause of sports-related sudden death-and to prevent athletic field fatalities; (ii) the potential screening ability in detecting other lethal cardiovascular diseases presenting with ECG abnormalities. The consensus document recommends the implementation of a common European screening protocol essentially based on 12-lead ECG.

  16. Mechanism of Alkoxy Groups Substitution by Grignard Reagents on Aromatic Rings and Experimental Verification of Theoretical Predictions of Anomalous Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Brockway, Anthony J.; Shaw, Jared T.; Houk, K. N.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of direct displacement of alkoxy groups in vinylogous and aromatic esters by Grignard reagents, a reaction that is not observed with expectedly better tosyloxy leaving groups, is elucidated computationally. The mechanism of this reaction has been determined to proceed through the inner-sphere attack of nucleophilic alkyl groups from magnesium to the reacting carbons via a metalaoxetane transition state. The formation of a strong magnesium chelate with the reacting alkoxy and carbonyl groups dictates the observed reactivity and selectivity. The influence of ester, ketone and aldehyde substituents was investigated. In some cases, the calculations predicted the formation of products different than those previously reported; these predictions were then verified experimentally. The importance of studying the actual system, and not simplified models as computational systems, is demonstrated. PMID:23601086

  17. Student Athletes Majoring in Family and Consumer Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roofe, Nina L.

    2010-01-01

    This study used action research methodology to explore factors that influenced student athletes to major in family and consumer sciences (FCS). Three survey groups included current student athletes (n = 23), alumni athletes (n = 14), and FCS faculty (n = 5). Current student athletes and FCS faculty participated in separate focus groups. The…

  18. Performance Motivation of Elite Athletes, Recreational Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmela Pavel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to widen knowledge about motivation of elite, recreational athletes and non-athletes. Participants from the elite athletes group (n = 35, 16.7 ± .70 years old were football players of the Slovak national team. Recreational athletes (n = 31, 16.8 ± .80 years old and non-athletes (n = 29, 15.7 ± .60 years old are visiting Grammar School in Zvolen. D-M-V standardized questionnaire was used to determine performance motivation. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test disconfirmed the null hypothesis on the normality of data. We used the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests to determine the statistical significance of the differences. The results showed that there were significant (p .0.01 differences with large effect size (η2 ≥ .14 in all the three (the performance motives scale, the anxiety inhibiting performance scale and the anxiety supporting performance scale dimensions among the research groups. The motivation of elite athletes is significantly higher (p = .048; r = .25 compared to the recreational athletes. Also, compared to the non-athletes, the level of performance motivation is significantly higher (p = .002; r = .51 in the elite athletes. Based on the results of the study we can formulate the statement that the level of performance motivation is contingent on the level of sport activity.

  19. Psychological demands experienced by recreational endurance athletes

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, Alister; Meijen, Carla; Marcora, Samuele

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify psychological demands that are commonly experienced by endurance athletes so that these demands could inform the design of performance-enhancement psychological interventions for endurance athletes. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 recreational endurance athletes of various sports (running, cycling, and triathlon), distances, and competitive levels to explore the psychological demands of training, competition preparation, and competition participation...

  20. Connecting Collegiate Recreation and Athletics to Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Cara W; Stenta, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    Collegiate recreation and intercollegiate athletics have an impact on individual, group, and community development of students who are participants, employees, and athletes and learn leadership within these environments. This chapter explores and applies leadership frameworks in recreation and athletics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  1. Athlete's foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Athlete's foot URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ...

  2. Coaching preferences of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, P C; Howe, B L

    1984-12-01

    The study examined the coaching preferences of 80 male and 80 female athletes, as measured by the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). In addition, it attempted to assess the applicability to sport of the Life-cycle and Path-goal theories of leadership. Comparisons between groups were made on the basis of sex, age, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that athletes in independent sports preferred more democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and less autocratic behaviour (p = .028) than athletes in interdependent sports. No differences in coaching preferences were found which could be attributed to the age or sex of the athlete, or the variability of the sports task. These results partially supported the Path-goal theory, but did not support the Life-cycle theory. Athletes of all groups tended to favour coaches who displayed training behaviour and rewarding behaviour "often", democratic behaviour and social support behaviour "occasionally", and autocratic behaviour "seldom". This consistency may be a useful finding for those organizations and institutions interested in preparing coaches.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION COATINGS AND COATING EQUIPMENT PROGRAM (ETV CCEP), FINAL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS GROUP TAGNITE--TESTING AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN (T/QAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of the Environmental Testing and Verification Coatings and Coating Equipment Program is to verify pollution prevention and performance characteristics of coating technologies and make the results of the testing available to prospective coating technology use...

  4. Verification Games: Crowd-Sourced Formal Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    VERIFICATION GAMES : CROWD-SOURCED FORMAL VERIFICATION UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON MARCH 2016 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT...DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2012 – SEP 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE VERIFICATION GAMES : CROWD-SOURCED FORMAL VERIFICATION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750...clarification memorandum dated 16 Jan 09. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Over the more than three years of the project Verification Games : Crowd-sourced

  5. A Study of Significance of Racial and Athletic Identification on Educational Perceptions among African American Male College Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Rhema D.; Harrison, C. Keith; Bukstein, Scott J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the racial and athletic identities of African American male college athletes to determine how the identities might impact the athletic and educational potential and performance of this specific group of college athletes. The study revealed that participants who responded negatively to a poor athletic…

  6. Spatial Ability Differences in Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cynthia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive processes, specifically spatial abilities, are responsible for integration of daily activities. Many factors contribute to the plasticity of the brain which, furthermore, alter the spatial ability. Physical activity, which can be further grouped into sport and exercise, is a modifiable factor that enhances the cognitive processes through a divergent mechanism. This study aimed to gain further understanding on whether sport differs from exercise in altering spatial ability in athletes and non-athletes. Methods: This observational study compared the spatial ability score of athletes of Indonesia National Sport Comitte (Komite Olahraga Nasional Indonesia, KONI in West Java (n= 21 and non-athletes (n= 21. Sampling were performed using stratified random technique and data were collected between August and October 2015 which included spatial scores and demographic of subjects. Results: The difference in spatial scores between athletes and non-athletes were not significant (p=0.432. Conclusions: This study suggests an insignificant difference in spatial ability in athletes performing sport and non-athletes performing exercise. Hence, the cognitive component skills in sport experience do not alter the spatial ability.

  7. Functional Performance Testing in Athletes with Functional Ankle Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Nidhi; Sharma, Archna; Singh Sandhu, Jaspal

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine if functional performance deficits are present in athletes with functional ankle instability (FAI) compared to healthy athletes using various functional performance tests. Methods Sixty two athletes (mean age-21.7±1.8years; height-168.2±9.1cm; weight-63.8±11.0kg) participated in this case control study. Athletes were divided into two groups: athletes with FAI (FAI group, n=31) and healthy athletes (Non-FAI group, n=31). The FAI group was further divided into two subgroups...

  8. Disorders of the female athlete triad among collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Manore, Melinda M

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of and relationship between the disorders of the female athlete triad in collegiate athletes participating in aesthetic, endurance, or team/anaerobic sports. Participants were 425 female collegiate athletes from 7 universities across the United States. Disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and musculoskeletal injuries were assessed by a health/medical, dieting and menstrual history questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and the Eating Disorder Inventory Body Dissatisfaction Subscale (EDI-BD). The percentage of athletes reporting a clinical diagnosis of anorexia and bulimia nervosa was 3.3% and 2.3%, respectively; mean ( SD) EAT and EDI-BD scores were 10.6 9.6 and 9.8 7.6, respectively. The percentage of athletes with scores indicating "at-risk" behavior for an eating disorder were 15.2% using the EAT-26 and 32.4% using the EDI-BD. A similar percentage of athletes in aesthetic, endurance, and team/anaerobic sports reported a clinical diagnosis of anorexia or bulimia. However, athletes in aesthetic sports scored higher on the EAT-26 (13.5 10.9) than athletes in endurance (10.0 9.3) or team/anaerobic sports (9.9 9.0, p athletes in aesthetic versus endurance or team/anaerobic sports scored above the EAT-26 cut-off score of 20 (p athletes not using oral contraceptives, and there were no group differences in the prevalence of self-reported menstrual irregularity. Muscle and bone injuries sustained during the collegiate career were reported by 65.9% and 34.3% of athletes, respectively, and more athletes in aesthetic versus endurance and team/anaerobic sports reported muscle (p =.005) and/or bone injuries (p Athletes "at risk" for eating disorders more frequently reported menstrual irregularity (p =.004) and sustained more bone injuries (p =.003) during their collegiate career. These data indicate that while the prevalence of clinical eating disorders is low in female collegiate athletes, many are "at risk" for an eating

  9. Liability, Athletic Equipment, and the Athletic Trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Richard

    Standards of conduct, roles, and responsibilities expected of athletic trainers should be developed and disseminated. These guidelines could be used in court to show that the athletic trainer was following basic standards if he should be charged with liability. A review of liability cases involving athletic injuries received while athletes were…

  10. Ways to influence amateur's athletes postural stability

    OpenAIRE

    Jan FIŠER

    2016-01-01

    Title Ways to influence amateur s athletes postural stability Objectives The aim of this study is to describe the selected parameters of body composition and postural stability of the amateur s athletes (floorball players) group and to assess the efficiency of short-term intervention exercise based on senzomotor stimulation, acral coactivation therapy and plyometrics. Methods This work is a descriptive work, one part of it is the intervention. Two groups of amateur s athletes (floorball playe...

  11. Eating disorder pathology in elite adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Hermann-Werner, Anne; Mayer, Jochen; Diehl, Katharina; Schneider, Sven; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate eating disorder pathology in German elite adolescent athletes. Evidence suggests that eating disorder pathology is more common in adult elite sports, especially in female athletes and in sports emphasizing leanness. There is a scarcity of studies in elite adolescent athletes who are in a vulnerable developmental stage and are affected by general as well as sport-specific risk factors. Our data was derived from the German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL) which conducted a survey in 1138 elite adolescent athletes. In this sample, we assessed body weight, weight control behavior, body acceptance and screened overall for core symptoms of eating disorders, depression and anxiety. We performed a tree analysis to identify high risk groups for eating disorder pathology. High risk groups comprised (a) athletes competing in weight dependent sports, and among athletes competing in disciplines other than weight dependent sports (b) athletes who are high on negative affectivity, (c) female athletes and (d) male athletes competing in endurance, technical or power sports. Athletes competing in weight dependent disciplines reported wide spread use of compensatory behaviors to influence body weight. Athletes reporting eating disorder pathology showed higher levels of depression and anxiety than athletes without eating disorder pathology. Increased psychosocial burden in athletes with eating disorder pathology suggests that eating disorder symptoms should not be accepted as an unproblematic and functional part of elite sports. The prevention and management of eating disorder pathology is especially important in weight dependent sports. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:553-562). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The time-dependent 3D discrete ordinates code TORT-TD with thermal-hydraulic feedback by ATHLET models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seubert, A.; Velkov, K.; Langenbuch, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Forschungsinstitute, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the time-dependent 3D discrete ordinates transport code TORT-TD. Thermal-hydraulic feedback is considered by coupling TORT-TD with the thermal-hydraulics system code ATHLET. The coupled code TORT-TD/ATHLET allows 3D pin-by-pin analyses of transients in few energy groups and anisotropic scattering by solving the time-dependent transport equation using the unconditionally stable implicit method. The nuclear cross sections are interpolated between pre-calculated table values of fuel temperature, moderator density and boron concentration. For verification of the implementation, selected test cases have been calculated by TORT-TD/ATHLET. They include a control rod ejection transient in a small PWR fuel assembly arrangement and a local boron concentration change in a single PWR fuel assembly. In the latter, special attention has been paid to study the influence of the thermal-hydraulic feedback modelling in ATHLET. The results obtained for a control rod ejection accident in a PWR quarter core demonstrate the applicability of TORT-TD/ATHLET. (authors)

  13. Comparison of Effect of One Course of Intense Exercise (Wingate test) on Serum Levels of Interleukin-17 in Different Groups of Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Tofighee, Asghar; Khazaei, Hossein Ali; Jalili, Arman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on the effects of exercise on immune function, has a wide range of sporting activities. Study on the long-term effects of regular exercise on serum levels of cytokines such as interleukin-17 have shown that moderate and regular exercise, has an important role in the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Objectives: Exhaustive exercise has a deep effect on cellular, humoral, innate immunity and the amount of cytokines of an athlete?s immune system. So this study was d...

  14. Attention and Reaction Time in Shotokan Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António VencesBrito

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the attention capacity and the reaction time in Portuguese karate Shotokan athletes. Participated 96 Shotokan athletes from the Portuguese Karate Association. We physically characterized the sample (weight, height, body mass index, and body fat mass percentage and evaluated Simple Reaction Time (TRS, Choice Reaction Time (TRE, Decision Time (TD and the Distributed Attention (AD. Data was analyzed according to athletes’ group age (15 to 19 yr, 20 to 35 yr and more than 35 yr, level of graduation (9th to 4th kyu, 3rd to 1st kyu, DAN and by gender (male and female. Male athletes present significant differences from female athletes in height, weight, years of practice and body fat mass. In relation to TRS all groups tend to a value near to 300 ms without significant differences among them, but the TRE and the TD are significantly higher in the Dan athletes and in the +35 yrs athletes than in the other groups. On the other hand the Dan and +35 yrs athletes tend to do less mistakes. Gender does not influence significantly the reaction time in the Shotokan karate athletes, but it seems that women tend to have smaller reaction times than men. Athletes with more years of practice and more graduation need more time to reply to the stimulus than the other athletes, but they tend to do fewer mistakes on their choices than other subjects. As for distributed attention, no significant differences were found in function of the athlete graduation, nor in function of gender. However, for distributed attention, we found statistical significant differences in function of the age, with the oldest athletes presenting lower levels of distributed attention. Our results seem to show that is necessary to do some modifications in the training process of Portuguese Shotokan karate athletes.

  15. The Anemias of Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1986-01-01

    Diagnosing anemia in athletes is complicated because athletes normally have a pseudoanemia that needs no treatment. Athletes, however, can develop anemia from iron deficiency or footstrike hemolysis, which require diagnosis and treatment. (Author/MT)

  16. Cardiac Screening for Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Senem Ozgur; Selmin Karademir

    2013-01-01

    As obesity and cardiovascular mortality has recently increased, sporting activities are recommended to people of all age groups more than past decades. Sudden cardiac death during sporting events resonate in a wide range of media and cause serious concern to the families. In order to reduce mortality, athlete screening has been raised. There is a disagreement about how to do the most effective and the least costly screening, also the necessity of screening. The American Heart Academy recommen...

  17. Challenges of Tirunesh Dibaba National Athletics Training Center ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a method of data gathering tools in-depth interview, focus group discussion, and observation were employed. Taken together, of 12 trainee athletes 9 were interviewed, focus group discussion, and observation were employed. Taken together, of 12 trainee athletes, 9 were interviewed, and 3 athletes those who have not ...

  18. Correlation between athlete training intensity and cardiac performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... After the three groups of athletes received training of different intensities, there is a significant improvement in their cardiac function to a certain extent, especially Group. C athletes receiving 90-minute running. After training, athletes' cardiac muscle is effectively enhanced, and their myocardial strength is ...

  19. Complete Functional Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Bormann, Joerg (Dr.)

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation describes a practically proven, particularly efficient approach for the verification of digital circuit designs. The approach outperforms simulation based verification wrt. final circuit quality as well as wrt. required verification effort. In the dissertation, the paradigm of transaction based verification is ported from simulation to formal verification. One consequence is a particular format of formal properties, called operation properties. Circuit descriptions are verifi...

  20. Alcohol use among college athletes: do intercollegiate, club, or intramural student athletes drink differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Howell, Steven M; Riplinger, Adam; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K

    2015-02-01

    Varsity student athletes are a high-risk drinking group, exhibiting a greater propensity to binge drink than their non-sport peers. Moreover, as intercollegiate athletic involvement increases, so too does alcohol consumption. There is little research, however, which examines drinking behaviors of students who participate in nonvarsity athletics. Identify differences in alcohol-related behaviors and associated consequences among U.S. varsity, club, and intramural athletes, and nonathlete college students. Secondary data analysis of the 2011 National College Health Assessment (n = 29,939). Intramural athletes binge drank more frequently (M = 1.1, SD = 1.7) than club athletes (M = 1.0, SD = 1.6), intercollegiate athletes (M = 0.9, SD = 1.5), and nonathletes (M = 0.6, SD = 1.3) and also experienced greater alcohol-related consequences. Intramural athletes consumed the most during their last drinking episode (M = 4.1, SD = 4.0) and reached the highest blood alcohol concentration (BAC) (M = 0.062, SD = 0.09).Compared to club and varsity athletes [M = 0.8, SD = 1.4; t (8,131) = -9.6, p athletes reported binge drinking significantly more frequently (M = 1.2, SD = 1.7) and also reached significantly higher BACs during most recent drinking episode (M = 0.064, SD = 0.08) than organized sport athletes [M = 0.057, SD = 0.08; t (8,050) = -3.0, p = .003]. Intramural athletes represent a higher-risk drinking group than other athlete and nonathlete college students. Future research should investigate factors contributing to drinking differences among different athlete groups.

  1. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare these appro......The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare...... these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey...

  2. Effects of Acute Consumption of a Sport Drink on Athletic Performance in Student Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    AA ghasemnian; A Ghaeini; s Chobineh; b Ghorbanian

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aim: Athletes believe that energy drinks can be used to enhance their performance during training and competition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of acute ingestion of a sport drink on endurance performance in student athletes. Methods: Ten healthy and trained young male athletes students were selected by systematic randomly sampling and after consuming Sport Drinks (experimental group) or placebo (control group) exercised on a treadmi...

  3. Cardiac Screening for Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Ozgur

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As obesity and cardiovascular mortality has recently increased, sporting activities are recommended to people of all age groups more than past decades. Sudden cardiac death during sporting events resonate in a wide range of media and cause serious concern to the families. In order to reduce mortality, athlete screening has been raised. There is a disagreement about how to do the most effective and the least costly screening, also the necessity of screening. The American Heart Academy recommends screening with only history and physical examination, while European Society of Cardiology considers the inclusion of the electrocardiography. During sports activities, in response to the growing needs for the heart, a number of structural and electrical changes in the heart of athlete occur. This situation is briefly defined as the athlete heart. Although it is considered to be due to physiological changes in the athlete's heart, these changes are reflected in electrocardiography and they increase the number of false-positive cases. In 2010, European Society of Cardiology divided findings into two groups as physiological and pathological findings in order to prevent this confusion. With these criteria, it was aimed to increase the sensitivity of electrocardiography while reducing the false-positive rates. Despite all the precautions sudden cardiac death could not be completely precluded. Because of this, as well as the protective measures; cautions after the incident are also important. In the emergency plan, knowledgeable and experienced team of resuscitation and external cardiac defibrillator dissemination campaigns are the first things coming to mind. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 575-590

  4. Comparison of Mental Health Components among Athlete and Non-athlete Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Ghiami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period of rapid biological and behavioral changes that may expand the risk of mental health issues. Objective: This study aimed to compare the mental health of male and female athletes and non-athletes among a high school student groups. Methodology: On this base 100 students (50 athletes and 50 non-athletes, Mage = 16 (SD = ±1 were selected through multi stage random sampling and divided equally into four groups (female athlete / non-athlete, male athlete / non-athlete. General Health Questionnaire designed by Goldberg and Hiller (1979 was used for data collections. Results: The analysis of one-way ANOVA displayed significant differences between the mean scores in mental health among the groups in terms of mental health, F (3, 96 =39, P = .01 with less prevalence of these symptoms among athletes comparing to non-athletes. Conclusion: Increasing opportunities for students to take part in sport competitions can protect them against poor psychological well-being. Keywords: Mental Health; Depression; Anxiety; Social dysfunction; Somatic

  5. Isokinetic dynamometry of knee flexors and extensors: comparative study among non-athletes, jumper athletes and runner athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira Cássio Marinho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation in intensive sports activities leads to muscular specializations that may generate alterations in involved articular forces and cause static (posture and dynamic changes (alterations of articular stability, coordination, etc.. Prevention of injury requires specific functional muscular evaluation in all athletes and for any kind of sport. OBJECTIVE: To dynamically evaluate, through isokinetic tests, the peak torque, total work, and average power of the knee flexor and extensor muscles of jumper and runner athletes and compare them to those of a non-athletic population, evaluating dominance and balance between agonistic and antagonistic muscle groups. RESULTS: In the non-athlete group, we noted a higher asymmetry between the dominant and nondominant members. The jumpers had the highest values of the evaluated parameters of all groups, whereas parameters for the runners were intermediate between non-athletes and jumpers.

  6. Assessment of psychological pain management techniques: a comparative study between athletes and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Daniel Câmara

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Athletes usually deal with injuries and pain. They seem to have similar pain threshold when compared to non-athletes, although they have higher pain tolerance and the exact cause for that is unknown. High levels for pain tolerance and control can improve performance and time for injury recovery. The literature shows that use of coping strategies can increase pain control; possible differences on coping with pain between athletes and non-athletes are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate frequency of coping strategies used by athletes and non-athletes of both genders and look for possible association between preferred coping style and pain intensity. The sample included 160 subjects with actual pain experience, 80 athletes (52 male, 28 female and 80 non-athletes (50 male and 30 female. All subjects were evaluated for pain intensity, frequency and duration and for coping strategies using a questionnaire (SBS-V. The results show that athletes and non-athletes, despite of gender, use with the same frequency coping strategies. The less common coping strategies for all groups were those poor-adaptative (p < 0.001; the most commonly strategy used was self-statement and regulation of body tension (p < 0.001. Female athletes use more frequently poor-adaptative strategies when pain intensity increases (p < 0.05.

  7. Athletes at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasic, Kim

    2010-01-01

    High school athletes represent the largest group of individuals affected by sudden cardiac death, with an estimated incidence of once or twice per week. Structural cardiovascular abnormalities are the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Athletes participating in basketball, football, track, soccer, baseball, and swimming were found to…

  8. Verification of ceramic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behar-Lafenetre, S.; Cornillon, L.; Rancurel, M.; Graaf, D. de; Hartmann, P.; Coe, G.; Laine, B.

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the "Mechanical Design and Verification Methodologies for Ceramic Structures" contract [1] awarded by ESA, Thales Alenia Space has investigated literature and practices in affiliated industries to propose a methodological guideline for verification of ceramic spacecraft and

  9. Verification and disarmament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blix, H. [IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

    1998-07-01

    The main features are described of the IAEA safeguards verification system that non-nuclear weapon states parties of the NPT are obliged to accept. Verification activities/problems in Iraq and North Korea are discussed.

  10. Sports/energy drinks consumption among young athletes in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Athletes who had 'ever' tried a sport drink were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those who had 'never' tasted the drink. Main reasons for using such drinks for regular users varied across the selected groups of athletes and included obtaining energy and boosting performance while doing sport. Most athletes claimed to be ...

  11. Jumping Together: Apprenticeship Learning among Elite Trampoline Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Ole; Ravn, Susanne; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Elite athletes often take part in group trainings and use teammates as learning resources. Despite this, research on the training and learning of elite athletes tends to characterise this training and learning as primarily individual. Purpose: This study, explores interrelated learning processes among elite athletes by exploring the…

  12. Left ventricular mass in male adolescent athletes and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling David Kaunang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Systematic exercise leads to increased left ventricular mass, which may be misleading in a differential diagnosis of heart disease in athletes (physiologic hypertrophy versus pathologic hypertrophy. T he cause of left ventricular hypertrophy is an important risk factor in the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases. Objective To compare left ventricular mass and left ventricular hypertrophy in male adolescent athletes and non-athletes. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, analytic study, from September to December 2012 in male adolescents aged 15-18 years. The case group included athletes from the Bina Taruna Football Club Manado, while the control group included non-athlete adolescents. All subjects underwent history-taking, physical examinations and further supporting examinations. Left ventricular mass was measured by cardiovascular echocardiography (Esaote Mylab 4.0 and calculated based on a formula. Left ventricular hypertrophy was defined as left ventricular mass of > 134 g/m2 body surface area. Results Subjects' mean left ventricular masses were 359.69 (SD 188.4; 95%CI 283.58 to 435.81 grams in the athlete group and 173.04 (SD 50.69; 95%CI 152.56 to 103.51 grams in the non· athlete group, a statistically significant difference (P=0.0001. Ventricular hypertrophy was found 76.9% compared to 11.5% in  the non-athlete group (P= 0.0001. Conclusion Left ventricular mass in athletes is bigger than in non-athletes. In addition, left ventricular hypertrophy is more cornmon in male adolescent athletes than in non-athletes.

  13. Life Span Exercise Among Elite Intercollegiate Student Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Sorenson, Shawn C.; Romano, Russell; Azen, Stanley P.; Schroeder, E. Todd; Salem, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite prominent public attention, data on life span health and exercise outcomes among elite, competitive athletes are sparse and do not reflect the diversity of modern athletes. Hypothesis: Life span exercise behavior differs between National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student athletes and a nonathlete control group. Sustained exercise is associated with improved cardiopulmonary health outcomes. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiology study. Level of...

  14. Athletes with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponamgi, Shiva P.; DeSimone, Christopher V.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Athletes with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) represent a diverse group of individuals who may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) when engaging in vigorous physical activity. Therefore, they are excluded by the current guidelines from participating in most competitive sports except those classified as low intensity, such as bowling and golf. The lack of substantial data on the natural history of the cardiac diseases affecting these athletes, as well as the unknown efficacy of implanted ICDs in terminating life-threatening arrhythmias occurring during intense exercise, have resulted in the restrictive nature of these now decade old guidelines. Recently, there is emerging data, derived from a few retrospective studies and a large prospective registry that demonstrates the relative safety of high-risk athletes participating in competitive sports and challenges the prohibitive nature of these guidelines. Nevertheless, the safe participation of all athletes with an ICD in competitive sports continues to be contemplated. The increased number of inappropriate shocks, damage to the ICD/pacemaker system, and the questionable efficacy of the delivered shock in the setting of vigorous physical activity are some of the main challenges faced by these athletes who choose to continue participation in competitive sports. The fear of SCD and ICD shocks faced by these athletes is also associated with a negative psychological burden and affects their quality of life, as does restricting them from all competitive sports. Therefore, shared decision making is necessary between the clinician and athlete after carefully analyzing the risks and benefits associated with competitive sports participation. PMID:26100423

  15. Investigating Achilles and patellar tendinopathy prevalence in elite athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ina; van der Worp, Henk; Hensing, Sjoerd; Zwerver, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Although injury surveillance in athletics is routinely conducted, discipline-specific Achilles and patellar tendinopathy prevalence remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore discipline-specific tendinopathy prevalence and identify whether injury-specific risk factors differed in athletes. Elite athletes were recruited and provided information on their sport training including Achilles and patellar tendon pain history. In order to ascertain whether between-discipline differences existed, data were categorized into discipline groups. Middle-distance athletes reported the highest prevalence of Achilles tendinopathy and the combined athletes reported the highest patellar tendinopathy prevalence. Greater calf stiffness was reported in athletes who experienced Achilles tendinopathy compared to those who did not. A substantial portion of athletes believed their performance decreased as a result of their tendon pain. In order to develop discipline-specific evidence-based injury prevention programmes, further discipline-specific research is required to quantify the mechanism for Achilles and patellar tendinopathy development in elite athletics.

  16. Insecure attachment and anxiety in student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D H; Kim, S M; Zaichkowsky, L

    2013-06-01

    The main purpose of our research was to examine attachment type and competition anxiety in high school student athletes and general high school students. We recruited 465 student athletes and 543 general students to participate in our study. The Revised Korean version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (K-ECRS) and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) were given to all students. In χ2 tests, athletes showed attachment types in the following order of prevalence: fearful, dismissive, and preoccupied, compared to the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive order observed in general students. In parametric, independent t-tests, athletes reported significantly higher cognitive anxiety scores, relative to general students. Further, athletes with insecure attachment compared to those with secure attachment reported higher cognitive anxiety scores and self-confidence scores. In both the athletes with insecure attachment and general students with insecure attachment groups, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was significantly correlated with CSAI-2 total score. In post hoc analysis in the athletes with insecure attachment group, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was also significantly correlated with the CSAI-2 cognitive anxiety subscale. These results suggest that anxious athletes with an insecure attachment style tend to exaggerate threats from both external and internal sources, which negatively affect their performances.

  17. Ethnic Differences in Drinking Motives and Alcohol Use among College Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Diana M.; Midgett, Aida

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drinking motives, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems among White college athletes and college athletes of color (N = 113). Results indicated no differences in drinking motives between the 2 groups. White athletes reported higher levels of alcohol use, whereas athletes of color reported higher levels of alcohol-related…

  18. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pokrywka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition. Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 years, performing 46 disciplines of sport were tested. Cannabinoids were detected in 267 samples. Among Polish athletes the relative number of positive THC (tetrahydrocannabinol samples was one of the highest in Europe. The group of young Polish athletes (aged 16-24 years was the most THC-positive. THC-positive cases were noted more frequently in male athletes tested during out of competitions. The so-called contact sports (rugby, ice hockey, skating, boxing, badminton, body building and acrobatic sports were those sports, where the higher risk of cannabis use was observed. The legal interpretation of some positive cannabinoids results would be difficult because of some accidental and unintentional use of the narcotics by sportsmen. It was concluded that national anti-doping organizations (NADO’s, which are competent to judge whether the anti-doping rules were violated, should take into account the possibility of non-intentional doping use of cannabinoids via passive smoking of marijuana.

  19. Identity Fusion and Status of the Evaluator as Moderators of Self-Enhancement and Self-Verification at the Group Level of Self-Description

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomasz Besta; Maria Kaźmierczak; Magdalena Błażek

    2013-01-01

    .... Individuals fused with one’s group were more prone than non fused to fight for group members after receiving, challenging, not group-describing feedback, but only when evaluator’s status was high. When the evaluator...

  20. Queimaduras e hábitos solares em um grupo de atletas brasileiros Quemaduras y hábitos solares en un grupo de atletas brasileños Sunburns and sun habits in a group of Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Marchiori Bakos

    2006-10-01

    sun protection habits of a group of Brazilian athletes. Sunburns are considered the main environmental risk factor for melanoma, especially before the age of 20. Most of professional athletes are young individuals intensively exposed to sunlight in their activities and leisure as well, being therefore susceptible to sunburns. METHODS: During the XIV Pan-American Games, 115 Brazilian athletes answered to a questionnaire on sunburn during training and leisure; phototype; use of sunscreen (USS; importance of sun protection (ISP and place of practice (indoors x outdoors. RESULTS: The majority was outdoor (73%, and 59% had light phototype (I, II or III. Comparing the athletes by their practicing place, outdoors presented higher rates of sunburn episodes, ISP and USS during their training periods, while in leisure the groups did not show any difference. Grouped by phototypes, athletes with lighter skin complexion presented more sunburn episodes in both training and leisure. In multivariate analysis for sunburn risk, light phototypes and ISP were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Outdoor sports modalities give origin to more sunburn in their athletes. However, during leisure, both outdoor and indoor athletes present similar sun habits, evidencing that in this moment they form a homogeneous group regarding sun light exposure. Athletes with lighter phototypes are more prone to sunburns in both leisure and training. The rates of sunscreen use are lower than the recommendation. Sun protection should be stimulated in both sports and leisure activities in Brazilian athletes.

  1. Dieting and disordered eating in German high school athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, J; Bormann, B; Aschenbrenner, K; Aschenbrenner, F; Strauss, B

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine weight concerns, dieting, body dissatisfaction as well as eating behavior of German high school athletes and to compare disordered eating behavior of these athletes with regular high school students. Five hundred and seventy-six young athletes of Elite Sports Schools in the German state of Thuringia and a reference group consisting of 291 non-athletes from regular high schools completed a questionnaire regarding eating behavior and attitudes, dietary history, body image and demographics. The Eating Attitude Test was used to measure disordered eating. Athletes did not show a higher frequency of disordered eating than non-athletes. A binary logistic regression analysis revealed that gender and dietary experience, but not group (athletes vs non-athletes), were significant predictors of disordered eating. It can be concluded that dietary experience and female gender proved to be important risk factors of disordered eating. Participation in sports seems to be protective for developing serious eating problems, especially in girls. Potentially, regular monitoring of athletic performance by coaches might be a reason for this finding.

  2. A measure of stress for athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seggar, J F; Pedersen, D M; Hawkes, N R; McGown, C

    1997-02-01

    The Athlete Stress Inventory of 49 items was developed. Using factor analysis on the intercorrelations of responses of 148 women student-athletes, four orthogonal factors of stress in athletes were identified-Negative Mood, Team Compatibility, Physical Well-being, and Academic Efficacy. Scales for these factors were reliable and valid. The predictive validity of these scores was investigated by correlations with the athletic performance of 32 women athletes on three intercollegiate teams-tennis, gymnastics, and basketball. Stress scores (except Emotional Mood) reported four days prior to competition tended to be significantly correlated with performance for the individual sports (tennis and gymnastics) but not for the group sport (basket-ball). The correlation involving Physical Well-being was not significant for gymnasts.

  3. Bibliography on Collegiate Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Denise; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A bibliography on collegiate athletics with approximately 400 items is presented. Topics include: sports administration, sports histories, women's athletics, physical education, problems and scandals, sports organizations, sports and health, and references on many specific sports, especially football. (JMD)

  4. [Eating disorders among athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Skårderud, Finn

    2004-08-26

    Over the past 20 years, a number of studies have been published that generally suggest a higher frequency of eating disorders among athletes than among non-athletes. Participation in competitive sport has also been considered an important factor related to the development of eating disorders. Taken together, most studies have suggested that eating disorders are particularly prevalent in sports that emphasise leanness or low body weight. However, some studies suggest a similar or lower prevalence of eating disorders compared with controls or athletes at a lower competitive level. Athletes constitute a unique population and the impact of factors such as training, eating pattern, extreme diets, restriction of food intake and psychopathological profile among them must be evaluated differently from that among non-athletes. A concerted effort by coaches, athletic trainers, parents, athletes and healthcare personnel is optimal in order to recognise, prevent and treat eating disorders in athletes.

  5. Athlete-Student?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clark, R Preston

    2013-01-01

    The author considers monetary investment in student-athletes. The disparity among the amount of money spent on the average student and the amount of money spent on the average athlete is staggering...

  6. National Athletic Trainers' Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more by reviewing the NATA Media Kit. NATA Marketing Opportunities Join or Renew Joining NATA offers athletic ... looking for more information about athletic training, youth sports safety or specific health issues, we encourage you ...

  7. RV Remodeling in Olympic Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ascenzi, Flavio; Pisicchio, Cataldo; Caselli, Stefano; Di Paolo, Fernando M; Spataro, Antonio; Pelliccia, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of sex and different sports on right ventricular (RV) remodeling and compare the derived upper limits with widely used revised Task Force (TF) reference values. Uncertainties exist regarding the extent and physiological determinants of RV remodeling in highly trained athletes. The issue is important, considering that in athletes RV size occasionally exceeds the cutoff limits proposed to diagnose arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy. A total of 1,009 Olympic athletes (mean age 24 ± 6 years; n = 647 [64%] males) participating in skill, power, mixed, and endurance sport were evaluated by 2-dimensional echocardiography and Doppler/tissue Doppler imaging. The right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) in parasternal long-axis (PLAX) and short-axis views, fractional area change, s' velocity, and morphological features were assessed. Indexed RVOT PLAX was greater in females than in males (15.3 ± 2.2 mm/m2 vs. 14.4 ± 1.9 mm/m2; p view were significantly different among skill, power, mixed, and endurance sports: 14.3 ± 2.1 mm/m2 versus 14.7 ± 1.9 mm/m2 versus 14.0 ± 1.8 mm/m2 versus 15.7 ± 2.2 mm/m2, respectively (p view was 18 mm/m2 and 20 mm/m2, respectively. Fractional area change and s' velocity did not differ among the groups (p = 0.34 for both). RV enlargement compatible with major and minor TF diagnostic criteria for arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy was observed in 41 (4%) and 319 (32%) athletes. A rounded apex was described in 823 (81%) athletes, prominent trabeculations in 378 (37%) athletes, and a prominent/hyperreflective moderator band in 5 (0.5%) athletes. RV remodeling occurs in Olympic athletes, with male sex and endurance practice playing the major impact. A significant subset (up to 32%) of athletes exceeds the normal TF limits; therefore, we recommend referring to the 95th percentiles here reported as referral values; alternatively, only major diagnostic TF criteria for arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy

  8. Alcohol Consumption among Athletes and Non-Athletes in Christian Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, William S.; Allen, Bert; Drinnon, Joy

    2010-01-01

    This research was designed to be a pilot study that examined the differences in heavy episodic drinking and perceptions of drinking between athletes and non-athletes. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first of alcohol consumption between these groups at Christian-affiliated colleges. A random sample of participants comprised…

  9. Athletic Identity, Vocational Identity, and Occupational Engagement in College Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Lacole L.

    2012-01-01

    Athletic departments in National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision universities provide academic support services to their student-athletes. Even though student-athletes receive help including career assistance from academic counselors, some studies have found that student-athletes are behind non-athletes in career…

  10. Level of optimism and health behavior in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowski, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    Persons with an optimistic attitude do not give up despite obstacles and failures. Optimistic athletes compete more out of hope for success than out of fear of defeat. The purpose of my research was to determine if optimism also promotes good health behavior in athletes. In order to measure the role of optimism in shaping the health behavior of athletes, I examined a group of women (N=147) and men (N=385) who were currently in training for athletic competition. The control group consisted of women (N=262) and men (N=435) who were not and had never been competitive athletes. The "O-P" Attitude Questionnaire was used to measure optimism, while health behavior was measured with the Juczynski Health Behavior Inventory, which measures proper nutrition habits, preventive behavior, positive attitude, and healthy practices. The level of pessimism in these athletes was average. The female athletes were less pessimistic than the female controls. A similar, highly significant difference occurred between the male athletes and non-athletes. Gender did not differentiate the level of optimism in either group. Among the women, optimism correlated with healthy practices, such as daily sleep and recreation habits, or physical activity. The greater the pessimism increased, positive attitudes declined in the female controls, the female athletes, and the male controls. The athletes displayed greater optimism than the controls. Among the women, optimism correlated with good health practices.

  11. Nutritional supplements usage by Portuguese athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Mónica; Fernandes, Maria João; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor Hugo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the prevalence of nutritional supplements (NS) usage, the type of supplements used, the reasons for usage, and the source of nutritional advice among Portuguese athletes. Two hundred ninety-two athletes (68 % male, 12 - 37 years old) from 13 national sports federations completed a questionnaire that sought information on socio-demographics, sports data, and NS usage. Most athletes (66 %) consumed NS, with a median consumption of 4 supplements per athlete. The most popular supplements included multivitamins/minerals (67 %), sport drinks (62 %), and magnesium (53 %). Significant differences for the type of NS consumed were found between gender and age groups and the number of weekly training hours. Most athletes used NS to accelerate recovery (63 %), improve sports performance (62 %), and have more energy/reduce fatigue (60 %). Athletes sought advice on supplementation mainly from physicians (56 %) and coaches (46 %). Age and gender were found to influence reasons for use and the source of information. Reasons for NS usage were supported scientifically in some cases (e. g., muscle gain upon protein supplementation), but others did not have a scientific basis (e. g., use of glutamine and magnesium). Given the high percentage of NS users, there is an urgent need to provide athletes with education and access to scientific and unbiased information, so that athletes can make assertive and rational choices about the utilization of these products.

  12. Coaching the Vegetarian Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandali, Swarna L.

    2011-01-01

    Good nutrition is important for optimal athletic performance. Adolescent athletes often depend on their coaches for nutritional information on weight management, dietary supplements, and dietary practices. Some dietary practices, such as vegetarianism, have the potential to be harmful to the adolescent athlete if not followed with careful…

  13. The Student Athlete Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayles, Joy Gaston

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the 1980s, the literature on the experiences of collegiate student athletes was rather scarce. Since that time the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has passed several eligibility rules to address concerns about the academic performance and the overall experience of student athletes on college campuses. As such, the…

  14. Overload blunts baroreflex only in overreached athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdillon, Nicolas; Yazdani, Sasan; Nilchian, Masih; Mariano, Alessio; Vesin, Jean-Marc; Millet, Grégoire P

    2018-01-31

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is commonly used to diagnose overreaching and monitor athletes' responses to training. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is modified by changes in training load and might be another means to detect overreaching. The goal of this study was to assess BRS and HRV changes in two groups of athletes responding either negatively (FOR) or positively (AF) to similar training overload. Fifteen athletes performed 2-week baseline (BSL) training followed by 3-week overload (+45%; OVL) and 2-week recovery (-20%; RCV). HRV, training load and subjective fatigue were measured daily via questionnaires. BRS, salivary cortisol and testosterone, and submaximal exercise and maximal 3-km run performances were measured at the end of each period. Based on their performance change during OVL, 8 athletes were diagnosed as FOR and 7 as AF. Subjective fatigue was increased in FOR athletes during OVL. BRS increased in AF but not in FOR athletes during RCV. At the end of RCV, cortisol and testosterone were higher than BSL in both groups. Three weeks of similar training overload can induce either performance enhancement or overreaching. The changes in submaximal exercise and maximal performances and in subjective fatigue were the fastest-responding parameters that distinguished the two groups of athletes during OVL. Training overload blunted the increase in BRS in FOR only. Most of the differences in BRS were observed during the recovery period. BRS appears to be a more sensitive parameter than HRV for early monitoring of responses to training. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Struggling with cancer and treatment: young athletes recapture body control and identity through exercise: qualitative findings from a supervised group exercise program in cancer patients of mixed gender undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamsen, L; Andersen, C; Midtgaard, J; Møller, T; Quist, M; Rørth, M

    2009-02-01

    Cancer and treatment can negatively affect the body's performance and appearance. Exercise has been tested in a few studies for altered body image among middle-aged women with breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore how young pre-cancer athletes of both genders experience disease- and treatment-related physical fitness and appearance changes while undergoing chemotherapy and participating in a 6-week group exercise intervention. A prospective, explorative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted before and at termination of the intervention. The study included 22 cancer patients (median age 28 years). The young athletes experienced a change from a high level of physical activity, body satisfaction and a positive self-identity to a low level of physical activity, body denial and a negative self-identity. In the program, the patients experienced increased physical strength and recapture of certain aspects of their former positive body perception. Deterioation of muscle functions caused by chemotherapy was particularly painful to these patients, independent of gender and age. Young physically active patients are heavily dependent on their physical capacity, body satisfaction and self-identity. This should be taken into account when designing programs to rehabilitate and encourage these patients through the often-strenuous antineoplastic treatments.

  16. Physics Verification Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebling, Scott William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-12

    The purpose of the verification project is to establish, through rigorous convergence analysis, that each ASC computational physics code correctly implements a set of physics models and algorithms (code verification); Evaluate and analyze the uncertainties of code outputs associated with the choice of temporal and spatial discretization (solution or calculation verification); and Develop and maintain the capability to expand and update these analyses on demand. This presentation describes project milestones.

  17. Baghouse filtration products verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mycock, J.C.; Turner, J.H.; VanOsdell, D.W.; Farmer, J.R.; Brna, T.G.

    1998-11-01

    The paper introduces EPA`s Air Pollution Control Technology Verification (APCT) program and then focuses on the immediate objective of the program: laboratory performance verification of cleanable filter media intended for the control of fine particulate emissions. Data collected during the laboratory verification testing, which simulates operation in full-scale fabric filters, will be used to show expected performance for collection of particles {le} 2.5 micrometers in diameter.

  18. Sports nutrition knowledge among collegiate athletes, coaches, athletic trainers, and strength and conditioning specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Pritchett, Kelly L; Zippel, Deborah; Minton, Dawn M; Cellamare, Adam; Sibilia, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Coaches, athletic trainers (ATs), strength and conditioning specialists (SCSs), and registered dietitians are common nutrition resources for athletes, but coaches, ATs, and SCSs might offer only limited nutrition information. Little research exists about sports nutrition knowledge and current available resources for nutrition information for athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs. To identify resources of nutrition information that athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs use; to examine nutrition knowledge among athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs; and to determine confidence levels in the correctness of nutrition knowledge questions within all groups. Cross-sectional study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III institutions across the United States. The 579 participants consisted of athletes (n = 185), coaches (n = 131), ATs (n = 192), and SCSs (n = 71). Participants answered questions about nutrition resources and domains regarding basic nutrition, supplements and performance, weight management, and hydration. Adequate sports nutrition knowledge was defined as an overall score of 75% in all domains (highest achievable score was 100%). Participants averaged 68.5% in all domains. The ATs (77.8%) and SCSs (81.6%) had the highest average scores. Adequate knowledge was found in 35.9% of coaches, 71.4% of ATs, 83.1% of SCSs, and only 9% of athletes. The most used nutrition resources for coaches, ATs, and SCSs were registered dietitians. Overall, we demonstrated that ATs and SCSs have adequate sports nutrition knowledge, whereas most coaches and athletes have inadequate knowledge. Athletes have frequent contact with ATs and SCSs; therefore, proper nutrition education among these staff members is critical. We suggest that proper nutrition programming should be provided for athletes, coaches, ATs, and SCSs. However, a separate nutrition program should be integrated for ATs and SCSs. This integrative approach is beneficial for the continuity of care, as both

  19. Motivation and well-being among elite junior athletes : the role of challenge during training

    OpenAIRE

    Tyssen, Oddvar Jordheim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine motivation, positive emotions and challenge in groups of elite junior athletes. Results are discussed in terms of self-determination theory and the functional well-being approach. Men and female elite junior athletes (N=211) aged 15-19 years completed a series of online questionnaires. Results revealed that a) older athletes reported higher levels of extrinsic motivation than younger athletes, b) younger athletes reported higher levels of both eudai...

  20. Nutritional considerations for vegetarian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Susan I; Rideout, Candice A

    2004-01-01

    With the growing interest in the potential health benefits of plant-based diets, it is relevant to consider whether vegetarian dietary practices could influence athletic performance. Accordingly, this review examines whether nutrients that may differ between vegetarian and omnivorous diets could affect physical performance. We also describe recent studies that attempt to assess the effects of a vegetarian diet on performance and comment on other nutritional aspects of vegetarianism of relevance to athletes. Although well-controlled long-term studies assessing the effects of vegetarian diets on athletes have not been conducted, the following observations can be made: 1) well-planned, appropriately supplemented vegetarian diets appear to effectively support athletic performance; 2) provided protein intakes are adequate to meet needs for total nitrogen and the essential amino acids, plant and animal protein sources appear to provide equivalent support to athletic training and performance; 3) vegetarians (particularly women) are at increased risk for non-anemic iron deficiency, which may limit endurance performance; and 4) as a group, vegetarians have lower mean muscle creatine concentrations than do omnivores, and this may affect supramaximal exercise performance. Because their initial muscle creatine concentrations are lower, vegetarians are likely to experience greater performance increments after creatine loading in activities that rely on the adenosine triphosphate/phosphocreatine system. 5) Coaches and trainers should be aware that some athletes may adopt a vegetarian diet as a strategy for weight control. Accordingly, the possibility of a disordered eating pattern should be investigated if a vegetarian diet is accompanied by unwarranted weight loss.

  1. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  2. Heart and athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasti, Mohammad; Omidvar, Bita; Jadbabaei, Mohammad Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Regular participation in intensive physical exercise is associated with electro-morphological changes in the heart. This benign process is called athlete's heart. Athlete's heart resembles few pathologic conditions in some aspects. So differentiation of these conditions is very important which otherwise may lead to a catastrophic event such as sudden death. The most common causes of sudden death in young athletes are cardiomyopathies, congenital coronary anomalies, and ion channelopathies. The appropriate screening strategy to prevent sudden cardiac death in athletes remains a challenging issue. The purpose of this review is to describe the characteristics of athlete's heart and demonstrate how to differentiate it from pathologic conditions that can cause sudden death.

  3. Assessment of nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroczi Andrea

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed to i assess nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad (FAT syndrome and to compare with controls; and ii to compare nutritional knowledge of those who were classified as being 'at risk' for developing FAT syndrome and those who are 'not at risk'. Methods In this study, participants completed General Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ, the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 and survey measures of training/physical activity, menstrual and skeletal injury history. The sample consisted of 48 regional endurance athletes, 11 trampoline gymnasts and 32 untrained controls. Based on proxy measures for the FAT components, participants were classified being 'at risk' or 'not at risk' and nutrition knowledge scores were compared for the two groups. Formal education related to nutrition was considered. Results A considerably higher percentage of athletes were classified 'at risk' of menstrual dysfunction than controls (28.8% and 9.4%, respectively and a higher percentage scored at or above the cutoff value of 20 on the EAT-26 test among athletes than controls (10.2% and 3.1%, respectively. 8.5% of athletes were classified 'at risk' for bone mineral density in contrast to none from the control group. Nutrition knowledge and eating attitude appeared to be independent for both athletes and controls. GNKQ scores of athletes were higher than controls but the differences between the knowledge of 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes and controls were inconsequential. Formal education in nutrition or closely related subjects does not have an influence on nutrition knowledge or on being classified as 'at risk' or 'not at risk'. Conclusion The lack of difference in nutrition knowledge between 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes suggests that lack of information is not accountable for restricted eating associated with the Female Athlete Triad.

  4. Echocardiographic Finding in Anabolic Steroids Abuser Athletics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Haji Moradi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Abuse of anabolic steroids in body builders and competitive sports (doping is common and prevalent in our country. Due to disagreement about cardiovascular side effects of these drugs and existing controversy in published articles, this study was designed to evaluate the echocardiographic finding in athletics who are current user of these drugs. Materials & Methods: Body builders with continues sport for preceding year and at least twice weekly selected and divided into steroid abuser and not abuser and compared with age and BMI matched non athletic healthy volunteers .Results: There was not significant difference in age, body mass index, ejection fraction, ventricular compliance and valve function between three groups. But diastolic size of septum and free wall is significantly thicker in both of athletics in comparison with non athletic volunteer but observed differences were only significant (Pvalue = 0.05 between first and third group. The difference between the above mentioned index was not significant between two groups of athleticConclusion: Observed differences in diastolic size of septum and free wall between first and third group and also absence of difference between two athletic groups is in favor of that long term abuse of anabolic steroid (more than one year results in augmentation of physiologic hypertrophy due to isometric exercise. Furthermore long term abuse and supra pharmacologic dose does not have significant effect in size and left ventricular function.

  5. Psychological skills of Greek badminton athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebetsos, Evangelos; Antoniou, Panagiotis

    2003-12-01

    The purpose was to examine age and sex differences in psychological skills among Greek badminton players. 85 badminton players completed a Greek version of the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28 by Smith, Schutz, Smoll, and Ptacek, during the 2002 Greek Men's and Women's National Badminton Championship Tournament. Analysis yielded differences between age groups on two factors (adversity and coachability) but no statistically significant differences between sexes. Older athletes were better prepared to cope with the psychological distress involved in the game of badminton and reported better emotional self-control. Overall, results could help badminton athletes and coaches become more familiar with the sport-specific psychological skills involved in badminton.

  6. Psychosocial determinants of young athletes' continued participation over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jõesaar, Helen; Hein, Vello

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the differences in psychosocial and motivational variables between persistent and dropout youth athletes and between groups with different years in training. Team and individual youth athletes completed questionnaires measuring autonomy support from parents and coaches, peer motivational climate, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and sport motivation. The results showed that athletes who dropped out perceived significantly less competence, relatedness, and autonomy need satisfaction, and they perceived less autonomy support from parents and were less intrinsically motivated than persistent athletes. Youth athletes with up to one year in training reported significantly lower effort and intra-team conflict with peers, relatedness need satisfaction, and external motivation than athletes with 1 to 3 years and >3 years in training. Findings extend knowledge of the psychosocial determinants of sport continuation behaviour among young athletes.

  7. Charlie's Words: Supporting Gifted Male Athletes Using Athletes' Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A gifted student-athlete, Charlie Bloomfield is introduced to athlete's journals by his coaches at Burke Mountain Academy (Vermont), an elite American ski school. Used by Olympians and professionals alike, journals provide athletes with ways to organize and reflect on training and competitions. Athlete's journals help gifted male athletes address…

  8. Verification Account Management System (VAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Verification Account Management System (VAMS) is the centralized location for maintaining SSA's verification and data exchange accounts. VAMS account management...

  9. Verification is experimentation!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Hendrik

    2001-01-01

    The formal verification of concurrent systems is usually seen as an example par excellence of the application of mathematical methods to computer science. Although the practical application of such verification methods will always be limited by the underlying forms of combinatorial explosion, recent

  10. Verification Is Experimentation!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Hendrik

    2000-01-01

    the formal verification of concurrent systems is usually seen as an example par excellence of the application of mathematical methods to computer science. although the practical application of such verification methods will always be limited by the underlying forms of combinatorial explosion, recent

  11. Environmental technology verification methods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available the performance of innovative environmental technologies can be verified by qualified third parties called "Verification Bodies". The "Statement of Verification" delivered at the end of the ETV process can be used as evidence that the claims made about...

  12. Telomere Length in Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniesa, Carlos A; Verde, Zoraida; Diaz-Ureña, Germán; Santiago, Catalina; Gutiérrez, Fernando; Díaz, Enrique; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Lucia, Alejandro

    2017-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests that regular moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with an attenuation of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening. However, more controversy exists regarding higher exercise loads such as those imposed by elite-sport participation. The authors investigated LTL differences between young elite athletes (n = 61, 54% men, age [mean ± SD] 27.2 ± 4.9 y) and healthy nonsmoker, physically inactive controls (n = 64, 52% men, 28.9 ± 6.3 y) using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Elite athletes had, on average, higher LTL than control subjects, 0.89 ± 0.26 vs 0.78 ± 0.31, P = .013 for the group effect, with no significant sex (P = .995) or age effect (P = .114). The results suggest that young elite athletes have longer telomeres than their inactive peers. Further research might assess the LTL of elite athletes of varying ages compared with both age-matched active and inactive individuals.

  13. Attention and Reaction Time in Shotokan Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    António VencesBrito; Carlos Silva; Luis Cid; Dora Ferreira; Ana Marques

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the attention capacity and the reaction time in Portuguese karate Shotokan athletes. Participated 96 Shotokan athletes from the Portuguese Karate Association. We physically characterized the sample (weight, height, body mass index, and body fat mass percentage) and evaluated Simple Reaction Time (TRS), Choice Reaction Time (TRE), Decision Time (TD) and the Distributed Attention (AD). Data was analyzed according to athletes’ group age (15 to 19 yr, 20 to 35 ...

  14. Eating disorders in the male athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Antonia

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders do occur in male athletes. They are less prominent than in female athletes, and therefore in danger of being missed. The high-risk sports fall into the same categories as with females: aesthetic sports, sports in which low body fat is advantageous, such as cross-country and marathon running, and sports in which there is a need to "make weight", including wrestling and horse racing. Athletic involvement may foster the development of an eating disorder. Some male athletes, in their preoccupation with body image, will abuse anabolic steroids. While sports participation may contribute to the aetiology of an eating disorder, the converse is also true. Exercise may be used as therapy for some cases of eating disorder. In order to adequately treat eating disorders in the male athlete, it is first essential to identify cases. Psychoeducation of athletes, their families, coaches and trainers is an important first step. Counselling an athlete to pursue a sport appropriate to his body type, or to leave his sport behind altogether (an unpopular recommendation from a coach's perspective) can be important to treatment. Treatment of co-morbid psychiatric conditions is essential. Treatment can be structured using a biopsychosocial approach, and all appropriate modalities of therapy, including individual, family and group, as well as psychopharmacotherapy, where appropriate, should be applied.

  15. Eating disorder symptoms among undergraduate varsity athletes, club athletes, independent exercisers, and nonexercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Denoma, Jill M; Scaringi, Vanessa; Gordon, Kathryn H; Van Orden, Kimberly A; Joiner, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    To examine whether differences in eating disorder symptoms exist between women who are varsity athletes, club athletes, independent exercisers, and nonexercisers and to determine whether sports anxiety moderates any observed between-group effects. Two hundred seventy four female undergraduates completed the eating disorders inventory and the physical activity and sport anxiety scale and reported their exercise habits. Women who participated in sports tended to have higher levels of eating disorder symptomatology than those who did not. Higher levels of sports anxiety were predictive of higher levels of bulimic symptoms and drive for thinness. Finally, the interaction of sports anxiety and level of athletic participation significantly predicted body dissatisfaction and bulimic symptoms. Coaches and clinicians should be aware that athletes experience higher rates of eating disorder symptoms than nonathletes. Moreover, sports anxiety should be considered as a possible target of therapy among athletes. 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Testing Equation Method Modification for Demanding Energy Measurements Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kochneva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the mathematical approaches of the measurements received from Automatic Meter Reading Systems verification. Reliability of metering data can be improved by application of the new issue named Energy Flow Problem. The paper considers demanding energy measurements verification method based on verification expressions groups analysis. Bad data detection and estimates accuracy calculation is presented using the Automatic Meter Reading system data from the Russian power system fragment.

  17. Self-perception in elite collegiate female gymnasts, cross-country runners, and track-and-field athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Phard, D; Van Dorsten, B; Marx, R G; York, K A

    1999-08-01

    To compare self-perception between a group of competitive, elite female collegiate athletes (participating in gymnastics, cross country, and track and field) and a group of female political science students (nonathletic control subjects). We hypothesized that the athletic group would rate athletics as more important than would the nonathletic group, that the perception of athletic competence would correlate positively with self-worth for athletes only, and that the perception of athletic competence would have a stronger influence on self-worth in the athletic group. The Self-perception Profile for College Students was completed by 32 athletes and 13 nonathletes. This profile measures 12 subscales plus Global Self-worth independently and generates scores that reflect the subject's perceived importance of and competence in each of the subscale areas. The athletes rated athletics as more important than did nonathletes, although this trend was nonsignificant when adjusted for age. As age increased, the importance of athletics decreased for both groups. There was a direct relationship between perceived athletic competence and self-worth for the athletes but not for the nonathletes. Variables that accounted for the Global Self-worth score in athletes were perceptions of Competence subscales for Appearance, Social Acceptance, Friendship, and Job. Variables that accounted for the Global Self-worth scores in the nonathletes were perceptions of Competence subscales for Romance, Morality, Humor, and Appearance. The athletic group had significantly lower Global Self-worth scores than the nonathletic group. The female athletes in this study derived a large component of their self-worth from their perceived athletic competence. Clinicians should bear in mind the relative importance of athletics to young female athletes and the relationship of perceived athletic ability to self-worth when treating these individuals.

  18. Hydration testing of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppliger, Robert A; Bartok, Cynthia

    2002-01-01

    Dehydration not only reduces athletic performance, but also places athletes at risk of health problems and even death. For athletes, monitoring hydration has significant value in maximising performance during training and competition. It also offers medical personnel the opportunity to reduce health risks in situations where athletes engage in intentional weight loss. Simple non-invasive techniques, including weight monitoring and urine tests, can provide useful information. Bioimpedance methods tend to be easy to use and fairly inexpensive, but generally lack the precision and accuracy necessary for hydration monitoring. Blood tests appear to be the most accurate monitoring method, but are impractical because of cost and invasiveness. Although future research is needed to determine which hydration tests are the most accurate, we encourage sports teams to develop and implement hydration monitoring protocols based on the currently available methods. Medical personnel can use this information to maximise their team's athletic performance and minimise heat- and dehydration-related health risks to athletes.

  19. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT XRF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Niton XLt 700 Series (XLt) XRF Services x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The field portion of the demonstration was conducted in January 2005 at the Kennedy Athletic, Recreational and Social Park (KARS) at Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida. The demonstration was designed to collect reliable performance and cost data for the XLt analyzer and seven other commercially available XRF instruments for measuring trace elements in soil and sediment. The performance and cost data were evaluated to document the relative performance of each XRF instrument. This innovative technology verification report describes the objectives and the results of that evaluation and serves to verify the performance and cost of the XLt analyzer. Separate reports have been prepared for the other XRF instruments that were evaluated as part of the demonstration. The objectives of the evaluation included determining each XRF instrument’s accuracy, precision, sample throughput, and tendency for matrix effects. To fulfill these objectives, the field demonstration incorporated the analysis of 326 prepared samples of soil and sediment that contained 13 target elements. The prepared samples included blends of environmental samples from nine different sample collection sites as well as spiked samples with certified element concentrations. Accuracy

  20. High school students' body weight control: differences between athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulan, Rita; Piko, Bettina E

    2012-03-01

    Due to chronic dissatisfaction with body weight in youth, efforts to lose weight often lead to pathological dietary behaviours. Regular and heavy sports activity may contribute to the optimization of body weight, not only by elevating the energy utilization but also by increasing the health consciousness and the tendency to self-monitor. Research generally finds a beneficial role of extracurricular sports activity in body weight control. Therefore, we aim to analyze how regular, heavy sports activity (more precisely, competitive sports) may contribute to body weight control among two groups of youth: athletes and non-athletes. Our study was carried out using 347 adolescents; among them there were 91 athletes and 259 controls. The subjects completed self-administered questionnaires concerning their body weight control and dietary habits. We found that girls were less satisfied with their body weight and reported dieting more frequently with a greater emphasis on healthy dieting than boys. Sport influenced these strong gender differences only regarding healthy dieting, young male athletes laid a larger emphasis on healthy diets than their non-athlete counterparts, therefore their attitude became similar to that of female athletes and non-athletes. We conclude that despite the normal weight in high school students, episodes of dieting that might contribute to eating disorders were quite frequent. This was not influenced by the students' extracurricular sports activity. A greater monitoring of male athletes' and their friend's diet draw attention to the need for developing health education programs specific to boys.

  1. Nutrional needs of athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Shruti Pandey; Vasudeva Singh

    2013-01-01

    Aim – is to provide a comprehensive information regarding the nutritional needs of athletes, followed by female athletes who have a higher necessity for Iron. Sports and nutrition are directly related to each other. Taking into consideration the fact that sports person need more energy to carry out their sporting activity effectively, it becomes of prime importance to take care for sports performance. Athletes must supposedly eat the perfect ratio of Protein, carbohydrate and fat at each meal...

  2. Vascular adaptation in athletes: is there an 'athlete's artery'?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, D.J; Spence, A; Rowley, N; Thijssen, D.H.J; Naylor, L.H

    2012-01-01

    Whilst the existence of a specific phenotype characterized as 'athlete's heart' is generally acknowledged, the question of whether athletes exhibit characteristic vascular adaptations has not been specifically addressed...

  3. The Evaluation of Athlete and Non-Athlete Mentally Retarded Children’s Dynamic Balance Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Akın

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Balance is an extremely important fundamental skill for the survival of the individual’s life. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate dynamic balance of mentally retarded children who participated in sports active and regularly (athlete and did not participate in sports actively (non-athlete. The study group was consisted of total 29 mentally retarded children, 14 athletes and 15 non-athletes. In this study, the average ages of athletes were 13.25 and non-athletes’ were 12.95. As a data collection tool “Star Excursion Balance Test” was used. The obtained data was evaluated using t-test for the independent groups. The results showed a statistically significant difference between groups according to all sub-dimension of star excursion balance test (p< 0.05. It was determined that, the average values of mentally retarded athletes were higher than non-athletes. Consequently, it can be said that regular physical activity has a significant effect for improvement in balance skills of individuals with mentally retarded.

  4. Sleep and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew M

    Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training. Despite this, most studies have found that athletes fail to obtain the recommended amount of sleep, threatening both performance and health. Athletes face a number of obstacles that can reduce the likelihood of obtaining proper sleep, such as training and competition schedules, travel, stress, academic demands, and overtraining. In addition, athletes have been found to demonstrate poor self-assessment of their sleep duration and quality. In light of this, athletes may require more careful monitoring and intervention to identify individuals at risk and promote proper sleep to improve both performance and overall health. This review attempts to highlight the recent literature regarding sleep issues in athletes, the effects of sleep on athletic performance, and interventions to enhance proper sleep in athletes.

  5. Guidelines for Formal Verification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    This document explains the requirements for formal verification systems that are candidates for the NCSC’s Endorsed Tools List (ETL). This document...is primarily intended for developers of verification systems to use in the development of production-quality formal verification systems. It explains...the requirements and the process used to evaluate formal verification systems submitted to the NCSC for endorsement.

  6. Relationships Among Stress, Burnout, Athletic Identity, and Athlete Satisfaction in Students at Korea's Physical Education High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keunchul; Kang, Sangwook; Kim, Inwoo

    2017-01-01

    We tested the structural relationships between stress, burnout, athletic identity, and athlete satisfaction in student athletes attending Korea's physical education high schools and analyzed the differences between paths by ego resilience. Data were collected from student athletes at three Korean physical education high schools. Before data collection, each instruments' content validity was confirmed, and after data collection, construct validity was tested using factor analysis. The results were derived using reliability testing, descriptive statistics, correlation analyses, and structural equation modeling. After testing the final research model, the following results were obtained: (a) high levels of stress had a strong correlation with burnout and high levels of burnout was negatively related to athletic identity and athlete satisfaction; (b) in our model, burnout showed full mediation of the relationship between stress and athlete identity/athletic satisfaction; and (c) the high ego resilience group showed a weaker relationship compared to the low ego resilience group in the pathways from stress → burnout and burnout → athletic identity/athlete satisfaction.

  7. Development of the athlete drinking scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Matthew P; Watson, Jack C; Royland, Elizabeth M; Beck, Niels C

    2005-06-01

    Prior research has found that intercollegiate athletes consume more alcohol and experience more negative alcohol-related consequences than nonathletes, but no measure of sport-related reasons for alcohol use currently exists. The purpose of this study was to develop such a measure, which the authors termed the Athlete Drinking Scale (ADS). An exploratory factor analysis supported the existence of 3 subscales: Positive Reinforcement, Team/Group, and Sport-Related Stress. Additional analyses supported the internal consistency and construct validity of the subscales, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that the ADS accounted for a significant amount of variance in both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems among intercollegiate athletes. The ADS appears to be a promising tool for measuring sport-related reasons for intercollegiate athlete alcohol use. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Voltage verification unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Edward J [Virginia Beach, VA

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  9. Standard Verification System (SVS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — SVS is a mainframe program that accesses the NUMIDENT to perform SSN verifications. This program is called by SSA Internal applications to verify SSNs. There is also...

  10. SSN Verification Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The SSN Verification Service is used by Java applications to execute the GUVERF02 service using the WebSphere/CICS Interface. It accepts several input data fields...

  11. Effects of sauna bathing on stress-related genes expression in athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zychowska, Małgorzata; Półrola, Paweł; Chruściński, Grzegorz; Zielińska, Jolanta; Góral-Półrola, Jolanta

    2017-03-21

    Heat stress induces the expression of genes encoding heat-shock proteins and immune response mediators. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the expression of genes encoding heat-shock proteins 70 kDa and27 kDa, interleukin 6, interleukin 10and C-reactive protein, between athletes and non-athletes after sauna bathing. Athletes (n=9) and non-athletes (n=9) were exposed to a Finnish sauna twice during one session at a temperature of 98.2 °C and humidity of 10% ± 2%, with a 5 min break for cooling down under a shower. The groups did not differ in terms of age, height or body mass. Blood samples were taken before and after sauna exposure in order to assess gene expression, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Differences were observed in leukocyte mRNA levels of tested genes between athletes and non-athletes. In the non-athlete group, all the tested genes were expressed at higher levels as a response to the same heat challenge. It appears that expression of stress-related genes induced by heat stress is dependent on the level of physical activity.

  12. Relationship between foot posture and static and dynamic balance in athlete and non-athlete girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmin Ghanizadeh hesar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate relationship between foot posture and static and dynamic balance in athlete and non-athlete girls. Material and methods: there were 40 girl student that 20 of them were athlete aged 21/5+- 4/62 and 20non-athlete aged 22/8 +-2/61. to evaluate foot posture, dynamic balance and static balance used radmond,s six scale visual method, star exersion balance test, and BESS test respectively. To analyzing data, indipendent t-test and pearson correlation test was used.(p≤0/05 Results: there was not significant correlation between foot posture with dynamic and static balance in any of athlete and non-athlete girls group (p≥0/05 but there were significant difference in foot posture, dynamic and static balance between two group (p≤0/05. Conclusion:this research show that athletes have a propriate foot posture index and balance function. also we can probably say that fitness and neuro-muscular performance affect on balance more than biomechanic factors such as foot posture. To evaluate this hypothesis we need more researchs.

  13. Proposed algorithm for the management of athletes with athletic pubalgia (sports hernia): a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachingwe, Aimie F; Grech, Steven

    2008-12-01

    A case series of 6 athletes with a suspected sports hernia. Groin pain in athletes is common, and 1 source of groin pain is athletic pubalgia, or a sports hernia. Description of this condition and its management is scarce in the physical therapy literature. The purpose of this case series is to describe a conservative approach to treating athletes with a likely sports hernia and to provide physical therapists with an algorithm for managing athletes with this dysfunction. Six collegiate athletes (age range, 19-22 years; 4 males, 2 females) with a physician diagnosis of groin pain secondary to possible/probable sports hernia were referred to physical therapy. A method of evaluation was constructed and a cluster of 5 key findings indicative of a sports hernia is presented. The athletes were managed according to a proposed algorithm and received physical therapy consisting of soft tissue and joint mobilization/manipulation, neuromuscular re-education, manual stretching, and therapeutic exercise. Three of the athletes received conservative intervention and were able to fully return to sport after a mean of 7.7 sessions of physical therapy. The other 3 athletes reached this outcome after surgical repair and a mean of 6.7 sessions of physical therapy. Conservative management including manual therapy appears to be a viable option in the management of athletes with a sports hernia. Follow-up randomized clinical trials should be performed to further investigate the effectiveness of conservative rehabilitation compared to a homogeneous group of patients undergoing surgical repair for this condition. Therapy, level 4.

  14. The Year Ahead: Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Douglas; Farrell, Charles S.

    1987-01-01

    A rift among college presidents perils the drive to reform college sports. Cost-cutting measures proposed by the presidents were defeated by NCAA members. Five athletic directors with widely differing programs view their own budget dilemmas, and college officials assail the decision permitting ineligible athletes to play professional football.…

  15. The Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  16. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a lasting effect on how strong a woman's bones are later in life. Who Gets Female Athlete Triad? Many girls have concerns about the size and shape of their bodies. But being a highly competitive athlete and participating in a sport that requires you to train extra hard can ...

  17. Panhellenic athletics at Olympia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Heine

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses Olympia as a panhellenic venue for athletics and the city-state interaction which took place at the sanctuary......The paper discusses Olympia as a panhellenic venue for athletics and the city-state interaction which took place at the sanctuary...

  18. Finances and College Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Frank; Tanlu, Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    In 2008-2009, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) generated television and marketing revenues of approximately $591 million, college sports apparel sales topped $4 billion, and several schools signed multimedia-rights deals for more than $100 million (Berkowitz, 2009; National Collegiate Athletic Association, 2009). At the Division…

  19. Cheerleaders are athletes too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, A

    1994-01-01

    The athletic demands of cheerleading are often overlooked. In order to identify risks and develop injury prevention plans for this population, cheerleaders must first be recognized as the athletes they are. Recommendations for specifics of the preparticipation physicals for cheerleaders are provided. The need for evaluation of their development, nutrition, and associated risk cannot be overstressed.

  20. Structure of personality and motivation of extreme sports athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Mahnič

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research was to define the eventual differences between personal and motivational structure among extreme sports athletes and non-athletes. Beside personal and motivational structure of both mentioned groups, we also examined state and trait anxiety as significant factors of success. We used a medium lengthy version of FPI inventory, Costell's questionnaire of achievement motivation and Spielberg's questionnaire STAI – X1 and STAI – X2. The pattern included 66 extreme sports athletes. We concluded that extreme sports athletes are significantly less suppressed and sincere, whereas they are more extrovert and masculine in comparison with the group of non-athletes. A trend that individuals, who reach for extreme sports, are more sociable, and less neurotic is pointed out, but it is not of significant importance. We found out that there is also a tendency that extreme sports athletes express more positive achievement motivation than non-athletes, who on the other hand express significantly higher negative achievement motivation. The analysis of anxiety differences on the other hand showed that extreme sports athletes have significantly lower state of anxiety and the anxiety itself as atrait is far less visible, but the difference did not appear as significant. The results however did not confirme previous studies' findings. Nevertheless they serve as a contribution to some earlier findings and suggest that extreme sports athletes are a special group, which differs from non-athlete population in both personal and motivational structure and relatively well suits to the profile of a top athlete. At the same time, the present research offers a possibility of shaping an extreme sports athlete's profile.

  1. High-risk behaviors in teenage male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, E S; Dekker, A H; Javors, J R; Davison, D T

    1995-01-01

    This project studied high-risk activities in adolescent male athletes (ages 13-19) compared with a control group of adolescent male and female nonathletes. All athletes surveyed participated in one or more interscholastic sports. The prevalence of drug use by athletes compared to nonathletes was determined. Of the 19 drugs observed in this study, all were shown to have a lower prevalence of use among athletes in their senior year of high school, compared to the comparison group. Among the more commonly abused substances by the athlete population, beer, wine and whiskey, cigarettes, and marijuana were shown to have a lower use rate, by 25.5, 39.9, 57.5, and 57.7%, respectively. The prevalence of drug use by adolescent male athletes compared to adolescent nonathletes was also studied. Of the 19 individual drugs surveyed, all demonstrated a lower prevalence of use among athletes in their senior year of high school compared to the national data. The second high-risk activity measured was sexual activity. Of the athletes, 45.5% stated that they had never had sexual intercourse, compared to 50.0% of the nonathletes. Of the sexually active athletes, 81.9% had their first intercourse at between 13 and 15 years of age, whereas only 67.8% of the nonathlete control group had done so. This difference diminished significantly at age 16 and above. The results of this study suggest that participation in athletics by male athletes may lead to a significant decrease in drug and alcohol use and abuse but, also may increase early sexual contact. These trends were seen throughout all 4 years of high school in the athletes studied.

  2. Verification of dosimetric commissioning accuracy of intensity modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy delivery using task Group-119 guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunakaran Kaviarasu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to verify the accuracy of the commissioning of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT based on the recommendation of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 119 (TG-119. Materials and Methods: TG-119 proposes a set of clinical test cases to verify the accuracy of IMRT planning and delivery system. For these test cases, we generated two sets of treatment plans, the first plan using 7–9 IMRT fields and a second plan utilizing two-arc VMAT technique for both 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams. The template plans of TG-119 were optimized and calculated by Varian Eclipse Treatment Planning System (version 13.5. Dose prescription and planning objectives were set according to the TG-119 goals. The point dose (mean dose to the contoured chamber volume at the specified positions/locations was measured using compact (CC-13 ion chamber. The composite planar dose was measured with IMatriXX Evaluation 2D array with OmniPro IMRT Software (version 1.7b. The per-field relative gamma was measured using electronic portal imaging device in a way similar to the routine pretreatment patient-specific quality assurance. Results: Our planning results are compared with the TG-119 data. Point dose and fluence comparison data where within the acceptable confident limit. Conclusion: From the obtained data in this study, we conclude that the commissioning of IMRT and VMAT delivery were found within the limits of TG-119.

  3. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of ß2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of ß-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of ß2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  4. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  5. Game On: Past Year Gambling, Gambling-Related Problems, and Fantasy Sports Gambling Among College Athletes and Non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Nelson, Sarah E; Gallucci, Andrew R

    2016-06-01

    College students experience higher rates of gambling-related problems than most other population segments, including the general population. Although Division I (D1) athletes often have more at stake than the average student if and when they gamble (e.g., the potential to lose their athletic eligibility), relatively few studies have assessed the gambling behavior of this population and none have specifically assessed fantasy sports gambling. We conducted a study to examine gambling behavior (past-year gambling, gambling-related problems, and fantasy sport gambling) among a sample (N = 692) of college students at a private religiously affiliated university in the Southwest US. The sample for our study was unique in that approximately 30 % of the participants were D1 athletes. We compared the gambling behavior among three groups based on the athlete status: D1 athletes, club/intramural/recreational (CIR) athletes, and non-athletes (NAs). Compared to females in our sample, males observed higher rates of past year gambling, fantasy sports participation, fantasy sports gambling, and gambling-related problems. Among males, we found that CIR athletes observed the highest rates of past year gambling and fantasy sports participation and D1 athletes observed higher rates than NAs. We did not find differences in fantasy sport gambling and past year gambling-related problems based on athlete status in males or females.

  6. Anaerobic work capacity in elite wheelchair athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Woude, L H; Bakker, W H; Elkhuizen, J W; Veeger, H E; Gwinn, T

    1997-01-01

    To study the anaerobic work capacity in wheelchair athletes, 67 elite wheelchair athletes (50 male) were studied in a 30-second sprint test on a computer-controlled wheelchair ergometer during the World Championships and Games for the Disabled in Assen (1990). The experimental set-up (ergometer, protocol) proved to be adequate in terms of power output (P30, P5) velocity and heart rate. Male and female athletes were comparable with respect to personal characteristics (age, body weight, training hours). Track athletes (classified in 4 different functional classes) showed a class-related mean power output (P30: mean power produced during the 30-second sprint period) of 23, 68, 100, and 138 W for the male athletes (n = 38) and 38, 77, and 76 W for females in the upper three classes (n = 10). Sprint power was low for the group of subjects with cerebral palsy (35 W; mixed, n = 6) and relatively high for the amputee group (121 W; mixed, n = 6), female basketball players (81 W; n = 5), and two male field athletes (110 W). Significant differences between male and female athletes were found for P30 and P5 (highest mean power output over any of the six 5-second periods). As was to be expected, mean maximum heart rate in the sprint test varied significantly between the track groups from 112 (high lesion group) to 171 beats/minute(-1) (low lesion group) but not for both genders. The lower P30 in the T1 and T2 groups must be explained not only by the reduced functional muscle mass and impaired coordination but also by phenomena of cardiovascular dysfunction. Based on the performance parameters, the functional classification of the track athletes into four groups seems adequate. P30 was significantly associated with the personal characteristics of gender and hours of training. A significant correlation was found between P30 and sprint performance times for 200 meters (r = -0.79). No correlation was found between either of the forms of power output and the marathon times

  7. Disordered eating in male athletes: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, James; Woodman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    We examined the propensity for male athletes to exhibit symptoms of disordered eating. Using meta-analytic techniques, we examined overall effect size, individual effect sizes for specific sport types, standard of athletic competition and diagnostic tools from 31 studies. When all studies were considered as a homogeneous group, male athletes did not have symptoms of disordered eating that were significantly different from non-athletic controls. However, significant moderator effects emerged for sport type and measurement: (a) wrestling reported a greater incidence of disordered eating; and (b) studies that reported data from the Eating Attitudes Test yielded a significantly greater incidence of disordered eating in male athletes compared to non-athletes. Although some sports seem to present a higher risk of disordered eating compared to others, the effects are weak and heterogeneous. We make suggestions for the development of the research area, which has been severely hampered by the diagnostic tools that have been available for the study of men.

  8. Level of optimism and health behavior in athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Lipowski, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Persons with an optimistic attitude do not give up despite obstacles and failures. Optimistic athletes compete more out of hope for success than out of fear of defeat. The purpose of my research was to determine if optimism also promotes good health behavior in athletes. Material/Methods In order to measure the role of optimism in shaping the health behavior of athletes, I examined a group of women (N=147) and men (N=385) who were currently in training for athletic competit...

  9. Terminology and definitions on groin pain in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weir, Adam; Hölmich, Per; Schache, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Groin pain in athletes occurs frequently and can be difficult to treat, which may partly be due to the lack of agreement on diagnostic terminology. OBJECTIVE: To perform a short Delphi survey on terminology agreement for groin pain in athletes by a group of experts. METHODS: A selected...... taxonomy reflects only a slight agreement between the various diagnostic terms provided by the selected experts. CONCLUSIONS: This short Delphi survey of two 'typical, straightforward' cases demonstrated major inconsistencies in the diagnostic terminology used by experts for groin pain in athletes....... These results underscore the need for consensus on definitions and terminology on groin pain in athletes....

  10. Embedded software verification and debugging

    CERN Document Server

    Winterholer, Markus

    2017-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of verification and debugging techniques for embedded software, which is frequently used in safety critical applications (e.g., automotive), where failures are unacceptable. Since the verification of complex systems needs to encompass the verification of both hardware and embedded software modules, this book focuses on verification and debugging approaches for embedded software with hardware dependencies. Coverage includes the entire flow of design, verification and debugging of embedded software and all key approaches to debugging, dynamic, static, and hybrid verification. This book discusses the current, industrial embedded software verification flow, as well as emerging trends with focus on formal and hybrid verification and debugging approaches. Includes in a single source the entire flow of design, verification and debugging of embedded software; Addresses the main techniques that are currently being used in the industry for assuring the quality of embedded softw...

  11. Sexual Health of Polish Athletes with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Plinta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine sexual functioning of Polish athletes with disabilities (including paralympians. The study encompassed 218 people with physical disabilities, aged between 18 and 45 (149 men and 69 women. The entire research population was divided into three groups: Polish paralympians (n = 45, athletes with disabilities (n = 126 and non-athletes with disabilities (n = 47. The quality of sexual life of Polish paralympians was measured by using the Polish version of Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function. Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in non-athletes (83.33% with 50% result of severe erectile dysfunctions, followed by athletes and paralympians with comparable results of 56.98% and 54.17% respectively (p = 0.00388. Statistically significant clinical sexual dysfunctions concerned lubrication, orgasm as well as pain domains, and prevailed among female non-athletes (68.42%, 68.42% and 57.89%. Practising sports at the highest level has a favourable effect on the sexuality of men and women with physical disabilities. Men with physical disabilities manifest more sexual disorders than women, an aspect which should be considered by health-care professionals working with people with disabilities.

  12. Parents' perspectives and young athletes' perceptions of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunghee; Kim, Sooyeon

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine experiences of being elite tennis players' parents, social support they provided to their children, and athletes' perceptions of influences of their parents' support. Four focus groups (2 athletes and 2 parents groups) were conducted to collect data from both athletes and parents. The data were analyzed by thematic analysis and resulted in nine higher order themes including initiation of sporting career, expectations, satisfaction, parents' concerns, tangible, esteem, information, emotion, and network support. Later five themes which indicate kinds of support for athletes received from their parents were used to develop a matrix which can explain athletes' perceptions for each support they received from their parents. The findings revealed that there were some gaps between providers' and receivers' perspectives in effectiveness of provided support because some kinds of support were not effective when the support was provided without considering athletes needs. Therefore, the findings highlighted that support could be much effective if support providers for athletes consider athletes needs before they provide certain support to those athletes.

  13. [Heart rhythm abnormalities in middle-aged veteran elite athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharashdze, N S; Pagava, Z T; Saatashvili, G A; Agladze, R A

    2008-06-01

    Disrrhythmia is frequent finding in high competitive athletes. Majority of heart rhythm abnormalities in athletes, suggested being benign, however, prognostic value of it is not yet well established. Purpose of the present study was to investigate heart rhythm and relationship of heart rhythm abnormalities with LV mass in veteran elite athletes. 30 veteran elite athletes (16 soccer players and 14 water-polo players) aged 30-50 were studied. They formed main group. >10 years of active sports activity and >5 years after competitive sports cessation. All athletes were symptom free. Control group consists of 30 age - matched sedentary healthy individuals. In all study subjects ambulatory 24 hour ECG was recorded and, LV mass, dimensions and function by ultrasound-Doppler technique was evaluated. LV mass by Devereux formula was calculated and indexed to body surface area. Student's t-test for continuous variables, Descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables were used. A P-value of conductivity abnormalities as well as complex arrhythmias were more frequent findings in athletes as compared with healthy sedentary subjects. Heart Rhythm abnormalities were associated with enhanced LV mass in Veteran athletes. Hence, veteran elite athletes may be at increased risk of life threatening arrhythmias. However, prognostic value of heart rhythm disturbances in veteran athletes has to be studied.

  14. Radiographic Evidence of Femoroacetabular Impingement in Athletes With Athletic Pubalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Economopoulos, Kostas J.; Milewski, Matthew D.; Hanks, John B.; Hart, Joseph M.; Diduch, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevale...

  15. Sonographic evaluation of athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Nicholas; Grant, Thomas; Blount, Kevin; Omar, Imran

    2016-05-01

    Athletic pubalgia, or "sports hernia", represents a constellation of pathologic conditions occurring at and around the pubic symphysis. These injuries are primarily seen in athletes or those involved in athletic activity. In this article, we review the sonographic appearance of the relevant complex anatomy, scanning technique for ultrasound evaluation of athletic pubalgia, and the sonographic appearances of associated pathologic conditions.

  16. Energy availability and the female athlete triad in elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Anna Katarina; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, Sven O.

    2015-01-01

    measured 7 days to assess EA; eating disorder (ED) examination; blood analysis. Subjects with low/reduced EA (..., athletes with low/reduced EA and/or MD had lowered RMR. Triad-associated conditions were common in this group of athletes, despite a normal BMI range. The high prevalence of ED, MD, and impaired bone health emphasizes the importance of prevention, early detection, and treatment of energy deficiency....

  17. Examining multidimensional sport-confidence in athletes and non-athlete sport performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Moe; Otten, Mark; Magyar, T Michelle; Vealey, Robin S; Ward, Rose Marie

    2017-03-01

    Sport-confidence is considered a critical success factor for sport performers at all levels. Researchers have suggested that sport-confidence is a multidimensional rather than a unidimensional construct, and the sport-confidence model identified three types of sport-confidence (i.e., physical skills and training, cognitive efficiency, and resilience) that are important for success in sport. However, such multidimensionality of sport-confidence and its measurement have not been fully examined. On a large sample of sport performers with varied skill levels and characteristics, the purpose of the present study was to examine the three-factor model of sport-confidence. We tested the measurement invariance of the Sport-Confidence Inventory across 512 athletes and 1170 non-athlete sport performers. Results from the multiple group model analysis showed that the three-factor model of sport-confidence fit better for the athlete sample than for the non-athlete sample. The results implicate that the three-factor model of sport-confidence model is suitable to athletes, though sport-confidence may appear more unidimensional for non-athletes. The use of the Sport-Confidence Inventory for non-athlete sport performers demands further consideration; however, the findings implicate that it could be a useful tool to assess sport-confidence of sport performers at any levels.

  18. COMPARATIVE INVESTIGATION OF QUALITY OF LIFE OF ATHLETE AND NON-ATHLETE OLDER ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Lotfi.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to comparative investigation of quality of life of athlete and non-athlete older adults. 160 Athletes and non-athletes male (age: 60-69 yr, 80 subjects for each group were selected randomly from Ardabil city and SF-36 questionnaires completed by them. Health related quality of life was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA revealed that there were significant differences between athlete and non-athlete subjects regarding to dependent variables. Based on the research findings, it can be concluded that the quality of life of elderly people with a history of the exercise training is higher than non-athletes. Also, physical activity improves quality of life of older adults. Thus, its recommend that having the regular exercise and physical activity during youth and especially in old age is very affordable, and elderly care centers can used these training for increase quality of life of elders in society.

  19. Relational demography in coach-athlete dyads | Zhang | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study used an adapted version of Zhang's (2004) trust questionnaire to examine perceived characteristic and trust differences between coach and athlete dyads that differ in gender or ethnicity as well as in dyads that were similar. The four different gender dyad groups were male athlete with male coach (MAMC), ...

  20. Can Environmental Education Increase Student-Athletes' Environmental Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullenbach, Lauren E.; Green, Gary T.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental education was incorporated within a mentoring program (i.e. treatment group) for student-athletes at the University of Georgia. These student-athletes' environmental attitudes, behavioral intent, knowledge, self-efficacy, self-regulatory learning, motivation, and learning strategies were assessed before and after their environmental…

  1. veteran athletes exercise at higher maximum heart rates than

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximal HR in veteran athletes during specific sporting activities was significantly higher than that attained ... false-positive results due to the athletic heart syndrome have been described,13 it is accepted that a positive test is a risk .... group (210 (21) v. 185. (18) mmHg, P < 0.05, Table ill). Exercise time to fatigue in the. lID I ...

  2. Cough in Exercise and Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, James; Jackson, Anna; Dickinson, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Cough is the most common respiratory symptom reported by athletes and can significantly impact on health status, ability to train and athletic performance. The presence of cough in an athlete is typically taken to indicate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), yet in many athletes with chronic cough there is no objective evidence of airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) or heightened airway inflammation. Moreover, cough in athletes often fails to respond to a therapeutic asthma strategy, th...

  3. "Used Goods": Former African American College Student-Athletes' Perception of Exploitation by Division I Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamon, Krystal K.

    2008-01-01

    Collegiate sports have opened many doors for African American males. However, serious involvement in athletics has hampered the development of the group in several areas such as academic and occupational achievement. It has been alleged that universities exploit athletes, especially African American male athletes in football and basketball. This…

  4. Examining Drinking Patterns and High-Risk Drinking Environments among College Athletes at Different Competition Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzell, Miesha; Morrison, Christopher; Mair, Christina; Moynihan, Stefanie; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drinking patterns of three different college student groups: (a) intercollegiate athletes, (b) intramural/club athletes, and (c) nonathletes. Additionally, we investigated whether a relationship exists between drinking setting and risk of increased drinking. We analyzed data on the athletic involvement, drinking behaviors, and…

  5. Student Athletes at Small Private Colleges: Why Do They Persist to the Second Year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, Debora L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that contributed to the persistence of first-time full-time student athletes at a small private college affiliated with National Association Intercollegiate Athletics. The study used focus groups to determine the factors related to the persistence of student athletes. The participants in the…

  6. Assessing College Student-Athletes' Life Stress: Initial Measurement Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Frank Jing-Horng; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chan, Yuan-Shuo; Cheen, Jang-Rong; Kao, Kuei-Tsu

    2012-01-01

    College student-athletes have unique life stress that warrants close attention. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measurement assessing college student-athletes' life stress. In Study 1, a focus group discussion and Delphi method produced a questionnaire draft, termed the College Student-Athletes' Life Stress Scale. In…

  7. Iron status and the acute post-exercise hepcidin response in athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeling, P.; Sim, M.; Badenhorst, C.E.; Dawson, B.; Govus, A.D.; Abbiss, C.R.; Swinkels, D.W.; Trinder, D.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between serum ferritin and hepcidin in athletes. Baseline serum ferritin levels of 54 athletes from the control trial of five investigations conducted in our laboratory were considered; athletes were grouped according to values <30 mug/L (SF<30), 30-50 mug/L

  8. Athletic pubalgia (sports hernia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Demetrius E M; Sneider, Erica B; McEnaney, Patrick M; Busconi, Brian D

    2011-04-01

    Athletic pubalgia or sports hernia is a syndrome of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain that may occur in athletes and nonathletes. Because the differential diagnosis of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain is so broad, only a small number of patients with chronic lower abdomen and groin pain fulfill the diagnostic criteria of athletic pubalgia (sports hernia). The literature published to date regarding the cause, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of sports hernias is confusing. This article summarizes the current information and our present approach to this chronic lower abdomen and groin pain syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Overtraining of Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    In brief: A panel of exercise physiologists and physicians involved with athletes discuss the little-understood subject of overtraining. It is the point where too much training puts the athlete over-rather than at-his or her peak. The panel discusses the signs and causes of overtraining and suggests ways to prevent it by monitoring post-workout weight, evening fluid intake, time to bed, loss of sleep, and morning heart rate. They stress the importance of the coach and emphasize that good communication and ongoing concern for athletes as individuals can go a long way toward preventing overtraining.

  10. Somatotypes of Nigerian athletes of several sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, D N; Toriola, A L; Igbokwe, N U

    1985-01-01

    Somatotype ratings and percentage body fat of 131 elite Nigerian male athletes, average 24.2 years of age, and belonging to badminton (n = 18), basketball (n = 30), field hockey (n = 24), handball (n = 16), judo (n = 18), and soccer (n = 25) teams were determined. Basketball, handball and soccer players were taller and heavier, and had low percent fat values as compared with the other athletic groups. Judokas and hockey players were endomesomorphs. Other sports groups were predominantly ectomesomorphs. Images p219-a p219-b p219-c PMID:4092144

  11. Nuclear disarmament verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-12-31

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification.

  12. Athletic amenorrhea: lack of association with body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, C F; Albrecht, B H; Wagner, W W

    1987-06-01

    The most commonly tested hypothetical cause of athletic amenorrhea has been low body fat. Test results have conflicted because of mixed groups of athletes and methodologic problems. In this study, we measured body fat only in distance runners (greater than 53 km X wk-1) of the same somatotype who clearly had regular menses or secondary amenorrhea; this permitted more valid group comparison of body fat using hydrostatic weighing. The regularly menstruating group (N = 7) had 12 periods X yr-1 at intervals of 26.5 +/- 1.0 (SE) days with a duration of 4.1 +/- 0.4 days. In the athletic amenorrhea group (N = 7), menstrual periods had been absent for 1 to 10 yr (average = 3.9 +/- 1.3 yr); they were gynecologically evaluated to restrict the group to those with athletic amenorrhea. The groups were similar in a number of categories: weight, height, age, menarcheal age, weekly training mileage, days/week training, years of training, and maximum oxygen uptake. Percent body fat for the two groups was the same: 17.7 +/- 2.1% for the amenorrheic athletes and 17.4 +/- 1.2% for the regularly menstruating athletes (P = 0.91). These data do not support the idea that low body fat per se causes athletic amenorrhea.

  13. Examining Drinking Patterns and High-Risk Drinking Environments Among College Athletes at Different Competition Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Marzell, Miesha; Morrison, Christopher; Mair, Christina; Moynihan, Stefanie; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drinking patterns of three different college student groups: (a) intercollegiate athletes, (b) intramural/club athletes, and (c) nonathletes. Additionally, we investigated whether a relationship exists between drinking setting and risk of increased drinking. We analyzed data on the athletic involvement, drinking behaviors, and drinking settings of 16,745 undergraduate students. The findings revealed that drinking patterns for intramural/club athletes remained relatively co...

  14. A Brief History of the College of The Bahamas’ Athletics Department.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley Rolle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The College of The Bahamas Athletics Department encompasses intercollegiate athletics, health and wellness, and recreational intramural sports. COB’s Wellness Centre provides fitness equipment, health and wellness counseling, and group exercise classes for students, faculty and staff. The College’s soccer, basketball, and track and field teams compete internationally with schools in Florida and the Caribbean. The Athletics Department works consistently to increase international opportunities for COB student athletes to excel abroad.

  15. Verification of Ceramic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Lafenetre, Stephanie; Cornillon, Laurence; Rancurel, Michael; De Graaf, Dennis; Hartmann, Peter; Coe, Graham; Laine, Benoit

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the “Mechanical Design and Verification Methodologies for Ceramic Structures” contract [1] awarded by ESA, Thales Alenia Space has investigated literature and practices in affiliated industries to propose a methodological guideline for verification of ceramic spacecraft and instrument structures. It has been written in order to be applicable to most types of ceramic or glass-ceramic materials - typically Cesic®, HBCesic®, Silicon Nitride, Silicon Carbide and ZERODUR®. The proposed guideline describes the activities to be performed at material level in order to cover all the specific aspects of ceramics (Weibull distribution, brittle behaviour, sub-critical crack growth). Elementary tests and their post-processing methods are described, and recommendations for optimization of the test plan are given in order to have a consistent database. The application of this method is shown on an example in a dedicated article [7]. Then the verification activities to be performed at system level are described. This includes classical verification activities based on relevant standard (ECSS Verification [4]), plus specific analytical, testing and inspection features. The analysis methodology takes into account the specific behaviour of ceramic materials, especially the statistical distribution of failures (Weibull) and the method to transfer it from elementary data to a full-scale structure. The demonstration of the efficiency of this method is described in a dedicated article [8]. The verification is completed by classical full-scale testing activities. Indications about proof testing, case of use and implementation are given and specific inspection and protection measures are described. These additional activities are necessary to ensure the required reliability. The aim of the guideline is to describe how to reach the same reliability level as for structures made of more classical materials (metals, composites).

  16. Verification and validation benchmarks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-02-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of

  17. Organizational commitment among intercollegiate head athletic trainers: examining our work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterstein, A P

    1998-01-01

    To 1) examine the commitment of head athletic trainers to their intercollegiate work environments, 2) develop a model that better reflects the head athletic trainer's daily work setting, and 3) use new techniques to describe the various ways head athletic trainers demonstrate commitment to their organizations. Organizational commitment (OC) surveys were sent to 461 head athletic trainers identified for the sample. A response rate of 71.5% (330/461) was obtained from the mail survey. A proportional random sample of head athletic trainers was taken from a population identified in the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics (NACDA) directory of intercollegiate athletics as Division I, II, and III institutions. Returned OC surveys were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics for all demographic and OC variables. Exploratory cluster analysis was performed to examine naturally clustering groups. Exploratory cluster analysis revealed five naturally clustering groups that represent the head athletic trainers' patterns of commitment across the specific organizational targets. Paired t tests indicated that the continuance commitment scores were significantly lower than the affective and normative scores across the sample. Analysis of variance tests indicated significant differences for specific commitment dimensions based on gender and NCAA division demographics. Beyond that, the five-cluster solution revealed no particular demographic characteristics that predisposed individuals to specific clusters. THE FINDINGS REINFORCE A CENTRAL THEME IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETIC TRAINING: that student-athletes and student athletic trainers are the primary focus of the head athletic trainers' commitment. Positive attachment and obligation directed toward student-athletes and student athletic trainers link the five clusters. Commitment patterns in areas other than student-athletes and student athletic trainers define the cluster membership or head athletic

  18. Substance Use Among Sexual Minority Collegiate Athletes: A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz, Philip; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Zdroik, Jennifer; Boyd, Carol J; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2016-01-01

    The empirical research examining substance use among sexual minority collegiate athletes is sparse. Problematically, this group may be at a greater risk of substance use due to their marginalized status within the context of sport. We examined different types of substance use during the past 30 days, and diagnosis of substance use disorders during the past 12 months, among sexual minority collegiate athletes. This study uses data from college students for the fall semester between 2008 and 2012 from the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment. Sexual minority collegiate athletes had greater odds of past 30-day cigarette use, past 30-day alcohol use, past 30-day marijuana use, and indicating being diagnosed or treated for a substance use disorder during the past 12 months when compared to either heterosexual collegiate athletes or heterosexual nonathletes, but had similar odds on these outcomes when compared to sexual minority nonathletes. Sexual minority collegiate athletes also had greater odds of binge drinking during the past 2 weeks when compared to either heterosexual nonathletes or sexual minority nonathletes, but had similar odds on this outcome when compared to heterosexual collegiate athletes. Additional analyses by gender reveal that male sexual minority athletes are at the greatest risk of being diagnosed or treated for a substance use disorder. Possible explanations as to why sexual minority collegiate athletes (particularly males) may be at a greater risk of substance use disorders could include the difficulty of trying to maintain an athletic identity within a social environment that is traditionally homophobic.

  19. Female athletes and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malara Marzena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that regular physical activity has a beneficial effect on human health by affecting the metabolic processes that are of fundamental importance in the body’s functions, such as insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal, as well as lipid and lipoprotein turnover. On the other hand, there is a wealth of studies which indicate that strenuous, regular physical activity, such as that performed by high performance athletes, may be detrimental for the athletes’ health especially in women. This review focuses on the factors that contribute to health problems in female athletes, named the female athlete triad, which includes excessive dieting, menstrual dysfunctions (anovulatory menstrual cycles, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea and a low bone mineral density (BMD. As a result of these factors, women who participate in sports, especially those focused on leanness, need special attention and education from health professionals, coaches and the athletes themselves to prevent the detrimental effects of an inadequate energy supply against high energy demands.

  20. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be due to an eating disorder, such as anorexia.Girls and women may be at risk for the female athlete triad if they:are a competitive athleteplay sports that require them to maintain a certain weight ...

  1. Sports Hernia (Athletic Pubalgia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Sports Hernia (Athletic Pubalgia) Page ( 1 ) A sports hernia is a painful, so tissue injury that occurs in ... groin area. It most o en occurs during sports that require sudden changes of direction or intense ...

  2. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  3. Biomechanically Engineered Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Tekla S.

    1991-01-01

    The real-world meeting of electronics, computer monitoring, control systems, and mathematics, introduced in the context of sports, is described. Recent advances in the field of biomechanics and its use in improving athletic performance are discussed. (KR)

  4. NUTRIONAL NEEDS OF ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Pandey

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim – is to provide a comprehensive information regarding the nutritional needs of athletes, followed by female athletes who have a higher necessity for Iron. Sports and nutrition are directly related to each other. Taking into consideration the fact that sports person need more energy to carry out their sporting activity effectively, it becomes of prime importance to take care for sports performance. Athletes must supposedly eat the perfect ratio of Protein, carbohydrate and fat at each meal and snack to control the hormonal systems and thus reach their maximum performance and ideal weight .The carbohydrate/protein/fat ratio of the 40-30-30 diet allegedly maintains the proper balance between the hormones insulin and glucagon. The present review focuses on the intake for a wholesome nutrient and well balanced diet for better performance among male as well as female athletes.

  5. Spondyloptosis in athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assad, Ana Paula Luppino; Abreu, Andressa Silva; Seguro, Luciana Parente Costa; Guedes, Lissiane Karine Noronha; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pinto, Ana Lucia de Sá

    2014-01-01

    The adolescent athletes are at greater risk of low back pain and structural spine injuries. Spondylolysis is responsible for the majority of back pain cases in young athletes, rarely occurring in adults. We report a case of a 13-year-old judo female athlete, who came to our service with 5 months of progressive low back pain during training which was initially attributed to mechanical causes, without any further investigation by imaging methods. At admission, the patient had lumbar deformity, antalgic posture and bilaterally positive unipodalic lumbar hyperextension maneuver. After a research which showed spondyloptosis, the patient underwent surgery. In this article, we discuss, based on this case report, the diagnostic approach to low back pain in young athletes, since the complaint of chronic back pain can be a marker of a structural lesion that may be permanent and bring irreversible functional loss.

  6. [Sudden death in athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbertus, H

    2001-05-01

    Sudden death is rare in the young athlete. The causes may vary. In the US, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy plays the predominant role whereas in Europe right ventricular arrhythmogenic dysplasia and atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries are more frequent. Other causes such as congenital anomalies of the coronary vessels, myocarditis, Marfan's disease, the long QT, the Brugada and the Wollf-Parkinson-White syndromes exist, but are rare. Attentive preparticipation screening (clinical history and medical examination) is mandatory in all future young athletes.

  7. Association between eating disorders and body image in athletes and non-athlete students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Miri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders are of common problems in adolescence and adulthood especially among athletes. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the association of eating disorders and body image in athletes and non-athlete students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 226 athlete students and 350 non-athlete students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences during 2013-2014. Students who followed a specific sport field and had participated in at least one sport event were considered as athlete students. All athlete students were entered the study by census method. Non-athlete students were selected among students who had not any exercise activity and by random sampling method. Data were collected through demographic questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ. Data were analyzed using T-test and Chi-square test. Results: Mean age was 21.92±3.19 years and mean body mass index (BMI was 22.24±3.18 kg/m2. The frequency of eating disorders was 11.5% among the athlete students and 11.2% among the non-athlete students. Anorexia nervosa was found to be more prevalent than bulimia nervosa in both groups. The students with normal BMI had better body image perception and less eating disorders symptoms than other students. The association of age, educational level, and gender with eating disorders and body image was not statistically significant. The association of eating disorders and body image was not statistically significant. Eating disorders were more prevalent in males than females but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: With regards to the results, it seems that eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction are relatively prevalent among both athletes and non-athlete students and BMI is predictor of eating disorders.

  8. Comparison of Athletes' Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes' depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (M age = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology.

  9. Balance Performance as Observed by Center-of-Pressure Parameter Characteristics in Male Soccer Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara A. Thompson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Static balance has a relevant influence on athletic performance as well as on reducing the risk of injury. The main goal of this study was to assess soccer athlete versus non-athlete balance performance via displacement and velocity parameters extracted from the center-of-pressure (COP position time series. In order to accomplish our goal, we investigated standing balance in two male groups with unimpaired balance: non-athletes (n = 12 and collegiate varsity soccer athletes (n = 12. In order to make the standing balancing task more or less difficult, we altered participant base-of-support, as well as vision, yielding static (quiet stance test conditions increasing in difficulty. From the COP position time series, displacement and velocity parameters were computed and plotted as a function of increasing test condition difficulty level. COP parameters showed steeper increases with increased test difficulty in non-athletes compared to athletes; this demonstrated athletes’ better ability to control their balance. We concluded that balance performance could be characterized via COP displacement and velocity response curves. This study lends new insights into how COP parameters can be utilized to determine and characterize improvements in balance between un-impaired subject populations (athletes versus non-athletes.

  10. Hypermobility in Adolescent Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Heidi; Pedersen, Trine Lykke; Junge, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional. Background Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) may increase pain and likelihood of injuries and also decrease function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in elite-level adolescent athletes. Objective To assess the prevalence of GJH in elite-level adolescent...... handball players (n = 53), participated in the study. Generalized joint hypermobility was classified by Beighton score as GJH4 (4/9 or greater), GJH5 (5/9 or greater), and GJH6 (6/9 or greater). Function of the lower extremity, musculoskeletal injuries, and HRQoL were assessed with self...... (24.6%) than in team handball players (13.2%). There was no significant difference in lower extremity function, injury prevalence and related factors (exacerbation, recurrence, and absence from training), HRQoL, or lengths of hop tests for those with and without GJH. However, the GJH group had...... significantly larger center-of-pressure path length across sway tests. Conclusion For ballet dancers and TeamGym gymnasts, the prevalence of GJH4 was higher than that of team handball players. For ballet dancers, the prevalence of GJH5 and GJH6 was higher than that of team handball players and the general...

  11. Do big athletes have big hearts? Impact of extreme anthropometry upon cardiac hypertrophy in professional male athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riding, Nathan R; Salah, Othman; Sharma, Sanjay; Carré, François; O'Hanlon, Rory; George, Keith P; Hamilton, Bruce; Chalabi, Hakim; Whyte, Gregory P; Wilson, Mathew G

    2012-01-01

    Aim Differentiating physiological cardiac hypertrophy from pathology is challenging when the athlete presents with extreme anthropometry. While upper normal limits exist for maximal left ventricular (LV) wall thickness (14 mm) and LV internal diameter in diastole (LVIDd, 65 mm), it is unknown if these limits are applicable to athletes with a body surface area (BSA) >2.3 m2. Purpose To investigate cardiac structure in professional male athletes with a BSA>2.3 m2, and to assess the validity of established upper normal limits for physiological cardiac hypertrophy. Methods 836 asymptomatic athletes without a family history of sudden death underwent ECG and echocardiographic screening. Athletes were grouped according to BSA (Group 1, BSA>2.3 m2, n=100; Group 2, 2–2.29 m2, n=244; Group 3, athlete with a normal ECG presented a maximal wall thickness and LVIDd greater than 13 and 65 mm, respectively. In Group 3 athletes, Black African ethnicity was associated with larger cardiac dimensions than either Caucasian or West Asian ethnicity. Three athletes were diagnosed with a cardiomyopathy (0.4% prevalence); with two athletes presenting a maximal wall thickness >13 mm, but in combination with an abnormal ECG suspicious of an inherited cardiac disease. Conclusion Regardless of extreme anthropometry, established upper limits for physiological cardiac hypertrophy of 14 mm for maximal wall thickness and 65 mm for LVIDd are clinically appropriate for all athletes. However, the abnormal ECG is key to diagnosis and guides follow-up, particularly when cardiac dimensions are within accepted limits. PMID:23097487

  12. Writer identification and verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schomaker, Lambert; Ratha, N; Govindaraju, V

    2008-01-01

    Writer identification and verification have gained increased interest recently, especially in the fields of forensic document examination and biometrics. Writer identification assigns a handwriting to one writer out of a set of writers. It determines whether or not a given handwritten text has in

  13. Integrated Java Bytecode Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian; Franz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Existing Java verifiers perform an iterative data-flow analysis to discover the unambiguous type of values stored on the stack or in registers. Our novel verification algorithm uses abstract interpretation to obtain definition/use information for each register and stack location in the program...

  14. Thermoregulation of competitive artistic gymnastic athletes and non-athlete girls exercising in the heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Tomedi Leites

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p143   It’s unclear whether the combination of intense, chronic training and heat exposure during prepubescence improves thermoregulatory responses to exercise in artistic gymnastics athletes. The objective of this study was to compare thermoregulatory and perceptual responses between artistic gymnastics athletes and non-athlete girls while exercising both in heat and thermoneutral conditions. Seven athletes (8.7 ± 1.3 yrs and 7 nonathletes (9.4 ± 1.5 yrs cycled for 30 min at load (W of ~55% VO2peak, on two separate occasions in a randomized order: heat (35˚C, 40% relative humidity and thermoneutral conditions (24˚C, 50% relative humidity. Rectal temperature, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, thermal sensation, thermal comfort and irritability were measured throughout the exercise. Initial rectal temperature was similar between athletes and non-athletes in both heat (37.2 ± 0.4 vs. 37.4 ± 0.2˚C, respectively and thermoneutral conditions (37.3 ± 0.2 vs. 37.3 ± 0.3˚C. Final rectal temperature was similar between groups (38.0 ± 0.2 vs. 38.2 ± 0.2˚C in heat and 37.8 ± 0.2 vs. 37.9 ± 0.2˚C in thermoneutral conditions. Initial heart rate was lower in athletes in the heat (76 ± 7 vs. 91 ± 11 bpm, P = 0.01; however, throughout cycling, it became similar between groups. Athletes reported similar perceptual responses compared to non-athletes, with the exception of higher thermal comfort in the 10th minute of exercise in thermoneutral conditions (P = 0.003. It was concluded that athletes were similar to non-athletes with respect to thermoregulatory and perceptual responses during 30 min of cycling at similar relative intensities.

  15. Electrocardiogram Testing During Athletic Preparticipation Physical Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daniel P.; Knoblauch, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a relatively rare yet unfortunate risk of athletic participation. To reduce the incidence of SCD, electrocardiogram (ECG) use during athletic preparticipation examinations (PPEs) has been proposed to detect underlying cardiac abnormalities. Objective: To estimate the effectiveness of ECG use during athletic PPEs. Design: Epidemiologic modeling. Populations: Public high school athletes. Data Collection and Analysis: Estimates of ECG sensitivity (70%) and specificity (84%) were drawn from the literature, as was the estimate of overall prevalence of cardiac conditions relevant to SCD (0.3%). Participation rate by sex was determined from National Federation of State High School Associations data. Participation by ethnicity was assumed to be proportionate to the public high school attendance rates for grades 9 through 12 (18.4% African American). Population-specific ECG effectiveness (positive predictive value), estimated total costs, cost per year of life saved, and cost to identify 1 additional case were computed. Total annual PPE screening costs reflected a cardiologist's office visit, including echocardiogram for those athletes with a positive ECG screen. Results: The model predicted that 16% of all athletes would be expected to have a positive ECG, but only 1.3% of athletes with a positive ECG would have a cardiac abnormality capable of causing SCD, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, structural defects, and various conduction abnormalities. Total annual cost estimates for ECG screening and follow-up exceeded $126 million. Average cost per year of life saved across groups was $2693, and the cost to identify 1 additional case averaged $100 827. Compared with females, males had both lower cost per year of life saved and lower cost to identify 1 true case. Similarly, black males exhibited lower costs than white males. Across groups, false-positive ECG screening exams accounted for 98.8% of follow-up costs

  16. The Drug Use Motivation Among Malaysian Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Parnabas, vincent; Mahamood, Yahaya; Parnabas, Julinamary; Nazaruddin, Muhamad Nizam; Abdullah, Nagoor Meera; Omar-Fauzee, Mohd Soffian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify the USAge of drugs on athletes by focusing on gender and different categories level of athletes. The sample, which was chosen randomly consisted of 115 athletes, consisting of national athletes (N=35), state athletes (N=35), district athletes (N=19), and university athletes (N=26). Based on gender, the present research consists of 70 male and 45 female athletes. Drug Usage Questionnaire, were used to collect the data. The result showed that the main mo...

  17. The Impact of Coenzyme Q[subscript10] Supplement on the Indicators of Muscle Damage in Young Male Skiing Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Nevzat

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to know the impact of coenzyme Q[subscript 10] (CoQ[subscript 10]) supplement on the muscle damage and total oxidant (TOS) enzyme levels of young skiing athletes during exercise. 15 male athletes were used for two weeks in the study. The athletes were divided into three groups: the control group and two subject…

  18. Sleep Quality Differs Between Athletes and Non-athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Havva Demirel

    2016-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible positive effects of sportsmanship on sleep quality and to assess the possible differences in sleep quality between athletes and non-athletes...

  19. The relationship between anthropometric factors and BMD of lumbar spine in athletic and non-athletic premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shabani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been shown that body weight affects on Bone Mineral Density (BMD. Body weight composed of Fat Mass (FM and Lean Body Mass (LBM, each of them affects on BMD differently. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between anthropometric factors (FM, LBM and BMI and BMD of lumbar spine in athletic (runners and non athletic premenopausal women. Materials and Method: The subjects included 15 female athletes and 15 female non-athletes (30-45 years. All female runners (experimental group were running 8 km in each session, 3 sessions per week for at least 4 years. However, the control group (female non-athletes had no specific sport activity. Body Mass Index (BMI of subjects was calculated manually. BMD, FM and LBM also measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Results: The results showed that in the experimental group there is a significant relationship between LBM and BMD of lumbar spine and in the control group, FM and BMD of lumbar spine were related tp each other significantly. The results also showed that there is not relationship between BMI and BMD of lumbar spine in the two groups.Conclusion: The authors suggest that LBM and FM may predict respectively BMD of lumbar spine in athletic and non-athletic pre-menopause women

  20. Fluid replacement requirements for child athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Thermoregulatory responses to exercise differ in prepubertal athletes compared with their adult counterparts. It is important, therefore, to consider fluid requirements specific to this age group to prevent risks of dehydration and diminished sports performance. Relative to their body size, children demonstrate lower sweat water losses during exercise than adults. Nonetheless, percentage levels of incurred dehydration are similar in pre- and postpubertal athletes. Moreover, voluntary (ad libitum) drinking volumes in children in respect to their body size are comparable or greater than those of adults. Given an adequate opportunity to drink during exercise, volume intake driven by thirst should be expected to prevent significant levels of dehydration in child athletes. The amount can be calculated conservatively as an hourly fluid intake of 13 mL/kg (6 mL/lb) bodyweight. Equally important is post-exercise fluid replenishment (approximately 4 mL/kg [2 mL/lb] for each hour of exercise) to avoid initiating subsequent exercise bouts in a dehydrated state. Choice of fluid should be dictated by taste preference, since volume of intake, rather than fluid content, is the most critical issue in child athletes. Since children may lack motivation for proper fluid intake behaviours, the responsibility falls to coaches and parents to assure that young athletes receive appropriate hydration during and after exercise bouts. © 2011 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.

  1. Injury risk management plan for volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lachlan P; Kelly, Vincent G; Beckman, Emma M

    2014-09-01

    Volleyball is an increasingly popular team sport. As with any competitive sport, there is an inherent risk of injury that must be recognized and collaboratively managed. This article provides a practical approach to the management of volleyball injuries within a team or organization. A brief review of the epidemiological data is presented which establishes (i) ankle sprain, (ii) shoulder overuse injury, (iii) patella tendinopathy, and (iv) anterior cruciate ligament injury as the primary injuries to address amongst these athletes. The interaction of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for these injuries are used to classify athletes into high-, medium- and low-risk groups. Targeted training interventions are suggested, based upon the risk level of the athlete, to minimize the occurrence of these injuries. Practical methods for integrating these activities into a training plan are also discussed.

  2. Arthroscopic Hip Surgery in the Elite Athlete: Comparison of Female and Male Competitive Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Kotaro R; Matsuda, Shuichi; Safran, Marc R

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have published the results of hip arthroscopic surgery in elite athletes and none studying a significant number of elite female athletes. (1) To compare sex-based differences in the ability to return to prior competitive sports activity after arthroscopic hip surgery. (2) To compare sex-based differences in the type of sports activity, diagnosis, and treatment in athletes requiring hip arthroscopic surgery. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Data on all elite athletes who underwent primary hip arthroscopic surgery between 2007 and 2014 were included. Athletes with a Hip Sports Activity Scale (HSAS) score of over 6 were identified. The preoperative evaluation included a medical history, history of sports activity, and hip-specific outcome scores (Modified Harris Hip Score [MHHS] and International Hip Outcome Tool-33 [iHOT-33]). Surgical findings and time to return to competitive sports were documented. Of 547 hips in 484 consecutive patients, 98 elite athletes (49 female) with a mean follow-up of 18.9 ± 12.8 months were identified. Eighty patients desired to return to their original competitive activity: 38 were female (42 hips; mean age, 21.5 ± 3.9 years), and 42 were male (54 hips; mean age, 20.5 ± 1.9 years). Moreover, 84.2% of female athletes and 83.3% of male athletes were able to return to the same level of competition at a mean of 8.3 ± 3.0 and 8.8 ± 2.9 months, respectively. Significant improvements between preoperative and postoperative outcome scores were seen in both groups (all P arthroscopic surgery at a similar rate, although their performance in sports was not measured. Distinct differences in the diagnosis, treatment, and type of sports activity between sexes were seen. The duration of symptoms negatively correlated with outcomes. Microfracture did not affect the return to sports.

  3. Collegiate Athletics: An Investigation into Athletic Persistence of Freshman Student-Athletes Participating in NCAA Division-III Varsity Athletic Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombito, Lester Jamili

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the persistence of student-athletes in athletics at the D-III level is complex. This research study investigated the issue of student-athlete retention by focusing on Division III (D-III) student-athlete persistence in athletics by asking the following research question, "To what extent do freshman student-athletes persist in…

  4. Self-verification motives at the collective level of self-definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Serena; Chen, Karen Y; Shaw, Lindsay

    2004-01-01

    Three studies examined self-verification motives in relation to collective aspects of the self. Several moderators of collective self-verification were also examined--namely, the certainty with which collective self-views are held, the nature of one's ties to a source of self-verification, the salience of the collective self, and the importance of group identification. Evidence for collective self-verification emerged across all studies, particularly when collective self-views were held with high certainty (Studies 1 and 2), perceivers were somehow tied to the source of self-verification (Study 1), the collective self was salient (Study 2), and group identification was important (Study 3). To the authors' knowledge, these studies are the first to examine self-verification at the collective level of self-definition. The parallel and distinct ways in which self-verification processes may operate at different levels of self-definition are discussed.

  5. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  6. The female athlete triad in student track and field athletes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-22

    Aug 22, 2012 ... Objectives: To explore the female athlete triad components in university track and field athletes, as well as calculate estimated energy availability. ... Athletes with menstrual pattern changes had lower spine [1.043 (0.975-1.059) vs. ..... subject burden and fatigue, and establishing the exact cut-off point.

  7. Athletic Identity of Community College Student Athletes: Issues for Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Daniel B.; Newman, Richard; Miller, Michael T.; Nadler, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    Community college student athletes are unique in their setting in the world of college student athletes. Many compete for the love of their sport, while others have aspirations for transferring to major colleges to continue their participation. The current study made use of the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale with a sample of nearly 400…

  8. The Athletic Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Andrew

    2016-09-10

    This paper seeks to explore the attraction and the beauty of the contemporary athletic body. It will be suggested that a body shaped through muscular bulk and definition has come to be seen as aesthetically normative. This body differs from the body of athletes from the early and mid-twentieth century. It will be argued that the contemporary body is not merely the result of advances in sports science, but rather that it is expressive of certain meanings and values. The visual similarity of the contemporary athletic body and that of the comic book superhero suggests that both bodies carry a similar potential for narrative story-telling, and that their attraction is bound up with this narrative potential. The superhero and athlete live meaningful lives, pursuing clear and morally unambiguous goals. The aesthetic attraction of the body lies in its capacity to facilitate the articulation of a story of a meaningful life, and to do so in the face of the growing anomie and thus meaninglessness of life as experienced in contemporary society. Athleticism offers an illusion of meaning, serving to reproduce dominant justificatory narratives and social stereotypes. Yet, as an illusion of meaning, it may be challenged and negotiated, not least with respect to its bias towards a certain form of the male body. The female athletic body disrupts the illusion, opening up new existential possibilities, new ways of living and being, and thus new, and potentially disruptive, narratives.

  9. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  10. The Masters Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayrose, Gregory A.; Beutel, Bryan G.; Cardone, Dennis A.; Sherman, Orrin H.

    2015-01-01

    Context: With the ever-increasing number of masters athletes, it is necessary to understand how to best provide medical support to this expanding population using a multidisciplinary approach. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant articles published between 2000 and 2013 using the search terms masters athlete and aging and exercise were identified using MEDLINE. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: Preparticipation screening should assess a variety of medical comorbidities, with emphasis on cardiovascular health in high-risk patients. The masters athlete should partake in moderate aerobic exercise and also incorporate resistance and flexibility training. A basic understanding of physiology and age-related changes in muscle composition and declines in performance are prerequisites for providing appropriate care. Osteoarthritis and joint arthroplasty are not contraindications to exercise, and analgesia has an appropriate role in the setting of acute or chronic injuries. Masters athletes should follow regular training regimens to maximize their potential while minimizing their likelihood of injuries. Conclusion: Overall, masters athletes represent a unique population and should be cared for utilizing a multidisciplinary approach. This care should be implemented not only during competitions but also between events when training and injury are more likely to occur. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID:26131307

  11. NUTRIENT AND FOOD INADEQUACIES AMONG ATHLETES: GENDER COMPARISONS

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Marcus Vinicius Santos do; Villa-Nova, Tiago Marcel Santos; Silva, Danielle Góes da; Nascimento, Vitor Teixeira; Mendes-Netto, Raquel Simões

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the dietary intake between male and female athletes. The study included 80 high performance athletes, including 43 male and 37 female. The athletes dietary intake was evaluated by a 24-hour recall. Both groups showed a low caloric intake. Men were more inadequate in protein and saturated fat intake. Both groups showed a high inadequacy in vitamin A, E, D and calcium intake. Women had a higher inadequacy in vitamin B12, B3, magnesium, fo...

  12. Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of different training programs for athletes of high qualification, specializing in rowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Miftahutdinova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the efficiency of different programs of training sessions to improve operational preparedness qualified athletes who specialize in rowing. Materials and Methods: the study included 10 athletes craftsmanship that are part of the national team of Ukraine rowing. To assess the functional training using computer program "SHVSM" and submaximal test PWC170. Results are content authoring program training sessions to improve functional training highly skilled athletes who specialize in rowing and academic results its experimental verification. Conclusions: the experiment confirmed a higher efficiency of the program of training sessions for rowing-sportsmen team Ukraine compared with the program, which is traditionally used, as evidenced by the survey.

  13. High-intensity interval training and athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, Lynne; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun C; Song, Jong K

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes. Thirty-three male and female collegiate Taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into a HIIT group (N.=16) or a high-intensity continuous running (HICR) group (N.=17). The HIIT group undertook training of high-intensity sprints interspersed with active rest periods whilst the HICR group participated in high-intensity running for a continuous period. Both groups completed 11 sessions over 4 weeks. Physique, body composition, Wingate anaerobic test and VO2max test were measured. The vertical jump test, agility T-test and sit-ups were used to assess physical fitness. Repeated measures ANCOVAs with sex as a covariate were applied and significant level was set at 0.05. Following 11 sessions of training, significant improvements in anaerobic peak power (PHIIT group compared to HICR group. A greater improvement of aerobic capacity was observed in HIIT group (8.8%) compared to the HICR group (1.7%). In relation to physical fitness, the HIIT group improved in the vertical jump while the HICR group did not change. Both the HIIT and HICR groups showed greater improvements in T-test and sit-ups during the intervention period. This study shows the effectiveness of eleven sessions of HIIT in producing significant improvements in anaerobic capacity relevant to successful Taekwondo competition performance in collegiate Taekwondo athletes. This could inform the future planning of Taekwondo athletes' pre-competition training, specifically the influence of training intensity on anaerobic capacity.

  14. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R.; Greydanus, Donald E.; Pratt, Helen D.; Phillips, Elaine L.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews research on eating disorders in adolescent athletes, including prevalence, its uncommonness among male athletes, risk factors, medical complications, prevention strategies, and implications for sport and exercise participation, management, and prognosis. (EV)

  15. Iron and the endurance athlete

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hinton, Pamela S

    2014-01-01

    Iron is a trace mineral that is highly significant to endurance athletes. Iron is critical to optimal athletic performance because of its role in energy metabolism, oxygen transport, and acid-base balance...

  16. Sudden cardiac death in young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östman-Smith I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ingegerd Östman-SmithDivision of Paediatric Cardiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, SwedenAbstract: Athletic activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden death for individuals with some congenital or acquired heart disorders. This review considers in particular the causes of death affecting athletes below 35 years of age. In this age group the largest proportion of deaths are caused by diseases with autosomal dominant inheritance such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, long QT-syndrome, and Marfan’s syndrome. A policy of early cascade-screening of all first-degree relatives of patients with these disorders will therefore detect a substantial number of individuals at risk. A strictly regulated system with preparticipation screening of all athletes following a protocol pioneered in Italy, including school-age children, can also detect cases caused by sporadic new mutations and has been shown to reduce excess mortality among athletes substantially. Recommendations for screening procedure are reviewed. It is concluded that ECG screening ought to be part of preparticipation screening, but using criteria that do not cause too many false positives among athletes. One such suggested protocol will show positive in approximately 5% of screened individuals, among whom many will be screened for these diseases. On this point further research is needed to define what kind of false-positive and false-negative rate these new criteria result in. A less formal system based on cascade-screening of relatives, education of coaches about suspicious symptoms, and preparticipation questionnaires used by athletic clubs, has been associated over time with a sizeable reduction in sudden cardiac deaths among Swedish athletes, and thus appears to be worth implementing even for junior athletes not recommended for formal preparticipation screening. It is strongly argued

  17. Distorted Fingerprint Verification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya KARTHIKAESHWARAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint verification is one of the most reliable personal identification methods. Fingerprint matching is affected by non-linear distortion introduced in fingerprint impression during the image acquisition process. This non-linear deformation changes both the position and orientation of minutiae. The proposed system operates in three stages: alignment based fingerprint matching, fuzzy clustering and classifier framework. First, an enhanced input fingerprint image has been aligned with the template fingerprint image and matching score is computed. To improve the performance of the system, a fuzzy clustering based on distance and density has been used to cluster the feature set obtained from the fingerprint matcher. Finally a classifier framework has been developed and found that cost sensitive classifier produces better results. The system has been evaluated on fingerprint database and the experimental result shows that system produces a verification rate of 96%. This system plays an important role in forensic and civilian applications.

  18. Skin Cancer Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Collegiate Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Hobbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor athletes represent an important group at risk for skin cancer because they are routinely exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation. The purpose of this study was to assess current skin cancer knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among collegiate athletes. A modified version of the Melanoma Risk Behavior Survey was completed by 343 athletes attending a Southern University in the USA, generating an 87% response rate. Survey results demonstrated that the majority of the athletes do not limit their sun exposure and reported low levels of sun protective behaviors. In addition, athletes lacked knowledge about skin cancer and sun protection. Eighty-three percent of the athletes stated that tanning beds improve one’s overall health. Race was significantly associated with skin cancer knowledge, whereas, gender was found to be significantly associated with knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards skin cancer. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between knowledge and behavior, but not between attitude and behavior. This study highlights the need to educate athletes about the hazards of tanning to minimize UV exposure and promote sun protection habits. Moreover, athletes should be educated on the dangers of indoor tanning facilities and encouraged to avoid these facilities.

  19. Female athletes and menstrual disorders: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Laura; Galanti, Giorgio; Lorini, Silvia; Beni, Giada; Dei, Metella; Maffulli, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background There is a greater incidence of menstrual disorders in female athletes than in their sedentary counterparts. The menstrual disorder is reported in female athletes suffering from athletic triad syndrome, while few data in those free of this syndrome are available. The study aims to ascertain the presence of menstrual disorders and the eventual relationship with myocardial performance in female athletes practicing different sports. Methods A sample of 64 subjects aged 18.5±2 was selected and divided into 3 groups (37 subjects practicing rhythmic gymnastics, 11 swimmers, and 16 volleyball players). All underwent echocardiography, biompendance analysis, and answered a questionnaire. Results All anthropometrics parameters were normal. Few athletes reported menstrual disorders. No association between the presence of menstrual disorders and BMI. All echo results were within the normal range. Cardiac Mass Index (CMI) was normal for all athletes despite in swimmers significantly higher values (90.64±14.9 g/m2) compared to the volleyball players (78.25±14.0 g/m2; prhythmic gymnasts (77.89±13.4 g/m2; p<.009) were found. Conclusions Despite menstrual disorders are represented among female athletes, the eventual relationship with the sport practiced is not so evident. Questionnaire should be used to identify menstrual disorders in non-elite athletically active females. PMID:27900290

  20. Are asthma-like symptoms in elite athletes associated with classical features of asthma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T.K.; Pedersen, L.; Anderson, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Asthma is frequent in elite athletes and clinical studies in athletes have found increased airway inflammation. Objective: To investigate asthma-like symptoms, airway inflammation, airway reactivity (AR) to mannitol and use of asthma medication in Danish elite athletes. Methods......: The study group consisted of 54 elite athletes (19 with doctor-diagnosed asthma), 22 non-athletes with doctor-diagnosed asthma (steroid naive for 4 weeks before the examination) and 35 non-athletes without asthma; all aged 18-35 years. Examinations (1 day): questionnaires, exhaled nitric oxide (e......-diagnosed asthma had less AR (response dose ratio 0.02 (0.004) vs 0.08 (0.018) pathletes with doctor-diagnosed asthma. Use of inhaled corticosteroids was similar in the two groups (not significant). In all, 42 elite athletes had...

  1. GRAVITY Science Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérand, A.; Berger, J.-P.; de Wit, W.-J.; Eisenhauer, F.; Haubois, X.; Paumard, T.; Schoeller, M.; Wittkowski, M.; Woillez, J.; Wolff, B.

    2017-12-01

    In the time between successfully commissioning an instrument and before offering it in the Call for Proposals for the first time, ESO gives the community at large an opportunity to apply for short Science Verification (SV) programmes. In 2016, ESO offered SV time for the second-generation Very Large Telescope Interferometer instrument GRAVITY. In this article we describe the selection process, outline the range of science cases covered by the approved SV programmes, and highlight some of the early scientific results.

  2. Methods of Software Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Gurin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the problem of software verification (SW. Methods of software verification designed to check the software for compliance with the stated requirements such as correctness, system security and system adaptability to small changes in the environment, portability and compatibility, etc. These are various methods both by the operation process and by the way of achieving result. The article describes the static and dynamic methods of software verification and paid attention to the method of symbolic execution. In its review of static analysis are discussed and described the deductive method, and methods for testing the model. A relevant issue of the pros and cons of a particular method is emphasized. The article considers classification of test techniques for each method. In this paper we present and analyze the characteristics and mechanisms of the static analysis of dependencies, as well as their views, which can reduce the number of false positives in situations where the current state of the program combines two or more states obtained both in different paths of execution and in working with multiple object values. Dependences connect various types of software objects: single variables, the elements of composite variables (structure fields, array elements, the size of the heap areas, the length of lines, the number of initialized array elements in the verification code using static methods. The article pays attention to the identification of dependencies within the framework of the abstract interpretation, as well as gives an overview and analysis of the inference tools.Methods of dynamic analysis such as testing, monitoring and profiling are presented and analyzed. Also some kinds of tools are considered which can be applied to the software when using the methods of dynamic analysis. Based on the work a conclusion is drawn, which describes the most relevant problems of analysis techniques, methods of their solutions and

  3. Substantial injuries influence ranking position in young elite athletes of athletics, cross-country skiing, orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosen, Philip; Heijne, Annette

    2017-12-11

    The relationship between injury and performance in young athletes is scarcely studied. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the association between injury prevalence and ranking position among adolescent elite athletes. 162 male and female adolescent elite athletes (age range 15-19), competing in athletics (n=59), cross-country skiing (n=66) and orienteering (n=37), were monitored weekly over 22-47 weeks using a web-based injury questionnaire. Ranking lists were collected. A significant (p=.003) difference was found in the seasonal substantial injury prevalence across the ranked athletes over the season, where the top-ranked (median 3.6%, 25-75th percentiles 0-14.3%) and middle-ranked athletes (median 2.3%, 25-75th percentiles 0-10.0%) had a lower substantial injury prevalence compared to the low-ranked athletes (median 11.3%, 25-75th percentiles 2.5-27.1%), during both pre-season (p=.002) and competitive season (p=.031). Athletes that improved their ranking position (51%, n=51) reported a lower substantial injury prevalence (median 0%, 25-75th percentiles 0-10.0%) compared to those that decreased (49%, n=49) their ranking position (md 6.7%, 25-75th percentiles 0-22.5%). In the top-ranked group, no athlete reported substantial injury more than40% of all data collection time points compared to 9.6% (n=5) in the middle-ranked and 17.3% (n=9) in the low-ranked group. Our results provide supporting evidence that substantial injuries, such as acute and overuse injuries leading to moderate or severe reductions in training or sports performance, influence ranking position in adolescent elite athletes. The findings are crucial to stakeholders involved in adolescent elite sports and support the value of designing effective preventive interventions for substantial injuries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. How College Affects Student Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Hamilton, Mary F.; Sina, Julie A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how college affects student athletes. Research cited includes studies using theories of student development and results from the National Study on Student Learning that describe the desired outcomes of college for student athletes. Discusses implications for policies and practices that address the critical needs of student athletes.…

  5. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  6. Diet Quality of Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Kelly; Stoess, Amanda Ireland; Forsythe, Hazel; Kurzynske, Janet; Vaught, Joy Ann; Adams, Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Collegiate athletes generally appear healthy according to weight for height and body fat standards. Despite the fact that there are well known connections between athletic performance and nutrition, little is known about the diets of collegiate athletes. The objective of this study was to determine the diet quality of 138…

  7. Athletic Merit vs. Academic Merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Douglas

    1994-01-01

    Many colleges award more merit-based scholarship money to athletes than to all other undergraduates combined. Critics say this sends disturbing messages about institutional priorities. Others claim athletic scholarships derive from sports-related income. Awarding of athletic scholarships based on need would partially alleviate the problem. (MSE)

  8. Statement on student athlete sanctions

    OpenAIRE

    Hincker, Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    I remain deeply concerned by the situation involving our three student-athletes. I remain concerned with the known behavior regardless of the judicial disposition. All of us in the Athletics Department believe behavior above reproach should be the norm for Virginia Tech student-athletes.

  9. Age matters. A study on motivation, flow and self-esteem in competing athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Fossmo, Toril

    2006-01-01

    The present study tested whether there were any differences between athletes varying in age, or practising different sports at different levels, on the variables motivation, flow, self-esteem and personality. Of the 145 athletes that participated in the study, there were 85 males and 59 females (one missing) ranging from 18 to 40 years of age (M = 21.34, SD = 3.89). The athletes were grouped as team sport athletes (n = 74) and individual sport athletes (n = 71) in order to determine if th...

  10. Muscle strength in athletes-hand kettlebell sport for different meteorological situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulthickiy Z.I.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Considered indicators of the strength of muscles of hands of students of general physical training and weightlifting athletes. The study involved 16 students of general physical training, 16 weightlifting athletes (III level and 16 athletes (II level. Age 18-23 years of study (men. Investigations were carried out at meteorological situations I and type III. It is established that muscle strength depends on the athletes and sports category varies for different types of weather. When the type III weather in all surveyed groups of athletes, a decrease of muscle strength.

  11. Benefits of sports participation for executive function in disabled athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Russo, Francesco; Bultrini, Alessandro; Brunelli, Stefano; Delussu, Anna Sofia; Polidori, Lorenzo; Taddei, Francesco; Traballesi, Marco; Spinelli, Donatella

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the effect of sports activity on physically-disabled individuals using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques. Visual go/no-go discriminative and simple response tasks were used. Participants included 17 disabled athletes, 9 from open-skill (wheelchair basketball) and eight from closed-skill (swimming) sports, and 18 healthy non-athletes. Reaction times of the disabled athletes were slower than those of healthy non-athletes on both tasks (7% and 13% difference, respectively). Intra-individual variations in reaction times, switch cost, and number of false alarms, were higher in the swimmers, but comparable to healthy non-athletes, in the basketball group. Event-related potentials (ERPs) early components P1, N1, and P2 had longer latencies in the disabled athletes. The late P3 component had longer latency and smaller amplitude in the disabled athletes only in the discriminative response task. The N2 component, which reflected inhibition/execution processing in the discriminative response task, was delayed and reduced in the swimmer group, but was comparable to healthy subjects in the basketball group. Our results show that (1) the ERP components related to perceptual processing, and late components related to executive processing, were impaired in disabled subjects; and (2) open-skill sports such as basketball may partially compensate for executive control impairment by fostering the stability of motor responses and favoring response flexibility.

  12. Energy availability in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loucks, Anne B; Kiens, Bente; Wright, Hattie H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This review updates and complements the review of energy balance and body composition in the Proceedings of the 2003 IOC Consensus Conference on Sports Nutrition. It argues that the concept of energy availability is more useful than the concept of energy balance for managing the diets...... of athletes. It then summarizes recent reports of the existence, aetiologies, and clinical consequences of low energy availability in athletes. This is followed by a review of recent research on the failure of appetite to increase ad libitum energy intake in compensation for exercise energy expenditure...

  13. Longitudinal Study Evaluating Postural Balance of Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Nili; Nemet, Dan; Pantanowitz, Michal; Zeev, Aviva; Hallumi, Monder; Sindiani, Mahmood; Meckel, Yoav; Eliakim, Alon

    2016-02-01

    Repeated anaerobic conditions during athletic performance may cause general and local fatigue that result in postural balance deficit. Evidence suggests that improved postural balance during athletic training may decrease the risk for fallings and traumatic injuries among athletes. Twenty athletes (12 girls, 8 boys) and 20 controls (12 girls, 8 boys) ages 10-15 years participated in the current study. All athletes were active in an 8-month physical activity program, 3 times per week for 90 min., specific to basketball, soccer, or athletic training. The control children participated in physical education at school only, with no involvement in organized extracurricular sports. All participants were evaluated for postural balance in three assessments over one year (at 4-mo intervals); the Interactive Balance System machine (Tetrax device) was used to assess balance at three test times (pre-, post-, and 10 min) after a session of a repeated sprint anaerobic test, consisting of 12 × 20 m run starting every 20 sec. The athletes had better postural balance than controls. There were different group patterns of change over the sessions; a significant interaction of session and group indicated that postural balance of the groups differed. The contribution of low sway frequencies (F1) and high sway frequencies (F6) differed between the controls and the athletes group. Results suggested that although athletes had better postural balance, improvement should be encouraged during training over the sessions and seasons, with special awareness of the balance deficit that occurs immediately after anaerobic stress and at the end of the season, to decrease the risk of injuries. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Dynamic Postural Control in Female Athletes and Non-Athletes following a Whole-Body Fatigue Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghbani, Fatemeh; Woodhouse, Linda; Gaeini, Abbas Ali

    2015-11-20

    Postural control is a crucial element in regular training of athletes, development of complex technical movement, and injury prevention; however, distributing factor of the postural control such as fatigue have been neglected by athletic trainers in novice and inexperienced athletes. The objective of this study was to compare changes in dynamic postural control of young female athletes and non-athletes after a fatigue protocol. Thirty females (15 athletes and 15 non-athletes) with no orthopedic problems were recruited to participate in this study. All participants completed the pre-SEBT (Star Excursion Balance Test) in eight directions at baseline; then they performed a 20- minute fatigue protocol following which post-SEBT was measured. Rating of perceived exertion was measured using the Borg scale immediately before, mid-way through (i.e. after the third station), and after performing the fatigue protocol (i.e. immediately before the post-SEBT). Female non-athlete groups had significant differences in dynamic balance performance after fatigue in the medial, posterormedial, and posterior directions (p postural control of the novice with progressing the exercise time. Our findings could also help coaches to develop trainings focused on the three directions of medial, posterormedial, and posterior directions and aimed at exercises increasing fatigue resistance.

  15. Life span exercise among elite intercollegiate student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Shawn C; Romano, Russell; Azen, Stanley P; Schroeder, E Todd; Salem, George J

    2015-01-01

    Despite prominent public attention, data on life span health and exercise outcomes among elite, competitive athletes are sparse and do not reflect the diversity of modern athletes. Life span exercise behavior differs between National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student athletes and a nonathlete control group. Sustained exercise is associated with improved cardiopulmonary health outcomes. Cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. A total of 496 students and alumni (age range, 17-84 year) at a large, NCAA Division I university, including student athletes and an age- and sex-matched nonathlete control group, completed anonymous, self-report health and exercise questionnaires. Age-stratified, cross-sectional analysis evaluated previous week's total exercise volume (ExVol), self-rated exercise importance (ExImp), and compliance with American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) exercise guidelines for healthy adults. The association of ACSM guideline compliance with lifetime cardiopulmonary health outcomes was also assessed. Current student athletes reported significantly greater ExVol (P 99.5%), ExImp (P ACSM guidelines (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] = 30.6, 11.0-84.6) compared with nonathletes. No significant differences were found between alumni student athletes and nonathletes. Alumni student athletes demonstrated substantially lower ExVol (P 99.5%) and guideline compliance (OR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.05-0.19) compared with current student athletes, whereas nonathletes had similar exercise behavior across the life span. Among alumni, ACSM guideline compliance was associated with significant attenuation of cardiopulmonary health concerns (P = 0.02, d = -0.50, pCID = 14%) independent of intercollegiate athletic participation. Although current NCAA Division I student athletes demonstrated significant, clinically important differences in exercise behavior compared with nonathletes, no group differences were evident later in life

  16. Athletic trainers' beliefs toward working with special olympics athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conatser, Phillip; Naugle, Keith; Tillman, Mark; Stopka, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Certified athletic trainers (ATs) are often the first health care providers to treat injured athletes. However, few researchers have studied ATs' beliefs concerning working with Special Olympics athletes. To examine ATs' beliefs toward working with Special Olympics athletes by using the theory of planned behavior model and to examine the influence of moderator variables. Cross-sectional survey. Athletic Trainers' Beliefs Toward Special Olympics Athletes survey instruments were mailed to 147 directors of Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs-accredited athletic training education programs (ATEPDs) in 43 states and 120 cities. One hundred twenty ATEPDs (44 women, 76 men). We used stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine whether attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control predicted intention and to determine which moderator variables predicted attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Pearson product moment correlations were used to determine ATEPDs' beliefs about how competent they felt working with Special Olympics athletes and whether they were currently working with these athletes. We found that subjective norm, attitude toward the behavior, and perceived behavioral control predicted intention (R = 0.697, R(2) = 0.486, F(3,112) = 35.3, P Olympics athletes, completion of 1 or more courses in adapted physical activity, ATEPDs' competence, completion of 1 or more special education courses, and sex (R = 0.589, R(2) = 0.347, F(5,111) = 11.780, P Olympics athletes and more Special Olympics certifications (R = 0.472, R(2) = 0.222, F(2,112) = 16.009, P Olympics athletes, and a higher educational degree (R = 0.642, R(2) = 0.412, F(4,113) = 19.793, P Olympics athletes; however, their subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention beliefs were unfavorable. The ATEPDs reported they did not feel competent to work with Special Olympics athletes.

  17. Fueling the vegetarian (vegan) athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Joel; Ferreri, Deana M

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are associated with several health benefits, but whether a vegetarian or vegan diet is beneficial for athletic performance has not yet been defined. Based on the evidence in the literature that diets high in unrefined plant foods are associated with beneficial effects on overall health, lifespan, immune function, and cardiovascular health, such diets likely would promote improved athletic performance as well. In this article, we review the state of the literature on vegetarian diets and athletic performance, discuss prevention of potential micronutrient deficiencies that may occur in the vegan athlete, and provide strategies on meeting the enhanced caloric and protein needs of an athlete with a plant-based diet.

  18. Eating Disorders Among Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, J S; Corbin, C B

    1987-02-01

    In brief: Research has indicated that 4% to 19% of female college students have eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, anorexia athletica, or bulimia. To determine the extent to which preoccupation with weight and tendencies toward eating disorders are problems among female athletes, we analyzed the responses to a questionnaire completed by 168 college women-101 nonathletes, 35 athletes whose sports emphasize leanness, and 32 athletes whose sports do not emphasize leanness. The results showed that 6% of the nonathletes, 20% of the athletes in sports that emphasize leanness, and 10% of all the athletes were either exceptionally preoccupied with weight or had tendencies toward eating disorders.

  19. Scalable Techniques for Formal Verification

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art approaches to formal verification techniques to seamlessly integrate different formal verification methods within a single logical foundation. It should benefit researchers and practitioners looking to get a broad overview of the spectrum of formal verification techniques, as well as approaches to combining such techniques within a single framework. Coverage includes a range of case studies showing how such combination is fruitful in developing a scalable verification methodology for industrial designs. This book outlines both theoretical and practical issue

  20. Death by homicide in National Collegiate Athletic Association athletes between 2003 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Ashwin L; Poon, Steven; Drezner, Jonathan A; Zigman, Monica; Asif, Irfan M; Harmon, Kimberly G

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of homicide-related death among individuals of college age in the United States population is estimated at 15.5/100,000. The incidence of homicide among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes is unknown. To investigate the rate of homicide-related death in NCAA athletes and to identify associated risk factors. The NCAA Resolutions list, NCAA catastrophic insurance claims, media reports, and published NCAA demographic data were used to identify student athlete deaths and total participant seasons from 2003-04 through 2012-13. Homicide-related deaths were analysed by sex, race, division, sport, method, location, and circumstance. Internet searches were used to gather case details. Forty-two cases of homicide-related death were identified from 4,242,519 individual participant seasons during the ten-year study period. The incidence of homicide-related death in NCAA athletes was 1.0/100,000. The incidence in males was 1.45/100,000 and in females was 0.4/100,000 (relative risk (RR) 2.9, p=0.01). The incidence in black athletes was 4.2/100,000 and in white athletes was 0.4/100,000 (RR 7.0, pfootball (3.7/100,000), with a RR of 4.4 (p=0.002) compared to all other sports. 88% of cases occurred off-campus. 38% of cases occurred at a social gathering, and 38% of cases occurred in a place of residence. 74% involved a fatal shooting. Homicide-related deaths in NCAA athletes occur most commonly in males, black athletes, and American football players. Understanding the incidence, risk factors, and circumstances of homicide-related deaths in college athletes may assist NCAA institutions in developing preventative measures. University of Washington Human Subjects Application, HSD No. 42077. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Inguinal Hernia in Athletes: Role of Dynamic Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileff, William Kelton; Nekhline, Mikhail; Kolowich, Patricia A; Talpos, Gary B; Eyler, Willam R; van Holsbeeck, Marnix

    Inguinal hernia is a commonly encountered cause of pain in athletes. Because of the anatomic complexity, lack of standard imaging, and the dynamic condition, there is no unified opinion explaining its underlying pathology. Athletes with persistent groin pain would have a high prevalence of inguinal hernia with dynamic ultrasound, and herniorrhaphy would successfully return athletes to activity. Case-control study. Level 3. Forty-seven amateur and professional athletes with sports-related groin pain who underwent ultrasound were selected based on history and examination. Patients with prior groin surgery or hip pathology were excluded. Clinical and surgical documentation were correlated with imaging. The study group was compared with 41 age-matched asymptomatic athletes. Ultrasound was positive for hernia with movement of bowel, bladder, or omental tissue anterior to the inferior epigastric vessels during Valsalva maneuver. The 47-patient symptomatic study group included 41 patients with direct inguinal hernias, 1 with indirect inguinal hernia, and 5 with negative ultrasound. Of 42 patients with hernia, 39 significantly improved with herniorrhaphy, 2 failed to improve after surgery and were diagnosed with adductor longus tears, and 1 improved with physical therapy. Five patients with negative ultrasound underwent magnetic resonance imaging and were diagnosed with hip labral tear or osteitis pubis. The 41-patient asymptomatic control group included 3 patients with direct inguinal hernias, 2 with indirect inguinal hernias, and 3 with femoral hernias. Inguinal hernias are a major component of groin pain in athletes. Prevalence of direct inguinal hernia in symptomatic athletes was greater than that for controls ( P inguinal hernia became asymptomatic. Persistent groin pain in the athlete may relate to inguinal hernia, which can be diagnosed with dynamic ultrasound imaging. Herniorrhaphy is successful at returning athletes to sports activity.

  2. Habitual Dietary Nitrate Intake in Highly Trained Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonvik, Kristin L; Nyakayiru, Jean; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Wardenaar, Floris C; van Loon, Luc J C; Verdijk, Lex B

    2017-04-01

    Although beetroot juice, as a nitrate carrier, is a popular ergogenic supplement among athletes, nitrate is consumed through the regular diet as well. We aimed to assess the habitual dietary nitrate intake and identify the main contributing food sources in a large group of highly trained athletes. Dutch highly trained athletes (226 women and 327 men) completed 2-4 web-based 24-hr dietary recalls and questionnaires within a 2- to 4-week period. The nitrate content of food products and food groups was determined systematically based on values found in regulatory reports and scientific literature. These were then used to calculate each athlete's dietary nitrate intake from the web-based recalls. The median[IQR] habitual nitrate intake was 106[75-170] mg/d (range 19-525 mg/d). Nitrate intake correlated with energy intake (ρ = 0.28, p athletes (12.8[9.2-20.0] vs 9.4[6.2-13.8] mg/MJ; p athletes (150[88-236] vs 114[61-183] g/d; p athletes was 106 mg, with large interindividual variation. Dietary nitrate intake was strongly associated with the intake of vegetables. Increasing the intake of nitrate-rich vegetables in the diet might serve as an alternative strategy for nitrate supplementation.

  3. TEI Index in elite sprinters and endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, N; Ergün, M; Alioğlu, E; Edem, E; Tengiz, I; Aytemiz, F; Ercan, E; İşleğen, Ç

    2015-09-01

    Aerobic training has been reported to have a positive effect on myocardial performance index. The aim of the present study was to examine the myocardial performance index (MPI) in sprinters and endurance athletes. A total of 66 elite male athletes (36 sprinter and 30 endurance athletes) and 33 agematched sedentary controls voluntarily participated in the study. The echocardiographic evaluation was performed and TEI index was measured as a marker of myocardial performance index in all groups. Demographic features, training ages and weekly exercise volumes were similar in sprinters and endurance athletes. There were no significant differences in terms of diastolic parameters and among the groups. In sprinters, isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) and isovolumetric contraction time (IVCT) were significantly shorter than in controls. In endurance athletes, IVCT was significantly shorter than in controls. Both sprinters and endurance athletes had longer ET compared with controls. TEI Index was significantly lower in sprinters and endurance athletes than in controls. Our results suggest that both aerobic and anaerobic training seem to have a positive effect on myocardial performance. This comparable effect might be a result of frequently exercising, especially aerobic exercising in sprinters' training programs.

  4. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders among Male Adolescent Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    PUSTIVŠEK, Suzana; HADŽIĆ, Vedran; DERVIŠEVIĆ, Edvin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eating disorders (ED) are an important and increasing problem in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the risk factors and the prevalence of risk for ED among male adolescent elite athletes and nonathletic controls. Differences between male athletes competing in aerobic, anaerobic and aerobic-anaerobic sports were examined as well. Methods This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted on 351 adolescents (athletes n = 228; controls n = 123). All participants were aged 15–17 at the time of measuring. Risk for ED was determined using a SCOFF questionnaire. Results The overall prevalence of the risk for ED in male adolescents was 24.8%, with no significant differences among athletes and controls or different subgroups of athletes (p>0.05), although the highest prevalence (37.2%) was registered in aerobic subgroup of athletes. Higher number of attempts to lose weight was associated with increased risk of ED in each group (athletes and controls). Other predictors referred to lack of breakfast and body composition in aerobic subgroup of athletes and number of meals and training frequency in anaerobic subgroup. The most common reasons for dieting were improvement of sport results (19.6–44.2%) and better self-esteem (41.5%) in athletes and controls respectively. Conclusions Participation in the competitive sport itself is not associated with the increased risk for ED. It seems that risk factors for ED for adolescent athletes competing in aerobic and anaerobic sports represent a subject that deserves consideration and further investigation in the future. PMID:27646623

  5. Myocardial Fibrosis in Athletes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoor, F.R. van de; Aengevaeren, V.L.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Oxborough, D.L.; George, K.P.; Thompson, P.D.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial fibrosis (MF) is a common phenomenon in the late stages of diverse cardiac diseases and is a predictive factor for sudden cardiac death. Myocardial fibrosis detected by magnetic resonance imaging has also been reported in athletes. Regular exercise improves cardiovascular health, but

  6. Athletic Hip Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T Sean; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Historically, athletic hip injuries have garnered little attention; however, these injuries account for approximately 6% of all sports injuries and their prevalence is increasing. At times, the diagnosis and management of hip injuries can be challenging and elusive for the team physician. Hip injuries are seen in high-level athletes who participate in cutting and pivoting sports that require rapid acceleration and deceleration. Described previously as the "sports hip triad," these injuries consist of adductor strains, osteitis pubis, athletic pubalgia, or core muscle injury, often with underlying range-of-motion limitations secondary to femoroacetabular impingement. These disorders can happen in isolation but frequently occur in combination. To add to the diagnostic challenge, numerous intra-articular disorders and extra-articular soft-tissue restraints about the hip can serve as pain generators, in addition to referred pain from the lumbar spine, bowel, bladder, and reproductive organs. Athletic hip conditions can be debilitating and often require a timely diagnosis to provide appropriate intervention.

  7. Cardiac MRI in Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is often used in athletes to image cardiac anatomy and function and is increasingly requested in the context of screening for pathology that can cause sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this thesis, patterns of cardiac adaptation to sports are investigated with

  8. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2011-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best "treatment".

  9. Athletes in a Slump: Neurophysiological Evidence from Frontal Theta Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingu Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the neurophysiological differences in athletes who suffer from a slump and other athletes who do not. Eighteen high school student athletes participated in this experiment. A subjective questionnaire was conducted to identify athletes in a slump (i.e., the slump group and not in a slump (i.e., the no-slump group. EEG data was recorded at 4 regions (left prefrontal, right prefrontal, left frontal, and right frontal. A two-way (2 groups x 4 regions ANOVA was performed on the dependent variable (i.e., frontal theta power. The findings of this study demonstrated that participants in the no-slump group showed higher frontal theta activity than their counterparts in the slump group. From the findings of this study, it is suggested that mental fatigue may cause low frontal theta activity in athletes who experience a slump. The present study makes an important contribution to the current literature by being the first to report that EEG theta power over frontal regions can be used as a marker of athletes suffering from a slump.

  10. NES++: number system for encryption based privacy preserving speaker verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Feng, Tao; Zhao, Xi; Shi, Weidong

    2014-05-01

    As speech based operation becomes a main hand-free interaction solution between human and mobile devices (i.e., smartphones, Google Glass), privacy preserving speaker verification receives much attention nowadays. Privacy preserving speaker verification can be achieved through many different ways, such as fuzzy vault and encryption. Encryption based solutions are promising as cryptography is based on solid mathematic foundations and the security properties can be easily analyzed in a well established framework. Most current asymmetric encryption schemes work on finite algebraic structures, such as finite group and finite fields. However, the encryption scheme for privacy preserving speaker verification must handle floating point numbers. This gap must be filled to make the overall scheme practical. In this paper, we propose a number system that meets the requirements of both speaker verification and the encryption scheme used in the process. It also supports addition homomorphic property of Pailliers encryption, which is crucial for privacy preserving speaker verification. As asymmetric encryption is expensive, we propose a method of packing several numbers into one plain-text and the computation overhead is greatly reduced. To evaluate the performance of this method, we implement Pailliers encryption scheme over proposed number system and the packing technique. Our findings show that the proposed solution can fulfill the gap between speaker verification and encryption scheme very well, and the packing technique improves the overall performance. Furthermore, our solution is a building block of encryption based privacy preserving speaker verification, the privacy protection and accuracy rate are not affected.

  11. Estimation of prepractice hydration status of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Stella L; Poule, Kristen A; Bland, Erica G

    2009-01-01

    To our knowledge, no one has compared the prepractice hydration status of male and female National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletes or has studied the effects of the menstrual cycle phase on women's prepractice hydration status. To report prepractice hydration status of collegiate athletes and determine the factors that might influence that status. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. University sports team practices. Participants included 138 male and 125 female athletes (age = 19.9 + or - 1.3 years, height = 165.8 + or - 42.9 cm, mass = 77.4 + or - 17.5 kg) from an NCAA Division I New England university. One spontaneously voided (spot) urine sample was collected from each participant before his or her team practice and was measured 2 times. A refractometer was used to analyze the amount of light that passed through a small drop of urine and assess urine specific gravity. Fluid intake and menstrual history for women were also collected. Three hydration-status groups were defined based on the American College of Sports Medicine and National Athletic Trainers' Association criteria: (1) euhydrated, which was urine specific gravity less than 1.020; (2) hypohydrated, from 1.020 to 1.029; and (3) significantly hypohydrated, equal to or more than 1.030. Thirteen percent of student-athletes appeared significantly hypohydrated, with a mean urine specific gravity of 1.031 + or - 0.002 (chi(2) = 12.12, P .05). A greater percentage of men (47%) than women (28%) were hypohydrated (chi(2) = 8.33, P .05). Before activity, athletes were hypohydrated at different levels. A greater percentage of men than women were hypohydrated. Menstrual cycle phase did not appear to affect hydration in women.

  12. Survey on Offline Finger Print Verification System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suman, R.; Kaur, R.

    2012-01-01

    The fingerprint verification, means where "verification" implies a user matching a fingerprint against a single fingerprint associated with the identity that the user claims. Biometrics can be classified into two types Behavioral (signature verification, keystroke dynamics, etc.) And Physiological

  13. The spectrum of MR imaging in athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoga, Adam C; Mullens, Frank E; Meyers, William C

    2010-11-01

    Many athletes struggle with groin pain for years without ever receiving a clear diagnosis or being offered an effective treatment plan. Confusion among treatment providers can also frequently lead to suboptimal surgeries for presumed hernias or nerve entrapment syndromes. Imaging, and in particular magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, should play a primary role in the workup, diagnosis, and treatment of athletic pubalgia. This review outlines standard of care, cutting-edge MR imaging techniques for athletic pubalgia, and reviews the spectrum of imaging findings that are encountered in this patient group. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutritional Supplement Use by Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Does Receiving Dietary Counselling Make a Difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, F.C.; Ceelen, I.J.M.; Dijk, van J.W.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Roy, van L.; Pouw, van der B.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Mensink, M.R.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2017-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements is highly prevalent among athletes. In this cross-sectional study we assessed the prevalence of nutritional supplement use by a large group of Dutch competitive athletes in relation to dietary counselling. A total of 778 athletes (407 males and 371 females)

  15. Blood tests in tired elite athletes: expectations of athletes, coaches and sport science/sports medicine staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, K E

    2007-01-01

    The issue of the expectations of elite athletes, their coaches and non-medically qualified athlete support staff of consultations with sports physicians has not been previously dealt with in the sports medicine literature. As fulfillment of expectations of the content of a consultation may influence patient's satisfaction and clinical outcome, it is important to assess the expectations of athletes and, most importantly, coaches. To assess the expectations and beliefs about fatigue, particularly in relation to blood tests, of athletes, their coaches and support staff in the specific context of tiredness of sports science or non-medically qualified sports medicine staff, 22 elite coaches and 62 elite athletes from the Australian Institute of Sport were included in this study. A single questionnaire. The expectation for a blood test at the initial consultation for short-term fatigue was particularly high among athletes (81%) and coaches (91%). This expectation increased in athletes if their performance was worsening. All groups unanimously suggested that a blood test be performed in cases of more prolonged fatigue. Increase in total training load was perceived to be the most important cause of fatigue, but issues relating to sleep were also thought to be highly relevant. All groups suggested that blood tests provide some degree of reassurance, and all groups suggested that the most important blood tests that might be performed related to exclusion of iron deficiency, anaemia and infection. Athletes and their coaches generally expect that blood tests will be performed even when fatigue has been present for <1 week. This is at odds with currently available evidence of the diagnostic utility of these tests. Despite the current evidence base, individual factors in the athletes, coaches and doctors need to be considered when deciding on whether such testing has to be performed.

  16. Biomechanical and performance differences between female soccer athletes in National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions I and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rose; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Holleran, Adam; Treadway, Erin; Hewett, Timothy E

    2007-01-01

    The recent increase in women's varsity soccer participation has been accompanied by a lower extremity injury rate that is 2 to 6 times that of their male counterparts. To define the differences between lower extremity biomechanics (knee abduction and knee flexion measures) and performance (maximal vertical jump height) between National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and III female soccer athletes during a drop vertical jump. Mixed 2 x 2 design. Research laboratory. Thirty-four female collegiate soccer players (Division I: n = 19; Division III: n = 15) participated in the study. The groups were similar in height and mass. Each subject performed a maximal vertical jump, followed by 3 drop vertical jumps. Kinematics (knee abduction and flexion angles) and kinetics (knee abduction and flexion moments) were measured with a motion analysis system and 2 force platforms during the drop vertical jumps. Knee abduction angular range of motion and knee abduction external moments were not different between groups (P > .05). However, Division I athletes demonstrated decreased knee flexion range of motion (P = .038) and greater peak external knee flexion moment (P = .009) compared with Division III athletes. Division I athletes demonstrated increased vertical jump height compared with Division III (P = .008). Division I athletes demonstrated different sagittal-plane mechanics than Division III athletes, which may facilitate improved performance. The similarities in anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors (knee abduction torques and angles) may correlate with the consistent incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury across divisions.

  17. Early Single-Sport Specialization: A Survey of 3090 High School, Collegiate, and Professional Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Patrick S.; Bishop, Meghan; Kane, Patrick; Ciccotti, Michael C.; Selverian, Stephen; Exume, Dominique; Emper, William; Freedman, Kevin B.; Hammoud, Sommer; Cohen, Steven B.; Ciccotti, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Youth participation in organized sports in the United States is rising, with many athletes focusing on a single sport at an increasingly younger age. Purpose: To retrospectively compare single-sport specialization in current high school (HS), collegiate, and professional athletes with regard to the rate and age of specialization, the number of months per year of single-sport training, and the athlete’s perception of injury related to specialization. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A survey was distributed to HS, collegiate, and professional athletes prior to their yearly preparticipation physical examination. Athletes were asked whether they had chosen to specialize in only 1 sport, and data were then collected pertaining to this decision. Results: A total of 3090 athletes completed the survey (503 HS, 856 collegiate, and 1731 professional athletes). A significantly greater percentage of current collegiate athletes specialized to play a single sport during their childhood/adolescence (45.2% of HS athletes, 67.7% of collegiate athletes, and 46.0% of professional athletes; P sport specialization differed between groups and occurred at a mean age of 12.7 ± 2.4 (HS), 14.8 ± 2.5 (collegiate), and 14.1 ± 2.8 years (professional) (P sport-related injury than current professional athletes (25.4%) (P sport during childhood/adolescence. Conclusion: This study provides a foundation for understanding current trends in single-sport specialization in all athletic levels. Current HS athletes specialized, on average, 2 years earlier than current collegiate and professional athletes surveyed. These data challenge the notion that success at an elite level requires athletes to specialize in 1 sport at a very young age. PMID:28812031

  18. Components and variations in daily energy expenditure of athletic and non-athletic adolescents in free-living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeyre, J; Fellmann, N; Vernet, J; Delaître, M; Chamoux, A; Coudert, J; Vermorel, M

    2000-10-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine: (1) daily energy expenditure (EE) of athletic and non-athletic adolescents of both sexes in free-living conditions; (2) day-to-day variations in daily EE during 1 week; (3) energy costs of the main activities; and (4) the effect of usual activity on EE during sleep, seated and miscellaneous activities. Fifty adolescents (four groups of eleven to fifteen boys or girls aged 16-19 years) participated in the study. Body composition was measured by the skinfold-thickness method, and VO2max and external mechanical power (EMP) by a direct method (respiratory gas exchanges) on a cycloergometer. Daily EE and partial EE in free-living conditions were computed from heart-rate (HR) recordings during seven consecutive days using individual prediction equations established from the data obtained during a 24 h period spent in whole-body calorimeters with similar activities. Fat-free mass (FFM), VO2max, EMP, daily EE and EE during sleep were significantly higher in athletic than in non-athletic subjects. After adjustment for FFM, VO2max, EMP, daily EE and EE during exercise were still higher in athletic than in non-athletic adolescents (P < 0.001). However, adjusted sleeping EE was not significantly different between athletic and non-athletic adolescents. Increases in exercise EE were partly compensated for by significant reductions in EE during schoolwork and miscellaneous activities. Thus, the differences in daily EE between athletic and non-athletic subjects resulted mainly from increases in FFM and EE during exercise (duration and energy cost).

  19. High-level verification

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  20. Struggling with cancer and treatment: young athletes recapture body control and identity through exercise: qualitative findings from a supervised group exercise program in cancer patients of mixed gender undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, L.; Andersen, C.; Midtgaard, J.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer and treatment can negatively affect the body's performance and appearance. Exercise has been tested in a few studies for altered body image among middle-aged women with breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore how young pre-cancer athletes of both genders experience disease...... patients (median age 28 years). The young athletes experienced a change from a high level of physical activity, body satisfaction and a positive self-identity to a low level of physical activity, body denial and a negative self-identity. In the program, the patients experienced increased physical strength...... and recapture of certain aspects of their former positive body perception. Deterioation of muscle functions caused by chemotherapy was particularly painful to these patients, independent of gender and age. Young physically active patients are heavily dependent on their physical capacity, body satisfaction...

  1. Echocardiographic findings in power athletes abusing anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimoradi, Behzad; Kazerani, Hashem

    2013-03-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse for improving physical appearance and performance in body builders is common and has been considered responsible for serious cardiovascular effects. Due to disagreement about cardiovascular side effects of these drugs in published articles, this case control study was designed to evaluate the echocardiographic findings in body builder athletes who are current and chronic abusers of these drugs. Body builder athletes with continuous practice for the preceding two years and were training at least twice weekly were selected and divided into AAS abuser and non user and compared with age and BMI matched non athletic healthy volunteers (15 cases in each group). There was no significant difference in left ventricular size or function either systolic or diastolic in comparison to cases and control groups. The only difference was in diastolic size of septum and free wall but observed differences were only significant (P = 0.05) between first (athletic with AAS abuser) and third group (non athletic and nonuser). The difference between the above-mentioned indexes were not significant between two groups of athletes. Observed differences in diastolic size of septum and free wall is in favor of that long term abuse of anabolic steroid results in accentuation of physiologic hypertrophy due to long term sport most probably due to higher rate pressure product. Furthermore long term abuse and supra pharmacologic doses do not have significant effect in size and left ventricular function.

  2. Postinjury anxiety and social support among collegiate athletes: a comparison between orthopaedic injuries and concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, Tracey; Crutcher, Bryan; Bleecker, Alisha; Heiden, Erin O; Dailey, Alexander; Yang, Jingzhen

    2014-01-01

    When an athlete is injured, the primary focus of the sports medicine team is to treat the physical effects of the injury. However, many injured athletes experience negative psychological responses, including anxiety, regarding their injury. To compare the anxiety and social support of athletes with concussions and a matched group of athletes with orthopaedic injuries. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training room. A total of 525 injuries among athletes from 2 Big Ten universities were observed. Of these, 63 concussion injuries were matched with 63 orthopaedic injuries for the athlete's sex, sport, and time loss due to injury. Clinical measures included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (which measures both state and trait anxiety) and the modified 6-item Social Support Questionnaire. The group with concussions relied on their family for social support 89% of the time, followed by friends (78%), teammates (65%), athletic trainers (48%), coaches (47%), and physicians (35%). The group with orthopaedic injuries relied on their family for social support 87% of the time, followed by friends (84%), teammates (65%), athletic trainers (57%), coaches (51%), and physicians (36%). We found no differences for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (t = -1.38, P = .193) between the concussed and orthopaedic-injury groups. Social Support Questionnaire scores were significant predictors for postinjury state anxiety. Specifically, increased scores were associated with decreased postinjury state anxiety (β = -4.21, P = .0001). Both the concussed athletes and those with orthopaedic injuries experienced similar state and trait anxiety and relied on similar sources of social support postinjury. However, athletes with orthopaedic injuries reported greater satisfaction with support from all sources compared with concussed athletes. In contrast, concussed athletes showed more significant predictor models of social support on state anxiety at return to play.

  3. Postinjury Anxiety and Social Support Among Collegiate Athletes: A Comparison Between Orthopaedic Injuries and Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, Tracey; Crutcher, Bryan; Bleecker, Alisha; Heiden, Erin O.; Dailey, Alexander; Yang, Jingzhen

    2014-01-01

    Context: When an athlete is injured, the primary focus of the sports medicine team is to treat the physical effects of the injury. However, many injured athletes experience negative psychological responses, including anxiety, regarding their injury. Objective: To compare the anxiety and social support of athletes with concussions and a matched group of athletes with orthopaedic injuries. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Athletic training room. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 525 injuries among athletes from 2 Big Ten universities were observed. Of these, 63 concussion injuries were matched with 63 orthopaedic injuries for the athlete's sex, sport, and time loss due to injury. Main Outcome Measure(s): Clinical measures included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (which measures both state and trait anxiety) and the modified 6-item Social Support Questionnaire. Results: The group with concussions relied on their family for social support 89% of the time, followed by friends (78%), teammates (65%), athletic trainers (48%), coaches (47%), and physicians (35%). The group with orthopaedic injuries relied on their family for social support 87% of the time, followed by friends (84%), teammates (65%), athletic trainers (57%), coaches (51%), and physicians (36%). We found no differences for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (t = −1.38, P = .193) between the concussed and orthopaedic-injury groups. Social Support Questionnaire scores were significant predictors for postinjury state anxiety. Specifically, increased scores were associated with decreased postinjury state anxiety (β = −4.21, P = .0001). Conclusions: Both the concussed athletes and those with orthopaedic injuries experienced similar state and trait anxiety and relied on similar sources of social support postinjury. However, athletes with orthopaedic injuries reported greater satisfaction with support from all sources compared with concussed athletes. In contrast, concussed athletes showed

  4. Body Composition, Hemodynamic and Biochemical Parameters in Young Female Normal-Weight Oligo-amenorrheic and Eumenorrheic Athletes and Non-athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Vibha; de Lourdes Eguiguren, Maria; Eysenbach, Lindsey; Clarke, Hannah; Slattery, Meghan; Eddy, Kamryn; Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2014-01-01

    Aims Low-weight hypogonadal conditions such as anorexia nervosa are associated with marked changes in body composition, hemodynamic and hematological parameters, and liver enzymes. The impact of athletic activity in normal-weight adolescents with/without amenorrhea on these parameters has not been assessed. Our aim was to examine these parameters in normal-weight athletes and non-athletes and determine any associations of body composition, oligo-amenorrhea and exercise intensity. Methods We assessed vital signs, complete blood counts, liver enzymes, and regional body composition in 43 oligo-amenorrheic athletes (OAA), 24 eumenorrheic athletes (EA) and 23 non-athletes 14-21 years of age. Results BMI was lower in OAA than EA. Systolic and pulse pressure, and temperature were lowest in OAA. Blood counts did not differ among groups. AST was higher in both groups of athletes, while ALT was higher in OAA than EA and non-athletes. Total and regional fat was lower in OAA than other groups, positively associated with heart rate and inversely with liver enzymes. Conclusions Athletic activity is associated with higher AST, whereas menstrual dysfunction is associated with lower total and regional fat and higher ALT. Higher liver enzymes are associated with reductions in total and regional fat. PMID:25376841

  5. Issues in Advising Student-Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert L.

    1986-01-01

    Four issues involving the student-athlete are identified as important to academic advising: the relationship between athletic participation and academic performance, individual differences among student-athletes, the possible conflict in the role of student and athletes, and the debate over the need for special programs for student-athletes. (MLW)

  6. Subacute posteromedial impingement of the ankle in athletes: MR imaging evaluation and ultrasound guided therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messiou, Christina; Robinson, Philip; O' Connor, Philip J.; Grainger, Andrew [Leeds Teaching Hospitals, St. James University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-15

    To describe the use of MR imaging and efficacy of ultrasound-guided steroid injection in the diagnosis and management of athletes with clinical posteromedial impingement of the ankle. A retrospective analysis of imaging findings on MR was undertaken in nine elite athletes with clinical posteromedial ankle impingement. MR studies from six professional athletes with posterolateral pain were also reviewed as an imaging control group. The two reviewing radiologists were blinded to the clinical details and the proportion of control and study subjects. The nine study athletes also underwent diagnostic ultrasound and ultrasound-guided injection of steroid and anaesthetic into the posteromedial capsular abnormality. Follow-up was by telephone interview. Posteromedial capsular thickening was seen only in athletes with posteromedial impingement (7/9). Posteromedial synovitis was present in all athletes with posteromedial impingement; however, posterior and posterolateral synovitis was also seen in these athletes. Mild posteromedial synovitis was present in two control athletes. Ultrasound identified abnormal posteromedial soft tissue thickening deep to tibialis posterior between the medial malleolus and talus in all nine athletes. After injection all athletes returned to their previous level of sport, with eight of the nine not experiencing any residual or recurrent symptoms. If MR imaging excludes significant coexistent abnormality, ultrasound can localise posteromedial soft tissue abnormality and guide injection therapy, allowing return to athletic activity without surgical intervention. (orig.)

  7. Eating disorders and their putative risk factors among female German professional athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Pia; Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Platen, Petra; Auyeung, Bonnie; Herpertz, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    This study examines putative non-sport-specific and sport-specific risk factors for eating disorders (ED) among groups of professional female athletes versus non-athletes. In detail, societal pressure to be thin, its internalisation, body dissatisfaction, sports pressure and early specialisation were investigated. The cross-sectional study included 46 aesthetic and 62 ball game sports athletes, and 108 age-matched non-athletes. Study methods comprised a clinical interview to detect ED and questionnaires. More athletes from aesthetic (17%) than from ball game sports (3%) and non-athletes (2%) suffered from ED. Aesthetic sports athletes did not differ from non-athletes in non-sport-specific factors but obtained higher levels than ball game sports athletes in sport-specific variables (p disordered eating, with sports pressure and body dissatisfaction as significant predictors. The results confirm ED risk for German aesthetic athletes and indicate the importance of sports pressure and body dissatisfaction in explaining athletes' vulnerability. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  8. Functional deficits in athletes with a history of low back pain: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Scott F; Moley, Peter; Malanga, Gerard A; Rubbani, Mariam; Prybicien, Michael; Feinberg, Joseph H

    2002-12-01

    To evaluate whether athletes with a history of low back pain (LBP) would, on average, perform slower on a timed 20-m shuttle run as compared with a normal athletic population. A timed shuttle run to evaluate residual functional limitations in college athletes with resolved LBP. National College Athletic Association (NCAA) division I college. NCAA division I athletes (161 men, 50 women). A timed 20-m shuttle run. Each athlete was timed in a divided 20 m (66 ft) run in which 2 taped lines were positioned 6.7 m (22 ft) apart. Of 211 athletes evaluated, 27 had been treated for LBP during the previous year. Currently asymptomatic athletes with a recent history of LBP were slower (6.3s vs 5.8s) during performance of the timed 20-m shuttle run than athletes without LBP (P=.0002). Athletes with resolved LBP were slower than a matched group of normal athletes without LBP in the timed 20-m shuttle run. Further research is needed to support these findings and to understand fully the influence of the kinetic chain and the effects of both gender and sport on the observed findings. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  9. Sleep Quality Differs Between Athletes and Non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Havva

    2016-12-01

    Sufficient sleep or sleep of sufficient quality is essential for the health of children, adolescents and adults, as sleep influences almost all dimensions of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible positive effects of sportsmanship on sleep quality and to assess the possible differences in sleep quality between athletes and non-athletes. Sedentary or non-athletes subjects (n=103) and athletes (n=93) participated in this study. The Turkish version of Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index was used to assess the points associated with sleep quality of participants before and one month after wet cupping therapy. Athletes had statistically significantly higher Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index parameters compared with non-athletes. Long-term exercise or physical fitness is advised for better health and a life without stress, anxiety and depression and also for the normal brain function and emotional stability.

  10. TFE Verification Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of the semiannual progress report is to summarize the technical results obtained during the latest reporting period. The information presented herein will include evaluated test data, design evaluations, the results of analyses and the significance of results. The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE (thermionic fuel element) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW(e) range, and a full-power life of 7 years. The TFE Verification Program builds directly on the technology and data base developed in the 1960s and early 1970s in an AEC/NASA program, and in the SP-100 program conducted in 1983, 1984 and 1985. In the SP-100 program, the attractive features of thermionic power conversion technology were recognized but concern was expressed over the lack of fast reactor irradiation data. The TFE Verification Program addresses this concern.

  11. Radiographic evidence of femoroacetabular impingement in athletes with athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economopoulos, Kostas J; Milewski, Matthew D; Hanks, John B; Hart, Joseph M; Diduch, David R

    2014-03-01

    Two of the most common causes of groin pain in athletes are femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and athletic pubalgia. An association between the 2 is apparent, but the prevalence of radiographic signs of FAI in patients undergoing athletic pubalgia surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of radiologic signs of FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. We hypothesized that patients with athletic pubalgia would have a high prevalence of underlying FAI. Case series. Level 4. A retrospective review of all patients evaluated at our institution with athletic pubalgia who underwent surgical treatment (ie, for sports hernia) from 1999 to 2011 was performed. The radiographs of patients with athletic pubalgia were reviewed for radiographic signs of FAI. Alpha angles were measured using frog-leg lateral radiographs. Pincer lesions were identified by measuring the lateral center-edge angle and identifying the presence of a "crossover" sign on anteroposterior radiographs. Phone follow-up was performed 2 years or more after the initial sports hernia surgery to evaluate recurrent symptoms. Forty-three patients underwent 56 athletic pubalgia surgeries. Radiographic evidence of FAI was identified in at least 1 hip in 37 of 43 patients (86%). Cam lesions were identified in 83.7% of the population; the alpha angle averaged 66.7° ± 17.9° for all hips. Pincer lesions were present in 28% of the hips. Eight patients had recurrent groin pain, 3 patients had revision athletic pubalgia surgery, and 1 had hip arthroscopy. The study demonstrates a high prevalence of radiographic FAI in patients with athletic pubalgia. Underlying FAI may be a cause of continued groin pain after athletic pubalgia surgery. Patients with athletic pubalgia should be evaluated closely for FAI.

  12. Food habits and sport activity during adolescence: differences between athletic and non-athletic teenagers in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavadini, C; Decarli, B; Grin, J; Narring, F; Michaud, P A

    2000-03-01

    To describe food habits and dietary intakes of athletic and non-athletic adolescents in Switzerland. College, high schools and professional centers in the Swiss canton of Vaud. A total of 3,540 subjects aged 9-19 y answered a self-reported anonymous questionnaire to assess lifestyles, physical plus sports activity and food habits. Within this sample, a subgroup of 246 subjects aged 11-15 also participated in an in-depth ancillary study including a 3 day dietary record completed by an interview with a dietician. More boys than girls reported engaging in regular sports activities (Pstudy), mean energy intake corresponds to requirements for age/gender group. Athletic adolescents display healthier food habits than non-athletic adolescents: this result supports the idea that healthy behavior tends to cluster and suggests that prevention programs among this age group should target simultaneously both sports activity and food habits.

  13. Compositional Verification of Multi-Station Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macedo, Hugo Daniel dos Santos; Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Because interlocking systems are highly safety-critical complex systems, their automated safety verification is an active research topic investigated by several groups, employing verification techniques to produce important cost and time savings in their certification. However, such systems also...... pose a big challenge to current verification methodologies, due to the explosion of state space size as soon as large, if not medium sized, multi-station systems have to be controlled. For these reasons, verification techniques that exploit locality principles related to the topological layout...... method to verify the size of rather large networks, we propose a compositional approach that is particularly suitable to address multi-station interlocking systems which control a whole line composed of stations linked by mainline tracks. Indeed, it turns out that for such networks, and for the adopted...

  14. Outcome of Bankart repair in contact versus non-contact athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N; Kijima, H; Nagamoto, H; Kurokawa, D; Takahashi, H; Sano, H; Itoi, E

    2015-06-01

    The clinical results of arthroscopic Bankart repair for contact athletes varies according to published reports. The purposes of this study were to analyze the clinical outcome of open or arthroscopic Bankart repair and to investigate the results in contact and non-contact athletes. Clinical outcome of arthroscopic Bankart repair is similar to that of open procedure. One hundred patients with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation without a large bony defect were retrospectively reviewed. Fifty-one contact and 49 non-contact athletes were found with a mean follow-up of 17 months. Forty-nine shoulders underwent arthroscopic Bankart repairs; 51 shoulders had open Bankart repairs. In non-contact athletes, there was a 5% (1/22 cases) recurrence rate in the open group and 4% (1/27 cases) in the arthroscopic group. In contrast, in contact athletes, there was a 10% (3/29 cases) recurrence rate in the open group and 14% (3/22 cases) in the arthroscopic group. There was no significant difference in the recurrence rate between contact and non-contact athletes, although contact athletes showed two to three times a higher recurrence rate than that of non-contact athletes. The Rowe score and Constant score showed no significant difference between the two procedures and between the contact and non-contact athletes. The rate of the complete return to sports showed no significant difference between contact and non-contact athletes. The recurrence rate of Bankart repair in the contact athletes was 2 times higher in the open group and 3 times higher in the arthroscopic group than in the non-contact athletes. Clinical outcome of arthroscopic Bankart repair was similar to that of open procedure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Athletes and eating disorders: the National Collegiate Athletic Association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C; Powers, P S; Dick, R

    1999-09-01

    To present findings from a collaborative study with the National College Athletic Association regarding the prevalence of disordered eating among student athletes. 1,445 student athletes from 11 Division 1 schools were surveyed using a 133-item questionnaire. Results indicated that 1.1% of the females met DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa versus 0% for males. None of the student athletes met DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa. 9.2% of the females were identified as having clinically significant problems with bulimia versus .01% of the males. 2.85% of the females were identified as having a clinically significant problem with anorexia nervosa versus 0% for males. 10.85% of the females reported binge eating on a weekly or greater basis versus 13.02% of the males 5.52% of the females reported purging behavior (vomiting, laxatives, diuretics) on a weekly or greater basis versus 2.04% for the males. Results from the current investigation are more conservative than previous studies of student athletes, but comparable to another large study of elite Norwegian athletes. Reasons for these differences are discussed. Clearly female athletes report more difficulty with disordered eating than male athletes. Some specific risk factors for female athletes are discussed.

  16. Prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction in female adolescent athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Rosa Maria Eid; Santos, Fernanda Malheiro; Kulic, Marco Antonio; De Souza Lima, Maria Paula C; Pardini, Selma Ribeiro; Mori, Matsuyoshi; de Souza Vitalle, Maria Sylvia

    2013-04-01

    To compare the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) in female adolescent athletes and non-athletes and to examine the association between signs and symptoms of TMD in female adolescents in different Tanner stages. The subjects were 89 female basketball and handball players ages 10-18 years and 72 female non-athlete adolescents ages 10-19 years selected from the Department of Pediatrics (School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo) as a control group. A survey was used to assess the signs and symptoms of TMD. According to the answers on the survey the adolescents were classified in two categories: no signs or symptoms present (score A-absent), at least one sign or symptom present (score P-present). The ones who got score "P" were submitted to a standardized functional examination of the masticatory system by four previously calibrated examiners. Pubertal status was assessed based on physical examination by physicians from our Division. The adolescents were classified according to Tanner stages into three subgroups: subgroup 1 (before the growth spurt), subgroup 2 (growth spurt period), subgroup 3 (end of growth spurt). Significant differences between athletes and non-athletes were assessed for categorical variables (Chi-square and Fisher's exact test) and for continuous variables (Mann-Whitney test). The level of significance used was 5%. There was significant agreement between raters, kappa-values (0.621-1.000) and ICC values (0.757-0.899). There was no significant difference between the athletes and non-athletes in exhibiting at least one sign or symptom of TMD (p=0.301). When comparing the adolescents who presented at least one symptom of TMD to the different subgroups of Tanner stages no statistically significant differences were found (p=0.124). The lack of significant differences among female adolescent athletes and non-athletes and among the subgroups of Tanner stages may suggests that although contact sports

  17. Heart and Athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Jadbabaei

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Regular participation in intensive physical exercise is associated with electro-morphological changes in the heart. This benign process is called athlete’s heart. Athlete’s heart resembles few pathologic conditions in some aspects. So differentiation of these conditions is very important which otherwise may lead to a catastrophic event such as sudden death. The most common causes of sudden death in young athletes are cardiomyopathies, congenital coronary anomalies, and ion channelopathies.The appropriate screening strategy to prevent sudden cardiac death in athletes remains a challenging issue. The purpose of this review is to describe the characteristics of athlete’s heart and demonstrate how to differentiate it from pathologic conditions that can cause sudden death.

  18. Medical assessment in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, Ricard; Lizarraga, Antonia; Domínguez, David

    2017-10-30

    Practicing sports at a professional level requires the body to be in good health. The fact of carrying out a continuous and high intensity physical activity in the presence of pathological conditions and/or a maladaptation of the body can be detrimental to the athletes' health and, therefore, to their performance. Many of the problems that arise in the sports field could be prevented with a periodic and well-structured medical assessment. In this review, we describe the protocol of the medical service of a high-level sports club for the assessment of its professional athletes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Dermatological marks in athletes of artistic and rhythmic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolcati, G; Berlutti, G; Bagarone, A; Caselli, G

    2004-11-01

    The authors present dermatological signs in: a) rhythmic gymnastics athletes, b) male artistic gymnastics athletes, compared to a control group of fitness athletes. Athletes from the artistic gymnastics group were observed twice. The signs they showed on their first examination (20 days previous to the competition) were two circular zones of thickening of the skin with relation to the radial epiphysis. In all of them, two zones of frictional alopecia were present, one on the dorsal face of the forearms, slantwise outlined, the other on the wrists. A noticeable thickening of the skin was present on the palms of the hands. On a second examination, at the beginning of the training, after about two months of inactivity, the alopecic area was replaced by hypertrichosis, although featuring different patterns in each athlete. Thickening of the skin was slightly smaller than that observed at the first examination. The authors describe onychopathology shown in its different forms in 94 % of the athletes of the rhythmic group. Subsequently the authors discuss the pathogenesis of the above described signs.

  20. Athletic trainers' attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual National Collegiate Athletic Association student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Kristine A; Yiamouyiannis, Athena; White, Kristi M; Ridpath, B David

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have investigated heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexuals, focusing on factors such as sex, race, religion, education, and contact experiences. However, in the context of sport, this research is deficient. We found no published literature investigating athletic trainers (ATs') attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual student-athletes (LGB). To determine heterosexual ATs' attitudes toward LGB student-athletes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Cross-sectional study. E-mailed survey. A total of 964 ATs employed at member institutions. We measured attitudes using the Attitudes Toward Lesbian, Gay Men, and Bisexuals (ATLGB) Scale. To determine the extent to which sex, religion, and whether having an LGB friend or family member had an effect on ATs' attitudes, we performed analysis of variance. To establish the effect of age on ATs' attitudes, we calculated a Pearson correlation. We used an independent t test to identify differences between ATs who reported working with LGB student-athletes and ATs who did not. With ATLGB score as the dependent factor, a main effect was noted for sex, religion, and having an LGB friend or family member (P student-athletes on their teams and ATs who were not (P student-athletes, especially females, those who have an LGB friend or family member, and those who are aware of LGB student-athletes. Still, it is important to provide an open environment in the athletic training room for all student-athletes.

  1. Athlete's heart in Israel: fact or fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Itai; Cafri, Carlos; Zeller, Lior; Vodonos, Alina; Perry, Zvi H; Kobal, Sergio L

    2014-01-01

    The effects of exercise training on cardiac structure and function have been thoroughly investigated in athletes from sport-developed nations; few data are available on sportsmen from sport-developing countries. To assess the incidence and magnitude of the "athlete heart" phenomenon in an elite group of Israeli cyclists. An echocardiography study was performed in 56 cyclists (49 males, mean age 38 +/- 10 years, weekly average training 13.1 +/- 5.9 hours); 96 sedentary subjects served as a control group. There were significant differences in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) between cyclists and the control group (48 +/- 4.7 mm versus 45 +/- 4.1 mm respectively, P cyclists LVEDD exceeded the upper normal limit of 56 mm. In 7% of the cyclists IVS thickness exceeded the upper normal limit of 11 mm. LV hypertrophy defined as LVMI > or = 134 g/m(2) was absent in the entire cyclist group. Endurance sport activity in well-trained Israeli sportsmen results in a modest increment in LV dimensions and LV mass. LV dilatation and wall thickness above values compatible with primary cardiac disease are rare. These results highlight that in Israeli athletes any abnormal echocardiographic value must be thoroughly investigated and not simply assumed to be a consequence of sport activities.

  2. Delayed Effects of Remote Limb Ischemic Preconditioning on Maximum Oxygen Consumption, Lactate Release and Pulmonary Function Tests in Athletes and non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Momeni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (RIPC improves exercise performance, and since this phenomenon has two phases, the aim of the current study was to investigate the delayed effects of remote ischemic preconditioning on cardiopulmonary function in athletes and non-athletes. Materials and Methods: 25 male and female students were studied in two main athletes and non-athletes groups. RIPC was induced by using 3 cycles of alternative 5 minutes ischemia and 5 minutes reperfusion at arms of participants. Cardiopulmonary tests were measured before, after and 24 hours after inducing remote ischemic preconditioning. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max estimated by using queen steps test. Results: Analysis of data demonstrated that delayed RIPC in non-athletes group caused significant improvement in Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1 and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV and noticeable improvement in some other parameters of pulmonary function tests. Moreover, it decreased systolic blood pressure and heart rate and decreased lactate release in both groups especially athletes group but it had no significant effect on VO2max of both groups. Conclusion: Delayed RIPC improves cardiovascular function of athletes and pulmonary function of non-athletes subjects. Thus, it can be considered as a good replacement for doping to improve sports performance of subjects in sports tournaments.

  3. Heart and Athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hossein Jadbabaei; Bita Omidvar; Mohammad Alasti

    2010-01-01

    Regular participation in intensive physical exercise is associated with electro-morphological changes in the heart. This benign process is called athlete’s heart. Athlete’s heart resembles few pathologic conditions in some aspects. So differentiation of these conditions is very important which otherwise may lead to a catastrophic event such as sudden death. The most common causes of sudden death in young athletes are cardiomyopathies, congenital coronary anomalies, and ion channelopathies. Th...

  4. Bone Health in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Goolsby, Marci A.; Boniquit, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Context: The health of the skeletal system is important for athletes young and old. From the early benefits of exercise on bones to the importance of osteoporosis prevention and treatment, bone health affects the ability to be active throughout life. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed articles dating from 1986 to 2016 were used for the review. Relevant terms such as keywords and section titles of the article were searched and articles identified were reviewed for relevance to this article. Study De...

  5. YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  6. Bone Health in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby, Marci A; Boniquit, Nicole

    The health of the skeletal system is important for athletes young and old. From the early benefits of exercise on bones to the importance of osteoporosis prevention and treatment, bone health affects the ability to be active throughout life. PubMed articles dating from 1986 to 2016 were used for the review. Relevant terms such as keywords and section titles of the article were searched and articles identified were reviewed for relevance to this article. Clinical review. Levels 1 through 4 evidence included. There is strong evidence that exercise benefits bone health at every age and is a critical factor in osteoporosis prevention and treatment. Vitamin D, calcium, and hormones play vital roles in ensuring optimal bone health. When there is an imbalance between exercise and nutrition, as seen in the female athlete triad, bone health is compromised and can lead to bone stress injuries and early osteoporosis. Both of these can lead to morbidity and lost time from training and competition. Thus, early recognition and appropriate treatment of the female athlete triad and other stress fracture risk factors are vital to preventing long-term bone health problems. To optimize bone health, adequate nutrition, appropriate weightbearing exercise, strength training, and adequate calcium and vitamin D are necessary throughout life.

  7. Obesity and neurocognitive recovery after sports-related concussion in athletes: a matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young M; Wu, Adela; Zuckerman, Scott L; Stanko, Kevin M; LaChaud, Gregory Y; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K

    2016-09-01

    Sports-related concussions (SRCs) are a significant public health concern in athletes. Data exist suggesting a link between obesity and decreased neurocognitive function, yet the effect of body mass index (BMI) on neurocognitive function and recovery after a SRC is unknown. The goal of our study was to discern the effect of BMI on recovery after SRC. This study was a retrospective observational cohort study. Between 2013 and 2014, 7,606 athletes between the ages of 13-20 years valid baseline neurocognitive testing performed at multiple regional concussion centers sustained a concussion. Out of these athletes, 711 normal weight athletes and 711 obese athletes were matched by age, gender, number of previous concussions, and sport. The proportions of athletes returning to baseline within two weeks between the groups were defined by using 80% confidence reliable change index (RCI) criteria and were compared using Fisher's Exact Test. Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis with log-rank test was used to compare the median time to neurocognitive recovery between groups. Fewer obese athletes returned to baseline within 2 weeks on measures of verbal memory, visual motor speed, reaction time, postconcussion symptom scale (PCSS), and overall recovery compared to normal weight athletes. Obese athletes also had greater median time of return to baseline with respect to reaction time, PCSS, and overall recovery. Using RCI methodology, there exists an association between obesity and increased time to return to neurocognitive and symptom baseline after SRC in athletes, specifically reaction time, symptom scores, and overall recovery.

  8. The Performance Enhancement Group Program: Integrating Sport Psychology and Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Granito, Vincent J.; Hogan, Jeffery B.; Varnum, Lisa K.

    1995-01-01

    In an effort to improve the psychological health of the athlete who has sustained an injury, the Performance Enhancement Group program for injured athletes was created. This paper will offer a model for the Performance Enhancement Group program as a way to: 1) support the athlete, both mentally and physically; 2) deal with the demands of rehabilitation; and 3) facilitate the adjustments the athlete has to make while being out of the competitive arena. The program consists of responsibilities ...

  9. MR findings in athletes with pubalgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, S.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Spritzer, C.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Garrett, W.E. Jr.; Meyers, W.C. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Objective. To describe the MR findings in athletes with pubalgia.Design and patients. Pelvic MR images of 32 athletes (30 men, 2 women) with pubalgia were studied. T1-weighted and T2-weighted (SE and FSE) and STIR images in the axial and coronal planes were obtained on a 1.5-T system. Images were reviewed for general pelvic pathology. Special attention was given to the pubic symphysis, groin and pelvic musculature, and to the abdominal wall musculature.Results. Thirty surgically confirmed cases comprise the study group. Abnormalities in the following were found: pubic symphysis (21/30), abdominal wall (27/30), groin musculature, including rectus abdominis (21/30), pectineus (6/30), and adductor muscle group (18/30).Conclusions. Pubalgia is a complex process which is frequently multifactorial. The MRI findings can alter the surgical approach. (orig.)

  10. MR findings in athletes with pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, S L; Spritzer, C E; Garrett, W E; Meyers, W C

    2001-05-01

    To describe the MR findings in athletes with pubalgia. Pelvic MR images of 32 athletes (30 men, 2 women) with pubalgia were studied. T1-weighted and T2-weighted (SE and FSE) and STIR images in the axial and coronal planes were obtained on a 1.5-T system. Images were reviewed for general pelvic pathology. Special attention was given to the pubic symphysis, groin and pelvic musculature, and to the abdominal wall musculature. Thirty surgically confirmed cases comprise the study group. Abnormalities in the following were found: pubic symphysis (21/30), abdominal wall (27/30), groin musculature, including rectus abdominis (21/30), pectineus (6/30), and adductor muscle group (18/30). Pubalgia is a complex process which is frequently multifactorial. The MRI findings can alter the surgical approach.

  11. Acute hand injuries in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Yoseph A; Awan, Hisham M

    2017-05-01

    Hand and wrist injuries in athletes are common, representing between 3 and 25% of all sports injuries. As many as a quarter of all sports injuries involve the hand or wrist. We review the recent literature regarding acute hand injuries in athletes based on the structures involved - bone, muscle/tendon, ligament, and neurovascular - including diagnosis and pathophysiology of these injuries, focusing on athlete-specific facets of treatment, and when available, opinions on return to play.

  12. [Heart screening of elite athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars Juel; Rasmusen, Hanne; Madsen, Jan Kyst; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2010-11-29

    Sudden cardiac death in competing athletes is usually caused by unsuspected heart disease, and pre-participation screening may reduce the incidence of this tragic event. Although the cost-effectiveness of screening programs is unclear, international sports associations are currently implementing mandatory screening of elite athletes. During the first year of screening in the top Danish soccer league, all athletes were found to be eligible for continued participation in the game, suggesting that concern about false positive screening results may be exaggerated.

  13. [Athletic pubalgia and hip impingement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthaudin, A; Schindler, M; Ziltener, J-L; Menetrey, J

    2014-07-16

    Athletic pubalgia is a painful and complex syndrom encountered by athletes involved in pivoting and cutting sports such as hockey and soccer. To date, there is no real consensus on the criteria for a reliable diagnostic, the different investigations, and the appropriate therapy. Current literature underlines intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributing to athletic pubalgia. This review article reports upon two novelties related to the issue: the importance and efficience of prevention program and the association of femoro-acetabular impingement with the pubalgia.

  14. Supplement use by Young Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Jill Anne McDowall

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention a...

  15. Lower Back Injuries Plague Many Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167201.html Lower Back Injuries Plague Many Athletes Surgery should be a last resort for 3 ... News) -- Back injuries are common, especially among competitive athletes. Nearly 1 in 3 athletes playing professional or ...

  16. Keeping your head in the game: sport-specific imagery and anxiety among injured athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, Eva; Mensch, James; Farroll, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The use of sport-specific imagery during rehabilitation is sparse. Athletes who used imagery (either facilitative or debilitative) during injury rehabilitation were compared with injured athletes who did not use imagery. Return-to-practice anxiety in the groups was investigated also. To (1) explore debilitative images used during rehabilitation, (2) examine athlete and injury characteristics in relation to variations in imagery content and return-to-practice anxiety, (3) compare the frequency of imagery use early in injury rehabilitation with that just before return to practice, and (4) examine the relationship between image use and return-to-practice anxiety. Observational design. Athletic training facilities. Thirty-six injured National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate athletes sustaining at least an 8-day practice suspension due to injury. Sport Imagery Questionnaire, Sport Anxiety Scale. Athletes used both facilitative and debilitative images during different phases of rehabilitation. Men used more sport skill, strategy, and excitement imagery content than did women, who reported higher scores for worry and concentration disruption than did men. Athletes used fewer images related to their sport skills and strategies early in rehabilitation than just before they returned to practice. Additionally, athletes who used more arousal and less strategic imagery experienced more somatic anxiety. Similar to research findings on healthy athletes, sport-specific image content in injured athletes is related to return-to-practice anxiety during rehabilitation, and some of the images were perceived as debilitative. Practitioners should advise injured athletes to use sport-specific imagery, especially that related to sport skills and strategies, but they should caution athletes against using arousal imagery, because it may elevate somatic anxiety before return to practice. Image content recommendations should encompass the cognitive and motivational

  17. Left and right ventricular longitudinal strain-volume/area relationships in elite athletes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oxborough, D.; Heemels, A.; Somauroo, J.; McClean, G.; Mistry, P.; Lord, R.; Utomi, V.; Jones, N.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Sharma, S.; Osborne, R.; Sculthorpe, N.; George, K.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel ultrasound approach with the primary aim of establishing the temporal relationship of structure and function in athletes of varying sporting demographics. 92 male athletes were studied [Group IA, (low static-low dynamic) (n = 20); Group IC, (low static-high dynamic) (n = 25);

  18. Altitude training causes haematological fluctuations with relevance for the Athlete Biological Passport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian; Lundby, Carsten; Lundby, Anne Kristine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of altitude training on haematological parameters and the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was evaluated in international-level elite athletes. One group of swimmers lived high and trained high (LHTH, n = 10) for three to four weeks at 2130 m or higher whereas a control group (n = 10)...

  19. Interpreter composition issues in the formal verification of a processor-memory module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fura, David A.; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes interpreter composition techniques suitable for the formal specification and verification of a processor-memory module using the HOL theorem proving system. The processor-memory module is a multichip subsystem within a fault-tolerant embedded system under development within the Boeing Defense and Space Group. Modeling and verification methods were developed that permit provably secure composition at the transaction-level of specification, significantly reducing the complexity of the hierarchical verification of the system.

  20. Iron deficiency in adolescent female athletes - is iron status affected by regular sporting activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, Göran; Börjesson, Mats; Rödjer, Stig

    2012-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among a group of female athletes and compare with an age-matched group of female nonathletes. To study lifestyle factors that could play a role in the development of ID and IDA and compare these factors between the groups. A controlled clinical trial. A senior high school for athletes in Gothenburg, Sweden. All female athletes at a senior high school for top-level athletes were offered to take part. Fifty-seven female athletes accepted to participate in the study. The control group consisted of a random sample of 130 age-matched nonathlete students; 92 accepted to participate in the study. Intervention was not an actual part of this study but those with ID and IDA were treated with iron by the regular school doctor. Iron deficiency anemia and ID were determined by levels of hemoglobin, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin. The main result of the study is the finding that ID and IDA are common among young adolescent female athletes and that there was no difference between female athletes and nonathletes. In the athlete group, 30 of 57 individuals (52%) had ID compared with 43 of 92 individuals (48%) in the nonathlete group (P > 0.3). Comparisons of the 2 groups showed no significant difference in hemoglobin (P > 0.30). In total, we found that 5 of 57 athletes (8.6%) had IDA compared with 3 of 92 nonathletes (3.3%), the difference being not statistically significant (P = 0.24). The main finding of this study is that ID and IDA are common among female adolescents but not more common among athletes than nonathletes. The results are despite factors that should favor a better iron status in the athlete group, such as better iron intake and less menstrual bleeding. Other factors that might have an impact on iron balance, must therefore be considered.

  1. Back pain prevalence in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, J; Müller, S; Stoll, J; Fröhlich, K; Otto, C; Mayer, F

    2017-04-01

    The research aimed to investigate back pain (BP) prevalence in a large cohort of young athletes with respect to age, gender, and sport discipline. BP (within the last 7 days) was assessed with a face scale (face 1-2 = no pain; face 3-5 = pain) in 2116 athletes (m/f 61%/39%; 13.3 ± 1.7 years; 163.0 ± 11.8 cm; 52.6 ± 13.9 kg; 4.9 ± 2.7 training years; 8.4 ± 5.7 training h/week). Four different sports categories were devised (a: combat sports, b: game sports; c: explosive strength sport; d: endurance sport). Analysis was described descriptively, regarding age, gender, and sport. In addition, 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. About 168 (8%) athletes were allocated into the BP group. About 9% of females and 7% of males reported BP. Athletes, 11-13 years, showed a prevalence of 2-4%; while prevalence increased to 12-20% in 14- to 17-year olds. Considering sport discipline, prevalence ranged from 3% (soccer) to 14% (canoeing). Prevalences in weight lifting, judo, wrestling, rowing, and shooting were ≥10%; in boxing, soccer, handball, cycling, and horse riding, ≤6%. 95% CI ranged between 0.08-0.11. BP exists in adolescent athletes, but is uncommon and shows no gender differences. A prevalence increase after age 14 is obvious. Differentiated prevention programs in daily training routines might address sport discipline-specific BP prevalence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. African American football athletes' perspectives on institutional integrity in college sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, John N

    2009-03-01

    This qualitative case study used tenets of critical race theory and a single focus group and individual interviews with 4 African American football athletes at a predominantly White institution of higher education (PWIHE) in an effort to bring the voices of this marginalized group into the dialogue on issues concerning institutional integrity in college sport. Institutional integrity involves an athletic program's actual commitment to the educational interests of college athletes as expressed through their structures, functions, and activities. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) there is a need for more African American role models in leadership positions within the athletic departments of these PWIHE; (b) there is a need for more financial support for athletes; and (c) African American athletes should be given a platform to voice concerns. These findings have implications for those educational stakeholders and researchers who are genuinely concerned with institutional integrity in college sport.

  3. Lumbar spine injuries in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Ian F; Proctor, Mark R; Day, Arthur L

    2006-10-15

    Lumbar spine injuries in athletes are not uncommon and usually take the form of a mild muscle strain or sprain. More severe injuries sustained by athletes include disc herniations, spondylolistheses, and various types of fracture. The recognition and management of these injuries in athletes involve the additional consideration that to return to play, the lumbar spine must be able to withstand forces similar to those that were injurious. The authors consider common lumbar spine injuries in athletes and discuss management principles for neurosurgeons that are relevant to this population.

  4. [ERGOGENIC SPORT SUPPLEMENTS FOR ATHLETES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair

    2016-06-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality.

  5. Common problems in endurance athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cosca, DD

    2007-01-01

    .... Common overuse injuries in runners and other endurance athletes include patellofemoral pain syndrome, iliotibial band friction syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar...

  6. Is there a right not to know one's sex? The ethics of 'gender verification' in women's sports competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesemann, Claudia

    2011-04-01

    The paper discusses the current medical practice of 'gender verification' in sports from an ethical point of view. It takes the recent public discussion about 800 m runner Caster Semenya as a starting point. At the World Championships in Athletics 2009 in Berlin, Germany, Semenya was challenged by competitors as being a so called 'sex impostor'. A medical examination to verify her sex ensued. The author analyses whether athletes like Semenya could claim a right not to know that is generally acknowledged in human genetics and enforced by international and national genetic privacy laws. The relevance of this right for genetic diagnosis in sports is discussed. To this end, the interests of the athlete concerned and of third parties are balanced according to the expected benefits and harms.Harm is documented in a number of cases and includes unjustified disqualification, severe sex and gender identity crisis, demeaning reactions, social isolation, depression and suicide. Benefits are dubious as most cases of intersex are considered irrelevant for sports competition. It has to be concluded that the benefits to be gained from 'gender verification' in sports via genetic testing do not outweigh the grave individual disadvantages. The current practice of athletic associations to largely ignore the right of competitors not to know does not comply with prevailing ethical provisions on the protection of sensitive personal data. Therefore, genetic 'gender verification' in sports should be abolished.

  7. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  8. Overview of Code Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The verified code for the SIFT Executive is not the code that executes on the SIFT system as delivered. The running versions of the SIFT Executive contain optimizations and special code relating to the messy interface to the hardware broadcast interface and to packing of data to conserve space in the store of the BDX930 processors. The running code was in fact developed prior to and without consideration of any mechanical verification. This was regarded as necessary experimentation with the SIFT hardware and special purpose Pascal compiler. The Pascal code sections cover: the selection of a schedule from the global executive broadcast, scheduling, dispatching, three way voting, and error reporting actions of the SIFT Executive. Not included in these sections of Pascal code are: the global executive, five way voting, clock synchronization, interactive consistency, low level broadcasting, and program loading, initialization, and schedule construction.

  9. Online fingerprint verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upendra, K; Singh, S; Kumar, V; Verma, H K

    2007-01-01

    As organizations search for more secure authentication methods for user access, e-commerce, and other security applications, biometrics is gaining increasing attention. With an increasing emphasis on the emerging automatic personal identification applications, fingerprint based identification is becoming more popular. The most widely used fingerprint representation is the minutiae based representation. The main drawback with this representation is that it does not utilize a significant component of the rich discriminatory information available in the fingerprints. Local ridge structures cannot be completely characterized by minutiae. Also, it is difficult quickly to match two fingerprint images containing different number of unregistered minutiae points. In this study filter bank based representation, which eliminates these weakness, is implemented and the overall performance of the developed system is tested. The results have shown that this system can be used effectively for secure online verification applications.

  10. Parking Space Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg Peter Jensen, Troels; Thomsen Schmidt, Helge; Dyremose Bodin, Niels

    2018-01-01

    With the number of privately owned cars increasing, the issue of locating an available parking space becomes apparant. This paper deals with the verification of vacant parking spaces, by using a vision based system looking over parking areas. In particular the paper proposes a binary classifier...... system, based on a Convolutional Neural Network, that is capable of determining if a parking space is occupied or not. A benchmark database consisting of images captured from different parking areas, under different weather and illumination conditions, has been used to train and test the system....... The system shows promising performance on the database with an accuracy of 99.71% overall and is robust to the variations in parking areas and weather conditions....

  11. Cardiac pre-competiton screening in Swiss athletes. Current situation in competitive athletes and short-time assessment of an exemplary local screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Christian; Notz, Sara; Cribari, Marco; Gähwiler, Roman; Keller, Dagmar I; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2012-05-31

    In Switzerland, screening concepts for the prevention of sports-associated sudden cardiac death are still insufficiently established in the large group of competitive athletes who are not integrated in an Olympic- or other high-level squad. The aim of the present study was to objectively determine the current situation in this particular group of athletes concerning cardiac pre-competition screening and define specific features of an "ideal" Swiss screening concept. Based on these data, the feasibility and validity was tested by the implementation of an exemplary local screening programme. A standardised questionnaire was completed by 1,047 competitive athletes of different ages and gender. The individual, sports-specific profile of an athlete and furthermore, the personal attitude towards and the vision of a "perfect" cardiac screening were assessed. Based on the results, an exemplary local screening programme for competitive athletes was implemented at the "Academic Sports Association Zurich" (ASVZ) in Zurich, Switzerland and evaluated 1 year after its introduction. Only 9% of the 1,047 interviewed competitive athletes (aged 13 to 64 years; median age 22 years, SD = 5.87) had previously undergone a cardiac screening. Only 47% of the interviewed competitive athletes expressed their interest to undergo a cardiac screening at all. Male and older athletes showed a significantly higher acceptance rate for the screening programme than women and younger athletes. All athletes accepted to bear the expenses for the baseline screening programme, adapted to international standards (minimal accepted fee of 60 Swiss Francs). Almost half of the athletes (49.2%) preferred easy accessibility to a sports cardiologist (max. distance of 10 kilometres). The exemplary local screening programme proved to be feasible and successful. However, only 30% of the 102 screened individuals were female and most of the athletes (80%) who made use of the screening had a specific concern or

  12. Overexcitability and Optimal Flow in Talented Dancers, Singers, and Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S. Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Overexcitability (OE) and optimal flow are variables shared by talented individuals. This study demonstrated that the dancer (n = 86) and opera singer (n = 61) groups shared higher OE profiles compared to the athlete group (n = 50). Two self-report instruments assessed flow (global and subscales) and the five OE dimensions. All groups endorsed…

  13. Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine Morphology and Outcomes of Hip Arthroscopy in Soccer Athletes: A Comparison to Nonkicking Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawabi, Danyal H; Degen, Ryan M; Fields, Kara G; Wentzel, Catherine S; Adeoye, Olusanjo; Kelly, Bryan T

    2017-04-01

    To describe the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) morphology and clinical outcomes following arthroscopic surgical decompression in a group of high-level soccer athletes presenting with symptomatic hip impingement when compared with a control group of nonkicking athletes. From 2009 to 2012, we retrospectively reviewed our prospective hip registry for soccer athletes who underwent arthroscopic treatment for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) with 2-year follow-up, comparing with a control group of nonkicking athletes. Demographics were collected and radiographic studies (plain radiograph and computed tomographic scan) reviewed for several parameters, including AIIS morphology. Patient-reported outcome scores, including modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL) and Sport-Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), and International Hip Outcome Tool-33 (iHOT-33), were administered preoperatively, at 6 months, and at 1, 2, and 3 years postoperatively. Twenty-six soccer players (34 hips) and 87 nonkicking athletes (115) hips were identified. Demographics, including age (19.2 ± 4.1 vs 20.1 ± 3.8 years) and gender distribution (53.8% vs 51.7% male), were similar between the soccer and nonkicking athletes (P = .288, .849). Eighty-four percent of soccer players demonstrated some abnormality of the AIIS extending to (type II, 52%) or below the anterior acetabular rim (type III, 32%), compared with 52% nonkicking athletes (P soccer players have a significantly higher rate of subspine impingement compared with nonkicking athletes. There should be a high index of suspicion when treating soccer players for FAI, where appropriate recognition and treatment of subspine impingement can yield excellent clinical results. Level III, retrospective case-control study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Study of Eating Disorders and Body Image Among Elite Martial Arts Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Taheri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Study objective: The competitive sports environment can enhance social and cultural pressure towards having ideal body weight in weight-sensitive sports. The close relationship between body image and performance makes the elite athletes vulnerable to eating disorders. Thus, the purpose of this research was to study eating disorders and body image among weight-class elite athletes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with elite martial arts athletes (Karate, Taekwondo, and Judo who were considered to be of higher risk for eating disorders. 63 elite martial arts male athletes (18.59 ± 5.29 yrs, and 63 non-athlete persons (17.3 ± 3.4 yrs were recruited. Body Mass Index (BMI, Waist Hip Ratio (WHR, and Percent Body Fat (PBF were measured using caliper and meter. Eating Disorder Diagnosis Scale (EDDS and Body Image Rating Scale (BIRS were used to study eating disorders and body image among elite martial arts athletes. Results: no sign of clinical EDDS were found among the investigated athletes, and non-athletes. There were significant differences in total score of EDDS (p=0.001, eating disorder and weight concern subscales (respectively p=0.012, p=0.001 in athletes and non-athletes. Furthermore, compared with the non-athlete group, elite athlete group with middle, good, and great body images scored higher on total score and all subscales of EDDS (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The results from our study show the presence of worriment about eating disorder especially body weight and eating concern in elite athletes and the early detection of it may prevent progression to severe eating disorders.

  15. Reconfigurable system design and verification

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiung, Pao-Ann; Huang, Chun-Hsian

    2009-01-01

    Reconfigurable systems have pervaded nearly all fields of computation and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. Reconfigurable System Design and Verification provides a compendium of design and verification techniques for reconfigurable systems, allowing you to quickly search for a technique and determine if it is appropriate to the task at hand. It bridges the gap between the need for reconfigurable computing education and the burgeoning development of numerous different techniques in the design and verification of reconfigurable systems in various application domains. The text e

  16. Formal Verification of Circuits and Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    methods in the verification task. Today formal verification is finding increasing acceptance ... approaches that are major research issues in formal verification research today. There are four articles in this issue, which show up the different flavours in the approach to formal methods in verification. The first paper by Supratik ...

  17. Verification methodology manual for SystemVerilog

    CERN Document Server

    Bergeron, Janick; Hunter, Alan

    2006-01-01

    SystemVerilog is a unified language that serves both design and verification engineers by including RTL design constructs, assertions and a rich set of verification constructs. This book is based upon best verification practices by ARM, Synopsys and their customers. It is useful for those involved in the design or verification of a complex chip.

  18. Pain perception and cardiovascular system response among athletes playing contact sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leźnicka, Katarzyna; Pawlak, Matthias; Białecka, Monika; Safranow, Krzysztof; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the contact sports change the perception of pain as assessed by the cold pressor test (CPT), and if the test induces the same reaction of the cardiovascular system in contact athletes and non-athletes. The study involved 321 healthy men; 140 contact athletes and 181 students of the University of Szczecin (control). Pain threshold and pain tolerance were evaluated using CPT. Cardiovascular measurements were made during CPT. The contact athletes showed a much higher tolerance to pain than the control group (median time 120 vs. 94 s, respectively, p = 0.0002). The thresholds of pain in both groups did not differ significantly between the groups. Systolic blood pressure measured before and during the test in all three measurements was statistically significantly higher in athletes compared with the control group. Heart rate and diastolic blood pressure did not differ significantly between the studied groups.

  19. Profiles of perfectionism, parental climate, and burnout among competitive junior athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, H; Hill, A P; Stenling, A; Wagnsson, S

    2016-10-01

    Recent research suggests that groups of athletes which differ in terms of perfectionism and perceptions of achievement climate can be identified. Moreover, these groups also differ in terms of burnout symptoms. The purpose of the current study was to extend this research by examining whether discernible groups can be identified based on scores of perfectionism and perceptions of parent-initiated climate and, then, whether these groups differ in terms of burnout. Two-hundred and thirty-seven Swedish junior athletes (124 males and 113 females aged 16-19) from a variety of sports completed measures of athlete burnout, multidimensional perfectionism, and parent-initiated motivational climate. Latent profile analysis identified four groups: non-perfectionistic athletes in a task-involving climate, moderately perfectionistic athletes in a task-involving climate, highly perfectionistic athletes in a task-involving climate, and highly perfectionistic athletes in a mixed climate. The latter two groups reported higher levels of burnout in comparison to other groups. The findings suggest that junior athletes high in perfectionism may be at comparatively greater risk to burnout and that this may especially be the case when they perceive their parents to emphasize concerns about failure and winning without trying one's best. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Winning or not winning: the influence on coach-athlete relationships and goal achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Troncado Mata, Rui; Gomes, Antonio Rui da Silva

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the relation between sports success and athletes’ perception of coaches’ leadership, athletes’ satisfaction with coaches’ leadership, coach-athlete compatibility, and goal achievement. Sixty-six athletes who qualified for the final Division I play-offs of a professional volleyball championship were grouped into winning (n = 21) and non-winning teams (n = 45). Leadership styles, satisfaction with leadership, coach-athlete compatibility, and goal achievement were evaluated. ...

  1. GENDER DIFFICULTIES AND INEFFICIENT COPING AMONG FEMALE ATHLETES IN MASCULINE SPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Alekseevna Usoltseva

    2014-01-01

    This study explores strategies of coping gender difficulties among female athletes in masculine sports. Content analysis of data emerged from focus-groups and interviews of female athletes revealed several inefficient copings with gender difficulties. Some attitudes preventing female athletes from coping with gender difficulties were indicated. Among such attitudes were non-acceptance of self, lack of confidence in personal femininity, fear to show personal weakness (I must be strong), belief...

  2. Anger in Adolescent Boy Athletes: a Comparison among Judo, Karate, Swimming and Non Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaee, Vahid; Lotfian, Sara; Amini, Homayoun; Mansournia, Mohammad-Ali; Memari, Amir-Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Objective Karate and judo are originally Japanese martial arts which may have different influences on adolescents’ behavior. This study was conducted to examine the total anger rate and its subscale-reactive anger, instrumental anger, and anger control-rates in young karateka and judoka. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 11 to 19-year old boys. Adolescents included in the study were judoka (n=70), karateka (n=66), swimmers (n=59), and non athletes (n=96). One stage cluster sampling method was used to select judoka, karateka, and swimmers from sport clubs in Tehran. Students of governmental schools at the same area were chosen as the non-athletes group. The “Adolescent Anger Rating Scale” questionnaire was utilized to assess the anger rate. Findings The mean age of participants was 12.90(±2.06) years. The total anger rates were 45.40 (±5.61) in judoka, 41.53(±5.63) in karateka, 41.19(±5.33) in swimmers, and 45.44 (±8.58) in non athletes. In total anger scale karateka and swimmers had a significantly lower score compared to judoka and non athletes. In instrumental anger subscale the difference was significant just between karateka and non athletes. In reactive anger subscale judoka showed higher scores than swimmers. In anger control subscale the difference was significant between judoka and swimmers and also judoka and karateka. The difference of anger control between karateka and non athletes was significant. Conclusion The findings of this study propose a difference in the anger rate between judoka and karateka. In contrary to the results of previous studies, judo training may have no influence on anger control, while karate training could be beneficial. PMID:23056853

  3. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries. PMID:26258134

  4. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Roos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33% was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT. However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries.

  5. Contribution of athletic identity to child and adolescent physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cheryl B; Mâsse, Louise C; Zhang, Hong; Coleman, Karen J; Chang, Shine

    2009-09-01

    Identity theorists maintain that domain-specific self-concepts help explain the differential investment of people's time and effort in various activities. This study examined the contribution of athletic identity and three key demographic variables to physical activity and sports team participation. Students in Grades 4-5 (n=391, mean age 9.9 years, range 8-13 years, collected in 2003) and Grades 7-8 (n=948, mean age 13.6 years, range 11-15 years, collected in 2002 and 2006) completed the 40-item Athletic Identity Questionnaire, which measures self-perceptions of athletic appearance; competence; importance of physical activity and sports; and encouragement for activity from parents, teachers, and friends. Hierarchic multiple regression analyses in 2008 assessed the effects of athletic identity, race/ethnicity group, gender, and overweight status on 7-day moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and organized sport team participation in each age group. In children and adolescents, the global score of athletic identity was independently, positively related to MVPA (psports (5% in children, 15% in adolescents). In the subscale analyses, positive relationships for appearance, competence, importance, and parental encouragement persisted independent of demographic factors. Results support the role of athletic self-concept in promoting physical activity and organized sport participation in children and adolescents.

  6. Positive youth development and observed athlete behavior in recreational sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierimaa, Matthew; Bruner, Mark W; Côté, Jean

    2018-01-01

    Competence, confidence, connection, and character are regarded as outcomes of positive youth development (PYD) in sport. However, the specific athlete behaviors associated with different PYD profiles are not well understood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between athletes' observed behavior during sport competitions and their perceptions of PYD outcomes. Cross-sectional study with systematic behavioral observation. Sixty-seven youth athletes were observed during basketball games near the end of their season, and the content of their behavior was systematically coded. Athletes also completed measures of the 4 Cs (competence, confidence connection, and character). A person-centered analysis approach was used to examine the relationship between PYD profiles and observed behavior. A cluster analysis identified two homogenous groups of athletes characterized by relatively high and low perceptions of confidence, connection, and character. A MANCOVA revealed that after controlling for gender and years of playing experience, the high Cs group engaged in more frequent sport communication with their coaches. Results re-affirm the critical role that coaches play in the developmental experiences of young athletes, and highlight the importance of contextual factors of the youth sport environment.

  7. Vascular adaptation in athletes: is there an 'athlete's artery'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, D.J.; Spence, A.; Rowley, N.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Naylor, L.H.

    2012-01-01

    Whilst the existence of a specific phenotype characterized as 'athlete's heart' is generally acknowledged, the question of whether athletes exhibit characteristic vascular adaptations has not been specifically addressed. To do so in this symposium, studies which have assessed the size, wall

  8. Operative goals of intercollegiate athletics: perceptions of athletic administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelladurai, P; Danylchuk, K E

    1984-03-01

    Ninety intercollegiate athletic administrators from across Canada participated in the study which investigated their perceptions of the operative goals of intercollegiate athletics. The operative goals included in the study were 1) Entertainment, 2) National Sport Development, 3) Financial, 4) Transmission of Culture, 5) Career Opportunities, 6) Public Relations, 7) Athlete's Personal Growth, 8) Prestige, and 9) Achieved Excellence. The rankings of these nine objectives were analyzed by subgroups based on sex of the respondents, size of the university, and the conference membership. In addition, the relationships between respondents' ratings of these objectives, and their attitudes toward athletic scholarships, recruitment practices and eligibility were also examined. The results showed that the various subgroups of athletic administrators were relatively homogeneous in ranking Transmission of Culture, Athlete's Personal Growth, Public Relations, and Prestige as the most important set of operative goals. It was also found that the administrators from the Non-central region (Maritime and Western Provinces) were more in favor of athletic scholarships than the administrators from the Central region (Ontario and Quebec). Also, higher ratings of Public Relations, Prestige, Entertainment, and Financial Objectives were associated with stronger support for athletic scholarships, and unrestrained recruitment. It was noted that administrators' goal orientations, while congruent with those of students from selected universities, were contrary to the prescriptions and proscriptions of prominent educators.

  9. Athletic Trainers' Attitudes Toward Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual National Collegiate Athletic Association Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Kristine A.; Yiamouyiannis, Athena; White, Kristi M.; Ridpath, B. David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Researchers have investigated heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexuals, focusing on factors such as sex, race, religion, education, and contact experiences. However, in the context of sport, this research is deficient. We found no published literature investigating athletic trainers (ATs') attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual student-athletes (LGB). Objective: To determine heterosexual ATs' attitudes toward LGB student-athletes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: E-mailed survey. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 964 ATs employed at member institutions. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured attitudes using the Attitudes Toward Lesbian, Gay Men, and Bisexuals (ATLGB) Scale. To determine the extent to which sex, religion, and whether having an LGB friend or family member had an effect on ATs' attitudes, we performed analysis of variance. To establish the effect of age on ATs' attitudes, we calculated a Pearson correlation. We used an independent t test to identify differences between ATs who reported working with LGB student-athletes and ATs who did not. Results: With ATLGB score as the dependent factor, a main effect was noted for sex, religion, and having an LGB friend or family member (P attitudes toward LGB student-athletes, especially females, those who have an LGB friend or family member, and those who are aware of LGB student-athletes. Still, it is important to provide an open environment in the athletic training room for all student-athletes. PMID:21214353

  10. Electrocardiograms of collegiate football athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, Stephen F; Meade, Thomas; Hansen, Brent E; Green, John S; Martin, Steven E

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities in American collegiate football athletes is virtually unknown. The purpose of this study was to characterize the type and frequency of ECG abnormalities in a sample of football athletes entering National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Football Bowl Subdivision university program. Over a 4-y period, resting and exercise 12-lead ECG recordings were analyzed by a cardiologist from 68 freshmen and 9 transfer football athletes (n=77; 54 African-Americans and 23 Caucasians, aged 18 +/- 1 y, height=1.89 +/- 0.06 m, weight= 104.4 +/- 19.8 kg) as part of their entry physical examination. A total of 79% of the athletes demonstrated at least 1 abnormal ECG finnding, and significantly more African-America athletes (85%) than Caucasian (65%) athletes. Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome was found in 1 African-American player. Frequencies of various ECG abnormal findings in all athletes were: left ventricular hypertrophy = 64.5%, ST-T wave = 6.5%, interventricular conduction delay = 2.6%, sinus bradycardia = 9.1%, sinus arrhythmia = 15.6%, first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block = 11.7%, left atrial enlargement = 48.1%, early repolarization = 33.8%, and right axis deviation = 20.8%. Average values for the PR (0.17 +/- 0.03 s), QRS (0.08 +/- 0.02 s), and QT intervals (0.38 +/- 0.05 s), P-wave duration (0.10 +/- 0.02 s), and QRS axis (79.1 +/- 18.2 degrees) were normal. The ECG responses to maximal treadmill exercise stress tests were evaluated as normal without ischemia or arrhythmias. Abnormal resting ECG findings are common in a sample of collegiate football athletes, exceeding the rate expected for their age, and are more frequent in African-American athletes as compared with Caucasian athletes. Copyright (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The role of athlete narcissism in moderating the relationship between coaches' transformational leader behaviors and athlete motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Calum Alexander; Woodman, Tim; Ong, Chin Wei; Hardy, Lew; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2011-02-01

    Leadership research that examines follower characteristics as a potential moderator of leadership effectiveness is lacking. Within Bass's (1985) transformational leadership framework, we examined follower narcissism as a moderator of the coach behavior-coach effectiveness relationship. Youth athletes (male = 103, female = 106) from the Singapore Sports Academy (mean age = 14.28, SD = 1.40 years) completed the Differentiated Transformational Leadership Inventory (Callow, Smith, Hardy, Arthur, & Hardy, 2009), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988), and indices of follower effort. Multilevel analyses revealed that athlete narcissism moderated the relationship between fostering acceptance of group goals and athlete effort and between high performance expectations and athlete effort. All the other transformational leader behaviors demonstrated main effects on follower effort, except for inspirational motivation.

  12. Functional Performance Testing in Athletes with Functional Ankle Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nidhi; Sharma, Archna; Singh Sandhu, Jaspal

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine if functional performance deficits are present in athletes with functional ankle instability (FAI) compared to healthy athletes using various functional performance tests. Methods Sixty two athletes (mean age-21.7±1.8years; height-168.2±9.1cm; weight-63.8±11.0kg) participated in this case control study. Athletes were divided into two groups: athletes with FAI (FAI group, n=31) and healthy athletes (Non-FAI group, n=31). The FAI group was further divided into two subgroups: FAI with giving way (FAI-GW), FAI with no giving way (FAI-NGW). Functional performance was assessed with the single-limb hopping test, figure-of-8 hop test, side-hop test, single-limb hurdle test, square hop test and single hop test. Results Significant differences (PFAI and Non-FAI groups; between FAI-GW, FAI-NGW and Non-FAI groups. Additionally, the involved limb performed significantly worse (PFAI-GW group for the above-mentioned FPTs. Conclusion Significant functional performance deficits were observed in the FAI group in all tests except single hop test with greater deficits observed in the FAI-GW group. Hence, these tests can be used to determine the presence of FAI. However no deficits were identified for the test involving sagittal plane functional activities suggesting that this test can not be used as a criterion to discriminate individuals with FAI. It was further ascertained that functional performance was not affected by limb dominance. PMID:22375246

  13. The Effect of Physical Activity agains the Telomere Length in the Leukocytes Cells of KONI Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Purwaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres are strands of non coding DNA at the ends of chromosomes that have the primary function to protect DNA from damage and maintain chromosomal stability. Physical exercise will increase the antioxidant activity can increase telomere proteins, lengthen telomeres and or protein networks associated with telomere so that the telomere remains long, or stopping telomere shortening. Telomere length was also associated with age. The purpose of the research was to determine telomere length of leukocyte cells in the KONI (Indonesian National Sports Committee athletes in Jakarta. The research method is descriptive, by measuring telomere length using quantitative PCR on leukocyte cells. Samples are KONI athletes from several sports, including men and women athletes, with ages between 15-20 years. Used a control group (not athletes is students of the Faculty of Medicine, University of YARSI. The results showed that there was no significant difference (p> 0.05 between telomere length group of athletes with the control group in both sexes. Similarly, telomere length between athlete male with female athletes also showed no significant difference (p> 0.05. It was concluded that physical exercise in athletes KONI at the age of 15- 20 years had no effect on telomere length in leukocytes. The results of this study provide information about the telomere length in Indonesian athletes at an early age.

  14. Evaluation of a theory-based intervention aimed at reducing intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors among adolescent female athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Laramée, Catherine; Drapeau, Vicky; Valois, Pierre; Goulet, Claude; Jacob, Raphaëlle; Provencher, Véronique; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention to reduce the intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among adolescent female athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Design: Cluster randomized controlled trial. Setting: Aesthetic sport teams of adolescent (age 12-17) female athletes. Participants: Two teams (n=37 athletes) in the intervention group and 3 teams (n=33) in the comparison group. Interventions: The 2 groups received nu...

  15. Psychosocial aspects of athletic injuries as perceived by athletic trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Damien; Granquist, Megan D; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna M

    2013-01-01

    Despite the Psychosocial Strategies and Referral content area, athletic trainers (ATs) generally lack confidence in their ability to use this information. The current study's primary purpose was to determine (a) perceived psychological responses and coping behaviors athletes may present to ATs, (b) psychosocial strategies ATs currently use with their athletes, (c) psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about, and (d) ATs' current practices in referring athletes to counseling or sport psychology services. Mixed-methods study. Online survey containing both quantitative and qualitative items. A total of 215 ATs (86 male, 129 female), representing a response rate of 22.50%. The Athletic Training and Sport Psychology Questionnaire. Stress/anxiety (4.24 ± 0.82), anger (3.70 ± 0.96), and treatment adherence problems (3.62 ± 0.94) were rated as the primary psychological responses athletes may present upon injury. Adherence and having a positive attitude were identified as key determinants in defining athletes' successful coping with their injuries. The top 3 selected psychosocial strategies were keeping the athlete involved with the team (4.57 ± 0.73), using short-term goals (4.45 ± 0.67), and creating variety in rehabilitation exercises (4.32 ± 0.75). The top 3 rated psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about were understanding motivation (4.29 ± 0.89), using effective communication (4.24 ± 0.91), and setting realistic goals (4.22 ± 0.97). Of the sample, only 59 (27.44%) ATs reported referring an athlete for counseling services, and 37 (84.09%) of those who had access to a sport psychologist (n = 44) reported referring for sport psychology services. These results not only highlight ATs' current use of psychosocial strategies but also their desires to increase their current knowledge and understanding of these strategies while caring for injured athletes.

  16. Qualitative study of barriers to concussive symptom reporting in high school athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Sara P; Quitiquit, Celeste; Rivara, Frederick P

    2013-03-01

    To identify barriers to concussive symptom reporting in high school athletics. We conducted a qualitative focus group study with varsity high school athletes from three football, two boys' soccer, and four girls' soccer teams in the Seattle, WA, area (50 participants). Professional moderators led the groups with a standardized script that discussed concussion knowledge as well as hypothetical concussion scenarios. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed, and transcripts were analyzed by two investigators using thematic analysis with Atlas.ti. Athletes could describe multiple signs and symptoms of concussion. Athletes also understood the dangers of concussions, and all groups mentioned the possibility of death or long-term disability. However, when confronted with scenarios involving concussive symptoms, athletes reported they would not stop playing. They would either continue to play (6/9 groups) or would take a brief break and then return to play (3/9 groups). Several barriers seemed to explain athletes' responses. Athletes wanted to keep playing and knew that reporting symptoms might result in being removed from the game. In addition, concussive symptoms were nonspecific, and thus could be mistaken for another etiology. Finally, athletes were hesitant to report symptoms to coaches if they did not result in significant pain or disability. There are several barriers to concussive symptom reporting in high school athletics. Athlete concussion knowledge does not seem to be a barrier, but coach approachability may be an issue. Interventions that seek to improve coach communication with athletes regarding concussion management might increase symptom reporting. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bony Morphology of Femoroacetabular Impingement in Young Female Dancers and Single-Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Joana L; Sugimoto, Dai; Beng, Yi-Men; D'Hemecourt, Pierre; Stracciolini, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a painful and limiting condition of the hip that is often seen in young athletes. Previous studies have reported a higher prevalence of this disorder in male athletes, but data on the structural morphology of adolescent and young adult female athletes, specifically those involved in dance, are lacking. (1) To investigate the radiographic morphology of FAI deformities in adolescent and young adult female single-sport dance and nondance athletes and (2) to examine the differences in the radiographic findings between these 2 groups. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A retrospective chart review of 56 female single-sport athletes 10 to 21 years of age with a diagnosis of FAI within a single-sports medicine division of a pediatric academic medical center was performed. Acetabular index (AI), lateral center-edge angle (LCEA), crossover sign, and ischial spine sign were measured bilaterally on anteroposterior radiographs; alpha angle (AA) was measured on lateral films, and anterior center-edge angle (ACEA) was measured on false-profile films. Independent t tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare mean angle measurements between dance and nondance athletes. Dichotomized categorical variables and crossover and ischial spine signs were analyzed between dance and nondance athletes by applying a chi-square test. Statistical significance was set as P sport dance athletes compared with nondance athletes with FAI. In dance athletes, symptoms were seen in the setting of normal bony morphology.

  18. A comparison of well-peer mentored and non-peer mentored athletes' perceptions of satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Matt D; Loughead, Todd M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare well-peer mentored and non-peer mentored athletes' perceptions of satisfaction. A total of 444 intercollegiate athletes (272 well-peer mentored and 172 non-peer mentored) from a variety of sport teams participated in the study. Athletes from both well-peer mentored and non-peer mentored groups reported their satisfaction levels using the Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire. The results of a MANOVA and follow-up post hoc ANOVAs showed that well-peer mentored athletes were significantly more satisfied than their non-peer mentored counterparts in terms of individual performance, personal dedication, team task contribution, team social contribution, team integration, ethics, ability utilisation and training and instruction. Overall, the findings suggest that athletes who are well-peer mentored by a teammate perceive higher satisfaction levels with various aspects of their athletic experience than athletes who are not peer mentored by a teammate. Given these positive findings, practitioners (i.e., coaches, sport psychology consultants) should inform athletes on the benefits of peer-to-peer mentoring. The practical implications of the results and strategies to promote peer athlete mentoring relationships in sport are highlighted.

  19. Towards the formal verification of the requirements and design of a processor interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fura, David A.; Windley, Phillip J.; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1993-01-01

    The formal verification of the design and partial requirements for a Processor Interface Unit (PIU) using the Higher Order Logic (HOL) theorem-proving system is described. The processor interface unit is a single-chip subsystem within a fault-tolerant embedded system under development within the Boeing Defense and Space Group. It provides the opportunity to investigate the specification and verification of a real-world subsystem within a commercially-developed fault-tolerant computer. An overview of the PIU verification effort is given. The actual HOL listing from the verification effort are documented in a companion NASA contractor report entitled 'Towards the Formal Verification of the Requirements and Design of a Processor Interface Unit - HOL Listings' including the general-purpose HOL theories and definitions that support the PIU verification as well as tactics used in the proofs.

  20. Numident Online Verification Utility (NOVU)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — NOVU is a mainframe application that accesses the NUMIDENT to perform real-time SSN verifications. This program is called by other SSA online programs that serve as...

  1. Formal Verification of Continuous Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    to the high complexity of both the dynamical system and the specification. Therefore, there is a need for methods capable of verifying complex specifications of complex systems. The verification of high dimensional continuous dynamical systems is the key to verifying general systems. In this thesis......, an abstraction approach is taken to the verification problem. A method is developed for abstracting continuous dynamical systems by timed automata. This method is based on subdividing the state space into cells by use of subdivisioning functions that are decreasing along the vector field. To allow....... It is shown that dual decomposition can be applied on the problem of generating barrier certificates, resulting in a compositional formulation of the safety verification problem. This makes the barrier certificate method applicable to the verification of high dimensional systems, but at the cost...

  2. Injury prevalence in young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Maria dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The injuries in young athletes are becoming more frequent, due to the wade dissemination of sports and the excessive training aimed at high performance. The requirements in sports can lead to the development of pathologies and injuries that could be prevented if the young athlete's training was well oriented. We emphasize the importance of professional and competition calendar planning always seeking the recovery of the athlete. It’s also important to have knowledge of injuries, training load, the previous history of the athlete, and correction of improper movement technique.Objective: To identify the most common injuries in young athletes of different sports. Material and Methods: The study included 36 athletes, aged 12-17 years, of both sexes, the Athletics rules, futsal, swimming and volleyball. An interview that contained information about age, practice time and sport was initially applied. Then two questionnaires were applied, the first consisting of a pain distribution table by body region and the second by a pain scale and this interference in daily activities. Results:Obtained results as mean age 13.86 years. Among the participants, 66.7% reported practicing sports or other physical activities, 55.6% reported that they have suffered injury in some cases with recurrence and 50% who have had any treatment for pain.Conclusion: Based on the results we conclude the importance of knowledge about sports injury prevention strategies in young athletes as a way to ensure longevity in the sport.

  3. Avoid Overtraining in Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rearick, Matt; Creasy, John; Buriak, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Each year many young athletes suffer injuries from overtraining. According to the existing literature, strategies do exist to help control this growing problem. This article explores the basic nature of training and overtraining, with a particular emphasis on endurance athletes. Several psychological factors are highlighted as the first clear…

  4. Intercollegiate Athletics and Modeling Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirko, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Research about student athletes contends that participation enhances both learning and character development, including leadership, interpersonal skills, social self-esteem, discipline, personal health, motivation, dedication, and life lessons. Other research expresses concern about the cognitive outcomes of student athletes relative to…

  5. Injuries to the Young Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandusky, Jane C.

    A review of literature on the incidence and nature of injuries to young athletes is presented on the topics of: (1) physiological characteristics of preadolescents, adolescents, and young adults; (2) musculo-skeletal changes in the growing athlete; (3) epiphyseal injuries and their potential for resulting in temporary or permanent impairment; (4)…

  6. [Groin pain in athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziltener, J-L; Leal, S

    2007-08-02

    Groin pain is a common problem in athletes who engage in sports involving accelerations, decelerations and sudden direction changes. It is still a frustrating pathology which has significant overlap and multiple problems coexist frequently. The pathogeny remains unclear, but the hypothesis that imbalances between abdominal muscles and adductors exist, has a certain success. Some anatomic and biomechanic factors may play a role in this pathology. A good clinical examination is an important part of the diagnosis and imaging may be helpful to eliminate other causes of groin pain that wouldn't be mechanic. The conservative treatment is long and difficult and must be focused on functional strengthening and core stabilisation.

  7. Comparison of Muscle Strength in Male Combat Sport Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buśko Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the study was to examine differences in muscle strength and topography between judoists, boxers, and taekwondo athletes. Material and methods. Thirteen judoists, 6 boxers, and 7 taekwondo athletes took part in the study. The maximal joint torque of the flexors and extensors of the elbow, shoulder, hip, knee, and trunk were measured under isometric conditions. Results. The absolute and relative joint torque was similar in the three groups except for the absolute strength of the right flexor of the shoulder between the boxers and the taekwondo athletes and judoists (p < 0.01. The sums of the relative joint torque and topography of the joint torque of the right and left upper extremity, lower extremity, and trunk were similar in the groups. A significant difference was observed in the topography of the joint torque of the right upper and lower extremity and of the trunk between the boxers and the taekwondo athletes and judoists (p < 0.01. The topography of the joint torque of the flexors and extensors of the right shoulder was significantly different between the boxers and the taekwondo athletes and judoists (p < 0.01. Conclusions. In martial arts, the training undergone by the athletes and their participation in competitions can be expected to affect their strength. The joint torque was similar in the combat groups examined in this study. Judoists and taekwondo athletes did not differ in muscle topography. Boxers differed from the other two groups only in the contribution of the flexors and extensors of the right shoulder, in the sum of the torques of the right upper and lower limb, and the sum of the torques of the trunk. These results may be due to the characteristics of the discipline and the training methods used.

  8. Coping with the Trauma of Professional Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovzhik L. M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation considers sports injuries as a psychological phenomenon, reveals the personality traits of athletes in terms of their vulnerability and resource to overcome injuries. Authors suggest the specificity of athletes’ coping strategies composition, as well as differences in their emotional state depending on the psychological well-being level. We consider gender-specific study links. In the survey, 124 participants were interviewed (M age = 22.1, SD age = 4; 80 male, 44 female. Authors has found significant differences in the ways of overcoming ordinary and sports stress among athletes having high or low level of well-being, gender-specific coping with the situation of injury have been shown. In the male group, athletes with high level of well-being use Problem-solving strategies, as well as Sport coping skills significantly more often. In the female group, in addition to coping peculiar to men, there is an appeal to Goal Setting and Mental Preparation, besides that they use Coach ability coping strategy. The study also identified coping strategies that contributed to the experience of well-being. Authors propose the practical aspects and perspectives of research.

  9. Commercially marketed supplements for bodybuilding athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewald, K K; Bailey, R S

    1993-02-01

    We conducted a survey of 624 commercially available supplements targeted towards bodybuilding athletes. Over 800 performance claims were made for these supplements. Supplements include amino acids, boron, carnitine, choline, chromium, dibencozide, ferulic acid, gamma oryzanol, medium chain triglycerides, weight gain powders, Smilax compounds and yohimbine. Many performance claims advertised were not supported by published research studies. In some instances, we found no research to validate the claims; in other cases, research findings were extrapolated to inappropriate applications. For example, biological functions of some non-essential compounds were interpreted as performance claims for the supplements. Claims for others were based on their ability to enhance hormonal release or activity. We suggest that more research be conducted on this group of athletes and their nutritional needs. Furthermore, the effectiveness and safety of supplements merit further investigation.

  10. Sacral stress fractures in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, E G; Giangarra, C

    1996-08-01

    Low back and buttock pain in runners can be a source of frustration for the athlete and a diagnostic dilemma for the physician. The authors reported on 3 cases of sacral stress fractures in women athletes, all of which initially presented as low back and/or buttock pain. Sacral stress fractures have been increasingly recognized as a potential cause of these symptoms, especially in young athletes. Because plain radiograph findings are typically normal, the diagnosis is best made with bone scintigraphy. Computed tomography is indicated if there is concern about neoplasm and to evaluate healing of the fracture. If treated with rest, most of these fractures heal and the athlete can return to previous sports activity. The treating physician should be suspicious of this injury among running athletes reporting sacral and buttock pain that does not respond to treatment.

  11. Hypertensive Medications in Competitive Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, Henry

    Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disease in athletes. It is an important cause of long-term morbidity and mortality, even in a fit, athletic population. Management options to reduce these long-term risks exist that have minimal impact on athletic performance. Identification and management of underlying lifestyle factors and diseases that may lead to secondary hypertension is critical. These include substance abuse, medications, and underlying medical conditions. After evaluation and management of these issues, medications can be used to reduce blood pressure. In the athletic population, first-line medication treatment should include ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), and calcium channel blockers (CCB). The response to treatment should be followed closely to ensure adequate blood pressure control. Athletic participation in sports with high dynamic load should be limited in individuals with stage 2 hypertension or stage 1 hypertension with evidence of end organ damage.

  12. Public health implications of establishing a national programme to screen young athletes in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Julian; Stein, Ken

    2011-06-01

    To assess how much competitive sport contributes to sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes and the impact on population health if this group were to be screened in the UK. Using reported and imputed incidence rates of SCD in athletes and non-athletes and false-negative and false-positive test rates reported in three key Italian screening studies, the authors calculated the population and attributable risk fractions of SCD in young athletes and the total population (athletes and non-athletes) aged 12-35 years before and after screening; the number of athletes needed to screen (NNS) to prevent one SCD and the sensitivity and the specificity of screening with electrocardiogram. Using these parameters, the authors developed a decision tree model based on the UK population aged 12-35 years to estimate the annual number of SCDs, the expected number of screening and diagnostic tests and the number of athletes disqualified from competitive sport per SCD prevented. Participation in competitive athletics contributes to 81.9% (62.4% to 91.6%) of SCD in athletes but only 26.6% (-20.3% to 55.8%) in the total population. After screening, the contribution in the total population falls to 7.2% (-10.7% to 22.4%). The NNS is 38 151 (20 534 to 267 380). A UK screening programme would result in 1 520 021 young athletes being screened, with 140 361 referred for diagnosis. Of an expected 196 SCDs per year, 40 (6 to 74) would be prevented. For every life saved, 791 athletes would be disqualified. The impact of screening on reducing SCD in young athletes is only modest and would be achieved with significant harms to population health.

  13. NUTRIENT INTAKES OF MEN AND WOMEN COLLEGIATE ATHLETES WITH DISORDERED EATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela S. Hinton

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the macro- and micronutrient intakes of men and women collegiate athletes with disordered eating behaviors and to compare the nutrient intakes of athletes with restrictive- versus binge-eating behaviors. National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA Division I University athletes (n = 232 were administered an anonymous, written questionnaire to compare nutrient intakes, desired weight change, and weight control behaviors in athletes with restrictive- (R and binge- (B eating behaviors to those in asymptomatic (A athletes. T-tests, χ2 statistic, and ANOVA were used to test for differences among disordered eating groups within genders (p < 0.05. Data are means ± standard error of the mean. Among men athletes, those with disordered eating consumed a smaller percentage of energy from carbohydrate compared to controls (R = 49.7 ± 1.5; B = 48.7 ± 2.3; A = 53.4 ± 0.7%. Among female athletes, those with disordered eating wanted to lose a greater percentage of their current body weight than did asymptomatic athletes (B = -6.1 ± 1.4; R = -6.7 ± 1.1; A = -3.7 ± 0.4%. Women who were classified with binge eating consumed significantly more alcohol than did controls (B = 6.8 ± 1.3; A = 3.9 ± 0.4 g alcohol per day. Athletes with disordered eating were more likely to report restricting their intake of carbohydrate and fat and using supplements to control their weight than asymptomatic athletes. Disordered eating was not associated with greater frequencies of inadequate micronutrient intake in either gender. Athletes with disordered eating may be at significantly greater risk for nutritional inadequacies than athletes who are asymptomatic due to macronutrient restriction and greater alcohol consumption

  14. IS GNB3 C825T POLYMORPHISM ASSOCIATED WITH ELITE STATUS OF POLISH ATHLETES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sawczuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The GNB3 gene encodes the beta 3 subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins that are key components of intracellular signal transduction between G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR and intracellular effectors and might be considered as a potential candidate gene for physical performance. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare frequency distribution of the common C to T polymorphism at position 825 (C825T of the GNB3 gene between athletes and nonathletic controls of the Polish population as well as to compare the genotype distribution and allele frequency of C825T variants within a group of athletes, i.e. between athletes of sports of different metabolic demands and competitive levels. Methods: The study was performed in a group of 223 Polish athletes of the highest nationally competitive standard (123 endurance-oriented athletes and 100 strength/power athletes. Control samples were prepared from 354 unrelated, sedentary volunteers. Results: The χ2 test revealed no statistical differences between the endurance-oriented athletes and the control group or between sprint/strength athletes and the control group across the GNB3 825C/T genotypes. There were no male-female genotype or allele frequency differences in controls or in either strength/power or endurance-oriented athletes. No statistically significant differences in either allele frequencies or genotype distribution were noted between the top-elite, elite or sub-elite of endurance-oriented and strength/power athletes and the control group. Conclusions: No association between elite status of Polish athletes and the GNB3 C825T polymorphic site has been found.

  15. Athlete endorsements in food marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Yanamadala, Swati; Roberto, Christina A; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2013-11-01

    This study quantified professional athletes' endorsement of food and beverages, evaluated the nutritional quality of endorsed products, and determined the number of television commercial exposures of athlete-endorsement commercials for children, adolescents, and adults. One hundred professional athletes were selected on the basis of Bloomberg Businessweek's 2010 Power 100 rankings, which ranks athletes according to their endorsement value and prominence in their sport. Endorsement information was gathered from the Power 100 list and the advertisement database AdScope. Endorsements were sorted into 11 endorsement categories (eg, food/beverages, sports apparel). The nutritional quality of the foods featured in athlete-endorsement advertisements was assessed by using a Nutrient Profiling Index, whereas beverages were evaluated on the basis of the percentage of calories from added sugar. Marketing data were collected from AdScope and Nielsen. Of 512 brands endorsed by 100 different athletes, sporting goods/apparel represented the largest category (28.3%), followed by food/beverages (23.8%) and consumer goods (10.9%). Professional athletes in this sample were associated with 44 different food or beverage brands during 2010. Seventy-nine percent of the 62 food products in athlete-endorsed advertisements were energy-dense and nutrient-poor, and 93.4% of the 46 advertised beverages had 100% of calories from added sugar. Peyton Manning (professional American football player) and LeBron James (professional basketball player) had the most endorsements for energy-dense, nutrient-poor products. Adolescents saw the most television commercials that featured athlete endorsements of food. Youth are exposed to professional athlete endorsements of food products that are energy-dense and nutrient-poor.

  16. Features static-and-dynamic performance in athletes of winter sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotenko K.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: analysis of static-dynamic performance of the musculoskeletal system of athletes of winter sports. Materials and Methods. The evaluation of static-dynamic characteristics of the musculoskeletal system. Results. The highest percentage of load-balancing the body while maintaining a static position was observed in the group of athletes of speed and power of the sport and made up, the lowest — in athletes clearing difficult sport. Significant shift in the distribution of body load were detected in athletes clearing difficult sport in the speed and power sport, none of the athletes of the deviations were found. Conclusion. The survey revealed the features of the coordination ability and load balancing body in athletes of different sports: cycling, hard-house and speed-power.

  17. Effects of a motivational climate inntervention for coaches on young athletes' sport performance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ronald E; Smoll, Frank L; Cumming, Sean P

    2007-02-01

    The mastery approach to coaching is a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to promote a mastery-involving motivational climate, shown in previous research to be related to lower anxiety in athletes. We tested the effects of this intervention on motivational climate and on changes in male and female athletes'cognitive and somatic performance anxiety over the course of a basketball season. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that the athletes in the intervention condition perceived their coaches as being more mastery-involving on the Motivational Climate Scale for Youth Sports when compared to athletes in an untreated control condition. Relative to athletes who played for untrained coaches, those who played for the trained coaches exhibited decreases on all subscales of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 and on total anxiety score from preseason to late season. Control group athletes reported increases in anxiety over the season. The intervention had equally positive effects on boys and girls teams.

  18. Prevalence of asthma-like symptoms, asthma and its treatment in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Pedersen, L; Larsson, B

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and asthma and the use of asthma medication in Danish elite athletes. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of Danish elite athletes was conducted in 2006. All elite athletes (N=418) financially supported by the national...... organization of elite athletes comprised the study group; 329 (79%) completed the questionnaire concerning their sport, asthma-like symptoms, asthma and use of asthma medication. Asthma-like symptoms at rest were reported by 41% of respondents; 55% reported asthma-like symptoms at rest or at exercise....... Physician-diagnosed asthma was present in 16% and 14% had current asthma. Asthma medication was taken by 7% of the athletes, of whom 79% used inhaled corticosteroids and 21% used inhaled beta(2)-agonists only. Athletes participating in endurance sports had higher prevalences of current asthma (24%) and use...

  19. Toward a conceptual understanding of the flow experience in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, S A

    1996-03-01

    An in-depth investigation into flow state was conducted in order to understand how this optimal state is experienced by elite athletes. Twenty-eight elite-level athletes, representing 7 sports, were interviewed on their perceptions of flow state during performance of their sport. Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) model of the flow state was examined for its applicability to elite athletes. Correspondence was found between the dimensions of flow, as described by Csikszentmihalyi (1990), and the athletes' descriptions of their experience of flow; some dimensions received greater support through the qualitative analysis of the athletes' descriptions than did other dimensions. Those dimensions of flow most represented across the group's data were the autotelic experience of flow, total concentration on the task at hand, merging of action and awareness, and the paradox of control. The analyses provided a detailed, sport-specific picture of flow state in elite athletes.

  20. ALMA Science Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, R.

    2011-01-01

    As many of you are aware, ALMA has reached a very exciting point in the construction phase. After a year of testing the basic functionality of antennas and small arrays at the Chajnantor site at 5000m, we are now able to run full observations of scientific targets using at least 8 antennas and 4 receiver bands. We recently had a series of reviews of all aspects of the ALMA Project, resulting in a consensus that we will be ready to issue a Call for Proposals for Early Science projects at the end of the first quarter of 2011, with an expectation of starting these Early Science observations toward the end of 2011. ALMA Science Verification is the process by which we will demonstrate that the data that will be produced by ALMA during Early Science is valid. This is done by running full "end to end" tests of ALMA as a telescope. We will observe objects for which similar data are already available for other telescopes. This allows us to make direct quantitative comparisons of all aspects of the data cubes, in order to determine whether the ALMA instrumentation or software is introducing any artifacts.

  1. Survey of scholastic athletic health care and sports medicine clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegerreis, S; Malone, T R; Greenwald, L; Knoeppel, D E

    1983-01-01

    The increasing number of athletes requiring health care has spurred the growth of the development of sports medicine clinics. The diversity of such clinics is readily apparent. These clinics primarily function to provide evaluative and rehabilitative measures to all groups of athletic participants. Scholastic health care for athletic participants has not proceeded in a similar pattern. Sports medicine clinics are not effectively meeting the needs of the scholastic athlete, primarily because of location and financial limitations. This survey was conducted to collect information to further delineate the problems associated with scholastic health care of athletic participants. It appears that sports medicine clinics are manned by several levels of health care professionals. Scholastic athletes are least adequately covered by insurance and also suffer from being within a somewhat isolated environment. The need for on-field care and follow-up care within the school system remains a key problem associated with scholastic health care. Further research into the relationship of insurance policies which will adequately meet the needs of the scholastic population must be pursued. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1983;5(2):78-81.

  2. Evaluation of some physical and motoric characteristics of athletes with down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkım Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some physical and motoric characteristics of Down’s syndrome athletes. The sample of the study consists of 60 athletes (n=30 experimetal group and n=30 control group who are in the Malatya Sessiz Adımlar Sports Club, aged between 13 and 15. Athletes in the experimental group were subjected to a training program to improve the balance and flexibility of 2 hours of 3 days a week for 8 weeks. The athletes, in the control group continued their usual training programs. Before and after the 8-week training program that is applicated for the athletes in the experimental group, the balance and flexibility performances of the athletes in both the experimental and control groups were determined. It was used the flamingo balance test to determine the balance performance of the athletes; was used Sit & Reach test to determine flexibility performance. In favor of the athletes who are in experimental group a statistically significant difference (p0.05 obtained between pre-test and post-test results that is applicated to determine the flexibility performance. It was also found that there was no relationship (p>0.05 between the BMI values of the athletes and their balance and flexibility performances. In the study, it was found that the training program for 8 week training to improve balance and flexibility that was applied to dealing with athleticism 13–15 age group athletes with down syndrome improved the athletes’ balance performance but did not contribute to the their improvement of flexibility performances.

  3. Motivation towards dual career of European student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Corrado; Guidotti, Flavia; Goncalves, Carlos E; Moreira, Liliana; Doupona Topic, Mojca; Bellardini, Helena; Tonkonogi, Michail; Colin, Allen; Capranica, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate motivations for the dual career of European student-athletes living in countries providing different educational services for elite athletes: State-centric regulation-State as sponsor/facilitator (State), National Sporting Federations/Institutes as intermediary (Federation) and Laisser Faire, no formal structures (No Structure). Therefore, the European Student-athletes' Motivation towards Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ-EU) was administered to 524 European student-athletes. Exploratory Factor Analysis, and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were applied to test the factor structure, and the reliability and validity of the SAMSAQ-EU, respectively. A multivariate approach was applied to verify subgroup effects (P ≤ 0.05) according to gender (i.e., female and male), age (i.e., ≤ 24 years, > 24 years), type of sport (i.e., individual sport and team sport) and competition level (i.e., national and international). Insufficient confirmatory indexes were reported for the whole European student-athlete group, whereas distinct three factor models [i.e., Student Athletic Motivation (SAM); Academic Motivation (AM); Career Athletic Motivation (CAM)] emerged, with acceptable reliability estimates, for State (SAM = 0.82; AM = 0.75; and CAM = 0.75), Federation (SAM = 0.82; AM = 0.66; and CAM = 0.87) and No Structure (SAM = 0.78; AM = 0.74; and CAM = 0.79) subgroups. Differences between subgroups were found only for competition level (P student-athletes' motivation for dual career has to be specifically investigated according to social contexts.

  4. Hypermobility in Adolescent Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Heidi; Pedersen, Trine Lykke; Junge, Tina

    2017-01-01

    athletes, and to study the association of GJH with pain, function, HRQoL, and musculoskeletal injuries. Methods A total of 132 elite-level adolescent athletes (36 adolescent boys, 96 adolescent girls; mean ± SD age, 14.0 ± 0.9 years), including ballet dancers (n = 22), TeamGym gymnasts (n = 57), and team......-reported questionnaires, and part of physical performance was assessed by 4 postural-sway tests and 2 single-legged hop-for-distance tests. Results Overall prevalence rates for GJH4, GJH5, and GJH6 were 27.3%, 15.9%, and 6.8%, respectively, with a higher prevalence of GJH4 in ballet dancers (68.2%) and TeamGym gymnasts...... significantly larger center-of-pressure path length across sway tests. Conclusion For ballet dancers and TeamGym gymnasts, the prevalence of GJH4 was higher than that of team handball players. For ballet dancers, the prevalence of GJH5 and GJH6 was higher than that of team handball players and the general...

  5. Influenza a Vaccination Knowledge, Attitude, Practice of Athletes Competing in Canadian Interuniversity Sport in Calgary, Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janell Lautermilch

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS athletes regarding influenza A vaccination. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: University of Calgary. Participants: The CIS athlete (N=450 population was sampled by convenience (n=177, mean age 20.4 ± 2.2 years and compared to non-athlete kinesiology students (n=34, 21.06 ± 2.7 years of age. Independent variable: Vaccination history. Main outcome measures: A frequency analysis was employed to describe the KAP of each group. Groups were compared by c2 or Kruskal-Wallis analysis. Results: Over half of athletes were aware of influenza vaccination safety, effectiveness and side effects. Athletes were significantly more concerned about contracting the virus due to potential consequences, such as an interruption of training and infection of teammates, compared to non-athletes (p<0.05. Nearly one third (29.2% of athletes reported vaccination participation. Conclusion: The vaccination participation of CIS athletes is low when requirements for herd immunity are considered. Keywords: Athletes, university students, influenza, influenza A, knowledge, attitude, practice

  6. Cardiovascular pre-participation screening of young competitive athletes for prevention of sudden death: proposal for a common European protocol. Consensus Statement of the Study Group of Sport Cardiology of the Working Group of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology and the Working Group of Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corrado, Domenico; Pelliccia, Antonio; Bjørnstad, Hans Halvor; Vanhees, Luc; Biffi, Alessandro; Borjesson, Mats; Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, Nicole; Deligiannis, Asterios; Solberg, Erik; Dugmore, Dorian; Mellwig, Klaus P; Assanelli, Deodato; Delise, Pietro; van-Buuren, Frank; Anastasakis, Aris; Heidbuchel, Hein; Hoffmann, Ellen; Fagard, Robert; Priori, Silvia G; Basso, Cristina; Arbustini, Eloisa; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina; McKenna, William J; Thiene, Gaetano

    ..., legal, and medical grounds. The present article represents the consensus statement of the Study Group on Sports Cardiology of the Working Group on Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology and the Working Group...

  7. Sudden cardiac death in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, C; Borjesson, M

    2014-02-01

    A 'paradox of sport' is that in addition to the undisputed health benefits of physical activity, vigorous exertion may transiently increase the risk of acute cardiac events. In general, the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) approximately doubles during physical activity and is 2- to 3-fold higher in athletes compared to nonathletes. The incidence of SCD in young athletes is in fact very low, at around 1-3 per 100,000, but attracts much public attention. Variations in incidence figures may be explained by the methodology used for data collection and more importantly by differences between subpopulations of athletes. The incidence of SCD in older (≥ 35 years) athletes is higher and may be expected to rise, as more and older individuals take part in organized sports. SCD is often the first clinical manifestation of a potentially fatal underlying cardiovascular disorder and usually occurs in previously asymptomatic athletes. In the young (cardiac abnormalities, whilst coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause in older athletes. Cardiac screening including family/personal history, physical examination and resting electrocardiogram (ECG) may identify individuals at risk and has the potential to decrease the risk of SCD in young athletes. Screening including the ECG has a high sensitivity for underlying disease in young athletes, but the specificity needs to be improved, whereas the sensitivity of screening without the use of ECG is very low. The screening modality recommended for young athletes is of limited value in older athletes, who should receive individualized screening with cardiac stress testing for patients with high risk of underlying CAD. As cardiovascular screening will never be able to identify all athletes at risk, adequate preparedness is vital in case of a potentially fatal event at the sporting arena/facility. Firstly, we will review the magnitude of the problem of SCD in athletes of different ages, as well as the aetiology. Secondly, we

  8. EXERCISE-INDUCED ARTERIAL ADAPTATIONS IN ELITE JUDO ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Karagounis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine exercise-induced arterial adaptations in elite Judo male and female athletes. 27 male Judo athletes (age 24.06 ± 2 years, 11 female Judoka (age 24.27 ± 1 years, 27 sedentary healthy men (age 24.01 ± 2 years and 11 women (age 24.21 ± 1 years participated in the current study. The examined vessels included brachial, radial, ulnar, popliteal, anterior and posterior tibial arteries. The experimental parameters were recorded with the use of Duplex ultrasound at rest. Diastolic diameter and blood mean flow velocity of the examined arteries in Judo athletes were found to be both significantly increased (p < 0.05 compared to the findings of the control groups. In male Judo athletes the brachial (p < 0.001, radial (p < 0.001, and anterior tibial artery (p < 0.001 presented the highest difference on the diastolic diameter, compared with the control male group. In female Judo athletes, ulnar (p < 0.001, radial (p < 0.001, and brachial (p < 0.001 arteries illustrated the highest diastolic diameter. The highest blood mean flow velocity was recorded in ulnar (p < 0.001 and popliteal arteries (p < 0.001 of the Judo athletes groups. Recording differences between the two genders, male participants presented larger arteries than females. Conclusively, Judo has been found to be a highly demanding physical sport, involving upper and lower limbs leading to significant arterial adaptations. Obtaining vascular parameters provide a useful tool to the medical team, not only in the direction of enhancement of the efficacy of physical training, but in unknown so far parameters that may influence athletic performance of both male and female elite Judokas

  9. Sport participation motivesof Kenyan female university athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected through participation motivation questionnaire (PMQ) from 132 female athletes participating in university sport championship. ... gender, athletes' sexual orientation, student athletes'residence and as well as the influence of friends/family, could affect participation of female athletes in university sport.

  10. Improving the Academic Performance of Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rosemary

    1986-01-01

    The new higher standards required of entering collegiate athletes will not immediately create change in the performance and attitudes of student athletes. Academic performance of student athletes can be enhanced through the development of a comprehensive program fusing the relationship between athletics and academics. (MD)

  11. 40 CFR 5.450 - Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex..., club, or intramural athletics offered by a recipient, and no recipient shall provide any such athletics... interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics shall provide equal athletic opportunity for...

  12. 43 CFR 41.450 - Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex..., club, or intramural athletics offered by a recipient, and no recipient shall provide any such athletics... interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics shall provide equal athletic opportunity for...

  13. 15 CFR 8a.450 - Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex..., club, or intramural athletics offered by a recipient, and no recipient shall provide any such athletics... interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics shall provide equal athletic opportunity for...

  14. 31 CFR 28.450 - Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the..., club, or intramural athletics offered by a recipient, and no recipient shall provide any such athletics... interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics shall provide equal athletic opportunity for...

  15. 6 CFR 17.450 - Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex..., club, or intramural athletics offered by a recipient, and no recipient shall provide any such athletics... interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics shall provide equal athletic opportunity for...

  16. Coaches' Encouragement of Athletes' Imagery Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlic, Brie; Hall, Nathan; Munroe-Chandler, Krista; Hall, Craig

    2007-01-01

    To investigate whether coaches encourage their athletes to use imagery, two studies were undertaken. In the first, 317 athletes completed the Coaches' Encouragement of Athletes' Imagery Use Questionnaire. In the second, 215 coaches completed a slightly modified version of this questionnaire. It was found that coaches and athletes generally agreed…

  17. Jump-landing differences between varsity, club, and intramural athletes: the Jump-ACL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, Justin L; Gerber, J Parry; Cameron, Kenneth L; Beutler, Anthony I; Marshall, Stephen W; Distefano, Lindsay J; Padua, Darin A; de la Motte, Sarah J; Miller, Joseph M; Yunker, Craig A

    2014-04-01

    Abnormal movement patterns have been identified as important prospective risk factors for lower extremity injury, including anterior cruciate ligament injury. Specifically, poor neuromuscular control during the early landing phase has been associated with increased injury risk. Although it is commonly assumed that higher division collegiate athletes generally exhibit better movement patterns than lower division athletes, few studies compare the biomechanical differences on basic tasks such as jump landing between various levels of athletic groups. The objective of this study was to evaluate jump-landing and fitness differences among college-aged Intramural, Competitive Club, and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I level athletes. Two hundred seventy-seven student-athletes (222 men, 55 women; age 19.3 ± 0.8 years) categorized as NCAA Division I, Competitive Club, or Intramural level athletes were evaluated during a jump-landing task using the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS), a validated qualitative movement assessment. Fitness was measured using the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). Results showed no significant differences in landing errors between the levels of athletic group (F(2,267) = 0.36, p = 0.70). There was a significant difference in landing errors between genders (F(1,268) = 3.99, p = 0.05). Significant differences in APFT scores were observed between level of athletic group (F(2,267) = 11.14, p APFT and LESS scores (p = 0.26). In conclusion, higher level athletes had better physical fitness as measured by the APFT but did not as a group exhibit better landing technique. The implications of this research suggest that "high-risk" movement patterns are prevalent in all levels of athletes.

  18. The neuromechanical functional contractile properties of the thigh muscles measured using tensiomyography in male athletes and non-athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toskić Lazar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Involuntary neuromechanical muscle contractile properties, especially of the extensor muscles and knee joint flexors as the largest muscle groups of the caudal part of the body, play an important role in both everyday movement and sport. Based on these data we can obtain important information on the functional properties of muscles. The basic means of evaluation of the functional involuntary neuromechanical muscles contractile properties is the non-invasive tensiomyographic method (TMG. The aim of this study was to determine the differences between the involuntary neuromechanical contractile properties of the thigh muscles measured using the TMG method on a sample of male athletes and non-athletes. The sample of participants was made up of 17 athletes and 10 non-athletes. By applying the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and the t-test, we achieved results which indicate that of the overall 30 variables, a difference was determined among 13 of them. Most of the differences were determined for the extensor muscles of the right knee, especially of the rectus femoris muscle. It was also shown that in addition to the main knee joint extensor muscle (rectus femoris the main knee joint flexor muscle (biceps femoris also takes part in the definition of the difference between athletes and non-athletes. The results have shown that the following variables: contraction time (Tc and delay contraction time (Td are the functional parameters for which the highest difference between athletes and non-athletes were determined (from t = -2.284, p < 0.05 for the vastus lateralis of the right leg to t = -4.018, p < 0.01 for the rectus femoris of the left leg. These results have shown that it is possible to determine the differences in the functional involuntary neuromechanical contractile properties of the thigh muscles among trained and untrained individuals using the tensiomyographic method, but at the same time indicated that these differences were very

  19. Swiss Ball Versus Mat Exercises For Core Activation of Transverse Abdominis in Recreational Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastav, Prateek; Nayak, Nirmala; Nair, Sudeep; Sherpa, Lobsang Bhuti; Dsouza, Diana

    2016-12-01

    Core stability is an essential component for improving athletic performance and injury prevention. Exercises on a Swiss ball and on the mat are two different ways of improving core stability. Comparison of these methods can help physiotherapists incorporate the better method for athletic training and rehabilitation. To compare swiss ball and mat exercises for core stability of transverse abdominis in recreational athletes. This pilot randomized control trial was performed on a total of 25 recreational athletes. Subjects were alternatively allocated into three different groups: group A performed swiss ball exercises; group B performed mat exercises; and group C was the control group. Paired t-test for pre and post values within the group and one-way ANOVA for between the groups comparison was used. There was significant improvement in the core stability in Group A (Pre values: 3.6±2.06; Post values: 8.3±3.02; p-value: exercises on Swiss ball as compared to athletes performing exercises on mat. Therefore, Swiss ball exercises can be included in the prehabilitation and rehabilitation stages of athletic training to prevent injury and enhanced recovery post injury, thereby, improving performance of the athletes.

  20. Intravenous fluid use in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givan, Gordon V; Diehl, Jason J

    2012-07-01

    Time allowing, euhydration can be achieved in the vast majority of individuals by drinking and eating normal beverages and meals. Important to the competitive athlete is prevention and treatment of dehydration and exercise-associated muscle cramps, as they are linked to a decline in athletic performance. Intravenous (IV) prehydration and rehydration has been proposed as an ergogenic aid to achieve euhydration more effectively and efficiently. PubMed database was searched in November 2011 for all English-language articles related to IV utilization in sport using the keywords intravenous, fluid requirements, rehydration, hydration, athlete, sport, exercise, volume expansion, and performance. Limited evidence exists for prehydration with IV fluids. Although anecdotal evidence does exist, at this time there are no high-level studies confirming that IV prehydration prevents dehydration or the onset of exercise-associated muscle cramps. Currently, there are no published studies describing IV fluid use during the course of an event, at intermission, or after the event as an ergogenic aid. The use of IV fluid may be beneficial for a subset of fluid-sensitive athletes; this should be reserved for high-level athletes with strong histories of symptoms in well-monitored settings. Volume expanders may also be beneficial for some athletes. IV fluids and plasma binders are not allowed in World Anti-Doping Agency-governed competitions. Routine IV therapy cannot be recommended as best practice for the majority of athletes.

  1. Weight Concerns, Problem Eating Behaviors, and Problem Drinking Behaviors in Female Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutgesell, Margaret E.; Moreau, Kerrie L.; Thompson, Dixie L.

    2003-01-01

    Compared eating behaviors and alcohol drinking habits between female varsity college athletes and female controls (non-athletes). Data from a student survey indicated that self-reported problem drinking and eating behaviors existed in both groups at similar rates. There did not appear to be a significant relationship between self-reported alcohol…

  2. Where, when, and Why Young Athletes Use Imagery: An Examination of Developmental Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe-Chandler, Krista J.; Hall, Craig R.; Fishburne, Graham J.; Strachan, Leisha

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate young athletes' imagery use from a developmental perspective. The participants were 110 male and female athletes competing in both team and individual sports. They represented four different age cohorts (i.e., 7-8, 9-10, 11-12, and 13-14 years). Sixteen focus groups, two for each age category and…

  3. Put Me In, Coach! Making the Academic Learning Community an Option for Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamerow, Geoffrey P.; Navarro, Kristina M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing recognition among researchers and practitioners alike that student-athletes are an "at risk" group of students in higher education today. More specifically, research has identified several specific negative conditions that impact student-athletes and threaten their success in college. Learning communities, on the other…

  4. Training and Psychosocial Patterns during the Early Development of Portuguese National Team Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiros, Andre; Cote, Jean; Fonseca, Antonio Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the early development of expert athletes compared to a group of athletes that did not achieve an expert level of performance despite being involved in youth events with their national squads. In particular, the activities, training patterns, and psychosocial influences that characterized their paths in competitive sports were…

  5. Effects of Acute Consumption of a Sport Drink on Athletic Performance in Student Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Ghasemnian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Athletes believe that energy drinks can be used to enhance their performance during training and competition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of acute ingestion of a sport drink on endurance performance in student athletes. Methods: Ten healthy and trained young male athletes students were selected by systematic randomly sampling and after consuming Sport Drinks (experimental group or placebo (control group exercised on a treadmill at the intensity of 81/8% heart rate max %70 VO2 max(until exhaustion. Subjects received 6 ml.kg-1 body weight of Sport Drink or placebo, 40 minutes before starting of exercise bout, and they received 2 ml.kg-1 body weight of Sport Drink or placebo every 15 minutes during each exercise. To evaluate the results, independent T-test was used. Results: Results showed no significant difference between Sport Drink and placebo trials in the total work time to exhaustion, heart rate or RPE (p>0.05. However plasma glucose concentrations were significantly higher in sport drink group compared with the placebo group (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the ingredient in the this sport drink did not provide any advantages to running endurance performance.

  6. Marathon Pace Control in Masters Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Derek; Norris, Michelle; Healy, Robin; Anderson, Ross

    2017-07-17

    Pacing strategies are key to overall performance outcome in distance running events. Presently, no literature has examined pacing strategies utilised by masters athletes, of all running levels, during a competitive marathon. Therefore, this study aimed to examine masters athletes' pacing strategies, categorised by gender, age and performance level. Data were retrieved from the 2015 TSC New York City Marathon for 31,762 masters athletes (20,019 men and 11,743 women). Seven performance classification (PC) groupings were identified via comparison of overall completion time compared to current world records, appropriate to age and gender. Data were categorised via, age, gender, and performance level. Mean 5 km speed for the initial 40 km was calculated and the fastest and slowest 5 km split speeds were identified and expressed as a percentage faster or slower than mean speed. Pace range, calculated as the absolute sum of the fastest and slowest split percentages, was then analysed. Significant main effects were identified for age, gender and performance level (p effect was found for gender×performance (p marathon, independent of age and gender.

  7. Anthropometric profile of elite Chilean Paralympic athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Durán-Agüero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sport is one of the most popular social events worldwide. It becomes interesting to characterize its practitioners, even more in some poorly studied groups such as Paralympic athletes. The main objective of this study is to determine the anthropometric profile of Chilean Elite Paralympic Athletes (CEPA through body composition and somatotype. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 41 subjects (93% of the classified to the Para-Panamerican Games Toronto 2015, who practiced table tennis (n=6, football 5 (n=11, swimming (n=8, rugby (n=7, powerlifting (n=6 and wheelchair tennis (n=3. The body composition and somatotype were assessed through the protocol described by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Results: The CEPA reach an average for that classifies somatotype mostly as meso-endomorphic (5.3 - 7.8 - 0.5, a BMI of 27.4 kg/m2, and body composition for fat mass reaches 29.8% in women and 25.7% in men, while muscle mass gain 42.6% (women and 44.5% (men. Conclusions: The CEPA have a somatotype profile that classifies mostly as meso-endomorphic, body composition has a predominance muscle mass and high fat mass, although is similar to other Paralympics athletes.

  8. Comparing Greek-Affiliated Students and Student Athletes: An Examination of the Behavior-Intention Link, Reasons for Drinking, and Alcohol-Related Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchting, Karie K.; Lac, Andrew; Hummer, Justin F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2011-01-01

    While affiliation with Greek fraternities/sororities and intercollegiate athletic teams is associated with heavier drinking (Meilman et al., 1999), few studies have compared reasons for drinking among these groups. A sample of 1,541 students, identifying as either Greeks or athletes, completed an online survey. Athletes were significantly higher…

  9. Sudden cardiac death in athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Bockeria O.L.; Ispir’yan A.Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Cases of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes during physical exercises are rare. According to the data of prospective population study performed in Veneto (Italy), incidence of SCD is 2.3 cases per year (2.6 among men and 1.1 among women) per 100,000 athletes aged 12 to 35 years for all reasons. Out of them 2.1 cases of SCD were caused by cardiovascular diseases. Coronary artery disease is the most frequent cause of SCD in athletes aged over 35 years. Also there are a number of other...

  10. ACL tears in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliano, Danica N; Solomon, Jennifer L

    2007-08-01

    With the growing number of female athletes, an increase is occurring in the number of sports-related injuries, which can cause physical, psychological, academic, and financial suffering. Female athletes are reported to be two to eight times more likely to sustain an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than male athletes. Further research on risk factors and preventative strategies for the female ACL is needed, because the cause of the disparity in injury rates remains equivocal and controversial. Individualized treatment for the injured knee is necessary and can include either conservative treatment or reconstructive surgery.

  11. Understanding Athletic Pubalgia: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Brian; Kleinhenz, Dominic; Schiller, Jonathan; Tabaddor, Ramin

    2016-10-04

    Athletic Pubalgia, more commonly known as sports hernia, is defined as chronic lower abdominal and groin pain without the presence of a true hernia. It is increasingly recognized in athletes as a source of groin pain and is often associated with other pathology. A comprehensive approach to the physical exam and a strong understanding of hip and pelvic anatomy are critical in making the appropriate diagnosis. Various management options are available. We review the basic anatomy, patholophysiology, diagnostic approach and treatment of athletic pubalgia as well as discuss associated conditions such as femoroacetabular impingement. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-10.asp].

  12. Agility performance in athletes of different sport specializations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Zemková

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on agility skills in different populations using pre-planned, change of direction speed tests have previously been reported. However, there are no available data on the agility times of athletes specializing in different sports obtained from Reactive agility tests. Objective: The study compares agility time in groups of athletes of different sports where agility is one of the limiting factors of performance. Methods: Altogether 282 athletes of 14 sport specializations performed the Agility test. Their task was to touch, as fast as possible, with either the left or the right foot, one of four mats located outside each of the four corners of a 0.8 m square. The mats had to be touched in accordance with the location of a stimulus in one of the corners of a screen. The test consisted of 60 visual stimuli with random generation of their location on the screen and a time of generation of 500 to 2,500 ms. The result was a sum of the 32 best agility times. Results: The Agility test has been found to be sensitive in distinguishing groups of athletes of different sport specializations. Table tennis players, badminton players, fencers, tae-kwon-do competitors and karate competitors showed the best agility times (< 350 ms, followed by ice-hockey, tennis, soccer, volleyball, basketball, and hockeyball players (350-400 ms, then aikidoists (400-450 ms, and finally judoists and wrestlers (450-500 ms. Conclusions: The best agility times are in athletes of racquet sports, followed by competitors of combat sports with reactions to visual stimuli, then players of ball sports, and finally competitors of combat sports with reactions to tactile stimuli. Since this is the first study testing agility skills using the Reactive agility test in athletes of different sport specializations, data obtained can be used for comparison of athletes within particular sports.

  13. Alcohol Consumption Behaviors Among Athletic Training Students at Accredited Athletic Training Education Programs in the Mid-America Athletic Trainers' Association

    OpenAIRE

    Unruh, Scott; Long, Doug; Rudy, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Context: Alcohol consumption among college students has been evaluated at many levels, but assessment of alcohol consumption among collegiate athletic training students has not been substantially reviewed. Understanding the alcohol use of this college-age group adds to the overall literature on alcohol consumption of the college student population.

  14. Post test calculation of the experiment `small break loss-of- coolant test` SBL-22 at the Finnish integral test facility PACTEL with the thermohydraulic code ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lischke, W.; Vandreier, B. [Univ. for Applied Sciences, Zittau/Goerlitz (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Technology

    1997-12-31

    At the University for Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz (FH) calculations for the verification of the ATHLET-code for reactors of type VVER are carried out since 1991, sponsored by the German Ministry for Education, Science and Technology (BMBF). The special features of these reactors in comparison to reactors of western countries are characterized by the duct route of reactor coolant pipes and the horizontal steam generators. Because of these special features, a check of validity of the ATHLET-models is necessary. For further verification of the ATHLET-code the post test calculation of the experiment SBL-22 (Small break loss-of-coolant test) realized at the finnish facility PACTEL was carried out. The experiment served for the examination of the natural circulation behaviour of the loop over a continuous range of primary side water inventory. 5 refs.

  15. Medical care at the VIIth International Amateur Athletics Federation World Championships in Athletics 'Sevilla '99'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Millán, Emilio; Bonilla, Francisco; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Casado, Fernando

    2004-02-01

    The World Athletics Championships are considered to be the third most important sporting event on the planet. Before the celebration of their seventh meeting in Seville, Spain, the need for medical care, as in the Olympic Games, was supposed to be low and of minimal complexity. It was nevertheless judged necessary to install strategically located assistance points, and to evaluate the results of this intervention. METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN: Following the planning phase carried out by a multidisciplinary commission of health, set up by the Organizer Committee, which prepared protocols, that were elaborated by five working groups, the operation developed during the World Championships in Athletics is described. Five clinics and several first aid stations were set up in the stadium and its surroundings, in hotels, warm-up and training tracks, the high-speed train station and the airport, as well as strategic points in the city. There were 1338 medical consultations, and 35 patients (2.6%) were transferred to hospitals. 21 codes of the International Classification of Disease constituted 50.4% of the case mix. Injuries, which accounted for 36.1% of all medical visits, were more common among athletes (48.9%) than among other groups. Injuries accounted for 30.5% of all other groups combined. Spectators and other groups accounted for most (86.8 and 63.1%, respectively) of the 276 visits concerning contusions and 165 visits for heat-related illness. The overall physician treatment rate was 19.3% for athletes and 4.5/10 000 for spectators. The preparation of a potent pre-hospital service, strategically located and dedicated to the event, was able to solve the problems that occurred. Nevertheless, a hospital alert and a coordination centre are also necessary. These data should be useful in planning medical resources for future mass sporting events.

  16. Moral identity and emotion in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavussanu, Maria; Willoughby, Adrian; Ring, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of moral identity on physiological responses to affective pictures, namely, the startle blink reflex and pain-related evoked potential. Male (n = 48) and female (n = 46) athletes participating in contact team sports were randomly assigned to either a moral identity group or a non-moral identity group and viewed a series of unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant sport-specific pictures. During picture viewing, a noxious electrocutaneous stimulus was delivered as the startle probe and the startle blink and pain-related evoked potential were measured. Upon completion of physiological measures, participants reviewed the pictures and rated them for valence and arousal. ANOVAs revealed that participants in the moral identity group displayed larger startle blinks and smaller pain-related potentials than did those in the non-moral identity group across all picture valence categories. However, the difference in the magnitude of startle blinks between the moral and non-moral identity groups was larger in response to unpleasant than pleasant and neutral pictures. Our findings suggest that moral identity affects physiological responses to sport-specific affective pictures, thereby providing objective evidence for the link between moral identity and emotion in athletes.

  17. Nutrition education intervention for college female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, Doris A; Black, David R; Birnbaum, Rachel D

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a nutrition education intervention for college female athletes to improve nutrition knowledge, build self-efficacy with respect to making healthful dietary choices, and improve dietary intake. A pretest-posttest control group design was implemented. A women's soccer team (n =15) and a women's swim team (n = 15) were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups, respectively. The intervention focused on nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy in making healthful dietary choices, and dietary practices to demonstrate treatment effect. Dependent variables were nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy, and dietary practices. Independent variables were group assignment. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the results between groups, and the Fisher exact probability test was used to detect differences between groups in the number of positive dietary changes. Treatment participants significantly improved nutrition knowledge, self-efficacy (P nutrition education intervention research among athletes and demonstrates the ability to increase not only nutrition knowledge, which is typically reported, but also self-efficacy and improvement in overall positive dietary changes during an 8-week intervention.

  18. NCAA Division I Student-Athlete and Athletic Administrator Perceptions of Social Support in the Athletic Department at One University in the Northwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, Ami Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Student-athletes' and athletic administrators' perceptions of available and accessible social support in the athletic department are explored. Interviews were conducted with three athletic administrators whose job responsibilities are most focused on student-athlete welfare and 13 student-athletes from a NCAA Division I University from the Pacific…

  19. Menstrual irregularity and use of oral contraceptives in female adolescent athletes in Swedish National Sports High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosen, Philip; Heijne, Annette; Frohm, Anna; Fridén, Cecilia

    2017-11-23

    Objective Female adolescent athletes seem to use oral contraceptives (OCs) in the same proportion as the general population. In athletes not using OCs, menstrual irregularity (MI) is reported to be common but there are few studies of MI in adolescent athletes. The aim of the study was to survey menarche, menstrual irregularity and use of OCs in adolescent athletes in the National Sports High Schools in Sweden. A further aim was to study the associations between current sport injury and menstrual irregularity as well as use of OCs. Subjects Two hundred and ninety-eight female adolescent athletes at Swedish National Sports High Schools. Methods A web-based questionnaire containing questions related to menstrual status, contraception and current injury. Results One third (32.6%) of the athletes used OCs and of the remaining athletes 31.8% had MI. The group of athletes with MI had a significantly (p = 0.038; Cohen's d, 0.32) lower BMI and consisted of a significantly (p = 0.043) higher proportion of endurance athletes. OC users were less likely to participate in endurance sports compared to non-OC users (p = 0.024). Current injury was equally distributed in the OC and the non-OC group but athletes with MI had fewer sports injuries compared to eumenorrheic women. Conclusion OCs are frequently used among athletes at Swedish National Sports High Schools. OC users were less likely to participate in endurance sports compared to non-OC users. MI was common and athletes with MI had lower BMI compared to eumenorrheic athletes. Sports injuries were not associated with use of OC and eumenorrheic athletes had a higher proportion of current injury.

  20. Body dissatisfaction and sociodemographic, anthropometric and maturational factors among artistic gymnastics athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Mockdece NEVES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the overall body dissatisfaction and in specific areas in adolescents who practice artistic gymnastic in elite and non-elite levels, and to analyze the influence of sociodemographic, anthropometric and maturational factors on body dissatisfaction. The research is characterized as transversal, quantitative, descriptive and correlational. The sample consisted of 285 adolescents, of both sexes, practicing gymnastics. They were divided into two groups: 245 non-elite athletes and 40 elite athletes. The participants were aged between 10 and 18 years (mean 12.86 ± 1.80 and were resident of the city of Três Rios-RJ. The assessment instruments were: Body Shape Questionnaire, Body Areas Scale, Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil and socio-demographic questionnaire. Anthropometric and somatic maturation data were collected. The results showed that 24.9% of the non-elite athletes and 15% of elite athletes were dissatisfied with their body as a whole. For specific body areas, nonelite athletes were significantly more dissatisfied with their body area “weight” than the elite athletes. Sociodemographic and economic factors had no influence on overall body dissatisfaction. For non-elite athletes, only the body percentage of fat and somatic maturation were predictors for the overall body dissatisfaction and in specific areas, respectively. It was concluded that the non-elite athletes were more dissatisfied with their body and weight than the elite athletes.

  1. Athletic Cardiac Adaptation in Males Is a Consequence of Elevated Myocyte Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, Adam K; Swoboda, Peter P; Erhayiem, Bara; Lancaster, Rosalind E; Lyall, Gemma K; Broadbent, David A; Dobson, Laura E; Musa, Tarique A; Ripley, David P; Garg, Pankaj; Greenwood, John P; Ferguson, Carrie; Plein, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac remodeling occurs in response to regular athletic training, and the degree of remodeling is associated with fitness. Understanding the myocardial structural changes in athlete's heart is important to develop tools that differentiate athletic from cardiomyopathic change. We hypothesized that athletic left ventricular hypertrophy is a consequence of increased myocardial cellular rather than extracellular mass as measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Forty-five males (30 athletes and 15 sedentary age-matched healthy controls) underwent comprehensive cardiovascular magnetic resonance studies, including native and postcontrast T1 mapping for extracellular volume calculation. In addition, the 30 athletes performed a maximal exercise test to assess aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold. Participants were grouped by athleticism: untrained, low performance, and high performance (O2max 60 mL/kg per min, respectively). In athletes, indexed cellular mass was greater in high- than low-performance athletes 60.7±7.5 versus 48.6±6.3 g/m(2); Pfitness. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance ECV quantification may have a future role in differentiating athlete's heart from change secondary to cardiomyopathy. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. High prevalence of asthma in Danish elite canoe- and kayak athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Svenningsen, Claus

    2012-04-01

    Asthma is common in elite athletes, but our knowledge of asthma in elite canoe and kayak athletes is limited. The aim of the present prospective cross-sectional study was therefore to investigate the prevalence of asthma, including asthma-like symptoms, exhaled nitric oxide, and airway reactivity to mannitol in Danish elite canoe and kayak athletes The study group consisted of 29 (of 33 eligible) elite athletes aged 17-43 years, and the examination programme consisted of questionnaires, including the Asthma Control Questionnaire, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), spirometry and airway reactivity to mannitol. Asthma was defined as a history of doctor-diagnosed asthma and/or elevated FENO and airway reactivity. Seven of the elite athletes (24.1%) were found to have asthma, including four subjects with previously doctor-diagnosed asthma. Of the four athletes (all treated with inhaled corticosteroids) with doctor-diagnosed asthma, all reported asthma-symptoms and two had elevated FENO, but none had airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to mannitol. All three athletes with previously undiagnosed asthma had elevated FENO and AHR to mannitol, but reported no asthma-like symptoms. Asthma is common in elite canoe and kayak athletes, and classical signs of asthmatic airway inflammation are also found in asymptomatic athletes. not relevant. not relevant.

  3. Assessment of electrocardiography, echocardiography, and heart rate variability in dynamic and static type athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataei A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mehrnoush Toufan,1 Babak Kazemi,1 Fariborz Akbarzadeh,1 Amin Ataei,1 Majid Khalili21Cardiovascular Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, AzerbaijanBackground: Over the last two decades, morphological cardiac changes induced by athletic conditioning have been of great interest. Therefore, several studies have been orchestrated to delineate electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography, and heart rate variability (HRV findings in athletes.Purpose: To assess the ECG, echocardiography, and HRV in a group of dynamic and static type athletes.Methods: Fifty professional athletes (20 static and 30 dynamic exercise athletes and 50 healthy nonathletes (control group were recruited. Standard 12-lead ECG and transthoracic echocardiography was performed on all athletes and the control group. Through echocardiography, variables including left ventricular (LV end-diastolic/systolic diameter, LV mass, and left atrial volume index were measured. In addition, both the athletes and the control group underwent ECG Holter monitoring for 15 minutes and several parameters related to HRV (time and frequency domain were recorded.Results: The most common ECG abnormalities among the athletes were sinus bradycardia and incomplete right bundle branch block. LV end-diastolic diameter and left atrial volume index were significantly greater in the dynamic athletes (P < 0.001. LV end-systolic diameter was significantly lower in the static group (P < 0.001. LV mass of the dynamic and static athletes was significantly greater than that of the controls (P < 0.001. Among the ECG Holter monitoring findings, the dynamic athletes had lower systolic blood pressure than the controls (P = 0.01. Heart rate was lowest in the control group (P < 0.001.Conclusion: The most common ECG abnormalities among adolescent Iranian athletes were sinus bradycardia and incomplete right bundle branch block. Static exercise seemed

  4. Anterior cruciate ligament tear prevention in the female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, Holly J; Giza, Eric R; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2005-12-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of implementing neuromuscular and proprioceptive training programs in female athletes and their ability to decrease the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The relationship of sex, age, and training on the incidence of ACL injury is pivotal in developing a comprehensive neuromuscular and proprioceptive training program to decrease ACL injuries occurring in female athletes. Based on the 2-year results, ACL incidence has remained consistently lower in the intervention group versus the control group. A prophylactic neuromuscular and proprioceptive training program may have a direct benefit in decreasing the number of ACL injuries incurred by female athletes. This research foundation endorses further epidemiologic and biomechanic studies to determine the exact mechanism of ACL injury and the most effective intervention that will effectively decrease ACL injuries in this high-risk population.

  5. The theoretical analysis content correctional massage for athletes with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanna Rudenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the content authoring methodology of correction massage for athletes with disabilities. Material and Methods: analysis and synthesis of information for scientific, methodical and special literature; pedagogical supervision; analysis of medical cards; methods of mathematical statistics. The study involved 60 athletes with disabilities qualifications of different nosological groups. Results: of correction massage technique developed taking into account the level of physical activity, nosological group, physiological effects of massage techniques on the system. Forms of correction massage must meet the intensity of physical activity, main course and related diseases in the training cycle athletes with disabilities. Conclusions: apply total, partial, intermittent, local, segmental-reflex massage, paravertebral zones, taking into account intensity physical activity, individual tolerance for exercise

  6. Cardiac rhythm disturbance in athletes with cardiac connective tissue dysplasia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrjerdi Sh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac connective tissue dysplasia syndrome consists of mitral valve prolapse (MVP, anomalously located chordae tendinae of the left ventricle, or a combination of the two. MVP is marked by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole. The nonclassic form of MVP carries a low risk of complications. Patients with severe classic MVP can suffer from mitral regurgitation (MR, infective endocarditis, and, infrequently, sudden death from cardiac arrest. Anomalously located left ventricular chordae tendinae are fibrous or fibromuscular bands that stretch across the left ventricle from the septum to the free wall. They have been associated with murmurs and arrhythmias. The purpose of this study is to assess the performance, as measured by the physical working capacity (PWC170 and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, in athletes with cardiac connective tissue dysplasia syndrome. Methods: Of the 183 male athletes studied, 158 had cardiac connective tissue dysplasia syndrome and 25 were normal, healthy controls. Their mean age was 16.23 (± 5.48 years and mean training time was 5.2 (±- 4.6 years. Athletes with cardiac connective tissue dysplasia syndrome were divided to four groups. Group 1 consisted of those with MVP; Group 2 had patients with an additional cord in left ventricle; Group 3 was made up of athletes with a combination of MVP and additional cord; Group 4 contained athletes with a combination of MVP and MR. All sportsmen were studied by echocardiograph, veloergometer, and those with arrhythmias were studied and recorded using a Holter monitor. Results: The most common form of this syndrome in our study groups was MVP. The PWC170and VO2 max among the athletes with the combination of MVP+MR (Group 4 was lower than that of athletes in other groups (P<0.05. The most common arrhythmia among the athletes with anomalously located left ventricular chordae, Group 2, was Wolf

  7. INSURANCE OF ATHLETES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Ostojić

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of ensuring in sport is to provide financial protection to policyholder individuals (athletes, coaches, referees and legal entities (sports organizations, federations, clubs of the negative result of sports injuries and loss of income that athletes or their clubs realize when it comes to clubs’ competition, which occur when the risk is realized or the insured event occurs. Injuries are common in sports, we could feel free to call it an integral part of doing a sports activity. Loss of earnings due to sports injuries is extremely high for any professional athlete. In order to be able to return to sports as soon as possible, athletes are forced to set aside large sums of money for rehabilitation, orthopedic supplies and equipment.

  8. COMPOSITION OF THE ATHLETES DIET

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rastislav Salaj; Denisa Čokášová; Beáta Pramuková

    2011-01-01

    .... However, designing the most suitable sports diet is very difficult. It must be given to the type of training, its duration and intensity, the age and sex of the athlete and also for overall health...

  9. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  10. Atrial fibrillation in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanello, F; Bertoldi, A; Dallago, M; Galassi, A; Fernando, F; Biffi, A; Mazzone, P; Pappone, C; Chierchia, S

    1998-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a rare event in people younger than 25 years of age, but is probably more frequent in competitive athletes. We analyzed the presence of AF, paroxysmal or chronic, in a population of young elite athletes, including previous Olympic and World champions, who were studied for arrhythmias that endangered their athletic careers. From 1974 to June 1977, 1,772 athletes identified with arrhythmias (1,464 males and 308 females; mean age 21 years) underwent individualized work-ups. Among these, 146 (122 males and 24 females; mean age 24 years) were young elite athletes. They were studied from 1985 to 1997, with a mean follow-up of 62 months. Of the 146 young elite athletes, 13 (9%) had AF (paroxysmal in 11 and chronic in 2); all were male. The paroxysmal AF occurred during effort (n = 7), after effort (n = 1), or at rest (n = 3) and was reinduced by transesophageal pacing or endocavitary electrophysiologic testing under the same clinical circumstances. AF was the cause of symptoms in 13 (40%) of 22 young elite athletes with long-lasting palpitations. Five young elite athletes had a substrate for AF: Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) in 3, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) in 1, healed myocarditis in 1, and was considered idiopathic in 8. All elite athletes are alive with a mean follow-up of 62 months and 7 continue in their sports: 3 after radiofrequency catheter ablation (of WPW in 2 and AF with maze-type nonfluoroscopic approach in 1) and 4 after a period of de-training. AF, occurring in young elite athletes and affecting only males, is one of the most frequent causes of prolonged palpitations and is reproduced easily by transesophageal atrial pacing or electrophysiologic testing. AF may be a cause of disqualification from sports eligibility, but may disappear if the athletic activity is stopped for an adequate period of time, if trigger mechanisms are corrected (i.e., WPW), or if the substrate is modified.

  11. Grip strength measurements at two different wrist extension positions in chronic lateral epicondylitis-comparison of involved vs. uninvolved side in athletes and non athletes: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Lateral epicondylitis is a common sports injury of the elbow caused due to altered muscle activation during repetitive wrist extension in many athletic and non-athletic endeavours. The amount of muscle activity and timing of contraction eventually is directly dependent upon joint position during the activity. The purpose of our study was to compare the grip strength in athletes with lateral epicondylalgia in two different wrist extension positions and compare them between involved and uninvolved sides of athletes and non-athletes. Methods An assessor-blinded case-control study of eight athletes and twenty-two non-athletes was done. The grip strength was measured using JAMAR® hand dynamometer in kilograms-force at 15 degrees (slightly extended) and 35 degrees (moderately extended) wrist extension positions (maintained by wrist splints) on both involved and uninvolved sides of athletes and non-athletes with unilateral lateral epicondylitis of atleast 3 months duration. Their pain was to be elicited with local tenderness and two of three tests being positive- Cozen's, Mill's manoeuvre, resisted middle finger extension tests. For comparisons of grip strength, Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for within-group comparison (between 15 and 35 degrees wrist extension positions) and Mann-Whitney U test was used for between-group (athletes vs. non-athletes) comparisons at 95% confidence interval and were done using SPSS 11.5 for Windows. Results Statistically significant greater grip strength was found in 15 degrees (27.75 ± 4.2 kgms in athletes; 16.45 ± 4.2 kgms in non-athletes) wrist extension than at 35 degrees (25.25 ± 3.53 kgm in athletes and 14.18 ± 3.53 kgm in non-athletes). The athletes had greater grip strength than non-athletes in each of test positions (11.3 kgm at 15 degrees and 11.07 kgm at 35 degrees) measured. There was also a significant difference between involved and uninvolved sides' grip strength at both wrist positions (4.44 ± .95 kgm at

  12. The treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome in athletes; a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Maarten Hendrik; Holtslag, Leonoor; Bakker, Eric; Barten, Carl; Weir, Adam; Tol, Johannes L; Backx, Frank

    2012-03-30

    The only three randomized trials on the treatment of MTSS were all performed in military populations. The treatment options investigated in this study were not previously examined in athletes. This study investigated if functional outcome of three common treatment options for medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) in athletes in a non-military setting was the same. The study design was randomized and multi-centered. Physical therapists and sports physicians referred athletes with MTSS to the hospital for inclusion. 81 athletes were assessed for eligibility of which 74 athletes were included and randomized to three treatment groups. Group one performed a graded running program, group two performed a graded running program with additional stretching and strengthening exercises for the calves, while group three performed a graded running program with an additional sports compression stocking. The primary outcome measure was: time to complete a running program (able to run 18 minutes with high intensity) and secondary outcome was: general satisfaction with treatment. 74 Athletes were randomized and included of which 14 did not complete the study due a lack of progress (18.9%). The data was analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Time to complete a running program and general satisfaction with the treatment were not significantly different between the three treatment groups. This was the first randomized trial on the treatment of MTSS in athletes in a non-military setting. No differences were found between the groups for the time to complete a running program. CCMO; NL23471.098.08.

  13. Pulmonary infections in the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, M Kyle; Hosey, Robert G

    2009-01-01

    Despite their general high level of health, athletes are not free from the threat of developing pulmonary infection. Prompt diagnosis and proper treatment are important given the effects of pulmonary infection upon athletic performance and time away from training. This article reviews common etiologies of community-acquired pneumonia and a more in-depth discussion of mycoplasma pneumonie and influenza. Current treatment guidelines, acute bronchitis, fungal pulmonary infection, and return to play principles also are discussed.

  14. Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vacca, John R

    2007-01-01

    Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems is organized into nine parts composed of 30 chapters, including an extensive glossary of biometric terms and acronyms. It discusses the current state-of-the-art in biometric verification/authentication, identification and system design principles. It also provides a step-by-step discussion of how biometrics works; how biometric data in human beings can be collected and analyzed in a number of ways; how biometrics are currently being used as a method of personal identification in which people are recognized by their own unique corporal or behavior

  15. Runtime Verification Through Forward Chaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Perotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel rule-based approach for Runtime Verification of FLTL properties over finite but expanding traces. Our system exploits Horn clauses in implication form and relies on a forward chaining-based monitoring algorithm. This approach avoids the branching structure and exponential complexity typical of tableaux-based formulations, creating monitors with a single state and a fixed number of rules. This allows for a fast and scalable tool for Runtime Verification: we present the technical details together with a working implementation.

  16. Formal verification of mathematical software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, D.

    1984-01-01

    Methods are investigated for formally specifying and verifying the correctness of mathematical software (software which uses floating point numbers and arithmetic). Previous work in the field was reviewed. A new model of floating point arithmetic called the asymptotic paradigm was developed and formalized. Two different conceptual approaches to program verification, the classical Verification Condition approach and the more recently developed Programming Logic approach, were adapted to use the asymptotic paradigm. These approaches were then used to verify several programs; the programs chosen were simplified versions of actual mathematical software.

  17. Evaluation of dietary practices of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Constance R; Salvaterra, George F; Davis, Joseph E; Borja, Marianne E; Powell, Loreen M; Dubbs, Elizabeth C; Bordi, Peter L

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the dietary practices of 28 football athletes on a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I team using 3-day diet records. Student athletes completed 3-day diet records at 2 individual points of time, when no training table was available. Diet records were evaluated and were compared with the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) data for the same ages and gender group. No differences in dietary practices of collegiate football athletes were observed when compared with data for the same ages and gender group culled from NHANES III. Inadequacies in energy intake for activity level were significant (p < 0.05). Influences of fad dieting trends were noted when the diets were mapped onto the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) food guide pyramid. Changes in diet would be necessary to sustain the activity level of these athletes.

  18. Psychosocial Aspects of Athletic Injuries as Perceived by Athletic Trainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Damien; Granquist, Megan D.; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Despite the Psychosocial Strategies and Referral content area, athletic trainers (ATs) generally lack confidence in their ability to use this information. Objective: The current study's primary purpose was to determine (a) perceived psychological responses and coping behaviors athletes may present to ATs, (b) psychosocial strategies ATs currently use with their athletes, (c) psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about, and (d) ATs' current practices in referring athletes to counseling or sport psychology services. Design:  Mixed-methods study. Setting: Online survey containing both quantitative and qualitative items. Patients or Other Participants:   A total of 215 ATs (86 male, 129 female), representing a response rate of 22.50%. Main Outcome Measure(s): The Athletic Training and Sport Psychology Questionnaire. Results: Stress/anxiety (4.24 ± 0.82), anger (3.70 ± 0.96), and treatment adherence problems (3.62 ± 0.94) were rated as the primary psychological responses athletes may present upon injury. Adherence and having a positive attitude were identified as key determinants in defining athletes' successful coping with their injuries. The top 3 selected psychosocial strategies were keeping the athlete involved with the team (4.57 ± 0.73), using short-term goals (4.45 ± 0.67), and creating variety in rehabilitation exercises (4.32 ± 0.75). The top 3 rated psychosocial strategies ATs deem important to learn more about were understanding motivation (4.29 ± 0.89), using effective communication (4.24 ± 0.91), and setting realistic goals (4.22 ± 0.97). Of the sample, only 59 (27.44%) ATs reported referring an athlete for counseling services, and 37 (84.09%) of those who had access to a sport psychologist (n = 44) reported referring for sport psychology services. Conclusions:  These results not only highlight ATs' current use of psychosocial strategies but also their desires to increase their current knowledge and understanding

  19. Darcy Tools version 3.4. Verification, validation and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Urban (Computer-aided Fluid Engineering AB, Lyckeby (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    DarcyTools is a computer code for simulation of flow and transport in porous and/or fractured media. The fractured media in mind is a fractured rock and the porous media the soil cover on the top of the rock; it is hence groundwater flows, which is the class of flows in mind. A number of novel methods and features form the present version of DarcyTools. In the verification studies, these methods are evaluated by comparisons with analytical solutions for idealized situations. The five verification groups (see Table 3-1 below), thus reflect the scope of DarcyTools. The present report will focus on the Verification, Validation and Demonstration of DarcyTools. Two accompanying reports cover other aspects: - Concepts, Methods and Equations, /Svensson et al. 2010/ (Hereafter denoted Report 1). - User's Guide, /Svensson and Ferry 2010/ (Hereafter denoted Report 2)

  20. [Sudden death in competitive athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczyk, Zdzisław

    2007-01-01

    In athletes under the age of 35 years the incidence of sudden death is low, most causes to be due to ventricular arrhythmias, usually provoked by exertion, and nearly always occur in the presence of structural heart disease or abnormalities in the conduction system. The most common structural disease is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy followed by coronary artery anomalies, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, aortic stenosis, myocarditis, the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and long QT syndrome. The evaluation of athletes with symptoms of cardiac arrhythmias, syncope, family history of sudden death require a complete cardiac workup. If they have documented hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, long QT syndrome, family history presentation with sudden death, and septal thickness greater than 20 mm competitive athletics are generally prohibited. In athletes with asymptomatic bradyarrhythmia, supraventricular tachycardias and atrial premature contractions without structural heart disease all competitive sports are allowed if heart rate in bradyarrhythmia appropriately increases with exercise. Athletes with premature ventricular contraction, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and non structural heart disease are without athletic restriction as long as the arrhythmia does not worsen on exertion and cause dyspnea, presyncope or syncope.

  1. Fear of Reinjury in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Jung; Meierbachtol, Adam; George, Steven Z; Chmielewski, Terese L

    A sports injury has both physical and psychological consequences for the athlete. A common postinjury psychological response is elevated fear of reinjury. To provide an overview of the implications of fear of reinjury on the rehabilitation of athletes, including clinical methods to measure fear of reinjury; the impact of fear of reinjury on rehabilitation outcomes, including physical impairments, function, and return to sports rate; and potential interventions to address fear of reinjury during rehabilitation. PubMed was searched for articles published in the past 16 years (1990-2016) relating to fear of reinjury in athletes. The reference lists of the retrieved articles were searched for additionally relevant articles. Clinical review. Level 3. Fear of reinjury after a sports injury can negatively affect the recovery of physical impairments, reduce self-report function, and prevent a successful return to sport. Athletes with high fear of reinjury might benefit from a psychologically informed practice approach to improve rehabilitation outcomes. The application of psychologically informed practice would be to measure fear of reinjury in the injured athletes and provide interventions to reduce fear of reinjury to optimize rehabilitation outcomes. Fear of reinjury after a sports injury can lead to poor rehabilitation outcomes. Incorporating principles of psychologically informed practice into sports injury rehabilitation could improve rehabilitation outcomes for athletes with high fear of reinjury.

  2. [Energy balance among female athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieli, Rakefet; Constantini, Naama

    2012-02-01

    Athletes need to consume sufficient energy to meet their training demands, maintain their health, and if young, to ensure their growth and development. Athletes are often preoccupied by their body weight and shape, and in some sports might be subjected to pressure to lose weight by coaches, peers or themselves. Eating disorders and poor eating habits are prevalent among female athletes, especially in sport disciplines where low body weight is required to improve performance or for "aesthetic" appearance or in weight category sports. Low energy intake has deleterious effects on many systems, including the cardiovascular system, several hormonal pathways, musculoskeletal system, fluids and electrolytes, thermoregulation, growth and development. Various fitness components and overall performance are also negatively affected. All these, together with poor nutritional status that causes vitamin and mineral deficiencies, poor concentration and depression, put the athlete at an increased injury risk. Energy availability is now recognized as the primary factor initiating these health problems. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. If below 30 kcal/kg fat free mass per day, reproductive system functions, as well as other metabolic systems, might be suppressed. The case presented is of a young female Judoka, who complained of fatigue and weakness. Medical and nutritional assessment revealed that she suffered from low energy availability, which slowed her growth and development, and negatively affected her health and athletic performance. This case study emphasizes the importance of adequate energy availability in young female athletes in order to ensure their health.

  3. Sports Hernia/Athletic Pubalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Sports hernia/athletic pubalgia has received increasing attention as a source of disability and time lost from athletics. Studies are limited, however, lacking consistent objective criteria for making the diagnosis and assessing outcomes. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed database through January 2013 and hand searches of the reference lists of pertinent articles. Study Design: Review article. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Results: Nonsurgical outcomes have not been well reported. Various surgical approaches have return-to–athletic activity rates of >80% regardless of the approach. The variety of procedures and lack of outcomes measures in these studies make it difficult to compare one surgical approach to another. There is increasing evidence that there is an association between range of motion–limiting hip disorders (femoroacetabular impingement) and sports hernia/athletic pubalgia in a subset of athletes. This has added increased complexity to the decision-making process regarding treatment. Conclusion: An association between femoroacetabular impingement and athletic pubalgia has been recognized, with better outcomes reported when both are managed concurrently or in a staged manner. PMID:24587864

  4. The Athletic Shoe in Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastifer, James; Kent, Richard; Crandall, Jeff; Sherwood, Chris; Lessley, David; McCullough, Kirk A; Coughlin, Michael J; Anderson, Robert B

    Foot and ankle injuries are common in sports, particularly in cleated athletes. Traditionally, the athletic shoe has not been regarded as a piece of protective equipment but rather as a part of the uniform, with a primary focus on performance and subjective feedback measures of comfort. Changes in turf and shoe design have poorly understood implications on the health and safety of players. A literature search of the MEDLINE and PubMed databases was conducted. Keywords included athletic shoewear, cleated shoe, football shoes, and shoewear, and search parameters were between the years 2000 and 2016. Clinical review. Level 5. The athletic shoe is an important piece of protective sports equipment. There are several important structural considerations of shoe design, including biomechanical compliance, cleat and turf interaction, and shoe sizing/fit, that affect the way an athlete engages with the playing surface and carry important potential implications regarding player safety if not understood and addressed. Athletic footwear should be considered an integral piece of protective equipment rather than simply an extension of the uniform apparel. More research is needed to define optimal shoe sizing, the effect that design has on mechanical load, and how cleat properties, including pattern and structure, interact with the variety of playing surfaces.

  5. Variables affecting athletes' retention of coaches' feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januário, Nuno M S; Rosado, Antonio F; Mesquita, Isabel

    2013-10-01

    Athletes' retention of information conveyed in coaches' feedback during training was examined, considering the nature of the information transmitted by each coach (extensions, total number of ideas transmitted, and total number of repeated ideas), athletes' characteristics, (ages, genders, school levels, and practice levels), and athletes' perceptions (relevance and acceptance of coaches' information, task motivational levels, and athletes' attention levels). Participants were 193 athletes (79 boys, 114 girls; 9 to 13 years of age) and 6 coaches. Feedback was both audio and video recorded and all athletes were interviewed. All coaches' feedback and athletes' recollections were subjected to content analysis. Information was completely retained in 31.60% of feedback episodes. Athletes' mean per-episode information retention was 63.0%. Three variables appeared to b e predictiveathletes' retention: athletes' practice levels (p = -.25), attention to coaches' provision of feedback (P = .17), and the number of different ideas transmitted by each coach (P = -.90).

  6. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key points Consultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services. Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values. Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach. Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year. PMID:25177193

  7. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian; Grove, J Robert

    2014-09-01

    Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217). The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures. Key pointsConsultant characteristics and program delivery methods have an impact on the effectiveness of sport psychology services.Preferred consultant characteristics and preferred methods of delivery may be affected by cultural and subcultural values.Elite Malaysian athletes prefer consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle; to regularly attend training/competition; and to have prior experience as an athlete or coach.Elite Malaysian athletes also prefer that the coach or consultant determine program content, and that mental skills training take place in a face-to-face context throughout the year.

  8. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Connick, Emma M. Beckman, Sean M. Tweedy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years and female athletes (aged 20-64 years were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances within (intra-class and between (inter-class the 5-year age groups. Results showed intra-class effects in all male age groups over 50 years, in all female age groups over 40 years, and in male and female 20-24 age groups (p < 0.05. Inter-class differences existed between the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups in both males and females, between all male age groups over 50 years, and between all female age groups over 40 years (p < 0.05. This study provided the first evaluation of the effects of relative age in male and female marathon running. The results provide preliminary but compelling evidence that the relatively older male athletes in age groups over 50 years and the relatively older females in age groups over 40 years are competitively disadvantaged compared to the younger athletes in these age groups.

  9. Algebraic verification of a distributed summation algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Groote, Jan Friso; Springintveld, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this note we present an algebraic verification of Segall's Propagation of Information with Feedback (PIF) algorithm. This algorithm serves as a nice benchmark for verification exercises (see [2, 13, 8]). The verification is based on the methodology presented in [7] and demonstrates its applicability to distributed algorithms.

  10. A systematic review of college student-athlete drinking: Prevalence rates, sport-related factors, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Matthew P; Dams-O'Connor, Kristen; Beck, Niels C

    2006-10-01

    Alcohol use among college students has become a considerable public health problem. Among this group, intercollegiate athletes are at a particularly high risk for excessive alcohol consumption and resulting negative alcohol-related consequences. The purpose of our review was to systematically examine three main issues related to alcohol consumption among intercollegiate athletes: (a) the prevalence rates and alcohol consumption patterns of this group, especially in comparison with those of collegiate nonathletes; (b) the various factors that might motivate or encourage alcohol use among intercollegiate athletes, primarily sport-related individual and environmental variables; and (c) considerations for conducting alcohol-related interventions with intercollegiate athletes.

  11. THE LEVEL AND AGE DYNAMICS OF SPORTS ACHIEVEMENTS OF ATHLETES-VETERANS OF THE HAMMER THROW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Natalya Dmitrievna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the records of the world and Russian athletes veterans in the hammer throw, starting with the age group 35-39 years and up to age group 100-104 years, and a comparison of the records of veterans subject to an age factor and of the high scores of athletes in the current sports. The aim of the work is to analyze the level and dynamics of the records of the world and Russian athletes, veterans in the hammer throw in each five-year group starting with the age group 35-39 years and up to age group 100-104 years. The novelty of the work consists in comparison of the records of the world and Russia in the hammer throw active athletes and records of veterans with the amendment to the age factor. Analysis of the level and age dynamics of sports achievements of domestic and foreign athletes-throwers older age groups. In the course of the research it is established, that in the throwing hammer, decreasing absolute (without regard to the age factor results, which is largely due to the natural age-related changes in the organism of athletes. Records of the world athletes-veterans compared with the records of active athletes and the transition from each of the five-year group in the following, decline on average in men by 10,0%, among women by 19,3%, in spite of the fact that the weight of the shells in the hammer throw with age decreases. Presented the reasons for the backwardness of Russian athletes older than 35 years of foreign veterans.

  12. Somatotype analysis of elite boxing athletes compared with nonathletes for sports physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show somatotype and physical characteristic differences between elite boxing athletes and non-athletes. [Methods] The somatotypes of 23 elite boxing athletes and 23 nonathletes were measured with the Heath-Carter method. The subjects were divided into four weight divisions as follows: lightweight, light middleweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class. [Results] The endomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were lower than those of the nonathletes. However, the mesomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were higher than those of the nonathletes. There was no significant difference in the ectomorphic component between the two groups. The higher weight divisions tended to have higher values of height, weight, and BMI than the lower weight divisions. The higher weight divisions also tended to have higher values for the endomorphic and mesomorphic components and a lower value for the ectomorphic component than the lower weight divisions. The group of nonathletes consisted of eight endomorphs, four mesomorphs, six ectomorphs, and five central types. Among the boxing athletes, there were 16 mesomorphic, four ectomorphic, and two central types and one endomorphic type. Subdividing the athletes into 13 somatotypes resulted in five balanced mesomorphs, five endomorphic mesomorphs, five mesomorph-ectomorphs, three mesomorph-endomorphs, two mesomorphic ectomorphs, two central types, and one ectomorphic mesomorph type. [Conclusion] The data from this study provides in part physical characteristics of elite boxing athletes that can be used to establish a reference for systemic study of sports physiotherapy.

  13. Sport Psychology Service Provision: Preferences for Consultant Characteristics and Mode of Delivery among Elite Malaysian Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellapandian Ponnusamy, J. Robert Grove

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Factors relevant to the working alliance between athletes and sport psychology consultants were investigated in a sample of elite Malaysian athletes (n = 217. The athletes represented a variety of team and individual sports, and they provided information about the perceived importance of seven consultant characteristics/behaviors as well as seven program delivery options. At a full-sample level, general preferences were expressed for consultants to lead a physically active lifestyle, regularly attend training sessions and competitions, and have prior experience as an athlete or coach. General preferences were also expressed for program content to be determined by the coach or consultant, and for regular, small doses of mental skills training to be delivered in a face-to-face context throughout the year. At a sub-group level, team sport athletes had stronger preferences than individual sport athletes for program delivery on a group/team basis, while individual sport athletes had stronger preferences than team sport athletes for having a role in determining program content. Findings are discussed in relation to dominant value themes within Malaysian society and the reinforcement of these themes within specific sport subcultures.

  14. Somatotype Analysis of Elite Boxing Athletes Compared with Nonathletes for Sports Physiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show somatotype and physical characteristic differences between elite boxing athletes and non-athletes. [Methods] The somatotypes of 23 elite boxing athletes and 23 nonathletes were measured with the Heath-Carter method. The subjects were divided into four weight divisions as follows: lightweight, light middleweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class. [Results] The endomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were lower than those of the nonathletes. However, the mesomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were higher than those of the nonathletes. There was no significant difference in the ectomorphic component between the two groups. The higher weight divisions tended to have higher values of height, weight, and BMI than the lower weight divisions. The higher weight divisions also tended to have higher values for the endomorphic and mesomorphic components and a lower value for the ectomorphic component than the lower weight divisions. The group of nonathletes consisted of eight endomorphs, four mesomorphs, six ectomorphs, and five central types. Among the boxing athletes, there were 16 mesomorphic, four ectomorphic, and two central types and one endomorphic type. Subdividing the athletes into 13 somatotypes resulted in five balanced mesomorphs, five endomorphic mesomorphs, five mesomorph-ectomorphs, three mesomorph-endomorphs, two mesomorphic ectomorphs, two central types, and one ectomorphic mesomorph type. [Conclusion] The data from this study provides in part physical characteristics of elite boxing athletes that can be used to establish a reference for systemic study of sports physiotherapy. PMID:25202187

  15. Cardiovascular Screening in Young Athletes in Sarajevo Canton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senka Mesihović-Dinarević

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Potential risk of sudden death during sports participation makes screening of competitive athletes of vital importance. Congenital cardiac anomalies and non-atherosclerotic, acquired myocardial conditions are primary causes underlying exercise-induced cardiac death in young patients. Since cardiovascular conditions are the leading causes of non-traumatic, exercise-induced cardiac events, cardiovascular screening preceding sports participation in mandatory. The objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of cardiac conditions through cardiovascular screening of young athletes and to establish preventive strategy. The study was conducted at the Sports Medicine Center of Sarajevo Canton and at the Pediatric Clinic of University of Sarajevo Clinics Centre in the period 2007-2009. The study was supported by Canton Sarajevo Ministry of Health and Ministry of sports, science and culture. The study targeted a group of 214 athletes, 8-18 years of age with average age being 15,26. The group was subdivided into five groups according to the age. After taking the anamnesis (family, personal and cardiological patients were subjected to the measuring of body mass and height, blood pressure and heart rate and oxygen saturation, recording of 12-lead ECG, specialist examination (pediatrician, sports medicine specialist and cardiologist and complete heart echocardiography. No examined athletes expressed subjective discomfort. Congenital cardiac anomalies were not diagnosed in any athlete. Also, cardiovascular abnormalities requiring additional evaluation, positive cardiac anamnesis, abnormal auscultatory findings, hypertension or abnormal ECG findings were not recognized in any patient. Moderate correlation was found among the left ventricle mass and heart rate (p<0,05. In order to minimalize or even possibly prevent the risk of sudden cardiac death it is necessary to establish an adequate strategy of cardiovascular screening of young athletes.

  16. Cardiovascular screening in young athletes in Sarajevo Canton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesihović-Dinarević, Senka; Kulić, Mehmed; Kreso, Amir

    2010-08-01

    Potential risk of sudden death during sports participation makes screening of competitive athletes of vital importance. Congenital cardiac anomalies and non-atherosclerotic, acquired myocardial conditions are primary causes underlying exercise-induced cardiac death in young patients. Since cardiovascular conditions are the leading causes of non-traumatic, exercise-induced cardiac events, cardiovascular screening preceding sports participation in mandatory. The objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of cardiac conditions through cardiovascular screening of young athletes and to establish preventive strategy. The study was conducted at the Sports Medicine Center of Sarajevo Canton and at the Pediatric Clinic of University of Sarajevo Clinics Centre in the period 2007-2009. The study was supported by Canton Sarajevo Ministry of Health and Ministry of sports, science and culture. The study targeted a group of 214 athletes, 8-18 years of age with average age being 15.26. The group was subdivided into five groups according to the age. After taking the anamnesis (family, personal and cardiological) patients were subjected to the measuring of body mass and height, blood pressure and heart rate and oxygen saturation, recording of 12-lead ECG, specialist examination (pediatrician, sports medicine specialist and cardiologist) and complete heart echocardiography. No examined athletes expressed subjective discomfort. Congenital cardiac anomalies were not diagnosed in any athlete. Also, cardiovascular abnormalities requiring additional evaluation, positive cardiac anamnesis, abnormal auscultatory findings, hypertension or abnormal ECG findings were not recognized in any patient. Moderate correlation was found among the left ventricle mass and heart rate (p<0.05). In order to minimalize or even possibly prevent the risk of sudden cardiac death it is necessary to establish an adequate strategy of cardiovascular screening of young athletes.

  17. Parameters of anaerobic physiological profile of elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaba-Jakovljević Dea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anaerobic capacity is much less evaluated in literature compared to aerobic component. Anaerobic performance of athletes can be measured using different motoric tests, lasting 20 to 30 seconds, one of them being the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the work performed and power generated by athletes and non-athletes during a 30-second high intensity exercise, as well as to compare explosive characteristics of subjects using a new parameter of WAnT, named explosive power, or slope of power. Methods. All parameters of anaerobic power were investigated in 152 subjects classed into different groups depending on their physical fitness and sport specialties as follows: non-athletes (n=31, rowers (n=26, volleyball players (n=37, handball players (n=34 and judo players (n=24. The WAnT, as well as basic anthropometric measurements, was administrated to all participants. Results. Values of anaerobic parameters were higher in the group of athletes compared to physically inactive subjects. The highest values of the WAnT parameters were registered in the group of volleyball players (AP=1006 W; relative AP=11.4 W/ kg, AC=19.8 kJ, compared to athletes of other sport disciplines (volleyball, rowing and judo. The new parameter of the WAnT, explosive power, also showed highest values in volleyball players (EP=154 W/s; relative EP=1.74 W/s/kg. These differences were statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion. The results of laboratory tests can provide useful information on improvements in training processes. The new parameter of the WAnT could be implemented in further analyses of explosive characteristics of muscle contraction.

  18. Program Verification and System Dependability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael

    Formal verification of program correctness is a long-standing ambition, recently given added prominence by a “Grand Challenge” project. Major emphases have been on the improvement of languages for program specification and program development, and on the construction of verification tools. The emphasis on tools commands general assent, but while some researchers focus on narrow verification aimed only at program correctness, others want to pursue wide verification aimed at the larger goal of system dependability. This paper presents an approach to system dependability based on problem frames and suggests how this approach can be supported by formal software tools. Dependability is to be understood and evaluated in the physical and human problem world of a system. The complexity and non-formal nature of the problem world demand the development and evolution of normal designs and normal design practices for specialised classes of systems and subsystems. The problem frames discipline of systems analysis and development that can support normal design practices is explained and illustrated. The role of formal reasoning in achieving dependability is discussed and some conceptual, linguistic and software tools are suggested.

  19. Ultrasonic verification of composite structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelt, Maurice; de Boer, Robert Jan; Schoemaker, Christiaan; Sprik, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic Verification is a new method for the monitoring large surface areas of CFRP by ultrasound with few sensors. The echo response of a transmitted pulse through the structure is compared with the response of an earlier obtained reference signal to calculate a fidelity parameter.

  20. A verification environment for bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Gian David; Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present the BigMC tool for bigraphical reactive systems that may be instantiated as a verification tool for any formalism or domain-specific modelling language encoded as a bigraphical reactive system. We introduce the syntax and use of BigMC, and exemplify its use with two small examples: a t...

  1. Private Verification for FPGA Bitstreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-20

    security risks. Keywords: Trust, Privacy, Hardware Trojan, Hardware Security, ASIC, FPGA, Bitstream Introduction Many effective verification...devices but also to integrate PV-Bit, other Graf Research tools, and other commercial EDA tools into our overarching forward design trust flow philosophy

  2. Improved method for coliform verification.

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, J D

    1991-01-01

    Modification of a method for coliform verification presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater is described. Modification of the method, which is based on beta-galactosidase production, involves incorporation of a lactose operon inducer in medium upon which presumptive coliform isolates are cultured prior to beta-galactosidase assay.

  3. Automated Verification of Virtualized Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleikertz, Sören; Gross, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Virtualized infrastructures and clouds present new challenges for security analysis and formal verification: they are complex environments that continuously change their shape, and that give rise to non-trivial security goals such as isolation and failure resilience requirements. We present...

  4. Creatine use among young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzl, J D; Small, E; Levine, S R; Gershel, J C

    2001-08-01

    Creatine is a nutritional supplement that is purported to be a safe ergogenic aid in adults. Although as many as 28% of collegiate athletes admit taking creatine, there is little information about creatine use or potential health risk in children and adolescents. Although the use of creatine is not recommended in people less than 18 years of age, numerous anecdotal reports indicate widespread use in young athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency, risk factors, and demographics of creatine use among middle and high school student athletes. Before their annual sports preparticipation physical examinations, middle and high school athletes aged 10 to 18 in Westchester County, a suburb north of New York City, were surveyed in a confidential manner. Information was collected regarding school grade, gender, specific sport participation, and creatine use. Overall, 62 of 1103 participants (5.6%) admitted taking creatine. Creatine use was reported in every grade, from 6 to 12. Forty-four percent of grade 12 athletes surveyed reported using creatine. Creatine use was significantly more common (P sport, use was significantly more common among football players, wrestlers, hockey players, gymnasts, and lacrosse players (P performance (74.2% of users) and improved appearance (61.3%), and the most common reason cited for not taking creatine was safety (45.7% of nonusers). Despite current recommendations against use in adolescents less than 18 years old, creatine is being used by middle and high school athletes at all grade levels. The prevalence in grades 11 and 12 approaches levels reported among collegiate athletes. Until the safety of creatine can be established in adolescents, the use of this product should be discouraged.

  5. Grip strength measurements at two different wrist extension positions in chronic lateral epicondylitis-comparison of involved vs. uninvolved side in athletes and non athletes: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava Arti S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lateral epicondylitis is a common sports injury of the elbow caused due to altered muscle activation during repetitive wrist extension in many athletic and non-athletic endeavours. The amount of muscle activity and timing of contraction eventually is directly dependent upon joint position during the activity. The purpose of our study was to compare the grip strength in athletes with lateral epicondylalgia in two different wrist extension positions and compare them between involved and uninvolved sides of athletes and non-athletes. Methods An assessor-blinded case-control study of eight athletes and twenty-two non-athletes was done. The grip strength was measured using JAMAR® hand dynamometer in kilograms-force at 15 degrees (slightly extended and 35 degrees (moderately extended wrist extension positions (maintained by wrist splints on both involved and uninvolved sides of athletes and non-athletes with unilateral lateral epicondylitis of atleast 3 months duration. Their pain was to be elicited with local tenderness and two of three tests being positive- Cozen's, Mill's manoeuvre, resisted middle finger extension tests. For comparisons of grip strength, Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for within-group comparison (between 15 and 35 degrees wrist extension positions and Mann-Whitney U test was used for between-group (athletes vs. non-athletes comparisons at 95% confidence interval and were done using SPSS 11.5 for Windows. Results Statistically significant greater grip strength was found in 15 degrees (27.75 ± 4.2 kgms in athletes; 16.45 ± 4.2 kgms in non-athletes wrist extension than at 35 degrees (25.25 ± 3.53 kgm in athletes and 14.18 ± 3.53 kgm in non-athletes. The athletes had greater grip strength than non-athletes in each of test positions (11.3 kgm at 15 degrees and 11.07 kgm at 35 degrees measured. There was also a significant difference between involved and uninvolved sides' grip strength at both wrist

  6. Grip strength measurements at two different wrist extension positions in chronic lateral epicondylitis-comparison of involved vs. uninvolved side in athletes and non athletes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Arti S; Eapen, Charu; Kumar, Senthil P

    2010-09-07

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common sports injury of the elbow caused due to altered muscle activation during repetitive wrist extension in many athletic and non-athletic endeavours. The amount of muscle activity and timing of contraction eventually is directly dependent upon joint position during the activity. The purpose of our study was to compare the grip strength in athletes with lateral epicondylalgia in two different wrist extension positions and compare them between involved and uninvolved sides of athletes and non-athletes. An assessor-blinded case-control study of eight athletes and twenty-two non-athletes was done. The grip strength was measured using JAMAR® hand dynamometer in kilograms-force at 15 degrees (slightly extended) and 35 degrees (moderately extended) wrist extension positions (maintained by wrist splints) on both involved and uninvolved sides of athletes and non-athletes with unilateral lateral epicondylitis of atleast 3 months duration. Their pain was to be elicited with local tenderness and two of three tests being positive- Cozen's, Mill's manoeuvre, resisted middle finger extension tests. For comparisons of grip strength, Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for within-group comparison (between 15 and 35 degrees wrist extension positions) and Mann-Whitney U test was used for between-group (athletes vs. non-athletes) comparisons at 95% confidence interval and were done using SPSS 11.5 for Windows. Statistically significant greater grip strength was found in 15 degrees (27.75 ± 4.2 kgms in athletes; 16.45 ± 4.2 kgms in non-athletes) wrist extension than at 35 degrees (25.25 ± 3.53 kgm in athletes and 14.18 ± 3.53 kgm in non-athletes). The athletes had greater grip strength than non-athletes in each of test positions (11.3 kgm at 15 degrees and 11.07 kgm at 35 degrees) measured. There was also a significant difference between involved and uninvolved sides' grip strength at both wrist positions (4.44 ± .95 kgm at 15 degrees and 4.44 ± .86

  7. Doping among adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesalis, C E; Bahrke, M S

    2000-03-01

    The use of drugs to enhance physical performance and appearance has been observed for thousands of years. Today individuals, including adolescents, continue to employ a wide variety of drugs in the hope of improving their athletic performance and looking better. Unfortunately, beyond the assessment of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use, very little is known regarding the use, safety and efficacy of other performance-enhancing drugs and nutritional supplements among adolescents. Most studies report that 3-12% of adolescent males admit to using an AAS at some time during their life. Among adolescent females, studies find that 1-2% report having used steroids. The current strategy for dealing with performance-enhancing drug use by adolescents is multi-faceted and primarily involves education and prevention strategies, interdiction and drug testing programmes. However, the demand for performance-enhancing drugs has been created by our societal fixation on winning and physical appearance. In order to alter the current use of performance-enhancing drugs by adolescents, we as a society must come to grips with our addiction to sport and the importance we place on winning and appearance. We must change our values.

  8. Patellofemoral pain in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersen W

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wolf Petersen,1 Ingo Rembitzki,2 Christian Liebau3 1Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Martin Luther Hospital, Grunewald, Berlin; 2German Sport University Cologne, 3Asklepios Clinic, Bad Harzburg, Germany Abstract: Patellofemoral pain (PFP is a frequent cause of anterior knee pain in athletes, which affects patients with and without structural patellofemoral joint (PFJ damage. Most younger patients do not have any structural changes to the PFJ, such as an increased Q angle and a cartilage damage. This clinical entity is known as patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS. Older patients usually present with signs of patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA. A key factor in PFPS development is dynamic valgus of the lower extremity, which leads to lateral patellar maltracking. Causes of dynamic valgus include weak hip muscles and rearfoot eversion with pes pronatus valgus. These factors can also be observed in patients with PFOA. The available evidence suggests that patients with PFP are best managed with a tailored, multimodal, nonoperative treatment program that includes short-term pain relief with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, passive correction of patellar maltracking with medially directed tape or braces, correction of the dynamic valgus with exercise programs that target the muscles of the lower extremity, hip, and trunk, and the use of foot orthoses in patients with additional foot abnormalities. Keywords: anterior knee pain, dynamic valgus, hip strength, rearfoot eversion, single leg squat, hip strength 

  9. Anthropometric and motor performance profile of elite futsal athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Avelar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n1p76 The purpose of the present study was to identify the anthropometric and motor performance profi le of futsal (indoor soccer athletes in the second and third-placed teams in the Parana state championships (Brazil. Anthropometric(body mass, stature and skinfolds thickness and motor performance (modified abdominal test, shuttle run, race of 30 m and 40 s measures were obtained from twenty-seven male athletes (24.7 ± 6.4 years; 73.6 ± 7.6 kg; 174.8 ± 6.6 cm. For data analysis, athletes were grouped according to game positions. ANOVA one-way was used for comparisons between different positions, followed by Scheffé’s post hoc test, with p < 0.05. Signifi cant differences were detected in body mass (midfielder < goalkeeper, p < 0.01, stature (midfielder < forward and goalkeeper, p < 0.01 and lean body mass (midfi elder < goalkeeper, p < 0.01. No significant differences in motor performance were detected between the athletes studied. The results of this study show that futsal athletes playing in different positions exhibit similar anthropometric and motor performance, in the majority of variables.

  10. Sport-specific influences on respiratory patterns in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmic, Tijana; Lazovic, Biljana; Djelic, Marina; Lazic, Jelena Suzic; Zikic, Dejan; Zugic, Vladimir; Dekleva, Milica; Mazic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    To examine differences in lung function among sports that are of a similar nature and to determine which anthropometric/demographic characteristics correlate with lung volumes and flows. This was a cross-sectional study involving elite male athletes (N = 150; mean age, 21  4 years) engaging in one of four different sports, classified according to the type and intensity of exercise involved. All athletes underwent full anthropometric assessment and pulmonary function testing (spirometry). Across all age groups and sport types, the elite athletes showed spirometric values that were significantly higher than the reference values. We found that the values for FVC, FEV1, vital capacity, and maximal voluntary ventilation were higher in water polo players than in players of the other sports evaluated (p type of sport played has a significant impact on the physiological adaptation of the respiratory system. That knowledge is particularly important when athletes present with respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea, cough, and wheezing. Because sports medicine physicians use predicted (reference) values for spirometric parameters, the risk that the severity of restrictive disease or airway obstruction will be underestimated might be greater for athletes.

  11. [Athletic performance, self-esteem and temperamental profile : Which relationship?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Jawaher; Trigui, Dorsa; Feki, Ines; Bâati, Imen; Jaoua, Abdelaziz

    2015-03-01

    Several authors emphasize the close relationship between self-esteem and athletic performance; such a relationship may raise the following question: by saying "strong" or "without any physical condition", is it a fair presentation of the individual's abilities or he reveals the most fundamental aspects of his personality, such as emotional temperament? To evaluate self-esteem, physical self and temperamental profile in a group of sportsmen, and to look for a relationship between these variables and athletic performance. We performed a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study in 80 young handball players of the "senior" category. We assessed self-esteem using the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, physical self-using the Physical Self-Inventory (PSI), and temperamental profile using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Paris and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A). Athletic performance was evaluated by the team coach by means of a score ranging from 1 to 10. High self-esteem was correlated to female gender (p=0.03), to an early start of physical activity (pself-esteem (pself-esteem (p=0.001). Good athletic performance was associated with hyperthymic (pself-esteem might help to achieve better athletic performance. In this intervention, the individual temperamental profile should be taken into account.

  12. Evaluation and management of lower back pain in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Kinsella, Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    Lower back pain in young athletes is a common problem. The prevalence of back pain from different causes in adolescent age group is between 20% and 30%. However, the incidence of low back pain in young athletes varies widely in different sports. Overuse injuries are the most common cause of low back pain in young athletes. In case of overuse injuries, the cause and effect relationship between back pain and specific condition is often difficult to establish. In adolescent athletes, the most common underlying identified cause of low back pain is lumbar spondylolysis. During adolescent growth spurt, the severity of the pain generally correlates with adolescent growth spurt. Participation in sports starting at an early age and for a longer duration tends to increase the risk for back pain. Numerous conditions cause low back pain in athletes. These include acute trauma, chronic overuse or repetitive trauma, and referred pain. Our focus in here will be on selected conditions that cause recurrent or chronic low back pain.

  13. Energy Availability and Reproductive Function in Female Endurance Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Anna Katarina

    athletes with clinical menstrual dysfunction. All three Triad conditions were common in this group of athletes, despite a normal BMI range and body composition. Furthermore, issues and physiological symptoms related to current low and reduced EA and oligomenorrhea/FHA were not limited to impaired bone...... health, but also included hypoglycaemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hypotension. The results indicated that diets lower in energy density, fat content, compact carbohydrate-rich foods and energy-containing drinks, together with higher fibre content, were associated with current low and reduced EA...

  14. Predictors of postconcussion syndrome in collegiate student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Buckley, Thomas A; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Sport-related concussion (SRC) has emerged as a public health problem, especially among student-athletes. Whereas most concussions resolve by 2 weeks, a minority of patients experience postconcussion syndrome (PCS), in which symptoms persist for months. The objective of this study was to elucidate factors predictive of PCS among a sample of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student-athletes in the academic years 2009-2010 to 2014-2015. METHODS The SRC data originated from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) in the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 academic seasons. The NCAA ISP is a prospective database made up of a convenience sample of schools across all divisions. All SRCs are reported by certified athletic trainers. The PCS group consisted of concussed student-athletes with concussion-related symptoms that lasted ≥ 4 weeks. The non-PCS group consisted of concussed student-athletes with symptom resolution in ≤ 2 weeks. Those with symptoms that resolved in the intermediate area of 2-4 weeks were excluded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS During the 2009-2010 to 2014-2015 seasons, 1507 NCAA student-athletes sustained an SRC, 112 (7.4%) of whom developed PCS (i.e., concussion-related symptoms that lasted ≥ 4 weeks). Men's ice hockey contributed the largest proportion of concussions to the PCS group (28.6%), whereas men's football contributed the largest proportion of concussions in the non-PCS group (38.6%). In multivariate analysis, recurrent concussion was associated with increased odds of PCS (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.28-3.36). Concussion symptoms that were also associated with increased odds of PCS included retrograde amnesia (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.34-5.64), difficulty concentrating (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.23-4.50), sensitivity to light (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.09-3.57), and insomnia (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.30-3.68). Contact level, sex, and loss of consciousness were not associated with PCS. CONCLUSIONS Postconcussion syndrome

  15. Perceptions of Athletic Trainers as a Source of Nutritional Information among Collegiate Athletes: A Mixed-methods Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Schlaff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Athletes obtain nutrition information from a number of sources, with some being more accurate than others.  Little is known about athletes’ perceptions of utilizing Certified Athletic Trainers (ATs as a primary source of information. Objective: We sought to 1 examine the primary sources of nutrition information among a group of United States collegiate athletes and 2 understand athletes’ perceptions regarding utilization of their ATs as primary sources of nutrition information. Methods: Participants (Division II university athletes completed an online questionnaire (n=155;n=58 males, n=97 females assessing demographic information and ranked primary sources of nutrition information, and participated in focus groups (n=26;n=18 women, n=8 men to better understand barriers/perceptions for using their ATs for nutrition information. Mean+SD ranking were calculated for all sources. Mann Whitney-U analyses were used to identify differences in rank order nutrition sources between genders and years of collegiate experience. Semi-structured focus groups were transcribed, coded, and themes were identified regarding barriers to utilizing ATs for nutrition-related information. Results: Parents (3.54±2.38 and the internet (3.69±2.29 had the highest mean ranks.  ATs were least often ranked as the number one nutrition source (7.5%, among all sources provided.  Barriers to utilizing ATs for nutritional information included discomfort, nutrition information not being within the scope of practice, lack of knowledge, the athletic trainer not caring, and lack of time. Conclusions: Participants reported utilizing ATs less than previous research indicates. Continuing education may be needed to improve the efficacy of ATs in addressing nutritional issues and being seen as a credible and accessible source. Keywords: Diet, Athlete perceptions, Barriers

  16. Knowledge Retention of Exercise Physiology Content between Athletes and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian; Webster, Collin; Druger, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    Based on the idea that learning is linked to personal relevance, this study examined knowledge retention of exercise physiology content between college athletes and nonathletes. No differences were observed between the groups. These findings have implications on understanding the relationship between personal relevance and memory. (Contains 1…

  17. The Successful Black Male Student-Athlete: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Raphael Levon

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have noted disparate academic achievement outcomes among different ethnic groups in higher education. The complexity of this phenomenon is, arguably, nowhere more pronounced than among Black male students/student-athletes (BMSA) at Division-I Predominantly White Institutions. A central aspect of the research on BMSAs…

  18. in athletes with spinal cord injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RC Pritchett

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweat production is crucial for thermoregulation. However, sweating can be problematic for individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI, as they display a blunting of sudomotor and vasomotor responses below the level of the injury. Sweat gland density and eccrine gland metabolism in SCI are not well understood. Consequently, this study examined sweat lactate (S-LA (reflective of sweat gland metabolism, active sweat gland density (SGD, and sweat output per gland (S/G in 7 SCI athletes and 8 able-bodied (AB controls matched for arm ergometry VO2peak. A sweat collection device was positioned on the upper scapular and medial calf of each subject just prior to the beginning of the trial, with iodine sweat gland density patches positioned on the upper scapular and medial calf. Participants were tested on a ramp protocol (7 min per stage, 20 W increase per stage in a common exercise environment (21±1°C, 45-65% relative humidity. An independent t-test revealed lower (p<0.05 SGD (upper scapular for SCI (22.3 ±14.8 glands · cm-2 vs. AB. (41.0 ± 8.1 glands · cm-2. However, there was no significant difference for S/G between groups. S-LA was significantly greater (p<0.05 during the second exercise stage for SCI (11.5±10.9 mmol · l-1 vs. AB (26.8±11.07 mmol · l-1. These findings suggest that SCI athletes had less active sweat glands compared to the AB group, but the sweat response was similar (SLA, S/G between AB and SCI athletes. The results suggest similar interglandular metabolic activity irrespective of overall sweat rate.

  19. Sleep in athletes and the effects of Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roky, Rachida; Herrera, Christopher Paul; Ahmed, Qanta

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is now considered as a new frontier in performance enhancement. This article presents background content on sleep function, sleep needs and methods of sleep investigation along with data on the potential effects of Ramadan fasting on sleep in normal individuals and athletes. Accumulated sleep loss has negative impacts on cognitive function, mood, daytime sleepiness and performance. Sleep studies in athletes fasting during Ramadan are very rare. Most of them have demonstrated that during this month, sleep duration decreased and sleep timing shifted. But the direct relation between sleep changes and performance during Ramadan is not yet elucidated. Objective sleep patterns can be investigated using polysomnography, actigraphy, and standardised questionnaires and recorded in daily journals or sleep logs. The available data on sleep indicate that team doctors and coaches should consider planning sleep schedule and napping; implementing educational programmes focusing on the need for healthy sleep; and consider routine screening for sleep loss in athletes of all age groups and genders.

  20. THE EFFECT OF FUN ATHLETICS EXERCISES ON PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Güler

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of fun athletics exercises on the psychomotor development. The research group consisted of 9 boys and 27 girls with a total of 36 students between 11-14 ages in Kocaeli. In the study, the fun athletics exercises (featured somersault, obstacles to jump, slip under the barrier, slalom, training ladder, double jump, medicine ball handling applied for 90 minutes a day and 3 days a week over 8 weeks. The data was analyzed with Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Test and significance level was determined as α=0.05. According to findings of this study significant differences were found between pre and post tests results. As a result this study showed that fun athletic exercises have a positive effect on 11-14 aged children’s psychomotor development.

  1. Spectrum of MRI findings in clinical athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajick, Donald C; Zoga, Adam C; Omar, Imran M; Meyers, William C

    2008-03-01

    Athletic pubalgia is a frequently encountered syndrome for clinicians who treat active patients participating in a wide variety of athletic endeavors worldwide. Pathologies associated with this clinical scenario span anatomically from the pubic symphysis to the hip and include a myriad of poorly understood and incompletely described musculoskeletal entities, many of which are centered about the pubic symphysis and its tendinous attachments. In this article, we discuss the relevant anatomy and pathophysiology for the most frequently encountered of these disorders, using magnetic resonance (MR) images as a guide. We describe an MR imaging protocol tailored to clinical athletic pubalgia. We then review reproducible MRI patterns of pathology about the pubic symphysis, the rectus abdominis/adductor aponeurosis and the inguinal ring, as well as a group of clinically confounding entities remote from the symphysis but visible by MRI.

  2. Role of alpha-tocopherol in cardiopulmonary fitness in endurance athletes, cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sumangala M; Chaudhuri, Dipayan; Dhanakshirur, Gopal B

    2009-01-01

    Exercise increases oxygen consumption and causes a disturbance of intracellular pro-oxidant-antioxidant homeostasis. Athletes are exposed to acute and chronic stress that may lead to increased generation of oxidative species. Hence oxidative stress increases in athletes. Administration of antioxidant like alpha-tocopherol as supplementation may reduce the cell damage caused due to oxidative stress. In the present study, our aim was to study the effects of alpha-tocopherol supplementation on the cardiopulmonary fitness in endurance athletes (cyclists) and non-athletes. Our study included 40 cyclists who were trained under District Youth Service & Sports Office. 40 controls were randomly selected from student group of B.L.D.E.A's Medical College. Alpha-tocopherol (Vitamin E) 200 mg/day for 21 days wasgiven to study group and placebo was given to placebo group. Various physiological parameters like heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate were recorded, for assessing cardiopulmonary fitness: Physical Fitness Index (PFI) and VO2 max ml/min/kg were recorded before and after supplementation of vitamin E in athletes, and were compared with placebo group before and after supplementation of placebo and also with non-athletes. The results obtained from present study indicate that antioxidant like alpha-tocopherol supplementation did not contribute significantly to improve the cardiopulmonary fitness of endurance athletes.

  3. Exercise-related leg pain in female collegiate athletes: the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinking, Mark F

    2006-09-01

    Exercise-related leg pain is a common complaint among athletes, but there is little evidence regarding risk factors for this condition in female collegiate athletes. To examine prospectively the effect of selected extrinsic and intrinsic factors on the development of exercise-related leg pain in female collegiate athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Subjects were 76 female collegiate athletes participating in fall season sports, including cross-country running, field hockey, soccer, and volleyball. Athletes were seen for a pre-season examination that included measures of height, weight, foot pronation, and calf muscle length as well as a questionnaire for disordered eating behaviors. Body mass index was calculated from height and weight (kg/m(2)). Those athletes who developed exercise-related leg pain during the season were seen for follow-up. All athletes who developed the condition and a matched group without such leg pain underwent bone mineral density and body composition testing. Statistical analyses of differences and relationships were conducted. Of the 76 athletes, 58 (76%) reported a history of exercise-related leg pain, and 20 (26%) reported occurrence of exercise-related leg pain during the season. A history of this condition was strongly associated with its occurrence during the season (odds ratio, 13.2). Exercise-related leg pain was most common among field hockey and cross-country athletes and least common among soccer players. There were no differences between athletes with and without such leg pain regarding age, muscle length, self-reported eating behaviors, body mass index, menstrual function, or bone mineral density. Athletes with exercise-related leg pain had significantly (P sport, and a history of this condition, that are associated with an increased risk of exercise-related leg pain.

  4. Star Excursion Balance Test Anterior Asymmetry Is Associated With Injury Status in Division I Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, Mikel R; Bell, David R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Hetzel, Scott J; Pickett, Kristen A; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2017-05-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Background Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) performance differs by sport in healthy collegiate athletes, and lower extremity injury rates also vary by sport, sex, and athletic exposure. The relationship between SEBT performance and injury risk has not been evaluated with consideration of these additional variables, which may be necessary to fully describe the relationship between SEBT performance and injury risk. Objectives To assess the association between preseason SEBT performance and noncontact injury occurrence to the knee or ankle in Division I collegiate athletes when controlling for sport, sex, and athletic exposure. Methods Star Excursion Balance Test performance, starting status, and injury status were reviewed retrospectively in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate athletes from a single institution. A total of 147 athletes were healthy at the time of preseason SEBT testing and either remained healthy (n = 118) or sustained a noncontact injury to the knee or ankle (n = 29) during their sport's subsequent competitive season. Side-to-side asymmetries were calculated in each direction as the absolute difference in reach distance between limbs. Star Excursion Balance Test reach distances and asymmetries were compared between groups using multivariable regression, controlling for sport, sex, and athletic exposure (starter, nonstarter). Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine optimal sensitivity and specificity for significant models. Results When controlling for sport, sex, and athletic exposure, SEBT side-to-side asymmetry in the anterior direction, expressed as an absolute or normalized to limb length, discriminated between injured and noninjured athletes (area under the curve greater than 0.82). Conclusion Assessing side-to-side reach asymmetry in the anterior direction of the SEBT may assist in identifying collegiate athletes who are at risk for sustaining noncontact

  5. Athletic pubalgia and associated rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Abigail A; Zoland, Mark P; Tyler, Timothy F

    2014-11-01

    Evaluation and treatment of groin pain in athletes is challenging. The anatomy is complex, and multiple pathologies often coexist. Different pathologies may cause similar symptoms, and many systems can refer pain to the groin. Many athletes with groin pain have tried prolonged rest and various treatment regimens, and received differing opinions as to the cause of their pain. The rehabilitation specialist is often given a non-specific referral of "groin pain" or "sports hernia." The cause of pain could be as simple as the effects of an adductor strain, or as complex as athletic pubalgia or inguinal disruption. The term "sports hernia" is starting to be replaced with more specific terms that better describe the injury. Inguinal disruption is used to describe the syndromes related to the injury of the inguinal canal soft tissue environs ultimately causing the pain syndrome. The term athletic pubalgia is used to describe the disruption and/or separation of the more medial common aponeurosis from the pubis, usually with some degree of adductor tendon pathology. Both non-operative and post-operative treatment options share the goal of returning the athlete back to pain free activity. There is little research available to reference for rehabilitation guidelines and creation of a plan of care. Although each surgeon has their own specific set of post-operative guidelines, some common concepts are consistent among most surgeons. Effective rehabilitation of the high level athlete to pain free return to play requires addressing the differences in the biomechanics of the dysfunction when comparing athletic pubalgia and inguinal disruption. Proper evaluation and diagnostic skills for identifying and specifying the difference between athletic pubalgia and inguinal disruption allows for an excellent and efficient rehabilitative plan of care. Progression through the rehabilitative stages whether non-operative or post-operative allows for a focused rehabilitative program. As more

  6. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  7. Injured Athletes' Perceived Loss of Identity: Educational Implications for Athletic Trainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Barbara D.

    2010-01-01

    Context: As educators, athletic trainers should familiarize athletes with the concepts of self acceptance self-esteem and identity to assuage psychological trauma accompanying injury because the more a person identifies with being an athlete, the more difficult it is to deal with athletic injury. Objective: The objective of this article is to…

  8. How Stereotypes Affect Current Collegiate Female Athletes' Athletic Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype discrimination affects female athletes' athletic experiences. Studies have been conducted of former collegiate female athletes' perceptions of the lesbian stereotype found that they were discriminated against because of their sport participation. These limit the recalling of thoughts and experience from the female athletes' playing…

  9. Sociodemographic Analysis of Drug Use among Adolescent Athletes: Observations-Perceptions of Athletic Directors-Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Edgar W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Athletic directors in North Carolina (n=215) completed a questionnaire that broadly examined substance abuse of high school student athletes. Results were compared with the general student body and with a national survey of athletic directors' perceptions. Drug abuse among student-athletes was perceived to be of lesser magnitude regionally than…

  10. Differences in Socialization between Visually Impaired Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Mojtahedi, Hossein; Farazyani, Fateh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in measure of socialization between visually impaired student-athletes and non-athletes. We compared the social skills of Iranian visually impaired student-athletes (n = 51) and visually impaired student non-athletes (n = 56) with ages ranging from 13 to…

  11. College Athletic Participation and Academic Success: How Student-Athletes Compete for Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Heather B.

    2013-01-01

    NCAA data indicates that Division III student-athletes are graduating at higher rates than their non-athlete peers. Graduation rate data alone do not provide a full understanding of student-athletes' academic success. The data thus far simply show empirically that student-athletes have a higher federal six-year graduation rate, but…

  12. Athlete's Perception of Athletic Trainer Empathy: How Important Is It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Shannon L; Larson, Mary

    2016-12-19

    Health care practitionersface increasingexpectations to provide patient-centered care.Communication skills, specifically empathy, are critical in the provision of patient-centered care. Past work correlates empathy with improved patient satisfaction, compliance and treatment outcomes. In particular, a predictive relationship exists between clients' ratings of their clinician's empathy and treatment outcomes.There is a dearth of studies examining empathy using qualitative methodology and factors of empathy in athletic training. The purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of athletes' perceptions of empathy in the patient-clinician relationship. Qualitative interviews were completed using grounded theory techniques. A quiet office. A typical, purposeful sample of 15 college-aged Division I student-athletes (8 females; 7 males; 19.3±1.2yrs) from a variety of sports (football, wrestling, volleyball, baseball, etc.) participated. Researchers utilized an interview protocoldesigned to understand the factors of empathy related to athletic training. The interview protocol established a concept of empathy to help facilitate discussion of ideas. Data were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes and patterns using grounded theory techniques. Trustworthiness of the data was ensured using an external auditor, member checks, and methods triangulation. Five themes described empathy: advocacy, communication, approachability, access, and competence. Advocacy was described as the athletic trainer representing the patient. Communication was the ability to listen reflectively; approachability emerged as the comfort and personal connection the patient felt with the athletic trainer. Access and technical competence were bridges required for the development of empathy. Providing patient-centered care facilitated by developing good patient-clinician relationships is critical in enablingthe best treatment outcomes. ATs portray empathy through advocacy, communication, and

  13. The Organizational Climate in Collegiate Athletics: An Athletic Trainer's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M

    2018-01-01

      An organizational climate is largely based on an employee's perceptions of the working conditions in which he or she engages regularly. A multifaceted concept, the organizational climate is often formed by perceptions of employee welfare, rewards, and support. Achieving work-life balance is also a part of the climate.   To learn collegiate athletic trainers' perceptions of organizational climate and specifically how it may pertain to their work-life balance.   Phenomenologic study.   Collegiate practice setting.   Thirty athletic trainers working in the collegiate athletics setting took part in 1-on-1 phone interviews. The participants were 30.5 (interquartile range [IQR] = 7.75) years old and had been certified for 7 (IQR = 5) years and at their current position for 4 (IQR = 3) years.   Participants completed a phone interview that followed a semistructured framework. All transcribed interviews were analyzed using a phenomenologic approach. Researcher triangulation, expert review, and data saturation were used to establish credibility.   Athletic trainers working in the collegiate athletics setting who had positive perceptions of their work-life balance described their organizational climate as family friendly. Our participants' supervisors allowed for autonomy related to work scheduling, which provided opportunities for work-life balance. These athletic trainers believed that they worked in a climate that was collegial, which was helpful for work-life balance. In addition, the importance of placing family first was part of the climate.   The perceptions of our participants revealed a climate of family friendliness, supervisor support, and collegiality among staff members, which facilitated the positive climate for work-life balance. The mindset embraced the importance of family and recognized that work did not always have to supersede personal priorities.

  14. SOCIAL SECURITY OF TURKISH ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ÖZTUNA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Law No. 5510 realized within the social security reform aims providing a structure which presents equal scope and quality of social security service other all citizens. According to Labor Law No 4857, unionization of sportsmen in Turkish legal environment is possible, sport clubs and sportsmen are continuing to live without so many rights and obligations but they didn’t. Aim of this study; to prove sportsmen of location of the labour law and to mark off. The purpose of the study is explained according to Law No. 4857 and Law No. 5510 Turkish athletes. Profesional athletes deemed to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. But amateur athletes don't seem to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. According to the law 5774 regarding to be called as an g overnment athlete, within the adults category of the sports that are accepted as olympic, paralympic and deaflympic; pension is paid to the amateur athletes who became first, second or third at Olymic games, World or European Champions as an individual or team sports and to the national team coaches and assistant coaches of the athletes’ who became Olympic or World Champion as a team.

  15. Cardiovascular screening of student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyznicki, J M; Nielsen, N H; Schneider, J F

    2000-08-15

    Each year, a number of children and adolescents die suddenly from cardiac problems that are associated with a small subgroup of disorders and high-risk behaviors. While sudden cardiac death in any child or adolescent is distressing, it can be particularly devastating when it occurs in a seemingly healthy young athlete. Although uncommon in competitive sports, sudden death is a catastrophe that physicians who care for athletes should attempt to prevent. To prevent the occurrence of sudden death or cardiovascular disease progression in young athletes, the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Cardiology, American College of Sports Medicine, American Heart Association, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine have developed or endorsed recommendations for cardiovascular screening of student athletes as part of a comprehensive sports preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE). Knowledge and understanding of these recommendations can help physicians make informed decisions about the eligibility of an athlete to participate in a particular sport and encourage development of a more uniform PPE screening process.

  16. [Cardiac screening of young athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokstad, Magnus Thue; Berge, Hilde Moseby; Gjesdal, Knut

    2013-09-03

    Young athletes are at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death compared to others. Cardiac screening has been proposed to prevent deaths. We wished to review the evidence for cardiac screening of young athletes. We have conducted a literature search in PubMed on sudden cardiac death in young athletes, using a combination of search terms related to screening, incidence, cost efficiency and recommendations, supplemented by secondary references and articles from our own archive. Published studies utilise a variety of definitions of athlete and sudden death, and some studies also include cardiac arrest with subsequent successful resuscitation. Retrospective studies, often based on media searches, remain the most common form. The cause of death is not invariably determined by an autopsy. Recommendations in favour of screening are based on studies of limited quality and on the personal, often regional, experiences of experts. The differences in study methods result in uncertain incidence figures. The estimates of cost efficiency are therefore questionable. To improve the quality of knowledge, standardised methods need to be devised, ideally also including a register of cardiac arrest in children and young people. To date, we have insufficient knowledge to recommend mandatory cardiac screening with ECG in Norway. Should this be introduced, it should be differentiated according to gender, type of sport and competition level. Cost efficiency could probably be improved with the aid of standardised questionnaires and a standardised interpretation of ECG among athletes.

  17. Celiac disease and the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Lee A; Trojian, Thomas; Mancini, Angela C

    2011-01-01

    With the diagnosis of celiac disease rising in the past decade and with increased public awareness, team physicians are faced with both managing and diagnosing athletes with celiac disease. Sports medicine physicians need to recognize that celiac disease can present with a number of different symptoms and, therefore, should consider celiac disease as part of their differential in evaluating athletes with prolonged unexplained illnesses. Sports medicine physicians must be familiar with the appropriate laboratory tests and diagnostic procedures used to establish the diagnosis of celiac disease. A multidisciplinary approach in helping the newly diagnosed athlete with celiac disease is important to the successful treatment of the disease. Athletes with celiac disease often have problems with iron absorption (leading to anemia) and/or vitamin D and calcium absorption (leading to osteoporosis and poor bone health). Even athletes with known and long-standing celiac disease need additional care and supervision in ensuring there is no disruption in their gluten-free diet, which can lead to a flare-up of symptoms or a decrease in performance.

  18. Increased Symptom Reporting in Young Athletes Based on History of Previous Concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Schatz, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Research documents increased symptoms in adolescents with a history of two or more concussions. This study examined baseline evaluations of 2,526 younger athletes, ages 10 to 14. Between-groups analyses examined Post Concussion Symptom Scale symptoms by concussion history group (None, One, Two+) and clusters of Physical, Cognitive, Emotional, and Sleep symptoms. Healthy younger athletes with a concussion history reported greater physical, emotional, and sleep-related symptoms than those with no history of concussion, with a greater endorsement in physical/sleep symptom clusters. Findings suggest younger athletes with a history of multiple concussions may experience residual symptoms.

  19. Increased nerve growth factor serum levels in top athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Matteo; Fioretti, Daniela; Sargentini, Vittorio; Del Giacco, Stefano; Rinaldi, Monica; Tranquilli, Carlo; Bonini, Sergio

    2013-05-01

    The nerve growth factor (NGF) is the main neurotrophin, which, besides being an important growth factor for nerves, plays an important role as a mediator of inflammation. Nerve growth factor has been shown to increase in relation to stress stimuli and in allergic diseases in humans as well as after physical exercise in animal models. This study aims at evaluating NGF serum levels in top athletes, a population sample in which allergic and neuro-immune diseases are reported with a significantly increased prevalence. Observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study. Institutional, tertiary care. Ninety-six Italian pre-Olympic athletes (44 allergic and 52 nonallergic) and 49 matched controls selected within the Italian National Olympic delegation (n = 435). Nerve growth factor serum levels determined through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Parametric or nonparametric tests were used for comparing NGF serum levels among different study groups depending on value distributions. Nerve growth factor serum levels were significantly higher in athletes than in controls independently from the presence of allergy. Nerve growth factor mean values were 368.3 ± 776.3 pg/mL in the sample of athletes and 174.1 ± 483.7 pg/mL in the control group (P < 0.001). This is the first study showing that intense and prolonged physical exercise is associated with an increase of NGF serum levels in athletes. Whether the increased NGF production might be linked to the prevalent Th2 response observed in allergic diseases and after physical exercise and whether it might be related to the patophysiology of neuro-immune disorders as such amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, reported with a higher prevalence in athletes, should deserve further investigations.

  20. Development and validation of a food pyramid for Swiss athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Samuel; Mannhart, Christof; Colombani, Paolo C

    2009-10-01

    Food-guide pyramids help translate nutrient goals into a visual representation of suggested food intake on a population level. No such guidance system has ever been specifically designed for athletes. Therefore, the authors developed a Food Pyramid for Swiss Athletes that illustrates the number of servings per food group needed in relation to the training volume of an athlete. As a first step, an average energy expenditure of 0.1 kcal . kg(-1) . min(-1) for exercise was defined, which then was translated into servings of different food groups per hour of exercise per day. Variable serving sizes were defined for athletes' different body-mass categories. The pyramid was validated by designing 168 daily meal plans according to the recommendations of the pyramid for male and female athletes of different body-mass categories and training volumes of up to 4 hr/d. The energy intake of the meal plans met the calculated reference energy requirement by 97% +/- 9%. The carbohydrate and protein intakes were linearly graded from 4.6 +/- 0.6-8.5 +/- 0.8 g . kg(-1) . d(-1) and 1.6 +/- 0.2-1.9 +/- 0.2 g . kg(-1) . d(-1), respectively, for training volumes of 1-4 hr of exercise per day. The average micronutrient intake depended particularly on the dietary energy intake level but was well above the dietary reference intake values for most micronutrients. No tolerable upper intake level was exceeded for any micronutrient. Therefore, this Food Pyramid for Swiss Athletes may be used as a new tool in sports nutrition education (e.g., teaching and counseling).