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Sample records for ventricular end-systolic volume

  1. Simpson's Method of Discs for Measurement of Echocardiographic End?Diastolic and End?Systolic Left Ventricular Volumes: Breed?Specific Reference Ranges in Boxer Dogs

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    Smets, P.; Daminet, S.; Wess, G

    2013-01-01

    Background Boxer dogs are predisposed to congenital and adult onset cardiac diseases. Breed?specific reference values for M?mode and Doppler echocardiographic measurements previously have been established. Left ventricular (LV) end?systolic (ESV) and end?diastolic volumes (EDV) can be measured by M?mode or two?dimensional methods, such as Simpson's method of discs (SMOD). Reference ranges for SMOD?derived LV volumes are lacking. Objectives To determine reference intervals for EDV and ESV in B...

  2. End-systolic stress-velocity relation and circumferential fiber velocity shortening for analysing left ventricular function in mice

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    Fayssoil, A. [Cardiologie, Hopital europeen Georges Pompidou, 20, rue le blanc, Paris (France)], E-mail: fayssoil2000@yahoo.fr; Renault, G. [CNRS UMR 8104, Inserm, U567, Institut Cochin, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris (France); Fougerousse, F. [Genethon, RD, Evry (France)

    2009-08-15

    Traditionally, analysing left ventricular (LV) performance relies on echocardiography by evaluating shortening fraction (SF) in mice. SF is influenced by load conditions. End-systolic stress-velocity (ESSV) relation and circumferential fiber velocity (VcF) shortening are more relevant parameters for evaluating systolic function regardless load conditions particularly in mice's models of heart failure.

  3. End-Systolic Elastance and Ventricular-Arterial Coupling Reserve Predict Cardiac Events in Patients with Negative Stress Echocardiography

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    Tonino Bombardini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A maximal negative stress echo identifies a low-risk subset for coronary events. However, the potentially prognostically relevant information on cardiovascular hemodynamics for heart-failure-related events is unsettled. Aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of stress-induced variation in cardiovascular hemodynamics in patients with negative stress echocardiography. Methods. We enrolled 891 patients (593 males mean age 63±12, ejection fraction 48±17%, with negative (exercise 172, dipyridamole 482, and dobutamine 237 stress echocardiography result. During stress we assessed left ventricular end-systolic elastance index (ELVI, ventricular arterial coupling (VAC indexed by the ratio of the ELVI to arterial elastance index (EaI, systemic vascular resistance (SVR, and pressure-volume area (PVA. Changes from rest to peak stress (reserve were tested as predictors of main outcome measures: combined death and heart failure hospitalization. Results. During a median followup of 19 months (interquartile range 8–36, 50 deaths and 84 hospitalization occurred. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves identified as best predictors ELVI reserve for exercise (AUC = 0.871 and dobutamine (AUC = 0.848 and VAC reserve (AUC = 0.696 for dipyridamole. Conclusions. Patients with negative stress echocardiography may experience an adverse outcome, which can be identified by assessment of ELVI reserve and VAC reserve during stress echo.

  4. Right ventricular to left ventricular diameter ratio at end-systole in evaluating outcomes in children with pulmonary hypertension.

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    Jone, Pei-Ni; Hinzman, Julie; Wagner, Brandie D; Ivy, David Dunbar; Younoszai, Adel

    2014-02-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) increases right ventricular (RV) pressure, resulting in septal shift and RV dilation. Few echocardiographic measures have been used to evaluate severity and outcomes in children with PH. The aims of this study were to compare the RV to left ventricular (LV) diameter ratio at end-systole (RV/LV ratio) in normal controls and patients with PH, to correlate the RV/LV ratio with invasive hemodynamic measures, and to evaluate its association with outcomes in children with PH. The RV/LV ratio was compared retrospectively between 80 matched normal controls and 84 PH patients without shunts. Of the patients with PH, 49 children underwent 94 echocardiographic studies and cardiac catheterizations within 48 hours (13 patients had simultaneous measurements). The RV/LV ratio was correlated against hemodynamic measures. Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox proportional-hazards regression model were used to assess relationships between RV/LV ratio and time until an adverse clinical event (initiation of intravenous prostacyclin therapy, atrial septostomy, death, or transplantation). RV/LV ratios were lower in controls compared with patients with PH (mean, 0.51 [95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.54] vs 1.47 [95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.70], P 1 had adverse events within a median of 1.1 years from their earliest echocardiographic studies. Increasing RV/LV ratio was associated with an increasing hazard for a clinical event (hazard ratio, 2.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.92-3.24). The RV/LV end-systolic diameter ratio can easily be obtained noninvasively in the clinical setting and can be used in the management of patients with PH. The RV/LV ratio incorporates both pathologic septal shift and RV dilation in children with PH and correlates with invasive measures of PH. An RV/LV ratio > 1 is associated with adverse clinical events. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A multi-scale cardiovascular system model can account for the load-dependence of the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship

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    2013-01-01

    Background The end-systolic pressure-volume relationship is often considered as a load-independent property of the heart and, for this reason, is widely used as an index of ventricular contractility. However, many criticisms have been expressed against this index and the underlying time-varying elastance theory: first, it does not consider the phenomena underlying contraction and second, the end-systolic pressure volume relationship has been experimentally shown to be load-dependent. Methods In place of the time-varying elastance theory, a microscopic model of sarcomere contraction is used to infer the pressure generated by the contraction of the left ventricle, considered as a spherical assembling of sarcomere units. The left ventricle model is inserted into a closed-loop model of the cardiovascular system. Finally, parameters of the modified cardiovascular system model are identified to reproduce the hemodynamics of a normal dog. Results Experiments that have proven the limitations of the time-varying elastance theory are reproduced with our model: (1) preload reductions, (2) afterload increases, (3) the same experiments with increased ventricular contractility, (4) isovolumic contractions and (5) flow-clamps. All experiments simulated with the model generate different end-systolic pressure-volume relationships, showing that this relationship is actually load-dependent. Furthermore, we show that the results of our simulations are in good agreement with experiments. Conclusions We implemented a multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system, in which ventricular contraction is described by a detailed sarcomere model. Using this model, we successfully reproduced a number of experiments that have shown the failing points of the time-varying elastance theory. In particular, the developed multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system can capture the load-dependence of the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship. PMID:23363818

  6. Reduced end-systolic pressure-volume ratio response to exercise: a marker of subclinical myocardial disease in type 2 diabetes.

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    Jellis, Christine L; Jenkins, Carly; Leano, Rodel; Martin, Jennifer H; Marwick, Thomas H

    2010-07-01

    Limitations in the predictive value of negative exercise echocardiography in type 2 diabetes mellitus has been linked to a reduced end-systolic pressure-volume response (ESPVR). We sought whether abnormal ESPVR reflected subclinical diabetic heart disease by examining the association between the ESPVR and markers of myocardial dysfunction and to establish if the change (Delta) or peak systolic blood pressure/end-systolic left ventricular volume ratio (SP/ESV) is a better marker of contractile reserve in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Resting and exercise echocardiography was performed in 167 apparently healthy patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (97 men; age, 55+/-10 years) without ischemia, other cardiac disease, or noncardiac complications of diabetes. Standard echocardiographic and color tissue Doppler measures (early diastolic tissue velocity, strain, and strain rate) were acquired at baseline and peak stress in apical long-axis views. Calibrated integrated backscatter was calculated from a resting parasternal long-axis view. DeltaSP/ESV was calculated as [(peak stress SP/ESV)-(rest SP/ESV)]. The 83 subjects who demonstrated a DeltaSP/ESV exercise were older and had lower peak heart rate, resting diastolic and stress systolic tissue velocity, stress ejection fraction, and exercise capacity than the remainder. There was no significant association between DeltaSP/ESV and metabolic derangement or echocardiographic measures of deformation or backscatter. Change in Sm and stress ejection fraction were independent correlates of DeltaSP/ESV. DeltaSP/ESV ratio is associated with established features of subclinical diabetic heart disease as well as determinants of contractile reserve (peak hemodynamic response and stress systolic function). Peak ESPVR is poorly associated with markers of myocardial dysfunction.

  7. Detection of latent anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity using left ventricular end-systolic wall stress-velocity of circumferential fiber-shortening relationship.

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    Mizuno, Reiko; Fujimoto, Shinichi; Saito, Yoshihiko; Okamoto, Yasuyuki

    2014-05-01

    Although cardiotoxicity is a well-known side effect of anthracycline, detection of subclinical impairment of myocardial contractility at the latent stage is difficult. The left ventricular end-systolic wall stress (WS)-velocity of circumferential fiber-shortening (VCF) relationship reflects the load-independent myocardial contractility and can detect sensitively intrinsic abnormalities in myocardial contractility. Usefulness of this relationship in detecting subclinical anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity has not yet been established. We investigated whether latent anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity at the subclinical state can be detected by using the WS-VCF relationship in patients receiving anthracycline therapy. We studied 45 patients who had received anthracycline therapy and 40 healthy controls. All patients had preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). WS and VCF were measured using echocardiography. VCF was corrected by heart rate. The WS-VCF relationship was derived by linear regression. Patients with data points lying below -2 SD derived from controls were regarded as having impaired intrinsic myocardial contractility. Although VCF was within normal limits in all patients, it was significantly reduced in the patient group overall compared with the control group. On the other hand, WS was significantly increased in the patient group overall compared with the control group. The WS-VCF relationship demonstrated impaired intrinsic myocardial contractility in 24 patients (53.3 %). In more than half of patients with preserved LVEF, impairment of intrinsic myocardial contractility was detected using the WS-VCF relationship, suggesting the presence of latent anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. The WS-VCF relationship may be able to detect sensitively latent anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity at the subclinical stage.

  8. Evaluation of left ventricular volumes measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang, J; Thomsen, C; Mehlsen, J

    1986-01-01

    Left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were determined in 17 patients with different levels of left ventricular function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 1.5 Tesla Magnet was used obtaining ECG triggered single and multiple slices. Calculated cardiac outputs were compared...

  9. Ventricular volume, chamber stiffness, and function after anteroapical aneurysm plication in the sheep.

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    Ratcliffe, M B; Wallace, A W; Salahieh, A; Hong, J; Ruch, S; Hall, T S

    2000-01-01

    The success of left ventricular aneurysm plication depends on how the procedure affects both end-systolic elastance and diastolic compliance and how those changes affect ventricular function (stroke work/end-diastolic volume [PRSW] and stroke volume/end-diastolic pressure [Starling] relationships). Five male Dorsett sheep were surgically instrumented with coronary artery snares, an inferior vena caval occluder, and an ascending aortic ultrasonic flow probe. One week later an anteroapical myocardial infarction was produced by tightening the coronary snares. Ten weeks after myocardial infarction, the left ventricular aneurysm was plicated. Absolute left ventricular volume was measured by long-axis transdiaphragmatic echocardiography, and relative changes in left ventricular volume were measured with a conductance catheter. End-systolic elastance, diastolic compliance, PRSW, and Starling relationships were measured immediately before myocardial infarction, 10 weeks after myocardial infarction (immediately before plication), and immediately after and 6 weeks after aneurysm plication. After plication, end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volumes return to preinfarction values. The slopes of end-systolic elastance, diastolic compliance, and PRSW decrease 10 weeks after myocardial infarction, increase with aneurysm plication, and then decrease 6 weeks after aneurysm plication. The Starling relationship undergoes a downward parallel shift with aneurysm plication. Aneurysm plication abruptly decreases left ventricular volume and diastolic compliance, increases end-systolic elastance and PRSW, but decreases the Starling relationship. The net effect on left ventricular function is mixed. Furthermore, left ventricular remodeling 6 weeks after aneurysm plication causes left ventricular volume, end-systolic elastance, diastolic compliance, PRSW, and the Starling relationship to return to preplication values.

  10. Left ventricular volume and function after endoventricular patch plasty for dyskinetic anteroapical left ventricular aneurysm in sheep.

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    Zhang, Peng; Guccione, Julius M; Nicholas, Susan I; Walker, Joseph C; Crawford, Philip C; Shamal, Amin; Saloner, David A; Wallace, Arthur W; Ratcliffe, Mark B

    2005-10-01

    Endoventricular patch plasty (the Dor procedure) has gained favor as a surgical treatment for heart failure associated with large anteroapical myocardial infarction. We tested the hypothesis that the Dor procedure reduces left ventricular volume, increases end-systolic elastance, decreases diastolic compliance, and maintains left ventricular function. In 6 male Dorsett sheep, the left anterior descending coronary artery and its second diagonal branch were ligated 40% of the distance from apex to base. Sixteen weeks after myocardial infarction, a Dor procedure was performed with a Dacron patch that was 50% of the infarct neck dimension. Absolute left ventricular volume was measured with magnetic resonance imaging, and left ventricular pressure and relative left ventricular volume changes during pharmacologic preload reduction were measured with a volume conductance catheter 2 weeks before and 2 and 6 weeks after the Dor procedure. End-systolic elastance, diastolic compliance, and Starling relationships were calculated from the resultant left ventricular pressure/volume loops. Two weeks after the Dor procedure, the left ventricular volume at end systole and end diastole was significantly reduced, and there was no redilation at 6 weeks. Six weeks after the Dor procedure, the ejection fraction was significantly increased. Although stroke volume increased slightly at 6 weeks, the change was not significant. The slopes of end-systolic elastance, diastolic compliance, and Starling relationships were unchanged at 2 and 6 weeks. The Dor procedure significantly reduces left ventricular volume. Unlike linear repair, left ventricular volume changes seem stable. The ejection fraction is improved, and left ventricular function (stroke volume and the Starling relationship) is maintained.

  11. Left ventricular pressure and volume data acquisition and analysis using LabVIEW.

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    Cassidy, S C; Teitel, D F

    1997-03-01

    To automate analysis of left ventricular pressure-volume data, we used LabVIEW to create applications that digitize and display data recorded from conductance and manometric catheters. Applications separate data into cardiac cycles, calculate parallel conductance, and calculate indices of left ventricular function, including end-systolic elastance, preload-recruitable stroke work, stroke volume, ejection fraction, stroke work, maximum and minimum derivative of ventricular pressure, heart rate, indices of relaxation, peak filling rate, and ventricular chamber stiffness. Pressure-volume loops can be graphically displayed. These analyses are exported to a text-file. These applications have simplified and automated the process of evaluating ventricular function.

  12. Cine magnetic resonance imaging of left ventricular volumes

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    Niwa, Koichiro; Uchishiba, Mika; Aotsuka, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Kozo; Fujiwara, Tadashi (Chiba Children' s Hospital (Japan))

    1992-02-01

    Cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 27 patients with various heart diseases has been undertaken. The children ranged from 11 months to 16 years old (average age: 6.8 years), so as to assess the MRI capability to evaluate the left ventricular volumes, which were previously calculated by angiography. ECG-gated MRI was performed by spin echo and gradient refocused imaging techniques at 0.5 tesla. Ventricular volumes were determined using a single slice comparable with the right anterior oblique projection of the ventriculogram. Comparison of the left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volume yielded a high correlation between MRI (y) and ventriculography (x) (y=0.83x + 4.1, r=0.98 and y=0.88x - 1.74, r=0.98, respectively). It is concluded that the cine MRI provides an accurate non-invasive means for quantification of left ventricular volumes. (author).

  13. Isometric relaxation of rat myocardium at end-systolic fiber length.

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    Wiegner, A W; Bing, S H

    1978-12-01

    In a "physiologically sequenced" contraction (PSC), which loads the isolated muscle preparation in a manner which approximates that of the intact heart, isometric relaxation precedes isotonic relaxation and occurs at minimum ("end-systolic") length. We studied the effects of inital muscle length, load, temperature, calcium, and isoproterenol on the isometric relaxation phase of physiologically sequenced contractions to define the determinants of the rate of isometric relaxation of rat left ventricular myocardium. At the baseline temperature (28 degrees C), relaxation was found to be nonexponential, and the maximum rate of decline of force (-dF/dtmax) was used to evaluate changes in relaxation. Three factors, shortening, end-systolic length, and total load, were examined as possible mechanical determinants of -dF/dtmax. We found that -dF/dtmax is linearly related to end-systolic muscle length for lengths below 94% of Lmax; -dF/dtmax is also strongly related to total load for lightly loaded contractions, but peaks at loads of approximately 80% of peak developed force and declines thereafter. Shortening is poorly correlated with -dF/dtmax. The slope of the linear portion of the relation between -dF/dtmax and end-systolic length appears to be independent of muscle-loading conditions and sensitive to factors known to alter relaxation.

  14. [Functional significance of left ventricular distortion in patients with right ventricular volume or pressure overloading].

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    Maeda, T; Matsuzaki, M; Anno, Y; Toma, Y; Maeda, R; Konishi, M; Okada, K; Tanaka, N; Suetsugu, M; Ono, S

    1986-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of left ventricular (LV) distortion on its pump function, the LV cavity shape was analyzed by two-dimensional echocardiography in normal subjects and in patients with right ventricular (RV) volume or pressure overload. The functional significance of LV distortion in the short-axis sections was evaluated by an index of the efficiency of ejection (E) of endocardial circumferential fiber length (ECL) shortening in reducing LV cavity area during systole; E = measured systolic area reduction/ideal systolic area reduction X 100 (%), where an ideal area at end-diastole or end-systole was computed for the measured ECL, assuming its shape to be perfectly circular (ideal area = ECL2/4 pi), and then an ideal systolic area reduction was determined. E at the chordal level was termed Ech. In patients with atrial septal defect (ASD), the LV cavity was distorted at end-diastole and became more circular at end-systole. Since this characteristic change during systole diminished the E, and the values of E at the chordal level (Ech) were significantly lower in ASD than those in normal subjects (89.4 +/- 4.4% vs 98.3 +/- 0.8%, p less than 0.001), strongly suggesting impairment of the efficiency of LV pump function in ASD. In patients with pulmonary hypertension, the LV cavity was more distorted at systole, and a decrease in cavity area at end-systole with the distorted LV contributed to increased systolic area reduction. Thus, the values of Ech in this group exceeded 100% in five of nine patients (103.8 +/- 12.3%). In other words, when marked RV systolic overload exists, an increase in LV systolic area reduction due to progressive LV compression will occur against LV systolic pressure. This phenomenon suggests the existence of "cardiac massage on the LV by the RV with elevated pressure". In conclusion, it was strongly suggested that the efficiency of LV pump function is modulated by RV overload through dynamic changes in the LV shape.

  15. MRI-determined left ventricular "crescent effect": a consequence of the slight deviation of contents of the pericardial sack from the constant-volume state.

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    Waters, Emily A; Bowman, Andrew W; Kovács, Sándor J

    2005-02-01

    During one cardiac cycle, the volume encompassed by the pericardial sack in healthy subjects remains nearly constant, with a transient +/-5% decrease in volume at end systole. This "constant-volume" attribute defines a constraint that the longitudinal versus radial pericardial contour dimension relationship must obey. Using cardiac MRI, we determined the extent to which the constant-volume attribute is valid from four-chamber slices (two-dimensional) compared with three-dimensional volumetric data. We also compared the relative percentage of longitudinal versus radial (short-axis) change in cross-sectional area (dimension) of the pericardial contour, thereby assessing the fate of the +/-5% end-systolic volume decrease. We analyzed images from 10 normal volunteers and 1 subject with congenital absence of the pericardium, obtained using a 1.5-T MR scanner. Short-axis cine loop stacks covering the entire heart were acquired, as were single four-chamber cine loops. In the short-axis and four-chamber slices, relative to midventricular end-diastolic location, end-systolic pericardial (left ventricular epicardial) displacement was observed to be radial and maximized at end systole. Longitudinal (apex to mediastinum) pericardial contour dimension change and pericardial area change on the four-chamber slice were negligible throughout the cardiac cycle. We conclude that the +/-5% end-systolic decrease in the volume encompassed by the pericardial sack is primarily accounted for by a "crescent effect" on short-axis views, manifesting as a nonisotropic radial diminution of the pericardial/epicardial contour of the left ventricle. This systolic drop in cardiac volume occurs primarily at the ventricular level and is made up during the subsequent diastole when blood crosses the pericardium in the pulmonary venous Doppler D wave during early rapid left ventricular filling.

  16. Value of radionuclide angiocardiography for determination of left ventricular volume in patients with valvular heart diseases (preliminary report). Wartosc angiokardiografii radioizotopowej dla oznaczania objetosci lewej komory u chorych z zastawkowymi wadami serca (doniesienia wstepne)

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    Madeja, G.; Konieczna, S.; Gosiewska-Marcinkowska, E.; Leszek, P. (Instytut Kardiologii, Warsaw (Poland))

    1991-01-01

    In 15 patients with mitral valve defect and 10 patients with aortic valve defect, left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were determined by gated radionuclide angiography. The results were compared with contrast ventriculography. The correlation coefficient between the two methods was much lower in cases of mitral valve diseases. (author). 1 tab.

  17. Assessment of left ventricular volumes and primary mitral regurgitation severity by 2D echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

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    Van De Heyning, Caroline M; Magne, Julien; Piérard, Luc A; Bruyère, Pierre-Julien; Davin, Laurent; De Maeyer, Catherine; Paelinck, Bernard P; Vrints, Christiaan J; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2013-12-27

    Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2DTTE) remains the first-line diagnostic imaging tool to assess primary mitral regurgitation although cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has proven to establish left ventricular function more accurately and might evaluate mitral regurgitation severity more reliably. We sought to compare routine evaluation of left ventricular function and mitral regurgitation severity by 2DTTE with assessment by CMR in moderate to severe primary mitral regurgitation without overt left ventricular dysfunction. We prospectively included 38 patients (79% of male, age 57 ± 14 years) with at least moderate primary mitral regurgitation, a left ventricular ejection fraction ≥60% and a left ventricular end-systolic diameter ≤45 mm. Patients with evidence of coronary artery disease, arrhythmias or significant concomitant valvular disease were excluded. All patients were scheduled for 2DTTE and CMR. Left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were significantly underestimated by 2DTTE in comparison with CMR, although there was a strong correlation (Pearson r = 0.81, p PISA method and planimetry by CMR (47 ± 24 vs. 42 ± 16 mm2, p = 0.12) with a strong correlation between both imaging techniques (Pearson r = 0.76, p PISA method by 2DTTE and thus may be a valuable alternative to assess mitral regurgitation severity.

  18. Two-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction in children

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    Mercier, J.C.; DiSessa, T.G.; Jarmakani, J.M.; Nakanishi, T.; Hiraishi, S.; Isabel-Jones, J.; Friedman, W.F.

    1982-05-01

    The ability of two-dimensional echocardiography to measure left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction was evaluated in 25 children with congenital heart disease. Dimensions and planimetered areas were obtained in the short-axis view at the mitral valve and high and low papillary muscle levels and in the apical two- and four-chamber views. Eight algorithms using five geometric models were assessed. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume and ejection fraction were compared with data from biplane cineangiocardiograms. The correlation varied with the algorithm used. Algorithms using short-axis views appeared superior to those using only apical long-axis views. Four algorithms estimated left ventricular volumes with equal accuracy (Simpson's rule, assuming the ventricle to be a truncated cone; Simpson's rule, algorithm that best estimated left ventricular ejection fraction was the ellipsoid biplane formula using the short-axis view at the papillary muscle level (r = 0.91, slope = 0.94, SEE = 6.7%). Thus, two-dimensional echocardiography can accurately assess left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction in children with congenital heart disease.

  19. Pre-chemotherapy values for left and right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction by gated tomographic radionuclide angiography using a cadmium-zinc-telluride detector gamma camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarmark, Christian; Haase, Christine; Jensen, Maria Maj

    2016-01-01

    age and both left and right ventricular volumes in women (r = -0.4, P right end systolic ventricular volume in men (r = -0.3, P = .001). CONCLUSION: A set of reference values for cardiac evaluation prior to chemotherapy in cancer patients without other known cardiopulmonary......BACKGROUND: Estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using equilibrium radionuclide angiography is an established method for assessment of left ventricular function. The purpose of this study was to establish normative data on left and right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction......, using cadmium-zinc-telluride SPECT camera. METHODS AND RESULTS: From routine assessments of left ventricular function in 1172 patients, we included 463 subjects (194 men and 269 women) without diabetes, previous potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy, known cardiovascular or pulmonary disease. The lower...

  20. Subclinical changes in MRI-determined right ventricular volumes and function in subjects with prediabetes and diabetes.

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    Patscheider, Hannah; Lorbeer, Roberto; Auweter, Sigrid; Schafnitzel, Anina; Bayerl, Christian; Curta, Adrian; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Heier, Margit; Meisinger, Christa; Peters, Annette; Bamberg, Fabian; Hetterich, Holger

    2018-02-08

    The aim of this study was to assess subclinical changes in right ventricular volumes and function in subjects with prediabetes and diabetes and controls without a history of cardiovascular disease. Data from 400 participants in the KORA FF4 study without self-reported cardiovascular disease who underwent 3-T whole-body MRI were obtained. The right ventricle was evaluated using the short axis and a four-chamber view. Diabetes was defined according to WHO criteria. Associations between glucose tolerance and right ventricular parameters were assessed using multivariable adjusted linear regression models. Data from 337 participants were available for analysis. Of these, 43 (13%) had diabetes, 87 (26%) had prediabetes, and 207 (61%) were normoglycaemic controls. There was a stepwise decrease in right ventricular volumes in men with prediabetes and diabetes in comparison with controls, including right ventricular end-diastolic volume (β = -20.4 and β = -25.6, respectively; p ≤ 0.005), right ventricular end-systolic volume (β = -12.3 and β = -12.7, respectively; p ≤ 0.037) and right ventricular stroke volume (β = -8.1 and β = -13.1, respectively, p ≤ 0.016). We did not observe any association between prediabetes or diabetes and right ventricular volumes in women or between prediabetes or diabetes and right ventricular ejection fraction in men and women. This study points towards early subclinical changes in right ventricular volumes in men with diabetes and prediabetes. • MRI was used to detect subclinical changes in right ventricular parameters. • Diabetes mellitus is associated with right ventricular dysfunction. • Impairment of right ventricular volumes seems to occur predominantly in men.

  1. Effect of eight weeks of endurance exercise training on right and left ventricular volume and mass in untrained obese subjects: a longitudinal MRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelsang, T W; Hanel, B; Kristoffersen, U S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to examine how 8 weeks of intense endurance training influenced right and left ventricular volumes and mass in obese untrained subjects. Ten overweight subjects (19-47 years; body mass index of 34+/-5 kg/m(2)) underwent intensive endurance training (rowing......) three times 30 min/week for 8 weeks at a relative intensity of 72+/-8% of their maximal heart rate response (mean+/-SD). Before and after 8 weeks of endurance training, the left and the right end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), ejection fraction (EF), stroke volume (SV...

  2. Volume reduction rate by surgical ventricular restoration determines late outcome in ischaemic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomura, Tadashi; Hoshino, Joji; Fukada, Yasuhisa; Kitamura, Aki; Katahira, Shintaro; Kondo, Taichi; Iwasaki, Tomoaki; Buckberg, Gerald

    2011-04-01

    Surgical ventricular restoration (SVR) effectively reduces left ventricular (LV) volume in ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM), but the recent Surgical Treatment of Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) Trial questions its importance. We report 8-year SVR experience in patients with ICM. Between 2000 and 2008, 135 patients underwent SVR for ICM. This report analyses data from 90 patients who underwent accurate pre- and post-operative assessment of LV volumes by left ventriculogram or scintigram. All patients also had echocardiograms. Pre-operative LV end-systolic volume index (ESVI) was 123.5 ± 53.2 mL/m(2) (range 92-310). Overall, 63 patients were in NHYA class III and 27 were in class IV. The SVR procedure was endoventricular circular patch plasty in 33 patients, septal-anterior ventricular exclusion in 43, and 14 patients had posterior exclusion. Coronary artery bypass grafting was performed in 78 patients (87%) and 50 underwent mitral procedures. Eighteen follow-up late deaths occurred owing to chronic heart failure (n = 12) and sudden death (n = 6). Post-operative ESVI was 120 mL/m(2) (Group-L) in 20 patients. The 8-year survival rate was 82.4% in group-S following a > 33% LV volume reduction. In contrast, in Group-M and Group-L, the volume reduction was ∼ 15%, and 100% of patients died within 7 years following the SVR procedure (or 0% 8-year survival). SVR is most effective when a >33% volume reduction rate achieves an ESVI of 90 mL/m(2). This database contradicts the STICH trial findings.

  3. Novel, single-beat approach for determining both end-systolic pressure–dimension relationship and preload recruitable stroke work

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    Inuzuka, Ryo; Kass, David A; Senzaki, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Objective The end-systolic pressure–dimension relationship (ESPDR) and the preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW) relationship are load-insensitive measures of contractility, but their clinical application has been limited by the need to record multiple beats over a wide volume range. In this study, we therefore sought to validate a new method to concomitantly determine the ESPDR and the PRSW relationship from a single beat. Methods Pressure–dimension loops were recorded in 14 conscious dogs under various haemodynamic and pathological conditions. Multiple-beat PRSW relationship was determined for its slope (Mw) and for a dimension-axis intercept (Dw). The ESPDR represented by the formula , was estimated from a steady-state, single-beat late-systolic pressure–dimension relationship. The single-beat Mw was determined as an end-systolic pressure when the end-systolic dimension was equal to Dw. Results A strong correlation was observed between multiple-beat and single-beat ESPDRs (zero-stress dimension; r=0.98, pdimension is equal to Dw. By using the non-linear ESPDR, accurate single-beat estimation of the ESPDR and Mw is possible even without information on wall thickness. These results should enhance the applicability of pressure–volume framework to clinical medicine. PMID:27347424

  4. Novel, single-beat approach for determining both end-systolic pressure-dimension relationship and preload recruitable stroke work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inuzuka, Ryo; Kass, David A; Senzaki, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    The end-systolic pressure-dimension relationship (ESPDR) and the preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW) relationship are load-insensitive measures of contractility, but their clinical application has been limited by the need to record multiple beats over a wide volume range. In this study, we therefore sought to validate a new method to concomitantly determine the ESPDR and the PRSW relationship from a single beat. Pressure-dimension loops were recorded in 14 conscious dogs under various haemodynamic and pathological conditions. Multiple-beat PRSW relationship was determined for its slope (Mw) and for a dimension-axis intercept (Dw). The ESPDR represented by the formula [Formula: see text], was estimated from a steady-state, single-beat late-systolic pressure-dimension relationship. The single-beat Mw was determined as an end-systolic pressure when the end-systolic dimension was equal to Dw. A strong correlation was observed between multiple-beat and single-beat ESPDRs (zero-stress dimension; r=0.98, pdimension is equal to Dw. By using the non-linear ESPDR, accurate single-beat estimation of the ESPDR and Mw is possible even without information on wall thickness. These results should enhance the applicability of pressure-volume framework to clinical medicine.

  5. Comparison of gated PET with MRI for evaluation of left ventricular function in patients with coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slart, RHJA; Bax, JJ; de Jong, RM; de Boer, J; Lamb, HJ; Mook, PH; Willemsen, ATM; Vaalburg, W; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Jager, PL

    The aim of this study was to compare left ventricular (LV) volumes and regional wall motion determined by PET with those determined by the reference technique, cardiovascular MRI. Methods: LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), LV end-systolic volume (LVESV), and LV ejection fraction (LVEF) were measured

  6. Measurement of ventricular volumes by cine magnetic resonance imaging in complex congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, Koichiro; Uchishiba, Mika; Aotsuka, Hiroyuki; Tateno, Shigeru; Tobita, Kimimasa; Hamada, Hiromichi; Matsuo, Kozo; Fujiwara, Tadashi [Chiba Children`s Hospital (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    Along with the remarkable improvement in surgical results for complex congenital heart disease (CCHD) in recent years, it has become increasingly important for pediatric cardiologist and cardiovascular surgeons to evaluate ventricular volumes in CCHD accurately to develop a proper strategy for treating these patients. However, the validity of geometric formulas to derive volumes in various morphological types of abnormal ventricles like those in CCHD has been problematic. This study assessed the validity and usefulness of cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for measuring right and left ventricular volumes using Simpson`s rule in children with CCHD. Twenty-eight patients with CCHD (group A), children ranging in age from 4 months to 8 years (average 2.4 years) and 10 patients with morphologically normal ventricles (control; group B), ranging in age from 1 to 6 years (average 2.7 years) were evaluated. Cine MRI was performed by the GRASS methods (gradient recalled acquisition in steady state) at 0.5 T. The whole heart was encompassed by contiguous 7 or 10 mm transverse section. Ventricular volumes were calculated by adding luminal areas determined in each section at end-diastole and end-systole (EDV and ESV). Cine MRI findings of the right and left ventricular volumes were compared with those on ventriculogram. All cine MRI studies were considered diagnostic. Comparison of the RVEDV, RVESV, LVEDV and LVESV in both groups yielded a good correlation between cine MRI (Y) and ventriculography (X): RVEDV; Y=0.98X-0.49, r=0.98, RVESV; Y=0.89X+2.2, r=0.95, LVEDV; Y=0.97X+0.59, r=0.97, LVESV; Y=0.91X+0.56, r=0.95, Group B: RVEDV; Y=0.87X+4.9, r=0.93, RVESV; Y=0.91X+1.7, r=0.90, LVEDV; Y=1.1X-3.0, r=0.97, LVESV; Y=0.91X+0.6, r=0.93. These findigns indicate that cine MRI provides a suitable non-invasive means of quantifying right ventricular volume and left ventricular volumes in children with CCHD. (author).

  7. The thick left ventricular wall of the giraffe heart normalises wall tension, but limits stroke volume and cardiac output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerup, Morten; Damkjær, Mads; Brøndum, Emil; Baandrup, Ulrik T; Kristiansen, Steen Buus; Nygaard, Hans; Funder, Jonas; Aalkjær, Christian; Sauer, Cathrine; Buchanan, Rasmus; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Østergaard, Kristine; Grøndahl, Carsten; Candy, Geoffrey; Hasenkam, J Michael; Secher, Niels H; Bie, Peter; Wang, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    Giraffes--the tallest extant animals on Earth--are renowned for their high central arterial blood pressure, which is necessary to secure brain perfusion. Arterial pressure may exceed 300 mmHg and has historically been attributed to an exceptionally large heart. Recently, this has been refuted by several studies demonstrating that the mass of giraffe heart is similar to that of other mammals when expressed relative to body mass. It thus remains unexplained how the normal-sized giraffe heart generates such massive arterial pressures. We hypothesized that giraffe hearts have a small intraventricular cavity and a relatively thick ventricular wall, allowing for generation of high arterial pressures at normal left ventricular wall tension. In nine anaesthetized giraffes (495±38 kg), we determined in vivo ventricular dimensions using echocardiography along with intraventricular and aortic pressures to calculate left ventricular wall stress. Cardiac output was also determined by inert gas rebreathing to provide an additional and independent estimate of stroke volume. Echocardiography and inert gas-rebreathing yielded similar cardiac outputs of 16.1±2.5 and 16.4±1.4 l min(-1), respectively. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were 521±61 ml and 228±42 ml, respectively, yielding an ejection fraction of 56±4% and a stroke volume of 0.59 ml kg(-1). Left ventricular circumferential wall stress was 7.83±1.76 kPa. We conclude that, relative to body mass, a small left ventricular cavity and a low stroke volume characterizes the giraffe heart. The adaptations result in typical mammalian left ventricular wall tensions, but produce a lowered cardiac output. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Right ventricular systolic function is not depressed in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Charles; Cerabona, Thomas; Bairamian, Mosses; McGoldrick, Kathryn E

    2006-10-01

    The increased pulmonary blood volume associated with the increased total blood volume in morbidly obese patients increases pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance, resulting in increased right ventricular (RV) afterload. Thus, the morbidly obese may develop RV dysfunction owing to the increased RV afterload. We examined this possibility by assessing RV contractile function in morbidly obese patients, using RV end-systolic pressure-volume relationship and RV systolic time intervals. Included were 25 morbidly obese patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery under general anesthesia. Pulmonary artery pressure and RV end-systolic volume were measured with a thermodilution pulmonary artery catheter. Pulmonary arterial dicrotic notch pressure was used as an estimate of RV end-systolic pressure. Two data points were used to define RV end-systolic pressure-volume relationship. RV systolic time intervals were determined by simultaneous graphic display of the electrocardiograph, phonocardiograph, and pulmonary artery pressure curve, and were expressed as a pre-ejection period/RV ejection time ratio. The mean slope of right ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relationship line was 0.54 +/- 0.13 and mean pulmonary vascular resistance 274 +/- 80 dyne.sec.cm(-5).m(-2). The mean pre-ejection period/RV ejection time ratio was 0.4 +/- 0.11. There was an inverse correlation between the pre-ejection/RV ejection time ratio and the slope of RV end-systolic pressure-volume relationship line (R(2)=0.658, P<0.0001). Our data indicate that RV function is not depressed in morbid obesity despite increased RV afterload.

  9. Right Heart End-Systolic Remodeling Index Strongly Predicts Outcomes in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Comparison With Validated Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsallem, Myriam; Sweatt, Andrew J; Aymami, Marie C; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Selej, Mona; Lu, HongQuan; Mercier, Olaf; Fadel, Elie; Schnittger, Ingela; McConnell, Michael V; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Zamanian, Roham T; Haddad, Francois

    2017-06-01

    Right ventricular (RV) end-systolic dimensions provide information on both size and function. We investigated whether an internally scaled index of end-systolic dimension is incremental to well-validated prognostic scores in pulmonary arterial hypertension. From 2005 to 2014, 228 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension were prospectively enrolled. RV end-systolic remodeling index (RVESRI) was defined by lateral length divided by septal height. The incremental values of RV free wall longitudinal strain and RVESRI to risk scores were determined. Mean age was 49±14 years, 78% were female, 33% had connective tissue disease, 52% were in New York Heart Association class ≥III, and mean pulmonary vascular resistance was 11.2±6.4 WU. RVESRI and right atrial area were strongly connected to the other right heart metrics. Three zones of adaptation (adapted, maladapted, and severely maladapted) were identified based on the RVESRI to RV systolic pressure relationship. During a mean follow-up of 3.9±2.4 years, the primary end point of death, transplant, or admission for heart failure was reached in 88 patients. RVESRI was incremental to risk prediction scores in pulmonary arterial hypertension, including the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term PAH Disease Management score, the Pulmonary Hypertension Connection equation, and the Mayo Clinic model. Using multivariable analysis, New York Heart Association class III/IV, RVESRI, and log NT-proBNP (N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide) were retained (χ 2 , 62.2; P right heart metrics, RVESRI demonstrated the best test-retest characteristics. RVESRI is a simple reproducible prognostic marker in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. [Usefulness of left atrial diametres and volumes for the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzardi, Enrico; Bonadei, Ivano; Teli, Melissa; Caretta, Giorgio; Maiandi, Cristian; Madureri, Alberto; Bordonali, Tania; Chiari, Ermanna; Raddino, Riccardo; Cas, Livio Dei

    2009-06-01

    The diastolic function of the left ventricle is a main point of the physiological adaptations of the cardiovascular system to the various situations. Evaluation of left atrium diameter change during diastole and left atrial volume and their possible correlation with different left ventricular diastolic filling pattern. Ninety patients with echocardiographically determined diastolic dysfunction and eighty healthy volunteers were included in the study. We measured left atrium emptying fraction (LAEF), defined as ratio of end-diastolic left atrial diameter to end-systolic diameter and left atrial volume. Mitral flow pulsed wave velocities were recorded. E, A, E/A, deceleration time of early diastolic filling, isovolumetric relaxation time were measured. Pulmonary vein S, D and atrial reversal velocities and tissue Doppler imaging of E' and A' mitral anular velocities were obtained. LAEF was found 0.6 +/- 0.4 (mean SE) in the control group, 0.81 +/- 0.04 in pseudonormal pattern (P E group (P E pattern group). LAEF and atrial volume are a new and practical methods for the differentiation of the normal-pseudonormal mitral flow pattern, in particular in setting without new ultrasound technologies.

  11. Measurement of cardiac ventricular volumes using multidetector row computed tomography: comparison of two- and three-dimensional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montaudon, M. [Hopital Haut-Leveque, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Pessac (France); Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire d' Anatomie Medico-Chirurgicale Appliquee, Bordeaux (France); Laffon, E. [Hopital Haut-Leveque, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Pessac (France); Berger, P. [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Respiratoire C.R.I. INSERM 9806, Bordeaux (France); Corneloup, O.; Latrabe, V. [Hopital Haut-Leveque, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Pessac (France); Laurent, F. [Hopital Haut-Leveque, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Pessac (France); Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Departement de Radiologie, Bordeaux (France)

    2006-10-15

    This study compared a three-dimensional volumetric threshold-based method to a two-dimensional Simpson's rule based short-axis multiplanar method for measuring right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) volumes, stroke volumes, and ejection fraction using electrocardiography-gated multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) data sets. End-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) of RV and LV were measured independently and blindly by two observers from contrast-enhanced MDCT images using commercial software in 18 patients. For RV and LV the three-dimensionally calculated EDV and ESV values were smaller than those provided by two-dimensional short axis (10%, 5%, 15% and 26% differences respectively). Agreement between the two methods was found for LV (EDV/ESV: r=0.974/0.910, ICC=0.905/0.890) but not for RV (r=0.882/0.930, ICC=0.663/0.544). Measurement errors were significant only for EDV of LV using the two-dimensional method. Similar reproducibility was found for LV measurements, but the three-dimensional method provided greater reproducibility for RV measurements than the two-dimensional. The threshold value supported three-dimensional method provides reproducible cardiac ventricular volume measurements, comparable to those obtained using the short-axis Simpson based method. (orig.)

  12. Right ventricular function in patients with mitral valve disease; Evaluation by radionuclide blood pool scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Yoshio; Shimizu, Mitsuharu; Noriyasu, Toshiaki; Nakagawa, Tomio; Aono, Kaname; Yanagi, Hidekiyo; Seno, Yoshimasa; Teramoto, Shigeru; Nagaya, Isao (Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-10-01

    Right ventricular function was studied in 13 patients with mitral valve stenosis (MS), 10 patients with mitral valve regurgitation (MR) and 10 patients after mitral valve replacement (MVR) with radionuclide blood pool scan. In MS, right ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were larger than MVR. In MR, right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) was smaller and right ventricular end-systolic volume was larger than MVR. In both MS and MR, there was no significant linear correlation between RVEF and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) at rest, but during exercise RVEF of patients with elevated mPAP decreased more than that of patients with normal mPAP. RVEF in patients with MS and MR was significantly decreased during exercise, while that in patients after MVR showed no significant change. Radionuclide blood pool scan seems to be useful for the evaluation of right ventricular function in mitral valve disease. (author).

  13. Evaluation of right ventricular volumes measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang, J; Stubgaard, M; Thomsen, C

    1988-01-01

    Right ventricular volumes were determined in 12 patients with different levels of right and left ventricular function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using an ECG gated multisection technique in planes perpendicular to the diastolic position of the interventricular septum. Right ventricular...

  14. Comparison between tagged MRI and standard cine MRI for evaluation of left ventricular ejection fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornier, Christophe; Ivancevic, Marko K.; Didier, Dominique; Vallee, Jean-Paul [Departement de Radiologie et d' Informatique Medicale, Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, 24 rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211, Geneva (Switzerland); Somsen, G. Aernout; Righetti, Alberto [Div. de Cardiologie, Departement de Medecine Interne, Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, 24 rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211, Geneva (Switzerland); Osman, Nael F. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, 600 North Wolfe Street, 21287, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Global left ventricular function is a prognostic indicator and is used to evaluate therapeutical interventions in patients with heart failure. Regional left ventricular function can be determined with tagged MRI. Assessment of global left ventricular function using the tagging data may have additional clinical value without incurring extra scanning time, which is currently a limiting factor in cardiac imaging. Direct determination of end-diastolic volume is not possible with conventional tagged MRI. However, end-systolic volume can be directly measured because myocardium-blood contrast improves through a tagged image series. We investigated the potential of tagged MRI using frequency-domain analysis software to retrospectively track end-diastolic contour from end-systolic contour and subsequently calculate the ejection fraction. Tagged MRI was compared with the standard bright-blood cine MRI in healthy volunteers (n=20) and patients with previous myocardial infarction (n=8). Left ventricular ejection fraction derived from tagged MRI is linearly correlated to left ventricular ejection fraction obtained by standard cardiac cine MRI (y=1.0x+1.31, r>0.98, p=0.014). In addition, the inter-observer and intra-observer coefficient of variation for left ventricular ejection fraction measurements was low (CV{sub intra}=0.4%, CV{sub inter}=1.3%). With tagged MRI, only end-systolic volume needs to be manually determined, and accurate estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction is obtained because end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes are determined using identical anatomical points. Our data indicate that tagged MRI can be used to quantitatively assess both regional and global left ventricular function. Therefore, tagged MRI may be a valuable clinical tool for determining the prognosis and evaluating the effect of therapeutical intervention using a single imaging session in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. (orig.)

  15. Validation of admittance computed left ventricular volumes against real-time three-dimensional echocardiography in the porcine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Shelby; Kottam, Anil T; Padiyath, Asif; Bidasee, Keshore R; Li, Ling; Gao, Shunji; Wu, Juefei; Lof, John; Danford, David A; Kuehne, Titus

    2013-06-01

    The admittance and Wei's equation is a new technique for ventricular volumetry to determine pressure-volume relations that addresses traditional conductance-related issues of parallel conductance and field correction factor. These issues with conductance have prevented researchers from obtaining real-time absolute ventricular volumes. Moreover, the time-consuming steps involved in processing conductance catheter data warrant the need for a better catheter-based technique for ventricular volumetry. We aimed to compare the accuracy of left ventricular (LV) volumetry between the new admittance catheterization technique and transoesophageal real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) in a large-animal model. Eight anaesthetized pigs were used. A 7 French admittance catheter was positioned in the LV via the right carotid artery. The catheter was connected to an admittance control unit (ADVantage; Transonic Scisense Inc.), and data were recorded on a four-channel acquisition system (FA404; iWorx Systems). Admittance catheterization data and transoesophageal RT3DE (X7-2; Philips) data were simultaneously obtained with the animal ventilated, under neuromuscular blockade and monitored in baseline conditions and during dobutamine infusion. Left ventricular volumes measured from admittance catheterization (Labscribe; iWorx Systems) and RT3DE (Qlab; Philips) were compared. In a subset of four animals, admittance volumes were compared with those obtained from traditional conductance catheterization (MPVS Ultra; Millar Instruments). Of 37 sets of measurements compared, admittance- and RT3DE-derived LV volumes and ejection fractions at baseline and in the presence of dobutamine exhibited general agreement, with mean percentage intermethod differences of 10% for end-diastolic volumes, 14% for end-systolic volumes and 9% for ejection fraction; the respective intermethod differences between admittance and conductance in eight data sets compared were 11, 11 and 12

  16. Knowledge-based reconstruction for measurement of right ventricular volumes on cardiovascular magnetic resonance images in a mixed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterman, Elise D; Budde, Ricardo P J; Robbers-Visser, Daniëlle; van Domburg, Ron T; Helbing, Willem A

    2017-09-01

    Follow-up of right ventricular performance is important for patients with congenital heart disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is optimal for this purpose. However, observer-dependency of manual analysis of right ventricular volumes limit its use. Knowledge-based reconstruction is a new semiautomatic analysis tool that uses a database including knowledge of right ventricular shape in various congenital heart diseases. We evaluated whether knowledge-based reconstruction is a good alternative for conventional analysis. To assess the inter- and intra-observer variability and agreement of knowledge-based versus conventional analysis of magnetic resonance right ventricular volumes, analysis was done by two observers in a mixed group of 22 patients with congenital heart disease affecting right ventricular loading conditions (dextro-transposition of the great arteries and right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit) and a group of 17 healthy children. We used Bland-Altman analysis and coefficient of variation. Comparison between the conventional method and the knowledge-based method showed a systematically higher volume for the latter group. We found an overestimation for end-diastolic volume (bias -40 ± 24 mL, r = .956), end-systolic volume (bias -34 ± 24 mL, r = .943), stroke volume (bias -6 ± 17 mL, r = .735) and an underestimation of ejection fraction (bias 7 ± 7%, r = .671) by knowledge-based reconstruction. The intra-observer variability of knowledge-based reconstruction varied with a coefficient of variation of 9% for end-diastolic volume and 22% for stroke volume. The same trend was noted for inter-observer variability. A systematic difference (overestimation) was noted for right ventricular size as assessed with knowledge-based reconstruction compared with conventional methods for analysis. Observer variability for the new method was comparable to what has been reported for the right ventricle in children and congenital

  17. Acute decrease of left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony and improvement of contractile state and energy efficiency after left ventricular restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Jan J; Castiglioni, Alessandro; Maisano, Francesco; Steendijk, Paul; Donelli, Andrea; Baan, Jan; Alfieri, Ottavio

    2005-01-01

    Surgical left ventricular restoration by means of endoventricular patch aneurysmectomy in patients with postinfarction aneurysm should result in acute improved left ventricular performance by decreasing mechanical dyssynchrony and increasing energy efficiency. Nine patients with left ventricular postinfarction aneurysm were studied intraoperatively before and after ventricular restoration with a conductance volume catheter to analyze pressure-volume relationships, energy efficiency, and mechanical dyssynchrony. The end-systolic elastance was used as a load-independent index of contractile state. Left ventricular energy efficiency was calculated from stroke work and total pressure-volume area. Segmental volume changes perpendicular to the long axis were used to calculate mechanical dyssynchrony. Statistical analysis was performed with the paired t test and least-squares linear regression. Endoventricular patch aneurysmectomy reduced end-diastolic volume by 37% (P energy efficiency increased by 36% (P energy efficiency, and relaxation, together with a decrease in left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony.

  18. Rotary pump speed modulation for generating pulsatile flow and phasic left ventricular volume unloading in a bovine model of chronic ischemic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucy, Kevin G; Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Choi, Young; Sobieski, Michael A; Monreal, Gretel; Cheng, Allen; Schumer, Erin; Slaughter, Mark S; Koenig, Steven C

    2015-01-01

    Rotary blood pumps operate at a constant speed (rpm) that diminishes vascular pulsatility and variation in ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes, which may contribute to adverse events, including aortic insufficiency and gastrointestinal bleeding. In this study, pump speed modulation algorithms for generating pulsatility and variation in ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes were investigated in an ischemic heart failure (IHF) bovine model (n = 10) using a clinically implanted centrifugal-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Hemodynamic and hematologic measurements were recorded during IHF baseline, constant pumps speeds, and asynchronous (19-60 cycles/min) and synchronous (copulse and counterpulse) pump speed modulation profiles using low relative pulse speed (±25%) of 3,200 ± 800 rpm and high relative pulse speed (±38%) of 2,900 ± 1,100 rpm. End-organ perfusion, hemodynamics, and pump parameters were measured to characterize pulsatility, myocardial workload, and LVAD performance for each speed modulation profile. Speed modulation profiles augmented aortic pulse pressure, surplus hemodynamic energy, and end-organ perfusion (p Pump speed modulation increases pulsatility and improves cardiac function and end-organ perfusion, but the asynchronous mode provides the technologic advantage of sensorless control. Investigation of asynchronous pump speed modulation during long-term support is warranted to test the hypothesis that operating an LVAD with speed modulation will minimize adverse events in patients supported by an LVAD that may be associated with long-term operation at a constant pump speed. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Right ventricular function during one-lung ventilation: effects of pressure-controlled and volume-controlled ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shehri, Abdullah M; El-Tahan, Mohamed R; Al Metwally, Roshdi; Qutub, Hatem; El Ghoneimy, Yasser F; Regal, Mohamed A; Zien, Haytham

    2014-08-01

    To test the effects of pressure-controlled (PCV) and volume-controlled (VCV) ventilation during one-lung ventilation (OLV) for thoracic surgery on right ventricular (RV) function. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover study. A single university hospital. Fourteen pairs of consecutive patients scheduled for elective thoracotomy. Patients were assigned randomly to ventilate the dependent lung with PCV or VCV mode, each in a randomized crossover order using tidal volume of 6 mL/kg, I: E ratio 1: 2.5, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 cm H2O and respiratory rate adjusted to maintain normocapnia. Intraoperative changes in RV function (systolic and early diastolic tricuspid annular velocity (TAV), end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV) and fractional area changes (FAC)), airway pressures, compliance and oxygenation index were recorded. The use of PCV during OLV resulted in faster systolic (10.1±2.39 vs. 5.8±1.67 cm/s, respectively), diastolic TAV (9.2±1.99 vs. 4.6±1.42 cm/s, respectively) (p<0.001) and compliance and lower ESV, EDV and airway pressures (p<0.05) than during the use of VCV. Oxygenation indices were similar during the use of VCV and PCV. The use of PCV offers more improved RV function than the use of VCV during OLV for open thoracotomy. These results apply specifically to younger patients with good ventricular and pulmonary functions. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of left ventricular function and volumes in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy: gated single-photon emission computed tomography versus two-dimensional echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vourvouri, E.C.; Poldermans, D.; Sianos, G.; Sozzi, F.B.; Schinkel, A.F.L.; Sutter, J. de; Roelandt, J.R.T.C. [Dept. of Cardiology, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam (Netherlands); Bax, J.J. [Dept. of Cardiology, Leiden Univ. Medical Center (Netherlands); Parcharidis, G. [Dept. of Cardiology, AHEPA Univ. Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Valkema, R. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2001-11-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a head-to-head comparison between two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography and gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPET) for the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) function and volumes in patients with severe ischaemic LV dysfunction. Thirty-two patients with chronic ischaemic LV dysfunction [mean LV ejection fraction (EF) 25%{+-}6%] were studied with gated SPET and 2D echocardiography. Regional wall motion was evaluated by both modalities and scored by two independent observers using a 16-segment model with a 5-point scoring system (1= normokinesia, 2= mild hypokinesia, 3= severe hypokinesia, 4= akinesia and 5= dyskinesia). LVEF and LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were evaluated by 2D echocardiography using the Simpson's biplane discs method. The same parameters were calculated using quantitative gated SPET software (QGS, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center). The overall agreement between the two imaging modalities for assessment of regional wall motion was 69%. The correlations between gated SPET and 2D echocardiography for the assessment of end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were excellent (r=0.94, P<0.01, and r=0.96, P<0.01, respectively). The correlation for LVEF was also good (r=0.83, P<0.01). In conclusion: in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy, close and significant relations between gated SPET and 2D echocardiography were observed for the assessment of regional and global LV function and LV volumes; gated SPET has the advantage that it provides information on both LV function/dimensions and perfusion. (orig.)

  1. Left ventricular volume measurements with free breathing respiratory self-gated 3-dimensional golden angle radial whole-heart cine imaging - Feasibility and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Karen; Ugander, Martin; Sigfridsson, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    To develop and evaluate a free breathing respiratory self-gated isotropic resolution technique for left ventricular (LV) volume measurements. A 3D radial trajectory with double golden-angle ordering was used for free-running data acquisition during free breathing in 9 healthy volunteers. A respiratory self-gating signal was extracted from the center of k-space and used with the electrocardiogram to bin all data into 3 respiratory and 25 cardiac phases. 3D image volumes were reconstructed and the LV endocardial border was segmented. LV volume measurements and reproducibility from 3D free breathing cine were compared to conventional 2D breath-held cine. No difference was found between 3D free breathing cine and 2D breath-held cine with regards to LV ejection fraction, stroke volume, end-systolic volume and end-diastolic volume (Pcine and 2D breath-held cine (Pcine and conventional 2D breath-held cine showed similar values and test-retest repeatability for LV volumes in healthy volunteers. 3D free breathing cine enabled retrospective sorting and arbitrary angulation of isotropic data, and could correctly measure LV volumes during free breathing acquisition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Semi-automated quantification of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunde Ketil

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that real-time three-dimensional (3D echocardiography (RT3DE gives more accurate and reproducible left ventricular (LV volume and ejection fraction (EF measurements than traditional two-dimensional methods. A new semi-automated tool (4DLVQ for volume measurements in RT3DE has been developed. We sought to evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of this method compared to a 3D echo standard. Methods LV end-diastolic volumes (EDV, end-systolic volumes (ESV, and EF measured using 4DLVQ were compared with a commercially available semi-automated analysis tool (TomTec 4D LV-Analysis ver. 2.2 in 35 patients. Repeated measurements were performed to investigate inter- and intra-observer variability. Results Average analysis time of the new tool was 141s, significantly shorter than 261s using TomTec (p p = NS, with bias and 95% limits of agreement of 2.1 ± 21 ml, -0.88 ± 17 ml, and 1.6 ± 11% for EDV, ESV, and EF respectively. Intra-observer variability of 4DLVQ vs. TomTec was 7.5 ± 6.2 ml vs. 7.7 ± 7.3 ml for EDV, 5.5 ± 5.6 ml vs. 5.0 ± 5.9 ml for ESV, and 3.0 ± 2.7% vs. 2.1 ± 2.0% for EF (p = NS. The inter-observer variability of 4DLVQ vs. TomTec was 9.0 ± 5.9 ml vs. 17 ± 6.3 ml for EDV (p p p = NS. Conclusion In conclusion, the new analysis tool gives rapid and reproducible measurements of LV volumes and EF, with good agreement compared to another RT3DE volume quantification tool.

  3. Preoperative echocardiographic measures of left ventricular mechanics are associated with postoperative vasoactive support in preterm infants undergoing patent ductus arteriosus ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Margaret A; Graham, Eric M; Atz, Andrew M; Bradley, Scott M; Kavarana, Minoo N; Chowdhury, Shahryar M

    2017-12-01

    Preoperative risk factors associated with poor outcomes after patent ductus arteriosus ligation in preterm infants have not been well defined. The aim of this study was to determine the association between preoperative echocardiographic measures of left ventricular mechanics and postoperative clinical outcomes after patent ductus arteriosus ligation. Preterm infants less than 90 days of age with no other significant congenital anomalies who underwent patent ductus arteriosus ligation between 2007 and 2015 were considered for retrospective analysis. The primary outcome was peak postoperative vasoactive inotropic score. Conventional echocardiographic measures of ventricular size, function, and patent ductus arteriosus size were performed. Echocardiographic single-beat, pressure-volume loop analysis estimates of contractility (end-systolic elastance) and afterload (arterial elastance) were calculated. Ventriculoarterial coupling was assessed using the arterial elastance/end-systolic elastance ratio. Multivariable linear regression was performed using clinical and echocardiographic data. Echocardiograms from 101 patients (42.5% male) were analyzed. We found a statistically significant association between vasoactive inotropic score and both end-systolic elastance and arterial elastance. No patient with arterial elastance/end-systolic elastance greater than 0.78 (n = 32) had a vasoactive inotropic score 20 or greater. Analysis of our secondary outcomes found associations between preoperative end-systolic elastance and postoperative urine output less than 1 mL/kg/h at 24 hours, creatinine change greater than 0.5 mg/dL, and time to first extubation. End-systolic elastance and arterial elastance were the only predictors of postoperative vasoactive inotropic score after patent ductus arteriosus ligation in preterm infants. Those neonates with increased contractility and low afterload were at highest risk for elevated inotropic support. These findings suggest a role

  4. Effects of Propranolol on the Left Ventricular Volume of Normal Subjects During CT Coronary Angiography

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    Mo, Yuan Heng; Jaw, Fu Shan [National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yung Cheng; Jeng, Chin Ming [Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Peng, Shinn Forng [National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (CN)

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of propranolol on the left ventricular (LV) volume during CT coronary angiography. The LV volume of 252 normal Chinese subjects (126 subjects with propranolol medication and 126 age- and gender-matched Chinese subjects without medication) was estimated using 64 slices multi-detector CT (MDCT). The heart rate difference was analyzed by the logistic linear regression model with variables that included gender, age, body height, body weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and the dosage of propranolol. The following global LV functional parameters were calculated: the real-end diastolic volume (EDV), the real-end systolic volume (ESV) and the real-ejection fraction (EF). The female subjects had a greater decrease of heart rate after taking propranolol. The difference of heart rate was negatively correlated with the dosage of propranolol. The real-EDV, the real-ESV and the real-EF ranged from 48.1 to 109 mL/m2, 6.1 to 57.1 mL/m2 and 41% to 88%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the SBP and DBP between the groups without and with propranolol medication (123 {+-} 17 and 80 {+-} 10 mmHg; 120 {+-} 14 and 80 {+-} 11 mmHg, respectively). The real-EDV showed no significant difference between these two groups, but the real-ESV and real-EF showed significant differences between these two groups (69.4 {+-} 9.3 and 70.6 {+-} 8.9 mL/m2; 23.5 {+-} 5.7 and 25.6 {+-} 3.7 mL/m2, 66.5 {+-} 5.1% and 63.5 {+-} 4.6%, respectively). The difference of heart rate is significantly influenced by gender and the dosage of propranolol. Propranolol will also increase the ESV, which contributes to a decreased EF, while the SBP, DBP and EDV are not statistically changed.

  5. The effect of anteroapical aneurysm plication on end-systolic three-dimensional strain in the sheep: a magnetic resonance imaging tagging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guccione, Julius M; Walker, Joseph C; Beitler, Jeremy R; Moonly, Scott M; Zhang, Peng; Guttman, Michael A; Ozturk, Cengizhan; McVeigh, Elliot R; Wallace, Arthur W; Saloner, David A; Ratcliffe, Mark B

    2006-03-01

    Although repair of left ventricular aneurysm has been extensively studied, its effect on regional ventricular function remains unclear. The primary goal of this study was to quantify the effect of anteroapical aneurysm plication on systolic deformation in noninfarcted adjacent (border zone) and remote left ventricular regions in sheep. Eight sheep underwent anteroapical myocardial infarction (25% of left ventricular mass). Ten weeks later, animals underwent aneurysm plication. Two and 6 weeks after this operation, animals underwent magnetic resonance imaging with tissue tagging in multiple short-axis and long-axis slices. Fully 3-dimensional strain analyses were performed. All 6 end-systolic strain components were compared at midwall in the border zone of the aneurysm or repair and in regions 1 cm, 2 cm, and 3 cm below the valves. Circumferential shortening progressively increases from before plication to 2 weeks after plication to 6 weeks after plication toward the border zone. The effect on circumferential shortening is most pronounced in the anterior wall and septum. The biggest change is from 2 to 6 weeks after plication (from 4.3% to 11.3% in anterior wall, P < .0001; from 3.5% to 6.5% in septum, P < .0007). Longitudinal shortening is decreased at 2 weeks after plication but then returns to baseline (with slight improvement in the border zone) at 6 weeks after plication. Repair of left ventricular aneurysm significantly increases systolic circumferential shortening at the border zone in sheep.

  6. Early ventricular restraint after myocardial infarction: extent of the wrap determines the outcome of remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Yoshiharu; Gorman, Joseph H; Moainie, Sina L; Jackson, Benjamin M; Parish, Landi M; Plappert, Theodore; Zeeshan, Ahmad; St John-Sutton, Martin G; Gorman, Robert C

    2005-03-01

    Early infarct expansion initiates adverse remodeling, leads to left ventricular dilatation and portends a poor long-term outcome. Early mechanical prevention of infarct expansion has been proposed as a method to improve remodeling, but the extent of ventricular restraint necessary to optimize the salutary effect is not known. We tested the hypothesis that left ventricular restraint (wrap) is superior to infarct stiffening (patch). Infarction of 20% to 25% of the left ventricle was induced by coronary ligation in 69 sheep. Infarcts were either anteroapical (n = 33) or posterobasal (n = 36). Animals with each infarct received either no treatment (anteroapical, n = 26; posterobasal, n = 17), infarct stiffening with a localized Marlex mesh patch (posterobasal, n = 9) or left ventricular wrapping with Merseline mesh (anteroapical, n = 7; posterobasal, n = 10). End-systolic volume, end-diastolic volume, end-systolic muscle to cavity area ratio, left ventricular sphericity, ejection fraction, and degree of mitral regurgitation as determined by quantitative echocardiography were assessed before infarction and at 2, 5, and 8 weeks after infarction to evaluate the extent of left ventricular remodeling. Control animals in both groups experienced adverse remodeling. Anteroapical infarct animals developed large left ventricular aneurysms and the posterobasal infarct animals developed severe mitral regurgitation. Early infarct stiffening did not significantly improve any aspect of remodeling due to the posterobasal infarct. Early left ventricular wrapping significantly improved remodeling after both types of infarctions. Early left ventricular wrapping attenuates infarct expansion and has a salutary effect on remodeling. Simple infarct stiffening alone is not effective.

  7. Age and gender specific normal values of left ventricular mass, volume and function for gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allansdotter-Johnsson Ase

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about age-specific normal values for left ventricular mass (LVM, end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, stroke volume (SV and ejection fraction (EF by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR is of importance to differentiate between health and disease and to assess the severity of disease. The aims of the study were to determine age and gender specific normal reference values and to explore the normal physiological variation of these parameters from adolescence to late adulthood, in a cross sectional study. Methods Gradient echo CMR was performed at 1.5 T in 96 healthy volunteers (11–81 years, 50 male. Gender-specific analysis of parameters was undertaken in both absolute values and adjusted for body surface area (BSA. Results Age and gender specific normal ranges for LV volumes, mass and function are presented from the second through the eighth decade of life. LVM, ESV and EDV rose during adolescence and declined in adulthood. SV and EF decreased with age. Compared to adult females, adult males had higher BSA-adjusted values of EDV (p = 0.006 and ESV (p Conclusion LV volumes, mass and function vary over a broad age range in healthy individuals. LV volumes and mass both rise in adolescence and decline with age. EF showed a rapid decline in adolescence compared to changes throughout adulthood. These findings demonstrate the need for age and gender specific normal ranges for clinical use.

  8. Effect of fluid loading on left ventricular volume and stroke volume variability in patients with end-stage renal disease: a pilot study

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    Kanda H

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hirotsugu Kanda,1 Yuji Hirasaki,2 Takafumi Iida,1 Megumi Kanao-Kanda,1 Yuki Toyama,1 Takayuki Kunisawa,1 Hiroshi Iwasaki11Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Hokkaido, Japan; 2Department of Anatomy, The Jikei University Graduate School of Medicine, Minato-ku, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: The aim of this study was to investigate fluid loading-induced changes in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV and stroke volume variability (SVV in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD using real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography and the Vigileo-FloTrac system.Patients and methods: After obtaining ethics committee approval and informed consent, 28 patients undergoing peripheral vascular procedures were studied. Fourteen patients with ESRD on hemodialysis (HD were assigned to the HD group and 14 patients without ESRD were assigned to the control group. Institutional standardized general anesthesia was provided in both groups. SVV was measured using the Vigileo-FloTrac system. Simultaneously, a full-volume three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography dataset was acquired to measure LVEDV, left ventricular end-systolic volume, and left ventricular ejection fraction. Measurements were obtained before and after loading 500 mL hydroxyethyl starch over 30 minutes in both groups.Results: In the control group, intravenous colloid infusion was associated with a significant decrease in SVV (13.8%±2.6% to 6.5%±2.6%, P<0.001 and a significant increase in LVEDV (83.6±23.4 mL to 96.1±28.8 mL, P<0.001. While SVV significantly decreased after infusion in the HD group (16.2%±6.0% to 6.2%±2.8%, P<0.001, there was no significant change in LVEDV.Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that fluid responsiveness can be assessed not by LVEDV but also by SVV due to underlying cardiovascular pathophysiology in patients with ESRD.Keywords: stroke volume variability, end-stage renal

  9. Restraining infarct expansion preserves left ventricular geometry and function after acute anteroapical infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, S T; Malekan, R; Gorman, J H; Jackson, B M; Gorman, R C; Suzuki, Y; Plappert, T; Bogen, D K; Sutton, M G; Edmunds, L H

    Expansion of an acute myocardial infarction predicts progressive left ventricular (LV) dilatation, functional deterioration, and early death. This study tests the hypothesis that restraining expansion of an acute infarction preserves LV geometry and resting function. In 23 sheep, snares were placed around the distal left anterior descending and second diagonal coronary arteries. In 12 sheep, infarct deformation was prevented by Marlex mesh placed over the anticipated myocardial infarct. Snared arteries were occluded 10 to 14 days later. Serial hemodynamic measurements and transdiaphragmatic quantitative echocardiograms were obtained up to 8 weeks after anteroapical infarction of 0.23 of LV mass. In sheep with mesh, circulatory hemodynamics, stroke work, and end-systolic elastance return to preinfarction values 1 week after infarction and do not change subsequently. Ventricular volumes and ejection fraction do not change after the first week postinfarction. Control animals develop large anteroapical ventricular aneurysms, increasing LV dilatation, and progressive deterioration in circulatory hemodynamics and ventricular function. At week 8, differences in LV end-diastolic pressure, cardiac output, end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, ejection fraction, stroke work, and end-systolic elastance are significant (P<0.01) between groups. Preventing expansion of acute myocardial infarctions preserves LV geometry and function.

  10. Comparison of dual-source 64-slice adenosine stress CT perfusion with stress-gated SPECT-MPI for evaluation of left ventricular function and volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthamalingam, Shanmugam; Gurm, Gagandeep S; Sidhu, Manavjot S; Verdini, Daniel J; Vorasettakarnkij, Yongkasem; Engel, Leif-Christopher; Blankstein, Ron; Mamuya, Wilfred S; Hoffman, Udo; Brady, Thomas J; Cury, Ricardo C; Ghoshhajra, Brian B

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fraction (LVEF) represent important components of pharmacologic stress imaging with either myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) or gated single-photon emission CT (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI). We compared measurements of left ventricular function and volumes obtained with CTP and SPECT-MPI. Forty-seven patients (mean age, 62 ± 11 years; male, n = 39) underwent stress CTP and SPECT-MPI. LVEF (in %), end-systolic volume (ESV; in mL), and end-diastolic volume (EDV; in mL) derived from stress CTP images were compared with SPECT-MPI. Stress CTP was in good agreement with SPECT-MPI for quantification of LVEF (r = 0.91), EDV (r = 0.75), and ESV (r = 0.83; all P stress CTP (66% ± 17%) was similar to SPECT-MPI (64% ± 15%). Similar values were also derived for mean EDV (123 ± 30 mL vs 120 ± 34 mL) and ESV (44 ± 28 mL vs 51 ± 34 mL) for CTP and SPECT-MPI, respectively. Good agreement was also shown between both techniques for the assessment of regional wall motion with identical wall motion scores in 95.3% of the segments (κ = 0.79). LVEF and LV volume parameters as determined by dual-source 64-slice adenosine stress CTP show a high correlation with values obtained with stress-gated SPECT-MPI. Copyright © 2012 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Calculation of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction from dynamic cardiac-gated 15O-water PET/CT: 5D-PET

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    Jonny Nordström

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative measurement of myocardial blood flow (MBF is of increasing interest in the clinical assessment of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD. 15O-water positron emission tomography (PET is considered the gold standard for non-invasive MBF measurements. However, calculation of left ventricular (LV volumes and ejection fraction (EF is not possible from standard 15O-water uptake images. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the possibility of calculating LV volumes and LVEF from cardiac-gated parametric blood volume (V B 15O-water images and from first pass (FP images. Sixteen patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation underwent an eight-gate dynamic cardiac-gated 15O-water PET/CT scan and cardiac MRI. V B and FP images were generated for each gate. Calculations of end-systolic volume (ESV, end-diastolic volume (EDV, stroke volume (SV and LVEF were performed with automatic segmentation of V B and FP images, using commercially available software. LV volumes and LVEF were calculated with surface-, count-, and volume-based methods, and the results were compared with gold standard MRI. Results Using V B images, high correlations between PET and MRI ESV (r = 0.89, p  0.86, p < 0.001. Conclusion Calculation of LV volumes and LVEF from dynamic 15O-water PET is feasible and shows good correlation with MRI. However, the analysis method is laborious, and future work is needed for more automation to make the method more easily applicable in a clinical setting.

  12. Age-, body size-, and sex-specific reference values for right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction by three-dimensional echocardiography: a multicenter echocardiographic study in 507 healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffessanti, Francesco; Muraru, Denisa; Esposito, Roberta; Gripari, Paola; Ermacora, Davide; Santoro, Ciro; Tamborini, Gloria; Galderisi, Maurizio; Pepi, Mauro; Badano, Luigi P

    2013-09-01

    Right ventricular (RV) volumes and ejection fraction (EF) vary significantly with demographic and anthropometric factors and are associated with poor prognosis in several cardiovascular diseases. This multicenter study was designed to (1) establish the reference values for RV volumes and EF using transthoracic three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography; (2) investigate the influence of age, sex, and body size on RV anatomy; (3) develop normative equations. RV volumes (end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume), stroke volume, and EF were measured by 3D echocardiography in 540 healthy adult volunteers, prospectively enrolled, evenly distributed across age and sex. The relation of age, sex, and body size parameters was investigated using bivariate and multiple linear regression. Analysis was feasible in 507 (94%) subjects (260 women; age, 45 ± 16 years; range, 18-90). Age, sex, height, and weight significantly influenced RV volumes and EF. Sex effect was significant (Pallometric indexing for age, sex, and body size resulted in no significant residual correlation between RV measures and height or weight. The presented normative ranges and equations could help standardize the 3D echocardiography assessment of RV volumes and function in clinical practice, considering the effects of age, sex, and body size.

  13. Improved workflow for quantification of left ventricular volumes and mass using free-breathing motion corrected cine imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Russell; Olivieri, Laura; O'Brien, Kendall; Kellman, Peter; Xue, Hui; Hansen, Michael

    2016-02-25

    Traditional cine imaging for cardiac functional assessment requires breath-holding, which can be problematic in some situations. Free-breathing techniques have relied on multiple averages or real-time imaging, producing images that can be spatially and/or temporally blurred. To overcome this, methods have been developed to acquire real-time images over multiple cardiac cycles, which are subsequently motion corrected and reformatted to yield a single image series displaying one cardiac cycle with high temporal and spatial resolution. Application of these algorithms has required significant additional reconstruction time. The use of distributed computing was recently proposed as a way to improve clinical workflow with such algorithms. In this study, we have deployed a distributed computing version of motion corrected re-binning reconstruction for free-breathing evaluation of cardiac function. Twenty five patients and 25 volunteers underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for evaluation of left ventricular end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-diastolic mass. Measurements using motion corrected re-binning were compared to those using breath-held SSFP and to free-breathing SSFP with multiple averages, and were performed by two independent observers. Pearson correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots tested agreement across techniques. Concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis tested inter-observer variability. Total scan plus reconstruction times were tested for significant differences using paired t-test. Measured volumes and mass obtained by motion corrected re-binning and by averaged free-breathing SSFP compared favorably to those obtained by breath-held SSFP (r = 0.9863/0.9813 for EDV, 0.9550/0.9685 for ESV, 0.9952/0.9771 for mass). Inter-observer variability was good with concordance correlation coefficients between observers across all acquisition types suggesting substantial agreement. Both motion

  14. Ventricular Energetics in Pediatric Left Ventricular Assist Device Patients: A Retrospective Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Molfetta, Arianna; Ferrari, Gianfranco; Iacobelli, Roberta; Filippelli, Sergio; Di Chiara, Luca; Guccione, Paolo; Amodeo, Antonio

    The aim of this study is to estimate the trend of right and left energetic parameters in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) pediatric patients. Echocardiographic data were retrospectively collected at the baseline, in the acute phase after and at the monthly follow-ups till the LVAD explantation to estimate left and right ventricular energetic parameters. A significant relationship between the left and right ventricular energetic parameter trends was found along all the study period. Left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relationship improved till the follow-up of 2 months and then progressively decreases. Left arteroventricular coupling decreases after the LVAD, and right arteroventricular coupling decreases at the short-term follow-up. Left ventricular external work, potential energy, and pressure-volume area decrease at the short-term follow-up and then increase progressively. Right ventricular external work, potential energy, and pressure-volume area increase after the LVAD implantation. Left (right) cardiac mechanical efficiency is improved (worsened) by the LVAD. Energetic variables show that the LVAD benefits could decrease over time. A continuous and patient tailored LVAD setting could contribute to prolong LVAD benefits. The introduction of energetic parameters could lead to a more complete evaluation of LVAD patients' outcome which is a multiparametric process.

  15. Differential Effect of the Ratio of Right Ventricular Volume to Left Ventricular Volume in Children with Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiong; Hu, Xi-Hong; Shen, Quan-Li; Qiao, Zhong-Wei; Pa, Mi-Er; Qian, Bin; Yan, Wei-Li; Huang, Guo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare the diagnostic value of indexed right ventricular end-diastolic volume (RVEDVi) and the ratio of right ventricle volume to left ventricle volume (RV/LV ratio) in prediction of the severity of pulmonary regurgitation (PR) expressed as the PR fraction (PRF) after surgery of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Forty-one patients with repaired TOF were included in the study. RVEDVi, LVEDVi, RV/LV ratio, PRF and ejection fraction were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. A PRF of more than 20% was considered significant. The predictive capability of two markers (RVEDVi and RV/LV ratio) for significant PR was compared using multivariate linear regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Both the RV/LV ratio and RVEDVi showed a correlation with PRF (r = 0.526/0.321, p = 0.001/0.041) in the correlation analysis, but in multivariate regression analysis the only independent predictor of PRF was the RV/LV ratio (F = 14.890, p = 0.001). ROC analysis revealed that a better discrimination of significant PR (>20%) from slight types (=20%) PR can be reached with the RV/LV ratio than RVEDVi (AUC = 0.805/0.709, p = 0.01). The RV/LV ratio was better than RVEDVi at differentiating mild from moderate PR (p = 0.006 vs. p = 0.153), and proved superior over RVEDVi in predicting PR based on the PRF criterion. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. End-systolic wall stress predicts post-discharge heart failure after acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerfond, Guillaume; Bière, Loïc; Mateus, Victor; Grall, Sylvain; Willoteaux, Serge; Prunier, Fabrice; Furber, Alain

    2015-05-01

    Compensatory mechanisms activated after myocardial infarction include an increase in systolic wall stress (SWS) and activation of the neurohormonal system. Nevertheless, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and infarct size are the established primary predictors of outcome after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. To assess the relative impact of various cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging variables, such as infarct size, LVEF and SWS, on pre- and post-discharge heart failure (HF). CMR was performed in a prospective study involving 169 patients with first ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Common CMR findings, such as SWS, were computed. Mean SWS was 16.3±5.1×10(3)N·m(-2), and was systematically higher in patients exhibiting either pre- or post-discharge HF (18.9±5.7 and 21.3±7.6×10(3) N·m(-2), respectively). SWS was moderately related to initial infarct size (r=0.405; P <0.001). In total, 28 patients presented with HF during the hospitalization phase and 14 during follow-up, with a median time of event of 93 days (25th-75th percentiles, 29-139.25 days). The univariate predictors of HF were age, LVEF, infarct size, SWS, microvascular obstruction, anterior infarction and heart rate at admission. Multivariable analysis revealed infarct size and age to be the predictors of predischarge HF, while SWS and heart rate at admission predicted post-discharge HF. The greatest SWS quartile provided a negative predictive value of 95.9%. Regardless of LVEF and infarct size, SWS was shown to be an independent predictor of post-discharge HF after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-invasive measurement of stroke volume and left ventricular ejection fraction. Radionuclide cardiography compared with left ventricular cardioangiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbaek, H; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Aldershvile, J

    2011-01-01

    The stroke volume (SV) was determined by first passage radionuclide cardiography and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by multigated radionuclide cardiography in 20 patients with ischemic heart disease. The results were evaluated against those obtained by the invasive dye dilution or ...

  18. Comparison of methods for determining absolute left ventricular volumes from radionuclide ventriculography

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    Warren, S.E.; McKay, R.G.; Aroesty, J.M.; Heller, G.V.; Kolodny, G.M.; Royal, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Several radionuclide techniques have been used in routine clinical nuclear medicine practice as a means of quantitating left ventricular chamber volumes in man. Despite wide use and availability of the different techniques, however, there has not been a thorough comparison of radionuclide and contrast angiographic measurements performed in the same patients in close temporal proximity. Accordingly, in order to validate traditional methods of ventricular volume measurement, we have performed contrast ventriculography followed immediately (upon return of baseline hemodynamics) by gated radionuclide ventriculography in 34 patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Absolute left ventricular end-diastolic volumes were determined from single-plane, right anterior oblique, end-diastolic contrast silhouettes using a standard area-length method. Radionuclide ventriculographic volumes were determined by three methods: planimetry (32 patients), counts-based (19 patients), and thermodilution stroke volume/radionuclide ejection fraction (32 patients). With planimetry, an area-length method was used in which the modified left anterior oblique left ventricular image was assumed to be a prolate ellipsoid whose volume can be determined by measuring surface area and the ventricular long axis. With the counts-based technique, a blood sample was drawn at the midpoint of the radionuclide ventriculogram acquisition and counted with a gamma camera with appropriate attenuation factor correction. With the thermodilution stroke volume/radionuclide ejection fraction technique, the left ventricular stroke volume was determined by dividing thermodilution cardiac output by the heart rate.

  19. Value of the Electrocardiogram as a Predictor of Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Patients With Chronic Right Ventricular Volume Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Pau; Andrés, Ana; Rueda, Joaquín; Buendía, Francisco; Igual, Begoña; Rodríguez, María; Osa, Ana; Arnau, Miguel A; Salvador, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary regurgitation is a common complication in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot or congenital pulmonary stenosis. Electrocardiographic variables have been correlated with parameters used to evaluate right ventricular function. We aimed to analyze the diagnostic value of the width and fragmentation of the electrocardiogram in the identification of patients with right ventricular dysfunction and/or dilation. We selected 107 consecutive patients diagnosed with severe pulmonary insufficiency after repair of pulmonary stenosis or tetralogy of Fallot. The tests included electrocardiography, echocardiography, and magnetic resonance. Each electrocardiogram was analyzed manually to measure QRS duration. We defined QRS fragmentation as the presence of low-voltage waves in the terminal portion of the QRS complex in at least 2 contiguous leads. We found a significant negative correlation between QRS width and right ventricular function, as well as a positive correlation with right ventricular volume. The receiver operating characteristic curve indicated a cut-off point for QRS width of 140ms, which showed good sensitivity for a diagnosis of right ventricular dilation (> 80%) and dysfunction (> 95%). In logistic regression models, a QRS duration > 140ms was found to be the only independent predictor of right ventricular dilation and dysfunction. Electrocardiography is a rapid, widely available, and reproducible tool. QRS width constitutes an independent predictor of the presence of right ventricular dilation and dysfunction. This study is the first to provide a cutoff value for QRS width to screen for right ventricle involvement. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of Cardiac Computed Tomography for Ventricular Volumetry in Late Postoperative Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot

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    Ho Jin Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac computed tomography (CT has emerged as an alternative to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for ventricular volumetry. However, the clinical use of cardiac CT requires external validation. Methods: Both cardiac CT and MRI were performed prior to pulmonary valve implantation (PVI in 11 patients (median age, 19 years who had undergone total correction of tetralogy of Fallot during infancy. The simplified contouring method (MRI and semiautomatic 3-dimensional region-growing method (CT were used to measure ventricular volumes. Results: All volumetric indices measured by CT and MRI generally correlated well with each other, except for the left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LV-ESVI, which showed the following correlations with the other indices: the right ventricular end-diastolic volume index (RV-EDVI (r=0.88, p<0.001, the right ventricular end-systolic volume index (RV-ESVI (r=0.84, p=0.001, the left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LV-EDVI (r=0.90, p=0.001, and the LV-ESVI (r=0.55, p=0.079. While the EDVIs measured by CT were significantly larger than those measured by MRI (median RV-EDVI: 197 mL/m 2 vs. 175 mL/m 2 , p=0.008; median LV-EDVI: 94 mL/m 2 vs. 92 mL/m 2 , p=0.026, no significant differences were found for the RV-ESVI or LV-ESVI. Conclusion: The EDVIs measured by cardiac CT were greater than those measured by MRI, whereas the ESVIs measured by CT and MRI were comparable. The volumetric characteristics of these 2 diagnostic modalities should be taken into account when indications for late PVI after tetralogy of Fallot repair are assessed.

  1. The value of right ventricular longitudinal strain in the evaluation of adult patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot: a new tool for a contemporary challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Morais, Luís; Pereira-da-Silva, Tiago; Branco, Luísa; Timóteo, Ana T; Agapito, Ana; de Sousa, Lídia; Oliveira, José A; Thomas, Boban; Jalles-Tavares, Nuno; Soares, Rui; Galrinho, Ana; Cruz-Ferreira, Rui

    2017-04-01

    The role of right ventricular longitudinal strain for assessing patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot is not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to evaluate its relation with other structural and functional parameters in these patients. Patients followed-up in a grown-up CHD unit, assessed by transthoracic echocardiography, cardiac MRI, and treadmill exercise testing, were retrospectively evaluated. Right ventricular size and function and pulmonary regurgitation severity were assessed by echocardiography and MRI. Right ventricular longitudinal strain was evaluated in the four-chamber view using the standard semiautomatic method. In total, 42 patients were included (61% male, 32±8 years). The mean right ventricular longitudinal strain was -16.2±3.7%, and the right ventricular ejection fraction, measured by MRI, was 42.9±7.2%. Longitudinal strain showed linear correlation with tricuspid annular systolic excursion (r=-0.40) and right ventricular ejection fraction (r=-0.45) (all pright ventricular fractional area change (r=0.50), pulmonary regurgitation colour length (r=0.35), right ventricular end-systolic volume (r=-0.60), and left ventricular ejection fraction (r=0.36) (all pright ventricular ejection fraction. The best threshold of longitudinal strain for predicting a right ventricular ejection fraction of Right ventricular longitudinal strain is a powerful method for evaluating patients with tetralogy of Fallot. It correlated with echocardiographic right ventricular function parameters and was independently associated with right ventricular ejection fraction derived by MRI.

  2. Left ventricular volume measurement in mice by conductance catheter: evaluation and optimization of calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Møller; Kristiansen, Steen B; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    The conductance catheter (CC) allows thorough evaluation of cardiac function because it simultaneously provides measurements of pressure and volume. Calibration of the volume signal remains challenging. With different calibration techniques, in vivo left ventricular volumes (V(CC)) were measured...... in mice (n = 52) with a Millar CC (SPR-839) and compared with MRI-derived volumes (V(MRI)). Significant correlations between V(CC) and V(MRI) [end-diastolic volume (EDV): R(2) = 0.85, P

  3. Right Ventricular Functional Reserve in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Steven; Houston, Brian A.; Tampakakis, Emmanouil; Bacher, Anita C.; Rhodes, Parker S.; Mathai, Stephen C.; Damico, Rachel L.; Kolb, Todd M.; Hummers, Laura K.; Shah, Ami A.; McMahan, Zsuzsanna; Corona-Villalobos, Celia P.; Zimmerman, Stefan L.; Wigley, Fredrick M.; Hassoun, Paul M.; Kass, David A.; Tedford, Ryan J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Right ventricular (RV) functional reserve affects functional capacity and prognosis in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). PAH associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc-PAH) has a substantially worse prognosis as compared to idiopathic PAH (IPAH), even though many measures of resting RV function and pulmonary vascular load are similar. We therefore tested the hypothesis that RV functional reserve is depressed in SSc-PAH patients. Methods and Results RV pressure-volume relations were prospectively measured in IPAH (n=9) and SSc-PAH (n=15) patients at rest and during incremental atrial pacing or supine bicycle ergometry. Systolic and lusitropic function increased at faster heart rates in IPAH patients, but were markedly blunted in SSc-PAH. The recirculation fraction, which indexes intracellular calcium recycling, was also depressed in SSc-PAH (0.32±0.05 versus 0.50±0.05; p=0.039). At matched exercise (25 Watts), SSc-PAH patients failed to augment contractility (end-systolic elastance) whereas IPAH did (p<0.001). RV afterload assessed by effective arterial elastance rose similarly in both groups; thus, ventricular-vascular coupling declined in SSc-PAH. Both end-systolic and end-diastolic RV volumes increased in SSc-PAH patients to offset contractile deficits, whereas chamber dilation was absent in IPAH (+37±10% versus +1±8%, p=0.004, and +19±4% versus −1±6%, p<0.001, respectively). Exercise-associated RV dilation also strongly correlated with resting ventricular-vascular coupling in a larger cohort. Conclusions RV contractile reserve is depressed in SSc-PAH versus IPAH subjects, associated with reduced calcium recycling. During exercise, this results in ventricular-pulmonary vascular uncoupling and acute RV dilation. RV dilation during exercise can predict adverse ventricular-vascular coupling in PAH patients. PMID:27169739

  4. Relation of left ventricular function, mass, and volume to NT-proBNP in type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Anne Sofie; Kim, Won Yong; Tarnow, Lise

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES-To measure left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular volumes, and left ventricular function (LVF) in a cohort of type 1 diabetic patients and to correlate measures of imaging to NH2-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-In a cross-sectional......OBJECTIVES-To measure left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular volumes, and left ventricular function (LVF) in a cohort of type 1 diabetic patients and to correlate measures of imaging to NH2-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-In a cross...

  5. [Determination of the real value of the ventricular volume using angiographic methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ríos, M A; Gil, M; Arriaga, A; Cisneros, F; Soní, J; Gutiérrez F, E

    1976-01-01

    The developing of cuantitative angiographic procedures for evaluating the left ventricular efficiency have displaced most of the simple hemodynamic methods. The calculation of the left ventricular volume by usual ventriculography yields, as a rule, magnified values. The purpose of this paper is to determine the equation of the regression line means of which the real left ventricular volume can be calculated. A series of 12 normal hearts obtained from accidentaly deceased adult individuals (this necropsy material was afforded by the Forensic Medicine Department of México City). Previously measured amounts of a contrast substance were injected into the left ventricular cavity. The heart was filmed in a position equivalent to the chest RAO. The volume of the left ventricle was calculated using monoplane Sandler and Dodge cineventriculographic method. The results were submitted to statistic analysis. Confrontation of calculated and real values rendered a significative "r" (0.7374) and a non-significant "p" (0.001) the regression equation obteined was: y=36.97 + (0.39 x) in which: y=real left ventricular volume. x=calculated left ventricular volume.

  6. Convolutional Neural Network for the Detection of End-Diastole and End-Systole Frames in Free-Breathing Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; He, Yan; Hussain, Mubashir; Xie, Hong; Lei, Pinggui

    2017-01-01

    Free-breathing cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has short examination time with high reproducibility. Detection of the end-diastole and the end-systole frames of the free-breathing cardiac magnetic resonance, supplemented by visual identification, is time consuming and laborious. We propose a novel method for automatic identification of both the end-diastole and the end-systole frames, in the free-breathing CMR imaging. The proposed technique utilizes the convolutional neural network to locate the left ventricle and to obtain the end-diastole and the end-systole frames from the respiratory motion signal. The proposed procedure works successfully on our free-breathing CMR data, and the results demonstrate a high degree of accuracy and stability. Convolutional neural network improves the postprocessing efficiency greatly and facilitates the clinical application of the free-breathing CMR imaging.

  7. Convolutional Neural Network for the Detection of End-Diastole and End-Systole Frames in Free-Breathing Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-breathing cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR imaging has short examination time with high reproducibility. Detection of the end-diastole and the end-systole frames of the free-breathing cardiac magnetic resonance, supplemented by visual identification, is time consuming and laborious. We propose a novel method for automatic identification of both the end-diastole and the end-systole frames, in the free-breathing CMR imaging. The proposed technique utilizes the convolutional neural network to locate the left ventricle and to obtain the end-diastole and the end-systole frames from the respiratory motion signal. The proposed procedure works successfully on our free-breathing CMR data, and the results demonstrate a high degree of accuracy and stability. Convolutional neural network improves the postprocessing efficiency greatly and facilitates the clinical application of the free-breathing CMR imaging.

  8. Multi-slice computer tomography of left ventricular function with automated analysis software in comparison with conventional ventriculography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilard, Martine [Departments of Cardiology, EA 3878, Brest University Hospital, Brest (France)]. E-mail: martine.gilard@chu-brest.fr; Pennec, Pierre-Yves [Departments of Cardiology, EA 3878, Brest University Hospital, Brest (France); Cornily, Jean-Christophe [Departments of Cardiology, EA 3878, Brest University Hospital, Brest (France); Vinsonneau, Ulric [Service de cardiologie, hopital d' instruction des armees Clermont-Tonnerre, 29240 Brest Armees (France); Le Gal, Gregoire [Department of Internal Medicine, Brest University Hospital, Brest (France); Nonent, Michel [Departments of Radiology, Brest University Hospital, Brest (France); Mansourati, Jacques [Departments of Cardiology, EA 3878, Brest University Hospital, Brest (France); Boschat, Jacques [Departments of Cardiology, EA 3878, Brest University Hospital, Brest (France)

    2006-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of left ventricular volumetric and functional parameters from multi-slice computed tomography using automated analysis software, and to correlate results with those of invasive left ventriculography. Materials and methods: In 145 consecutive patients (mean age, 61 years {+-} 12) known or suspected to have coronary artery disease, a 16-channel multi-slice computed tomography (Philips Mx8000 IDT 16) was performed using a standard technique. Using short-axis secondary multi-slice computed tomography reformations, we determined end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction with a commercially available analysis software capable of automated contour detection. Conventional left ventriculography was performed according to standard techniques within the following 24 h. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to calculate the limits of agreement and systematic errors between multi-slice computed tomography and conventional left ventriculography. Results: As determined by computer tomography, mean end-systolic (53 {+-} 29 mL) left ventricular volumes had an acceptable correlation with conventional ventriculography (67 {+-} 50 mL; r = 0.74; p < 0.001) and mean end-diastolic (119 {+-} 33 mL) left ventricular volumes a poor correlation with conventional ventriculography measurements (154 {+-} 69 mL; r = 0.41). Left ventricular ejection fraction (57% {+-} 14 versus 55% {+-} 14 for conventional ventriculography; r = 0.79) showed a very good correlation (p < 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed acceptable limits of agreement ({+-}9.2% for ejection fraction) without systematic errors. Conclusion: The use of a multi-slice computed tomography with an automatic calculation software has a good correlation with conventional ventriculography findings and could accurately assess left ventricular function, but should not be used for ventricular volumes, because of biased estimations.

  9. The influence of right ventricular apical pacing on left atrial volume in patients with normal left ventricular function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Moaref1

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Right ventricular apical (RVA pacing has been reported to induce several deleterious effects particularly in the presence of structural heart disease but can also involve patients with normal left ventricular (LV function. Left atrial (LA enlargement is one of these effects, but the majority of studies have measured LA dimension rather than volume.Objective: The present prospective study was designed to assess the effect of RVA pacing on LA volume in patients with normal LV function.Patients and Methods: The study comprised 41 consecutive patients with LV ejection fraction ≥ 45% and LV end diastolic dimension ≤ 56 mm who underwent single-or dual- chamber pacemaker implantation in RVA and followed for LA volume measurement and pacemaker analysis at least during the ensuing 4.2 months. Results: In all, 21 patients were excluded from the study due to five spontaneous wide QRS complex (≥120msec, one recent acute coronary syndrome,one significant valvular heart disease, three pacing frequency <90%, eight death or losing follow up in three cases. In remaining 20 patients, LA volume ragned from 21 to 54 mm3 with mean of 37.3±9.7 mm3 prior to pacemaker implantation that increased to 31 to 103 mm3 (54.3±17.0 during follow-up (P<0.001.Conclusion: RVA pacing might lead to an increase in LA volume even in patients with normal LV function.

  10. Cardiac MRI assessment of right ventricular function: impact of right bundle branch block on the evaluation of cardiac performance parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marterer, Robert; Hongchun, Zeng; Tschauner, Sebastian; Koestenberger, Martin; Sorantin, Erich

    2015-12-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function represents a prognostic marker in patients with corrected congenital heart disease. In up to 80 % of these patients, right branch bundle block (RBBB) exists and leads to asynchronous ventricular contraction. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the change of RV performance parameters considering delayed RV end-systolic contraction. RV volumes of 33 patients were assessed twice: 1) not taking account of RBBB (group I), and 2) considering RBBB (group II). According to the RV ejection fraction (EF) for both groups, RV function was classified in different categories (>50 % = normal, 40-50 % = mildly-, 30-40 % = moderately-, branch bundle block leads to an asynchronous ventricular contraction • In CMR, a delayed right ventricular contraction due to RBBB can be detected • Ignoring RV physiology in RBBB patients leads to underscoring of RV performance.

  11. Ventricular volume and neurocognitive outcome after endoscopic third ventriculostomy: is shunting a better option? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Waleed A; Mijalcic, Radovan M; Nakhi, Saleh Ben; Mohammad, Mohammad H

    2016-05-01

    Shunts are generally associated with a smaller post-treatment ventricular size in comparison to endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). To determine whether such a difference in ventricular size has neurocognitive implications, we reviewed the current literature pertaining to the (1) neurocognitive sequelae of hydrocephalus, (2) neurocognitive outcome after ETV, (3) extent of reversal of neurocognitive changes associated with hydrocephalus after shunting, and (4) data on correlation between post-treatment ventricular volume and neurocognitive outcome after ETV. Collectively, the results of the available studies should call into question the correlation between the residual postoperative ventricular volume and neurocognitive outcome. The available literature is so far in support of ETV as a valid and effective treatment modality in hydrocephalic patients. No sufficient evidence is available to justify resorting to shunting on the premise that it is associated with a better neurocognitive outcome.

  12. Correlation between volume overload, chronic inflammation, and left ventricular dysfunction in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muzamil Olamide; Duarte, Raquel; Dix-Peek, Therese; Vachiat, Ahmed; Naidoo, Sagren; Dickens, Caroline; Grinter, Sacha; Manga, Pravin; Naicker, Saraladevi

    Fluid overload is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, potentially driving chronic inflammation and left ventricular dysfunction. We investigated the association between volume overload, chronic inflammation, and left ventricular dysfunction across subgroups of CKD patients. The study included 160 participants, comprising peritoneal dialysis (PD), hemodialysis (HD), stage-3 CKD patients, and age- and sex-matched controls (40 in each group). Fluid status was assessed using a body composition monitor (BCM); serum endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), C-reactive protein (CRP). and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured as markers of inflammation. Echocardiography was done to assess left ventricular dimension and function. Endotoxemia and volume overload were common across the spectrum of CKD patients and were aggravated by worsening kidney function. Among HD cohorts, postdialysis endotoxemia was increased among patients with dialysis-induced hemodynamic instability and was also closely related to ultrafiltration volume. Endotoxin, IL-6, CRP, and LBP levels were elevated in patients with volume overload compared to euvolemic patients (p < 0.05). Patients with elevated circulating endotoxemia had higher left ventricular mass index (LVMI) compared to patients with lower endotoxin levels. Fluid overload correlated with endotoxin levels, IL-6, and LVMI; while LVMI correlated weakly with LBP and CRP. CKD patients typically presented with significant endotoxemia and overt volume overload, which may contribute significantly to chronic low-grade inflammation and left ventricular dysfunction. An additive contribution from hemodialysis treatment may strongly enhance the severity of endotoxemia in HD patients.

  13. Relation of left ventricular function, mass, and volume to NT-proBNP in type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A.S.; Kim, W.Y.; Tarnow, L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To measure left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular volumes, and left ventricular function (LVF) in a cohort of type 1 diabetic patients and to correlate measures of imaging to NH(2)-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a cross...

  14. New evidence for favourable effects on haemodynamics and ventricular performance after Parachute(®) implantation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Tobias; Frerker, Christian; Thielsen, Thomas; Dotz, Inge; Wohlmuth, Peter; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Ulrich

    2014-10-01

    The Parachute(®) Ventricular Partitioning Device offers an additional strategy for heart failure patients with exclusion of the infarcted wall to decrease left ventricular volumes, myocardial work, and wall stress. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if Parachute implantation might influence acute haemodynamic and functional performance in patients with left ventricular aneurysm after anteroapical infarction. Sixteen patients underwent a Parachute device implantation. Invasive right and left heart haemodynamic assessments as well as left ventricular analysis for evaluating left ventricle end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, and regional ventricular function were analysed. After implantation a significant increase in stroke volume (+25.4%, P = 0.0005), stroke volume index (+26.5%, P = 0.0005), cardiac output (+25.8%, P < 0.0001) and cardiac index (+25.9%, P < 0.0001) was found. In addition to an increase in mean aortic (P = 0.0050) and pulmonary pressure (P = 0.0347), there were significant increases in stroke work index (P = 0.0003), left (P = 0.0015) and right (P = 0.0024) ventricular stroke work index as well as left and right cardiac work index (both P = 0.0001), while the remaining haemodynamic parameters remained unchanged. Left ventricular analysis showed an acute reduction of the left ventricular end-diastolic volume (-18.0%, P < 0.0001) and left ventricular end-systolic volume (-26.3%, P < 0.0001) and an increase in ejection fraction from 22.9 to 30.6% (+38.4%, P < 0.0001). Most interestingly, the basal wall segments displayed an increased contribution to the left ventricular ejection fraction with increased wall motion in nearly all segments (except the apex region). The data demonstrate the acute haemodynamic efficacy of Parachute device implantation. The implantation of the device displays immediate significant left ventricular volume reduction leading to an acute improved right and left

  15. Characterisation of the normal right ventricular pressure-volume relation by biplane angiography and simultaneous micromanometer pressure measurements.

    OpenAIRE

    Redington, A N; Gray, H. H.; Hodson, M E; Rigby, M L; Oldershaw, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The normal right ventricular pressure-volume relation was studied by recording biplane right ventriculograms with simultaneous high fidelity pressure recordings in 10 adults found to have normal coronary arteries and haemodynamic function at diagnostic cardiac catheterisation. Right ventricular volume was measured frame by frame from digitised ventriculograms by a modification of Simpson's rule. The accuracy of this method was tested in a study of 22 human and animal right ventricular casts. ...

  16. Right ventricular Hemodynamic Alteration after Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Bigdelian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  In patients who underwent surgery to repair Tetralogy of Fallot, right ventricular dilation from pulmonary regurgitation may be result in right ventricular failure, arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. Hence, pulmonary valve replacement may be necessary to reduce right ventricular volume overload. The aim of present study was to assess the effects of pulmonary valve replacement on right ventricular function after repair of Tetralogy of Fallot.   Materials and  Method:  This retrospective study was carried out between July 2011 and October 2013 on 21 consecutive patients in Chamran Heart Center (Esfahan. The study included 13 male (61.9% and 8 female (38.1%. Cardiac magnetic resonance was performed before, 6 and 12 months after pulmonary valve replacement in all patients (Babak Imaging Center, Tehran with the 1.5 Tesla system. The main reason for surgery at Tetralogy of Fallot repaired time was Tetralogy of Fallot + Pulmonary insufficiency (17 cases and Tetralogy of Fallot + Pulmonary atresia (4 cases. Right ventricular function was assessed before and after pulmonary valve replacement with Two-dimensional echocardiography and ttest was used to evaluate follow-up data.   Results:  Right ventricular end-diastolic volume, right ventricular end- systolic volume significantly decreased (P value ˂ 0.05.Right ventricular ejection fraction had a significant increase (P value ˂ 0.05. Right ventricular mass substantially shrank after pulmonary valve replacement. Moreover, pulmonary regurgitation noticeably decreased in patients. The other hemodynamic parameter such as left ventricular ejection fraction improved but was not significant (P value= 0.79. Conclusion:  Pulmonary valve replacement can successfully restores the impaired hemodynamic function of right ventricle which is caused by direct consequence of volume unloading in patient. Pulmonary valve surgery in children with Tetralogy of Fallot who have moderate to severe pulmonary

  17. Reproducibility of Left Ventricular Dimension Versus Area Versus Volume Measurements in Pediatric Patients With Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamet Tierney, Elif Seda; Hollenbeck-Pringle, Danielle; Lee, Caroline K; Altmann, Karen; Dunbar-Masterson, Carolyn; Golding, Fraser; Lu, Minmin; Miller, Stephen G; Molina, Kimberly; Natarajan, Shobha; Taylor, Carolyn L; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Colan, Steven D

    2017-11-01

    Multiple echocardiographic methods are used to measure left ventricular size and function. Clinical management is based on individual evaluations and longitudinal trends. The Pediatric Heart Network VVV study (Ventricular Volume Variability) in pediatric patients with dilated cardiomyopathy has reported reproducibility of several of these measures, and how disease state and number of beats impact their reproducibility. In this study, we investigated the impact of observer and sonographer variation on reproducibility of dimension, area, and volume methods to determine the best method for both individual and sequential evaluations. In 8 centers, echocardiograms were obtained on 169 patients prospectively. During the same visit, 2 different sonographers acquired the same imaging protocol on each patient. Each acquisition was analyzed by 2 different observers; first observer analyzed the first acquisition twice. Intraobserver, interobserver, interacquisition, and interobserver-acquisition (different observers and different acquisition) reproducibility were assessed on measurements of left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, area, and volume. Left ventricular shortening fraction, ejection fraction, mass, and fractional area change were calculated. Percent difference was calculated as (interobservation difference/mean)×100. Interobserver reproducibility for both acquisitions was better for both volume and dimension measurements (P≤0.002) compared with area measurements, whereas intraobserver, interacquisition (for both observers), and interobserver-acquisition reproducibilities (for both observer-acquisition sets) were best for volume measurements (P≤0.01). Overall, interobserver-acquisition percent differences were significantly higher than interobserver and interacquisition percent differences (Pdimension and area methods, left ventricular measurements by volume method have the best reproducibility in settings where assessment is not performed by the same

  18. Ventricular energetics early after surgery for chronic mitral regurgitation: repair versus replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imasaka, Ken-ichi; Motomatsu, Yuma; Hori, Hidetsugu; Kono, Takanori; Tanoue, Yoshihisa; Tayama, Eiki; Tomita, Yukihiro

    2013-11-01

    The study aim was to compare the effects of mitral valve (MV) repair and replacement with partial (posterior leaflet only) chordal preservation on left ventricular (LV) performance in chronic degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) by assessing ventricular energetics. Contractility (end-systolic elastance), afterload (effective arterial elastance), and ventricular efficiency (ventriculoarterial coupling and the ratio of stroke work to pressure-volume area were determined using transthoracic echocardiography data obtained before and at one month after surgery in 29 patients undergoing MV repair, and in 12 patients undergoing partial chordal-sparing MV replacement. A two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used for comparisons among patients who underwent MV surgery (valve repair versus valve replacement). The LV diastolic volume index was decreased significantly in both groups (p<0.0001), whereas the LV systolic volume index did not change significantly (p=0.956). Despite the similar remarkable decrease in ejection fraction (p<0.0001) in both groups, end-systolic elastance remained unchanged (p=0.312). Effective arterial elastance was increased significantly in both groups (p<0.0001). Ventriculoarterial coupling and the ratio of stroke work to pressure-volume area deteriorated similarly in both groups (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001). Compensation of LV geometry after correction of chronic MR preserved ventricular contractility. Furthermore, the results of MV repair were not superior to those of MV replacement with partial chordal preservation in the early postoperative period. This suggested that partial chordal-sparing MV replacement is an effective method for the treatment of chronic MR in selected patients.

  19. Surgical treatment of ischemic mitral regurgitation might not influence ventricular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Yoshiharu; Gorman, Joseph H; Moainie, Sina L; Guy, T Sloane; Jackson, Benjamin M; Parish, Landi M; Plappert, Theodore; Zeeshan, Ahmad; St John-Sutton, Martin G; Gorman, Robert C

    2005-03-01

    Surgical treatment for ischemic mitral regurgitation has become more aggressive. However, no clinical study has demonstrated that surgical correction of chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation improves survival. We used 4 well-developed ovine models of postinfarction left ventricular remodeling to test the hypothesis that ischemic mitral regurgitation does not significantly contribute to postinfarction left ventricular remodeling. Infarction of 21% to 24% of the left ventricular mass was induced by means of coronary ligation in 77 sheep. Infarctions varied only by anatomic location in the left ventricle: anteroapical, n = 26; anterobasal, n = 16; laterobasal, n = 9; and posterobasal, n = 20. Six additional sheep had ring annuloplasty before posterobasal infarction. End-systolic and end-diastolic left ventricular volume, end-systolic muscle-to-cavity area ratio, left ventricular sphericity, ejection fraction, and degree of ischemic mitral regurgitation, as determined by means of quantitative echocardiography, were assessed before infarction and at 2, 5, and 8 weeks after infarction. All infarcts resulted in significant postinfarction remodeling and decreased ejection fraction. Anteroapical infarcts lead to left ventricular aneurysms. Only posterobasal infarcts caused severe and progressive ischemic mitral regurgitation. Remodeling because of posterobasal infarcts was not more severe than that caused by infarcts at other locations. Furthermore, prophylactic annuloplasty prevented the development of mitral regurgitation after posterobasal infarction but had no effect on remodeling. The extent of postinfarction remodeling is determined on the basis of infarct size and location. The development of ischemic mitral regurgitation might not contribute significantly to adverse remodeling. Ischemic mitral regurgitation is likely a manifestation rather than an important impetus for postinfarction remodeling.

  20. Cardiac MRI assessment of right ventricular function: impact of right bundle branch block on the evaluation of cardiac performance parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marterer, Robert; Tschauner, Sebastian; Sorantin, Erich [Medical University of Graz, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria); Zeng, Hongchun [First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Department of Ultrasonography, Urumqi (China); Koestenberger, Martin [Medical University of Graz, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Graz (Austria)

    2015-12-15

    Right ventricular (RV) function represents a prognostic marker in patients with corrected congenital heart disease. In up to 80 % of these patients, right branch bundle block (RBBB) exists and leads to asynchronous ventricular contraction. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the change of RV performance parameters considering delayed RV end-systolic contraction. RV volumes of 33 patients were assessed twice: 1) not taking account of RBBB (group I), and 2) considering RBBB (group II). According to the RV ejection fraction (EF) for both groups, RV function was classified in different categories (>50 % = normal, 40-50 % = mildly-, 30-40 % = moderately-, <30 % = severely-reduced). The mean time difference between maximal systolic contraction of the septum and RV free wall was 90.7 ms ± 42.6. Consequently, RV end-systolic volume was significantly decreased in group II (p < 0.001). Accordingly, RV stroke volume and RV EF were significantly higher in group II (p < 0.001). There was also a significant change in the assessment of RV function (p < 0.02). RBBB induced delayed RV contraction can be detected at CMR. Ignoring the RV physiology in RBBB patients leads to a statistically significant underscoring of RV performance parameters. (orig.)

  1. Serial changes in anatomy and ventricular function on dual-source cardiac computed tomography after the Norwood procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2017-12-01

    Accurate evaluation of anatomy and ventricular function after the Norwood procedure in hypoplastic left heart syndrome is important for treatment planning and prognostication, but echocardiography and cardiac MRI have limitations. To assess serial changes in anatomy and ventricular function on dual-source cardiac CT after the Norwood procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. In 14 consecutive patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, end-systolic and end-diastolic phase cardiac dual-source CT was performed before and early (average: 1 month) after the Norwood procedure, and repeated late (median: 4.5 months) after the Norwood procedure in six patients. Ventricular functional parameters and indexed morphological measurements including pulmonary artery size, right ventricular free wall thickness, and ascending aorta size on cardiac CT were compared between different time points. Moreover, morphological features including ventricular septal defect, endocardial fibroelastosis and coronary ventricular communication were evaluated on cardiac CT. Right ventricular function and volumes remained unchanged (indexed end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes: 38.9±14.0 vs. 41.1±21.5 ml/m2, P=0.7 and 99.5±30.5 vs. 105.1±33.0 ml/m2, P=0.6; ejection fraction: 60.1±7.3 vs. 63.8±7.0%, P=0.1, and indexed stroke volume: 60.7±18.0 vs. 64.0±15.6 ml/m2, P=0.5) early after the Norwood procedure, but function was decreased (ejection fraction: 64.2±2.6 vs. 58.1±7.1%, P=0.01) and volume was increased (indexed end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes: 39.2±14.9 vs. 68.9±20.6 ml/m2, Pfunction after the Norwood procedure in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

  2. Reproducibility of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMRI)-Derived Right Ventricular Parameters in Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanappa, Ganesh Kumar; Rashid, Imran; Celermajer, David; Ayer, Julian; Puranik, Rajesh

    2018-03-01

    Quantification of right ventricular (RV) volumes is challenging owing to variable reproducibility and is especially so in congenital heart disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has the ability to more comprehensively survey the entire right ventricle and is currently considered the gold standard. We aimed to determine the inter-observer reproducibility of CMR-derived RV volumes generated by two independent and experienced (SCMR Level III) observers in Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) patients with varying degrees of RV dilatation. We performed a retrospective analysis of 120 consecutive patients with repaired ToF who underwent CMR. Two blinded observers calculated RV volumes in each oblique short axis slice independently. Bland-Altman analysis and inter-observer correlation coefficients (ICC) were assessed. The coefficients of variation for RV parameters were: 2.9%, 8% and 3.4% for right ventricular end diastolic volume (RVEDV), right ventricular end systolic volume (RVESV) and right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) respectively. For RVEDV the interobserver correlation was 0.992 demonstrating excellent volumetric correlation between observers. The mean difference between the observers for right ventricular end diastolic volume index (RVEDVi) was 2.5ml/m 2 (95% limits of agreement -7.3 to 12.2ml/m 2 ). For patients with mild-moderate RV dilatation (RVEDVi rights reserved.

  3. Detection of Left Ventricular Regional Function in Asymptomatic Children with beta-Thalassemia Major by Longitudinal Strain and Strain Rate Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cardiac failure due to iron overload remains the most common cause of death in patients with beta-thalassemia major. This study aimed to evaluate myocardial function in children with beta-thalassemia major using standard echocardiography technique and strain rate imaging. Materials and Methods: Conventional echocardiographic analysis, tissue velocity imaging, and strain/strain rate imaging of the left ventricle were evaluated in 48 children with beta thalassemia major (19 girls, 29 boys; 8.39±4.05 years and 22 healthy children (11 girls, 11 boys; 8±3.72 years. Results: Conventional echocardiographic examinations revealed that beta-thalassemia patients had larger left ventricular end-systolic diameter, end-diastolic and end-systolic volume, left ventricular mass index, and mitral early/late diastolic flow velocity ratio (p<0.05. Strain and strain rate imaging study of the basal lateral wall of the left ventricle was higher in patients than in controls, at p=0.035 and p=0.008, respectively. Conclusion: We found that superior systolic strain and strain rate imaging of the left ventricle indicated the presence of regional systolic function in the left ventricular wall. We suggest that left ventricle volume and mass index parameters might be more sensitive than the other conventional and strain/strain rate imaging parameters during childhood. However, the adulthood strain and strain rate imaging values may be lower than controls, exceeding the critical level of iron overload.

  4. An automatic calibration approach for left ventricular volume assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béatrice, Perrenot; Régis, Vaillant; Philippe, Douek; Rémy, Prost; Françoise, Peyrin; Gérard, Finet

    2007-01-01

    The development of interventional procedures in the catheterisation laboratory drives the introduction of simple, fast and accurate quantification methods. Quantification is used to evaluate the volume of the left ventricle but also for choosing the size of a balloon or a stent during the percutaneous coronary angioplasty procedure. The objective of the calibration procedure is to establish the relation between the true size of the analyzed organ and its apparent size in the image. This calibration step aims at measuring the pixel size in mm. Traditional approach measures a known object on the image, but suffers from several limitations and constraints; in particular, the size of the reference object is often not exactly known. Besides, the therapeutic procedures are done in the continuity of the diagnosis and the physician has a very little amount of time to spend on the determination of the quantitative information like the chosen reference size. A new approach has been proposed [1], allowed by the introduction of the flat-panel technology and modern positioning systems. With the absence of distortion in the image and accurate knowledge of the system geometry, a model can be used to automatically identify the calibration factor using an additional input provided by the operator: the target organ height above the table top. The objective of our study was to estimate this input parameter in the particular case of the Left Ventricle (LV) volume angiographic computation.

  5. Age variance of left ventricular diameters in dogs with cardiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhof, P L; Roos, A; ter Haar, G; Kocsis, S; Pijnenburg, H L; Stokhof, A A

    1998-01-01

    Ventricular size increases during growth, but often due to cardiac disease. This study aims to describe left ventricular dimension interrelations using a representation that is applicable to patients with cardiac disease, and subsequently to statistically study possible age and gender influences in a large population. In retrospect we analyzed echocardiographically obtained diameters of the left ventricle in 442 dogs of various breeds with congenital or acquired heart disease. Also, we compared our findings with published data on humans and other animals. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to assess possible influences of age and gender. A high correlation was found for end-systolic diameter (ESD) versus end-diastolic diameter (EDD): ESD (cm) = -1.01 cm + 0.93 x EDD (cm) with r = 0.94, p framework for studies on cardiac volume regulation and performance in the cardiopathological spectrum, while permitting incorporation of modulating effects related to age.

  6. Effect of hydration status on atrial and ventricular volumes and function in healthy adult volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schantz, Daryl I. [The Hospital for Sick Children, The Labatt Family Heart Centre in the Department of Paediatrics, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Manitoba, Variety Children' s Heart Centre, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Dragulescu, Andreea [The Hospital for Sick Children, The Labatt Family Heart Centre in the Department of Paediatrics, Toronto, ON (Canada); Memauri, Brett [University of Manitoba, Department of Radiology, St. Boniface General Hospital, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Grotenhuis, Heynric B. [The Hospital for Sick Children, The Labatt Family Heart Centre in the Department of Paediatrics, Toronto, ON (Canada); Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Seed, Mike; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars [The Hospital for Sick Children, The Labatt Family Heart Centre in the Department of Paediatrics, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-10-15

    Assessment of cardiac chamber volumes is a fundamental part of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. While the effects of inter- and intraobserver variability have been studied and have a recognized effect on the comparability of serial cardiac MR imaging studies, the effect of differences in hydration status has not been evaluated. To evaluate the effects of volume administration on cardiac chamber volumes. Thirteen healthy adults underwent a baseline cardiac MR to evaluate cardiac chamber volumes after an overnight fast. They were then given two saline boluses of 10 ml/kg of body weight and the cardiac MR was repeated immediately after each bolus. From the baseline scan to the final scan there was a significant increase in all four cardiac chamber end-diastolic volumes. Right atrial volumes increased 8.0%, from 61.1 to 66.0 ml/m2 (P<0.001), and left atrial volumes increased 10.0%, from 50.0 to 55.0 ml/m2 (P<0.001). Right ventricular volumes increased 6.0%, from 91.1 to 96.5 ml/m2 (P<0.001), and left ventricular volumes increased 3.2%, from 87.0 to 89.8 ml/m2 (P<0.001). Hydration status has a significant effect on the end-diastolic volumes of all cardiac chambers assessed by cardiac MR. Thus, hydration represents a ''variable'' that should be taken into account when assessing cardiac chamber volumes, especially when performing serial imaging studies in a patient. (orig.)

  7. Moderate exercise training improves survival and ventricular remodeling in an animal model of left ventricular volume overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Dominic; Plante, Eric; Bouchard-Thomassin, Andrée-Anne; Champetier, Serge; Roussel, Elise; Drolet, Marie-Claude; Arsenault, Marie; Couet, Jacques

    2009-09-01

    Exercise training has beneficial effects in patients with heart failure, although there is still no clear evidence that it may impact on their survival. There are no data regarding the effects of exercise in subjects with chronic left ventricular (LV) volume overload. Using a rat model of severe aortic valve regurgitation (AR), we studied the effects of long-term exercise training on survival, development of heart failure, and LV myocardial remodeling. One hundred sixty male adult rats were divided in 3 groups: sham sedentary (n=40), AR sedentary (n=80), and AR trained (n=40). Training consisted in treadmill running for up to 30 minutes, 5 times per week for 9 months, at a maximal speed of 20 m/minute. All sham-operated animals survived the entire course of the protocol. After 9 months, 65% of trained animals were alive compared with 46% of sedentary ones (P=0.05). Ejection fractions remained in the normal range (all above 60%) and LV masses between AR groups were similar. There was significantly less LV fibrosis in the trained group and lower LV filling pressures and improved echocardiographic diastolic parameters. Heart rate variability was also improved by exercise. Our data show that moderate endurance training is safe, does not increase the rate of developing heart failure, and most importantly, improves survival in this animal model of chronic LV volume overload. Exercise improved LV diastolic function, heart rate variability, and reduced myocardial fibrosis.

  8. Comparative studies on right ventricular pressure and volume overloading by thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owada, K.; Tsukahara, Y.; Kijima, M.; Miyazaki, Y.; Ono, K. (Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1982-03-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 44 patients with various heart diseases including mitral stenosis, atrial septal defect, primary pulmonary hypertension, and left atrial myxoma. The morphological findings of right ventricular (RV) free wall on the scintigram and RV/IVS (interventricular septum) uptake ratio of the images obtained from the left anterior oblique projection were studied in the patients with RV pressure or volume overloading.

  9. Applications of magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of left ventricular dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beacock, David John

    2002-07-01

    This thesis has described the use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the investigation of left ventricular dimensions and systolic function. This has been performed in conditions of left ventricular dysfunction, in congestive cardiac failure and following anterior myocardial infarction. The reproducibility of measurements of left ventricular dimensions using MRI has been presented. Such measurements were shown to be reproducible between different MRI studies of normal volunteers and patients with congestive heart failure. Furthermore, measurements from different MRI studies obtained from two commercially different systems were reproducible for the same subject groups. Ventricular dimensions and systolic function was evaluated in adult normal volunteers of different ages. Although left ventricular volumes and mass remained unchanged, detailed studies of the systolic images revealed significant differences between the two age groups. Differences in left ventricular cavity volumes and mass between patients with congestive heart failure and age-matched normal volunteers were also investigated. Left ventricular volumes and myocardial mass were assessed in a group of patients following anterior myocardial infarction. End-systolic volume was significantly increased compared to age-matched volunteers, but no changes in end-diastolic volume or myocardial mass was observed. Serial re-evaluation of these patients revealed no other changes over the subsequent six months. All these patients were treated with optimal medical therapy (thrombolysis, aspirin, beta-blockade and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition). Thus, the use of this therapy may attenuate the process of left ventricular remodelling. Regional wall thickness was measured in the post-infarct patients. Wall thickening was significantly reduced both in the infarcted regions and in myocardium remote to the infarction. In contrast to previous echocardiographic studies, no 'hypercontractility' was

  10. Cardiac MRI in children and adolescents who have undergone surgical repair of right-sided congenital heart disease. Automated left ventricular volumes and function analysis and effects of different manual adjustments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rompel, O.; Janka, R.; May, M.S.; Lell, M.M.; Uder, M.; Hammon, M. [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Gloeckler, M.; Dittrich, S. [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Cardiology; Cesnjevar, R. [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    2015-12-15

    To evaluate automated segmentation and the effects of different manual adjustments regarding left ventricular parameter quantification in cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) data on children and adolescents who have undergone surgical repair of right-sided congenital heart disease (CHD). Dedicated software (syngo.via, Siemens AG) was used to automatically segment and/or manually adjust the end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), myocardial mass (MM) and ejection fraction (EF) before/after manual apex/base adjustment (ADJ-step 1) and after manual apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment (ADJ-step 2; reference standard). MR data of 40 patients (13.1 ± 3.1y, 4-17y) with repaired CHD with decreased pulmonary blood flow (CHD-DPBF) were evaluated. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was determined for 10 randomly selected patients. The software correctly detected the left ventricle in 38/40 (95 %) patients. EDV after automated segmentation: 119.1 ± 44.0ml; after ADJ-step 1: 115.8 ± 39.5 ml; after ADJ-step 2: 116.2 ± 39.4 ml. The corresponding results for ESV were 52.0 ± 18.5/49.6 ± 16.9/49.7 ± 16.4 ml; for SV 67.1 ± 28.5/66.2 ± 25.4/66.5 ± 25.5 ml; for EF 55.5 ± 7.3/56.7 ± 6.6/56.7 ± 6.3%; for MM 83.7 ± 35.9/76.2 ± 28.3/74.6 ± 27.2 g. Significant differences were found for ESV/MM/EF comparing the automated segmentation results with these after ADJ-step 1 and ADJ-step 2. No significant differences were found when comparing all results of ADJ-step 1 and ADJ-step 2 or when comparing EDV/SV results. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was excellent. The mean time effort was 63.4 ± 6.9 s for the automated segmentation, 74.2 ± 8.9 s for ADJ-step 1 and 269.5 ± 39.4 s for ADJ-step 2. Automated left ventricular volumes and function analysis in children and adolescents with surgically treated CHD proved to be feasible with excellent intra- and inter-rater reliability. Automated segmentation with manual apex/base adjustment provided

  11. Ventricular performance during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Iwao; Akashiba, Tsuneto; Horie, Takashi (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-01-01

    We assessed ventricular performance during exercise in 16 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and 8 normal control subjects by means of radionuclide equilibrium angiography using technetium-99m as a tracer. Supine exercise on a bicycle ergometer was performed until symptom-limited exhaustion. Data were accumulated for 300 heart beats at rest and 150 heart beats during exercise. We used the standard voxel count method to calculate the ventricular volumes. Age, FEV{sub 1.0}%, %VC, PaO{sub 2} and PaCO{sub 2} of the COPD patients were 63{+-}8 yr, 46{+-}11%, 69{+-}18%, 68{+-}11 Torr and 44{+-}7 Torr (mean{+-}SD), respectively. Systolic dysfunction of both the left and right ventricles was well confirmed in the present study. In 12 patients who also underwent hemodynamic studies, resting total pulmonary vascular resistance index (TPVRI) and mean pulmonary artery pressure (P-barpa) significantly correlated with right ventricular end-systolic volume index (RVESVI) obtained by RI angiography; {gamma}=0.769 (p<0.01) and {gamma}=0.631 (p<0.05), respectively. A significant relationship was also observed between left ventricular dysfunction and the degree of hypercapnia. In response to exercise testing, 10 of 16 patients exhibited insufficient augmentation of stroke volume, and both left and right end-diastolic volumes decreased in half of 10 patients. It is suggested that cardiac function may be disturbed by mechanical factors such as pulmonary hyperinflation in COPD patients. (author).

  12. Off-pump epicardial ventricular reconstruction restores left ventricular twist and reverses remodeling in an ovine anteroapical aneurysm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanping; Aboodi, Michael S; Annest, Lon S; Wechsler, Andrew S; Kaluza, Greg L; Granada, Juan F; Yi, Geng-Hua

    2014-07-01

    The loss of normal apical rotation is associated with left ventricular (LV) remodeling and systolic dysfunction in patients with congestive heart failure after myocardial infarction. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of epicardial ventricular reconstruction, an off-pump, less-invasive surgical reshaping technique, on myocardial strain, LV twist, and the potential alteration of myocardial fiber orientation in an ovine model of LV anteroapical aneurysm. LV anteroapical myocardial infarction was induced by coil embolization of the left anterior descending artery. Eight weeks after occlusion, epicardial ventricular reconstruction was performed using left thoracotomy under fluoroscopic guidance in 8 sheep to completely exclude the scar. The peak systolic longitudinal/circumferential strains and LV twist were evaluated using speckle tracking echocardiography before (baseline), after device implantation, and at 6 weeks of follow-up. Epicardial ventricular reconstruction was completed in all sheep without any complications. Immediately after device implantation, LV twist significantly increased (4.18 ± 1.40 vs baseline 1.97 ± 1.92; P = .02). The ejection fraction had increased 17% and LV end-systolic volume had decreased 40%. The global longitudinal strain increased from -5.3% to -9.1% (P anteroapical aneurysm model. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Echoventriculography in acute myocardial infarction. II: Monitoring of left ventricular performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, M; Heikkilä, J

    1976-03-01

    In acute myocardial infarction the overall left ventricular pump function and the regional performance of the infarcted and non-infarcted myocardial segments were studied serially by echocardiographic techniques in 24 patients during the first week of their illness. Left ventricular cavity sizes were acutely increased in 62 per cent of the patients (P less than 0-005). The end-systolic diameter in anterior infarcts increased to the greatest extent, +44 per cent, the end-diastolic diameter by +27 per cent, giving a volume of 246+/-25 ml. In the anterior myocardial infarcts all the function parameters deteriorated more than in the posteroinferior ones. Ejection fraction was subnormal (P less than 0-005) in every patient, and mean circumferential fibre shortening (Vcf) was slowed by about 30 per cent (P less than 0-005). Regionally, contraction of the infarcted area of the ventricle was asynergic in every instance, and its function was almost totally lost (P less than 0-001). Systolic paradoxical motion was a constant and stable finding in the anterior infarctions but not so in the posterior ones. While this asynergic systolic contraction may distort echocardiographic measurement of the end-systolic left vlic phase. The serial deviations from normal in the amplitude or velocity of the uninvolved segments were small, but in the case of clearly enlarged end-diastolic volumes these figures in fact indicate supernormal, compensating function. Both overall and regional performance were worst within the first 3 days of infarction, improving thereafter. The patient with a fatal course showed, instead, progressive deterioration. This noninvasive left ventriculogram by ultrasound gives valuable insight into overall pump function and ventricular volumes, little studied so far in acute infarction, and it may serially quantify the segmental function of both the infarcted and uninvolved regions.

  14. Beneficial effects of elevating cardiac preload on left-ventricular diastolic function and volume during heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brothers, R M; Pecini, Redi; Dalsgaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    conditions prior to and during a simulated hemorrhagic challenge. Heat stress did not change indices of diastolic function. Subsequent volume infusion elevated indices of diastolic function, specifically early diastolic mitral annular tissue velocity (E') and early diastolic propagation velocity (E) relative......Volume loading normalizes tolerance to a simulated hemorrhagic challenge in heat-stressed individuals, relative to when these individuals are thermoneutral. The mechanism(s) by which this occurs is unknown. This project tested two unique hypotheses; that is, the elevation of central blood volume...... via volume loading while heat stressed would 1) increase indices of left ventricular diastolic function, and 2) preserve left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) during a subsequent simulated hemorrhagic challenge induced by lower-body negative pressure (LBNP). Indices of left ventricular...

  15. The Relationship between Left Atrial Volume and Ventricular Arrhythmias in the Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Kaplan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between Left Atrial Volume (LAV, a marker of diastolic dysfunction, and the frequency of malignant ventricular arrhythmia in the patients with left ventricular dysfunction and a previously implanted Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD device. Methods:: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 32 patients with ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, each having had an ICD device implanted at least 1 year beforehand. The ventricular arrhythmia episodes which were detected and stored by the device were retrieved and evaluated. In addition to routine echocardiographic measurements, all the patients had their LAV and LAV indexes calculated. After all, student’s t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Pearson correlation were used to analyze the data. Besides, P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results:: This study was conducted on 4 female and 28 male patients with the mean age of 58.41 ± 9.97 years. Among the study patients, 21 had at least one previous myocardial infarction. In addition, 17 patients had experienced sustained VT or VF within the last year. No significant difference was found between the patients with and without malignant ventricular arrhythmias (sustained VT or VF regarding LAV (17 patients with arrhythmia (68 + 23.39 mL vs. 15 patients without arrhythmia (55.13 ± 20.41 mL; P = 0.100. However, the LAV index was significantly higher in the patients with arrhythmia compared to those without arrhythmia (39.27 ± 12.19 mL / m2 vs. 25.18 ± 7.45 mL / m2; P = 0.004. Both LAV (73.33 ± 17.64 mL and 57.52 ± 23.15 mL, respectively; P = 0.040 and LAV index (40.86 ± 8.47 mL / m2 and 28.20 ± 11.77 mL / m2, respectively; P = 0.010 were significantly greater in the patients with ICD shock therapy within the last year compared to the others. However, both groups were similar regarding Left Ventricular Volume (LVV, LVV index, and

  16. Myocardial Extracellular Volume Is not Associated With Malignant Ventricular Arrhythmias in High-risk Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirelis, Jesús G; Sánchez-González, Javier; Zorio, Esther; Ripoll-Vera, Tomas; Salguero-Bodes, Rafael; Filgueiras-Rama, David; González-López, Esther; Gallego-Delgado, María; Fernández-Jiménez, Rodrigo; Soleto, María Jesús; Núñez, Juana; Pizarro, Gonzalo; Sanz, Javier; Fuster, Valentín; García-Pavía, Pablo; Ibáñez, Borja

    2017-03-21

    Myocardial interstitial fibrosis, a hallmark of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), has been proposed as an arrhythmic substrate. Fibrosis is associated with increased extracellular volume (ECV), which can be quantified by computed tomography (CT). We aimed to analyze the association between CT-determined ECV and malignant ventricular arrhythmias. A retrospective case-control observational study was conducted in HCM patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, undergoing a CT-protocol with continuous iodine contrast infusion to determine equilibrium ECV. Left ventricular septal and lateral CT-determined ECV was compared between prespecified cases (malignant arrhythmia any time before CT scan) and controls (no prior malignant arrhythmias) and among ECV tertiles. A total of 78 implantable cardioverter-defibrillator HCM patients were included; 24 were women, with a mean age of 52.1 ± 15.6 years. Mean ECV ± standard deviation in the septal left ventricular wall and was 29.8% ± 6.3% in cases (n = 24) vs 31.9% ± 8.5% in controls (n = 54); P = .282. Mean ECV in the lateral wall was 24.5% ± 6.8% in cases vs 28.2% ± 7.4% in controls; P = .043. On comparison of the entire population according to septal ECV tertiles, no significant differences were found in the number of patients receiving appropriate shocks. Conversely, we found a trend (P = .056) for a higher number of patients receiving appropriate shocks in the lateral ECV lowest tertile. Extracellular volume was not increased in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator HCM patients with malignant ventricular arrhythmias vs those without arrhythmias. Our findings do not support the use of ECV (a surrogate of diffuse fibrosis) as a predictor of arrhythmias in high-risk HCM patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictors of left ventricular remodeling after ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Tom; Hartman, Minke H T; Vlaar, Pieter J J; Prakken, Niek H J; van der Ende, Yldau M Y; Lexis, Chris P H; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Lipsic, Erik; Nijveldt, Robin; van der Harst, Pim

    2017-09-01

    Adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is associated with morbidity and mortality. We studied clinical, biochemical and angiographic determinants of LV end diastolic volume index (LVEDVi), end systolic volume index (LVESVi) and mass index (LVMi) as global LV remodeling parameters 4 months after STEMI, as well as end diastolic wall thickness (EDWT) and end systolic wall thickness (ESWT) of the non-infarcted myocardium, as compensatory remote LV remodeling parameters. Data was collected in 271 patients participating in the GIPS-III trial, presenting with a first STEMI. Laboratory measures were collected at baseline, 2 weeks, and 6-8 weeks. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) was performed 4 months after STEMI. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine predictors. At baseline, patients were 21% female, median age was 58 years. At 4 months, mean LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was 54 ± 9%, mean infarct size was 9.0 ± 7.9% of LVM. Strongest univariate predictors (all p infarcted myocardium.

  18. Performance of new automated transthoracic three-dimensional echocardiographic software for left ventricular volumes and function assessment in routine clinical practice: Comparison with 3 Tesla cardiac magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Franck; Dan Schouver, Elie; Iacuzio, Laura; Civaia, Filippo; Rusek, Stephane; Dommerc, Carinne; Marechaux, Sylvestre; Dor, Vincent; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Dreyfus, Gilles

    2017-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is superior to two-dimensional Simpson's method for assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes and LV ejection fraction (LVEF). Nevertheless, 3D TTE is not incorporated into everyday practice, as current LV chamber quantification software products are time-consuming. To evaluate the feasibility, accuracy and reproducibility of new fully automated fast 3D TTE software (HeartModelA.I.; Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA, USA) for quantification of LV volumes and LVEF in routine practice; to compare the 3D LV volumes and LVEF obtained with a cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) reference; and to optimize automated default border settings with CMR as reference. Sixty-three consecutive patients, who had comprehensive 3D TTE and CMR examinations within 24hours, were eligible for inclusion. Nine patients (14%) were excluded because of insufficient echogenicity in the 3D TTE. Thus, 54 patients (40 men; mean age 63±13 years) were prospectively included into the study. The inter- and intraobserver reproducibilities of 3D TTE were excellent (coefficient of variation<10%) for end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and LVEF. Despite a slight underestimation of EDV using 3D TTE compared with CMR (bias=-22±34mL; P<0.0001), a significant correlation was found between the two measurements (r=0.93; P=0.0001). Enlarging default border detection settings leads to frequent volume overestimation in the general population, but improved agreement with CMR in patients with LVEF≤50%. Correlations between 3D TTE and CMR for ESV and LVEF were excellent (r=0.93 and r=0.91, respectively; P<0.0001). 3D TTE using new-generation fully automated software is a feasible, fast, reproducible and accurate imaging modality for LV volumetric quantification in routine practice. Optimization of border detection settings may increase agreement with CMR for EDV assessment in dilated ventricles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS

  19. Cholesterol increases ventricular volume in a rabbit model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Stephen; Lemieux, Susan K; Smith-Bell, Carrie A; Sparks, D Larry; Schreurs, Bernard G

    2012-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease is a significant increase in ventricular volume. To date we and others have shown that a cholesterol-fed rabbit model of Alzheimer's disease displays as many as fourteen different pathological markers of Alzheimer's disease including amyloid-β accumulation, thioflavin-S staining, blood brain barrier breach, microglia activation, cerebrovasculature changes, and alterations in learning and memory. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging at 3T, we now report that cholesterol-fed rabbits also show a significant increase in ventricular volume following 10 weeks on a diet of 2% cholesterol. The increase in volume is attributable in large part to increases in the size of the third ventricle. These changes are accompanied by significant increases in the number of amyloid-β immuno-positive cells in the cortex and hippocampus. Increases in the number of amyloid-β neurons in the cortex also occurred with the addition of 0.24 ppm copper to the drinking water. Together with a list of other pathological markers, the current results add further validity to the value of the cholesterol-fed rabbit as a non-transgenic animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Quantification of cerebral lateral ventricular volume in cats by low- and high-field MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyborowska, Paulina; Adamiak, Zbigniew; Zhalniarovich, Yauheni

    2017-10-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate variations in lateral ventricles in the examined feline population with the use of quantitative analysis methods to determine whether sex or body weight influenced the size of the ventricles, and to identify any significant differences in the results of low- and high-field MRI. Methods Twenty healthy European Shorthair cats, aged 1-3 years, with body weights ranging from 2.85-4.35 kg, were studied. MRI of brain structures was performed in a low- and a high-field MRI system. The height of the brain and lateral ventricles at the level of the interthalamic adhesion, and volume of the lateral ventricles were determined in T2-weighted images in the transverse plane. The degree of symmetry of lateral ventricles was analysed based on the ratio of right to left ventricular volume. The measured parameters were processed statistically to determine whether sex and body weight were significantly correlated with variations in ventricular anatomy. The results of low- and high-field MRI were analysed to evaluate for any significant differences. Results The average brain height was determined to be 27.79 mm, and the average height of the left and right ventricles were 2.98 mm and 2.89 mm, respectively. The average ventricle/brain height ratio was 10.61%. The average volume of the left ventricle was 134.12 mm3 and the right ventricle was 130.49 mm3. Moderately enlarged ventricles were observed in two cats. Moderate ventricular asymmetry was described in four cats. Sex and body weight had no significant effect on the evaluated parameters. The differences in the results of low- and high-field MRI were not statistically significant. Conclusions and relevance This study has determined reference intervals for ventricular volume in a population of European Shorthair cats without brain disease, which will facilitate the interpretation of MRI images and the characterisation of brain abnormalities in cats with neurological disease. Further

  1. Multidetector computed tomography predictors of late ventricular remodeling and function after acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessick, Jonathan, E-mail: j_lessick@rambam.health.gov.il [Cardiology Department, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haaliya Street, Haifa (Israel); Technion-IIT, Haaliya Street, Haifa (Israel); Abadi, Sobhi [Medical Imaging Department, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haaliya Street, Haifa (Israel); Agmon, Yoram [Cardiology Department, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haaliya Street, Haifa (Israel); Technion-IIT, Haaliya Street, Haifa (Israel); Keidar, Zohar [Nuclear Medicine Department, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haaliya Street, Haifa (Israel); Technion-IIT, Haaliya Street, Haifa (Israel); Carasso, Shemi; Aronson, Doron [Cardiology Department, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haaliya Street, Haifa (Israel); Technion-IIT, Haaliya Street, Haifa (Israel); Ghersin, Eduard [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Rispler, Shmuel [Cardiology Department, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haaliya Street, Haifa (Israel); Technion-IIT, Haaliya Street, Haifa (Israel); Sebbag, Anat [Cardiology Department, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haaliya Street, Haifa (Israel); Israel, Ora [Nuclear Medicine Department, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haaliya Street, Haifa (Israel); Technion-IIT, Haaliya Street, Haifa (Israel); Hammerman, Haim; Roguin, Ariel [Cardiology Department, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haaliya Street, Haifa (Israel); Technion-IIT, Haaliya Street, Haifa (Israel)

    2012-10-15

    Background: Despite advent of rapid arterial revascularization as 1st line treatment for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), incomplete restoral of flow at the microvascular level remains a problem and is associated with adverse prognosis, including pathological ventricular remodeling. We aimed to study the association between multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) perfusion defects and ventricular remodeling post-AMI. Methods: In a prospective study, 20 patients with ST-elevation AMI, treated by primary angioplasty, underwent arterial and late phase MDCT as well as radionuclide scans to study presence, size and severity of myocardial perfusion defects. Contrast echocardiography was performed at baseline and at 4 months follow-up to evaluate changes in myocardial function and remodeling. Results: Early defects (ED), late defects (LD) and late enhancement (LE) were detected in 15, 7 and 16 patients, respectively and radionuclide defects in 15 patients. The ED area (r = 0.74), and LD area (r = 0.72), and to a lesser extent LE area (r = 0.62) correlated moderately well with SPECT summed rest score. By univariate analysis, follow-up end-systolic volume index and ejection fraction were both significantly related to ED and LD size and severity, but not to LE size or severity. By multivariate analysis, end-systolic volume index was best predicted by LD area (p < 0.05) and ejection fraction by LD enhancement ratio. Conclusions: LD size and severity on MDCT are most closely associated with pathological ventricular remodeling after AMI and may thus play a role in early identification and treatment of this condition.

  2. Progression of Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Remodelling under Optimal Medical Therapy in CHF Patients: Role of Individual Genetic Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigolli, Marzia; Cicoira, Mariantonietta; Bergamini, Corinna; Chiampan, Andrea; Rossi, Andrea; Vassanelli, Corrado

    2011-01-05

    Background. Neurohormonal systems play an important role in chronic heart failure (CHF). Due to interindividual heterogeneity in the benefits of therapy, it may be hypothesized that polymorphisms of neurohormonal systems may affect left ventricular (LV) remodelling and systolic function. We aimed to assess whether genetic background of maximally treated CHF patients predicts variations in LV systolic function and volumes. Methods and Results. We prospectively studied 131 CHF outpatients on optimal treatment for at least six months. Echocardiographic evaluations were performed at baseline and after 12 months. Genotype analysis for ACE I/D, β1adrenergic receptor (AR) Arg389Gly, β2AR Arg16Gly, and β2AR Gln27Glu polymorphisms was performed. No differences in baseline characteristics were detected among subgroups. ACE II was a significant predictor of improvement of LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volume (P = .003 and P = .002, respectively) but not of LV ejection fraction (LVEF); β1AR389 GlyGly was related to improvement of LVEF (P = .02) and LV end-systolic volume (P = .01). The predictive value of polymorphisms remained after adjustment for other clinically significant predictors (P < .05 for all). Conclusions. ACE I/D and β1AR Arg389Gly polymorphisms are independent predictors of reverse remodeling and systolic function recovery in CHF patients under optimal treatment.

  3. Progression of Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Remodelling under Optimal Medical Therapy in CHF Patients: Role of Individual Genetic Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Rigolli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neurohormonal systems play an important role in chronic heart failure (CHF. Due to interindividual heterogeneity in the benefits of therapy, it may be hypothesized that polymorphisms of neurohormonal systems may affect left ventricular (LV remodelling and systolic function. We aimed to assess whether genetic background of maximally treated CHF patients predicts variations in LV systolic function and volumes. Methods and Results. We prospectively studied 131 CHF outpatients on optimal treatment for at least six months. Echocardiographic evaluations were performed at baseline and after 12 months. Genotype analysis for ACE I/D, β1adrenergic receptor (AR Arg389Gly, β2AR Arg16Gly, and β2AR Gln27Glu polymorphisms was performed. No differences in baseline characteristics were detected among subgroups. ACE II was a significant predictor of improvement of LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volume (=.003 and =.002, respectively but not of LV ejection fraction (LVEF; β1AR389 GlyGly was related to improvement of LVEF (=.02 and LV end-systolic volume (=.01. The predictive value of polymorphisms remained after adjustment for other clinically significant predictors (<.05 for all. Conclusions. ACE I/D and β1AR Arg389Gly polymorphisms are independent predictors of reverse remodeling and systolic function recovery in CHF patients under optimal treatment.

  4. Pulmonary vascular volume, impaired left ventricular filling and dyspnea: The MESA Lung Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Carrie P; Hoffman, Eric A; Lima, Joao A C; Kawut, Steven M; Bertoni, Alain G; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Habibi, Mohammadali; Hueper, Katja; Jacobs, David R; Kalhan, Ravi; Michos, Erin D; Post, Wendy S; Prince, Martin R; Smith, Benjamin M; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Liu, Chia-Ying; Zemrak, Filip; Watson, Karol E; Budoff, Matthew; Bluemke, David A; Barr, R Graham

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of impaired left ventricular (LV) filling has focused on intrinsic causes of LV dysfunction; however, pulmonary vascular changes may contribute to reduced LV filling and dyspnea. We hypothesized that lower total pulmonary vascular volume (TPVV) on computed tomography (CT) would be associated with dyspnea and decrements in LV end-diastolic volume, particularly among ever-smokers. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis recruited adults without clinical cardiovascular disease in 2000-02. In 2010-12, TPVV was ascertained as the volume of arteries and veins in the lungs detectable on non-contrast chest CT (vessels ≥1 mm diameter). Cardiac measures were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Dyspnea was self-reported. Of 2303 participants, 53% had ever smoked cigarettes. Among ever-smokers, a lower TPVV was associated with a lower LV end-diastolic volume (6.9 mL per SD TPVV), stroke volume, and cardiac output and with dyspnea (all P-values lung disease and those with 0-10 pack-years but were mostly non-significant among never-smokers. TPVV was associated smaller left atrial volume but not with LV ejection fraction or MRI measures of impaired LV relaxation. In a second sample of ever-smokers, a lower pulmonary microvascular blood volume on contrast-enhanced MRI was also associated with a lower LV end-diastolic volume (P-value = 0.008). Reductions in pulmonary vascular volume were associated with lower LV filling and dyspnea among ever-smokers, including those without lung disease, suggesting that smoking-related pulmonary vascular changes may contribute to symptoms and impair cardiac filling and function without evidence of impaired LV relaxation.

  5. Remote Zone Extracellular Volume and Left Ventricular Remodeling in Survivors of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Jaclyn; Carrick, David; Haig, Caroline; Rauhalammi, Samuli M; Ahmed, Nadeem; Mordi, Ify; McEntegart, Margaret; Petrie, Mark C; Eteiba, Hany; Hood, Stuart; Watkins, Stuart; Lindsay, Mitchell; Davie, Andrew; Mahrous, Ahmed; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Welsh, Paul; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Oldroyd, Keith G; Berry, Colin

    2016-08-01

    The natural history and pathophysiological significance of tissue remodeling in the myocardial remote zone after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is incompletely understood. Extracellular volume (ECV) in myocardial regions of interest can now be measured with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Patients who sustained an acute STEMI were enrolled in a cohort study (BHF MR-MI [British Heart Foundation Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction study]). Cardiac magnetic resonance was performed at 1.5 Tesla at 2 days and 6 months post STEMI. T1 modified Look-Locker inversion recovery mapping was performed before and 15 minutes after contrast (0.15 mmol/kg gadoterate meglumine) in 140 patients at 2 days post STEMI (mean age: 59 years, 76% male) and in 131 patients at 6 months post STEMI. Remote zone ECV was lower than infarct zone ECV (25.6±2.8% versus 51.4±8.9%; P<0.001). In multivariable regression, left ventricular ejection fraction was inversely associated with remote zone ECV (P<0.001), and diabetes mellitus was positively associated with remote zone ECV (P=0.010). No ST-segment resolution (P=0.034) and extent of ischemic area at risk (P<0.001) were multivariable associates of the change in remote zone ECV at 6 months (ΔECV). ΔECV was a multivariable associate of the change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume at 6 months (regression coefficient [95% confidence interval]: 1.43 (0.10-2.76); P=0.036). ΔECV is implicated in the pathophysiology of left ventricular remodeling post STEMI, but because the effect size is small, ΔECV has limited use as a clinical biomarker of remodeling. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02072850. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. The ratio of right ventricular volume to left ventricular volume reflects the impact of pulmonary regurgitation independently of the method of pulmonary regurgitation quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Śpiewak, Mateusz, E-mail: mspiewak@ikard.pl [Department of Coronary Artery Disease and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Małek, Łukasz A., E-mail: lmalek@ikard.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Petryka, Joanna, E-mail: joannapetryka@hotmail.com [Department of Coronary Artery Disease and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Mazurkiewicz, Łukasz, E-mail: lmazurkiewicz@ikard.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Cardiomyopathy, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Miłosz, Barbara, E-mail: barbara-milosz@o2.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Radiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Biernacka, Elżbieta K., E-mail: kbiernacka@ikard.pl [Department of Congenital Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Kowalski, Mirosław, E-mail: mkowalski@ikard.pl [Department of Congenital Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Hoffman, Piotr, E-mail: phoffman@ikard.pl [Department of Congenital Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Demkow, Marcin, E-mail: mdemkow@ikard.pl [Department of Coronary Artery Disease and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Miśko, Jolanta, E-mail: jmisko@wp.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Radiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Rużyłło, Witold, E-mail: wruzyllo@ikard.pl [Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    Background: Previous studies have advocated quantifying pulmonary regurgitation (PR) by using PR volume (PRV) instead of commonly used PR fraction (PRF). However, physicians are not familiar with the use of PRV in clinical practice. The ratio of right ventricle (RV) volume to left ventricle volume (RV/LV) may better reflect the impact of PR on the heart than RV end-diastolic volume (RVEDV) alone. We aimed to compare the impact of PRV and PRF on RV size expressed as either the RV/LV ratio or RVEDV (mL/m{sup 2}). Methods: Consecutive patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot were included (n = 53). PRV, PRF and ventricular volumes were measured with the use of cardiac magnetic resonance. Results: RVEDV was more closely correlated with PRV when compared with PRF (r = 0.686, p < 0.0001, and r = 0.430, p = 0.0014, respectively). On the other hand, both PRV and PRF showed a good correlation with the RV/LV ratio (r = 0.691, p < 0.0001, and r = 0.685, p < 0.0001, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that both measures of PR had similar ability to predict severe RV dilatation when the RV/LV ratio-based criterion was used, namely the RV/LV ratio > 2.0 [area under the curve (AUC){sub PRV} = 0.770 vs AUC{sub PRF} = 0.777, p = 0.86]. Conversely, with the use of the RVEDV-based criterion (>170 mL/m{sup 2}), PRV proved to be superior over PRF (AUC{sub PRV} = 0.770 vs AUC{sub PRF} = 0.656, p = 0.0028]. Conclusions: PRV and PRF have similar significance as measures of PR when the RV/LV ratio is used instead of RVEDV. The RV/LV ratio is a universal marker of RV dilatation independent of the method of PR quantification applied (PRF vs PRV)

  7. Effect of acetazolamide and subsequent ventriculo-peritoneal shunting on clinical signs and ventricular volumes in dogs with internal hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolecka, Malgorzata; Ondreka, Nele; Moritz, Andreas; Kramer, Martin; Schmidt, Martin J

    2015-09-04

    Acetazolamide is recommended for the reduction of cerebrospinal fluid production in canine internal hydrocephalus. The efficacy of the drug in terms of alleviation of the clinical symptoms and the restoration of normal ventricular volume has not been documented. We hypothesize that acetazolamide inadequately improve clinical signs and has no effect on the ventricular volume. Six dogs with internal hydrocephalus underwent neurological examination and were examined by magnetic resonance imaging, on the day of the diagnosis, after treatment with acetazolamide directly before surgery, and 6 weeks after implantation of a vetriculo-peritoneal shunt due to lack of improvement after medical therapy with 10 mg/kg acetazolamide three times daily (TID). The ventricular volume in relation to the total brain volume was determined on each occasion. The changes in relative ventricular volume and of the neurological status were assessed and compared. McNemar's test revealed no significant differences in clinical symptoms before and after medical treatment (P > 0.05). However, clinical symptoms changed significantly after surgical treatment (P = 0.001). The ventricle-brain ratio was not significantly changed after therapy with acetazolamide (P > 0.05); however, after subsequent shunt implantation, it was significantly reduced (P = 0.001). Acetazolamide (10 mg/kg TID) showed no effects on clinical signs or ventricular volume in dogs with internal hydrocephalus. After subsequent ventriculo-peritoneal shunting, the dogs had a significantly reduced cerebral ventricular volume and five out of six dogs had no abnormal findings in neurological examination.

  8. Three-dimensional Echocardiography of Right Ventricular Function Correlates with Severity of Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jone, Pei-Ni; Patel, Sonali S; Cassidy, Courtney; Ivy, David Dunbar

    2016-12-01

    Right ventricular function and biomarkers of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-Terminal pro-BNP (NT pro-BNP) are used to determine the severity of right ventricular failure and outcomes from pulmonary hypertension. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) is a novel quantitative measure of the right ventricle and decreases the geometric assumptions from conventional two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE). We correlated right ventricular functional measures using 2DE and single-beat 3DE with biomarkers and hemodynamics to determine the severity of pediatric pulmonary hypertension. We retrospectively evaluated 35 patients (mean age 12.67 ± 5.78 years) with established pulmonary hypertension who had echocardiograms and biomarkers on the same day. Ten out of 35 patients had hemodynamic evaluation within 3 days. 2DE evaluation included tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), right ventricular myocardial performance index from tissue Doppler imaging (RV TDI MPI), and right ventricular fractional area change (FAC). Three-dimensional echocardiography evaluation included right ventricular ejection fraction (EF), end-systolic volume, and end-diastolic volume. The quality of the 3DE was graded as good, fair, or poor. Pearson correlation coefficients were utilized to evaluate between biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters and between hemodynamics and echocardiography. Three-dimensional echocardiography and FAC correlated significantly with BNP and NT pro-BNP. TAPSE and RV TDI MPI did not correlate significantly with biomarkers. 3D right ventricular EF correlated significantly with hemodynamics. Two-dimensional echocardiography did not correlate with hemodynamics. Single-beat 3DE is a noninvasive, feasible tool in the quantification of right ventricular function and maybe more accurate than conventional 2DE in evaluating severity of pulmonary hypertension. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Left ventricular scar impact on left ventricular synchronization parameters and outcomes of cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Walid; Samy, Wael; Tayeh, Osama; Behairy, Noha; Abd El Fattah, Alia

    2016-11-01

    Left ventricular scar, including global scar and lateral wall, plays an important role in predicting response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Thirty patients underwent CRT implantation. Assessment of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony was done through Gated SPECT LV phase analysis. Pre-implantation cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) with late gadolinium enhancement technique to examine LV scar burden. Echocardiographic examination of LV end-systolic volume (LVES) prior to CRT and 6 months later. Thirty patients received CRT (mean age 58.7±9.0, 24 males). Reverse LV remodeling (decline ≥15% from baseline VES) was documented in 19 patients. Temporal changes in LV dyssynchrony parameters were correlated to LV reverse remodeling. Applying ROC for predicting CRT non-response showed a cutoff 36.5% of global LV scar burden had a sensitivity of 81.8% and specificity of 68.4%. A cutoff for lateral wall scar burden 40.5% of whole lateral wall had a sensitivity of 72.7% and specificity of 68.4%. Reverse LV remodeling is associated with temporal improvements in LV dyssynchrony parameters. LV scar had an unfavorable impact on CRT response. Both global and lateral wall scar burden could predict CRT nonresponse status. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Time-dependent changes of serum carboxy-terminal peptide of type I procollagen and carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen concentrations in patients with acute myocardial infarction after successful reperfusion: correlation with left ventricular volume indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, T; Kusachi, S; Murakami, M; Sano, I; Uesugi, T; Hirami, R; Kajiyama, A; Kondo, J; Tsuji, T

    1998-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), changes in the concentrations of the serum carboxy-terminal peptide of type I procollagen (PICP) and the carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) reflect extracellular matrix reformation and degradation, respectively, in the infarct healing processes, we measured these serum concentrations by RIA and compared their values with left ventricular (LV) indices obtained by left ventriculography. We studied 13 consecutive patients with their first AMI who underwent successful reperfusion. Blood samples were taken the day of admission and on days 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 14. LV volume indices were determined at 1 month after AMI, when LV remodeling was almost completed. The serum concentrations of both PICP and ICTP changed in a time-dependent manner. The average serum PICP concentration was lower than 1 SD below the mean control values on days 2 and 3 and increased thereafter, returning to the lower end of the control range at day 14. The area under the curve (AUC) for PICP was significantly correlated with the LV end systolic (ES) and end diastolic (ED) volume indices and LV ejection fraction for the first 14 days after AMI. The serum PICP on days 5-14 was inversely correlated or tended to be correlated with the LVES and LVED volume indices. The average serum ICTP concentrations on admission were within the control range, began to increase on day 2, and reached maximal concentrations on day 5, remaining at a plateau concentration until day 14. Although the AUC of ICTP for 14 days, the ICTP concentrations on days 1 and 14, and the minimal and maximal concentrations were significantly correlated with creatine kinase (CK) release and the period from AMI onset to the peak CK time, the concentrations were not significantly correlated with any LV indices except for the concentration on day 4, which was weakly correlated with the LVES volume index. The serum concentrations of PICP showed a

  11. Measurement of four chambers' volumes and ventricular masses by cardiac CT examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Motomasa; Naito, Hiroaki; Ohta, Mitsushige; Kozuka, Takahiro; Kito, Yoshitsugu (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

    1983-09-01

    Using cardiac computed tomography (CT), the ''mean'' volume of each cardiac chamber and both ventricular masses were calculated from summation of a sliced volume by ungated scans obtained using rapid sequential scanning covering the whole heart. 1. Estimation of a normal value of each chamber's volume was attempted in 20 patients with ischemic heart disease and with normal heart function. The ''mean'' volume of the right atrium (RAMV), right ventricle (RVMV), and left atrium (LAMV) was 22.3 +- 6.5, 40.3 +- 6.5 and 28.7 +- 8.2ml/m/sup 2/, respectively. 2. In 54 patients with valvular heart diseases, each chamber's volume obrained by CT was compared with the grade of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) estimated by ultrasonic Doppler technique or the grade of mitral regurgitation (MR) by left ventriculography (LVG). The RAMV (234 +- 119 ml/m/sup 2/) and the RVMV (101 +- 39 ml/m/sup 2/) were markedly increased in patients with severe TR (grade 3 to 4) (p<0.01). The LAMV (487 +- 231 ml/m/sup 2/) was also increased in patients with severe mitral regurgitation (grade 3 to 4) (p<0.01). 3. In 46 patients with valvular heart diseases, the LVMV by CT was well correlated with end-diastolic volume (EDV) obtained by LVG (r=0.92), and the LVEDVs by ECG gated CT and by LVG showed a fairly good correlation (r=0.95). 4. CT examination was performed before and after surgery in 17 patients with MR or TR for evaluation of the change of chamber volumes. The mean reduction ratio (MRR) of the RAMV after tricuspid annuloplasty, the LVMV after mitral valve plasty, and the LAMV after left atrial plication was 44%, 41%, and 60%, respectively.

  12. Right ventricular volume and mass determined by cine magnetic resonance imaging in HIV patients with possible right ventricular dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Gerstoft, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Impaired right ventricular (RV) function has been reported to occur in patients with HIV when studied by echocardiography. However, for accurate evaluation of RV function and morphology, first-pass radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) and cine magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI) are methods...... ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF). To do so, we screened patients with RNV and performed an additional cine-MRI in those with reduced RVEF determined by RNV. Ninety patients with HIV were included. To evaluate the MRI measures exactly we included 18 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers to establish...

  13. Simultaneous measurement of left and right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction during dobutamine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandapaka, Sangeeta; Hamilton, Craig A; Morgan, Timothy M; Hundley, William Gregory

    2011-01-01

    During cardiovascular stress, if right ventricular (RV) stroke volume exceeds left ventricular (LV) stroke volume, then a large volume of blood is displaced into the pulmonary circulation that may precipitate pulmonary edema. We sought to determine the metrics by which cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) could measure simultaneous displacement of RV and LV stroke volumes during dobutamine stress. Thirteen healthy subjects (5 women) aged 53 ± 10 years without medical conditions and taking no medications underwent 2 CMR examinations at 1.5 T separated by 4 to 8 weeks in which RV and LV stroke volumes were determined during intravenous dobutamine and atropine infused to achieve 80% of the maximum predicted heart rate response for age. The RV and LV stroke volumes were highly correlated at each level of stress (rest: r = 0.98, P = 0.007; low stress: r = 0.87, P = 0.001; and peak stress: r = 0.88, P = 0.001), and the mean difference in SV at each level of stress (rest, low stress, and peak stress was 0 to 2 mL on examinations 1 and 2. Simultaneous change in right and left ventricular stroke volumes can be assessed in a highly reproducible manner throughout the course of dobutamine CMR stress administered to achieve 80% of maximum predicted heart rate response for age. This technology may help identify discrepancies in RV and LV stroke volumes during cardiovascular stress that are associated with the development of pulmonary edema.

  14. Integrative and quantitive evaluation of the efficacy of his bundle related pacing in comparison with conventional right ventricular pacing: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ziqing; Chen, Ruizhen; Su, Yangang; Chen, Xueying; Qin, Shengmei; Li, Minghui; Han, Fei; Ge, Junbo

    2017-08-11

    Long-term RVP could bring adverse problems to cardiac electro-mechanics and result in inter- and intra-ventricular asynchrony, impaired labor force, and aggravation of cardiac function. HBRP including direct His bundle pacing and para-His bundle pacing was regarded as a novel physiological pacing pattern to avoid devastating cardiac function. This synthetic study was conducted to integratively and quantitatively evaluate the efficacy of His bundle related pacing (HBRP) in comparison with conventional right ventricular pacing (RVP). Published studies on comparison of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end systolic volume (LVESV), New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, inter-ventricular asynchrony, and QRS duration, etc. between HBRP and RVP were collected and for meta-analysis. HBRP showed higher LVEF (WMD = 3.9%, 95% CI: 1.6% - 6.1%), lower NYHA class (WMD = -0.5, 95% CI: -0.7 - -0.3), WMD of LVESV = -0.1 ml, 95% CI: -3.0 - 2.8 ml), less inter-ventricular asynchrony (WMD = -13.2 ms, 95% CI: -16.4 - -10.0 ms), and shorter QRS duration for long-term (WMD = -36.9 ms, 95% CI: -40.0 - -33.8 ms), however, no significant difference of ventricular volume (WMDLVEDV = -2.4 ml, 95% CI: -5.0 - 0.2 ml; WMDLVESV = -0.1 ml, 95% CI: -3.0 - 2.8 ml) compared to RVP. The efficacy of HBRP was firstly verified by meta-analysis to date. Compared with RVP, HBRP markedly preserve LVEF, NYHA class, and QRS duration. However, it seemed to have less effect on ventricular volume.

  15. [Impact of chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection on left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowski, Marcin; Czarnecka, Danuta; Jastrzebski, Marek; Fedak, Danuta; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina

    2006-01-01

    Postmyocardial infarction left ventricular remodeling is modified by inflammatory processes and structural changes in the myocardium. Chlamydia pneumoniae (Chp) causes chronic myocyte infection, affects apoptosis and TNF-alpha production, and may induce cross reactivity with alpha myosin. This is the way in which this intracellular pathogen may modulate remodeling on the cellular and organ level. The study was conducted in 101 patients with a first myocardial infarction in whom we evaluated the serological features of Chp infection using the ELISA method and echocardiographic left ventricular volume at 10 days and 10 weeks after the infarction. Patients with chronic Chp infection had a tendency toward higher end-diastolic volume at 10 weeks after the infarction (123 +/- 32.9 ml vs. 134 +/- 34.7 ml, p = 0.09). In order to better define this relationship we used ROC analysis and measured levels of antibodies: IgG = 117 EIU and IgA = 15.6 EIU by which we divided the patients into two subgroups. Those with IgG > or = 117 EIU and IgA > or = 15.6 EIU belong to the subgroup with chronic and active Chp infection. These patients had larger left ventricular end-diastolic volumes (155.8 vs. 123.1 ml, p = 0.0005) and end-systolic volumes (77.4 vs. 59.5 ml, p = 0.006) at 10 weeks after the infarction. Both subgroups were similar with respect to age, gender, history of arterial hypertension, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values, infarct site, reperfusion, infarct size, left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular contractility index. Type of reperfusion therapy and pharmacological treatment at 10 days and at 10 weeks did not differ, either. Chronic Chlamydia pneumonie infection modifies the course of left ventricular remodeling.

  16. Cardiac MRI in Children and Adolescents Who Have Undergone Surgical Repair of Right-Sided Congenital Heart Disease: Automated Left Ventricular Volumes and Function Analysis and Effects of Different Manual Adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompel, O; Janka, R; May, M S; Glöckler, M; Cesnjevar, R; Dittrich, S; Lell, M M; Uder, M; Hammon, M

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate automated segmentation and the effects of different manual adjustments regarding left ventricular parameter quantification in cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) data on children and adolescents who have undergone surgical repair of right-sided congenital heart disease (CHD). Dedicated software (syngo.via, Siemens AG) was used to automatically segment and/or manually adjust the end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), myocardial mass (MM) and ejection fraction (EF) before/after manual apex/base adjustment (ADJ-step 1) and after manual apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment (ADJ-step 2; reference standard). MR data of 40 patients (13.1 ± 3. y, 4 - 17 y) with repaired CHD with decreased pulmonary blood flow (CHD-DPBF) were evaluated. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was determined for 10 randomly selected patients. The software correctly detected the left ventricle in 38/40 (95%) patients. EDV after automated segmentation: 119.1 ± 44.0 ml; after ADJ-step 1: 115.8 ± 9.5 ml; after ADJ-step 2: 116.2 ± 39.4 ml. The corresponding results for ESV were 52.0 ± 18.5/49.6 ± 6.9/49.7 ± 16.4 ml; for SV 67.1 ± 28.5/66.2 ± 25.4/66.5 ± 25. ml; for EF 55.5 ± 7.3/56.7 ± 6.6/56.7 ± 6.3%; for MM 83.7 ± 35.9/76.2 ± 8.3/74.6 ± 27.2 g. Significant differences were found for ESV/MM/EF comparing the automated segmentation results with these after ADJ-step 1 and ADJ-step 2. No significant differences were found when comparing all results of ADJ-step 1 and ADJ-step 2 or when comparing EDV/SV results. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was excellent. The mean time effort was 63.4 ± 6.9 s for the automated segmentation, 74.2 ± 8.9 s for ADJ-step 1 and 269.5 ± 39.4 s for ADJ-step 2. Automated left ventricular volumes and function analysis in children and adolescents with surgically treated CHD proved to be feasible with excellent intra- and inter-rater reliability. Automated segmentation with manual apex/base adjustment provided

  17. Accuracy of contrast-enhanced cine-MR sequences in the assessment of left ventricular function: comparison with precontrast cine-MR sequences. Results of a bicentric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasalarie, Jean-Christophe; Carre, Christophe [Centre Hospitalier Sud Reunion, Department of Radiology, Saint-Pierre (France); Serfaty, Jean-Michel; Schouman-Claeys, Elisabeth; Laissy, Jean-Pierre [Hopital Bichat AP-HP, Department of Radiology, Paris Cedex 18 (France); Messika-Zeitoun, David [Hopital Bichat, Department of Cardiology, Paris Cedex 18 (France); Jeannot, Christophe [Centre Hospitalier Sud Reunion, Department of Cardiology, Saint-Pierre (France)

    2007-11-15

    The accuracy of contrast-enhanced cine magnetic resonance (cine-MR) imaging to determine left ventricular function was assessed by comparison with the established noncontrast cine-MR sequences. Contrast-enhanced balanced steady-state free precession (cine-SSFP) sequences were compared with precontrast cine-SSFP sequences in the assessment of left ventricular contractile function in 30 consecutive patients with various cardiac diseases. Five to eight short-axis image sections were obtained in each patient. Quantitative data were analyzed using a paired t-test and linear regression analysis. Qualitative assessment of images was made following a 16-segment analysis. There was no significant difference between the two sequences in regional wall motion, end-diastolic volumes (EDV) and end-systolic volumes (ESV), stroke volume, left ventricular mass, as well as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), despite slight delayed subendocardial enhancement in ten patients with myocardial infarction. All the values studied above were closely correlated between both cine-SSFP sequences (Spearman r=0.85-0.97, P<0.0001 for all comparisons). Contrast-enhanced cine-SSFP sequences can be used as a similar diagnostic tool as precontrast cine-MR sequences in the assessment of left ventricular contractile function. (orig.)

  18. Impact of right ventricular endocardial trabeculae on volumes and function assessed by CMR in patients with tetralogy of Fallot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freling, Hendrik G.; van Wijk, Kees; Jaspers, Karolien; Pieper, Petronella G.; Vermeulen, Karin M.; van Swieten, Jeroen M.; Willems, Tineke P.

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of right ventricular (RV) trabeculae and papillary muscles on measured volumes and function assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Sixty-five patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot

  19. Improved Cerebrospinal Fluid-Based Discrimination between Alzheimer's Disease Patients and Controls after Correction for Ventricular Volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalwijk van Doorn, L.L.C. van; Gispert, J.D.; Kuiperij, H.B.; Claassen, J.A.H.R.; Arighi, A.; Baldeiras, I.; Blennow, K.; Bozzali, M.; Castelo-Branco, M.; Cavedo, E.; Emek-Savas, D.D.; Eren, E.; Eusebi, P.; Farotti, L.; Fenoglio, C.; Ormaechea, J.F.; Freund-Levi, Y.; Frisoni, G.B.; Galimberti, D.; Genc, S.; Greco, V.; Hampel, H.; Herukka, S.K.; Liu, Y.; Llado, A.; Lleo, A.; Nobili, F.M.; Oguz, K.K.; Parnetti, L.; Pereira, J.; Picco, A.; Pikkarainen, M.; Oliveira, C.R.; Saka, E.; Salvadori, N.; Sanchez-Valle, R.; Santana, I.; Scarpini, E.; Scheltens, P.; Soininen, H.; Tarducci, R.; Teunissen, C.; Tsolaki, M.; Urbani, A.; Vilaplana, E.; Visser, P.J.; Wallin, A.K.; Yener, G.; Molinuevo, J.L.; Meulenbroek, O.V.; Verbeek, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers may support the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We studied if the diagnostic power of AD CSF biomarker concentrations, i.e., Abeta42, total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau), is affected by differences in lateral ventricular volume (VV), using

  20. Right ventricular volume and mass determined by cine magnetic resonance imaging in HIV patients with possible right ventricular dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Gerstoft, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Impaired right ventricular (RV) function has been reported to occur in patients with HIV when studied by echocardiography. However, for accurate evaluation of RV function and morphology, first-pass radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) and cine magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI) are methods...... of choice. Studies of RV involvement in patients with HIV are of interest since pulmonary hypertension is a known serious complication of HIV recognized with increasing frequency. The aim of the present study was to characterize cardiac function and geometry in patients with HIV and reduced right.......47-0.55 with 3 below the lower 95% reference limit according to the control group (lower reference limit: 0.49). None of the 6 patients with HIV had dilated right ventricle and only 1 had a marginally increased right ventricular mass index of 43 g/m(2) (reference:

  1. Alterations in left ventricular function during therapy of unstable angina pectoris: relationship to clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narahara, K.A.; Hillert, M.C. Jr.; Smitherman, T.C.; Burden, L.L.

    1984-02-01

    We studied 30 consecutive patients with unstable angina during pain-free intervals with gated blood pool scintigraphy. The initial study was performed within 18 hours of admission to the coronary care unit. A second study was performed near the time of hospital discharge, after stabilization with medical therapy. Three months thereafter patients were categorized according to their worst anginal status following hospital discharge. Fifteen patients were New York Heart Association functional class I or II (group A); 15 patients were in functional class III or IV (group B). Left ventricular ejection fraction was similar at the time of initial study (55.9 +/- 2.18% and 56.0 +/- 3.55% for groups A and B respectively). At the time of hospital discharge the ejection fraction had risen to 60.3 +/- 1.85% (p less than 0.01) in group A and in group B it had fallen to 48.1 +/- 3.4% (p less than 0.005). End-systolic volume index in group B rose from 37 ml/m2 +/- 6.1 to 43 +/- 6.2 ml/m2 (p less than 0.005) at the time of the follow-up study. There were no significant intergroup patients during the two scintigraphic examinations. Eleven group B patients subsequently underwent coronary artery bypass surgery. A significant increase in ejection fraction and a significant decrease in end-systolic volume index were noted when these patients were restudied an average of 3.2 months after surgery. This study suggests that changes in left ventricular function during the course of unstable angina pectoris are common and may be detected by serial gated blood pool scintigraphy.

  2. Impact of left ventricular volume/mass ratio on diastolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buakhamsri, Adisai; Popovic, Zoran B; Lin, Jingna; Lim, Pascal; Greenberg, Neil L; Borowski, Allen G; Tang, W H Wilson; Klein, Allan L; Lever, Harry M; Desai, Milind Y; Thomas, James D

    2009-05-01

    To assess the impact of left ventricular (LV) volume/mass ratio on diastolic function parameters in subjects with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and healthy controls. We performed echocardiography in 44 healthy controls, 35 HCM subjects, 29 DCM subjects with narrow QRS complex (DCM-n), and 27 DCM subjects with wide QRS complex (DCM-w). Mitral annulus velocity (E(a)) and transmitral E-wave velocity were used to estimate time constant of isovolumic pressure decay (tau). LV flow propagation velocity (V(p)) and early intraventricular pressure gradient (IVPG) were derived from colour M-mode of LV inflow. We calculated LV twist and peak untwisting rate (UntwR) by speckle tracking. Mean LV volume/mass ratio was 0.34 +/- 0.09 mL/g in healthy controls, 0.15 +/- 0.06 mL/g in HCM, 0.6 +/- 0.2 mL/g in DCM-n, and 0.8 +/- 0.3 mL/g in DCM-w patients (P DCM groups). In a multivariate analysis, LV volume/mass ratio remained a strong independent predictor of V(p) (P < 0.001), IVPG (P = 0.009), and UntwR (P < 0.001) but not for E(a) (P = 0.25). LV volume/mass ratio had influences on diastolic function parameters independent of intrinsic diastolic function and filling pressures. It should be considered when assessing patients suspected of LV diastolic dysfunction.

  3. Metabolic volume performs better than SUVmax in the detection of left ventricular assist device driveline infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramovic, Nemanja; Dell'Aquila, Angelo Maria; Weckesser, Matthias; Milankovic, Danka; Vrachimis, Alexis; Sindermann, Jürgen R; Wenning, Christian

    2017-05-25

    A continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is a new and highly promising therapy in supporting end-stage heart failure patients, either bridging them to heart transplantation or as a destination therapy. Infection is one of the major complications associated with LVAD implants. (18)F-FDG PET/CT has already been shown to be useful in the detection of LVAD infection. The goal of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of different PET analysis techniques (visual grading versus SUVmax and metabolic volume). We retrospectively analyzed 48 patients with implanted LVAD who underwent an (18)F-FDG PET/CT that were either suspected to have a driveline or device infection or inflammation of unknown origin. PET/CT was analyzed qualitatively (visual grading) and quantitatively (SUVmax and metabolic volume) and matched to the final clinical diagnosis concerning driveline infection. The final diagnosis (standard of reference) was made at the end of clinically recorded follow-up or transplantation and included microbiological cultures of the driveline exit site and/or surgical samples, and clinical signs of infection despite negative cultures as well as recurrence of symptoms. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were 87.5%, 79%, 81% and 86% for visual score, 87.5%, 87.5%, 87.5% and 87.5% for SUVmax and 96%, 87.5%, 88.5%, 95.5% for metabolic volume, respectively. ROC analysis revealed an AUC of .929 for SUVmax and .969 for metabolic volume. Both SUVmax and metabolic volume had a high detection rate of patients with driveline infection (21/24 = 91.5% true positive vs. 23/26 = 88.5% true positive, respectively). However, metabolic volume detected more patients without any infection correctly (1/22 = 4.5% false negative vs. 3/24 = 12.5% false negative). (18)F-FDG PET/CT is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of LVAD driveline infection with high diagnostic accuracy. Particularly the use of the metabolic volume yields very high

  4. Metabolic volume performs better than SUVmax in the detection of left ventricular assist device driveline infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avramovic, Nemanja; Weckesser, Matthias; Milankovic, Danka; Vrachimis, Alexis; Wenning, Christian [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Dell' Aquila, Angelo Maria; Sindermann, Juergen R. [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Muenster (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    A continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is a new and highly promising therapy in supporting end-stage heart failure patients, either bridging them to heart transplantation or as a destination therapy. Infection is one of the major complications associated with LVAD implants. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT has already been shown to be useful in the detection of LVAD infection. The goal of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of different PET analysis techniques (visual grading versus SUVmax and metabolic volume). We retrospectively analyzed 48 patients with implanted LVAD who underwent an {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT that were either suspected to have a driveline or device infection or inflammation of unknown origin. PET/CT was analyzed qualitatively (visual grading) and quantitatively (SUVmax and metabolic volume) and matched to the final clinical diagnosis concerning driveline infection. The final diagnosis (standard of reference) was made at the end of clinically recorded follow-up or transplantation and included microbiological cultures of the driveline exit site and/or surgical samples, and clinical signs of infection despite negative cultures as well as recurrence of symptoms. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were 87.5%, 79%, 81% and 86% for visual score, 87.5%, 87.5%, 87.5% and 87.5% for SUVmax and 96%, 87.5%, 88.5%, 95.5% for metabolic volume, respectively. ROC analysis revealed an AUC of.929 for SUVmax and.969 for metabolic volume. Both SUVmax and metabolic volume had a high detection rate of patients with driveline infection (21/24 = 91.5% true positive vs. 23/26 = 88.5% true positive, respectively). However, metabolic volume detected more patients without any infection correctly (1/22 = 4.5% false negative vs. 3/24 = 12.5% false negative). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of LVAD driveline infection with high diagnostic accuracy. Particularly the use of the metabolic volume yields very

  5. Atorvastatin therapy during the peri-infarct period attenuates left ventricular dysfunction and remodeling after myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Liang Tang

    Full Text Available Although statins impart a number of cardiovascular benefits, whether statin therapy during the peri-infarct period improves subsequent myocardial structure and function remains unclear. Thus, we evaluated the effects of atorvastatin on cardiac function, remodeling, fibrosis, and apoptosis after myocardial infarction (MI. Two groups of rats were subjected to permanent coronary occlusion. Group II (n = 14 received oral atorvastatin (10 mg/kg/d daily for 3 wk before and 4 wk after MI, while group I (n = 12 received equivalent doses of vehicle. Infarct size (Masson's trichrome-stained sections was similar in both groups. Compared with group I, echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and fractional area change (FAC were higher while LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV and LV end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters (LVESD and LVEDD were lower in treated rats. Hemodynamically, atorvastatin-treated rats exhibited significantly higher dP/dt(max, end-systolic elastance (Ees, and preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW and lower LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP. Morphometrically, infarct wall thickness was greater in treated rats. The improvement of LV function by atorvastatin was associated with a decrease in hydroxyproline content and in the number of apoptotic cardiomyocyte nuclei. We conclude that atorvastatin therapy during the peri-infarct period significantly improves LV function and limits adverse LV remodeling following MI independent of a reduction in infarct size. These salubrious effects may be due in part to a decrease in myocardial fibrosis and apoptosis.

  6. Desmin loss and mitochondrial damage precede left ventricular systolic failure in volume overload heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Jason L; Rogowski, Michael; Agnetti, Giulio; Fu, Lianwu; Powell, Pamela; Wei, Chih-Chang; Collawn, James; Dell'Italia, Louis J

    2017-07-01

    Heart failure due to chronic volume overload (VO) in rats and humans is characterized by disorganization of the cardiomyocyte desmin/mitochondrial network. Here, we tested the hypothesis that desmin breakdown is an early and continuous process throughout VO. Male Sprague-Dawley rats had aortocaval fistula (ACF) or sham surgery and were examined 24 h and 4 and 12 wk later. Desmin/mitochondrial ultrastructure was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Protein and kinome analysis were performed in isolated cardiomyocytes, and desmin cleavage was assessed by mass spectrometry in left ventricular (LV) tissue. Echocardiography demonstrated a 40% decrease in the LV mass-to-volume ratio with spherical remodeling at 4 wk with ACF and LV systolic dysfunction at 12 wk. Starting at 24 h and continuing to 4 and 12 wk, with ACF there is TEM evidence of extensive mitochondrial clustering, IHC evidence of disorganization associated with desmin breakdown, and desmin protein cleavage verified by Western blot analysis and mass spectrometry. IHC results revealed that ACF cardiomyocytes at 4 and 12 wk had perinuclear translocation of αB-crystallin from the Z disk with increased α, β-unsaturated aldehyde 4-hydroxynonelal. Use of protein markers with verification by TUNEL staining and kinome analysis revealed an absence of cardiomyocyte apoptosis at 4 and 12 wk of ACF. Significant increases in protein indicators of mitophagy were countered by a sixfold increase in p62/sequestosome-1, which is indicative of an inability to complete autophagy. An early and continuous disruption of the desmin/mitochondrial architecture, accompanied by oxidative stress and inhibition of apoptosis and mitophagy, suggests its causal role in LV dilatation and systolic dysfunction in VO. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study provides new evidence of early onset (24 h) and continuous (4-12 wk) desmin misarrangement and disruption of the normal sarcomeric and mitochondrial

  7. Benefício da revascularização do miocárdio em pacientes com disfunção ventricular e músculo viável: remodelamento ventricular reverso e prognóstico The beneficial effect of revascularization on patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction and viable myocardium: reverse remodeling and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Calado de Aguiar Ribeiro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a importância da viabilidade do miocárdio e parâmetros clínicos na melhora da função ventricular, sintomas e prognóstico, como reversão do remodelamento. MÉTODO: Cento e quinze pacientes submetidos a revascularização do miocárdio com análise prévia da viabilidade do miocárdio com thallium-201. Fração de ejeção, volumes sistólicos e diastólicos do ventrículo esquerdo e classe funcional foram determinados, antes da cirurgia e a cada seis meses por 3 anos. RESULTADOS: Pacientes com > 4 segmentos viáveis demonstraram melhora da fração de ejeção de 34±6 para 44±4% (pOBJECTIVES: To evaluate the integration of both viability and clinical parameters on the improvement in systolic performance, symptoms and prognosis, with post-revascularization reverse remodeling. METHOD: One hundred and fifteen patients underwent thallium-201 imaging before myocardial revascularization. Left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end-systolic volume index and left ventricular end-diastolic volume index were determined before and at each 6 months post-revascularization for 3 years. RESULTS: Patients with > 4 viable segments on thallium-201 imaging demonstrated an improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction from 34±6 to 44±4%, p<0.001, left ventricular end-systolic volume decreased from 78.3±11 to 57±17 mL/m², p<0.001; left end-diastolic volume decreased from 113±31 to 91±22 ml/m², p<0.001. Patients with < 4 viable segments failed to demonstrate an improvement of the left ventricle ejection fraction, 33.4±4 vs. 35.1±5% (p=0.19, and exhibited ongoing left ventricle end-systolic remodeling, 72±23 vs. 73±12 mL/m² (p= 0.81, and the left ventricle end-diastolic volume increased from 112±24 to 118±16 mL/m² (p=0.34, without improvement in NYHA class, and worse long-term prognosis (event; log rank test, p=0.0053. The multivariable analysis demonstrated clinical variables related to the unfavorable

  8. Evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function obtained by quantitative gated SPECT using {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin for left ventricular dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Kazunobu; Nakajima, Tohru; Iseki, Harukazu; Abe, Sumihisa; Handa, Shunnosuke; Suzuki, Yutaka [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    The quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software is able to calculate LV volumes and visualize LV wall motion and perfusion throughout the cardiac cycle using an automatic edge detection algorithm of the left ventricle. We evaluated the reliability of global and regional LV function assessment derived from QGS by comparing it with the results from left ventriculo-cineangiography (LVG). In 20 patients with left ventricular dysfunction who underwent ECG gated {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT, the end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (LVEF) were calculated. The QGS-assessed regional wall motion was determined using the cinematic display. QGS-derived EDV, ESV and LVEF correlated well with those by LVG (p<0.001 for each). There was a good correlation between wall motion score (WMS) derived from the QGS and the LVG (r=0.40, p<0.05). In some patients with extensive myocardial infarction, there was a discrepancy in the regional wall motion results between QGS and LVG. The ECG-gated SPECT using QGS is useful to evaluate global and regional LV functions in left ventricular dysfunction. (author)

  9. A cardioprotective agent of a novel calpain inhibitor, SNJ-1945, exerts beta1 actions on left ventricular mechanical work and energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yoshiro; Zhang, Guo-Xing; Obata, Koji; Matsuyoshi, Hiroko; Asada, Keiji; Taniguchi, Shigeki; Takaki, Miyako

    2010-08-01

    We have previously shown that a newly developed calpain inhibitor, SNJ-1945 (SNJ), with good aqueous solubility prevents the heart from KCl arrest-reperfusion injury associated with the impairment of total Ca(2+) handling by inhibiting the proteolysis of alpha-fodrin as a cardioplegia. The aim of the present study was to investigate certain actions of this calpain inhibitor, SNJ, on left ventricular (LV) mechanical work and energetics in cross-circulated excised rat hearts undergoing blood perfusion with 40 microM SNJ. Mean end-systolic pressure at midrange LV volume and systolic pressure-volume area (PVA) at mLVV (a total mechanical energy/beat) were significantly increased by SNJ perfusion (P work and energetics mediated via beta(1)-adrenergic receptors associated with the enhancement of total Ca(2+) handling in excitation-contraction coupling and with unchanged contractile efficiency. In clinical settings, this pharmacological action of SNJ is beneficial as an additive agent for cardioplegia.

  10. Left-sided cardiac chamber evaluation using single-phase mid-diastolic coronary computed tomography angiography: derivation of normal values and comparison with conventional end-diastolic and end-systolic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Jonathan R. [Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Abadi, Sobhi [Rambam Health Care Campus, Medical Imaging Department, Haifa (Israel); Solomonica, Amir [Rambam Health Care Campus, Cardiology Department, Haifa (Israel); Mutlak, Diab; Aronson, Doron; Agmon, Yoram; Lessick, Jonathan [Rambam Health Care Campus, Cardiology Department, Haifa (Israel); Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    2016-10-15

    With increasing use of prospective scanning techniques for cardiac computed tomography (CT), meaningful evaluation of chamber volumes is no longer possible due to lack of normal values. We aimed to define normal values for mid-diastolic (MD) chamber volumes and to determine their significance in comparison to maximum volumes. Normal ranges at MD for left ventricular (LV) volume and mass and left atrial (LA) volume were determined from 101 normal controls. Thereafter, 109 consecutive CT scans, as well as 21 post-myocardial infarction patients, were analysed to determine the relationship between MD and maximum volumes. MD volumes correlated closely with maximal volumes (r = 0.99) for both LV and LA, and could estimate maximum volumes accurately. LV mass, measured at ED or MD, were very similar (r = 0.99). Abnormal MD volumes had excellent sensitivity and specificity to detect chamber enlargement based on maximal volumes (LV 86 %, 100 %, respectively; LA 100 %, 92 %, respectively). A single MD phase can identify patients with cardiomegaly or LV hypertrophy with a high degree of accuracy and MD volumes can give an accurate estimate of maximum LV and LA volumes. circle Traditionally, helical cardiac CT provided clinically important information from chamber volume analysis. (orig.)

  11. Pseudonormal and restrictive filling patterns predict left ventricular dilation and cardiac death after a first myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, J E; Søndergaard, E; Poulsen, S H

    2000-01-01

    h, five days and one and three months after MI in 125 unselected consecutive patients. Normal filling was defined as DT 140 to 240 ms and Vp > or =45 cm/s; impaired relaxation as DT > or =240 ms; pseudonormal filling as DT 140 to 240 ms and Vp ...: Left ventricular filling was normal in 38 patients; impaired relaxation in 38; pseudonormal in 23; and restrictive in 26. End-systolic and end-diastolic volume indexes were significantly increased during the first three months after MI in patients with pseudonormal or restrictive filling (37+/-15 vs....... 47+/-19 ml/m2, pimpaired relaxation (p = 0.02), pseudonormal filling (p

  12. Changes in left ventricular systolic function in patients with chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and cardiorenal anemic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasylenko V.A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The feature of chronic heart failure (CHF in elderly people is increasing incidence of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF which is associated with age. Such patients account for almost half of the total number of patients with heart failure. Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS is associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with CHF. The impact of CRS on the structural and functional condition of the heart in these patients is studied insufficiently. The study involved 103 patients with CHF II-IV NYHA with preserved LVEF (>45% and CRS (hemoglobin <120 g/l and end-systolic volume and decrease in the degree of LV fractional shortening size.

  13. Right ventricular tissue Doppler assessment in space during circulating volume modification using the Braslet device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D. R.; Alferova, I. V.; Sargsyan, A. E.; Fincke, E. M.; Magnus, S. H.; Lonchakov, Y. V.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Ebert, D.; Garcia, K.; Martin, D.; Matveev, V. P.; Voronkov, Y. I.; Melton, S. L.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Duncan, J. M.

    2011-05-01

    Introduction: This joint US-Russian work aims to establish a methodology for assessing cardiac function in microgravity in association with manipulation of central circulating volume. Russian Braslet-M (Braslet) occlusion cuffs were used to temporarily increase the volume of blood in the lower extremities, effectively reducing the volume in central circulation. The methodology was tested at the International Space Station (ISS) to assess the volume status of crewmembers by evaluating the responses to application and release of the cuffs, as well as to modified Valsalva and Mueller maneuvers. This case study examines the use of tissue Doppler (TD) of the right ventricular (RV) free wall. Results: Baseline TD of the RV free wall without Braslet showed early diastolic E' (16 cm/s), late diastolic A' (14 cm/s), and systolic S' (12 cm/s) velocities comparable with those in normal subjects on Earth. Braslet application caused 50% decrease of E' (8 cm/s), 45% increase of A', and no change to S'. Approximately 8 beats after the Braslet release, TD showed E' of 8 cm/s, A' of 12 cm/s, and S' of 13 cm/s. At this point after release, E' did not recover to baseline values while l A' and S' did recover. The pre-systolic cross-sectional area of the internal jugular vein without Braslet was 1.07 cm 2, and 1.13 cm 2 10 min after the Braslet was applied. The respective cross-sectional areas of the femoral vein were 0.50 and 0.54 cm 2. The RV myocardial performance Tei index was calculated by dividing the sum of the isovolumic contraction time and isovolumic relaxation time by the ejection time ((IVCT+IVRT)/ET); baseline and Braslet-on values for Tei index were 0.25 and 0.22, respectively. Braslet Tei indices are within normal ranges found in healthy terrestrial subjects and temporarily become greater than 0.4 during the dynamic Braslet release portion of the study. Conclusions: TD modality was successfully implemented in space flight for the first time. TD of RV revealed that the

  14. Free-breathing imaging of the heart using 2D cine-GRICS (generalized reconstruction by inversion of coupled systems) with assessment of ventricular volumes and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuissoz, Pierre-André; Odille, Freddy; Fernandez, Brice; Lohezic, Maelene; Benhadid, Adnane; Mandry, Damien; Felblinger, Jacques

    2012-02-01

    To assess cardiac function by means of a novel free-breathing cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) strategy. A stack of ungated 2D steady-state free precession (SSFP) slices was acquired during free breathing and reconstructed as cardiac cine imaging based on the generalized reconstruction by inversion of coupled systems (GRICS). A motion-compensated sliding window approach allows reconstructing cine movies with most motion artifacts cancelled. The proposed reconstruction uses prior knowledge from respiratory belts and electrocardiogram recordings and features a piecewise linear model that relates the electrocardiogram signal to cardiac displacements. The free-breathing protocol was validated in six subjects against a standard breath-held protocol. Image sharpness, as assessed by the image gradient entropy, was comparable to that of breath-held images and significantly better than in uncorrected images. Volumetric parameters of cardiac function in the left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) were similar, including end-systolic volumes, end-diastolic volumes and mass, stroke volumes, and ejection fractions (with differences of 3% ± 2.4 in the LV and 2.9% ± 4.4 in the RV). The duration of the free-breathing protocol was nearly the same as the breath-held protocol. Free-breathing cine-GRICS enables accurate assessment of volumetric parameters of cardiac function with efficient correction of motion. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Right ventricular volumes and function in thalassemia major patients in the absence of myocardial iron overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porter John B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim We aimed to define reference ranges for right ventricular (RV volumes, ejection fraction (EF in thalassemia major patients (TM without myocardial iron overload. Methods and results RV volumes, EF and mass were measured in 80 TM patients who had no myocardial iron overload (myocardial T2* > 20 ms by cardiovascular magnetic resonance. All patients were receiving deferoxamine chelation and none had evidence of pulmonary hypertension or other cardiovascular comorbidity. Forty age and sex matched healthy non-anemic volunteers acted as controls. The mean RV EF was higher in TM patients than controls (males 66.2 ± 4.1% vs 61.6 ± 6%, p = 0.0009; females 66.3 ± 5.1% vs 62.6 ± 6.4%, p = 0.017, which yielded a raised lower threshold of normality for RV EF in TM patients (males 58.0% vs 50.0% and females 56.4% vs 50.1%. RV end-diastolic volume index was higher in male TM patients (mean 98.1 ± 17.3 mL vs 88.4 ± 11.2 mL/m2, p = 0.027, with a higher upper limit (132 vs 110 mL/m2 but this difference was of borderline significance for females (mean 86.5 ± 13.6 mL vs 80.3 ± 12.8 mL/m2, p = 0.09, with upper limit of 113 vs 105 mL/m2. The cardiac index was raised in TM patients (males 4.8 ± 1.0 L/min vs 3.4 ± 0.7 L/min, p Conclusion The normal ranges for functional RV parameters in TM patients with no evidence of myocardial iron overload differ from healthy non-anemic controls. The new reference RV ranges are important for determining the functional effects of myocardial iron overload in TM patients.

  16. Volume of the left ventricle at the end of a ventricular diastole in computerised tomography compared with cardiac catheter ventriculography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienmueller, R.; Lissner, J.; Kment, A.; Bohn, J.; Strauer, B.E.; Hellwig, D.; Erdmann, E.; Cyran, J.; Steinbeck, G.

    1981-06-01

    In 47 patients the authors calculated the volume at the end of a diastole according to both the cardiac catheter ventriculogram and the CT ventriculogram, comparing the results obtained with each of these methods. A linear regression was found. The correlation coefficient was approximately r = 0.96; n = 47. Cardiological examination revealed that of the examined patients (including the cardiac catheter finding) 18 patients had coronary heart disease, whereas 9 had cardiomyopathy, 6 artial hypertension, 9 had various cardiac abnormalities and 5 did not show any organically manifest heart disease. The article discusses CT determination of the volume at the end of the ventricular diastole, and discusses the results.

  17. Dynamic characteristic mechanism of atrial septal defect using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography and evaluation of right ventricular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharen, Gao-Wa; Zhang, Jun; Qin, Chuan; Lv, Qing

    2017-02-01

    The dynamic characteristics of the area of the atrial septal defect (ASD) were evaluated using the technique of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT 3DE), the potential factors responsible for the dynamic characteristics of the area of ASD were observed, and the overall and local volume and functions of the patients with ASD were measured. RT 3DE was performed on the 27 normal controls and 28 patients with ASD. Based on the three-dimensional data workstations, the area of ASD was measured at P wave vertex, R wave vertex, T wave starting point, and T wave terminal point and in the T-P section. The right atrial volume in the same time phase of the cardiac cycle and the motion displacement distance of the tricuspid annulus in the corresponding period were measured. The measured value of the area of ASD was analyzed. The changes in the right atrial volume and the motion displacement distance of the tricuspid annulus in the normal control group and the ASD group were compared. The right ventricular ejection fractions in the normal control group and the ASD group were compared using the RT 3DE long-axis eight-plane (LA 8-plane) method. Real-time three-dimensional volume imaging was performed in the normal control group and ASD group (n=30). The right ventricular inflow tract, outflow tract, cardiac apex muscular trabecula dilatation, end-systolic volume, overall dilatation, end-systolic volume, and appropriate local and overall ejection fractions in both two groups were measured with the four-dimensional right ventricular quantitative analysis method (4D RVQ) and compared. The overall right ventricular volume and the ejection fraction measured by the LA 8-plane method and 4D RVQ were subjected to a related analysis. Dynamic changes occurred to the area of ASD in the cardiac cycle. The rules for dynamic changes in the area of ASD and the rules for changes in the right atrial volume in the cardiac cycle were consistent. The maximum value of the changes in the

  18. Effect of fluid loading with normal saline and 6% hydroxyethyl starch on stroke volume variability and left ventricular volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanda H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hirotsugu Kanda,1 Yuji Hirasaki,2 Takafumi Iida,1 Megumi Kanao,1 Yuki Toyama,1 Takayuki Kunisawa,1 Hiroshi Iwasaki,11Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, 2Department of Anatomy, The Jikei University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate changes in stroke volume variability (SVV and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV after a fluid bolus of crystalloid or colloid using real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D-TEE and the Vigileo-FloTrac™ system.Materials and methods: After obtaining Institutional Review Board approval, and informed consent from the research participants, 22 patients undergoing scheduled peripheral vascular bypass surgery were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to receive 500 mL of hydroxyethyl starch (HES; HES group, n=11 or normal saline (Saline group, n=11 for fluid replacement therapy. SVV was measured using the Vigileo-FloTrac system. LVEDV, stroke volume, and cardiac output were measured by 3D-TEE. The measurements were performed over 30 minutes before and after the fluid bolus in both groups.Results: SVV significantly decreased after fluid bolus in both groups (HES group, 14.7%±2.6% to 6.9%±2.7%, P<0.001; Saline group, 14.3%±3.9% to 8.8%±3.1%, P<0.001. LVEDV significantly increased after fluid loading in the HES group (87.1±24.0 mL to 99.9±27.2 mL, P<0.001, whereas no significant change was detected in the Saline group (88.8±17.3 mL to 91.4±17.6 mL, P>0.05. Stroke volume significantly increased after infusion in the HES group (50.6±12.5 mL to 61.6±19.1 mL, P<0.01 but not in the Saline group (51.6±13.4 mL to 54.1±12.8 mL, P>0.05. Cardiac output measured by 3D-TEE significantly increased in the HES group (3.5±1.1 L/min to 3.9±1.3 L/min, P<0.05, whereas no significant change was seen in the Saline group (3.4±1.1 L/min to 3.3±1.0 L

  19. [Heart-minute volume during persistent ventricular tachycardia: anti-arrhythmia intervention using ajmaline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mletzko, R; Jung, W; Manz, M; Lüderitz, B

    1991-07-01

    The hemodynamic effect of the intravenous application of ajmaline (50 mg) was studied during persistent ventricular tachycardia. With the onset of ventricular tachycardia an increase of heart rate up to 177 +/- 40 bpm and a simultaneous decrease of cardiac output from 7.1 +/- 2.7 l/min to 3.4 +/- 1.1 l/min (p less than 0.001) could be demonstrated. Ajmaline prolonged the QRS interval and slowed the ventricular tachycardia rate to 133 +/- 28 bpm. Simultaneously, an increase of cardiac output to 5.9 +/- 2.3 l/min (p less than 0.001) could be documented. A significant correlation between the increase of cardiac output and the change of ventricular tachycardia rate was found. A drug-induced termination of ventricular tachycardia by ajmaline was possible in 60% of patients. Intravenous application of ajmaline during persistent ventricular tachycardia leads to a hemodynamic improvement caused by the reduction of the tachycardia rate. This temporary stabilization of the hemodynamic status is important for emergency treatment of ventricular tachycardia.

  20. Relation Between Pressure and Volume Unloading During Ramp Testing in Patients Supported with a Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Mette H; Hassager, Christian; Balling, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is the key to describing left ventricular (LV) unloading, however, the relation between pressure and the echocardiography-derived surrogate of LV volume (left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD)) as a function of pump speed (RPM) in continuous......-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) patients is unknown. In this study the pressure-volume relationship as a function of RPM during ramp testing was investigated by simultaneously measuring PCWP by Swan-Ganz catheter and LVEDD by echocardiography. The ramp protocol started at usual pump setting...

  1. Maximal exercise tolerance in chronic congestive heart failure. Relationship to resting left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carell, E S; Murali, S; Schulman, D S; Estrada-Quintero, T; Uretsky, B F

    1994-12-01

    The relationship between maximal exercise tolerance and resting radionuclide indexes of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function were evaluated in 20 ischemic and 44 idiopathic cardiomyopathy patients with New York Heart Association class 2-4 chronic congestive heart failure. Left ventricular ejection fraction, peak systolic ejection rate, peak diastolic filling rate, time to peak filling from end-systolic volume, and fractional filling in early diastole were measured from the radionuclide ventriculogram. All patients underwent symptom-limited exercise testing with on-line measurement of oxygen consumption. In the ischemic group, all of the radionuclide indexes correlated poorly with maximal exercise oxygen consumption (VO2max) except the peak systolic ejection rate which correlated modestly (r = 0.58, p 14 mL/kg/min). In the idiopathic group, none of the radionuclide indexes correlated well with VO2max; and all indexes were similar in patients with and without marked exercise intolerance. These data suggest that (1) resting left ventricular ejection fraction poorly predicts maximal exercise capacity in both ischemic and idiopathic cardiomyopathy and (2) resting peak systolic ejection rate, peak diastolic filling rate, and fractional filling in early diastole may predict exercise tolerance in ischemic but not idiopathic cardiomyopathy.

  2. Usefulness of gated blood-pool SPECT for the diagnosis of right ventricular dysplasia; Apport de la tomo-ventriculographie isotopique dans le diagnostic de la dysplasie arythmogene du ventricule droit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechaux, L.; Rossi, M.; Mariano-Goulard, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Service Central de Medecine Nucleaire, 34 - Montpellier (France); Rouzet, F.; Le Guludec, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bichat, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-05-15

    Arhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is a severe cardiomyopathy that is an important cause of sudden death in young patients. Diagnosis of ARVD is often a challenge because conventional imaging modalities as conventional angiography and echocardiography have significant limitations to visualize the right ventricle (RV) and to evaluate right ventricular abnormalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interest of the assessment of RV functional parameters by gated blood pool SPECT (GBPS) in the diagnostic of ARVD. 22 patients with an old ARVC and 23 healthy people underwent gated blood pool SPECT. We compare right ventricular (RV) volumes and right ventricular ejection fractions (RVEF) with two soft-wares: an automatic software QBS, and a semi-automatic software Tompool. With both softwares, RV volumes was significantly increased (p=0.01) and RVEF was decreased in patients with AR VC (p=0.01). Tompool can also evaluate local ventricular parameters and showed an abnormal and heterogeneous distribution of times of end systole for the right ventricle in patients with AR VC. Areas under the ROC curve tends to be higher with Tompool than with QBS but there was no statistically significant difference and a complementary study with recent ARVC is necessary to confirm this trend. Gated blood SPECT is interesting and could be generalized in ARVD. (author)

  3. Left ventricular volume unloading with axial and centrifugal rotary blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Koenig, Steven C; Soucy, Kevin G; Choi, Young; Pirbodaghi, Tohid; Bartoli, Carlo R; Monreal, Gretel; Sobieski, Michael A; Schumer, Erin; Cheng, Allen; Slaughter, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Axial (AX) and centrifugal (CFG) rotary blood pumps have gained clinical acceptance for the treatment of advanced heart failure. Differences between AX and CFG designs and mechanism of blood flow delivery may offer clinical advantages. In this study, pump characteristics, and acute physiologic responses during support with AX (HeartMate II) and CFG (HVAD) left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) were investigated in mock loop and chronic ischemic heart failure bovine models. In the mock loop model, pump performance was characterized over a range of pump speeds (HeartMate II: 7,000-11,000 rpm, HVAD: 2,000-3,600 rpm) and fluid viscosities (2.7 cP, 3.2 cP, 3.7 cP). In the ischemic heart failure bovine model, hemodynamics, echocardiography, and end-organ perfusion were investigated. CFG LVAD had a flatter HQ curve, required less power, and had a more linear flow estimation relation than AX LVAD. The flow estimation error for the AX LVAD (±0.9 L/min at 2.7 cP, ±0.7 L/min at 3.2 cP, ±0.8 L/min at 3.7 cP) was higher than the CFG LVAD (±0.5 L/min at 2.7 cP, ±0.2 L/min at 3.2 cP, ±0.5 L/min at 3.7 cP). No differences in acute hemodynamics, echocardiography, or end-organ perfusion between AX and CFG LVAD over a wide range of support were statistically discernible. These findings suggest no pronounced acute differences in LV volume unloading between AX and CFG LVAD.

  4. Myocardial infarction and left ventricular remodeling: results of the CEDIM trial. Carnitine Ecocardiografia Digitalizzata Infarto Miocardico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, P; Iliceto, S

    2000-02-01

    Left ventricular dilatation after acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a powerful predictor of progressive functional deterioration, culminating in heart failure and death. The most important determinants of post-MI left ventricular remodeling are the size of the infarct, the degree of residual stenosis in the infarct-related artery, and the viability of the infarct zone. In addition to reperfusion therapy and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, metabolic intervention with L-carnitine may represent a therapeutic approach for preventing left ventricular dilatation and preserving cardiac function. Ongoing studies with early metabolic intervention with carnitine in the acute phase of infarction may prove successful in protecting the microcirculation against ischemic damage and enhancing its ability to respond to blood flow resumption. The results of the multicenter, randomized, double-blind Carnitine Ecocardiografia Digitalizzata Infarto Miocardico (CEDIM) trial suggest that the early and long-term administration of L-carnitine attenuates progressive left ventricular dilatation after acute anterior MI. Results show significant, consistent reductions in end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume in patients who received L-carnitine compared with placebo. The ongoing CEDIM-2 trial (projected 4000 patients with acute MI) will assess the efficacy of L-carnitine in reducing the combined incidence of death and heart failure at 6 months. In addition to standard reperfusion therapy and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, metabolic intervention with L-carnitine may be a therapeutic approach for preventing left ventricular dilatation and preserving cardiac function by limiting infarct size, decreasing residual stenosis in the infarct-related artery, and increasing viability of the infarct zone.

  5. The left ventricular eccentricity as a predictor of postoperative cardiac performance in valvular heart diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, S; Sano, S; Aokage, K; Shigenobu, M; Murakami, T; Kawakami, S; Nawa, S; Senoo, Y

    1982-04-01

    A clear correlation expressed by the following equation was observed between the preoperative left ventricular end-systolic eccentricity (epsilon s) and the percentage change of the left ventricular dimension (% delta D) in chronic valvular heart diseases: % delta D = 88.37 epsilon s - 48.16 (r = 0.66, p less than 0.001). Therefore, epsilon s may function as an index for predicting the postoperative cardiac performance independent of the affected valvular locations and the morphology of the lesions.

  6. Transmural mechanics at left ventricular epicardial pacing site

    OpenAIRE

    Ashikaga, Hiroshi; Omens, Jeffrey H.; Ingels, Neil B., Jr.; Covell, James W.

    2004-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) epicardial pacing acutely reduces wall thickening at the pacing site. Because LV epicardial pacing also reduces transverse shear deformation, which is related to myocardial sheet shear, we hypothesized that impaired end-systolic wall thickening at the pacing site is due to reduction in myocardial sheet shear deformation, resulting in a reduced contribution of sheet shear to wall thickening. We also hypothesized that epicardial pacing would reverse the transmural mechanic...

  7. Extracellular Volume Fraction Is More Closely Associated With Altered Regional Left Ventricular Velocities Than Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction in Non-Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jeremy; Sommerville, Cort; Magrath, Patrick; Spottiswoode, Bruce; Freed, Benjamin H; Benzuly, Keith H; Gordon, Robert; Vidula, Himabindu; Lee, Dan C; Yancy, Clyde; Carr, James; Markl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) is a common cause of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and myocardial fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to non-invasively evaluate changes in segmental LV extracellular volume fraction (ECV), LV velocities, myocardial scar, and wall motion in NICM patients. Methods and Results Cardiac MRI including pre- and post-contrast myocardial T1-mapping and velocity quantification (tissue phase mapping, TPM) of the LV (basal, mid-ventricular, apical short axis) was applied in 31 patients with NICM (50±18years). Analysis based on the 16-segment AHA model was employed to evaluate the segmental distribution of ECV, peak systolic and diastolic myocardial velocities, scar determined by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and wall motion abnormalities. LV segments with scar or impaired wall motion were significantly associated with elevated ECV (r=0.26, pECV were similar for patients with reduced (n=12, ECV=0.28±0.06) and preserved LV ejection fraction (LVEF) (n=19, ECV=0.30±0.09). Patients with preserved LVEF showed significant relationships between increasing ECV and reduced systolic (r=−0.19, r=−0.30) and diastolic (r=0.34, r=0.26) radial and long-axis peak velocities (pECV and segmental LV velocities were maintained indicating the potential of elevated ECV to identify regional diffuse fibrosis not visible by LGE which was associated with impaired regional LV function Conclusions Regionally elevated ECV negatively impacted myocardial velocities. The association of elevated regional ECV with reduced myocardial velocities independent of LVEF suggests a structure-function relationship between altered ECV and segmental myocardial function in NICM. PMID:25552491

  8. Relative Importance of Aortic Stiffness and Volume as Predictors of Treatment-Induced Improvement in Left Ventricular Mass Index in Dialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis I Georgianos

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the relative contribution of aortic stiffness and volume in treatment-induced change of left ventricular mass in dialysis. Hypertension in Hemodialysis Patients Treated with Atenolol or Lisinopril trial compared the effect of lisinopril versus atenolol in reducing left ventricular mass index; 179 patients with echo measurements of aortic pulse wave velocity and left ventricular mass at baseline were included. In unadjusted analysis, overall reductions of 26.24 g/m2 (95% CI: -49.20, -3.29 and 35.67 g/m2 (95% CI: -63.70, -7.64 in left ventricular mass index were noted from baseline to 6 and 12 months respectively. Volume control emerged as an important determinant of regression of left ventricular mass index due to the following reasons: (i additional control for change in ambulatory systolic blood pressure mitigated the reduction in left ventricular mass index in the statistical model above [6-month visit: -18.6 g/m2 (95% CI: -43.7, 6.5; 12-month visit: -22.1 g/m2 (95% CI: -52.2, 8.0] (ii regression of left ventricular hypertrophy was primarily due to reduction in left ventricular chamber and not wall thickness and (iii adjustment for inferior vena cava diameter (as a proxy for volume removed the effect of time on left ventricular mass index reduction [6-month visit: -6.6 g/m2 (95% CI: (-41.6, 28.4; 12-month visit: 0.6 g/m2 (95% CI: -39.5, 40.7]. In contrast, aortic pulse wave velocity was neither a determinant of baseline left ventricular mass index nor predictor of its reduction. Among dialysis patients, ambulatory systolic pressure, a proxy for volume expansion, but not aortic stiffness is more important predictor of reduction in left ventricular mass index. Improving blood pressure control via adequate volume management appears as an effective strategy to improve left ventricular hypertrophy in dialysis.

  9. Assessment of left ventricular performance by ECG-gated SPECT. Comparison with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadamura, Eiji; Inubushi, Masayuki; Kubo, Shigeto; Matsumoto, Keiichi; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Fujita, Toru; Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1999-10-01

    In the measurement of a left ventricular volume, MIBI-QGS was compared with MRI. Because it became clear by the experiment using phantom that a volume calculated with QGS was smaller than the actual volume, data of clinical study were corrected. Subjects were 20 patients with coronary artery disease. Fourteen patients had anamnesis of myocardial infarct. ECG-gated SPECT was performed one hour after intravenous injection of MIBI (600 MBq) in rest. End diastolic volume (EDV), end systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (EF) were calculated using QGS. Cine-MR image was obtained by using MR system of 1.5 Tesla within 1 week after SPECT. A condition was as follows; segmented k-space gradient echo with view sharing, TR=11 ms, TE=1.4 ms, flip angle 20 degree, field of view 32 cm, matrix 256 x 196, 8 lines per segment. LVEF, ESV and EF were analysed by Bland-Altman method, and the difference between MIBI-gated-SPECT and MRI was no problem. Horizontal dislocation image and vertical major axis dislocation image were provided. Minor axis crossing images of 10-12 slice were also filmed in order to cover all left ventricles. As a result, availability of MIBI-QGS became clear. Some factors which produces the measurement error are examined. (K.H.)

  10. Changes in ventricular-arterial coupling during decongestive therapy in acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Emmanuelle; Bihry, Nicolas; Brault-Melin, Ophelie; Assayag, Patrick; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Chemla, Denis; Logeart, Damien

    2014-10-01

    Coupled arterial and left ventricular properties are poorly documented in acute heart failure. The aim of this prospective noninvasive study was to document early changes in ventricular-arterial coupling in patients with acutely decompensated HF (ADHF). We studied 19 patients hospitalized for ADHF (age 62 ± 15 years, NYHA class 3 or 4). Patients with shock and sustained arrhythmias were excluded. All the patients received intravenous loop diuretics, and none received intravenous vasodilators or inotropes. Ongoing chronic treatments were maintained. Echocardiography and radial artery tonometry were performed simultaneously on admission and after clinical improvement (day 4 ± 1 after admission). Classical echocardiographic parameters were measured, including stroke volume (SV). End-systolic pressure (Pes) was derived from reconstructed central aortic pressure, and arterial elastance (Ea) was calculated as Ea = Pes/SV. End-systolic LV elastance (Ees) was calculated with the single-beat method. Ventricular-arterial coupling was quantified as the Ea/Ees ratio. Following IV diuretic therapy, mean weight loss was 5 ± 2 kg (P < 0·01) and BNP fell from 1813 (median) (IQR = 1284-2342) to 694 (334-1053) pg/mL (P < 0·01). Ea fell by 29%, from 2·46 (2·05-2·86) to 1·78 (1·55-2·00) mmHg/mL (P < 0·01), while Ees remained unchanged (1·28 (1·05-1·52) to 1·13 (0·92-1·34) mmHg/mL). The Ea/Ees ratio therefore fell, from 2·13 (1·70-2·56) to 1·81 (1·56-2·08) (P < 0·02). An early improvement in ventricular-arterial coupling was observed after diuretic-related decongestive therapy in ADHF patients and was related to a decrease in effective arterial elastance rather than to change in LV contractility. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  11. Acute effect of static exercise in patients with aortic regurgitation assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance: role of left ventricular remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegret, Josep M; Martinez-Micaelo, Neus; La Gerche, Andre; Franco-Bonafonte, Luis; Rubio-Pérez, Francisco; Calvo, Nahum; Montero, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    In patients with aortic regurgitation (AR), the effect of static exercise (SE) on global ventricular function and AR severity has not been previously studied. Resting and SE cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) were prospectively performed in 23 asymptomatic patients with AR. During SE, we observed a decrease in regurgitant volume in both end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volume in both ventricles, as well as a slight decrease in LV ejection fraction (EF). Interestingly, responses varied depending on the degree of LV remodelling. Among patients with a greater degree of LV remodelling, we observed a decrease in LVEF (56 ± 4 % at rest vs 48 ± 7 % during SE, p = 0.001) as a result of a lower decrease in LVESV (with respect to LVEDV. Among patients with a lower degree of LV remodelling, LVEF remained unchanged. RVEF remained unchanged in both groups. In patients with AR, SE provoked a reduction in preload, LV stroke volume, and regurgitant volume. In those patients with higher LV remodelling, we observed a decrease in LVEF, suggesting a lower LV contractile reserve. • In patients with aortic regurgitation, static exercise reduced preload volume. • In patients with aortic regurgitation, static exercise reduced stroke volume. • In patients with aortic regurgitation, static exercise reduced regurgitant volume. • In patients with greater remodelling, static exercise unmasked a lower contractile reserve. • Effect of static exercise on aortic regurgitation was assessed by cardiac MR.

  12. Right and left ventricular function and myocardial scarring in adult patients with sickle cell disease: a comprehensive magnetic resonance assessment of hepatic and myocardial iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Flávia P; Fernandes, Juliano L; Cunha, Guilherme M; T A Kubo, Tadeu; M A O Lima, Claudio; B P Lima, Daniel; Uellendhal, Marly; Sales, Sidney R; A S Cunha, Carolina; L R de Pessoa, Viviani; L C Lobo, Clarisse; Marchiori, Edson

    2013-09-19

    Patients with Sickle cell disease (SCD) who receive regular transfusions are at risk for developing cardiac toxicity from iron overload. The aim of this study was to assess right and left cardiac volumes and function, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and iron deposits in patients with SCD using CMR, correlating these values with transfusion burden, ferritin and hemoglobin levels. Thirty patients with SCD older than 20 years of age were studied in a 1.5 T scanner and compared to age- and sex-matched normal controls. Patients underwent analysis of biventricular volumes and function, LGE and T2* assessment of the liver and heart. When compared to controls, patients with SCD presented higher left ventricular (LV) volumes with decreased ejection fraction (EF) with an increase in stroke volume (SV) and LV hypertrophy. The right ventricle (RV) also presented with a decreased EF and hypertrophy, with an increased end-systolic volume. Although twenty-six patients had increased liver iron concentrations (median liver iron concentration value was 11.83 ± 9.66 mg/g), only one patient demonstrated an abnormal heart T2* < 20 msec. Only four patients (13%) LGE, with only one patient with an ischemic pattern. Abnormal heart iron levels and myocardial scars are not a common finding in SCD despite increased liver iron overload. The significantly different ventricular function seen in SCD compared to normal suggests the changes in RV and LV function may not be due to the anemia alone. Future studies are necessary to confirm this association.

  13. Noninvasive evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaniewska, Malwina; Schuetz, Georg M.; Willun, Steffen; Dewey, Marc [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Schlattmann, Peter [Jena University Hospital, Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Documentation, Jena (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in the assessment of global and regional left ventricular (LV) function with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science were systematically reviewed. Evaluation included: ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV) and left ventricular mass (LVM). Differences between modalities were analysed using limits of agreement (LoA). Publication bias was measured by Egger's regression test. Heterogeneity was evaluated using Cochran's Q test and Higgins I{sup 2} statistic. In the presence of heterogeneity the DerSimonian-Laird method was used for estimation of heterogeneity variance. Fifty-three studies including 1,814 patients were identified. The mean difference between CT and MRI was -0.56 % (LoA, -11.6-10.5 %) for EF, 2.62 ml (-34.1-39.3 ml) for EDV and 1.61 ml (-22.4-25.7 ml) for ESV, 3.21 ml (-21.8-28.3 ml) for SV and 0.13 g (-28.2-28.4 g) for LVM. CT detected wall motion abnormalities on a per-segment basis with 90 % sensitivity and 97 % specificity. CT is accurate for assessing global LV function parameters but the limits of agreement versus MRI are moderately wide, while wall motion deficits are detected with high accuracy. (orig.)

  14. Is the stroke volume during post-ectopic beat associated with ventricular premature complex-related symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwag, Hye Bin; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Hwang, Jin Kyung; Park, Seung-Jung; On, Young Keun; Kim, June Soo; Park, Kyoung-Min

    2017-07-03

    This study aimed to investigate if increased stroke volume (SV) after a ventricular premature complex (VPC) was related to VPC-related symptoms. We selected patients having an isolated VPC during echocardiography from a prospective registry that included patients with a structurally normal heart and 24-h VPC >1%. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of VPC-related symptoms (skipped beat or palpitation) when VPC occurred. Left ventricular (LV) volumes and time-velocity integral (TVI) at the LV outflow tract were measured during the preceding sinus beat, VPC, and post-ectopic sinus beat. Percent LV SV of the VPC and post-ectopic sinus beat were calculated by dividing each SV by the SV of the preceding sinus beat. A total of 47 patients were eligible. Most patients had VPC with left bundle branch block morphology and inferior axis. Patients in the symptom (+) group had a significantly lower SV, %LV SV, and TVI during post-ectopic sinus beat than those in the symptom (-) group. The sum of SVs during VPC and post-ectopic beat was significantly lower in symptomatic patients than non-symptomatic patients (103.4 mL vs. 125.1 mL, P = 0.02), while the sum of %LV SVs during VPC and post-ectopic beat tended to be lower in patients with symptoms than those without symptoms (P = 0.08). The sum of %LV SVs during VPC and post-VPC was positively correlated with coupling interval (CI) and CI ratio. Ventricular premature complex-related symptoms may not be associated with the amount of post-VPC SV.

  15. [Left ventricular longitudinal rotation changes in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy detected by two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Ni, Xian-da; Hu, Yuan-ping; Song, Zhang-wei; Yang, Wei-yu; Xu, Rui

    2011-10-01

    To assess the left ventricular longitudinal rotation (LR) in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Conventional echocardiography (GE-Vivid7) was performed in 35 healthy subjects and 42 DCM patients. Left atrial diameter was measured by M-mode echocardiography, left ventricular end-systolic, end-diastolic volume and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were calculated by bi-plane simpson's method. The peak velocity during early diastole (Ve) and late diastole (Va) of anterior mitral valve were measured by pulse-waved doppler, and the ratio Ve/Va was calculated. The peak radial systolic strain, strain rate in systolic, early and late diastolic periods were measured. Segmental LR and global LR were assessed using two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (2D-STI). The peak radial systolic strain, strain rate in systolic, early and late diastolic periods in DCM group were significantly lower than in healthy subjects, the rotation degrees of the middle and base lateral, the apex and the base septum walls were significantly lower than those of the healthy subjects. A prominent counterclockwise LR (0.76° ± 2.63°) was shown in healthy subjects while prominent clockwise LR (-1.58° ± 3.42°) was present in DCM patients. The time delay between the left ventricular lateral wall and the base septum wall in DCM patients significantly correlated with the peak LR of the left ventricular (r = 0.409, P DCM patients and a clockwise LR is present in DCM patients which might be caused by the time delay between the left ventricular lateral wall and the base-septum wall.

  16. Modelagem matemática e a determinação de um novo método de cálculo do volume ventricular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sérgio Domingues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesse trabalho, apresenta-se uma das aplicações da modelagem matemática no sistema cardiovascular, a sua utilização na estimação do volume ventricular esquerdo - um parâmetro fundamental no diagnóstico de doenças cardíacas. Para isso, prepara-se um molde de um ventrículo esquerdo bovino, seu volume real é determinado e, então, comparado com os resultados obtidos por métodos matemáticos médicos e com um novo método proposto, baseado na integral de revolução de uma função polinomial específica. Os resultados preliminares indicam que o método proposto é mais eficiente que os métodos médicos, com diferença de apenas 3,5% do volume real.Palavras-chave: Modelagem Matemática. Novo Método de Cálculo. Volume Ventricular. Mathematical modeling and the determination of a new method of the ventricular volume calculationABSTRACTIn this work, we presented one of the applications of mathematical modeling to the cardiovascular system, its use in the estimation of the left ventricular volume, which is a basic parameter in the diagnosis of heart disease. To do that, a mold of a bovine left ventricle is prepared, its real volume is determined and then it is compared to the results achieved by medical mathematical methods and with a new proposed method, based on the integral of revolution of a specific polynomial function. Preliminary results indicate that the proposed method is more efficient than medical methods, with a difference of only 3.5% of the actual volume.Keywords: Mathematical Modeling. New Calculation Method. Ventricular Volume.

  17. Percutaneous implantation of the left ventricular partitioning device for chronic heart failure: a pilot study with 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagic, Dragan; Otasevic, Petar; Sievert, Horst; Elsasser, Albrecht; Mitrovic, Veselin; Gradinac, Sinisa

    2010-06-01

    To assess short-term safety defined as the successful delivery and deployment of the ventricular partitioning device (VPD) implant, as well as 12-month functional, clinical, and haemodynamic effectiveness. Ventricular partitioning device implantation was successful in 15/18 (83%) patients with anteroapical regional wall motion abnormalities following myocardial infarction. In one patient, the VPD was removed 3 days post implantation and the patient subsequently died due to extra-cardiac sepsis. When compared with baseline, there was significant improvement at 6 and 12 months following VPD implantation in NYHA class (2.21 +/- 0.57 vs. 1.28 +/- 0.46 vs. 1.23 +/- 0.4.3, respectively, P < 0.001 for both), left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume (189 +/- 45 vs. 142 +/- 29 vs. 151 +/- 48 mL/m(2), respectively, P < 0.001 for both), and LV end-diastolic volume (260 +/- 47 vs. 208 +/- 33 vs. 222 +/- 58 mL/m(2), respectively, P < 0.001 for both). After 12 months, an improvement in LV ejection fraction was noted (28 +/- 7 vs. 32 +/- 7 vs. 33 +/- 9%, respectively, P = 0.02) as well as improvement in 6 min walk distance (382 +/- 123 vs. 409 +/- 7 vs. 425 +/- 140 m) when compared with pre-procedural values. Our data indicate that VPD implantation is safe and feasible, and that VPD implantation improves LV haemodynamics and functional capacity in the 12 months following the procedure.

  18. Measurement of left ventricular chamber and myocardial volume in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients by ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. Application of a newly developed edge-detection algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Hirase, Yoshinori; Sagoh, Masayoshi; Oka, Hisashi [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Mori, Hideaki [Siemens-Asahi Medical Technologies, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Murase, Kenya [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School

    2002-12-01

    Quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) software has been reported to demonstrate inaccurate edge detection in the left ventricular chamber in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients. In this study we developed a method to calculate left ventricular volume (LVV) and left myocardial volume (LMV) from gated SPECT data using a newly developed edge-detection algorithm, and we compared it with the QGS method of calculating LVV and LMV in a phantom study. Our method gave more accurate measurements LVV and LMV whereas the QGS method underestimated LMV. Compared with QGS LVV and LMV, our method yielded better results in the phantom study. (author)

  19. Evaluation of ECG-gated [(11)C]acetate PET for measuring left ventricular volumes, mass, and myocardial external efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Nils Henrik; Tolbod, Lars; Harms, Johannes; Wiggers, Henrik; Kim, Won Yong; Hansen, Esben; Zaremba, Tomas; Frøkiær, Jørgen; Jakobsen, Steen; Sørensen, Jens

    2016-08-01

    Noninvasive estimation of myocardial external efficiency (MEE) requires measurements of left ventricular (LV) oxygen consumption with [(11)C]acetate PET in addition to LV stroke volume and mass with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Measuring LV geometry directly from ECG-gated [(11)C]acetate PET might enable MEE evaluation from a single PET scan. Therefore, we sought to establish the accuracy of measuring LV volumes, mass, and MEE directly from ECG-gated [(11)C]acetate PET. Thirty-five subjects with aortic valve stenosis underwent ECG-gated [(11)C]acetate PET and CMR. List mode PET data were rebinned into 16-bin ECG-gated uptake images before measuring LV volumes and mass using commercial software and compared to CMR. Dynamic datasets were used for calculation of mean LV oxygen consumption and MEE. LV mass, volumes, and ejection fraction measured by CMR and PET correlated strongly (r = 0.86-0.92, P PET (P PET-based MEE, corrected for bias, correlated fairly with PET/CMR-based MEE (r = 0.60, P PET-based MEE bias was strongly associated with LV wall thickness. Although analysis-related improvements in accuracy are recommended, LV geometry estimated from ECG-gated [(11)C]acetate PET correlate excellently with CMR and can indeed be used to evaluate MEE.

  20. Simultaneous His Bundle and Left Ventricular Pacing for Optimal Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Delivery: Acute Hemodynamic Assessment by Pressure-Volume Loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padeletti, Luigi; Pieragnoli, Paolo; Ricciardi, Giuseppe; Innocenti, Lisa; Checchi, Luca; Padeletti, Margherita; Michelucci, Antonio; Picariello, Francesco; Valsecchi, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have investigated the role of intrinsic conduction in optimizing cardiac resynchronization therapy. We investigated the role of fusing pacing-induced activation and intrinsic conduction in cardiac resynchronization therapy by evaluating the acute hemodynamic effects of simultaneous His-bundle (HIS) and left ventricular (LV) pacing. We studied 11 patients with systolic heart failure and left bundle-branch block scheduled for cardiac resynchronization therapy implantation. On implantation, LV pressure-volume data were determined via conductance catheter. Standard leads were placed in the right atrium, at the right ventricular apex, and in a coronary vein. An additional electrode was temporarily positioned in the HIS. The following pacing configurations were systematically assessed: standard biventricular (right ventricular apex+LV), LV-only, HIS, simultaneous HIS and LV (HIS+LV). Each configuration was compared with the AAI mode at multiple atrioventricular delays (AVD). In comparison with the AAI, right ventricular apex+LV and LV-only pacing resulted in improved stroke volume (85±32 mL and 86±33 mL versus 58±23 mL; PHIS-LV pacing improved hemodynamic indexes at all AVD (stroke volume >76 mL at all fixed intervals and 88±31 mL at optimal interval; all PHIS+LV pacing yielded improvements, regardless of AVD setting. These findings support the hypothesis of the crucial role of intrinsic right ventricular conduction in optimal cardiac resynchronization therapy delivery. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Evidence of subannular and left ventricular morphological differences in patients with bicuspid versus tricuspid aortic valve stenosis: magnetic resonance imaging-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disha, Kushtrim; Dubslaff, Georg; Rouman, Mina; Fey, Beatrix; Borger, Michael A; Barker, Alex J; Kuntze, Thomas; Girdauskas, Evaldas

    2017-03-01

    Prospective analysis of left ventricular (LV) morphological/functional parameters in patients with bicuspid versus tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) stenosis undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) surgery. A total of 190 consecutive patients with BAV ( n  = 154) and TAV stenosis ( n  = 36) (mean age 61 ± 8 years, 65% male) underwent AVR ± concomitant aortic surgery from January 2012 through May 2015. All patients underwent preoperative cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in order to evaluate: (i) left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) dimensions, (ii) length of anterior mitral leaflet (AML), (iii) end-systolic and end-diastolic LV wall thickness, (iv) LV area, (v) LV end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters (LVESD, LVEDD), (vi) LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (LVEDV, LVESV) and (vii) maximal diameter of aortic root. These parameters were compared between the two study groups. The LVOT diameter was significantly larger in BAV patients (21.7 ± 3 mm in BAV vs 18.9 ± 3 mm in TAV, P  < 0.001). Moreover, BAV patients had significantly longer AML (24 ± 3 mm in BAV vs 22 ± 4 mm in TAV, P  = 0.009). LVEDV and LVESV were significantly larger in BAV patients (LVEDV: 164.9 ± 68.4 ml in BAV groups vs 126.5 ± 53.1 ml in TAV group, P  = 0.037; LVESV: 82.1 ± 57.9 ml in BAV group vs 52.9 ± 25.7 ml in TAV group, P  = 0.008). A strong linear correlation was found between LVOT diameter and aortic annulus diameter in BAV patients ( r  = 0.7, P  < 0.001), whereas significantly weaker correlation was observed in TAV patients ( r  = 0.5, P  = 0.006, z  = 1.65, P  = 0.04). Presence of BAV morphology was independently associated with larger LVOT diameters (OR 9.0, 95% CI 1.0-81.3, P  = 0.04). We found relevant differences in LV morphological/functional parameters between BAV and TAV stenosis patients. Further investigations are warranted in order to determine the

  2. Association of Right Ventricular Pressure and Volume Overload with Non-Ischemic Septal Fibrosis on Cardiac Magnetic Resonance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwon Kim

    Full Text Available Non-ischemic fibrosis (NIF on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR has been linked to poor prognosis, but its association with adverse right ventricular (RV remodeling is unknown. This study examined a broad cohort of patients with RV dysfunction, so as to identify relationships between NIF and RV remodeling indices, including RV pressure load, volume and wall stress.The population comprised patients with RV dysfunction (EF 6-fold more common in the highest, vs. the lowest, common tertile of PASP and RV size (p<0.001.Among wall stress components, NIF was independently associated with RV chamber dilation and afterload, supporting the concept that NIF is linked to adverse RV chamber remodeling.

  3. A cross-link breaker has sustained effects on arterial and ventricular properties in older rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkevicius, Peter V.; Lane, Mark; Spurgeon, Harold; Ingram, Donald K.; Roth, George S.; Egan, John J.; Vasan, Sara; Wagle, Dilip R.; Ulrich, Peter; Brines, Michael; Wuerth, Jean Paul; Cerami, Anthony; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2001-01-01

    Nonenzymatic glycosylation and cross-linking of proteins by glucose contributes to an age-associated increase in vascular and myocardial stiffness. Some recently sythesized thiazolium compounds selectively break these protein cross-links, reducing collagen stiffness. We investigated the effects of 3-phenacyl-4,5-dimethylthiazolium chloride (ALT-711) on arterial and left ventricular (LV) properties and their coupling in old, healthy, nondiabetic Macaca mulatta primates (age 21 ± 3.6 years). Serial measurements of arterial stiffness indices [i.e., aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation (AGI) of carotid arterial pressure waveform] as well as echocardiographic determinations of LV structure and function were made before and for 39 weeks after 11 intramuscular injections of ALT-711 at 1.0 mg/kg body weight every other day. Heart rate, brachial blood pressure, and body weight were unchanged by the drug. PWV and AGI decreased to a nadir at 6 weeks [PWV to 74.2 ± 4.4% of baseline (B), P = 0.007; AGI to 41 ± 7.3% of B, P = 0.046], and thereafter gradually returned to baseline. Concomitant increases in LV end diastolic diameter to 116.7 ± 2.7% of B, P = 0.02; stroke volume index (SVindex) to 173.1 ± 40.1% of B, P = 0.01; and systolic fractional shortening to 180 ± 29.7% of B, P = 0.01 occurred after drug treatment. The LV end systolic pressure/SVindex, an estimate of total LV vascular load, decreased to 60 ± 12.1% of B (P = 0.02). The LV end systolic diameter/SVindex, an estimate of arterio-ventricular coupling, was improved (decreased to 54.3 ± 11% of B, P < 0.002). Thus, in healthy older primates without diabetes, ALT-711 improved both arterial and ventricular function and optimized ventriculo-vascular coupling. This previously unidentified cross-link breaker may be an effective pharmacological therapy to improve impaired cardiovascular function that occurs in the context of heart failure associated with aging, diabetes, or hypertension, conditions in

  4. Right ventricular relative wall thickness as a predictor of outcomes and of right ventricular reverse remodeling for patients with pulmonary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Sano, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Motoji, Yoshiki; Fukuda, Yuko; Mochizuki, Yasuhide; Hatani, Yutaka; Matsuzoe, Hiroki; Hatazawa, Keiko; Shimoura, Hiroyuki; Ooka, Junichi; Ryo-Koriyama, Keiko; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Emoto, Noriaki; Hirata, Ken-ichi

    2017-01-01

    Mid-term right ventricular (RV) reverse remodeling after treatment in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with long-term outcome as well as baseline RV remodeling. However, baseline factors influencing mid-term RV reverse remodeling after treatment and its prognostic capability remain unclear. We studied 54 PH patients. Mid-term RV remodeling was assessed in terms of the RV area, which was traced planimetrically at the end-systole (RVESA). RV reverse remodeling was defined...

  5. Does left ventricular function improve with L-carnitine after acute myocardial infarction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer R

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial was carried out to assess the efficacy and safety of L-carnitine in patients suffering from acute anterior wall myocardial infarction with respect to left ventricular function. Sixty patients (34 men, 26 women, mean age 56+11 yr. with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction were randomized to placebo and L-carnitine. All the patients were given intravenous L-carnitine / placebo in the dose of 6gm/day for the first seven days followed by oral L-carnitine / placebo 3 gm/day in three divided doses for a period of three months. Echocardiography was performed for regional wall motion abnormality, left ventricular end systolic volume (ESV, end diastolic volume (EDV and ejection fraction (EF on admission, after seven days and after three months of the infarction. Forty-four patients completed the study. There were three deaths, two in the placebo and one in the L-carnitine group (p>0.05. Thirteen patients were lost to follow up. Echo parameters in both groups were comparable (p>0.05. The duration of chest pain prior to initiation of the I.V. L-carnitine was 7.5 + 5.2 hrs in the L-carnitine group and 7 + 4 hrs in the placebo group (p>0.05. There was no statistical difference in the EF, ESV and EDV on admission, at discharge and after three months in the L-carnitine and the placebo groups (p>0.05. No significant adverse effects were noted. L-carnitine, though a safe drug, does not affect the left ventricular function in patients with myocardial infarction.

  6. First-in-man implantation of left ventricular partitioning device in a patient with chronic heart failure: twelve-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otasevic, Petar; Sagic, Dragan; Antonic, Zelimir; Nikolic, Serjan D; Khairakhan, Alexander; Radovancevic, Branislav; Gradinac, Sinisa

    2007-09-01

    The ventricular partitioning device (VPD) (Cardiokinetix Inc., Redwood City, Calif) is a novel device that is deployed percutaneously in the left ventricle in patients with anteroapical regional wall motion abnormalities after a myocardial infarction (MI) to partition the ventricle and segregate the dysfunctional region. In this case report we present the first implantation of the VPD in a human, with a 12-month efficacy and safety follow-up. A 48-year-old man had an anterior MI in 2004. A coronary angiogram showed an occlusion of the proximal segment of the left anterior descending artery with no stenosis on other major epicardial vessels. Echocardiography revealed a dilated left ventricle (62 mm) with anteroapical wall motion abnormalities, no apical thrombus, a calculated ejection fraction of 26.8% (by Simpson biplane formula), and an end-systolic volume index (ESVi) of 76.8 mL/m(2). The VPD implant was delivered percutaneously from the femoral artery by the standard techniques for left-sided heart catheterization. The postimplantation course was uneventful. Echocardiography on discharge showed the VPD implanted at the apex, with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 30.9% and an ESVi of 57.2 mL/m(2). Left ventricular ejection fraction and ESVi remained improved during the 12-month follow-up. This case report demonstrates that VPD implantation in this particular patient was feasible and that it may provide a nonsurgical approach to prevent or reverse left ventricle remodeling.

  7. Optimization of left ventricular pacing site plus multipoint pacing improves remodeling and clinical response to cardiac resynchronization therapy at 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanon, Francesco; Marcantoni, Lina; Baracca, Enrico; Pastore, Gianni; Lanza, Daniela; Fraccaro, Chiara; Picariello, Claudio; Conte, Luca; Aggio, Silvio; Roncon, Loris; Pacetta, Domenico; Badie, Nima; Noventa, Franco; Prinzen, Frits W

    2016-08-01

    Approximately one-third of the patients with heart failure (HF) treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) fail to respond. Positioning the left ventricular (LV) pacing lead in the area of the latest electrical delay may improve the response to CRT. Multipoint pacing (MPP) of the LV has been shown to improve the acute hemodynamic response. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that patients treated with MPP in whom LV pacing location is optimized have better long-term clinical outcomes than do patients treated with conventional CRT. We evaluated the echocardiographic and clinical response of 110 patients with HF treated for nearly 1 year with either conventional CRT (standard [STD] group, n = 54, 49%), CRT with hemodynamic and electrical optimization of the LV pacing site (optimized [OPT] group, n = 36, 33%), or OPT combined with MPP (OPT + MPP group, n = 20, 18%). Responders were classified in terms of reduction in end-systolic volume index ≥15%, reduction in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class ≥1, and Packer score variation (NYHA response with no HF-related hospitalization events or death). In STD, OPT, and OPT + MPP groups, 56%, 72%, and 90% of patients, respectively, were end-systolic volume index responders (P = .004) and 67%, 78%, and 95% were NYHA class responders (P = .012); 59%, 67%, and 90% of patients exhibited a 1-year Packer score of 0 (P = .018). These trends remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors by multivariate logistic analysis. Combining MPP with optimal positioning of the LV lead on the basis of electrical delay and hemodynamics enhances reverse remodeling and improves clinical outcomes beyond the effect due to conventional CRT. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CASE REPORT Arrythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RBBB: right bundle-branch block. RV: right ventricular. RVEDV: right ventricular end diastolic volume. RVEF: right ventricular ejection fraction. RVOT: right ventricular outflow tract. SAECG: signal averaged electrocardiogram. VT: ventricular tachycardia. 'Modifications of the orginal criteria have been proposed to facilitate ...

  9. Whole left ventricular functional assessment from two minutes free breathing multi-slice CINE acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, M.; Atkinson, D.; Heathfield, E.; Greil, G.; Schaeffter, T.; Prieto, C.

    2015-04-01

    Two major challenges in cardiovascular MRI are long scan times due to slow MR acquisition and motion artefacts due to respiratory motion. Recently, a Motion Corrected-Compressed Sensing (MC-CS) technique has been proposed for free breathing 2D dynamic cardiac MRI that addresses these challenges by simultaneously accelerating MR acquisition and correcting for any arbitrary motion in a compressed sensing reconstruction. In this work, the MC-CS framework is combined with parallel imaging for further acceleration, and is termed Motion Corrected Sparse SENSE (MC-SS). Validation of the MC-SS framework is demonstrated in eight volunteers and three patients for left ventricular functional assessment and results are compared with the breath-hold acquisitions as reference. A non-significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed in the volumetric functional measurements (end diastolic volume, end systolic volume, ejection fraction) and myocardial border sharpness values obtained with the proposed and gold standard methods. The proposed method achieves whole heart multi-slice coverage in 2 min under free breathing acquisition eliminating the time needed between breath-holds for instructions and recovery. This results in two-fold speed up of the total acquisition time in comparison to the breath-hold acquisition.

  10. Xenon protects left ventricular diastolic function during acute ischemia, less than ischemic preconditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H Baumert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetics modify regional left ventricular (LV dysfunction following ischemia/reperfusion but their effects on global function in this setting are less clear. Aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that xenon would limit global LV dysfunction as caused by acute anterior wall ischemia, comparable to ischemic preconditioning. In an open-chest model under thiopental anesthesia, 30 pigs underwent 60-minute left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. A xenon group (constant inhalation from previous to ischemia through end of reperfusion was compared to control and ischemic preconditioning. Load-independent measures of diastolic function (end-diastolic pressure-volume relation, time constant of relaxation and systolic function (end-systolic pressure-volume relation, preload-recruitable stroke work were determined. Heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output, and arterial elastance were recorded. Data were compared in 26 pigs. Ischemia impaired global diastolic but not systolic function in control, which recovered during reperfusion. Xenon limited and preconditioning abolished diastolic dysfunction during ischemia. Arterial pressure decreased during reperfusion while arterial elastance increased. Tachycardia and antero-septal wall edema during reperfusion were observed in all groups. In spite of ischemia of 40% of LV mass, global systolic function was preserved. Deterioration in global diastolic function was limited by xenon and prevented by preconditioning.

  11. Xenon protects left ventricular diastolic function during acute ischemia, less than ischemic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, Jan-H; Roehl, Anna B; Funcke, Sandra; Hein, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Anesthetics modify regional left ventricular (LV) dysfunction following ischemia/reperfusion but their effects on global function in this setting are less clear. Aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that xenon would limit global LV dysfunction as caused by acute anterior wall ischemia, comparable to ischemic preconditioning. In an open-chest model under thiopental anesthesia, 30 pigs underwent 60-minute left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. A xenon group (constant inhalation from previous to ischemia through end of reperfusion) was compared to control and ischemic preconditioning. Load-independent measures of diastolic function (end-diastolic pressure-volume relation, time constant of relaxation) and systolic function (end-systolic pressure-volume relation, preload-recruitable stroke work) were determined. Heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output, and arterial elastance were recorded. Data were compared in 26 pigs. Ischemia impaired global diastolic but not systolic function in control, which recovered during reperfusion. Xenon limited and preconditioning abolished diastolic dysfunction during ischemia. Arterial pressure decreased during reperfusion while arterial elastance increased. Tachycardia and antero-septal wall edema during reperfusion were observed in all groups. In spite of ischemia of 40% of LV mass, global systolic function was preserved. Deterioration in global diastolic function was limited by xenon and prevented by preconditioning.

  12. Ventricular Volume Load Reveals the Mechanoelastic Impact of Communicating Hydrocephalus on Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubrich, Christina; Czosnyka, Marek; Diehl, Rolf; Smielewski, Peter; Czosnyka, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the progression of communicating hydrocephalus is associated with diminished cerebral perfusion and microangiopathy. If communicating hydrocephalus similarly alters the cerebrospinal fluid circulation and cerebral blood flow, both may be related to intracranial mechanoelastic properties as, for instance, the volume pressure compliance. Twenty-three shunted patients with communicating hydrocephalus underwent intraventricular constant-flow infusion with Hartmann's solution. The monitoring included transcranial Doppler (TCD) flow velocities (FV) in the middle (MCA) and posterior cerebral arteries (PCA), intracranial pressure (ICP), and systemic arterial blood pressure (ABP). The analysis covered cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), the index of pressure-volume compensatory reserve (RAP), and phase shift angles between Mayer waves (3 to 9 cpm) in ABP and MCA-FV or PCA-FV. Due to intraventricular infusion, the pressure-volume reserve was exhausted (RAP) 0.84+/-0.1 and ICP was increased from baseline 11.5+/-5.6 to plateau levels of 20.7+/-6.4 mmHg. The ratio dRAP/dICP distinguished patients with large 0.1+/-0.01, medium 0.05+/-0.02, and small 0.02+/-0.01 intracranial volume compliances. Both M wave phase shift angles (r = 0.64; p<0.01) and CPP (r = 0.36; p<0.05) displayed a gradual decline with decreasing dRAP/dICP gradients. This study showed that in communicating hydrocephalus, CPP and dynamic cerebral autoregulation in particular, depend on the volume-pressure compliance. The results suggested that the alteration of mechanoelastic characteristics contributes to a reduced cerebral perfusion and a loss of autonomy of cerebral blood flow regulation. Results warrant a prospective TCD follow-up to verify whether the alteration of dynamic cerebral autoregulation may indicate a progression of communicating hydrocephalus.

  13. Ventricular Volume Load Reveals the Mechanoelastic Impact of Communicating Hydrocephalus on Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Haubrich

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that the progression of communicating hydrocephalus is associated with diminished cerebral perfusion and microangiopathy. If communicating hydrocephalus similarly alters the cerebrospinal fluid circulation and cerebral blood flow, both may be related to intracranial mechanoelastic properties as, for instance, the volume pressure compliance. Twenty-three shunted patients with communicating hydrocephalus underwent intraventricular constant-flow infusion with Hartmann's solution. The monitoring included transcranial Doppler (TCD flow velocities (FV in the middle (MCA and posterior cerebral arteries (PCA, intracranial pressure (ICP, and systemic arterial blood pressure (ABP. The analysis covered cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP, the index of pressure-volume compensatory reserve (RAP, and phase shift angles between Mayer waves (3 to 9 cpm in ABP and MCA-FV or PCA-FV. Due to intraventricular infusion, the pressure-volume reserve was exhausted (RAP 0.84+/-0.1 and ICP was increased from baseline 11.5+/-5.6 to plateau levels of 20.7+/-6.4 mmHg. The ratio dRAP/dICP distinguished patients with large 0.1+/-0.01, medium 0.05+/-0.02, and small 0.02+/-0.01 intracranial volume compliances. Both M wave phase shift angles (r = 0.64; p<0.01 and CPP (r = 0.36; p<0.05 displayed a gradual decline with decreasing dRAP/dICP gradients. This study showed that in communicating hydrocephalus, CPP and dynamic cerebral autoregulation in particular, depend on the volume-pressure compliance. The results suggested that the alteration of mechanoelastic characteristics contributes to a reduced cerebral perfusion and a loss of autonomy of cerebral blood flow regulation. Results warrant a prospective TCD follow-up to verify whether the alteration of dynamic cerebral autoregulation may indicate a progression of communicating hydrocephalus.

  14. Use of gated 13N-NH3 micro-PET to examine left ventricular function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Mariusz K; Kruizinga, Silvana; Tio, René A; Willemsen, Antoon T M; Schäfers, Michael A; Stegger, Lars; Dierckx, Rudi A; Hillege, Hans L; Slart, Riemer H J A

    2012-07-01

    Myocardial perfusion gating techniques offer the possibility of measurement of left ventricular end-systolic (ESV) and end-diastolic volume (EDV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in clinical and preclinical trials. The aim of this study was to evaluate left ventricular volumes (LVV) and LVEF with 13N-NH3 in comparison with the reference 18F-FDG in different rat models. In this study, 18 male Wistar rats, 12 control rats and 6 rats with myocardial infarction (MI) were imaged with micro-PET. The ratswere scanned with gated 13N-NH3 and 18F-FDG sequentially for the assessment of LVV and LVEF. A validated three-dimensional segmentation algorithm was used to calculate LVV and LVEF. Mean LVEF measured with 13N-NH3 was 45.6±8.9 and 75.3±9.4%, mean ESV was 0.40±0.12 and 0.14±0.11 ml, and mean EDVwas 0.53±16 and 0.75±0.18 ml for MI and control rats, respectively. Moderate to good correlations were observed between values of 13N-NH3 and 18F-FDG for calculation of ESV [r=0.80, PNH3 was significantly lower in MI rats in comparison to measurement with 18F-FDG (45.6±8.9 vs 54.9±9.3 %; P=.04). Correlations were moderate to good for the assessment of ESV, EDV and LVEF between gated 13N-NH3 and 18F-FDG. LVEF was underestimated with gated 13N-NH3 in rats with myocardial infarction. In healthy rats, LV volumes and LVEF can be measured reproducibly with either approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Percutaneous intramyocardial delivery of mesenchymal stem cells induces superior improvement in regional left ventricular function compared with bone marrow mononuclear cells in porcine myocardial infarcted heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Bo; Cui, Mingliang; Wang, Chen; Ma, Sai; Wu, Feng; Yi, Fu; Qin, Xing; Liu, Junting; Wang, Haichang; Wang, Zhe; Ma, Xiaowei; Tian, Jie; Chen, Yundai; Wang, Jing; Cao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy and feasibility of percutaneous intramyocardial injection of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMNC) on cardiac functional improvement in porcine myocardial infarcted hearts. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was induced in 22 minipigs by temporary balloon occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 60 min.Two weeks post AMI, BMMNC (n = 7, 245 ± 98 × 10(6)), MSC (n = 8, 56 ± 17 × 10(6)), or phosphate buffered saline (PBS; n = 7) were injected intramyocardially. Cardiac function and myocardial perfusion were analyzed by echocardiography and gated single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) at 1 week before AMI and 2 and 10 weeks after AMI. Cell engraftment, proliferation, vascular density, and cardiac fibrosis were evaluated by histology analysis. In all groups, the echocardiography revealed no significant change in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), or left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) at 10 weeks after AMI compared with those at 2 weeks after AMI. However, the wall motion score index (WMSI) and left ventricular systolic wall thickening (WT%) were significantly improved at 10 weeks compared with those at 2 weeks after AMI in the MSC group (WMSI 1.55 ± 0.06 vs. 1.87 ± 0.10, WT 33.4 ± 2.3% vs.24.8 ± 2.7%,p < 0.05) but not in the BMMNC group. In addition, myocardial perfusion quantified by SPECT/CT was improved in both the MSC and BMMNC groups, whereas the MSC group showed a superior improvement in vascular density and collagen volume fraction (p < 0.05). This preclinically relevant study suggests that when delivered by percutaneous (transcatheter) intramyocardial injection, MSC might be more effective than BMMNC to improve ischemia and reperfusion after AMI.

  16. Long-Term Left Ventricular Remodelling in Rat Model of Nonreperfused Myocardial Infarction: Sequential MR Imaging Using a 3T Clinical Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad G. Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate whether 3T clinical MRI with a small-animal coil and gradient-echo (GE sequence could be used to characterize long-term left ventricular remodelling (LVR following nonreperfused myocardial infarction (MI using semi-automatic segmentation software (SASS in a rat model. Materials and Methods. 5 healthy rats were used to validate left ventricular mass (LVM measured by MRI with postmortem values. 5 sham and 7 infarcted rats were scanned at 2 and 4 weeks after surgery to allow for functional and structural analysis of the heart. Measurements included ejection fraction (EF, end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, and LVM. Changes in different regions of the heart were quantified using wall thickness analyses. Results. LVM validation in healthy rats demonstrated high correlation between MR and postmortem values. Functional assessment at 4 weeks after MI revealed considerable reduction in EF, increases in ESV, EDV, and LVM, and contractile dysfunction in infarcted and noninfarcted regions. Conclusion. Clinical 3T MRI with a small animal coil and GE sequence generated images in a rat heart with adequate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for successful semiautomatic segmentation to accurately and rapidly evaluate long-term LVR after MI.

  17. Early repair of moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation reverses left ventricular remodeling: a functional and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeri, Ronen; Yosefy, Chaim; Guerrero, J Luis; Abedat, Suzan; Handschumacher, Mark D; Stroud, Robert E; Sullivan, Suzanne; Chaput, Miguel; Gilon, Dan; Vlahakes, Gus J; Spinale, Francis G; Hajjar, Roger J; Levine, Robert A

    2007-09-11

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) doubles postmyocardial infarction (MI) mortality. We have shown that moderate MR augments remodeling in an apical MI model (no intrinsic MR) with independent left ventricle-to-left atrial MR-type flow. We hypothesized that repairing moderate MR 1 month after MI reverses this remodeling. Anteroapical MIs were created in 18 sheep, and a left ventricle-to-left atrial shunt implanted in 12 (regurgitant fraction, 30%). Six sheep had the shunt closed at 1 month (repair group). Sheep were compared at baseline, and at 1 and 3 months. Sheep in the MI+MR (unrepaired) and repaired groups remodeled during the first month (120% increased left ventricular end-systolic volume [ESV; P<0.01]), but shunt closure reversed remodeling at 3 months, with end-diastolic volume (EDV) and ESV 135% and 128% of baseline versus 220% and 280% without repair (P<0.001). At 3 months, dP/dt and preload-recruitable stroke work were relatively maintained in the repaired and MI-only groups versus nearly 50% decreases without repair. Prohypertrophic gp130 and antiapoptotic pAkt increased followed by exhaustion below baseline without repair, but remained elevated at 3 months with repair or MI only. With repair, matrix metalloproteinase-2 decreased to < or = 50% that without repair in remote and border zones at 3 months, and the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor TIMP-4 increased dramatically. Early repair of moderate MR in the setting of apical MI substantially reverses the otherwise progressive remodeling process, with reduced left ventricular volumes, relatively maintained contractility, persistently activated intracellular signals promoting hypertrophy and opposing apoptosis, and reduced matrix proteolytic activity. These findings are of interest for the current controversy regarding potential benefits of repair of MR after MI.

  18. Estudo da função ventricular na técnica de plicatura da parede livre do ventrículo esquerdo em cães Left ventricular function after plication of the left ventricular free wall in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Newton Bizetto Meira de Andrade

    2004-06-01

    of 24 hours was performed during the first postoperative day. RESULTS: The cardiomyopathy-induced group had significant improvements in cardiac output, ejection fraction, shortening fraction and reductions in the left ventricular end-systolic, end-diastolic area and volume after the surgery. One dog died. Electrocardiography and Holter revealed premature ventricular complexes, which improved spontaneously at the first week. The cardiomyopathy-induced dogs that did notundergo surgery deteriored and died about 40 days after the induction of cardiomyopathy. Hemodynamic values did not change in the normal dogs submitted to the surgery. CONCLUSION: The plication of the left ventricular free wall reduced the left ventricular area and volume and improved left ventricular systolic function in dogs with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy giving low morbidity and mortality.

  19. Determinants of left ventricular preload-adjusted maximal power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Patrick; Tchana-Sato, Vincent; Leather, H Alex; Lambermont, Bernard; Ghuysen, Alexandre; Dogne, Jean-Michel; Benoit, Patricia; Morimont, Philippe; Wouters, Patrick F; Verdonck, Pascal; Kolh, Philippe

    2003-06-01

    Maximal left ventricular (LV) hydraulic power output (PWR(max)), corrected for preload as PWR(max)/(V(ed))(beta) (where V(ed) is the end-diastolic volume and beta is a constant coefficient), is an index of LV contractility. Whereas preload-adjusted maximal power (PAMP) is usually calculated with beta = 2, there is uncertainty about the optimal value of beta (beta = 1 for the normal LV and 2 for the dilated LV). The aim of this work is to study the determining factors of beta. The data set consisted of 245 recordings (steady state and vena cava occlusion) in 10 animals in an ischemic heart pig model. The occlusion data yielded the slope (E(es); 2.01 +/- 0.77 mmHg/ml, range 0.71-4.16 mmHg/ml) and intercept (V(0); -11.9 +/- 22.6 ml; range -76 to 39 ml) of the end-systolic pressure-volume relation, and the optimal beta-factor (assessed by fitting an exponential curve through the V(ed)-PWR(max) relation) was 1.94 +/- 0.88 (range 0.29-4.73). The relation of beta with V(ed) was weak [beta = 0.60 + 0.02(V(ed)); r(2) = 0.20]. In contrast, we found an excellent exponential relation between V(0) and beta [beta = 2.16e(0.0189(V(0))), r(2) = 0.70]. PAMP, calculated from the steady-state data, was 0.64 +/- 0.40 mW/ml(2) (range 0.14-2.83 mW/ml(2)) with a poor correlation with E(es) (r = 0.30, P adjustment of maximal LV power requires incorporation of V(0) and thus of data measured under altered loading conditions.

  20. Late ventricular potentials in chronic heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Dushina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: More than half of patients with chronic heart failure have a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. It has been found that sudden cardiac death is more frequent in this patient category. A reliable and easily available marker is needed that would predict the death outcome with a high probability. The use of the late ventricular potentials for this purpose could be reasonable.Aim: To assess the prevalence of the late ventricular potential and their association with the structural and functional parameters of the myocardium in patients with early stages of chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.Materials and methods: We examined 77 patients with chronic heart failure (grade I to IIА, functional class I to III with preserved ejection fraction (> 50%, aged 47 to 77 years (mean ± SD, 59.7 ± 7.8 years. Echocardiography (SonoScape 8000 and Vivid 3 at М-, В- and Doppler modes was performed in all patients. Ventricular ectopic activity and late ventricular potentials were registered during 24- hour ECG monitoring (Cardiotekhnika, INKART, St. Petersburg.Results: Late ventricular potentials were found in 13% (10 of 77 of patients. The following correlations were found in patients with concentric hypertrophy (n = 53: between the duration of the filtered QRS (TotORSF and the left ventricular end diastolic diameter (r = 0.27, p = 0.049, TotORSF and the interventricular septum thickness (r = 0.28, p = 0.04, TotORSF and the left ventricular myocardial mass (r = 0.35, p = 0.01, mean square magnitude of fluctuations within the last 40 ms of ORS (RMS40 and the left ventricular end diastolic diameter (r = -0.42, p < 0.01, RMS40 and the left ventricular end-systolic diameter (r = -0.37, p < 0.01. In the patients with eccentric hypertrophy (n = 14, the following correlations were found: between RMS40 and the left ventricular myocardial mass index (r = -0.77, p < 0.01, between duration

  1. Relationship between two-dimensional speckle-tracking septal strain and response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with left ventricular dysfunction and left bundle branch block: a prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchaux, Sylvestre; Guiot, Aurélie; Castel, Anne Laure; Guyomar, Yves; Semichon, Marc; Delelis, François; Heuls, Sebastien; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Graux, Pierre; Tribouilloy, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated variable patterns of longitudinal septal deformation in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and left bundle branch block. This prospective single center study was designed to assess the relationship between septal deformation patterns obtained by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography and response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). One hundred one patients with New York Heart Association class II to IV heart failure, LV ejection fractions ≤ 35%, and left bundle branch block underwent echocardiography before CRT. Longitudinal two-dimensional speckle-tracking strain analysis in the apical four-chamber view identified three patterns: double-peaked systolic shortening (pattern 1), early pre-ejection shortening peak followed by prominent systolic stretch (pattern 2), and pseudonormal shortening with a late systolic shortening peak and less pronounced end-systolic stretch (pattern 3). CRT response was defined as a relative reduction in LV end-systolic volume of ≥ 15% at 9-month follow-up. CRT super-response was defined as an absolute LV ejection fraction of ≥ 50% associated with a relative reduction in LV end-systolic volume of ≥ 15% and an improvement in New York Heart Association functional class. Cardiac death or hospitalization for heart failure during follow-up was systematically investigated. Ninety-two percent of patients with pattern 1 or 2 were responders to CRT compared with 59% with pattern 3 (P < .0001). Thirty-six percent of patients with pattern 1 were super-responders compared with 15% of those with pattern 2 and 12% of those with pattern 3 (P = .037). The improvement in LV volumes, LV ejection fraction, and global longitudinal strain after CRT was better in patients with pattern 1 or 2 compared with those with pattern 3 (P < .0001 for all). Eighteen-month outcomes were excellent in patients with pattern 1 or 2, with event-free survival of 95 ± 3% compared with 75 ± 7% in patients

  2. Automated short-axis cardiac magnetic resonance image acquisitions: accuracy of left ventricular dimension measurements in normal subjects and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilouchkine, Mikhail G; Westenberg, Jos J M; Reiber, Johan H C; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F

    2004-12-01

    This study investigates the use of an automated observer-independent planning system for short-axis cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) acquisitions in the clinical environment. The capacity of the automated method to produce accurate measurements of left ventricular dimensions and function was quantitatively assessed in normal subjects and patients. Fourteen healthy volunteers and 8 patients underwent cardiovascular MR (CMR) acquisitions for ventricular function assessment. Short-axis datasets of the left ventricle (LV) were acquired in 2 ways: manually planned and generated in an automatic fashion. End-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), ejection fraction (EF), and left ventricular mass (LVM) were derived from the 2 datasets. The agreement between the manual and automatic planning methods was assessed. The mean differences between the manual and automated CMR planning methods for the normal subjects and patients were 5.89 mL and 1.93 mL (EDV), 1.14 mL and -0.41 mL (ESV), 0.81% and 0.89% (EF), and 4.35 g and 3.88 g (LVM), respectively. There was no significant difference in ESV and EF. LVM significantly differed in both groups, whereas EDV was significantly different in the normal subjects and insignificantly different in the patients. The variability coefficients were 2.8 and 3.59 (EDV), 3.3 and 5.03 (ESV), 1.79 and 2.65 (EF), and 4.36 and 2.27 (LVM) for the normal subjects and patients, respectively. The mean angular deviation of the LV axes turned out to be 8.58 +/- 5.76 degrees for the normal subjects and 8.35 +/- 5.15 degrees for the patients. Automated CMR planning method can provide accurate measurements of LV dimensions in normal subjects and patients, and therefore, can be used in the clinical environment for functional assessment of the human cardiovascular system.

  3. Evaluation of Right Ventricular Myocardial Mechanics Using Velocity Vector Imaging of Cardiac MRI Cine Images in Transposition of the Great Arteries Following Atrial and Arterial Switch Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thattaliyath, Bijoy D; Forsha, Daniel E; Stewart, Chad; Barker, Piers C A; Campbell, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine right and left ventricle deformation parameters in patients with transposition of the great arteries who had undergone atrial or arterial switch procedures. Patients with transposition are born with a systemic right ventricle. Historically, the atrial switch operation, in which the right ventricle remains the systemic ventricle, was performed. These patients have increased rates of morbidity and mortality. We used cardiac MRI with Velocity Vector Imaging analysis to characterize and compare ventricular myocardial deformation in patients who had an atrial switch or arterial switch operation. Patients with a history of these procedures, who had a clinically ordered cardiac MRI were included in the study. Consecutive 20 patients (75% male, 28.7 ± 1.8 years) who underwent atrial switch operation and 20 patients (60% male, 17.7 ± 1.9 years) who underwent arterial switch operation were included in the study. Four chamber and short-axis cine images were used to determine longitudinal and circumferential strain and strain rate using Vector Velocity Imaging software. Compared with the arterial switch group, the atrial switch group had decreased right ventricular ejection fraction and increased end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, and no difference in left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes. The atrial switch group had decreased longitudinal and circumferential strain and strain rate. When compared with normal controls multiple strain parameters in the atrial switch group were reduced. Myocardial deformation analysis of transposition patients reveals a reduction of right ventricular function and decreased longitudinal and circumferential strain parameters in patients with an atrial switch operation compared with those with arterial switch operation. A better understanding of the mechanisms of right ventricle failure in transposition of great arteries may lead to improved therapies and adaptation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals

  4. [Adverse effects of type B ventricular pre-excitation on ventricular wall motion and left ventricular function: clinical analysis of 9 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baojing; Dai, Chencheng; Li, Wenxiu; Xiao, Yanyan; Han, Ling

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the adverse effects of type B ventricular pre-excitation on ventricular wall motion and left ventricular function and its clinical characteristic. The clinical, electrophysiological and echocardiographic characteristics of the 9 cases with type B ventricular pre-excitation before and after ablation seen between March 2011 and March 2013 were analyzed. The patients aged from 3 to 16 years. Five of them were female. Dyschronous left ventricular contraction was demonstrated by M-Mode echocardiography in all of the cases. The basal segments of the interventricular septum turned thin and moved in a manner similar to that of an aneurysm, with typical bulging during end-systole, which was observed in six cases. All patients received successful RFCAs. The locations of the accessory pathways (APs) were the right-sided anteroseptum (n = 2) and the free wall (n = 7). Their physical activities and growth improved greatly in the four cases with coexisting dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The echocardiographic data demonstrated that their LV contraction recovered to synchrony shortly after the ablation, LVEF recovered to normal and LVED decreased to almost normal gradually during the follow-up. Overt right-sided APs may have adverse effects on ventricular wall motion and left ventricular function. They can even result in DCM. Dyssynchronous ventricular contraction induced by right-sided overt accessory pathway may be the vital mechanism. Such kinds of cases are indication for ablation with good prognosis.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of athlete's heart: myocardial mass, left ventricular function, and cross-sectional area of the coronary arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandrino, F.; Sardanelli, F. [Dept. of Experimental Medicine, Section of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy, University of Genoa School of Medicine (Italy); Molinari, G.; Masperone, M.A. [Dept. of Cardiology, University of Genoa School of Medicine (Italy); Smeraldi, A.; Odaglia, G. [Dept. of Sports Medicine, University of Genoa School of Medicine (Italy)

    2000-02-01

    To evaluate left ventricular myocardial mass and function as well as ostial coronary artery cross-sectional area in endurance athletes, an athlete group of 12 highly trained rowers and a control group of 12 sedentary healthy subjects underwent MR examination. An ECG-gated breath-hold cine gradient-echo sequence was used to calculate myocardial mass, end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, stroke volume, and cardiac output, all related to body surface area, as well as ejection fraction. A 3D fat-saturated ECG- and respiratory-triggered navigator echo sequence was used to evaluate coronary arteries: left main (LM), left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCx), and right coronary artery (RCA). Cross-sectional area was calculated and divided for body surface area. Myocardial mass was found significantly larger in athlete group than in control group (p = 0.0078), the same being for end-diastolic volume (p = 0.0078), stroke volume (p = 0.0055), LM (p = 0.0066) and LAD (p = 0.0129). No significant difference was found for all the remaining parameters. Significant correlation with myocardial mass was found for LM (p < 0.001) and LAD (p = 0.0340), not for LCx and RCA. Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful tool in evaluating the myocardial hypertrophy and function of athlete's heart. Magnetic resonance angiography is a valuable noninvasive method to visualize the correlated cross-sectional area increase of the left coronary artery system. (orig.)

  6. Right ventricular failure predicted from right bundle branch block: cardiac magnetic resonance imaging validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sameer; Ahmad, Ali; Sood, Mike; El Sergany, Amaar; Sacchi, Terrence; Saul, Barry; Gaglani, Rahul; Heitner, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Right ventricular (RV) failure has proven to be independently associated with adverse outcomes. Electrocardiographic parameters assessing RV function are largely unknown, making echocardiography the first line for RV function assessment. It is however, limited by geometrical assumptions and is inferior to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) which is widely regarded as the most accurate tool for assessing RV function. Methods We seek to determine the correlation of ECG parameters of right bundle branch block (RBBB) with RV ejection fraction (EF) and RV dimensions using the CMRI. QRS duration, R amplitude and R’ duration were obtained from precordial lead V1; S duration and amplitude were obtained from lead I and AVL. RV systolic dysfunction was defined as RV EF 100 msec to detect RV systolic dysfunction was found to be 93%. R’ duration was found to have an inverse correlation with RV EF (r=−0.49, P=0.007). Conclusions Larger RV end systolic volumes seen with RV dysfunction can affect the latter part of right bundle branch leading to prolonged R’ duration. We here found prolonged R’ duration in lead V1 to have a highly specific inverse correlation to RV systolic function. ECG can be used as an inexpensive tool for RV function assessment and should be used alongside echocardiography to evaluate RV dysfunction when CMRI is not available. PMID:27747166

  7. Three-dimensional echocardiography: assessment of inter- and intra-operator variability and accuracy in the measurement of left ventricular cavity volume and myocardial mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadkarni, S.K.; Drangova, M. [Advanced Imaging Research Laboratories, John P Robarts Research Institute, PO Box 5015, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, Medical Sciences Building, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada); Boughner, D.R. [Department of Medical Biophysics, Medical Sciences Building, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada); London Health Sciences Centre, University Campus. London, Ontario N6A 5A5 (Canada); Fenster, A. [Advanced Imaging Research Laboratories, John P Robarts Research Institute, PO Box 5015, 100 Perth Drive, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, Medical Sciences Building, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada). E-mail: afenster at irus.rri.on.ca

    2000-05-01

    Accurate left ventricular (LV) volume and mass estimation is a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We propose that our technique of 3D echocardiography provides an accurate quantification of LV volume and mass by the reconstruction of 2D images into 3D volumes, thus avoiding the need for geometric assumptions. We compared the accuracy and variability in LV volume and mass measurement using 3D echocardiography with 2D echocardiography, using in vitro studies. Six operators measured the LV volume and mass of seven porcine hearts, using both 3D and 2D techniques. Regression analysis was used to test the accuracy of results and an ANOVA test was used to compute variability in measurement. LV volume measurement accuracy was 9.8% (3D) and 18.4% (2D); LV mass measurement accuracy was 5% (3D) and 9.2% (2D). Variability in LV volume quantification with 3D echocardiography was %SEM{sub inter} = 13.5%, %SEM{sub intra} = 11.4%, and for 2D echocardiography was %SEM{sub inter} = 21.5%, %SEM{sub intra} = 19.1%. We derived an equation to predict uncertainty in measurement of LV volume and mass using 3D echocardiography, the results of which agreed with our experimental results to within 13%. 3D echocardiography provided twice the accuracy for LV volume and mass measurement and half the variability for LV volume measurement as compared with 2D echocardiography. (author)

  8. Regional left ventricular function does not predict survival in ischaemic cardiomyopathy after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, David L; Stevens, Susanna R; Holly, Thomas A; Krejca, Michal; Paraforos, Alexandros; Pohost, Gerald M; Byrd, Krysti; Kukulski, Tomasz; Jones, Robert H; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Varadarajan, Padmini; Amanullah, Aman; Lin, Grace; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Aldea, Gabriel; Santambrogio, Carlo; Bochenek, Andrzej; Berman, Daniel S

    2017-09-01

    To define the prognostic contribution of global and regional left ventricular (LV) function measurements in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy randomised to coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) with (n=501) or without (n=499) surgical ventricular reconstruction (SVR). Novel multivariable methods to analyse global and regional LV systolic function were used to better formulate prediction models for long-term mortality following CABG with or without SVR in the entire cohort of 1000 randomised SVR hypothesis patients. Key clinical variables were included in the analysis. Regional function was classified according to the discreteness of anteroapical hypokinesia and akinesia into those most likely to benefit from SVR, those least likely and those felt to have intermediate likelihood of benefit from SVR. The most prognostic clinical variables identified in multivariable models include creatinine, LV end-systolic volume index (ESVI), age and NYHA (New York Heart Association) class. Addition of LV ejection fraction, LV end-diastolic volume index and regional function assessment did not contribute additional power to the model. Subgroup analysis based on regional function did not identify a cohort in which SVR improved mortality. ESVI is the single parameter of LV function most predictive of mortality in patients with LV systolic dysfunction following CABG with or without SVR in multivariable models that include all key clinical and LV systolic function parameters. Assessment of regional cardiac function does not enhance prediction of mortality nor identify a subgroup for which SVR improves mortality. These results do not support elective addition of LV reconstruction surgery in patients undergoing CABG. NCT00023595. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Assessment of dedicated low-dose cardiac micro-CT reconstruction algorithms using the left ventricular volume of small rodents as a performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Joscha; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Phase-correlated microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) imaging plays an important role in the assessment of mouse models of cardiovascular diseases and the determination of functional parameters as the left ventricular volume. As the current gold standard, the phase-correlated Feldkamp reconstruction (PCF), shows poor performance in case of low dose scans, more sophisticated reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to enable low-dose imaging. In this study, the authors focus on the McKinnon-Bates (MKB) algorithm, the low dose phase-correlated (LDPC) reconstruction, and the high-dimensional total variation minimization reconstruction (HDTV) and investigate their potential to accurately determine the left ventricular volume at different dose levels from 50 to 500 mGy. The results were verified in phantom studies of a five-dimensional (5D) mathematical mouse phantom. Micro-CT data of eight mice, each administered with an x-ray dose of 500 mGy, were acquired, retrospectively gated for cardiac and respiratory motion and reconstructed using PCF, MKB, LDPC, and HDTV. Dose levels down to 50 mGy were simulated by using only a fraction of the projections. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was evaluated as a measure of image quality. Left ventricular volume was determined using different segmentation algorithms (Otsu, level sets, region growing). Forward projections of the 5D mouse phantom were performed to simulate a micro-CT scan. The simulated data were processed the same way as the real mouse data sets. Compared to the conventional PCF reconstruction, the MKB, LDPC, and HDTV algorithm yield images of increased quality in terms of CNR. While the MKB reconstruction only provides small improvements, a significant increase of the CNR is observed in LDPC and HDTV reconstructions. The phantom studies demonstrate that left ventricular volumes can be determined accurately at 500 mGy. For lower dose levels which were simulated for real mouse data sets, the HDTV algorithm shows the

  10. Assessment of dedicated low-dose cardiac micro-CT reconstruction algorithms using the left ventricular volume of small rodents as a performance measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Joscha, E-mail: joscha.maier@dkfz.de [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany and Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen–Nürnberg, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Phase-correlated microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) imaging plays an important role in the assessment of mouse models of cardiovascular diseases and the determination of functional parameters as the left ventricular volume. As the current gold standard, the phase-correlated Feldkamp reconstruction (PCF), shows poor performance in case of low dose scans, more sophisticated reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to enable low-dose imaging. In this study, the authors focus on the McKinnon-Bates (MKB) algorithm, the low dose phase-correlated (LDPC) reconstruction, and the high-dimensional total variation minimization reconstruction (HDTV) and investigate their potential to accurately determine the left ventricular volume at different dose levels from 50 to 500 mGy. The results were verified in phantom studies of a five-dimensional (5D) mathematical mouse phantom. Methods: Micro-CT data of eight mice, each administered with an x-ray dose of 500 mGy, were acquired, retrospectively gated for cardiac and respiratory motion and reconstructed using PCF, MKB, LDPC, and HDTV. Dose levels down to 50 mGy were simulated by using only a fraction of the projections. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was evaluated as a measure of image quality. Left ventricular volume was determined using different segmentation algorithms (Otsu, level sets, region growing). Forward projections of the 5D mouse phantom were performed to simulate a micro-CT scan. The simulated data were processed the same way as the real mouse data sets. Results: Compared to the conventional PCF reconstruction, the MKB, LDPC, and HDTV algorithm yield images of increased quality in terms of CNR. While the MKB reconstruction only provides small improvements, a significant increase of the CNR is observed in LDPC and HDTV reconstructions. The phantom studies demonstrate that left ventricular volumes can be determined accurately at 500 mGy. For lower dose levels which were simulated for real mouse data sets, the

  11. The thick left ventricular wall of the giraffe heart normalises wall tension, but limits stroke volume and cardiac output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smerup, Morten Holdgaard; Damkjær, Mads; Brøndum, Emil

    2016-01-01

    by several studies demonstrating that the mass of giraffe heart is similar to that of other mammals when expressed relative to body mass. It remains enigmatic, however, how the normal-sized giraffe heart generates such massive arterial pressures.We hypothesized that giraffe hearts have a small...... intraventricular cavity and a relatively thick ventricular wall, allowing for generation of high arterial pressures at normal left ventricular wall tension. In nine anaesthetized giraffes (495±38 kg), we determined in vivo ventricular dimensions using echocardiography along with intraventricular and aortic...

  12. Cine MR imaging after myocardial infarction--assessment and follow-up of regional and global left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstede, J J; Lipke, C; Kenn, W; Beer, M; Pabst, T; Hahn, D

    1999-12-01

    Myocardial infarction often leads to regional wall motion defects and in case of large defects to remodeling of the left ventricle. With this study, changes in regional and global myocardial function of 12 patients 3 weeks after myocardial infarction and after revascularization therapy were determined using MRI. Cine MRI was performed at study entry at rest and during low-dose dobutamine stimulation. All patients were re-examined at rest 3 and 6 months after the revascularization, including analysis of wall thickening and of left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI), end-systolic volume index (LVESVI), ejection fraction (LVEF), and mass index. After revascularization. 6 patients with stress-induced improvement of regional wall thickening recovered, 4 patients without improvement did not, but 2 patients without stress-induced improvement of wall thickening also recovered. Concerning global cardiac function, patients with mainly improved regional wall motion also showed a lower LVESVI and a higher LVEF than patients without improvement of regional contractility 6 months after revascularization in comparison to study entry. In conclusion, improvement of global myocardial function after revascularization is higher in patients with improved contractility in the infarcted region. The extent of the response of regions with wall motion defects to dobutamine stress correlates with the actual improvement after revascularization, and, therefore, dobutamine stress MRI may be helpful in selecting patients that will have a higher benefit from a revascularization therapy.

  13. Effect of piboserod, a 5-HT4 serotonin receptor antagonist, on left ventricular function in patients with symptomatic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjekshus, John K; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gullestad, Lars

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Myocardial 5-HT(4) serotonin (5-HT) receptors are increased and activated in heart failure (HF). Blockade of 5-HT(4) receptors reduced left ventricular (LV) remodelling in HF rats. We evaluated the effect of piboserod, a potent, selective, 5-HT(4) serotonin receptor antagonist, on LV function...... weeks up titration. The primary endpoint was LVEF measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Secondary endpoints were LV volumes, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, norepinephrine, quality of life, and 6 min walk test. Piboserod significantly increased LVEF by 1.7% vs. placebo (CI 0.......3, 3.2, P = 0.020), primarily through reduced end-systolic volume from 165 to 158 mL (P = 0.060). There was a trend for greater increase in LVEF (2.7%, CI -1.1, 6.6, P = 0.15) in a small subset of patients not on chronic beta-blocker therapy. There was no significant effect on neurohormones, quality...

  14. Quantification of Right and Left Ventricular Function in Cardiac MR Imaging: Comparison of Semiautomatic and Manual Segmentation Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Miguel; Masip, Lambert Raul; Couto, Miguel; Suárez-Cuenca, Jorge Juan; Martínez, Amparo; Tahoces, Pablo G.; Carreira, Jose Martin; Croisille, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a semiautomatic segmentation method for the anatomical and functional assessment of both ventricles from cardiac cine magnetic resonance (MR) examinations, reducing user interaction to a “mouse-click”. Fifty-two patients with cardiovascular diseases were examined using a 1.5-T MR imaging unit. Several parameters of both ventricles, such as end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (EF), were quantified by an experienced operator using the conventional method based on manually-defined contours, as the standard of reference; and a novel semiautomatic segmentation method based on edge detection, iterative thresholding and region growing techniques, for evaluation purposes. No statistically significant differences were found between the two measurement values obtained for each parameter (p > 0.05). Correlation to estimate right ventricular function was good (r > 0.8) and turned out to be excellent (r > 0.9) for the left ventricle (LV). Bland-Altman plots revealed acceptable limits of agreement between the two methods (95%). Our study findings indicate that the proposed technique allows a fast and accurate assessment of both ventricles. However, further improvements are needed to equal results achieved for the right ventricle (RV) using the conventional methodology. PMID:26835680

  15. Lack of correlation between left ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral and stroke volume index in mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancas, R; Martínez-González, Ó; Ballesteros, D; Núñez, A; Luján, J; Rodríguez-Serrano, D; Hernández, A; Martínez-Díaz, C; Parra, C M; Matamala, B L; Alonso, M A; Chana, M

    2018-02-07

    To assess the correlation between left ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral (LVOT VTI) and stroke volume index (SVI) calculated by thermodilution methods in ventilated critically ill patients. A prospective, descriptive, multicenter study was performed. Five intensive care units from university hospitals. Patients older than 17 years needing mechanical ventilation and invasive hemodynamic monitoring were included. LVOT VTI was measured by pulsatile Doppler echocardiography. Calculations of SVI were performed through a floating pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) or a Pulse index Contour Cardiac Output (PiCCO ® ) thermodilution methods. The relation between LVOT VTI and SVI was tested by linear regression analysis. One hundred and fifty-six paired measurements were compared. Mean LVOT VTI was 20.83±4.86cm and mean SVI was 41.55±9.55mL/m 2 . Pearson correlation index for these variables was r=0.644, p<0.001; ICC was 0.52 (CI 95% 0.4-0.63). When maximum LVOT VTI was correlated with SVI, Pearson correlation index was r=0.62, p<0.001. Correlation worsened for extreme values, especially for those with higher LVOT VTI. LVOT VTI could be a complementary hemodynamic evaluation in selected patients, but does not eliminate the need for invasive monitoring at the present time. The weak correlation between LVOT VTI and invasive monitoring deserves additional assessment to identify the factors affecting this disagreement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  16. T1 measurements identify extracellular volume expansion in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy sarcomere mutation carriers with and without left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Carolyn Y; Abbasi, Siddique A; Neilan, Tomas G; Shah, Ravi V; Chen, Yucheng; Heydari, Bobak; Cirino, Allison L; Lakdawala, Neal K; Orav, E John; González, Arantxa; López, Begoña; Díez, Javier; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Kwong, Raymond Y

    2013-05-01

    Myocardial fibrosis is a hallmark of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and a potential substrate for arrhythmias and heart failure. Sarcomere mutations seem to induce profibrotic changes before left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) develops. To further evaluate these processes, we used cardiac magnetic resonance with T1 measurements on a genotyped HCM population to quantify myocardial extracellular volume (ECV). Sarcomere mutation carriers with LVH (G+/LVH+, n=37) and without LVH (G+/LVH-, n=29), patients with HCM without mutations (sarcomere-negative HCM, n=11), and healthy controls (n=11) underwent contrast cardiac magnetic resonance, measuring T1 times pre- and postgadolinium infusion. Concurrent echocardiography and serum biomarkers of collagen synthesis, hemodynamic stress, and myocardial injury were also available in a subset. Compared with controls, ECV was increased in patients with overt HCM, as well as G+/LVH- mutation carriers (ECV=0.36±0.01, 0.33±0.01, 0.27±0.01 in G+/LVH+, G+/LVH-, controls, respectively; P≤0.001 for all comparisons). ECV correlated with N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide levels (r=0.58; P60% of overt patients with HCM but absent from G+/LVH- subjects. Both ECV and late gadolinium enhancement were more extensive in sarcomeric HCM than sarcomere-negative HCM. Myocardial ECV is increased in HCM sarcomere mutation carriers even in the absence of LVH. These data provide additional support that fibrotic remodeling is triggered early in disease pathogenesis. Quantifying ECV may help characterize the development of myocardial fibrosis in HCM and ultimately assist in developing novel disease-modifying therapy, targeting interstitial fibrosis.

  17. Assessment of left ventricular volumes and primary mitral regurgitation severity by 2D echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Van De Heyning, Caroline M.; Magne, Julien; Pierard, Luc; Bruyere, Pierre-Julien; Davin, Laurent; De Maeyer, Catherine; Paelinck, Bernard P.; Vrints, Christiaan J; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2DTTE) remains the first-line diagnostic imaging tool to assess primary mitral regurgitation although cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has proven to establish left ventricular function more accurately and might evaluate mitral regurgitation severity more reliably. We sought to compare routine evaluation of left ventricular function and mitral regurgitation severity by 2DTTE with assessment by CMR in moderate to severe primary ...

  18. Usefulness of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography to identify and quantify left ventricular dyssynchrony in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Sun, Kun; Xue, Haihong; Chen, Sun; Yang, Jianping

    2013-06-01

    The role of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony in Kawasaki disease is unknown. This study sought to establish values for real-time 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiographically derived LV dyssynchrony parameters and identify and quantify LV dyssynchrony in patients with Kawasaki disease. Forty patients hospitalized for Kawasaki disease were analyzed retrospectively, and 40 sex- and age-matched healthy control volunteers were also enrolled. The systolic dyssynchrony index (percentage of the cardiac cycle) from 16 and 12 LV segments on real-time 3D echocardiography was analyzed to calculate LV dyssynchrony (defined as the standard deviation of the time to reach the minimum systolic volume for 16 LV segments) according to a 17-segment model. We analyzed the 3D LV ejection fraction (LVEF), end-diastolic volume, and end-systolic volume in the patients with Kawasaki disease compared to the controls. The 16-segment systolic dyssynchrony index ± SD was significantly higher in the patients with Kawasaki disease: 2.73% ± 0.96% compared to 2.01% ± 0.85% in the controls (P Kawasaki disease was 2.65% ± 0.93% compared to 1.98% ± 0.81% in the controls (PKawasaki disease and an LVEF of less than 50% had a significantly higher systolic dyssynchrony index compared to patients with an LVEF of 50% or greater (2.89% ± 0.79% versus 2.26% ± 0.73%; P Kawasaki disease, and global systolic function was impaired. The LVEF measured by a biplane method was sufficiently related to the LVEF measured by echocardiography. Real-time 3D echocardiography is a noninvasive and feasible method for identifying and evaluating LV dyssynchrony in children with Kawasaki disease. Left ventricular dyssynchrony is significantly impaired and related to LV systolic function in patients with Kawasaki disease.

  19. Free-Breathing 3D Imaging of Right Ventricular Structure and Function Using Respiratory and Cardiac Self-Gated Cine MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanchun Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing a movie of the beating heart in a single prescribed plane, cine MRI has been widely used in clinical cardiac diagnosis, especially in the left ventricle (LV. Right ventricular (RV morphology and function are also important for the diagnosis of cardiopulmonary diseases and serve as predictors for the long term outcome. The purpose of this study is to develop a self-gated free-breathing 3D imaging method for RV quantification and to evaluate its performance by comparing it with breath-hold 2D cine imaging in 7 healthy volunteers. Compared with 2D, the 3D RV functional measurements show a reduction of RV end-diastole volume (RVEDV by 10%, increase of RV end-systole volume (RVESV by 1.8%, reduction of RV systole volume (RVSV by 21%, and reduction of RV ejection fraction (RVEF by 12%. High correlations between the two techniques were found (RVEDV: 0.94; RVESV: 0.85; RVSV: 0.95; and RVEF: 0.89. Compared with 2D, the 3D image quality measurements show a small reduction in blood SNR, myocardium-blood CNR, myocardium contrast, and image sharpness. In conclusion, the proposed self-gated free-breathing 3D cardiac cine imaging technique provides comparable image quality and correlated functional measurements to those acquired with the multiple breath-hold 2D technique in RV.

  20. The Assessment of Right Ventricular Function and Pulmonary Artery 
Hemodynamics in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension by 1.5T MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan HAN

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Pulmonary hypertension (PH is characterized by rising pulmonary arterial pressure, decreasing right ventricular (RV function, and ultimately, RV failure. Therefore, it is important to monitor RV function and pulmonary artery hemodynamics accurately and noninvasively. This study evaluates cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI in assessing RV function and pulmonary artery hemodynamics in patients with PH. Methods Cine-MRI and phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI were performed in 25 PH patients and 30 healthy volunteers. Cine-MRI images were post-processed on Report Card software and the following parameters were obtained: RV end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, stroke volume (SV, ejection fraction (EF, and myocardial mass (MM. Except for EF, all of the above parameters were normalized to body surface area (BSA. PC-MRI images were post-processed on Report Card software, peak velocity and distensibility of main pulmonary artery (MPA could also be obtained. Student t test was employed for statistical assessment.Results Compared with controls, RV EDV, ESV and MM index in PH patients were significantly increased (P<0.01, EF was significantly impaired (P<0.01, peak velocity and distensibility of MPA were significantly lower (P<0.01. SV index between the two groups had no significant difference (P>0.05. Conclusion Cardiac MRI is of great value in the assessment of RV function and MPA hemodynamic parameters in patients with PH.

  1. Off-pump anteroapical aneurysm plication following left ventricular postinfarction aneurysm: effect on cardiac function, clinical status and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin-sheng; Gu, Cheng-xiong; Yang, Jun-feng; Wei, Hua; Li, Jing-xing; Zhou, Qi-wen

    2013-04-01

    In patients with coronary disease and aneurysm, ventricular reconstruction with revascularization is a surgical option. Details of patient selection and optimal surgical technique are still debated. We report our results with off-pump aneurysm plication after ventricular aneurysm with relative wall thinning. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 248 patients who had an operation for postinfarction left ventricular aneurysm. Reconstruction was accomplished by off-pump anteroapical aneurysm plication. The following variables were recorded: preoperative clinical, angiographic and echocardiographic findings and operative procedures. Outcomes were early mortality, long-term survival and poor 5-year result, defined as the need for transplantation or repeated hospitalization for congestive heart failure. Risk factors were pinpointed using the t test and survival curves. Independent risk factors were identified using Cox regression methods. Hospital mortality was low (2.0%). Mean follow-up was 5.8 (standard deviation [SD] 3.8) years. Actuarial survival at 1 and 5 years was 94% and 84%. Among the 232 survivors, 200 were in functional class I or II, and the average increase in ejection fraction was 14.0% (SD 3.1%). As determined by multivariable analysis, factors predicting poor outcome were advanced age, ejection fraction less than 0.35, conicity index less than 1, end-systolic volume index greater than 80 mL/m2, advanced New York Heart Association functional class and congestive heart failure. Using wall thinning as a criterion for patient selection, the technique of off-pump anteroapical aneurysm plication can be performed with low operative mortality and provides good symptomatic relief and long-term survival.

  2. Comparison of LV mass and volume measurements derived from electron beam tomography using cine imaging and angiographic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Songshou; Takasu, Junichiro; Child, Janis; Carson, Sivi; Oudiz, Ronald; Budoff, Matthew J

    2003-10-01

    To estimate the variation of left ventricular (LV) mass and volume measurement with cine and angiography by electron beam tomography (EBT). Sixty-three consecutive patients (41 men, 22 women; age range 46-91) referred for cardiac imaging for clinical indications underwent cine and coronary artery electron beam angiography (EBA) studies on the same day. The cine images consisted of 144 images (12 slices/level x 12 levels), taken 12 frames/s for a full cardiac cycle. The EBA images consisted of 50-70 slices triggered at end-systole, with an acquisition time of 100 ms/slice. Slice thickness was 8 mm for the cine images and 1.5 mm for the EBA images. A total volume of 120-180 ml of nonionic contrast was used for each subject. The LV mass (myocardial tissue volume), LV cavity volume and total LV volume (tissue + cavity) measurements were completed using the software from the EBT computer console (G.E., S. San Francisco, CA). The LV mass, cavity volume and total LV volumes at end-systole were 124.11 g, 45.66 and 163.86 ml when derived from the cine images and 130.74 g, 41.31 and 165.82 ml when derived from the EBA images. There were no significant differences between the cine and EBA-derived measurements, however the EBA-derived measurements showed slightly larger LV mass (mean 6.63 g), smaller cavity volume (mean -4.35 ml) and larger total LV volume (mean 1.96 ml, all p > 0.05) than did the cine-derived measurements. Based on case-by-case observations, these differences appear to be related to the higher spatial resolution of the thinner EBA images which allows better discrimination between papillary and trabecular muscle and LV. This leads to slightly smaller cavity size estimations and greater LV mass measurements. There was significant correlation between cine and EBA-derived measurements. Formulas were developed for relating the measurements made from the two modalities as follows: For LV mass: EBA value = 0.91 x cine value + 17.09, R = 0.95, p cine value - 6.91, R

  3. Epicardial catheter-based ventricular reconstruction: a novel therapy for ischaemic heart failure with anteroapical aneurysm†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanping; Aboodi, Michael S.; Wechsler, Andrew S.; Kaluza, Greg L.; Granada, Juan F.; Van Bladel, Kevin; Annest, Lon S.; Yi, Geng-Hua

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Surgical ventricular reconstruction has been used to treat ischaemic cardiomyopathy with large akinetic or dyskinetic areas. However, application of this approach requires a sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and a left ventriculotomy. This study assessed the feasibility and efficacy of minimally invasive, off-pump, epicardial catheter-based ventricular reconstruction (ECVR) in an anteroapical aneurysm ovine model. METHODS Left ventricular (LV) anteroapical myocardial infarction was induced percutaneously by coil embolization of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Eight weeks after infarction, via mini left thoracotomy and without cardiopulmonary bypass, ECVR was performed in six sheep. The scar was excluded by placing anchor pairs on the LV epicardial anterior wall and the right ventricular side of the interventricular septum under fluoroscopic guidance. LV performance was evaluated before, immediately after device implantation and after 6 weeks by echocardiography. Terminal histopathology was performed. RESULTS ECVR was completed expeditiously in all animals without complications. Parameters obtained 6 weeks after device implantation were compared with baseline (pre-device). End-systolic volume was decreased by 38% (25.6 ± 6.1 ml vs baseline 41.2 ± 7.2 ml, P = 0.02) with preservation of stroke volume. Ejection fraction was significantly increased by 13% (48.5 ± 7% vs baseline 35.8 ± 7%, P = 0.02). The circumferential strain in the anterior septum (−7.67 ± 5.12% vs baseline −0.96 ± 2.22%, P = 0.03) and anterior wall (−9.01 ± 3.51% vs baseline −4.15 ± 1.36%, P = 0.01) were significantly improved. The longitudinal strain in apex was reversed (−3.08 ± 1.53% vs baseline 3.09 ± 3.39%, P = 0.01). Histopathology showed full endocardial healing over the anchors with appreciable reduction of the chronic infarct in the LV. CONCLUSIONS ECVR without cardiopulmonary bypass is a less invasive alternative to current standard therapies

  4. Epicardial catheter-based ventricular reconstruction: a novel therapy for ischaemic heart failure with anteroapical aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanping; Aboodi, Michael S; Wechsler, Andrew S; Kaluza, Greg L; Granada, Juan F; Van Bladel, Kevin; Annest, Lon S; Yi, Geng-Hua

    2013-12-01

    Surgical ventricular reconstruction has been used to treat ischaemic cardiomyopathy with large akinetic or dyskinetic areas. However, application of this approach requires a sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and a left ventriculotomy. This study assessed the feasibility and efficacy of minimally invasive, off-pump, epicardial catheter-based ventricular reconstruction (ECVR) in an anteroapical aneurysm ovine model. Left ventricular (LV) anteroapical myocardial infarction was induced percutaneously by coil embolization of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Eight weeks after infarction, via mini left thoracotomy and without cardiopulmonary bypass, ECVR was performed in six sheep. The scar was excluded by placing anchor pairs on the LV epicardial anterior wall and the right ventricular side of the interventricular septum under fluoroscopic guidance. LV performance was evaluated before, immediately after device implantation and after 6 weeks by echocardiography. Terminal histopathology was performed. ECVR was completed expeditiously in all animals without complications. Parameters obtained 6 weeks after device implantation were compared with baseline (pre-device). End-systolic volume was decreased by 38% (25.6 ± 6.1 ml vs baseline 41.2 ± 7.2 ml, P = 0.02) with preservation of stroke volume. Ejection fraction was significantly increased by 13% (48.5 ± 7% vs baseline 35.8 ± 7%, P = 0.02). The circumferential strain in the anterior septum (-7.67 ± 5.12% vs baseline -0.96 ± 2.22%, P = 0.03) and anterior wall (-9.01 ± 3.51% vs baseline -4.15 ± 1.36%, P = 0.01) were significantly improved. The longitudinal strain in apex was reversed (-3.08 ± 1.53% vs baseline 3.09 ± 3.39%, P = 0.01). Histopathology showed full endocardial healing over the anchors with appreciable reduction of the chronic infarct in the LV. ECVR without cardiopulmonary bypass is a less invasive alternative to current standard therapies, reverses LV remodelling and improves cardiac

  5. Left ventricular function in response to dipyridamole stress: head-to-head comparison between {sup 82}Rubidium PET and {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPECT ECG-gated myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgi, Maria Clementina; Meneghetti, Jose Claudio; Soares, Jose; Izaki, Marisa; Falcao, Andrea; Imada, Rodrigo; Chalela, William; Oliveira, Marco Antonio de; Nomura, Cesar [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Service - Heart Institute of the University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Verberne, Hein J. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, P.O. Box 22700, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-05-15

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi (sestamibi) SPECT and rubidium-82 ({sup 82}Rb) PET both allow for combined assessment of perfusion and left ventricular (LV) function. We sought to compare parameters of LV function obtained with both methods using a single dipyridamole stress dose. A group of 221 consecutive patients (65.2 ± 10.4 years, 52.9% male) underwent consecutive sestamibi and {sup 82}Rb MPI after a single dipyridamole stress dose. Sestamibi and {sup 82}Rb summed rest (SRS), stress (SSS) and difference (SDS) scores, and LV end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were compared. Bland-Altman analysis showed that with increasing ESV and EDV the difference between the two perfusion tracers increased both at rest and post-stress. The mean difference in EDV and ESV between the two perfusion tracers at rest could both be independently explained by the {sup 82}Rb SDS and the sestamibi SRS. The combined models explained approximately 30% of the variation in these volumes between the two perfusion tracers (R{sup 2} = 0.261, p = 0.005; R{sup 2} = 0.296, p < 0.001, for EDV and ESV respectively). However, the mean difference in LVEF between sestamibi and {sup 82}Rb showed no significant trend post-stress (R{sup 2} = 0.001, p = 0.70) and only a modest linear increase with increasing LVEF values at rest (R{sup 2} = 0.032, p = 0.009). Differences in left ventricular volumes between sestamibi and {sup 82}Rb MPI increase with increasing volumes. However, these differences did only marginally affect LVEF between sestamibi and {sup 82}Rb. In clinical practice these results should be taken into account when comparing functional derived parameters between sestamibi and {sup 82}Rb MPI. (orig.)

  6. Effects of L-carnitine administration on left ventricular remodeling after acute anterior myocardial infarction: the L-Carnitine Ecocardiografia Digitalizzata Infarto Miocardico (CEDIM) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliceto, S; Scrutinio, D; Bruzzi, P; D'Ambrosio, G; Boni, L; Di Biase, M; Biasco, G; Hugenholtz, P G; Rizzon, P

    1995-08-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of L-carnitine administration on long-term left ventricular dilation in patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction. Carnitine is a physiologic compound that performs an essential role in myocardial energy production at the mitochondrial level. Myocardial carnitine deprivation occurs during ischemia, acute myocardial infarction and cardiac failure. Experimental studies have suggested that exogenous carnitine administration during these events has a beneficial effect on function. The L-Carnitine Ecocardiografia Digitalizzata Infarto Miocardico (CEDIM) trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial in which 472 patients with a first acute myocardial infarction and high quality two-dimensional echocardiograms received either placebo (239 patients) or L-carnitine (233 patients) within 24 h of onset of chest pain. Placebo or L-carnitine was given at a dose of 9 g/day intravenously for the first 5 days and then 6 g/day orally for the next 12 months. Left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction were evaluated on admission, at discharge from hospital and at 3, 6 and 12 months after acute myocardial infarction. A significant attenuation of left ventricular dilation in the first year after acute myocardial infarction was observed in patients treated with L-carnitine compared with those receiving placebo. The percent increase in both end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes from admission to 3-, 6- and 12-month evaluation was significantly reduced in the L-carnitine group. No significant differences were observed in left ventricular ejection fraction changes over time in the two groups. Although not designed to demonstrate differences in clinical end points, the combined incidence of death and congestive heart failure after discharge was 14 (6%) in the L-carnitine treatment group versus 23 (9.6%) in the placebo group (p = NS). Incidence of ischemic events during follow-up was similar in the

  7. Native T1 mapping and extracellular volume fraction measurement for assessment of right ventricular insertion point and septal fibrosis in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Fritz C; Wiedenroth, Christoph; Breithecker, Andreas; Liebetrau, Christoph; Mayer, Eckhard; Schneider, Christian; Rolf, Andreas; Hamm, Christian; Krombach, Gabriele A

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess septal and right ventricular insertion point (RVIP) fibrosis in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) via native T1 mapping and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) determination and to analyze correlations with functional parameters. Imaging was performed at 1.5 Tesla in 24 patients diagnosed with CTEPH and 24 controls. T1 values were measured within the septal myocardium, the upper and lower RVIP, and the lateral wall at basal short axis section. The mean septal native T1 values were 1012.8 ms ± 50.5 in the CTEPH group and 956.9 ms ± 24.4 in controls (p T1 showed a strong negative correlation with right ventricular ejection fraction (k = -0.92; p = 0.01). We conclude that native T1 mapping and ECV assessment enable visualization and quantification of septal fibrosis in CTEPH patients. The results also correlate well with right ventricular ejection fraction. Therefore, these parameters might be useful for prognosis and as therapy-monitoring tool in the future. • Septal native T1 and ECV values are significantly higher in CTEPH patients. • Native T1 and ECV values are elevated even in absence of LGE. • These techniques therefore enable an improved quantification of septal fibrosis in CTEPH. • Native T1 values also correlate well with right ventricular EF and PA-pressure. • Prognosis and therapy-monitoring might be assessable in the future with these parameters.

  8. Atlas-Based Ventricular Shape Analysis for Understanding Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Genevieve; Suinesiaputra, Avan; Gilbert, Kathleen; Perry, James C; Hegde, Sanjeet; Marsden, Alison; Young, Alistair A; Omens, Jeffrey H; McCulloch, Andrew D

    2016-12-01

    Congenital heart disease is associated with abnormal ventricular shape that can affect wall mechanics and may be predictive of long-term adverse outcomes. Atlas-based parametric shape analysis was used to analyze ventricular geometries of eight adolescent or adult single-ventricle CHD patients with tricuspid atresia and Fontans. These patients were compared with an "atlas" of non-congenital asymptomatic volunteers, resulting in a set of z-scores which quantify deviations from the control population distribution on a patient-by-patient basis. We examined the potential of these scores to: (1) quantify abnormalities of ventricular geometry in single ventricle physiologies relative to the normal population; (2) comprehensively quantify wall motion in CHD patients; and (3) identify possible relationships between ventricular shape and wall motion that may reflect underlying functional defects or remodeling in CHD patients. CHD ventricular geometries at end-diastole and end-systole were individually compared with statistical shape properties of an asymptomatic population from the Cardiac Atlas Project. Shape analysis-derived model properties, and myocardial wall motions between end-diastole and end-systole, were compared with physician observations of clinical functional parameters. Relationships between altered shape and altered function were evaluated via correlations between atlas-based shape and wall motion scores. Atlas-based shape analysis identified a diverse set of specific quantifiable abnormalities in ventricular geometry or myocardial wall motion in all subjects. Moreover, this initial cohort displayed significant relationships between specific shape abnormalities such as increased ventricular sphericity and functional defects in myocardial deformation, such as decreased long-axis wall motion. These findings suggest that atlas-based ventricular shape analysis may be a useful new tool in the management of patients with CHD who are at risk of impaired ventricular

  9. Atrial and ventricular volume and function in persistent and permanent atrial fibrillation, a magnetic resonance imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkelsen, Susette Krohn; Groenning, Bjoern Aaris; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2005-01-01

    Left atrial size is independently related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and atrial fibrillation (AF) is strongly associated with atrial size. Our aims were to report atrial and ventricular dimensions in patients with AF evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to assess t...

  10. Low value of simple echocardiographic indices of ventricular dyssynchrony in predicting the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordachar, Pierre; Lafitte, Stéphane; Réant, Patricia; Reuter, Sylvain; Clementy, Jacques; Mletzko, Ralph-Uwe; Siegel, Robert M; Goscinska-Bis, Kinga; Bowes, Robert; Morgan, John; Bénard, Sandrine; Leclercq, Christophe

    2010-06-01

    A recent study suggested that no single echocardiographic index of cardiac dyssynchrony can reliably identify candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We examined the value of three simple echocardiographic indices for predicting the 6-month clinical and echocardiographic responses to CRT. We analysed data from 75 CRT-D system recipients. Standard echocardiography was used to measure aortic pre-ejection delay (APED), interventricular mechanical delay (IVMD), and delayed activation of the left ventricular (LV) infero-lateral wall (OVERLAP). Clinical responders were defined as patients who had an improved status, based on rehospitalization for heart failure, NYHA class, and peak oxygen consumption. Echocardiographic responders had a > or =10% decrease in LV end-systolic volume. During the study, one patient died and five were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 69 analysable patients, 50 (72.5%) were classed as clinical responders and 41 (59.4%) as echocardiographic responders to CRT. Before CRT implantation, APED, IVMD, and OVERLAP were similar in responders and non-responders. The value of these indices of dyssynchrony as single or combined predictors of the clinical or echocardiographic response to CRT was low, with sensitivities ranging between 4 and 63%, and specificities between 37 and 100%. Simple echocardiographic indices of dyssynchrony were poor predictors of response to CRT.

  11. Left Ventricular Architecture, Long-Term Reverse Remodeling, and Clinical Outcome in Mild Heart Failure With Cardiac Resynchronization: Results From the REVERSE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John Sutton, Martin; Linde, Cecilia; Gold, Michael R; Abraham, William T; Ghio, Stefano; Cerkvenik, Jeffrey; Daubert, Jean-Claude

    2017-03-01

    This study sought to determine the effects of abnormal left ventricular (LV) architecture on cardiac remodeling and clinical outcomes in mild heart failure (HF). Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established treatment for HF that improves survival in part by favorably remodeling LV architecture. LV shape is a dynamic component of LV architecture on which contractile function depends. Transthoracic 2-dimensional echocardiography was used to quantify changes in LV architecture over 5 years of follow-up of patients with mild HF from the REVERSE study. REVERSE was a prospective study of patients with large hearts (LV end-diastolic dimension ≥55 mm), LV ejection fraction 120 ms randomly assigned to CRT-ON (n = 419) and CRT-OFF (n = 191). CRT-OFF patients were excluded from this analysis. LV dimensions, volumes, mass index, and LV ejection fraction were calculated. LV architecture was assessed using the sphericity index, as follows: (LV end-diastolic volume)/(4/3 × π × r 3 ) × 100%. LV architecture improved over time and demonstrated significant associations between LV shape, age, sex, and echocardiography metrics. Changes in LV architecture were strongly correlated with changes in LV end-systolic volume index and LV end-diastolic volume index (both p 15% occurred in more than two-thirds of patients, which indicates considerable reverse remodeling. We demonstrated that change in LV architecture in patients with mild HF with CRT is associated with structural and functional remodeling. Mean LV filling pressure was elevated, and the inability to lower it was an additional predictor of HF hospitalization or death. (Resynchronization Reverses Remodeling in Systolic Left Ventricular Dysfunction [REVERSE]; NCT00271154). Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sixty-four-slice CT in the assessment of global and regional left ventricular function: Comparison with MRI in a porcine model of acute and subacute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodoefel, H.; Reimann, A.; Klumpp, B.; Fenchel, M.; Heuschmid, M.; Miller, S.; Claussen, C.D.; Kopp, A.F. [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Burgstahler, C.; Schroeder, S. [Eberhard-Karls-University, Department of Cardiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Scheule, A.M. [Cardiac and Vascular Surgery, Department of Thoracic, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    The purpose was to assess 64-slice CT in the analysis of global and regional ventricular function, using a model of acute and subacute myocardial infarction in comparison with cine-MRI. Seven pigs underwent standard MSCT and MRI examination a median 1 and 21 days following creation of reperfused myocardial infarction. Endocardial and epicardial contours were manually defined and ventricular volumes calculated according to Simpson's method. Results were compared by Pearson's correlation coefficient and Blant-Altman analysis. Wall motion was assessed on cine-images and evaluated by kappa statistics. MSCT revealed a strong correlation with cine-MRI regarding quantification of end-diastolic volume (EDV; r = 0.97), end-systolic volume (ESV; r = 0.97), stroke volume (SV; r = 0.94), ejection fraction (EF; r = 0.95) or myocardial mass (MM; r =0.94). Minor overestimation was observed for EDV and ESV (bias -1.7 ml; -1.5 ml; P=0.095; 0.025), whilst the mean difference for EF was found to be negligible (bias 0.9%; P = 0.18). Both modalities showed a 96.2% segmental agreement in regional wall motion (weighted-kappa 0.91 for 238 segments). This was true for both acute and subacute infarct phase and MSCT, and thereby enabled accurate intraindividual follow-up of segmental dysfunction. Sixty-four-slice CT allows for reliable analysis of global cardiac function and, moreover, provides accurate evaluation of wall motion in acute and subacute myocardial infarct. (orig.)

  13. Prevalence, pattern, and functional impact of late gadolinium enhancement in left ventricular hypertrophy due to aortic valve stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassenstein, K.; Schlosser, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Bruder, O. [Elisabeth-Krankenhaus Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Kardiologie und Angiologie; Breuckmann, F.; Erbel, R. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Westdeutsches Herzzentrum Essen; Barkhausen, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin

    2009-05-15

    Purpose: To assess the prevalence and pattern of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and its functional impact on patients with left ventricular hypertrophy caused by aortic valve stenosis. Materials and Methods: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of 40 patients (17 female, 23 male, mean age: 76.6 {+-} 22.5 years) with known aortic valve stenosis (mean aortic valve area: 89.8 {+-} 19.2 mm{sup 2}) and without coronary artery disease was performed at 1.5 T using steady-state free precession sequences for aortic valve planimetry and for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes and mass. Ten to 15 minutes after injection of 0.2 mmol Gd-DTPA per kilogram body weight, inversion-recovery prepared spoiled gradient echo images were acquired in standard long and short axis views to detect areas of LGE. Results: LGE was observed in 32.5 % (13/40) of our patients. LGE was mainly located in the basal septal and inferior LV segments, and showed a non-ischemic pattern with sparing of the subendocardial region. Patients with LGE showed lower LV ejection fractions (55.5 {+-} 13.8 % vs. 69.1 {+-} 10.7 %, p = 0.0014), higher LV end-systolic volumes (59.8 {+-} 33.3 ml vs. 36.6 {+-} 16.0 ml, p = 0.0048), and LV masses (211.0 {+-} 13.8 vs. 157.9 {+-} 37.5 g, p = 0.0002) compared to patients without LGE. (orig.)

  14. The overloaded right heart and ventricular interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeije, Robert; Badagliacca, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    The right and the left ventricle are interdependent as both structures are nested within the pericardium, have the septum in common and are encircled with common myocardial fibres. Therefore, right ventricular volume or pressure overloading affects left ventricular function, and this in turn may affect the right ventricle. In normal subjects at rest, right ventricular function has negligible interaction with left ventricular function. However, the right ventricle contributes significantly to the normal cardiac output response to exercise. In patients with right ventricular volume overload without pulmonary hypertension, left ventricular diastolic compliance is decreased and ejection fraction depressed but without intrinsic alteration in contractility. In patients with right ventricular pressure overload, left ventricular compliance is decreased with initial preservation of left ventricular ejection fraction, but with eventual left ventricular atrophic remodelling and altered systolic function. Breathing affects ventricular interdependence, in healthy subjects during exercise and in patients with lung diseases and altered respiratory system mechanics. Inspiration increases right ventricular volumes and decreases left ventricular volumes. Expiration decreases both right and left ventricular volumes. The presence of an intact pericardium enhances ventricular diastolic interdependence but has negligible effect on ventricular systolic interdependence. On the other hand, systolic interdependence is enhanced by a stiff right ventricular free wall, and decreased by a stiff septum. Recent imaging studies have shown that both diastolic and systolic ventricular interactions are negatively affected by right ventricular regional inhomogeneity and prolongation of contraction, which occur along with an increase in pulmonary artery pressure. The clinical relevance of these observations is being explored. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights

  15. Association of serum leptin with future left ventricular structure and function: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shishir; Colangelo, Laura A; Allison, Matthew A; Lima, Joao A C; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Kishi, Satoru; Liu, Kiang; Greenland, Philip

    2015-08-15

    Earlier studies differ on whether serum leptin is associated with adverse or beneficial cardiac structure. We determined the association between serum leptin with subsequent cardiac structure and function. MESA is a multicenter longitudinal study of Black, White, Hispanic and Asian-American men and women. Cardiac MRI (CMR) was completed 6 to 8 years after leptin was measured. Left ventricular (LV) mass and volumes were indexed to body surface area. Multivariable linear regression models were constructed to assess the associations between leptin and risk factor adjusted (age, race, gender, systolic blood pressure, anti-hypertensive usage, LDL, HDL, hyperlipidemia medication usage, diabetes, diabetic medication usage, chronic kidney disease, alcohol and tobacco use, adiponectin and BMI) CMR variables. Relative to participants in the lowest quintile of leptin concentration, participants in the highest quintile had a lower risk factor adjusted LV mass (-14 g), LV mass index (-9 g/m(2)), LV end diastolic volume index (LVEDVi) (-7 ml/m(2)), LV end systolic volume index (LVESVi) (-3 ml/m(2)) and stroke volume (-5 ml) (all p≤0.05). On regression analysis, a doubling of leptin concentration was associated with lower LV mass (-2.5 g ± 0.7 g), LV mass index (-1.7 ± 0.3g/m(2)), LVEDVi (-1.5 ± 0.4 ml/m(2)), LVESVi (-0.7 ± 0.2 ml/m(2)) and stroke volume (-1.0 ± 0.5 ml) (all p ≤ 0.05). Higher leptin was associated with more favorable subsequent cardiac structure. Further study is needed to assess the prognostic and therapeutic implications of these observations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of arotinolol on left ventricular function in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chao-mei; Yang, Hong; Li, Yi-shi; Xu, Li; Dou, Ke-fei; Zhao, Jing-lin; Yuan, Xian-qi; Zhao, Yan-fen; Shi, Rong-fang; Du, Xiu-qing; Lu, Na-qiang

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term treatment with arotinolol in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). Sixty-three patients with IDCM were evaluated at baseline and after 12-month therapy with arotinolol. The conventional therapy for congestive heart failure was continued throughout the study with arotinolol as the only beta-blocker. Left ventricular function was assessed with the New York Heart Association functional class and two-dimensional echocardiography. After 12-month arotinolol treatment, there was a significant improvement in left ventricular systolic function. Left ventricular end-systolic dimension significantly decreased from 59.52 +/- 8.83 mm to 50.89 +/- 8.17 mm (P arotinolol treatment has a favorable effect on left ventricular function in patients with IDCM, and it is safe and well tolerated.

  17. Combined assessment of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and ejection fraction by left ventriculography predicts long-term outcomes of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Daiga; Nakanishi, Rine; Watanabe, Ippei; Yabe, Takayuki; Okubo, Ryo; Amano, Hideo; Toda, Mikihito; Ikeda, Takanori

    2017-11-15

    In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), it is unclear if combined assessment of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) improves prediction of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). We analyzed data from 266 STEMI patients who underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention and subsequent left ventriculography (LVG). Patients were divided into 4 groups, as follows: Group 1, LVEDP heart failure requiring hospitalization). Change in LV parameters was assessed in the subset of 183 patients who underwent serial LVG (mean interval 6.3 ± 1.6 months). During a mean follow-up of 43 ± 31 months, 29 patients (10.9%) had a MACE. As compared to Group 1, MACE risk was significantly higher in Group 3 [hazard ratio (HR) 3.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-10.0] and Group 4 (HR 3.99; 95% CI 1.44-11.0), but not in Group 2 (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.54-3.96). In sub-analyses, LV end-systolic volume index after PCI was significantly higher in Group 4 than in the other groups and remained higher during follow-up. Combined LVEDP/LVEF assessment was useful in predicting MACE after successful PCI for STEMI patients and could facilitate risk stratification, as it predicts LV remodeling.

  18. Potential of right to left ventricular volume ratio measured on chest CT for the prediction of pulmonary hypertension: correlation with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure estimated by echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Heon [Soon Chun Hyang University, Department of Radiology, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Yeon [Seoul Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo Jeong [Terarecon Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Kyun [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Reddy, Ryan P.; Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science and Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2012-09-15

    To investigate the correlation of right ventricular (RV) to left ventricular (LV) volume ratio measured by chest CT with pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) estimated by echocardiography. 104 patients (72.47 {+-} 13.64 years; 39 male) who had undergone chest CT and echocardiography were divided into two groups (hypertensive and normotensive) based upon an echocardiography-derived PASP of 25 mmHg. RV to LV volume ratios (RV{sub V}/LV{sub V}) were calculated. RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} was then correlated with PASP using regression analysis. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) for predicting pulmonary hypertension on chest CT was calculated. In the hypertensive group, the mean PASP was 46.29 {+-} 14.42 mmHg (29-98 mmHg) and there was strong correlation between the RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} and PASP (R = 0.82, p < 0.001). The intraobserver and interobserver correlation coefficients for RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} were 0.990 and 0.892. RV{sub V}/LV{sub V} was 1.01 {+-} 0.44 (0.51-2.77) in the hypertensive and 0.72 {+-} 0.14 (0.52-1.11) in the normotensive group (P <0.05). With 0.9 as the cutoff for RV{sub V}/LV{sub V}, sensitivity and specificity for predicting pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg were 79.5 % and 90 %, respectively. The AUC for predicting pulmonary hypertension was 0.87 RV/LV volume ratios on chest CT correlate well with PASP estimated by echocardiography and can be used to predict pulmonary hypertension over 40 mmHg with high sensitivity and specificity. (orig.)

  19. Lung volumes, ventricular function and pulmonary arterial flow in children operated on for left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia: long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Koch, Arne [Dresden University of Technology, OncoRay - Molecular and Biological Imaging, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Goetzelt, Knut; Vogelberg, Christian [University Clinics Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Clinic and Policlinic for Pediatrics - Pediatric Pulmonology, Dresden (Germany); Hahn, Gabriele [University Clinics Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Institute and Policlinic for Radiology - Pediatric Radiology, Dresden (Germany); Fitze, Guido [University Clinics Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Clinic and Policlinic for Pediatric Surgery, Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    To compare MRI-based functional pulmonary and cardiac measurements in the long-term follow-up of children operated on for left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with age- and body size-matched healthy controls. Twelve children who received immediate postnatal surgery for closure of isolated left-sided CDH were included and received basic medical examinations, pulmonary function testing and echocardiography. MRI included measurement of lung volume, ventricular function assessment and velocity-encoded imaging of the pulmonary arteries and was compared with the data for 12 healthy children matched for age and body size. While patients' clinical test results were not suspicious, comparison between the MRI data for patients and those for healthy controls revealed significant differences. In patients, the volumes of the left lungs were increased and the tidal volume was larger on the right side. While the stroke volumes of both ventricles were reduced, heart rate and ejection fraction were increased. Flow, acceleration time and cross-sectional area of the left pulmonary artery were reduced. Functional MRI detected pulmonary and cardiac findings in the late follow-up of CDH children which may be missed by standard clinical methods and might be relevant for decisions regarding late outcome and treatment. (orig.)

  20. Lung volumes, ventricular function and pulmonary arterial flow in children operated on for left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Koch, Arne; Götzelt, Knut; Hahn, Gabriele; Fitze, Guido; Vogelberg, Christian

    2010-07-01

    To compare MRI-based functional pulmonary and cardiac measurements in the long-term follow-up of children operated on for left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with age- and body size-matched healthy controls. Twelve children who received immediate postnatal surgery for closure of isolated left-sided CDH were included and received basic medical examinations, pulmonary function testing and echocardiography. MRI included measurement of lung volume, ventricular function assessment and velocity-encoded imaging of the pulmonary arteries and was compared with the data for 12 healthy children matched for age and body size. While patients' clinical test results were not suspicious, comparison between the MRI data for patients and those for healthy controls revealed significant differences. In patients, the volumes of the left lungs were increased and the tidal volume was larger on the right side. While the stroke volumes of both ventricles were reduced, heart rate and ejection fraction were increased. Flow, acceleration time and cross-sectional area of the left pulmonary artery were reduced. Functional MRI detected pulmonary and cardiac findings in the late follow-up of CDH children which may be missed by standard clinical methods and might be relevant for decisions regarding late outcome and treatment.

  1. Effect of ivabradine on left ventricular remodelling after reperfused myocardial infarction: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbaud, Edouard; Montaudon, Michel; Chasseriaud, Warren; Gilbert, Stephen; Cochet, Hubert; Pucheu, Yann; Horovitz, Alice; Bonnet, Jacques; Douard, Hervé; Coste, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate is a major determinant of myocardial oxygen demand; in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), patients treated with primary percutaneous intervention (PPCI), heart rate at discharge correlates with mortality. Ivabradine is a pure heart rate-reducing agent that has no effect on blood pressure and contractility, and can reverse left ventricular (LV) remodelling in patients with heart failure. To evaluate whether ivabradine, when added to current guideline-based therapy, improves LV remodelling in STEMI patients treated with PPCI. This paired-cohort study included 124 patients between June 2011 and July 2012. Ivabradine (5mg twice daily) was given promptly after PPCI, along with beta-blockers, to obtain a heart rate<60 beats per minute (ivabradine group). This group was matched with STEMI patients treated in line with current guidelines, including beta-blockers (bisoprolol), according to age, sex, infarct-related coronary artery, ischaemia time and infarct size determined by initial cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) (control group). Statistical analyses were performed according to an intention-to-continue treatment principle. CMR data at 3 months were available for 122 patients. Heart rate was lower in the ivabradine group than in the control group during the initial CMR (P=0.02) and the follow-up CMR (P=0.006). At the follow-up CMR, there was a smaller increase in LV end-diastolic volume index in the ivabradine group than in the control group (P=0.04). LV end-systolic volume index remained unchanged in the ivabradine group, but increased in the control group (P=0.01). There was a significant improvement in LV ejection fraction in the ivabradine group compared with in the control group (P=0.04). In successfully reperfused STEMI patients, ivabradine may improve LV remodelling when added to current guideline-based therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Early feasibility evaluation of thoracoscopically assisted transcatheter ventricular reconstruction in an experimental model of ischaemic heart failure with left anteroapical aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanping; Yi, Geng-Hua; Annest, Lon S; Van Bladel, Kevin; Brown, Ryan; Wechsler, Andrew; Shibuya, Masahiko; Conditt, Gerard B; Peppas, Athanasios; Kaluza, Greg L; Granada, Juan F

    2015-04-01

    To test the feasibility of a thoracoscopically assisted, off-pump, transcatheter ventricular reconstruction (TCVR) approach in an ovine model of left ventricular (LV) anteroapical aneurysm. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced by coil occlusion of the middle left anterior descending artery and diagonals. Two months after MI creation, TCVR was performed via a minimal thoracotomy in eight sheep. Under endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance, trans-interventricular septal puncture was performed from the LV epicardial scar. A guidewire was externalised via a snare placed in the right ventricle from the external jugular vein. An internal anchor was inserted over the wire and positioned on the right ventricular septum and an external anchor was deployed on the LV anterior epicardium. Serial pairs of anchors were placed and plicated together to exclude the scar completely. Immediately after TCVR, echocardiography showed LV end-systolic volume decreased from pre-procedure 58.8±16.6 ml to 25.1±7.6 ml (p<0.01) and the ejection fraction increased from 32.0±7.3% to 52.0±7.5% (p<0.01). LV twist significantly improved (3.83±2.21 vs. pre-procedure -0.41±0.94, p=0.01) and the global peak-systolic longitudinal strain increased from -5.64% to -10.77% (p<0.05). TCVR using minimally invasive access techniques on the off-pump beating heart is feasible and resulted in significant improvement in LV performance.

  3. Repetitive optimizing left ventricular pacing configurations with quadripolar leads improves response to cardiac resynchronization therapy: A single-center randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Min; Jin, Han; Hua, Wei; Fan, Xiao-Han; Ding, Li-Gang; Wang, Jing; Niu, Hong-Xia; Cai, Chi; Zhang, Shu

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether repetitive optimizing left ventricular pacing configurations (LVPCs) with quadripolar leads (QUAD) can improve response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Fifty-two eligible patients were enrolled and 1:1 randomized to either the quadripolar LV leads (QUAD) group or the conventional bipolar leads (CONV) group. In the QUAD group, optimization of LVPC was performed for all patients before discharge and for nonresponders at 3 months follow-up. Clinical evaluations and transthoracic echocardiograms were performed before, 3, and 6 months after CRT implantation. At 3 months follow-up, 16 of 25 (64%) patients in the CONV group (1 patient was lost to follow-up) and 18 of 26 (69%) patients in the QUAD group were classified as responders. After optimizing the LVPCs in 3-month nonresponders in the QUAD group, 21 of 26 (80.8%) patients in the QUAD group were classified as responders at 6 months as compared with 17 of 25 (68%) patients in the CONV group. Left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) reduction, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) increase, and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class reduction at 6 months were significantly greater in the QUAD group than in the CONV group (LVESV: -26.9 ± 13.8 vs -17.2 ± 13.3%; P = .013; LVEF: +12.7 ± 8.0 vs +7.8 ± 6.3 percentage points; P = .017; NYHA: -1.27 ± 0.67 vs -0.72 ± 0.54 functional classes; P = .002). Compared with conventional bipolar leads, CRT using quadripolar leads with repetitive optimized LVPCs resulted in an additional increase in LVEF and reduction in LVESV and NYHA functional class at 6-month follow-up.

  4. Effect of intracoronary administration of AAV1/SERCA2a on ventricular remodelling in patients with advanced systolic heart failure: results from the AGENT-HF randomized phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Salem, Joe-Elie; Redheuil, Alban; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Varnous, Shaida; Jourdain, Patrick; Logeart, Damien; Gandjbakhch, Estelle; Bernard, Claude; Hatem, Stéphane N; Isnard, Richard; Cluzel, Philippe; Le Feuvre, Claude; Leprince, Pascal; Hammoudi, Nadjib; Lemoine, François M; Klatzmann, David; Vicaut, Eric; Komajda, Michel; Montalescot, Gilles; Lompré, Anne-Marie; Hajjar, Roger J

    2017-11-01

    Restoration of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA2a) activity through gene transfer improved cardiac function in experimental and pilot studies in humans with heart failure. The AGENT-HF (NCT01966887) trial investigated the impact of adeno-associated virus (AAV1)/SERCA2a on ventricular remodelling using multimodality non-invasive cardiac imaging. AGENT-HF was a single centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in adult patients with NYHA class III-IV ischaemic or non-ischaemic heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%. Eligible patients were randomized to receive a single intracoronary infusion of either 1 × 1013 DNase-resistant particles of AAV1/SERCA2a or placebo. The primary endpoint was change in left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), measured by cardiac computed tomography at 6 month follow-up. We planned to include 40 patients but the trial was terminated prematurely as the sponsor suspended further enrolment following neutral results of the CUPID-2 outcome trial. At the time of termination, nine patients were randomized with five patients infused with AAV1/SERCA2a and four with placebo. At 6 months, LVESV was increased in both groups compared with baseline: median (interquartile range) in AAV1/SERCA2a vs. placebo: 13 (13;14) mL vs. 3.5 (-36;36) mL, P = 0.74, with a mean difference between groups of 11.4 mL in favour of placebo. No safety issues were noted. AGENT-HF failed to demonstrate any improvement in ventricular remodelling in response to AAV1/SERCA2a at the dose studied. However, because of premature termination, the study was underpowered to demonstrate an effect of AAV1/SERCA2a and these data should be interpreted with caution. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.

  5. Transmural mechanics at left ventricular epicardial pacing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikaga, Hiroshi; Omens, Jeffrey H; Ingels, Neil B; Covell, James W

    2004-06-01

    Left ventricular (LV) epicardial pacing acutely reduces wall thickening at the pacing site. Because LV epicardial pacing also reduces transverse shear deformation, which is related to myocardial sheet shear, we hypothesized that impaired end-systolic wall thickening at the pacing site is due to reduction in myocardial sheet shear deformation, resulting in a reduced contribution of sheet shear to wall thickening. We also hypothesized that epicardial pacing would reverse the transmural mechanical activation sequence and thereby mitigate normal transmural deformation. To test these hypotheses, we investigated the effects of LV epicardial pacing on transmural fiber-sheet mechanics by determining three-dimensional finite deformation during normal atrioventricular conduction and LV epicardial pacing in the anterior wall of normal dog hearts in vivo. Our measurements indicate that impaired end-systolic wall thickening at the pacing site was not due to selective reduction of sheet shear, but rather resulted from overall depression of fiber-sheet deformation, and relative contributions of sheet strains to wall thickening were maintained. These findings suggest lack of effective end-systolic myocardial deformation at the pacing site, most likely because the pacing site initiates contraction significantly earlier than the rest of the ventricle. Epicardial pacing also induced reversal of the transmural mechanical activation sequence, which depressed sheet extension and wall thickening early in the cardiac cycle, whereas transverse shear and sheet shear deformation were not affected. These findings suggest that normal sheet extension and wall thickening immediately after activation may require normal transmural activation sequence, whereas sheet shear deformation may be determined by local anatomy.

  6. Intravenously Delivered Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Systemic Anti-Inflammatory Effects Improve Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Acute Myocardial Infarction and Ischemic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Dror; Lipinski, Michael J; Westman, Peter C; Glover, David K; Dimastromatteo, Julien; Frias, Juan C; Albelda, M Teresa; Sikora, Sergey; Kharazi, Alex; Vertelov, Grigory; Waksman, Ron; Epstein, Stephen E

    2017-05-12

    Virtually all mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) studies assume that therapeutic effects accrue from local myocardial effects of engrafted MSCs. Because few intravenously administered MSCs engraft in the myocardium, studies have mainly utilized direct myocardial delivery. We adopted a different paradigm. To test whether intravenously administered MSCs reduce left ventricular (LV) dysfunction both post-acute myocardial infarction and in ischemic cardiomyopathy and that these effects are caused, at least partly, by systemic anti-inflammatory activities. Mice underwent 45 minutes of left anterior descending artery occlusion. Human MSCs, grown chronically at 5% O 2 , were administered intravenously. LV function was assessed by serial echocardiography, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining determined infarct size, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting assessed cell composition. Fluorescent and radiolabeled MSCs (1×10 6 ) were injected 24 hours post-myocardial infarction and homed to regions of myocardial injury; however, the myocardium contained only a small proportion of total MSCs. Mice received 2×10 6 MSCs or saline intravenously 24 hours post-myocardial infarction (n=16 per group). At day 21, we harvested blood and spleens for fluorescence-activated cell sorting and hearts for 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Adverse LV remodeling and deteriorating LV ejection fraction occurred in control mice with large infarcts (≥25% LV). Intravenous MSCs eliminated the progressive deterioration in LV end-diastolic volume and LV end-systolic volume. MSCs significantly decreased natural killer cells in the heart and spleen and neutrophils in the heart. Specific natural killer cell depletion 24 hours pre-acute myocardial infarction significantly improved infarct size, LV ejection fraction, and adverse LV remodeling, changes associated with decreased neutrophils in the heart. In an ischemic cardiomyopathy model, mice 4 weeks post-myocardial infarction were

  7. Image-guided left ventricular lead placement in cardiac resynchronization therapy for patients with heart failure: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Zhang, Qi; Mao, Jia-Liang; He, Ben

    2015-05-10

    Heart failure (HF) is a debilitating condition that affects millions of people worldwide. One means of treating HF is cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Recently, several studies have examined the use of echocardiography (ECHO) in the optimization of left ventricular (LV) lead placement to increase the response to CRT. The objective of this study was to synthesize the available data on the comparative efficacy of image-guided and standard CRT. We searched the PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases through April 2014 with the following combinations of search terms: left ventricular lead placement, cardiac resynchronization therapy, image-guided, and echocardiography-guided. Studies meeting all of the inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome measures were CRT response rate, change in LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and change in LV end systolic volume (LVESV). Secondary outcomes included the rates of all-cause mortality and HF-related hospitalization. Our search identified 103 articles, 3 of which were included in the analysis. In total, 270 patients were randomized to the image-guided CRT and 241, to the standard CRT. The pooled estimates showed a significant benefit for image-guided CRT (CRT response: OR, 2.098, 95 % CI, 1.432-3.072; LVEF: difference in means, 3.457, 95 % CI, 1.910-5.005; LVESV: difference in means, -20.36, 95 % CI, -27.819 - -12.902). Image-guided CRT produced significantly better clinical outcomes than the standard CRT. Additional trials are warranted to validate the use of imaging in the prospective optimization of CRT.

  8. Quantitative assessment of left ventricular function with dual-source CT in comparison to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: initial findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, S.; Johnson, T.R.C.; Wintersperger, B.J.; Minaifar, N.; Bhargava, A.; Rist, C.; Reiser, M.F.; Becker, C.; Nikolaou, K. [University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography are currently regarded as standard modalities for the quantification of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction. With the recent introduction of dual-source computedtomography (DSCT), the increased temporal resolution of 83 ms should also improve the assessment of cardiac function in CT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of DSCT in the assessment of left ventricular functional parameters with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as standard of reference. Fifteen patients (two female, 13 male; mean age 50.8 {+-} 19.2 years) underwent CT and MRI examinations on a DSCT (Somatom Definition; Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany) and a 3.0-Tesla MR scanner (Magnetom Trio; Siemens Medical Solutions), respectively. Multiphase axial CT images were analysed with a semiautomatic region growing algorithms (Syngo Circulation; Siemens Medical Solutions) by two independent blinded observers. In MRI, dynamic cine loops of short axis slices were evaluated with semiautomatic contour detection software (ARGUS; Siemens Medical Solutions) independently by two readers. End-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF) and stroke volume (SV) were determined for both modalities, and correlation coefficient, systematic error, limits of agreement and inter-observer variability were assessed. In DSCT, EDV and ESV were 135.8 {+-} 41.9 ml and 54.9 {+-} 29.6 ml, respectively, compared with 132.1 {+-} 40.8 ml EDV and 57.6 {+-} 27.3 ml ESV in MRI. Thus, EDV was overestimated by 3.7 ml (limits of agreement -46.1/+53.6), while ESV was underestimated by 2.6 ml (-36.6/+31.4). Mean EF was 61.6 {+-} 12.4% in DSCT and 57.9 {+-} 9.0% in MRI, resulting in an overestimation of EF by 3.8% with limits of agreement at -14.7 and +22.2%. Rank correlation rho values were 0.81 for EDV (P = 0.0024), 0.79 for ESV (P = 0.0031) and 0.64 for EF (P = 0.0168). The kappa value of inter

  9. Assessment of left ventricular function and mass in dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Christoph J., E-mail: c.jensen@contilia.d [Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Elisabeth Hospital, Essen (Germany); Jochims, Markus [Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Elisabeth Hospital, Essen (Germany); Hunold, Peter; Forsting, Michael; Barkhausen, Joerg [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University of Essen (Germany); Sabin, Georg V.; Bruder, Oliver [Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Elisabeth Hospital, Essen (Germany); Schlosser, Thomas [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University of Essen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify left ventricular (LV) function and mass (LVM) derived from dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) and the influence of beta-blocker administration compared to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Methods: Thirty-two patients undergoing cardiac DSCT and CMR were included, where of fifteen received metoprolol intravenously before DSCT. LV parameters were calculated by the disc-summation method (DSM) and by a segmented region-growing algorithm (RGA). All data sets were analyzed by two blinded observers. Interobserver agreement was tested by the intraclass correlation coefficient. Results.: 1. Using DSM LV parameters were not statistically different between DSCT and CMR in all patients (DSCT vs. CMR: EF 63 {+-} 8% vs. 64 {+-} 8%, p = 0.47; EDV 136 {+-} 36 ml vs. 138 {+-} 35 ml, p = 0.66; ESV 52 {+-} 21 ml vs. 52 {+-} 22 ml, p = 0.61; SV 83 {+-} 22 ml vs. 87 {+-} 19 ml, p = 0.22; CO 5.4 {+-} 0.9 l/min vs. 5.7 {+-} 1.2 l/min, p = 0.09, LVM 132 {+-} 33 g vs. 132 {+-} 33 g, p = 0.99). 2. In a subgroup of 15 patients beta-blockade prior to DSCT resulted in a lower ejection fraction (EF), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and increase in end systolic volume (ESV) in DSCT (EF 59 {+-} 8% vs. 62 {+-} 9%; SV 73 {+-} 17 ml vs. 81 {+-} 15 ml; CO 5.7 {+-} 1.2 l/min vs. 5.0 {+-} 0.8 l/min; ESV 52 {+-} 27 ml vs. 57 {+-} 24 ml, all p < 0.05). 3. Analyzing the RGA parameters LV volumes were not significantly different compared to DSM, whereas LVM was higher using RGA (177 {+-} 31 g vs. 132 {+-} 33 g, p < 0.05). Interobserver agreement was excellent comparing DSM values with best agreement between RGA calculations. Conclusion: Left ventricular volumes and mass can reliably be assessed by DSCT compared to CMR. However, beta-blocker administration leads to statistically significant reduced EF, SV and CO, whereas ESV significantly increases. DSCT RGA reliably analyzes LV function, whereas LVM is overestimated compared to DSM.

  10. Predictors of ventricular remodelling in patients with reperfused acute myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction candidates for bone marrow cell therapy: insights from the BONAMI trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrique, Alain [Nuclear Medicine, CHU de Caen, Caen (France); Universite de Caen Normandie, EA 4650, Caen (France); CHU de Caen et GIP Cyceron, Caen cedex 6 (France); Lemarchand, Patricia; Delasalle, Beatrice; Lamirault, Guillaume; Trochu, Jean-Noel; Le Tourneau, Thierry [L' Institut du thorax, INSERM, UMR1087, Nantes (France); CNRS, UMR 6291, Nantes (France); Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); CHU de Nantes, Nantes (France); Lairez, Olivier; Roncalli, Jerome [Institut CARDIOMET-Toulouse, Cardiac Imaging Center, CIC Biotherapies, CHU de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Sportouch-Duckan, Catherine; Piot, Christophe [Universite Montpellier, Institut de Genomique Fonctionnelle, INSERM U661, CNRS UMR 5203, Montpellier (France); Clinique du Millenaire, Montpellier (France); Le Corvoisier, Philippe [Hopital Henri Mondor, INSERM, Centre d' Investigation Clinique 1430 et U955 equipe 3, Creteil (France); Neuder, Yannick [CHU de Grenoble, Pole Thorax et Vaisseaux, Grenoble (France); Richardson, Marjorie [CHRU Lille, Service d' Explorations Fonctionnelles Cardiovasculaires, Hopital Cardiologique, Lille (France); Lebon, Alain [CHU de Caen, Service de Cardiologie, Caen (France); Teiger, Emmanuel [Hopital Henri Mondor, AP-HP, Unite de Cardiologie Interventionnelle et Federation de Cardiologie, Creteil (France); Hossein-Foucher, Claude [Hopital Salengro CHRU de Lille, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Lille (France); Universite de Lille 2, UFR de Medecine, Lille (France)

    2016-04-15

    Few data are available regarding the relation of left ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony to remodelling after acute myocardial infarction (MI) and stem cell therapy. We evaluated the 1-year time course of both LV mechanical dyssynchrony and remodelling in patients enrolled in the BONAMI trial, a randomized, multicenter controlled trial assessing cell therapy in patients with reperfused MI. Patients with acute MI and ejection fraction (EF) ≤ 45 % were randomized to cell therapy or to control and underwent thallium single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), radionuclide angiography, and echocardiography at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year. Eighty-three patients with a comprehensive 1-year follow-up were included. LV dyssynchrony was assessed by the standard deviation (SD) of the LV phase histogram using radionuclide angiography. Remodelling was defined as a 20 % increase in LV end-systolic volume index (LVESVI) at 1 year. At baseline, LVEF, wall motion score index, and perfusion defect size were significantly impaired in the 43 patients (52 %) with LV remodelling (all p < 0.001), without significant increase in LV mechanical dyssynchrony. During follow-up, there was a progressive increase in LV SD (p = 0.01). Baseline independent predictors of LV remodelling were perfusion SPECT defect size (p = 0.001), LVEF (p = 0.01) and a history of hypertension (p = 0.043). Bone marrow cell therapy did not affect the time-course of LV remodelling and dyssynchrony. LV remodelling 1 year after reperfused MI is associated with progressive LV dyssynchrony and is related to baseline infarct size and ejection fraction, without impact of cell therapy on this process. (orig.)

  11. Sequential Right and Left Ventricular Assessment in Posttetralogy of Fallot Patients with Significant Pulmonary Regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesekera, Vishva A; Raju, Rekha; Precious, Bruce; Berger, Adam J; Kiess, Marla C; Leipsic, Jonathon A; Grewal, Jasmine

    2016-12-01

    The natural history of right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) size and function among adults with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair and hemodynamically significant pulmonary regurgitation (PR) is not known. The main aim of this study was to determine changes in RV and LV size and function over time in an adult population with TOF repair and hemodynamically significant pulmonary regurgitation. Forty patients with repaired TOF and hemodynamically significant PR were included. These patients were identified on the basis of having more than one CMR between January 2008 and 2015. Patients with a prosthetic pulmonary valve or any cardiac intervention between CMR studies were excluded. Rate of progression (ROP) of RV dilation was determined for both indexed right ventricular end-systolic volume (RVESVi) and indexed right ventricular end-diastolic volume (RVEDVi), and calculated as the difference between the last and first volumes divided by the number of years between CMR#1 and CMR#2. Subjects were also divided into two groups based on the distribution of the ROP of RV dilation: Group I-rapid ROP (>50th percentile) and Group II-slower ROP (≤50th percentile). The interval between CMR#1 and CMR#2 was 3.9 ± 1.7 years (range 1-8 years). We did find a significant change in RVEDVi and RVESVi over this time period, although the magnitude of change was small. Nine patients (23%) had a reduction in right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) by greater than 5%, 13 patients (33%) had an increase in RVEDVi by greater than 10 mL/m(2) and seven patients (18%) had an increase in RVESVi by greater than 10 mL/m(2) . Median ROP for RVEDVi was 1.8 (range -10.4 to 21.8) mL/(m(2) year); RVESVi 1.1 (range -5.8 to 24.5) mL/(m(2) year) and RVEF -0.5 (range -8 to 4)%/year. Patients with a rapid ROP had significantly larger RV volumes at the time of CMR#1 and lower RVEF as compared to the slow ROP group. There was no overall significant change in LVEDVi, LVESVi, or LVEF over this

  12. Beneficial effects of elevating cardiac preload on left-ventricular diastolic function and volume during heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brothers, R M; Pecini, Redi; Dalsgaard, M

    2014-01-01

    Volume loading normalizes tolerance to a simulated hemorrhagic challenge in heat-stressed individuals, relative to when these individuals are thermoneutral. The mechanism(s) by which this occurs is unknown. This project tested two unique hypotheses; that is, the elevation of central blood volume ...

  13. Correlation between left ventricular diastolic function before and after valve replacement surgery and myocardial ultrastructural changes in patients with left ventricular volume-overloaded valvular heart diseases; Evaluation with gated blood pool scintigraphy using [sup 99m]Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Tomiro (Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-06-01

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic functions in 23 patients with aortic regurgitation (AR) and 22 patients with mitral regurgitation (MR) were evaluated by gated blood pool scintigraphy. LV myocardial biopsy was performed during open heart surgery, and LV myocardial ultrastructural changes were evaluated by electron microscope. Correlation between LV diastolic function and myocardial ultrastructural changes was examined. It was suggested that preoperative LV diastolic dysfunction occurred earlier than LV systolic dysfunction in patients with AR and MR. LV early diastolic dysfunction was especially significant in patients with AR. LV systolic function was significantly improved postoperatively compared with LV diastolic function in patients with AR and MR. It was suggested that LV interstitial fibrosis caused LV diastolic dysfunction in patients with AR and MR, and insufficiency of myocardial thickening as compensation in patients with MR. It was presumed that LV diastolic dysfunction was irreversible in patients with AR and MR in the distant postoperative period due to persistence of the preoperative myocardial ultrastructural change, e.g., interstitial fibrosis. These LV diastolic indices measured by gated pool scintigraphy were useful in predicting LV ultrastructural changes and postoperative LV dysfunction in patients with LV volume-overloaded valvular heart disease. (author).

  14. Comparative assessment of rest and post-stress left ventricular volumes and left ventricular ejection fraction on gated myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and echocardiography in patients with transient ischaemic dilation on adenosine MPI: myocardial stunning or subendocardial hypoperfusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Louise; Ng, Austin; Ha, Leo; Russo, Robert; Mansberg, Robert; Zhao, Wei; Chow, S Vincent; Kritharides, Leonard

    2012-08-01

    Transient ischaemic dilation (TID) on myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is an important finding, conveying a high risk of subsequent cardiac events. However, the mechanism leading to TID on MPI is not well elucidated. This study aimed to determine if TID is due to true LV cavity dilation and ventricular stunning, or is due to relative subendocardial hypoperfusion. 31 patients undergoing single-day Tc-99m adenosine sestamibi MPI were recruited. All had routine ECG-gated single-day rest-stress adenosine MPI, with transthoracic echocardiograms (echo) acquired concurrently at rest, and both immediately, and 2 hours, post-stress. Echocardiography was performed using a Vivid-7 (GE). LV volumes and LVEF were quantified blinded to MPI results, using biplane Simpson method on echo, and quantitatively (including TID) with QGS(®), on MPI. Patients were divided into quartiles for TID, with the top quartile considered TID positive [TID+ 9/31 (TID ratio 1.3 ± 0.09)], and TID negative [TID- 22/31 (TID ratio 1.01 ± 0.04)]. There was good correlation between resting echo and MPI physical measurements (LVEDV r(2) = 0.79, LVESV r(2) = 0.9, and LVEF r(2) = 0.75). On MPI, a significant drop in LVEF was observed between rest and early stress in the TID+ group (56.6% vs 46.5%, P subendocardial hypoperfusion and impaired coronary flow reserve.

  15. Fast and Fully Automatic Left Ventricular Segmentation and Tracking in Echocardiography Using Shape-Based B-Spline Explicit Active Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Joao; Queiros, Sandro; Bernard, Olivier; Engvall, Jan; Edvardsen, Thor; Nagel, Eike; D'hooge, Jan

    2017-11-01

    Cardiac volume/function assessment remains a critical step in daily cardiology, and 3-D ultrasound plays an increasingly important role. Fully automatic left ventricular segmentation is, however, a challenging task due to the artifacts and low contrast-to-noise ratio of ultrasound imaging. In this paper, a fast and fully automatic framework for the full-cycle endocardial left ventricle segmentation is proposed. This approach couples the advantages of the B-spline explicit active surfaces framework, a purely image information approach, to those of statistical shape models to give prior information about the expected shape for an accurate segmentation. The segmentation is propagated throughout the heart cycle using a localized anatomical affine optical flow. It is shown that this approach not only outperforms other state-of-the-art methods in terms of distance metrics with a mean average distances of 1.81±0.59 and 1.98±0.66 mm at end-diastole and end-systole, respectively, but is computationally efficient (in average 11 s per 4-D image) and fully automatic.

  16. Assessment of contractility in intact ventricular cardiomyocytes using the dimensionless 'Frank-Starling Gain' index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollensdorff, Christian; Lookin, Oleg; Kohl, Peter

    2011-07-01

    This paper briefly recapitulates the Frank-Starling law of the heart, reviews approaches to establishing diastolic and systolic force-length behaviour in intact isolated cardiomyocytes, and introduces a dimensionless index called 'Frank-Starling Gain', calculated as the ratio of slopes of end-systolic and end-diastolic force-length relations. The benefits and limitations of this index are illustrated on the example of regional differences in Guinea pig intact ventricular cardiomyocyte mechanics. Potential applicability of the Frank-Starling Gain for the comparison of cell contractility changes upon stretch will be discussed in the context of intra- and inter-individual variability of cardiomyocyte properties.

  17. Stereological estimation of left-ventricular volumetric and functional parameters from multidetector-row computed tomography data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Damilakis, John [University Hospital of Iraklion, Department of Medical Physics, P.O. Box 1352, Crete (Greece); Pagonidis, Konstantin; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas [University Hospital of Iraklion, Department of Radiology, Crete (Greece); Schlosser, Thomas; Hunold, Peter; Barkhausen, Joerg [University Hospital of Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    This study aims to optimize the stereological method for estimating left-ventricular (LV) parameters from retrospectively electrocardiography-gated 16-row MDCT and to compare stereological estimations with those by MRI. MDCT was performed in 17 consecutive patients with known or suspected coronary disease. Stereological measurements based on point counting were optimized by determining the appropriate distance between grid points. LV parameters were evaluated by standard CT analysis using a semi-automatic segmentation method. Two independent observers evaluated the reproducibility of the stereological method. End-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) estimations with a coefficient of error below 5% were obtained in a mean time of 2.3 {+-} 0.5 min with a point spacing of 25 and 15 pixels, respectively. The intra- and interobserver variability for estimating LV parameters was 2.6-4.4 and 4.9-8.2%, respectively. MRI estimations were highly correlated with those by standard CT analysis (R > 0.82) and stereology (R > 0.84). Stereological method significantly overestimated EDV and ESV compared to MRI (EDV: P = 0.0011; ESV: P = 0.0013), whereas for stroke volume (SV) and ejection fraction (EF), no difference was observed (P > 0.05). For standard CT analysis and MRI, significant differences were found except for SV and EF (EDV: P = 0.0008; ESV: P = 0.0004; EF: P = 0.051; SV: P = 0.064). The time-efficient optimized stereological method enables the reproducible evaluation of LV function from MDCT. (orig.)

  18. The impact of infarct size on regional and global left ventricular systolic function: a cardiac magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzuoli, Alberto; Beltrami, Matteo; Gennari, Luigi; Dastidar, A Ghosh; Nuti, Ranuccio; McAlindon, Elisa; Angelini, Gianni D; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara

    2015-06-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) results in myocardial scarring which can have an impact on left ventricular (LV) stiffness and contractile function, ultimately leading to reduced LV systolic function and LV remodelling, However some concerns about the relation between scar extension and segmental wall motion contractility is not enough clear. Thus, the association between myocardial scar, LV regional and global function and LV remodeling should be investigated. We studied the relationship between scar extension, wall motion score index (WMSI), LV dimensions and systolic function in a group of patients with previous MI by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). 133 patients with previous (>6 month) MI were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Indexed end-systolic volume (ESVi), indexed end-diastolic volume (EDVi), LV ejection fraction (EF), stroke volume (SV), LV mass were measured using CMR. WMSI and sum scar score (SSS) were also measured following AHA\\ACC criteria giving an arbitrary cut-off to distinguish larger from restricted late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) area. A total of 2261 segments were studied: regional wall motion abnormalities were present in 1032 segments (45%) and 724 (32%) showed presence of MI (LGE). WMSI correlated significantly with EF (r = -0.87, p transmural MI (WMSI 2.1 ± 0.5 and SSS 17 ± 8; r = 0.55, p transmural MI (WMSI 1.6 ± 0.7 and SSS 6 ± 4; r = 0.34 and p = 0.02). A significant correlation was also found between EF and SSS (r = -0.55 and p transmurality and extension as expressed as SSS assessed with cardiac MRI has an impact on global and regional systolic function. A multi-parametric score measuring WMSI scar transmurality and extension, could better identify an increased cardiac remodeling after coronary event.

  19. High dose aspirin and left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction: aspirin and myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamek, Anna; Hu, Kai; Bayer, Barbara; Wagner, Helga; Ertl, Georg; Bauersachs, Johann; Frantz, Stefan

    2007-07-01

    Proinflammatory proteins like inflammatory cytokines are implicated in myocardial depression and left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction. High-dose aspirin inhibits cytokine activation. Therefore, we tested the influence of high-dose aspirin treatment on left ventricular remodeling in mice after myocardial infarction. Mice were treated for 4 weeks with placebo or aspirin (120 mg/kg per day) by Alzet mini-osmotic pumps after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Serial transthoracic echocardiography was performed at days 1, 7, and 28. Over the 4 weeks, mortality was not different between the groups (placebo 30.8%, aspirin 30.8%). On echocardiography, animals after myocardial infarction exhibited left ventricular dilatation (week 4, end-systolic area, placebo sham 8.9 +/- 1.7 vs. placebo MI 15.9 +/- 2.5 mm(2)), which was not changed by aspirin treatment (week 4, end-systolic area, aspirin MI 14.5 +/- 1.3 mm(2), p= ns vs. placebo MI). The expression of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-1beta were markedly upregulated in mice with myocardial infarction on placebo. Cytokine expression was significantly reduced by aspirin treatment while collagen deposition was not influenced. Continuous aspirin treatment (120 mg/kg/d) reduces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines after myocardial infarction, but does not affect post-infarct cardiac remodeling and cardiac function.

  20. Cardiothoracic ratio on chest radiograph in pediatric heart disease: How does it correlate with heart volumes at magnetic resonance imaging?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotenhuis, Heynric B. [The University of Toronto, Division of Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics, The Labatt Family Heart Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Zhou, Cheng; Isaac, Kathryn V. [The University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Tomlinson, George [University of Toronto, Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital and Mt. Sinai Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Seed, Mike; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Yoo, Shi-Joon [The University of Toronto, Division of Cardiology, Department of Paediatrics, The Labatt Family Heart Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); The University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    The cardiothoracic ratio by chest radiograph is widely used as a marker of cardiac size. The purpose of this study is to correlate cardiothoracic ratio and cardiac volumes as measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) in common structural and myopathic heart disease with increased cardiac size due to volume overload or hypertrophy. A retrospective single center study was performed in all patients between 2007 and 2013 with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), aortic regurgitation, isolated left-to-right shunt and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) who underwent cardiovascular MR and chest radiograph within 6 months of each other. Cardiothoracic ratios by chest radiograph (frontal and lateral) were compared to cardiac volumes (indexed for body surface area) by cardiovascular MR. One hundred twenty-seven patients (mean age: 11.2 ± 5.5 years) were included in this study (76 with TOF, 23 with isolated left-to-right shunt, 16 with aortic regurgitation and 12 with HCM). Frontal cardiothoracic ratio of all groups correlated with indexed right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume (EDVI) (r = 0.40, P < 0.01) and indexed total heart volume (THVI) (r = 0.27, P < 0.01). In TOF patients, frontal cardiothoracic ratio correlated with RVEDVI (r = 0.34, P < 0.01; coefficient of variation = 27.6%), indexed RV end-systolic volume (ESVI) (r = 0.44, P < 0.01; coefficient of variation = 33.3%) and THVI (r = 0.35, P < 0.01; coefficient of variation = 19.6%), although RV volumes and THVI showed widespread variation given the high coefficients of variation. In patients with aortic regurgitation, frontal cardiothoracic ratio correlated with left ventricular (LV) EDVI (r = 0.50, P = 0.047), but not with THVI and aortic regurgitant fraction, and widespread variation for LV EDVI (coefficient of variation = 19.2%), LV ESVI (coefficient of variation = 32.5%) and THVI (coefficient of variation = 13.6%) was also observed. Frontal cardiothoracic ratio was not correlated with cardiac volumes

  1. Structural and functional changes in the heart and clinical features of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction in patients after myocardial infarction, comorbided with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Syvolap

    2013-12-01

    class I, 32% - NYHA class II, 48% - NYHA class III and 10% have NYHA class IV. In the first group revealed a significant increase of left ventricular end diastolic volume (13,8%, p <0,05, left ventricular end systolic volume (14,9%, p <0,05 and left atrial volume index (35%, p <0,05 compared with patients from the second group. Patients from the second group had a significant increase of left ventricular mass index (15,2%, p <0,05, left ventricular posterior wall ( 12,8%, p <0,05 and interventricular septum (10%, p <0,05 compared with patients from the third group. Patients from the first group had a higher E/E ' ratio (26%, p <0,05 compared with patients from the second group. In patients from the second group revealed decreased E/A (30,8%, p <0,05, E '(35,7%, p <0,05 and increased E/E' (13, 3%, p <0,05 compared with patients from the third group. Patients after myocardial infarction with arterial hypertension and diastolic heart failure had diastolic dysfunction mainly on the type of violation of relaxation (74%. 22% of these patients had pseudonormal type of diastolic dysfunction and 4% had restrictive LV filling type. Conclusion: In patients with post-infarction cardiosclerosis and diastolic heart failure with arterial hypertension severity of clinical manifestations of heart failure correlates with left atrial volume index and markers of diastolic dysfunction such as E' and E/E'. In patients with post-infarction cardiosclerosis and arterial hypertension with diastolic heart failure had predominantly concentric hypertrophy with increased left atrial volume index and moderate left ventricular dilatation and mild diastolic dysfunction. In patients after myocardial infarction with arterial hypertension and asymptomatic diastolic dysfunction observed structural and functional changes in the type of concentric hypertrophy with thickened walls and increased left ventricular mass index.

  2. Cardiac chamber volumes, function, and mass as determined by 64-multidetector row computed tomography: mean values among healthy adults free of hypertension and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fay Y; Devereux, Richard B; Roman, Mary J; Meng, Joyce; Jow, Veronica M; Jacobs, Avrum; Weinsaft, Jonathan W; Shaw, Leslee J; Berman, Daniel S; Callister, Tracy Q; Min, James K

    2008-11-01

    We derived mean values for cardiac dimensions, volumes, function, and mass in a normotensive nonobese population free of cardiovascular disease. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) permits study of cardiac chamber size, function, and mass. Age- and gender-specific mean values are not available. A total of 103 normotensive, nonobese adults (43% women, age 51 +/- 14 years) who presented consecutively to 2 medical centers for clinically indicated MDCTs with neither history of nor MDCT evidence of significant cardiovascular disease were studied for left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) end-systolic (ES) and end-diastolic (ED) linear dimensions and volumes; LV and RV ejection fraction (EF), and LV mass (LVM); and left atrial (LA) and right atrial (RA) end-systolic volumes (LAESV and RAESV, respectively) by 1-dimensional (1D), 2-dimensional (2D), and 3-dimensional (3D) measurements. The LV volumes using 3D techniques were lower than 2D techniques (LVEDV mean 144 +/- 71 ml vs. 150 +/- 70 ml), with higher LVEF (63 +/- 15% vs. 57 +/- 13%) (p < 0.001 for both). Mean LVM/height(2.7) was 24.3 +/- 11.0 g/m(2.7) and mean relative wall thickness was 0.16 to 0.44. Evaluation by 20 versus 10 cardiac phases resulted in higher LVEF (mean difference: 3.4 +/- 9.0%, p < 0.001). For LVEDV, interobserver (r = 0.99, p < 0.001) and intraobserver (r(2) = 0.97, p < 0.001) correlations were high. Mean RVEDV was 82 +/- 57 ml and RVEF was 58 +/- 16. The LAESV determined by 3D techniques was higher than by that determined by 2D methods (102 +/- 48 ml vs. 87 +/- 57 ml, p = 0.0003). The RAESV determined by 3D techniques was 111.9 +/- 29.1 ml. The LV size and LVM were greater in men than in women (p < 0.01). The LV size declined with age (p < 0.01), but LVM did not. This study establishes age- and gender-specific values for LV, RV, LA, and RA size, function, and mass in adults free of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and obesity using 1D, 2D, and 3D methods. These data can be

  3. Adverse impact of diabetes mellitus on left ventricular remodelling in patients with chronic primary mitral regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernande, Laura; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Piro, Victoria; Meziani, Souhila; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle

    2018-01-03

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has an impact on left ventricular (LV) geometry and function, and is associated with worsening of pressure-overload LV remodelling; however, its impact on volume-overload LV remodelling is unknown. The objective of the study was to examine the association between DM and LV remodelling in patients with chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) caused by mitral valve prolapse. During a median follow-up of 3.26 [interquartile range 1.59-6.06] years, we evaluated the evolution of echocardiographic variables in 375 consecutive patients, including 61 (16%) patients with DM. The main endpoint was LV remodelling evaluated by LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and LV mass index increase. LV end-systolic diameter (LVESD) and ejection fraction (LVEF) were also evaluated. Patients with DM increased their LVEDD more than patients without DM (1.98±4.1 vs 0.15±4.54mm/year of follow-up; P=0.002). LVEF remained stable in the two groups. After adjustment for potential confounders, including age, sex, hypertension, body mass index, MR severity, medications and follow-up duration, DM remained independently associated with LVEDD increase (β=2.30; P<0.001). When comparing patients with DM with patients without DM matched for age, sex and LVEDD at baseline, DM was independently associated with increased LVEDD (β=2.14; P=0.002), LV mass index (β=10.7; P=0.004) and LVESD (β=2.07; P=0.01). DM is associated with worsening of LV remodelling in patients with moderate or severe chronic MR caused by mitral valve prolapse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the left and right ventricular systolic and diastolic function in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz Özkan, Esra; Khosroshahi, Hashem E

    2016-07-08

    Asthma is the most common cause of respiratory disorders among children. We aimed to investigate left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular function in asthmatic children as detected by conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography. Fifty pediatric patients with asthma and forty healthy children were studied. Pulmonary function tests, electrocardiography and echocardiographic examinations were performed on all children. Rate-corrected velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (VCFc) (p = 0.044), the ratio between heights of early and late diastolic flow velocity peaks (E/A) (p = 0.019) and LV end-systolic wall stress (ESWSm) was lower (p = 0.003), RV stroke volume (SV) (p = 0.002), LV SV (p = 0.001), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) (p = 0.034), tricuspid annular peak velocity during systole (S') (p = 0.022), tricuspid and mitral early diastolic velocities (E') (p = 0.012, p = 0.003 respectively) were lower in asthmatic children than controls. The mitral valve ejection time (ET) was high in asthmatic group (p = 0.027). FEV1 was positively correlated with isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) (p = 0.018) (r = 0.382) and mitral ET (p = 0.018) (r = 0.381). PEF was negatively correlated with the RV work index (p = 0.032) (r = -0.348) and LV work index (p = 0.005) (r = -0.457). Although cardiac systolic function was found to be impaired in asthmatic patients, contrary to the literature, diastolic dysfunction was not observed in these patients, even by tissue Doppler imaging, and this finding may be attributed to using inhaled corticosteroid.

  5. Relationship between late ventricular potentials and myocardial {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy with mild to moderate heart failure: results of a prospective study of sudden death events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Gunma (Japan); Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Toyama, Takuji; Kaneko, Yoshiaki; Kurabayashi, Masahiko [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Gunma (Japan); Iwasaki, Toshiya; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Kumakura, Hisao; Minami, Kazutomo; Ichikawa, Shuichi [Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Matsumoto, Naoya [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, Yuichi [Health Park Clinic, Department of Imaging, Gunma (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Late ventricular potentials (LPs) are considered to be useful for identifying patients with heart failure at risk of developing ventricular arrhythmias. {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, which is used to evaluate cardiac sympathetic activity, has demonstrated cardiac sympathetic denervation in patients with malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias. This study was undertaken to clarify the relationship between LPs and {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy findings in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). A total of 56 patients with DCM were divided into an LP-positive group (n = 24) and an LP-negative group (n = 32). During the compensated period, the delayed heart/mediastinum count (H/M) ratio, delayed total defect score (TDS), and washout rate (WR) were determined from {sup 123}I-MIBG images and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations were measured. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were simultaneously determined by echocardiography. LVEDV, LVESV, LVEF and plasma BNP concentrations were similar in the two groups. However, TDS was significantly higher (35 {+-} 8 vs. 28 {+-} 6, p < 0.005), the H/M ratio was significantly lower (1.57 {+-} 0.23 vs. 1.78 {+-} 0.20, p < 0.005), and the WR was significantly higher (60 {+-} 14% vs. 46 {+-} 12%, p < 0.001) in the LP-positive than in the LP-negative group. The average follow-up time was 4.5 years, and there were nine sudden deaths among the 56 patients (16.1%). In logistic regression analysis, the incidences of sudden death events were similar in those LP-negative with WR <50%, LP-negative with WR {>=}50% and LP-positive with WR <50% (0%, 10.0% and 14.3%, respectively), but was significantly higher (41.2%) in those LP-positive with WR {>=}50% (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, and p < 0.05, respectively). The present study demonstrated that the values of cardiac {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphic parameters

  6. Exercise-induced intra-ventricular gradients as a frequent potential cause of myocardial ischemia in cardiac syndrome X patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Ana G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of intra-ventricular gradients (IVG during dobutamine or exercise stress is not infrequent, and can be associated to symptoms during stress. The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of IVG during exercise stress echocardiography in cardiac syndrome X patients. Methods We prospectively evaluated 91 patients (pts mean aged 51 ± 12 years (age ranged 20 to 75 years old, 44 of whom were women. All pts had angina, positive exercise ECG treadmill testing, normal rest echocardiogram and no coronary artery disease on coronary angiogram (cardiac X syndrome. After complete Doppler echocardiographic evaluation with determination of left ventricular outflow tract index (LVOTi, relative left ventricular wall thickness (RLVWT and left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVDVi, all patients underwent stress echocardiography with two-dimensional and Doppler echographic evaluation during and after treadmill exercise. Results For analysis purpose patients were divided in 2 groups, according to the development of IVG. Doppler evidence of IVG was found in 33 (36% of the patients (Group A, with mean age 47 ± 14 years old (age ranged 20 to 72 years and with a mean end-systolic peak gradient of 86 ± 34 mmHg (ranging from 30 to 165 mmHg. The IVG development was accompanied by SAM of the mitral valve in 23 pts. Three of these pts experienced symptomatic hypotension. Ten were women (30% pts. 58 pts in group B, 34 of whom were women (59% (p = 0,01 vs group A, mean aged 53,5 ± 10,9 years old (age ranged 34 to 75 years (p = 0,03 vs group A, did not develop IVG. LVOTi was 10,29 ± 0,9 mm/m2 in group A and 11,4 ± 1 mm/m2 in group B (p 2 in group A and 56 ± 11,6 ml/m2 in group B (p = 0,000. Conclusion 1. A significant number of patients with cardiac X syndrome developed IVG during upright exercise in treadmill. These pts (group A are mainly males and younger than those who did not develop IVG. 2. The development of IVG

  7. Assessment of left ventricular volumes by magnetic resonance in comparison with radionuclide angiography, contrast angiography and echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang, J; Stokholm, K H; Saunamäki, K

    1992-01-01

    The present study shows that for assessment of LVEF, MRI and the standard methods seem to provide information of similar value. For absolute volume measurements, MRI and RNA are superior to single plane angiography and 2 DE using the modified Simpson-rule. The time consuming transversal MRI method...... quality, which is crucial especially in dilated ventricles containing stagnant or slowly moving blood....

  8. Relationship between myocardial extracellular space expansion estimated with post-contrast T1 mapping MRI and left ventricular remodeling and neurohormonal activation in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Hyun; Son, Jung Woo; Chung, Hye Moon [Cardiology Division, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2015-10-15

    Post-contrast T1 values are closely related to the degree of myocardial extracellular space expansion. We determined the relationship between post-contrast T1 values and left ventricular (LV) diastolic function, LV remodeling, and neurohormonal activation in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Fifty-nine patients with DCM (mean age, 55 ± 15 years; 41 males and 18 females) who underwent both 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography were enrolled. The post-contrast 10-minute T1 value was generated from inversion time scout images obtained using the Look-Locker inversion recovery sequence and a curve-fitting algorithm. The T1 sample volume was obtained from three interventricular septal points, and the mean T1 value was used for analysis. The N-Terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level was measured in 40 patients. The mean LV ejection fraction was 24 ± 9% and the post-T1 value was 254.5 ± 46.4 ms. The post-contrast T1 value was significantly correlated with systolic longitudinal septal velocity (s'), peak late diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus (a'), the diastolic elastance index (Ed, [E/e']/stroke volume), LV mass/volume ratio, LV end-diastolic wall stress, and LV end-systolic wall stress. In a multivariate analysis without NT-proBNP, T1 values were independently correlated with Ed (β = -0.351, p = 0.016) and the LV mass/volume ratio (β = 0.495, p = 0.001). When NT-proBNP was used in the analysis, NT-proBNP was independently correlated with the T1 values (β = -0.339, p = 0.017). Post-contrast T1 is closely related to LV remodeling, diastolic function, and neurohormonal activation in patients with DCM.

  9. The effects of cinacalcet treatment on bone mineral metabolism, anemia parameters, left ventricular mass index and parathyroid gland volume in hemodialysis patients with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Torun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cinacalcet therapy on anemia parameters, bone mineral metabolism, left ventricular mass index (LVMI and parathyroid gland volume in hemodialysis (HD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Twenty-five HD patients (M/F: 11/14, mean age: 45.2 ± 17.9 years, mean HD duration: 96.4 ± 32.7 months were included in this prospective pilot study. The indication to start calcimimetic therapy was persistent serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH >1000 pg/mL, refractory to intravenous (i.v. vitamin D and phosphate-binding therapy. The initial and one-year results of adjusted serum calcium (Ca +2 , phosphate (P, Ca × P product, PTH, hemoglobin (Hb and ferritin levels, transferrin saturation index (TSAT, median weekly erythropoietin (EPO dose, LVMI, and parathyroid volume by parathyroid ultrasonography were determined. There were no differences between pre- and post-treatment levels of serum Ca +2 (P = 0.853, P (P = 0.447, Ca × P product (P = 0.587, PTH (P = 0.273, ferritin (P = 0.153 and TSAT (P = 0.104. After 1 year of calcimimetic therapy, the Hb levels were significantly higher than the initial levels (P = 0.048. The weekly dose of EPO decreased with no statistical significance. The dose of cinacalcet was increased from 32.4 ± 12.0 to 60.0 ± 24.4 mg/day (P = 0.01. There were no differences between the pre- and post-treatment results regarding weekly vitamin D dose, parenteral iron dose, LVMI and parathyroid volume. The results of our study suggest that cinacalcet therapy might have an additional benefit in the control anemia in HD patients.

  10. Anatomy and Physiology of Left Ventricular Suction Induced by Rotary Blood Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamonsen, Robert Francis; Lim, Einly; Moloney, John; Lovell, Nigel Hamilton; Rosenfeldt, Franklin L

    2015-08-01

    This study in five large greyhound dogs implanted with a VentrAssist left ventricular assist device focused on identification of the precise site and physiological changes induced by or underlying the complication of left ventricular suction. Pressure sensors were placed in left and right atria, proximal and distal left ventricle, and proximal aorta while dual perivascular and tubing ultrasonic flow meters measured blood flow in the aortic root and pump outlet cannula. When suction occurred, end-systolic pressure gradients between proximal and distal regions of the left ventricle on the order of 40-160 mm Hg indicated an occlusive process of variable intensity in the distal ventricle. A variable negative flow difference between end systole and end diastole (0.5-3.4 L/min) was observed. This was presumably mediated by variable apposition of the free and septal walls of the ventricle at the pump inlet cannula orifice which lasted approximately 100 ms. This apposition, by inducing an end-systolic flow deficit, terminated the suction process by relieving the imbalance between pump requirement and delivery from the right ventricle. Immediately preceding this event, however, unnaturally low end-systolic pressures occurred in the left atrium and proximal left ventricle which in four dogs lasted for 80-120 ms. In one dog, however, this collapse progressed to a new level and remained at approximately -5 mm Hg across four heart beats at which point suction was relieved by manual reduction in pump speed. Because these pressures were associated with a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of -5 mm Hg as well, they indicate total collapse of the entire pulmonary venous system, left atrium, and left ventricle which persisted until pump flow requirement was relieved by reducing pump speed. We suggest that this collapse caused the whole vascular region from pulmonary capillaries to distal left ventricle to behave as a Starling resistance which further reduced right

  11. Effect of Papillary Muscles and Trabeculae on Left Ventricular Measurement Using Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun-Ah; Lee, Whal [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Division, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Kwan [Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook [Department of Radiology, Cardiovascular Division, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the influence of papillary muscles and trabeculae on left ventricular (LV) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) analysis using three methods of cavity delineation (classic or modified inclusion methods, and the exclusion method) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). This retrospective study included 20 consecutive HCM patients who underwent 1.5-T CMR imaging with short-axis cine stacks of the entire LV. LV measurements were performed using three different methods of manual cavity delineation of the endocardial and epicardial contours: method A, presumed endocardial boundary as seen on short-axis cine images; method B, including solely the cavity and closely adjacent trabeculae; or method C, excluding papillary muscles and trabeculae. Ascending aorta forward flow was measured as reference for LV-stroke volume (SV). Interobserver reproducibility was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Method A showed larger end-diastole and end-systole volumes (largest percentage differences of 25% and 68%, respectively, p < 0.05), compared with method C. The ejection fraction was 55.7 ± 6.9% for method A, 68.6 ± 8.4% for B, and 71.7 ± 7.0% for C (p < 0.001). Mean mass was also significantly different: 164.6 ± 47.4 g for A, 176.5 ± 50.5 g for B, and 199.6 ± 53.2 g for C (p < 0.001). LV-SV error was largest with method B (p < 0.001). No difference in interobserver agreement was observed (p > 0.05). In HCM patients, LV measurements are strikingly different dependent on whether papillary muscles and trabeculae are included or excluded. Therefore, a consistent method of LV cavity delineation may be crucial during longitudinal follow-up to avoid misinterpretation and erroneous clinical decision-making.

  12. Prognostic value of CT-derived left atrial and left ventricular measures in patients with acute chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takx, Richard A P; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Schoepf, U Joseph; Nance, John W; Bamberg, Fabian; Abro, Joseph A; Carr, Christine M; Litwin, Sheldon E; Apfaltrer, Paul

    2017-01-01

    To determine which left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) parameters are associated with future major adverse cardiac event (MACE) and whether these measurements have independent prognostic value beyond risk factors and computed tomography (CT)-derived coronary artery disease measures. This retrospective analysis was performed under an IRB waiver and in HIPAA compliance. Subjects underwent coronary CT angiography (CCTA) using a dual-source CT system for acute chest pain evaluation. LV mass, LV ejection fraction (EF), LV end-systolic volume (ESV) and LV end-diastolic volume (EDV), LA ESV and LA diameter, septal wall thickness and cardiac chamber diameters were measured. MACE was defined as cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or late revascularization. The association between cardiac CT measures and the occurrence of MACE was quantified using Cox proportional hazard analysis. 225 subjects (age, 56.2±11.2; 140 males) were analyzed, of whom 42 (18.7%) experienced a MACE during a median follow-up of 13 months. LA diameter (HR:1.07, 95%CI:1.01-1.13permm) and LV mass (HR:1.05, 95%CI:1.00-1.10perg) remained significant prognostic factor of MACE after controlling for Framingham risk score. LA diameter and LV mass were also found to have prognostic value independent of each other. The other morphologic and functional cardiac measures were no significant prognostic factors for MACE. CT-derived LA diameter and LV mass are associated with future MACE in patients undergoing evaluation for chest pain, and portend independent prognostic value beyond traditional risk factors, coronary calcium score, and obstructive coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of right ventricular volume and function by 2D and 3D echocardiography compared to MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Jesper; Petersen, Claus Leth; Kjaer, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    : Thirty-four subjects with (a) prior inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (n=17), (b) a history of pulmonary embolism and persistent dyspnea (n=7) or (c) normal subjects (n=10) had 2D and 3D echocardiography, SPECT and MRI within 24h. End-diastolic volume and peak tricuspid regurgitation velocity...... were increased in patients with a history of pulmonary embolism compared to healthy subjects, 130+/-26 ml vs. 94+/-26 ml, P

  14. A novel fluoroscopic method of measuring right-to-left interlead distance as a predictor of reverse left ventricular remodeling after cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, Gregorio; Volpicelli, Mario; Belli, Pietro; Ratti, Gennaro; Tammaro, Paolo; Provvisiero, Ciro; Ciardiello, Carmine; Auricchio, Luca; Fiorentino, Ciro; Capogrosso, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    In spite of technological breakthroughs, the choice of a suitable location for the coronary sinus (CS) lead in biventricular implants is still mostly empiric. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of a radiological index-the distance between the right ventricular (RV) and CS lead tips on fluoroscopic recordings, measured by means of a new method-as a tool for selecting the most profitable left ventricular (LV) lead position. Forty-nine consecutive patients (36 male, 13female; mean age 63 ± 19 year), in whom the LV electrode was implanted in a lateral/postero-lateral position in the CS, were evaluated immediately after implantation. The fluoroscopic distances between the RV and LV lead tips were calculated off-line in antero-posterior (2DAP) and latero-lateral (2DLL) projections by means of integrated software. On 1-year follow-up evaluation, 53 % patients were classed as responders (R) (>15 % reduction in LV end-systolic volume) and 47 % as non-responders (NR). On receiver-operating curve analysis, 2DAP and 2DLL showed cut-off values of 81 mm and 51 mm, respectively. In discriminating between R and NR, 2DAP >81 mm displayed 95 % specificity and 74 % sensitivity, while 2DLL >51 mm displayed 74 % specificity and 92 % sensitivity. On multivariate analysis, the cut-off values of 2DAP and 2DLL were significantly predictive of R to CRT. In our single-center prospective experience, RV-LV interlead distance measured by means of a novel method on fluorographic recordings correlated with CRT response. The use of this method as an intra-operative guide to identifying suitable lead placement in the CS needs evaluating on-line and on a large scale.

  15. Intracoronary infusion of encapsulated glucagon-like peptide-1-eluting mesenchymal stem cells preserves left ventricular function in a porcine model of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Renate; van Hout, Gerardus P J; Houtgraaf, Jaco H; Kazemi, Kushan; Wallrapp, Christine; Lewis, Andrew; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Hoefer, Imo E; Duckers, Henricus J

    2014-10-01

    Engraftment and survival of stem cells in the infarcted myocardium remain problematic in cell-based therapy for cardiovascular disease. To overcome these issues, encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs) were developed that were transfected to produce glucagon-like peptide-1, an incretin hormone with known cardioprotective effects, alongside MSC endogenous paracrine factors. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of different doses of intracoronary infusion of eMSC in a porcine model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). One hundred pigs were subjected to a moderate AMI (posterolateral AMI; n=50) or a severe AMI (anterior AMI; n=50), whereupon surviving animals (n=36 moderate, n=33 severe) were randomized to receive either intracoronary infusion of 3 incremental doses of eMSC or Ringers' lactate control. Cardiac function was assessed using invasive hemodynamics, echocardiography, and histological analysis. A trend was observed in the moderate AMI model, whereas in the severe AMI model, left ventricular ejection fraction improved by +9.3% (P=0.004) in the best responding eMSC group, because of a preservation of left ventricular end-systolic volume. Arteriolar density increased 3-fold in the infarct area (8.4±0.9/mm(2) in controls versus 22.2±2.6/mm(2) in eMSC group; P<0.001). Although not statistically significant, capillary density was 30% higher in the border zone (908.1±99.7/mm(2) in control versus 1209.0±64.6/mm(2) in eMSC group; P=ns). eMSCs enable sustained local delivery of cardioprotective proteins to the heart, thereby enhancing angiogenesis and preserving contractile function in an animal AMI model. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Assessment of left ventricular parameters in orthotopic heart transplant recipients using dual-source CT and contrast-enhanced echocardiography: Comparison with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arraiza, Maria, E-mail: arraiza81@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 36, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); Department of Radiology, Section of Ambulatory Radiology, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra (Spain); Azcarate, Pedro M., E-mail: pmazcarate@unav.es [Cardiac Imaging Unit, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 36, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); Department of Cardiology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 36, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); De Cecco, Carlo Nicola, E-mail: carlodececco@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Universita' di Roma ' Sapienza' - Ospedale Sant' Andrea (Italy); Viteri, Guillermo, E-mail: gviteri@unav.es [Department of Radiology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 36, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); Simon-Yarza, Isabel, E-mail: msyarza@unav.es [Department of Radiology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 36, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); Hernandez-Estefania, Rafael, E-mail: rhestefania@unav.es [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 36, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); Rabago, Gregorio, E-mail: grabago@unav.es [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 36, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); and others

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: To establish the accuracy and reliability of cardiac dual-source CT (DSCT) and two-dimensional contrast-enhanced echocardiography (CE-Echo) in estimating left ventricular (LV) parameters with respect to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) as the reference standard. Methods: Twenty-five consecutive heart transplant recipients (20 male, mean age 62.7 {+-} 10.4 years, mean time since transplantation 8.1 {+-} 5.9 years) were prospectively recruited. Two blinded readers independently assessed LV ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), and stroke volume (SV) for each patient after manual tracing of the endo- and epicardial contours in DSCT, CE-Echo and CMR cine images. Student's t-test for paired samples for differences, and Bland and Altman plots and Lin's concordance-correlation coefficients (CCC) for agreement were calculated. Results: There was no statistical difference between left ventricular parameters determined by DSCT and CMR. CE-Echo resulted in significant underestimation of left ventricular volumes (mean difference EDV: 15.94 {+-} 14.19 ml and 17.1 {+-} 17.06 ml, ESV: 8.5 {+-} 9.3 and 7.32 {+-} 9.14 ml with respect to DSCT and CMR), and overestimation of EF compared with the cross-sectional imaging modalities (3.78 {+-} 8.47% and 2.14 {+-} 8.35% with respect to DSCT and CMR). Concordance correlation coefficients for LV parameters using DSCT and CMR were higher (CCC {>=} 0.75) than CCC values observed between CE-Echo and DSCT- or CMR-derived data (CCC {>=} 0.54 and CCC {>=} 0.49, respectively). Interobserver agreement was higher for DSCT and CMR values (CCC {>=} 0.72 and CCC {>=} 0.87, respectively). Conclusion: In orthotopic heart transplantation cardiac DSCT allows accurate and reliable estimation of LV parameters compared with CMR, whereas CE-Echo seems to be insufficient to obtain precise measurements.

  17. Right ventricular function during acute exacerbation of severe equine asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, A; Borowicz, H; Slowikowska, M; Chiers, K; van Loon, G; Niedzwiedz, A

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension has been described in horses with severe equine asthma, but its effect on the right ventricle has not been fully elucidated. To evaluate right ventricular structure and function after a 1-week period of pulmonary hypertension secondary to acute exacerbation of severe equine asthma. Prospective study. A clinical episode of severe equine asthma was induced experimentally in six susceptible horses. Examinations in remission and on day 7 of the clinical episode included a physical examination with clinical scoring, echocardiography, arterial blood gas measurements, venous blood sampling for cardiac biomarkers, intracardiac pressure measurements, right ventricular and right atrial myocardial biopsies, airway endoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage. After 1 month of recovery, physical examination, echocardiography and cardiac biomarker analysis were repeated. Echocardiographic and pressure measurements were compared with those in 10 healthy control horses. All horses developed clinical signs of acute pulmonary obstruction. Right heart pressures increased significantly. Altered right ventricular function could be detected by tissue Doppler and speckle tracking echocardiography. Cardiac troponin concentrations did not increase significantly, but were highly elevated in one horse which exercised in the paddock prior to sampling. Focal neutrophil infiltration was present in two myocardial samples. Even in remission, asthmatic horses showed a thicker right ventricular wall, an increased left ventricular end-systolic eccentricity index at chordal level and decreased right ventricular longitudinal strain compared with controls. The induced clinical episode was rather mild and the number of horses was limited because of the invasive nature of the study. Pulmonary obstruction in asthmatic horses induces pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular structural and functional changes. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  18. Real Time 3D echocardiography (RT3D for assessment of ventricular and vascular function in hypertensive and heart failure patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scali Maria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac and systemic hemodynamics have been historically in the domain of invasive cardiology, but recent advances in real-time 3-Dimensional echocardiography (RT3D echo provide a reliable measurement of ventricular volumes, allowing to measure a set of hemodynamic parameters previously difficult or impossible to obtain with standard 2D echo. Aim To assess the feasibility of a comprehensive hemodynamic study with RT-3D echo. Methods We enrolled 136 patients referred for routine echocardiography: 44 normal (N, 57 hypertensive (HYP, and 35 systolic heart failure patients (HF. All patients underwent standard 2D echo examination followed by RT3D echo examination, including measurement of left ventricular (LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes and derived assessment of LV elastance (an index of LV contractility, arterial elastance (characterizing the distal impedance of the arterial system downstream of the aortic valve; ventricular-arterial coupling (a central determinant of net cardiovascular performance; systemic vascular resistances. Blood pressure was derived from cuff sphygmomanometer and heart rate from ECG. Results A complete 2D echo was performed in all 136 patients. 3D echo examination was obtained in 130 patients (feasibility = 95 %. Standard 2D echo examination was completed in 14.8 ± 2.2 min. Acquisition of 3D images required an average time of 5 ± 0.9 min (range 3.5-7.5 min and image analysis was completed in 10.1 ± 2.8 min (range 6–12 min per patient. Compared to N and HYP, HF patients showed reduced LV elastance (1.7 ± 1.5 mmHg mL-1 m-2, p 5. The LV elastance was related to EF (r = 0.73, p  Conclusion RT-3D echo allows a non invasive, comprehensive assessment of cardiac and systemic hemodynamics, offering insight access to key variables – such as increased systemic vascular resistances in hypertensives and reduced ventricular-arterial coupling in heart failure

  19. Admittance-based pressure-volume loop measurements in a porcine model of chronic myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hout, G P J; de Jong, R; Vrijenhoek, J E P; Timmers, L; Duckers, H J; Hoefer, I E

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to validate admittance-based pressure-volume (PV) loop measurements for the assessment of cardiac function in a porcine model of chronic myocardial infarction. The traditional PV loop measurement technique requires hypertonic saline injections for parallel conductance correction prior to signal conversion into volume. Furthermore, it assumes a linear relationship between conductance and volume. More recently, an admittance-based technique has been developed, which continuously measures parallel conductance and uses a non-linear equation for volume calculation. This technique has not yet been evaluated in a large-animal model of myocardial ischaemia. Eleven pigs underwent invasive PV measurements with the admittance system (AS) and the traditional conductance system followed by three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). After baseline measurements, pigs were subjected to 90 min left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, followed by the same measurements at 8 weeks follow-up. In the healthy heart, the AS showed good agreement with 3DE for left ventricular volumes and a reasonable correlation for ejection fraction (r = 0.756, P = 0.007). At follow-up, an increase in end-systolic volume was observed with 3DE (+15.4 ± 14.4 ml, P = 0.005) and the AS (+34.6 ± 36.1 ml, P = 0.010). The ejection fraction measured with 3DE (-13.2 ± 5.2%, P infarction and provides comparable results to 3DE, rendering it a useful tool for functional testing in large-animal cardiac models.

  20. Native T1 Relaxation Time and Extracellular Volume Fraction as Accurate Markers of Diffuse Myocardial Fibrosis in Heart Valve Disease - Comparison With Targeted Left Ventricular Myocardial Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockova, Radka; Kacer, Petr; Pirk, Jan; Maly, Jiri; Sukupova, Lucie; Sikula, Viktor; Kotrc, Martin; Barciakova, Lucia; Honsova, Eva; Maly, Marek; Kautzner, Josef; Sedmera, David; Penicka, Martin

    2016-04-25

    The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between the cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived native T1 relaxation time and myocardial extracellular volume (ECV) fraction and the extent of diffuse myocardial fibrosis (DMF) on targeted myocardial left ventricular (LV) biopsy. The study population consisted of 40 patients (age 63±8 years, 65% male) undergoing valve and/or ascending aorta surgery for severe aortic stenosis (77.5%), root dilatation (7.5%) or valve regurgitation (15%). The T1 relaxation time was assessed in the basal interventricular septum pre- and 10-min post-contrast administration using the modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery sequence prior to surgery. LV myocardial biopsy specimen was obtained during surgery from the basal interventricular septal segment matched with the T1 mapping assessment. The percentage of myocardial collagen was quantified using picrosirius red staining. The average percentage of myocardial collagen was 22.0±14.8%. Both native T1 relaxation time with cutoff value ≥1,010 ms (sensitivity=90%, specificity=73%, area under the curve=0.82) and ECV with cutoff value ≥0.32 (sensitivity=80%, specificity=90%, area under the curve=0.85) showed high accuracy to identify severe (>30%) DMF. The native T1 relaxation time showed significant correlation with LV mass (Pmarkers of DMF. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1202-1209).

  1. The step response of left ventricular pressure to ejection flow: A system oriented approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, H.B.K.; Wijkstra, Hessel

    1992-01-01

    Left ventricular pressure is dependent on both ventricular volume and ventricular ejection flow. These dependencies are usually expressed byventricular elastance, andresistance, respectively. Resistance is a one-valued effect only, when ejection flow either is constant or increases. Decreasing

  2. Myocardial extracellular volume fraction quantified by cardiovascular magnetic resonance is increased in hypertension and associated with left ventricular remodeling

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    Wang, Shuli; Li, Jinghui; Chen, Xiuyu; Yin, Gang; Lan, Tian; Dai, Linlin; Zhang, Yan; Yin, Xiaorong; Zhao, Shihua [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cardiovascular Imaging and Intervention Center, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing (China); Hu, Hongjie [Zhejiang University, Department of Radiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Lu, Minjie [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cardiovascular Imaging and Intervention Center, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing (China); Laboratory for Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD (United States); Sirajuddin, Arlene; Arai, Andrew E. [Laboratory for Advanced Cardiovascular Imaging, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD (United States); An, Jing [Siemens Shenzhen Magnetic Resonance Ltd., Siemens MRI Center, Shenzhen, Guangdong (China); Song, Lei; Dang, Aimin [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Cardiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing (China); Kellman, Peter [National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), US Department of Health and Human Services, Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Branch, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2017-11-15

    To determine whether extracellular volume fraction (ECV) quantification by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can demonstrate left ventricle (LV) abnormalities and relationship between ECV and LV remodeling in hypertension (HTN) patients ECV quantification was prospectively performed in 134 consecutive HTN patients and 97 healthy subjects. Individual and regional ECV were compared to the regions on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images. Statistical analysis of the relationship between LV global functional parameters and ECV was carried out using Pearson's correlation, Student's t test and multiple regressions. In the HTN group, 70.1% (94/134) were LGE negative and 29.9% (40/134) LGE positive. The mean ECV after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, diabetes, smoking and dyslipidaemia in healthy controls and LGE-negative patients were 26.9 ± 2.67% and 28.5 ± 2.9% (p < 0.001), respectively. The differences in ECV reached statistical significance among the regions of LGE, LGE-Peri, LGE remote and the normal area between the control and LGE-positive subgroup (all p < 0.05). Global ECV significantly correlated with LVEF (r = -0.466, p < 0.001) and LV hypertrophy (r = 0.667, p < 0.001). ECV can identify LV abnormalities at an early stage in HTN patients without LGE. These abnormalities may reflect an increase in diffuse myocardial fibrosis and are associated with LV remodeling. (orig.)

  3. Myocardial extracellular volume fraction quantified by cardiovascular magnetic resonance is increased in hypertension and associated with left ventricular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuli; Hu, Hongjie; Lu, Minjie; Sirajuddin, Arlene; Li, Jinghui; An, Jing; Chen, Xiuyu; Yin, Gang; Lan, Tian; Dai, Linlin; Zhang, Yan; Yin, Xiaorong; Song, Lei; Dang, Aimin; Kellman, Peter; Arai, Andrew E; Zhao, Shihua

    2017-04-24

    To determine whether extracellular volume fraction (ECV) quantification by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can demonstrate left ventricle (LV) abnormalities and relationship between ECV and LV remodeling in hypertension (HTN) patients METHODS: ECV quantification was prospectively performed in 134 consecutive HTN patients and 97 healthy subjects. Individual and regional ECV were compared to the regions on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images. Statistical analysis of the relationship between LV global functional parameters and ECV was carried out using Pearson's correlation, Student's t test and multiple regressions. In the HTN group, 70.1% (94/134) were LGE negative and 29.9% (40/134) LGE positive. The mean ECV after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, diabetes, smoking and dyslipidaemia in healthy controls and LGE-negative patients were 26.9 ± 2.67% and 28.5 ± 2.9% (p ECV reached statistical significance among the regions of LGE, LGE-Peri, LGE remote and the normal area between the control and LGE-positive subgroup (all p ECV significantly correlated with LVEF (r = -0.466, p ECV can identify LV abnormalities at an early stage in HTN patients without LGE. These abnormalities may reflect an increase in diffuse myocardial fibrosis and are associated with LV remodeling. • Diffuse myocardial fibrosis may develop in hypertensive cardiomyopathy before conventional MRI detectable LGE. • ECV can identify myocardial fibrosis at an early stage in hypertensive patients. • Elevated ECV is associated with decreased LV global function and LV remodeling in hypertension.

  4. Importância da área de fibrose na evolução em médio prazo de pacientes submetidos à reconstrução ventricular Importancia del área de fibrosis en la evolución a mediano plazo de pacientes sometidos a reconstrucción ventricular Importance of the area of fibrosis at midterm evolution of patients submitted to ventricular reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Calado de Aguiar Ribeiro

    2009-12-01

    the left ventricular (LV area of fibrosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the extension of the area of fibrosis of the LV is important in the LV functional recovery after the surgery and correlate it with clinical factors. METHODS: Prospective analysis of 82 patients with ventricular dysfunction submitted to VRS. We analyzed the importance of the clinical characteristics and the amount of fibrosis was assessed, measured by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR as small, medium and large. RESULTS: All patients were followed for 36 months, with a mortality of 6%. The amount of medium fibrosis was 25.8% ± 13.6%. There was improvement in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, from 36.9% ± 6.8% to 48.2% ± 8.2% (p < 0.001. There was an inverse association between the amount of fibrosis and the increase in LVEF (r = -0.83, p < 0.0001. There was a decrease in the LV end-systolic volume of 43.3 ± 8.2ml/m² (p < 0.001. There was an improvement in heart failure symptoms, except in patients with large areas of fibrosis (p = 0.45. The independent predictors for events were: fibrotic area (p = 0.01, age (p = 0.01, LV end-systolic volume (p = 0.03 and LVEF (p = 0.02. The event-free follow-up was different in relation to the area of fibrosis (p < 0.01. CONCLUSION: In patients with ventricular dysfunction, the extension of the area of fibrosis was an independent predictor of the LV functional recovery after the VRS. The combination of cardiac MRI and clinical parameters can help in the indication for VRS.

  5. Prevalence and predictors of ventricular remodeling after anterior myocardial infarction in the era of modern medical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Elaine; Cogni, Ana Lucia; Minicucci, Marcos F; Azevedo, Paula S; Okoshi, Katashi; Matsubara, Beatriz B; Zanati, Silméia G; Haggeman, Rodrigo; Paiva, Sergio A R; Zornoff, Leonardo A M

    2012-05-01

    The consequences of aggressive therapy following a myocardial infarction (MI) on ventricular remodeling are not well established. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and predictors of left ventricular remodeling in the era of modern medical therapy. Clinical characteristics and echocardiographic data were analyzed in 66 consecutive patients with anterior infarction at admission and at 6-month follow-up. Ventricular remodeling was defined as an increase of 10% in ventricular end-systolic or end-diastolic diameter. In our study, 58% of patients presented with ventricular remodeling. Patients with remodeling possessed higher total plasma creatine kinase (CPK), MB-fraction (CPK-MB), heart rate, heart failure, shortness of breath, and reperfusion therapy than patients without remodeling. In contrast, patients with remodeling had a smaller ejection fraction, E-Wave deceleration time (EDT), and early (E' Wave) and late (A' Wave) diastolic mitral annulus velocity (average of septal and lateral walls), but a higher E/E' than patients without remodeling. Patients with remodeling used more diuretics, digoxin, oral anticoagulants and aldosterone antagonists than patients without remodeling. In the multivariate analyses, only E' Wave was an independent predictor of ventricular remodeling. Each 1 unit increase in the E' Wave was associated with a 59% increased odds of ventricular remodeling. In patients with anterior MI, despite contemporary treatment, ventricular remodeling is still a common event. In addition, diastolic function can have an important role as a predictor of remodeling in this scenario.

  6. Gated SPECT evaluation of left ventricular function using a CZT camera and a fast low-dose clinical protocol: comparison to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgetti, Assuero; Masci, Pier Giorgio; Marras, Gavino; Gimelli, Alessia; Genovesi, Dario; Lombardi, Massimo [Fondazione CNR/Regione Toscana ' ' G. Monasterio' ' , Pisa (Italy); Rustamova, Yasmine K. [Azerbaijan Medical University, Department of internal medicine Central Customs Hospital, Baku (Azerbaijan); Marzullo, Paolo [Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica del CNR, Pisa (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    CZT technology allows ultrafast low-dose myocardial scintigraphy but its accuracy in assessing left ventricular function is still to be defined. The study group comprised 55 patients (23 women, mean age 63 {+-} 9 years) referred for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. The patients were studied at rest using a CZT camera (Discovery NM530c; GE Healthcare) and a low-dose {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin clinical protocol (mean dose 264 {+-} 38 MBq). Gated SPECT imaging was performed as a 6-min list-mode acquisition, 15 min after radiotracer injection. Images were reformatted (8-frame to 16-frame) using Lister software on a Xeleris workstation (GE Healthcare) and then reconstructed with a dedicated iterative algorithm. Analysis was performed using Quantitative Gated SPECT (QGS) software. Within 2 weeks patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI, 1.5-T unit CVi; GE Healthcare) using a 30-frame acquisition protocol and dedicated software for analysis (MASS 6.1; Medis). The ventricular volumes obtained with 8-frame QGS showed excellent correlations with the cMRI volumes (end-diastolic volume (EDV), r = 0.90; end-systolic volume (ESV), r = 0.94; p < 0.001). However, QGS significantly underestimated the ventricular volumes (mean differences: EDV, -39.5 {+-} 29 mL; ESV, -15.4 {+-} 22 mL; p < 0.001). Similarly, the ventricular volumes obtained with 16-frame QGS showed an excellent correlations with the cMRI volumes (EDV, r = 0.92; ESV, r = 0.95; p < 0.001) but with significant underestimations (mean differences: EDV, -33.2 {+-} 26 mL; ESV, -17.9 {+-} 20 mL; p < 0.001). Despite significantly lower values (47.9 {+-} 16 % vs. 51.2 {+-} 15 %, p < 0.008), 8-frame QGS mean ejection fraction (EF) was closely correlated with the cMRI values (r = 0.84, p < 0.001). The mean EF with 16-frame QGS showed the best correlation with the cMRI values (r = 0.91, p < 0.001) and was similar to the mean cMRI value (49.6 {+-} 16 %, p not significant). Regional analysis showed a good

  7. Left Atrial Volume as a Predictor of Left Ventricular Functional Recovery in Patients With Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Absence of Delayed Enhancement in Cardiac Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jeonggeun; Shim, Chi Young; Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Sungha; Kang, Seok-Min; Chung, Namsik; Ha, Jong-Won

    2016-04-01

    Improvement of left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction can occur in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and it is more frequently observed if patients have no delayed enhancement (DE) in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). However, even in the absence of DE, not all patients have functional recovery. We retrospectively investigated the predictors of LV functional recovery in patients with DCM who had no DE in CMR. A total of 136 patients with DCM underwent CMR. Among them, 44 (29 male, age 55 ± 14 years) showed no DE and these patients composed the study population. The study patients were divided into 2 groups according to the occurrence of functional recovery defined as an increase in LV ejection fraction to a level of ≥50% and net increase in ejection fraction of 20% or more: group 1 (n = 14) with functional recovery and group 2 (n = 30) without functional recovery. In patients who showed functional recovery, left atrial volume index (LAVI [26 ± 8 mL/m(2) vs 45 ± 18 mL/m(2)]) and LV end-diastolic dimension (62 ± 6 mm vs 67 ± 7 mm) were significantly smaller when compared with those without functional recovery (P functional recovery (hazard ratio 0.932, 95% confidence interval 0.877-0.991, P = .024). LAVI functional recovery with high specificity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Alterations in left ventricular structure and diastolic function in professional football players: assessment by tissue Doppler imaging and left ventricular flow propagation velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumuklu, M Murat; Ildizli, Muge; Ceyhan, Koksal; Cinar, Cahide Soydas

    2007-02-01

    Long-term regular exercise is associated with physiologic and morphologic cardiac alterations. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and ventricular early flow propagation velocity (Vp) are new tolls in the evaluation of myocardial function. We sought to compare TDI and Vp findings in professional football players and age-adjusted sedentary controls to assess the effect of regular athletic training on myocardial function. Twenty-four professional football players and age-, sex-, and weight-adjusted 20 control subjects underwent standard Doppler echocardiography pulsed TDI, performed parasternal four-chamber views by placing sample volume septal and lateral side of mitral annulus and lateral tricuspid annulus. Vp values were obtained by measuring the slope delineated by first aliasing velocity from the mitral tips toward the apex by using apical four-chamber color M-mode Doppler images. Age, body surface area, blood pressure, and heart rate were comparable between two groups. Football players had significantly increased LV mass, mass index (due to both higher wall thickness and end-diastolic diameter), end-systolic and end-diastolic volume, left atrial diameter, and decreased transmitral diastolic late velocity. In athletes TDI analysis showed significantly increased mitral annulus septal DTI peak early diastolic (e) velocity (0.22 +/- 0.04 vs 0.19 +/- 0.04, P < 0.05), lateral DTI peak e velocity (0.19 +/- 0.03 vs 0.16 +/- 0.02, P < 0.05) and lateral DTI e/a peak velocity ratio (1.96 +/- 0.41 and 1.66 +/- 0.23, P < 0.05). The ratio of transmitral peak early diastolic velocity (E) to e in both lateral (4.72 +/- 1.20 vs 5.95 +/- 1.38, P = 0.007) and septal (3.90 +/- 0.80 vs 5.25 +/- 1.50, P = 0.002) side of mitral annulus were significantly lower in athletes. In Vp evaluation, we found higher Vp values (60.52 +/- 6.95 in athletes and 56.56 +/- 4.24 in controls, P = 0.03) in football players. Professional football playing is associated with morphologic alteration in left

  9. Automated Extracellular Volume Fraction Mapping Provides Insights Into the Pathophysiology of Left Ventricular Remodeling Post-Reperfused ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Rosmini, Stefania; Abdel-Gadir, Amna; White, Steven K; Bhuva, Anish N; Treibel, Thomas A; Fontana, Marianna; Gonzalez-Lopez, Esther; Reant, Patricia; Ramlall, Manish; Hamarneh, Ashraf; Sirker, Alex; Herrey, Anna S; Manisty, Charlotte; Yellon, Derek M; Kellman, Peter; Moon, James C; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2016-07-11

    Whether the remote myocardium of reperfused ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients plays a part in adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling remains unclear. We aimed to use automated extracellular volume fraction (ECV) mapping to investigate whether changes in the ECV of the remote (ECVR emote) and infarcted myocardium (ECVI nfarct) impacted LV remodeling. Forty-eight of 50 prospectively recruited reperfused STEMI patients completed a cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 4±2 days and 40 had a follow-up scan at 5±2 months. Twenty healthy volunteers served as controls. Mean segmental values for native T1, T2, and ECV were obtained. Adverse LV remodeling was defined as ≥20% increase in LV end-diastolic volume. ECVR emote was higher on the acute scan when compared to control (27.9±2.1% vs 26.4±2.1%; P=0.01). Eight patients developed adverse LV remodeling and had higher ECVR emote acutely (29.5±1.4% vs 27.4±2.0%; P=0.01) and remained higher at follow-up (28.6±1.5% vs 26.6±2.1%; P=0.02) compared to those without. Patients with a higher ECVR emote and a lower myocardial salvage index (MSI) acutely were significantly associated with adverse LV remodeling, independent of T1Remote, T1Core and microvascular obstruction, whereas a higher ECVI nfarct was significantly associated with worse wall motion recovery. ECVR emote was increased acutely in reperfused STEMI patients. Those with adverse LV remodeling had higher ECVR emote acutely, and this remained higher at follow-up than those without adverse LV remodeling. A higher ECVR emote and a lower MSI acutely were significantly associated with adverse LV remodeling whereas segments with higher ECVI nfarct were less likely to recover wall motion. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  10. Cardiac resynchronization therapy evaluated by myocardial scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI: changes in left ventricular uptake, dyssynchrony, and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Simone C.S.; Nishioka, Silvana A.D.; Giorgi, Maria C.P.; Abe, Rubens; Filho, Martino Martinelli; Hotta, Viviane T.; Vieira, Marcelo L.; Meneghetti, Jose C. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Heart Institute (InCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chen, Ji; Garcia, Ernest V. [Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-06-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI gated myocardial scintigraphy (GMS) evaluates myocyte integrity and perfusion, left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony and function. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) may improve the clinical symptoms of heart failure (HF), but its benefits for LV function are less pronounced. We assessed whether changes in myocardial {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI uptake after CRT are related to improvement in clinical symptoms, LV synchrony and performance, and whether GMS adds information for patient selection for CRT. A group of 30 patients with severe HF were prospectively studied before and 3 months after CRT. Variables analysed were HF functional class, QRS duration, LV ejection fraction (LVEF) by echocardiography, myocardial {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI uptake, LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV), phase analysis LV dyssynchrony indices, and regional motion by GMS. After CRT, patients were divided into two groups according to improvement in LVEF: group 1 (12 patients) with increase in LVEF of 5 or more points, and group 2 (18 patients) without a significant increase. After CRT, both groups showed a significant improvement in HF functional class, reduced QRS width and increased septal wall {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI uptake. Only group 1 showed favourable changes in EDV, ESV, LV dyssynchrony indices, and regional motion. Before CRT, EDV, and ESV were lower in group 1 than in group 2. Anterior and inferior wall {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI uptakes were higher in group 1 than in group 2 (p<0.05). EDV was the only independent predictor of an increase in LVEF (p=0.01). The optimal EDV cut-off point was 315 ml (sensitivity 89%, specificity 94%). The evaluation of EDV by GMS added information on patient selection for CRT. After CRT, LVEF increase occurred in hearts less dilated and with more normal {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI uptake. (orig.)

  11. Compressed sensing cine imaging with high spatial or high temporal resolution for analysis of left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Juliane; Nensa, Felix; Schemuth, Haemi P; Maderwald, Stefan; Gratz, Marcel; Quick, Harald H; Schlosser, Thomas; Nassenstein, Kai

    2016-08-01

    To assess two compressed sensing cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences with high spatial or high temporal resolution in comparison to a reference steady-state free precession cine (SSFP) sequence for reliable quantification of left ventricular (LV) volumes. LV short axis stacks of two compressed sensing breath-hold cine sequences with high spatial resolution (SPARSE-SENSE HS: temporal resolution: 40 msec, in-plane resolution: 1.0 × 1.0 mm(2) ) and high temporal resolution (SPARSE-SENSE HT: temporal resolution: 11 msec, in-plane resolution: 1.7 × 1.7 mm(2) ) and of a reference cine SSFP sequence (standard SSFP: temporal resolution: 40 msec, in-plane resolution: 1.7 × 1.7 mm(2) ) were acquired in 16 healthy volunteers on a 1.5T MR system. LV parameters were analyzed semiautomatically twice by one reader and once by a second reader. The volumetric agreement between sequences was analyzed using paired t-test, Bland-Altman plots, and Passing-Bablock regression. Small differences were observed between standard SSFP and SPARSE-SENSE HS for stroke volume (SV; -7 ± 11 ml; P = 0.024), ejection fraction (EF; -2 ± 3%; P = 0.019), and myocardial mass (9 ± 9 g; P = 0.001), but not for end-diastolic volume (EDV; P = 0.079) and end-systolic volume (ESV; P = 0.266). No significant differences were observed between standard SSFP and SPARSE-SENSE HT regarding EDV (P = 0.956), SV (P = 0.088), and EF (P = 0.103), but for ESV (3 ± 5 ml; P = 0.039) and myocardial mass (8 ± 10 ml; P = 0.007). Bland-Altman analysis showed good agreement between the sequences (maximum bias ≤ -8%). Two compressed sensing cine sequences, one with high spatial resolution and one with high temporal resolution, showed good agreement with standard SSFP for LV volume assessment. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:366-374. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparative value of Left ventricular function: Ecg-gated blood pool versus Ecg-gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography; Valeur comparative de la tomoscintigraphie cavitaire versus myocardique par emission monophotonique synchronisee a l'ECG dans l'evaluation de la fonction ventriculaire gauche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daou, D.; Coaguila, C.; Benada, A.; Idy Peretti, I. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lariboisiere-Saint-Louis, Dept. de Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Vilain, D. [Hopital Foch, Dept. de Medecine Nucleaire, 92 - Suresnes (France); Fourme, T.; Slama, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Antoine Beclere - AP-HP, Dept. de Cardiologie, 92 - Clamart (France); Lebtahi, R.; Le Guludec, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bichat - AP-HP, Dept. de Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France)

    2004-01-01

    Both electrocardiographically (ECG)-gated blood pool SPECT (GBPS) and ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (GSPECT) are validated for the measurement of global left ventricular (LV) function. We aimed to compare the value of GSPECT and GBPS for the measurement of global LV function. The population included 65 patients having both rest {sup 201}Tl GSPECT followed by planar (planar{sub RNA}) and GBPS equilibrium radionuclide angiography. Thirty-five patients had also a LV conventional contrast angiography (X-rays). LV ejection fraction (EF) and LV volume (end-diastolic-EDV and end-systolic-ESV volumes) were calculated with GBPS and GSPECT and compared to gold standards methods (planar{sub RNA} LVEF and X-rays LV volume). For both LVEF and LV volume, the interobserver variability was lower with GBPS than GSPECT. Planar{sub RNA} LVEF was slightly better correlated to GBPS than GSPECT. X-rays LV volume was slightly better correlated to GBPS than GSPECT. On stepwise regression analysis, the accuracy of GSPECT for the measurement of LV function was correlated to numerous different factors including planar{sub RNA} LVEF, signal to noise ratio, X-rays LV volume, summed rest score, and acquisition scanning distance. The accuracy of GBPS was only correlated to the signal level, signal to noise ratio, and acquisition scanning distance. Both GSPECT and GBPS provide reliable estimation of global LV function. The better reliability encountered with GBPS and in particular its lesser sensitivity to different variable factors as encountered with GSPECT favors its use when precise measurement of global LV function is clinically indicated. (author)

  13. Interrelations of Epicardial Fat Volume, Left Ventricular T1-Relaxation Times and Myocardial Strain in Hypertensive Patients: A Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsi, Rami; Kuetting, Daniel; Sprinkart, Alois; Steinfeld, Nina; Meier-Schroers, Michael; Luetkens, Julian; Nadal, Jennifer; Dabir, Darius; Fischer, Stefan; Gieseke, Juergen; Schild, Hans; Thomas, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    This cardiac magnetic resonance study was performed to assess myocardial fibrosis by evaluating T1-relaxation time (T1), to measure left ventricular (LV) strain, and to determine epicardial fat volume (EFV) in hypertensive patients with no history of cardiovascular (CV) events and to relate the results to the presence of coronary atherosclerotic artery disease (CAD) in these patients. A total of 123 subjects were examined at 1.5 T. Of them, 98 were hypertensive patients (58 men; mean age, 62.9±10.7 y; body mass index, 29.0±5.6 kg/m) and 25 were controls without CV risk factors or disease (13 men; 60.1±10.7 y; 28.1±5.4 kg/m). All patients had a well-treated blood pressure. In the hypertensive group, 56 patients had no CAD, whereas 42 patients had CAD. T1 was assessed by a modified Look-Locker inversion recovery sequence. Longitudinal and circumferential peak systolic strain (LS; CS) was determined with dedicated cardiac magnetic resonance software (feature tracking). EFV (normalized to the body surface area) was assessed by a 3D Dixon sequence. T1 (ms) and EFV (mL/m) were higher and CS and LS (%) were lower in hypertensive patients compared with those in nonhypertensive controls (PEFV=58.2±21.1; hypertensive patients overall: T1=991.3±45.5, LS=-21.0±4.5, CS=-25.0±5.9, EFV=71.1±25.3; hypertensive patients without CAD: T1=991.6±48.4, LS=-21.0±4.7, CS=-24.6±6.3, EFV=71.3±26.6; hypertensive patients with CAD: T1=986.7±39.2, LS=-21.1±4.3, CS=-25.5±5.4, EFV=70.9±23.6). There were no significant differences between hypertensive patients with and those without CAD and between patients grouped according to the number of vessels affected (0-vessel disease, 1-vessel disease, 2-vessel disease, or 3-vessel disease). Hypertension is associated with signs of myocardial fibrosis and an impaired LV contractility despite a normal LV ejection fraction, as well as with an increased EFV. However, CAD, in the absence of previous pathologies with consecutive myocardial

  14. THE EFFECT OF AEROBIC CONTINUOUS TRAINING AND DETRAINING ON LEFT VENTRICULAR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN MALE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Mahdiabadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Regular exercise training induces cardiac physiological hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of aerobic continuous training and a detraining period on left ventricular structure and function in non-athlete healthy men. Material. Ten untrained healthy male students (aged 18-22 years were volunteered and participated in countryside continuous jogging programme (3days/week, at 70% of Maximum Heart Rate for 45 min, 8-weeks and four weeks detraining afterwards. M-mode, 2-dimensional, colour and Doppler transthoracic echocardiography were performed, during resting conditions, before and after the training and after detraining period. Results. Using t-test, we found significant difference in end systolic diameter and the posterior wall thickness, percentage shortening and ejection fraction after eight weeks training compared to before training. It was found no significant difference in end diastolic diameter, interventricular septum thickness, left atrium diameter, aortic root diameter, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Following four weeks detraining after training, compared with eight weeks of training was a significant difference in end diastolic diameter, percentage shortening and ejection fraction and no significant difference in end systolic diameter, posterior wall thickness, interventricular septum thickness, left atrium diameter, aortic root diameter, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Conclusions. In general, eight-week aerobic continuous training and a detraining period can affect left ventricular structure and function.

  15. Hipertrofia ventricular esquerda do atleta: resposta adaptativa fisiológica do coração Left ventricular hypertrophy of athletes: adaptative physiologic response of the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Ghorayeb

    2005-09-01

    magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. RESULTS: In ETT, all of them showed good physical pulmonary capacity, with no evidences of ischemic response to exercise, symptoms or arrhythmias. In Doppler echocardiogram, values of diameter and diastolic thickness of LV posterior wall, interventricular septum, LV mass and left atrium diameter, were significantly higher when compared to non-athlete control group, with similar ages and anthropometric measurements. The mean of LV mass of athletes indexed to body surface (126 g/m2 was significantly greater than the one in control group (70 g/m2 (p<0.001. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed there was not impairment of contractile strength or LV performance, and values of end diastolic volume, end systolic volume and EF within limits of normality. On the other hand, average ventricular parietal mass, 162.93±17.90 g, and LV parietal thickness, 13.67±2.13 mm, at the end of diastole in athlete group, differed significantly from control group: 110±14.2 g (p=0.0001 and 8±0.9 mm, respectively (p=0.0001. The same happened to the thickness at the end of systole, which was 18.87±3.40 mm (control group: 10±1.80 mm, p=0.0001. CONCLUSION: Results allowed for concluding that LVH in marathoners in full sportive activity period, assessed by non-invasive methods, represents an adaptative response to intensive and prolonged physical training, with purely physiological characteristics.

  16. Paradox image: a noninvasive index of regional left-ventricular dyskinesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holman, B.L.; Wynne, J.; Idoine, J.; Zielonka, J.; Neill, J.

    1979-12-01

    The paradox image, a functional image of regional dyskinesis derived from the equilibrium (gated) radionuclide ventriculogram, was constructed by subtracting the background-corrected end-diastolic frame from the background-corrected end-systolic frame. In 11 patients showing dyskinesis by contrast ventriculography, the percentage of left-ventricular picture elements containing paradox ranged from 3.6 to 55.6% (21.44% +- 4.45 s.e.m.). In 11 patients with normokinesis and in eight patients with hypookinesis by contrast ventriculography, the left-ventricular picture elements demonstrating paradox were less than 1.1% in all cases. In nine patients with akinesis, the percentage of left-ventricular picture elements containing paradox was 2.05% +- 0.96 s.e.m. and was less than 2% in seven patients. There was also an excellent agreement between the location of dyskinesis on the paradox image and that by contrast ventriculography. The paradox image is a sensitive indicator of left-ventricular dyskinesis and should be useful in the evaluation of patients with suspected left-ventricular asynergy.

  17. Effects of an Isolated Complete Right Bundle Branch Block on Mechanical Ventricular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Xue, Minghua; Li, Zhan; Wang, Haiyan; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Xinling; Meng, Haiyan; Hou, Yinglong

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an isolated complete right bundle branch block on mechanical ventricular function. Two groups of participants were enrolled in this study: a block group, consisting of 98 patients with isolated complete right bundle branch blocks without structural heart disease, and a control group, consisting of 92 healthy adults. The diameter, end-diastolic area, end-systolic area, and right ventricular (RV) fractional area change were obtained to evaluate morphologic and systolic function by 2-dimensional sonographic technology. Systolic and diastolic velocities and time interval parameters were measured to assess mechanical ventricular performance using pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging. Although there was no significant difference in the RV fractional area change between the patients with blocks and controls, the diameter, end-diastolic area, and end-systolic area of the RV were significantly larger in the patients with blocks (P blocks, the peak velocities during systole and early diastole and the ratio of the peak velocities during early and late diastole decreased. The block group had a prolonged pre-ejection period, electromechanical delay time, and isovolumic relaxation time, a decreased ejection time, and an increased pre-ejection period/ejection time ratio, and the myocardial performance index (Tei index) at the basal RV lateral wall was significantly increased. There were no significant differences in any echocardiographic parameters at different sites of the left ventricle. In patients with isolated complete right bundle branch blocks, systolic and diastolic functions are impaired in the RV, and follow-up is needed. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  18. Increasing venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation flow negatively affects left ventricular performance in a porcine model of cardiogenic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadal, Petr; Mlcek, Mikulas; Kruger, Andreas; Hala, Pavel; Lacko, Stanislav; Mates, Martin; Vondrakova, Dagmar; Svoboda, Tomas; Hrachovina, Matej; Janotka, Marek; Psotova, Hana; Strunina, Svitlana; Kittnar, Otomar; Neuzil, Petr

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between extracorporeal blood flow (EBF) and left ventricular (LV) performance during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) therapy. Five swine (body weight 45 kg) underwent VA ECMO implantation under general anesthesia and artificial ventilation. Subsequently, acute cardiogenic shock with signs of tissue hypoxia was induced. Hemodynamic and cardiac performance parameters were then measured at different levels of EBF (ranging from 1 to 5 L/min) using arterial and venous catheters, a pulmonary artery catheter and a pressure-volume loop catheter introduced into the left ventricle. Myocardial hypoxia resulted in a decline in mean (±SEM) cardiac output to 2.8 ± 0.3 L/min and systolic blood pressure (SBP) to 60 ± 7 mmHg. With an increase in EBF from 1 to 5 L/min, SBP increased to 97 ± 8 mmHg (P < 0.001); however, increasing EBF from 1 to 5 L/min significantly negatively influences several cardiac performance parameters: cardiac output decreased form 2.8 ± 0.3 L/min to 1.86 ± 0.53 L/min (P < 0.001), LV end-systolic volume increased from 64 ± 11 mL to 83 ± 14 mL (P < 0.001), LV stroke volume decreased from 48 ± 9 mL to 40 ± 8 mL (P = 0.045), LV ejection fraction decreased from 43 ± 3 % to 32 ± 3 % (P < 0.001) and stroke work increased from 2096 ± 342 mmHg mL to 3031 ± 404 mmHg mL (P < 0.001). LV end-diastolic pressure and volume were not significantly affected. The results of the present study indicate that higher levels of VA ECMO blood flow in cardiogenic shock may negatively affect LV function. Therefore, it appears that to mitigate negative effects on LV function, optimal VA ECMO blood flow should be set as low as possible to allow adequate tissue perfusion.

  19. Right Ventricular Volumes and Systolic Function by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance and the Impact of Sex, Age, and Obesity in a Longitudinally Followed Cohort Free of Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Disease: The Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppa, Murilo; Arora, Garima; Gona, Philimon; Ashrafi, Arman; Salton, Carol J; Yeon, Susan B; Blease, Susan J; Levy, Daniel; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Manning, Warren J; Chuang, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance is uniquely well suited for noninvasive imaging of the right ventricle. We sought to define normal cardiac magnetic resonance reference values and to identify the main determinants of right ventricular (RV) volumes and systolic function using a modern imaging sequence in a community-dwelling, longitudinally followed cohort free of clinical cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. The Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort has been followed since 1971. We scanned 1794 Offspring cohort members using steady-state free precession cardiac magnetic resonance and identified a reference group of 1336 adults (64±9 years, 576 men) free of prevalent cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. RV trabeculations and papillary muscles were considered cavity volume. Men had greater RV volumes and cardiac output before and after indexation to body size (all Pheart rate account for most of the variability in RV volumes and function in this community-dwelling population. We report sex-specific normative values for RV measurements among principally middle-aged and older adults. RV ejection fraction is greater in women. RV volumes increase with body size, are greater in men, and are smaller in older people. Body surface area seems to be appropriate for indexation of cardiac magnetic resonance-derived RV volumes. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Comparison of left ventricular function assessment using phonocardiogram- and electrocardiogram-triggered 2D SSFP CINE MR imaging at 1.5 T and 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Meike; Frauenrath, Tobias; Hezel, Fabian; Krombach, Gabriele A; Kremer, Ute; Koppers, Benedikt; Butenweg, Christoph; Goemmel, Andreas; Utting, Jane F; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2010-06-01

    As high-field cardiac MRI (CMR) becomes more widespread the propensity of ECG to interference from electromagnetic fields (EMF) and to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) effects increases and with it the motivation for a CMR triggering alternative. This study explores the suitability of acoustic cardiac triggering (ACT) for left ventricular (LV) function assessment in healthy subjects (n = 14). Quantitative analysis of 2D CINE steady-state free precession (SSFP) images was conducted to compare ACT's performance with vector ECG (VCG). Endocardial border sharpness (EBS) was examined paralleled by quantitative LV function assessment. Unlike VCG, ACT provided signal traces free of interference from EMF or MHD effects. In the case of correct R-wave recognition, VCG-triggered 2D CINE SSFP was immune to cardiac motion effects-even at 3.0 T. However, VCG-triggered 2D SSFP CINE imaging was prone to cardiac motion and EBS degradation if R-wave misregistration occurred. ACT-triggered acquisitions yielded LV parameters (end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular mass (LVM)) comparable with those derived from VCG-triggered acquisitions (1.5 T: ESV(VCG) = (56 +/- 17) ml, EDV(VCG) = (151 +/- 32) ml, LVM(VCG) = (97 +/- 27) g, SV(VCG) = (94 +/- 19) ml, EF(VCG) = (63 +/- 5)% cf. ESV(ACT) = (56 +/- 18) ml, EDV(ACT) = (147 +/- 36) ml, LVM(ACT) = (102 +/- 29) g, SV(ACT) = (91 +/- 22) ml, EF(ACT) = (62 +/- 6)%; 3.0 T: ESV(VCG) = (55 +/- 21) ml, EDV(VCG) = (151 +/- 32) ml, LVM(VCG) = (101 +/- 27) g, SV(VCG) = (96 +/- 15) ml, EF(VCG) = (65 +/- 7)% cf. ESV(ACT) = (54 +/- 20) ml, EDV(ACT) = (146 +/- 35) ml, LVM(ACT) = (101 +/- 30) g, SV(ACT) = (92 +/- 17) ml, EF(ACT) = (64 +/- 6)%). ACT's intrinsic insensitivity to interference from electromagnetic fields renders it suitable for clinical CMR.

  1. Comparison of left ventricular function assessment using phonocardiogram- and electrocardiogram-triggered 2D SSFP CINE MR imaging at 1.5 T and 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Meike [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Humboldt-University, Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), Charite Campus Buch, Berlin (Germany); Frauenrath, Tobias; Hezel, Fabian [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility, Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Krombach, Gabriele A.; Kremer, Ute; Koppers, Benedikt [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Butenweg, Christoph; Goemmel, Andreas [Chair of Structural Statics and Dynamics, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Utting, Jane F. [MRI, NHS Grampian, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Schulz-Menger, Jeanette [Humboldt-University, Working Group Cardiovascular MR, Franz-Volhard-Klinik, Department of Cardiology, HELIOS-Klinikum Berlin-Buch and Charite Campus Buch, Berlin (Germany); Niendorf, Thoralf [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Humboldt-University, Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), Charite Campus Buch, Berlin (Germany); Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility, Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    As high-field cardiac MRI (CMR) becomes more widespread the propensity of ECG to interference from electromagnetic fields (EMF) and to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) effects increases and with it the motivation for a CMR triggering alternative. This study explores the suitability of acoustic cardiac triggering (ACT) for left ventricular (LV) function assessment in healthy subjects (n = 14). Quantitative analysis of 2D CINE steady-state free precession (SSFP) images was conducted to compare ACT's performance with vector ECG (VCG). Endocardial border sharpness (EBS) was examined paralleled by quantitative LV function assessment. Unlike VCG, ACT provided signal traces free of interference from EMF or MHD effects. In the case of correct R-wave recognition, VCG-triggered 2D CINE SSFP was immune to cardiac motion effects - even at 3.0 T. However, VCG-triggered 2D SSFP CINE imaging was prone to cardiac motion and EBS degradation if R-wave misregistration occurred. ACT-triggered acquisitions yielded LV parameters (end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular mass (LVM)) comparable with those derived from VCG-triggered acquisitions (1.5 T: ESV{sub VCG} = (56 {+-} 17) ml, EDV{sub VCG} = (151 {+-} 32) ml, LVM{sub VCG} = (97 {+-} 27) g, SV{sub VCG} = (94 {+-} 19) ml, EF{sub VCG} = (63 {+-} 5)% cf. ESV{sub ACT} = (56 {+-} 18) ml, EDV{sub ACT} = (147 {+-} 36) ml, LVM{sub ACT} = (102 {+-} 29) g, SV{sub ACT} = (91 {+-} 22) ml, EF{sub ACT} = (62 {+-} 6)%; 3.0 T: ESV{sub VCG} = (55 {+-} 21) ml, EDV{sub VCG} = (151 {+-} 32) ml, LVM{sub VCG} = (101 {+-} 27) g, SV{sub VCG} = (96 {+-} 15) ml, EF{sub VCG} = (65 {+-} 7)% cf. ESV{sub ACT} = (54 {+-} 20) ml, EDV{sub ACT} = (146 {+-} 35) ml, LVM{sub ACT} = (101 {+-} 30) g, SV{sub ACT} = (92 {+-} 17) ml, EF{sub ACT} = (64 {+-} 6)%). ACT's intrinsic insensitivity to interference from electromagnetic fields renders it suitable for clinical CMR. (orig.)

  2. Atrial Fibrillation in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction Association With Exercise Capacity, Left Ventricular Filling Pressures, Natriuretic Peptides, and Left Atrial Volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, Carolyn S. P.; Rienstra, Michiel; Tay, Wan-Ting; Liu, Licette C. Y.; Hummel, Yoran M.; van der Meer, Peter; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Hoendermis, Elke S.

    OBJECTIVES This study sought to study the association of atrial fibrillation (AF) with exercise capacity, left ventricular filling pressure, natriuretic peptides, and left atrial size in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). BACKGROUND The diagnosis of HFpEF in patients with AF

  3. Neurohumoral prediction of left-ventricular morphologic response to beta-blockade with metoprolol in chronic left-ventricular systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønning, Bjørn Aaris; Nilsson, Jens C; Hildebrandt, Per R

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to tailor therapy in heart failure, a solution might be to develop sensitive and reliable markers that can predict response in individual patients or monitor effectiveness of therapy. AIMS: To evaluate neurohumoral factors as markers for left-ventricular (LV) antiremodelling...... from metoprolol treatment in patients with chronic LV systolic heart failure. METHODS: Forty-one subjects randomised to placebo or metoprolol were studied with magnetic resonance imaging and blood samples to measure LV dimensions and ejection fraction, epinephrine, norepinephrine, plasma renin activity......, aldosterone, atrial (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptides, arginine-vasopressin and endothelin-1 at baseline, 5 weeks and 6 months after randomisation. RESULTS: Baseline ANP was identified as sole independent marker for changes in LV end-diastolic (deltaLVEDVI: r=-0.70, P=0.002), and end-systolic (delta...

  4. Research into the effect Of SGLT2 inhibition on left ventricular remodelling in patients with heart failure and diabetes mellitus (REFORM) trial rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagdeep S S; Fathi, Amir; Vickneson, Keeran; Mordi, Ify; Mohan, Mohapradeep; Houston, J Graeme; Pearson, Ewan R; Struthers, Allan D; Lang, Chim C

    2016-07-15

    Heart failure (HF) and diabetes (DM) are a lethal combination. The current armamentarium of anti-diabetic agents has been shown to be less efficacious and sometimes even harmful in diabetic patients with concomitant cardiovascular disease, especially HF. Sodium glucose linked co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of anti-diabetic agent that has shown potentially beneficial cardiovascular effects such as pre-load and after load reduction through osmotic diuresis, blood pressure reduction, reduced arterial stiffness and weight loss. This has been supported by the recently published EMPA-REG trial which showed a striking 38 and 35 % reduction in cardiovascular death and HF hospitalisation respectively. The REFORM trial is a novel, phase IV randomised, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial that has been ongoing since March 2015. It is designed specifically to test the safety and efficacy of the SLGT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, on diabetic patients with known HF. We utilise cardiac-MRI, cardio-pulmonary exercise testing, body composition analysis and other tests to quantify the cardiovascular and systemic effects of dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily against standard of care over a 1 year observation period. The primary outcome is to detect the change in left ventricular (LV) end systolic and LV end diastolic volumes. The secondary outcome measures include LV ejection fraction, LV mass index, exercise tolerance, fluid status, quality of life measures and others. This trial will be able to determine if SGLT2 inhibitor therapy produces potentially beneficial effects in patients with DM and HF, thereby replacing current medications as the drug of choice when treating patients with both DM and HF. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov: NCT02397421. Registered 12th March 2015.

  5. Symbolic representation and visual querying of left ventricular image sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, M; Del Bimbo, A; Evangelist, A; Vicario, E

    1999-01-01

    In the evaluation of regional left ventricular function, relevant cardiac disorders manifest themselves not only in static features, such as shape descriptors and motion excursion in end-diastolic and end-systolic frames, but also in their temporal evolution. In common diagnostic practice, such dynamic patterns are analysed by direct inspection of frame sequences through the use of a moviola. This permits only a subjective and poorly defined evaluation of functional parameters, and definitely prevents a systematic and reproducible analysis of large sets of reports. Retrieval by contents techniques may overcome this limitation by permitting the automatic comparison of the reports in a database against queries expressing descriptive properties related to significant pathological conditions. A system is presented which is aimed at investigating the potential of this approach by supporting retrieval by contents from a database of cineangiographic or echocardiographic images. The system relies on a symbolic description of both geometrical and temporal properties of left ventricular contours. This is derived automatically by an image processing and interpretation module and associated with the report at its storage time. In the retrieval stage, queries are expressed by means of an iconic visual language which describes searched content properties over a computer screen. The system automatically interprets iconic statements and compares them against concrete descriptions in the database. This enables medical users to interact with the system to search for motion and shape abnormalities on a regional basis, in single or homogeneous groups of reports, so as to enable both prospective and retrospective diagnosis.

  6. Observational cohort study of ventricular arrhythmia in adults with Marfan syndrome caused by FBN1 mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aydin

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome is associated with ventricular arrhythmia but risk factors including FBN1 mutation characteristics require elucidation.We performed an observational cohort study of 80 consecutive adults (30 men, 50 women aged 42±15 years with Marfan syndrome caused by FBN1 mutations. We assessed ventricular arrhythmia on baseline ambulatory electrocardiography as >10 premature ventricular complexes per hour (>10 PVC/h, as ventricular couplets (Couplet, or as non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (nsVT, and during 31±18 months of follow-up as ventricular tachycardia (VT events (VTE such as sudden cardiac death (SCD, and sustained ventricular tachycardia (sVT. We identified >10 PVC/h in 28 (35%, Couplet/nsVT in 32 (40%, and VTE in 6 patients (8%, including 3 with SCD (4%. PVC>10/h, Couplet/nsVT, and VTE exhibited increased N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide serum levels(P10/h and Couplet/nsVT also related to increased indexed end-systolic LV diameters (P = .024 and P = .020, to moderate mitral valve regurgitation (P = .018 and P = .003, and to prolonged QTc intervals (P = .001 and P = .006, respectively. Moreover, VTE related to mutations in exons 24-32 (P = .021. Kaplan-Meier analysis corroborated an association of VTE with increased NT-proBNP (P<.001 and with mutations in exons 24-32 (P<.001.Marfan syndrome with causative FBN1 mutations is associated with an increased risk for arrhythmia, and affected persons may require life-long monitoring. Ventricular arrhythmia on electrocardiography, signs of myocardial dysfunction and mutations in exons 24-32 may be risk factors of VTE.

  7. The step response of left ventricular pressure to ejection flow: a system oriented approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, H. B.; Wijkstra, H.

    1992-01-01

    Left ventricular pressure is dependent on both ventricular volume and ventricular ejection flow. These dependencies are usually expressed by ventricular elastance, and resistance, respectively. Resistance is a one-valued effect only, when ejection flow either is constant or increases. Decreasing

  8. Ethanol-Associated Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis and Left Ventricular Dilation Are Unrelated to Changes in Myocardial Telomere Length in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Andrew R; Becker, Jason; Woodiwiss, Angela J; Booysen, Hendrik L; Norton, Gavin R; Brooksbank, Richard L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to determine whether ethanol-associated myocardial apoptosis and cardiac dilation are related to myocardial telomere shortening in rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received either drinking water with (ethanol: n = 19) or without (control: n = 19) 5% (v/v) ethanol ad libitum, for 4 months. Left ventricular (LV) dimensions and function (echocardiography and isolated perfused heart preparations), cardiomyocyte apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling), and leukocyte and myocardial telomere length (real-time polymerase chain reaction) were determined at the end of the study. Ethanol administration resulted in a marked increase in cardiomyocyte apoptosis (ethanol 0.85 ± 0.13% vs control 0.36 ± 0.06%; P = .0021) and LV dilation (LV end-diastolic diameter: ethanol 8.20 ± 0.14 mm vs control 7.56 ± 0.11 mm [P = .0014]; volume intercept at 0 mm Hg (V0) of the LV end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship: ethanol 0.40 ± 0.03 mL vs control 0.31 ± 0.02 mL [P = .020]). However, there were no changes in systolic chamber function as indexed by LV endocardial fractional shortening or the slope of the LV systolic pressure-volume relationship (end systolic elastance). The percentage of myocardial apoptosis was correlated with the degree of LV dilation (% apoptosis vs LV EDD: r = 0.39; n = 38; P = .021; vs V0: r = 0.44; n = 19; P = .046). No differences in leukocyte or cardiac telomere length were noted between the ethanol and control groups. Furthermore, cardiac telomere length was not associated with indexes of LV dilation (LVEDD and V0) or cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Chronic ethanol-associated myocardial apoptosis and adverse remodeling occurs independently from changes in cardiac telomere length. Telomere shortening may not be a critical mechanism responsible for cardiomyocyte apoptosis and adverse cardiac remodeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dual-source computed tomography. Effect on regional and global left ventricular function assessment compared to magnetic resonance imaging; Untersuchung der regionalen und globalen linksventrikulaeren Funktion mit der Dual-Source-Computertomografie im Vergleich zur Magnetresonanztomografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueders, F.; Seifarth, H.; Wessling, J.; Heindel, W.; Juergens, Kai Uwe [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany); Fischbach, R. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Neuroradiologie, Asklepios Klinik Altona (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: to determine regional and global left ventricular (LV) functional parameters and to perform segmental wall thickness (SWT) and motion (WM) analysis of dual source CT (DSCT) with optimized temporal resolution versus MRI. Materials and Methods: 30 patients with known or suspected CAD, non-obstructive HCM, DCM, ARVCM, Fallot Tetralogy, cardiac sarcoidosis and cardiac metastasis underwent DSCT and MRI. The DSCT and MR images were evaluated: end-systolic (ESV), end-diastolic LV (EDV) volumes, stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and myocardial mass (MM) as well as LV wall thickening and segmental WM applying the AHA model were obtained and statistically analyzed. Results: The mean LV-EDV (r = 0.96) and ESV (r = 0.98) as well as LV-EF (r = 0.97), SV (r = 0.83), and MM (r = 0.95) correlated well. Bland Altman analysis revealed little systematic underestimation of LV-EF (-1.1 {+-} 7.8%), EDV (-0.3 {+-} 18.2 ml), SV (-1.3 {+-} 16.7 ml) and little overestimation of ESV (1.1 {+-} 7.8 ml) and MM (12.8 {+-} 14.4 g) determined by DSCT. Systolic reconstruction time points correlated well (DSCT 32.2 {+-} 6.7 vs. MRI 35.6 {+-} 4.4% RR-interval). The LV wall thickness obtained by DSCT and MRI showed close correlation in all segments (diameter diff 0.42 {+-} 1 mm). In 413 segments (89%) WM abnormalities were equally rated, whereas DSCT tended to underestimate the degree of wall motion impairment. Conclusion: DSCT with optimized temporal resolution enables regional and global LV function analysis as well as segmental WM analysis in good correlation with MRI. However, the degree of WM impairment is slightly underestimated by DSCT. (orig.)

  10. Effects of a timely therapy with doxycycline on the left ventricular remodeling according to the pre-procedural TIMI flow grade in patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerisano, Giampaolo; Buonamici, Piergiovanni; Valenti, Renato; Moschi, Guia; Taddeucci, Enrico; Giurlani, Letizia; Migliorini, Angela; Vergara, Ruben; Parodi, Guido; Sciagrà, Roberto; Romito, Roberta; Colonna, Paolo; Antoniucci, David

    2014-07-01

    Doxycycline has been demonstrated to reduced left ventricular (LV) remodeling, but its effect in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and a baseline occluded [thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade ≤1] infarct-related artery (IRA) is unknown. According to the baseline TIMI flow grade, 110 patients with a first STEMI were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: 77 patients with TIMI flow ≤1 (40 patients treated with doxycycline and 37 with standard therapy, respectively), and a Group 2: 33 patients with TIMI flow 2-3 (15 patients treated with doxycycline and 18 with standard therapy, respectively). The two randomized groups were well matched in baseline characteristics. A 2D-Echo was performed at baseline and at 6 months, together with a coronary angiography, for the remodeling and IRA patency assessment, respectively. The LV end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVi) decreased in Group 2 [-3 mL/m(2) (IQR: -12 to 4 mL/m(2))], and increased in Group 1 [6 mL/m(2) (IQR: -2 to 14 mL/m(2))], (p = 0.001). In Group 2, LVEDVi reduction was similar regardless of drug therapy, while in Group 1 the LVEDVi was smaller in patients treated with doxycycline as compared to control [3 mL/m(2) (IQR: -3 to 8 mL/m(2)) vs. 10 mL/m(2) (IQR: 1-27 mL/m(2)), p = 0.006]. A similar pattern was observed also for LV end-systolic volume and ejection fraction. In STEMI patients at higher risk, as those with a baseline TIMI flow grade ≤1, doxycycline reduces LV remodeling.

  11. Three-Dimensional Endo-Cardiovascular Volume-Rendered Cine Computed Tomography of Isolated Left Ventricular Apical Hypoplasia: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun Hwa; Kim, Yang Min; Lee, Hyun Jong

    2016-01-01

    We report multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) findings of a 34-year-old female with isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia. The MDCT and CMR scans displayed a spherical left ventricle (LV) with extensive fatty infiltration within the myocardium at the apex, interventricular septum and inferior wall, anteroapical origin of the papillary muscle, right ventricle wrapping around the deficient LV apex, and impaired systolic function. MDCT visualized morphologic and also functional findings of this unique cardiomyopathy.

  12. Three dimensional endo-cardiovascular volume-rendered cine computed tomography of isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia; A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sun Hwa; Kim, Yang Min; Lee, Hyun Jong [Sejong General Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    We report multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) findings of a 34-year-old female with isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia. The MDCT and CMR scans displayed a spherical left ventricle (LV) with extensive fatty infiltration within the myocardium at the apex, interventricular septum and inferior wall, anteroapical origin of the papillary muscle, right ventricle wrapping around the deficient LV apex, and impaired systolic function. MDCT visualized morphologic and also functional findings of this unique cardiomyopathy.

  13. Longitudinal assessment of right ventricular structure and function by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthur, Ashita; Brezden-Masley, Christine; Connelly, Kim A; Dhir, Vinita; Chan, Kelvin K W; Haq, Rashida; Kirpalani, Anish; Barfett, Joseph J; Jimenez-Juan, Laura; Karur, Gauri R; Deva, Djeven P; Yan, Andrew T

    2017-04-10

    There are limited data on the effects of trastuzumab on the right ventricle (RV). Therefore, we sought to evaluate the temporal changes in right ventricular (RV) structure and function as measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), and their relationship with left ventricular (LV) structure and function in breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab. Prospective, longitudinal, observational study involving 41 women with HER2+ breast cancer who underwent serial CMR at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months after initiation of trastuzumab. A single blinded observer measured RV parameters on de-identified CMRs in a random order. Linear mixed models were used to investigate temporal changes in RV parameters. Of the 41 women (age 52 ± 11 years), only one patient experienced trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity. Compared to baseline, there were small but significant increases in the RV end-diastolic volume at 6 months (p = 0.002) and RV end-systolic volume at 6 and 12 months (p < 0.001 for both), but not at 18 months (p = 0.82 and 0.13 respectively). RV ejection fraction (RVEF), when compared to baseline (58.3%, 95% CI 57.1-59.5%), showed corresponding decreases at 6 months (53.9%, 95% CI 52.5-55.4%, p < 0.001) and 12 months (55%, 95% CI 53.8-56.2%, p < 0.001) that recovered at 18 months (56.6%, 95% CI 55.1-58.0%, p = 0.08). Although the temporal pattern of changes in LVEF and RVEF were similar, there was no significant correlation between RVEF and LVEF at baseline (r = 0.29, p = 0.07) or between their changes at 6 months (r = 0.24, p = 0.17). In patients receiving trastuzumab without overt cardiotoxicity, there is a subtle but significant deleterious effect on RV structure and function that recover at 18 months, which can be detected by CMR. Furthermore, monitoring of LVEF alone may not be sufficient in detecting early RV injury. These novel findings provide further support for CMR in monitoring early

  14. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Bockeria O.L.; Lе T.G.

    2015-01-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is a hereditary cardiomyopathy characterized by structural and functional disorders in the right ventricle, which results in ventricular arrhythmias. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is one of the important causes of sudden cardiac death in young people and athletes. Structural disorders in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia are associated with fibrosis and fatty infiltration of the right ventricular myocardium. These changes lead t...

  15. Response of functional mitral regurgitation during dobutamine infusion in relation to changes in left ventricular dyssynchrony and mitral valve geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woong Gil; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kim, Soo Han; Park, Sang Don; Baek, Young Soo; Shin, Sung Hee; Woo, Sung Il; Kim, Dae Hyeok; Park, Keum Soo; Kwan, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) and myocardial dyssynchrony commonly occur in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in FMR in relation to those in left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony as well as geometric parameters of the mitral valve (MV) in DCM patients during dobutamine infusion. Twenty-nine DCM patients (M:F=15:14; age: 62±15 yrs) with FMR underwent echocardiography at baseline and during peak dose (30 or 40 ug/min) of dobutamine infusion. Using 2D echocardiography, LV end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume (LVESV), ejection fraction (EF), and effective regurgitant orifice area (ERO) were estimated. Dyssynchrony indices (DIs), defined as the standard deviation of time interval-to-peak myocardial systolic contraction of eight LV segments, were measured. Using the multi-planar reconstructive mode from commercially available 3D image analysis software, MV tenting area (MVTa) was measured. All geometrical measurements were corrected (c) by the height of each patient. During dobutamine infusion, EF (28±8% vs. 39±11%, p=0.001) improved along with significant decrease in cLVESV (80.1±35.2 mm³/m vs. 60.4±31.1 mm³/m, p=0.001); cMVTa (1.28±0.48 cm²/m vs. 0.79±0.33 cm²/m, p=0.001) was significantly reduced; and DI (1.31±0.51 vs. 1.58±0.68, p=0.025) showed significant increase. Despite significant deterioration of LV dyssynchrony during dobutamine infusion, ERO (0.16±0.09 cm² vs. 0.09±0.08 cm², p=0.001) significantly improved. On multivariate analysis, ΔcMVTa and ΔEF were found to be the strongest independent determinants of ΔERO (R²=0.443, p=0.001). Rather than LV dyssynchrony, MV geometry determined by LV geometry and systolic pressure, which represents the MV closing force, may be the primary determinant of MR severity.

  16. Pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy seen on transthoracic echo in patients with hypertensive cardiomyopathy when compared with idiopathic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Sumbul Javed; Radaideh, Ghazi Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    To explore the pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy caused by hypertension and to compare it with idiopathic hypertrophiccardiomyopathy. The retrospective study was conducted at the echocardiography lab of Rashid Hospital, Dubai, from January 2009 to January 2010. Cases of 11 patients with significant left ventricular hypertrophy (septum > 15 mm) due to underlying hypertension were analysed and compared with 11 cases of idiopathic hypertrophic cardiography (septum >15mm) to assess the two groups with similar baseline echocardiographic features. Minitab software was used for statistical analysis. Although the pattern of hypertrophy in hypertensive patients was more concentric (n = 5; 45%), there was also asymmetrical septal hypertrophy in 4 (36%) cases, particularly the elderly with sigmoid shape septum. There was evidence of resting mid-cavity gradient due to reduced left ventricular end-systolic diametre in 4 (36%) cases. Although the equation between hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy is more concentric, but it can be associated with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and significant mid-cavity gradients similar to that seen in idiopathic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  17. Reversing dobutamine-induced tachycardia using ivabradine increases stroke volume with neutral effect on cardiac energetics in left ventricular post-ischaemia dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkehaug, J P; Naesheim, T; Torgersen Engstad, E; Kildal, A B; Myrmel, T; How, O-J

    2016-10-01

    Compensatory tachycardia can potentially be deleterious in acute heart failure. In this study, we tested a therapeutic strategy of combined inotropic support (dobutamine) and selective heart rate (HR) reduction through administration of ivabradine. In an open-chest pig model (n = 12) with left ventricular (LV) post-ischaemia dysfunction, cardiac function was assessed by LV pressure catheter and sonometric crystals. Coronary flow and blood samples from the coronary sinus were used to measure myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2 ). LV energetics was assessed by comparing MVO2 with cardiac work at a wide range of workloads. In the post-ischaemia heart, dobutamine (5 μg kg(-1)  min(-1) ) increased cardiac output (CO) by increasing HR from 102 ± 21 to 131 ± 16 bpm (beats per min; P efficiency. Similar findings on efficiency and LV function were also seen using an ex vivo working mouse heart protocol. A combined infusion of dobutamine and ivabradine had a neutral effect on post-ischaemia LV efficiency and increased left ventricular output without an increase in HR. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. 3T MRI investigation of cardiac left ventricular structure and function in a UK population: The tayside screening for the prevention of cardiac events (TASCFORCE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Stephen J; Lambert, Matthew; Belch, Jill; Cavin, Ian; Crowe, Elena; Littleford, Roberta; MacFarlane, Jennifer A; Matthew, Shona Z; Martin, Patricia; Nicholas, R Stephen; Struthers, Allan; Sullivan, Frank; Waugh, Shelley A; White, Richard D; Weir-McCall, Jonathan R; Houston, J Graeme

    2016-11-01

    To scan a volunteer population using 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI of the left ventricular (LV) structure and function in healthy volunteers has been reported extensively at 1.5T. A population of 1528 volunteers was scanned. A standardized approach was taken to acquire steady-state free precession (SSFP) LV data in the short-axis plane, and images were quantified using commercial software. Six observers undertook the segmentation analysis. Mean values (±standard deviation, SD) were: ejection fraction (EF) = 69 ± 6%, end diastolic volume index (EDVI) = 71 ± 13 ml/m2 , end systolic volume index (ESVI) = 22 ± 7 ml/m2 , stroke volume index (SVI) = 49 ± 8 ml/m2 , and LV mass index (LVMI) = 55 ± 12 g/m2 . The mean EF was slightly larger for females (69%) than for males (68%), but all other variables were smaller for females (EDVI 68v77 ml/m2 , ESVI 21v25 ml/m2 , SVI 46v52 ml/m2 , LVMI 49v64 g/m2 , all P < 0.05). The mean LV volume data mostly decreased with each age decade (EDVI males: -2.9 ± 1.3 ml/m2 , females: -3.1 ± 0.8 ml/m2 ; ESVI males: -1.3 ± 0.7 ml/m2 , females: -1.7 ± 0.5 ml/m2 ; SVI males: -1.7 ± 0.9 ml/m2 , females: -1.4 ± 0.6 ml/m2 ; LVMI males: -1.6 ± 1.1 g/m2 , females: -0.2 ± 0.6 g/m2 ) but the mean EF was virtually stable in males (0.6 ± 0.6%) and rose slightly in females (1.2 ± 0.5%) with age. LV reference ranges are provided in this population-based MR study at 3.0T. The variables are similar to those described at 1.5T, including variations with age and gender. These data may help to support future population-based MR research studies that involve the use of 3.0T MRI scanners. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1186-1196. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Effects of Vildagliptin on Ventricular Function in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Heart Failure: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, John J V; Ponikowski, Piotr; Bolli, Geremia B; Lukashevich, Valentina; Kozlovski, Plamen; Kothny, Wolfgang; Lewsey, James D; Krum, Henry

    2017-10-11

    This study sought to examine the safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have heart failure and it is important to know about the safety of new treatments for diabetes in these individuals. Patients 18 to 85 years of age with type 2 diabetes and heart failure (New York Heart Association functional class I to III and left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] <0.40) were randomized to 52 weeks treatment with vildagliptin 50 mg twice daily (50 mg once daily if treated with a sulfonylurea) or matching placebo. The primary endpoint was between-treatment change from baseline in echocardiographic LVEF using a noninferiority margin of -3.5%. A total of 254 patients were randomly assigned to vildagliptin (n = 128) or placebo (n = 126). Baseline LVEF was 30.6 ± 6.8% in the vildagliptin group and 29.6 ± 7.7% in the placebo group. The adjusted mean change in LVEF was 4.95 ± 1.25% in vildagliptin treated patients and 4.33 ± 1.23% in placebo treated patients, a difference of 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.21 to 3.44; p = 0.667). This difference met the predefined noninferiority margin of -3.5%. Left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes increased more in the vildagliptin group by 17.1 ml (95% CI: 4.6 to 29.5 ml; p = 0.007) and 9.4 ml (95% CI: -0.49 to 19.4 ml; p = 0.062), respectively. Decrease in hemoglobin A1c from baseline to 16 weeks, the main secondary endpoint, was greater in the vildagliptin group: -0.62% (95% CI: -0.93 to -0.30%; p < 0.001; -6.8 mmol/mol; 95% CI: -10.2 to -3.3 mmol/mol). Compared with placebo, vildagliptin had no major effect on LVEF but did lead to an increase in left ventricular volumes, the cause and clinical significance of which is unknown. More evidence is needed regarding the safety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in patients with heart failure and left ventricular

  20. Echocardiographic predictors of early in-hospital heart failure during first ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction: does myocardial performance index and left atrial volume improve diagnosis over conventional parameters of left ventricular function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Cristiano V

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF has been considered a major determinant of early outcome in acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Myocardial performance index (MPI has been associated to early evolution in AMI in a heterogeneous population, including non ST-elevation or previous AMI. Left atrial volume has been related with late evolution after AMI. We evaluated the independent role of clinical and echocardiographic variables including LVEF, MPI and left atrial volume in predicting early in-hospital congestive heart failure (CHF specifically in patients with a first isolated ST-elevation AMI. Methods Echocardiography was performed within 30 hours of chest pain in 95 patients with a first ST-elevation AMI followed during the first week of hospitalization. Several clinical and echocardiographic variables were analyzed. CHF was defined as Killip class ≥ II. Multivariate regression analysis was used to select independent predictor of in-hospital CHF. Results Early in-hospital CHF occurred in 29 (31% of patients. LVEF ≤ 0.45 was the single independent and highly significant predictor of early CHF among other clinical and echocardiographic variables (odds ratio 17.0; [95% CI 4.1 - 70.8]; p Conclusion For patients with first, isolated ST-elevation AMI, LVEF assessed by echocardiography still constitutes a strong and accurate independent predictor of early in-hospital CHF, superior to isolated MPI and left atrial volume in this particular subset of patients.

  1. Association between frequency of atrial and ventricular ectopic beats and biventricular pacing percentage and outcomes in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwald, Martin H; Mittal, Suneet; Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Aktas, Mehmet K; Daubert, James P; McNitt, Scott; Al-Ahmad, Amin; Jons, Christian; Kutyifa, Valentina; Steinberg, Jonathan S; Wang, Paul; Moss, Arthur J; Zareba, Wojciech

    2014-09-09

    A high percentage of biventricular pacing is required for optimal outcome in patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), but the influence of ectopic beats on the success of biventricular pacing has not been well established. This study sought to determine if increased ectopic beats reduce the chance of high biventricular pacing percentage and are associated with subsequent adverse outcomes. From the MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy), 801 patients with an implanted CRT-defibrillator device with data available on biventricular pacing percentage and pre-implantation 24-h Holter recordings were included. Using logistic regression, we estimated the influence of ectopic beats on the percentage of biventricular pacing. Reverse remodeling was measured as reductions in atrial and left ventricular end-systolic volumes (LVESV) at 1 year. Cox models were used to assess the influence of ectopic beats on the outcomes of heart failure (HF) or death, ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTAs), and death. In the pre-implantation Holter recording, ectopic beats accounted for a mean 3.2 ± 5.5% of all beats. The probability of subsequent low biventricular pacing percentage (ectopic beats and 13-fold (odds ratio: 13.42; 95% confidence interval: 7.02 to 25.66; p 1.5% ectopic beats compared with those with ectopic beats. Patients with ≥0.1% ectopic beats had significantly less reverse remodeling (percent reduction in LVESV 31 ± 15%) than patients with ectopic beats (percent reduction in LVESV 39 ± 14%; p ectopic beats (hazard ratio: 3.13 and 1.84, respectively) and for >1.5% ectopic beats (hazard ratio: 2.38 and 2.74, respectively). Relatively low frequencies of ectopic beats (≥0.1%) dramatically increase the probability of low biventricular pacing (<97%), with reduced CRT efficacy by less reverse remodeling and higher risk of HF/death and VTA. This supports pre-implantation Holter monitoring of

  2. Presence of left ventricular contractile reserve predicts midterm response to cardiac resynchronization therapy--results from the LOw dose DObutamine stress-echo test in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (LODO-CRT) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Carmine; Gasparini, Maurizio; Neja, Carlo Peraldo; Iacopino, Saverio; Davinelli, Mario; Zanon, Francesco; Dicandia, Cosimo; Distefano, Giuseppe; Donati, Roberto; Calvi, Valeria; Denaro, Alessandra; Tuccillo, Bernardino

    2010-11-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is effective in selected patients with heart failure (HF). Nevertheless, the nonresponder rate remains high. The low-dose dobutamine stress-echo (DSE) test detects the presence of left ventricular (LV) contractile reserve (LVCR) in HF patients of any etiology and may be useful in predicting response to resynchronization. The purpose of this study was to present the results of the LODO-CRT trial, which evaluated whether LVCR presence at baseline increases the chances of response to CRT. LODO-CRT is a multicenter prospective study that enrolled CRT candidates according to guidelines. LVCR presence was defined as an LV ejection fraction increase >5 units during DSE test. CRT response is assessed at 6-month follow-up as an LV end-systolic volume reduction ≥10%. Two hundred seventy-one patients were enrolled. The DSE test was feasible without complications in 99% of patients. Nine patients died from noncardiac disease, and 31 presented inadequate data. Two hundred thirty-one patients were included in the analysis. Mean patient age was 67 ± 10 years; 95% were in New York Heart Association class III, and 42% had HF of ischemic etiology. Mean QRS and LV ejection fraction were 147 ± 25 ms and 27% ± 6%, respectively. LVCR presence was found in 185 subjects (80%). At follow-up, 170 (74%) patients responded to CRT, 145/185 in the group with LVCR (78%) and 25/46 (54%) in the group without LVCR. Difference in responder proportion to CRT was 24% (P <.001). Reported test sensitivity is 85%. The DSE test in CRT candidates is safe and feasible. LVCR presence at baseline increases the chances of response to CRT. Copyright © 2010 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Geometry-independent inclusion of basal myocardium yields improved cardiac magnetic resonance agreement with echocardiography and necropsy quantified left-ventricular mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simprini, Lauren A; Goyal, Parag; Codella, Noel; Fieno, David S; Afroz, Anika; Mullally, Jamie; Cooper, Mitchell; Wang, Yi; Finn, John Paul; Devereux, Richard B; Weinsaft, Jonathan W

    2013-10-01

    Left-ventricular mass (LVM) is widely used to guide clinical decision-making. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) quantifies LVM by planimetry of contiguous short-axis images, an approach dependent on reader-selection of images to be contoured. Established methods have applied different binary cut-offs using circumferential extent of left-ventricular myocardium to define the basal left ventricle (LV), omitting images containing lesser fractions of left-ventricular myocardium. This study tested impact of basal slice variability on LVM quantification. CMR was performed in patients and laboratory animals. LVM was quantified with full inclusion of left-ventricular myocardium, and by established methods that use different cut-offs to define the left-ventricular basal-most slice: 50% circumferential myocardium at end diastole alone (ED50), 50% circumferential myocardium throughout both end diastole and end systole (EDS50). One hundred and fifty patients and 10 lab animals were studied. Among patients, fully inclusive LVM (172.6±42.3g) was higher vs. ED50 (167.2±41.8g) and EDS50 (150.6±41.1g; both Pmyocardium, yields smallest CMR discrepancy with echocardiography-measured LVM and non-significant differences with necropsy-measured left-ventricular weight.

  4. Use of equilibrium (gated) radionuclide ventriculography to quantitate left ventricular output in patients with and without left-sided valvular regurgitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstam, M.A.; Wynne, J.; Holman, B.L.; Brown, E.J.; Neill, J.M.; Kozlowski, J.

    1981-09-01

    We examined the accuracy with which left ventricular output can be estimated by equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography. After red blood cells were labeled in vivo, we measured left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic count rates and the count rate in 5 ml of the patient's blood. After estimating the average ratio of counting efficiency for the left ventricle to counting efficiency for the blood sample (Elv/Es) in six patients, we calculated left ventricular output in 26 other patients as (left ventricular activity ejected per minute divided by activity per liter of blood) divided by the previously estimated Elv/Es. Radionuclide left ventricular output closely approximated Fick cardiac output (r . 0.94) in patients without mitral or aortic regurgitation and exceeded Fick cardiac output in all patients with valvular regurgitation. Regurgitant fraction, calculated as the difference between the radionuclide and Fick outputs divided by the radionuclide output, correlated with the severity of of regurgitation as assessed angiographically. The equilibrium radionuclide ventriculogram is an excellent means for noninvasive estimation of left ventricular output.

  5. Influence of alterations in heart rate on left ventricular echocardiographic measurements in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Keisuke; Fujii, Yoko; Ogura, Yuto; Sunahara, Hiroshi; Aoki, Takuma

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sudden alterations in heart rate (HR) on left ventricular (LV) wall thickness and dimensions determined by echocardiography in healthy cats. Methods Six experimental cats were used. All cats were anaesthetised and HR was controlled with right atrial pacing. The interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall thickness at end diastole (IVSd and LVFWd, respectively), left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic diameter (LVIDd and LVIDs, respectively) and shortening fraction (FS) of each cat were assessed using echocardiography at pacing rates of 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170 and 180 ppm. Results There were significant relationships between HR and IVSd, LVFWd, LVIDd, LVIDs and FS. As the HR increased, LV wall thickness increased and chamber dimensions got smaller in a linear fashion. The maximum and minimum differences in wall thickness between 120 ppm and 180 ppm were 2.0 mm and 0.7 mm in single measurements, respectively. Conclusions and relevance LV wall thickness and dimensions were significantly influenced by alterations in HR.

  6. Right Ventricular Perfusion: Physiology and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, George J; Pagel, Paul S

    2018-01-01

    Regulation of blood flow to the right ventricle differs significantly from that to the left ventricle. The right ventricle develops a lower systolic pressure than the left ventricle, resulting in reduced extravascular compressive forces and myocardial oxygen demand. Right ventricular perfusion has eight major characteristics that distinguish it from left ventricular perfusion: (1) appreciable perfusion throughout the entire cardiac cycle; (2) reduced myocardial oxygen uptake, blood flow, and oxygen extraction; (3) an oxygen extraction reserve that can be recruited to at least partially offset a reduction in coronary blood flow; (4) less effective pressure-flow autoregulation; (5) the ability to downregulate its metabolic demand during coronary hypoperfusion and thereby maintain contractile function and energy stores; (6) a transmurally uniform reduction in myocardial perfusion in the presence of a hemodynamically significant epicardial coronary stenosis; (7) extensive collateral connections from the left coronary circulation; and (8) possible retrograde perfusion from the right ventricular cavity through the Thebesian veins. These differences promote the maintenance of right ventricular oxygen supply-demand balance and provide relative resistance to ischemia-induced contractile dysfunction and infarction, but they may be compromised during acute or chronic increases in right ventricle afterload resulting from pulmonary arterial hypertension. Contractile function of the thin-walled right ventricle is exquisitely sensitive to afterload. Acute increases in pulmonary arterial pressure reduce right ventricular stroke volume and, if sufficiently large and prolonged, result in right ventricular failure. Right ventricular ischemia plays a prominent role in these effects. The risk of right ventricular ischemia is also heightened during chronic elevations in right ventricular afterload because microvascular growth fails to match myocyte hypertrophy and because microvascular

  7. Serial Echocardiographic Assessment of Left Ventricular Filling Pressure and Remodeling among ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Treated by Primary Percutaneous Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Yacov; Khoury, Shafik; Flint, Nir; Steinvil, Arie; Sadeh, Ben; Arbel, Yaron; Topilsky, Yan; Keren, Gad

    2016-08-01

    Acute myocardial infarction and remodeling of the left ventricle is associated with significant changes in systolic and diastolic echocardiographic derived indices. The investigators have tried to determine whether persistence of increased ratio of transmitral flow velocity (E) to early mitral annulus velocity (e'), signifying increased cardiac filling pressure, is associated with left ventricular (LV) remodeling and increased chamber size among patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, who underwent successful reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Fifty-two patients (76% men; mean age, 61 ± 10 years) with first ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention were retrospectively studied. Echocardiography was performed at baseline (days 1-3) and after 178 ± 62 days. Patients were stratified according to E/septal e' ratio >15 and ≤15 in both examinations. All patients received optimal medical therapy according to guidelines and local practice. Patients with maintained or worsened E/septal e' ratios to >15 demonstrated on the second examination worse LV ejection fractions (mean, 45 ± 12% vs 52 ± 8%; P = .03) and higher indexed LV end-diastolic volumes (mean, 81.3 ± 22.9 vs 69.2 ± 13.4 mL/m(2); P = .01) and end-systolic volumes (mean, 33.0 ± 12.2 vs 23.7 ± 13.4 mL/m(2); P = .02) compared with the first examination, representing LV remodeling. Patients with E/septal e' ratios > 15 on the second examination demonstrated a positive correlation between the change in E/septal e' ratio and the change in indexed LV end-diastolic volume (linear R(2) = 0.344, P = .03). Among patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention, early and persistent elevation of the E/septal e' ratio may be associated with LV remodeling. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Echocardiography

  8. Improved workflow for quantifying left ventricular function via cardiorespiratory-resolved analysis of free-breathing MR real-time cines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin; Wan, Qian; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong; Chung, Yiu-Cho; Chen, Yucheng

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of a proposed cardiorespiratory-resolved analysis in left ventricular (LV) function quantification from real-time cines in a cohort of cardiac patients. Electrocardiograph (ECG)-free free-breathing real-time cine imaging based on the balanced steady-state free precession technique was performed on short-axis slices of 20 cardiac patients at 3T. K-means cluster segmentation was used to delineate the endocardial contours, from which the LV centroid and cavity area were determined. Respiratory and cardiac signals were respectively resolved from the filtered LV centroid displacement and time-varied LV cavity area to identify end-expiratory end-diastolic (ED) and end-systolic (ES) images. The obtained LV cavity areas and derived volumetric function indices, including ED volume (EDV), ES volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), and ejection fraction (EF), were compared with those measured from manual analysis using two-tailed paired Student's t-tests, linear regression analyses, and Bland-Altman plots. Interobserver variability was calculated. The LV cavity area was strongly correlated between the proposed and conventional manual methods (r > 0.87) for three representative slices at the base, middle ventricle, and apex. The average differences between the two methods were 0.66 ± 3.22 mL for EDV, -0.02 ± 2.68 mL for ESV, 0.67 ± 3.73 mL for SV, and 0.17 ± 2.30% for EF. All paired measures exhibited strong correlations (r > 0.96) without significant differences (P = 0.38-0.98). Acceptable interobserver variability (0.19-3.55%) and strong correlations (r > 0.96) were shown for all measures between the two observers. The proposed method is feasible for efficient measurement of LV function from real-time cines. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:905-914. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Improving the reproducibility of MR-derived left ventricular volume and function measurements with a semi-automatic threshold-based segmentation algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Karolien; Freling, Hendrik G.; van Wijk, Kees; Romijn, Elisabeth I.; Greuter, Marcel J. W.; Willems, Tineke P.

    To validate a novel semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for MR-derived volume and function measurements by comparing it with the standard method of manual contour tracing. The new algorithms excludes papillary muscles and trabeculae from the blood pool, while the manual approach includes these

  10. Short-axis epicardial volume change is a measure of cardiac left ventricular short-axis function, which is independent of myocardial wall thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugander, Martin; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan

    2010-02-01

    Fractional shortening (FS) by echocardiography is considered to represent the short-axis contribution to the stroke volume (SV), also called short-axis function. However, FS is mathematically coupled to the amount of myocardium, since it rearranges during atrioventricular plane displacement (AVPD). The SV is the sum of the volumes generated by 1) reduction in outer volume of the heart, and 2) inner AVPD. The long-axis contribution to the SV is generated by AVPD, and thus the short-axis contribution is the remaining outer volume change of the heart, which should be unrelated to myocardial wall thickness. We hypothesized that both endocardial and midwall shortening indexed to SV are dependent on myocardial wall thickness, whereas epicardial volume change (EVC) indexed to SV is not. Twelve healthy volunteers (normals), 12 athletes, and 12 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction EVC was defined as SV minus long-axis function. Endocardial and midwall shortening were measured in a midventricular short-axis slice. Endocardial shortening/SV and midwall shortening/SV both varied in relation to end-diastolic myocardial wall thickness (R(2) = 0.16, P = 0.008 and R(2) = 0.14, P = 0.012, respectively), whereas EVC/SV did not (R(2) = 0.00, P = 0.37). FS is dependent on myocardial wall thickness, whereas EVC is not and therefore represents true short-axis function. This is not surprising considering that FS is mainly caused by rearrangement of myocardium secondary to long-axis function. FS is therefore not synonymous with short-axis function.

  11. MR imaging of the heart in patients after myocardial infarction: effect of increasing intersection gap on measurements of left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, and wall thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, Y; Touzery, C; Guy, F; Lalande, A; Ressencourt, O; Roy, S; Walker, P M; Louis, P; Brunotte, F; Wolf, J E

    1999-11-01

    To determine the extent to which the number of planes imaged at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging could be reduced without modifying the calculated volume and thickness of the left ventricle. Sixty-one patients were examined after a myocardial infarction. The whole left ventricle was imaged by using 5-mm contiguous breath-hold cine MR short-axis sections with no gap (SAng) (two-dimensional fast low-angle shot sequence, 9/4.8 [repetition time msec/echo time msec]). The effect of omitting one section in two (short-axis sections with 5-mm gap [SA5 mm]) or two sections in three (short-axis sections with 10-mm gap [SA10 mm]) was studied. In the comparison of SA5 mm or SA10 mm with respect to the reference SAng, the standard error of the estimate (SEE) for the diastolic volume did not exceed the 6.1% interobserver SEE, and the SEE for the ejection fraction remained lower than the 3% interobserver SEE. The measured wall thickness was not affected. In addition, six simple geometric models were compared with SAng and yielded an SEE of 9.5%-28.1% for the diastolic volume and 3.8%-13.3% for the ejection fraction. In the study of left ventricles with heterogeneous contractility, short-axis imaging is more accurate than geometric modeling and permits wall thickness measurements when an intersection gap of 5 or 10 mm is used.

  12. Comparison of 8-frame and 16-frame thallium-201 gated myocardial perfusion SPECT for determining left ventricular systolic and diastolic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisu, Satoshi; Sumimoto, Yoji; Ikenaga, Hiroki; Watanabe, Noriaki; Ishibashi, Ken; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Yukihiro; Kihara, Yasuki

    2017-07-01

    The myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography synchronized with the electrocardiogram (gated SPECT) has been widely used for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic functions using Quantitative gated SPECT. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-frame and 16-frame thallium-201 (Tl-201) gated SPECT for determining LV systolic and diastolic parameters. The study population included 42 patients with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent gated SPECT by clinical indication. LV systolic and diastolic parameters were assessed on 8-frame and 16-frame gated SPECT. There were good correlations in end-diastolic volume (r = 0.99, p < 0.001), end-systolic volume (ESV) (r = 0.97, p < 0.001) and ejection fraction (EF) (r = 0.95, p < 0.001) between 8-frame and 16-frame gated SPECT. Bland-Altman plot showed a significant negative slope of -0.08 in EDV indicating a larger difference for larger EDV. Eight-frame gated SPECT overestimated ESV by 2.3 ml, and underestimated EF by -4.2% than 16-frame gated SPECT. There were good correlations in peak filling rate (PFR) (r = 0.87, p < 0.001), one third mean filling rate (r = 0.87, p < 0.001) and time to PFR (r = 0.61, p < 0.001) between 8-frame and 16-frame gated SPECT. Eight-frame gated SPECT underestimated PFR by -0.22 than 16-frame gated SPECT. Eight-frame gated SPECT estimated as much MFR/3 and TPFR as 16-frame gated SPECT. According to the data, the study suggested that 8-frame Tl-201 gated SPECT could underestimate systolic and/or diastolic parameter when compared with 16-frame gated SPECT.

  13. Highly-accelerated self-gated free-breathing 3D cardiac cine MRI: validation in assessment of left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Feng, Li; Shen, Hsin-Wei; Zhu, Chengcheng; Wang, Yan; Mukai, Kanae; Brooks, Gabriel C; Ordovas, Karen; Saloner, David

    2017-08-01

    This work presents a highly-accelerated, self-gated, free-breathing 3D cardiac cine MRI method for cardiac function assessment. A golden-ratio profile based variable-density, pseudo-random, Cartesian undersampling scheme was implemented for continuous 3D data acquisition. Respiratory self-gating was achieved by deriving motion signal from the acquired MRI data. A multi-coil compressed sensing technique was employed to reconstruct 4D images (3D+time). 3D cardiac cine imaging with self-gating was compared to bellows gating and the clinical standard breath-held 2D cine imaging for evaluation of self-gating accuracy, image quality, and cardiac function in eight volunteers. Reproducibility of 3D imaging was assessed. Self-gated 3D imaging provided an image quality score of 3.4 ± 0.7 vs 4.0 ± 0 with the 2D method (p = 0.06). It determined left ventricular end-systolic volume as 42.4 ± 11.5 mL, end-diastolic volume as 111.1 ± 24.7 mL, and ejection fraction as 62.0 ± 3.1%, which were comparable to the 2D method, with bias ± 1.96 × SD of -0.8 ± 7.5 mL (p = 0.90), 2.6 ± 3.3 mL (p = 0.84) and 1.4 ± 6.4% (p = 0.45), respectively. The proposed 3D cardiac cine imaging method enables reliable respiratory self-gating performance with good reproducibility, and provides comparable image quality and functional measurements to 2D imaging, suggesting that self-gated, free-breathing 3D cardiac cine MRI framework is promising for improved patient comfort and cardiac MRI scan efficiency.

  14. Clinical value of regression of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy after aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabe, Sayuri; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Higashi, Akifumi; Kinoshita, Hiroki; Sada, Yoshiharu; Hidaka, Takayuki; Kurisu, Satoshi; Shiode, Nobuo; Kihara, Yasuki

    2016-09-01

    Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) gradually regressed after aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Sokolow-Lyon voltage (SV1 + RV5/6) is possibly the most widely used criterion for ECG-LVH. The aim of this study was to determine whether decrease in Sokolow-Lyon voltage reflects left ventricular reverse remodeling detected by echocardiography after AVR. Of 129 consecutive patients who underwent AVR for severe aortic stenosis, 38 patients with preoperative ECG-LVH, defined by SV1 + RV5/6 of ≥3.5 mV, were enrolled in this study. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were performed preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively. The patients were divided into ECG-LVH regression group (n = 19) and non-regression group (n = 19) according to the median value of the absolute regression in SV1 + RV5/6. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess determinants of ECG-LVH regression among echocardiographic indices. ECG-LVH regression group showed significantly greater decrease in left ventricular mass index and left ventricular dimensions than Non-regression group. ECG-LVH regression was independently determined by decrease in the left ventricular mass index [odds ratio (OR) 1.28, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.69, p = 0.048], left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (OR 1.18, 95 % CI 1.03-1.41, p = 0.014), and left ventricular end-systolic dimension (OR 1.24, 95 % CI 1.06-1.52, p = 0.0047). ECG-LVH regression could be a marker of the effect of AVR on both reducing the left ventricular mass index and left ventricular dimensions. The effect of AVR on reverse remodeling can be estimated, at least in part, by regression of ECG-LVH.

  15. Right Ventricular Function, Peripheral Edema, and Acute Kidney Injury in Critical Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Chen

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: Like left ventricular function, right ventricular function is an important determinant of AKI and AKI-associated mortality. Volume overload, independently of ventricular function, is a risk factor for AKI. Whether establishment of euvolemia might mitigate AKI risk will require further study.

  16. Neurohumoral prediction of left-ventricular morphologic response to beta-blockade with metoprolol in chronic left-ventricular systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groenning, Bjoern A; Nilsson, Jens C; Hildebrandt, Per R

    2002-01-01

    , aldosterone, atrial (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptides, arginine-vasopressin and endothelin-1 at baseline, 5 weeks and 6 months after randomisation. RESULTS: Baseline ANP was identified as sole independent marker for changes in LV end-diastolic (deltaLVEDVI: r=-0.70, P=0.002), and end-systolic (delta......LVESVI: r=-0.53, P=0.03) volumes during metoprolol treatment. Change in ANP during the study was an independent marker for deltaLVEDVI: r=0.66, P=0.004, and deltaLVESVI: r=0.69, P=0.002 in the entire metoprolol group, but at the individual patient level, results were less clear. CONCLUSION: The pre......-treatment plasma level of ANP may be a predictor of LV antiremodelling from treatment with metoprolol in patients with chronic heart failure. However, the potential for individual neurohumoral monitoring of the effects on LV dimensions during beta-blockade appears limited....

  17. Neurohumoral prediction of left-ventricular morphologic response to beta-blockade with metoprolol in chronic left-ventricular systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønning, Bjørn Aaris; Nilsson, Jens C; Hildebrandt, Per R

    2002-01-01

    , aldosterone, atrial (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptides, arginine-vasopressin and endothelin-1 at baseline, 5 weeks and 6 months after randomisation. RESULTS: Baseline ANP was identified as sole independent marker for changes in LV end-diastolic (deltaLVEDVI: r=-0.70, P=0.002), and end-systolic (delta......LVESVI: r=-0.53, P=0.03) volumes during metoprolol treatment. Change in ANP during the study was an independent marker for deltaLVEDVI: r=0.66, P=0.004, and deltaLVESVI: r=0.69, P=0.002 in the entire metoprolol group, but at the individual patient level, results were less clear. CONCLUSION: The pre......-treatment plasma level of ANP may be a predictor of LV antiremodelling from treatment with metoprolol in patients with chronic heart failure. However, the potential for individual neurohumoral monitoring of the effects on LV dimensions during beta-blockade appears limited...

  18. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a left. ventricular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA MEDICAL JOURNAL VOLUME 63 1 JANUARY 1983. 27. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a left. ventricular' aneurysm following a high-velocity missile injury. A case report. T. H. DIAMOND, R. SMITH, D. P. MYBURGH, L. STEINGO. Summary. Electrocardiographic features suggestive of a transmural anterior ...

  19. Diastolic Left Ventricular Dysfunction : A Clinical Appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronzwaer, J.G.F.

    2003-01-01

    Diastolic left ventricular (LV) distensibility is determined by the material properties of the LV wall and by LV geometry (i.e., LV shape, LV volume and LV wall thickness). These material properties are influenced both by the physical structure of the LV myocardium and by the dynamic process of

  20. Prognostic value of perfusion defect volume at dual energy CTA in patients with pulmonary embolism: Correlation with CTA obstruction scores, CT parameters of right ventricular dysfunction and adverse clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfaltrer, Paul, E-mail: paul.apfaltrer@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Bachmann, Valentin, E-mail: valentin.bachmann@googl.com [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Meyer, Mathias, E-mail: mr.meyer.mathias@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Henzler, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Henzler@umm.de [Department of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Barraza, John M., E-mail: barraza@musc.edu [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, PO Box 250322, 169 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Gruettner, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.gruettner@umm.de [1st Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Walter, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Walter2@umm.de [1st Department of Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, PO Box 250322, 169 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); and others

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of perfusion defect volume (PDvol) at dual-energy-CT-angiography (DE-CTA) in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) by correlating PDvol with CTA-obstruction-scores (OS), CT parameters of right-ventricular-dysfunction (RVD), and adverse-clinical-outcome. Materials and methods: DE-CTA of 60 patients (mean age: 65 {+-} 14.4 years) with PE were analyzed. Iodine maps were generated, and normalized PDvol - defined as volume of perfusion defects/total lung volume - was quantified. Furthermore, established prognostic parameters (Qanadli and Mastora-OS, and CT parameters of RVD) were obtained. CT parameters of RVD - namely the right ventricle/left ventricle (RV/LV) diameter ratio measured on transverse sections (RV/LVtrans), four-chamber views (RV/LV4ch), and RV/LV volume ratios (RV/LVvol) - were assessed. PDvol was correlated with OS, CT parameters of RVD and adverse clinical outcome (defined as the need for intensive care treatment or death). Results: 10 of 60 patients with PE experienced adverse clinical outcome. Patients with adverse clinical outcome showed significantly higher PDvol (35 {+-} 11% vs. 23 {+-} 10%, p = 0.002), RV/LV ratios (RV/LV4ch 1.46 {+-} 0.32 vs. 1.18 {+-} 0.26, p = 0.005; RV/LVvol 2.25 {+-} 1.33 vs. 1.19 {+-} 0.56, p = 0.002) and higher Mastora global scores (52 vs. 13, p = 0.02) compared to those without adverse clinical outcome. A weak correlation was observed between PDvol and the Mastora global score (r = 0.5; p = 0.0003), as well as between PDvol and RV/LV4Ch (r = 0.432, p = 0.0006). No correlation was found between PDvol and the Qanadli score or the remainder of the RVD-CT parameters. Conclusion: The extent of perfusion defects as assessed by DE-CTA correlates with adverse clinical outcome in patients with PE. Therefore, volumetric quantification of perfusion defects at DE-CTA allows the identification of low-risk patients who do not require intensified monitoring and treatment.

  1. Impact of Aortic Valve Replacement on Left Ventricular Remodeling in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis and Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane Bakkali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aortic valve replacement on left ventricular function and remodeling among patients with severe aortic stenosis and severe left ventricular dysfunction. Methods: In this retrospective bicentric study extended over a 15-year period, 61 consecutive patients underwent isolated AVR for severe AS associated to reduced LV function. The mean age was 58.21 ± 12.50 years and 83.60 % were men. 70.50% of patients were in class III or IV NYHA. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was 32.9 ± 5.6.The mean LVEDD and LVESD were respectively 63.6 ± 9.2 and 50.2 ± 8.8 mm. The mean calculated logistic EuroScore was 12.2 ±4.5. Results: The hospital mortality was 11.5%. Morbidity was marked mainly by low output syndrome in 40.8% of cases. After a median follow-up of 38 months we have recorded 3 deaths. Almost all survivors were in class I and II of NYHA. The mean LV end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters decreased significantly at late postoperative stage. The mean LV ejection fraction increased significantly from 32.9 ± 5.6 to 38.2 ± 9.3 and to 50.3 ± 9.6 in early and late postoperative stages, respectively. Multivariate linear regression analysis found that increased early postoperative LVEF (β= 0.44, 95% CI [0.14; 0.75], p=0.006 and low mean transprosthesis gradient (β=-0.72, 95% CI [-1.42; -0.02], p= 0.04 were the independent predictors of left ventricular systolic function recovery. Conclusion: Patients with aortic valve stenosis and impaired LV systolic function benefited from AVR as regard improvement of LV function parameters and regression of the LV diameters .This improvement depends mainly on early postoperative LVEF and mean transprosthesis gradient.

  2. Longer inter-lead electrical delay is associated with response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with presumed optimal left ventricular lead position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anders; Kronborg, Mads Brix; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde

    2018-01-01

    was defined as ≥15% reduction in LV end-systolic volume at 6 months follow-up. Selecting a practical IED cut-off value of 100 ms, more patients with long IED than patients with short IED responded to CRT (87 vs. 68%; P = 0.004). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, IED ≥100 ms remained associated...... LV lead position. Conclusion: A longer IED was associated with more pronounced LV reverse remodelling response in CRT recipients with a presumed optimal LV lead position concordant or adjacent to the latest mechanically activated non-scarred segment....

  3. Relationship between right and left ventricular function in candidates for implantable cardioverter defibrillator with low left ventricular ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Juan, Laura; Karur, Gauri R; Connelly, Kim A; Deva, Djeven; Yan, Raymond T; Wald, Rachel M; Singh, Sheldon; Leung, General; Oikonomou, Anastasia; Dorian, Paul; Angaran, Paul; Yan, Andrew T

    2017-04-01

    Indications for the primary prevention of sudden death using an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) are based predominantly on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). However, right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) is also a known prognostic factor in a variety of structural heart diseases that predispose to sudden cardiac death. We sought to investigate the relationship between right and left ventricular parameters (function and volume) measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) among a broad spectrum of patients considered for an ICD. In this retrospective, single tertiary-care center study, consecutive patients considered for ICD implantation who were referred for LVEF assessment by CMR were included. Right and left ventricular function and volumes were measured. In total, 102 patients (age 62±14 years; 23% women) had a mean LVEF of 28±11% and RVEF of 44±12%. The left ventricular and right ventricular end diastolic volume index was 140±42 mL/m 2 and 81±27 mL/m 2 , respectively. Eighty-six (84%) patients had a LVEF right ventricular systolic dysfunction. Although there was a significant and moderate correlation between LVEF and RVEF ( r =0.40, p right ventricular systolic dysfunction (Kappa=0.041). Among patients being considered for an ICD, there is a positive but moderate correlation between LVEF and RVEF. A considerable proportion of patients who qualify for an ICD based on low LVEF have preserved RVEF, and vice versa.

  4. Evaluation of single right atrial volume and function with magnetic resonance imaging in children with hypoplastic left heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijarnsorn, Chodchanok [University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Stollery Children' s Hospital, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Mahidol University, Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok (Thailand); Myers, Kimberley; Patton, David J. [Alberta Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Calgary, AB (Canada); Noga, Michelle; Crawley, Cinzia; Tham, Edythe [University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Stollery Children' s Hospital, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Standardized methods to evaluate atrial properties in single ventricles are lacking. To determine the feasibility of quantifying right atrial volumes and function in hypoplastic left heart using MRI. We studied 15 infants with hypoplastic left heart prior to Glenn surgery (mean age 4.2 months [standard deviation 0.3]) who underwent cardiac MRI with evaluation of atrial volumes and emptying fraction using monoplane two-chamber, monoplane four-chamber, and biplane methods, all of which were compared to the atrial short-axial oblique stack method. We compared atrial end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume and emptying fraction among these methods. We analyzed reproducibility of the methods using Bland-Altman plots. Both four-chamber and biplane methods showed high correlations for atrial end-diastolic volume (r = 0.7 and r = 0.8, respectively; P < 0.01) and end-systolic volume (r = 0.8 and r = 0.9, respectively; P < 0.01) with small mean differences (-0.2 ± 2.9 standard deviation [SD] ml and -0.8 ± 1.6 ml, respectively, for atrial end-diastolic volume and -0.8 ± 1.5 ml and -0.9 ± 0.9 ml, respectively, for atrial end-systolic volume). The short-axial oblique method was the most reproducible, followed by the four-chamber method. MRI assessment of atrial volume and function is feasible in hypoplastic left heart and might provide further insight into single-ventricle mechanics. (orig.)

  5. Alterations in left ventricular diastolic function in conscious dogs with pacing-induced heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komamura, K.; Shannon, R. P.; Pasipoularides, A.; Ihara, T.; Lader, A. S.; Patrick, T. A.; Bishop, S. P.; Vatner, S. F.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated in conscious dogs (a) the effects of heart failure induced by chronic rapid ventricular pacing on the sequence of development of left ventricular (LV) diastolic versus systolic dysfunction and (b) whether the changes were load dependent or secondary to alterations in structure. LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction were evident within 24 h after initiation of pacing and occurred in parallel over 3 wk. LV systolic function was reduced at 3 wk, i.e., peak LV dP/dt fell by -1,327 +/- 105 mmHg/s and ejection fraction by -22 +/- 2%. LV diastolic dysfunction also progressed over 3 wk of pacing, i.e., tau increased by +14.0 +/- 2.8 ms and the myocardial stiffness constant by +6.5 +/- 1.4, whereas LV chamber stiffness did not change. These alterations were associated with increases in LV end-systolic (+28.6 +/- 5.7 g/cm2) and LV end-diastolic stresses (+40.4 +/- 5.3 g/cm2). When stresses and heart rate were matched at the same levels in the control and failure states, the increases in tau and myocardial stiffness were no longer observed, whereas LV systolic function remained depressed. There were no increases in connective tissue content in heart failure. Thus, pacing-induced heart failure in conscious dogs is characterized by major alterations in diastolic function which are reversible with normalization of increased loading condition.

  6. The association of growth differentiation factor-15 with left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xue

    Full Text Available Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15 has been identified as an endogenous anti-hypertrophy effect. However, the association of plasma GDF-15 levels with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH in hypertension is poorly understood. We investigate the effect of plasma GDF-15 levels on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH in hypertension. We measured the plasma levels of GDF-15 in 299 untreated hypertensive patients which consisted of 99 with LVH and 200 without LVH using immunoradiometric assay. All subjects were examined by the ultrasonic cardiograph to determine Left ventricular (LV internal diameters, septal thickness, and posterior wall thickness. The associations of GDF-15 with left ventricular mass index (LVMI, LV end-systolic and -diastolic diameters, LV wall thickness, and LV ejection fraction were evaluated. We found that plasma GDF-15 levels in hypertensive patients with LVH [median 1101, 25th-75th percentiles (879-1344 ng/L] were higher than that in hypertensive patients without LVH [median 516, 25th-75th percentiles (344-640 ng/L] (P<0.001. After adjustment for traditional covariates, plasma GDF-15 levels were independently related to LVMI (R(2 = 0.53; β = 0.624, P<0.001, LV interventricular septal thickness (R(2 = 0.23; β = 0.087, P<0.01 and LV posterior wall thickness (R(2 = 0.26; β = 0.103, P<0.05. Our cross-sectional data on a hospital-based sample indicate that plasma GDF-15 levels are associated with LVH in hypertensive patients.

  7. Endoventricular patch plasty for dyskinetic anteroapical left ventricular aneurysm increases systolic circumferential shortening in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Guccione, Julius M; Nicholas, Susan I; Walker, Joseph C; Crawford, Philip C; Shamal, Amin; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Guttman, Michael A; Ozturk, Cengizhan; McVeigh, Elliot R; Saloner, David A; Wallace, Arthur W; Ratcliffe, Mark B

    2007-10-01

    Endoventricular patch plasty (Dor procedure) has gained favor as a surgical treatment for heart failure associated with large anteroapical myocardial infarction. We tested the hypotheses that the Dor procedure increases systolic circumferential shortening and longitudinal shortening in noninfarcted left ventricular regions in sheep. In 6 male Dorsett sheep, the left anterior descending coronary artery and its second diagonal branch were ligated 40% of the distance from the apex to the base. Sixteen weeks after myocardial infarction, a Dor procedure was performed with a Dacron patch that was 50% of the infarct neck dimension. Two weeks before and 2 and 6 weeks after the Dor procedure, animals underwent magnetic resonance imaging with tissue tagging in multiple short-axis and long-axis slices. Fully three-dimensional strain analyses were performed. All 6 end-systolic strain components were compared in regions 1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm, and 4 cm below the valves, as well as in the anterior, posterior, and lateral left ventricular walls and the interventricular septum. Circumferential shortening increased from before the Dor procedure to 6 weeks after repair in nearly every left ventricular region (13/16). The greatest regional change in circumferential shortening was found in the equatorial region or 2 cm below the base and in the posterior wall (from 9.0% to 18.4%; P < .0001). Longitudinal shortening increased 2 weeks after the Dor procedure but then returned near baseline by 6 weeks after the Dor procedure. The Dor procedure significantly increases systolic circumferential shortening in nearly all noninfarcted left ventricular regions in sheep.

  8. Ventricular-Vascular Coupling in Marfan and Non-Marfan Aortopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeper, Farina; Oosterhof, Jantine; van den Dorpel, Mark; van der Linde, Denise; Lu, Yaxin; Robertson, Elizabeth; Hambly, Brett; Jeremy, Richmond

    2016-11-16

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) and familial non-syndromal thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (ns-TAAD) are genetic aortopathies causing aortic dilatation with increased aortic stiffness. Left ventricular (LV) contractility and ventricular-vascular coupling index (VVI) were compared between MFS and ns-TAAD and determinants of VVI were investigated. Patients with MFS (M 57, F 47) and ns-TAAD (M 72, F 39) were studied by echocardiography and compared with controls (M 77, F 71). Aortic geometry, hemodynamics, LV work, LV contractility (end-systolic elastance [Ees]), and VVI were documented. Aortic sinuses were equally dilated in MFS (19.7±2.4) and ns-TAAD (19.8±1.8) compared to controls (16.2±1.4 mm·m(-2), PMFS (9.7±5.1) and ns-TAAD (10.8±4.7) versus controls (5.4±2.0, PMFS (436±74) compared to controls (435±60) but increased in ns-TAAD (492±109 mJ·m(-2) PMFS (1.32±0.19) compared to controls (1.65±0.29 mm Hg·mL(-1), PMFS (0.71±0.11) compared to controls (0.62±0.07, PMFS. A VVI ≥0.8 was associated with increased risk of death and heart failure in MFS. Left ventricular contractility and ventricular-vascular coupling are abnormal in MFS but preserved in ns-TAAD, and are independent of aortic stiffness, consistent with intrinsic impairment of myocardial contractility in MFS. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  9. Automated Assessment of Left Ventricular Function and Mass Using Heart Deformation Analysis: Initial Experience in 160 Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Collins, Jeremy D; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Jolly, Marie-Pierre; Li, Debiao; Markl, Michael; Carr, James C

    2016-03-01

    To assess the performance of automated quantification of left ventricular function and mass based on heart deformation analysis (HDA) in asymptomatic older adults. This study complied with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations. Following the approval of the institutional review board, 160 asymptomatic older participants were recruited for cardiac magnetic resonance imaging including two-dimensional cine images covering the entire left ventricle in short-axis view. Data analysis included the calculation of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular mass (LVM), and cardiac output (CO) using HDA and standard global cardiac function analysis (delineation of end-systolic and end-diastolic left ventricle epi- and endocardial borders). The agreement between methods was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CoV). HDA had a shorter processing time than the standard method (1.5 ± 0.3 min/case vs. 5.8 ± 1.4 min/case, P cine images. Copyright © 2015 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hemodynamic effects of Purkinje potential pacing in the left ventricular endocardium in patients with advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaoka, Mamoru; Mine, Takanao; Kodani, Takeshi; Kishima, Hideyuki; Mitsuno, Masataka; Masuyama, Tohru

    2015-12-01

    Various difficulties can occur in patients who undergo cardiac resynchronization therapy for drug-refractory heart failure with respect to placement of the left ventricular (LV) lead, because of anatomical features, pacing thresholds, twitching, or pacing lead anchoring, possibly requiring other pacing sites. The goal of this study was to determine whether Purkinje potential (PP) pacing could provide better hemodynamics in patients with left bundle branch block and heart failure than biventricular (BiV) pacing. Eleven patients with New York Heart Association functional class II or III heart failure despite optimal medical therapy were selected for this study. All patients underwent left- and right-sided cardiac catheterization for measurement of LV functional parameters in the control state during BiV and PP pacing. Maximum dP/dt increased during BiV and PP pacing when compared with control measurements. This study compared parameters measured during BiV pacing with PP pacing and non-paced beats as the control state in each patient (717±171 mmHg/s vs. 917±191 mmHg/s, pheart rate, electrocardiographic wave complex duration, minimum dP/dt, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, left ventricular end-systolic pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, or cardiac index when comparing BiV pacing and PP pacing to control measurements. The hemodynamic outcome of PP pacing was comparable to that of BiV pacing in patients with advanced heart failure.

  11. Right ventricular involvement in cardiac sarcoidosis demonstrated with cardiac magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, Jan-Peter; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; Ainslie, Gillian; Ector, Joris; Heidbuchel, Hein; Crijns, Harry J G M

    2017-11-01

    Cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis is reported in up to 30% of patients. Left ventricular involvement demonstrated by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance has been well validated. We sought to determine the prevalence and distribution of right ventricular late gadolinium enhancement in patients diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis. We prospectively evaluated 87 patients diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis with contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance for right ventricular involvement. Pulmonary artery pressures were non-invasively evaluated with Doppler echocardiography. Patient characteristics were compared between the groups with and without right ventricular involvement, and right ventricular enhancement was correlated with pulmonary hypertension, ventricular mass, volume, and systolic function. Left ventricular late gadolinium enhancement was demonstrated in 30 patients (34%). Fourteen patients (16%) had right ventricular late gadolinium enhancement, with sole right ventricular enhancement in only two patients. The pattern of right ventricular enhancement consisted of right ventricular outflow tract enhancement in 1 patient, free wall enhancement in 8 patients, ventricular insertion point enhancement in 10 patients, and enhancement of the right side of the interventricular septum in 11 patients. Pulmonary arterial hypertension correlated with the presence of right ventricular enhancement (P Right ventricular enhancement correlated with systolic ventricular dysfunction (P Right ventricular enhancement was present in 16% of patients diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis and in 48% of patients with left ventricular enhancement. The presence of right ventricular enhancement correlated with pulmonary arterial hypertension, right ventricular systolic dysfunction, hypertrophy, and dilation. © 2017 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  12. Compressed sensing real-time cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance: accurate assessment of left ventricular function in a single-breath-hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Tomoyuki; Kido, Teruhito; Nakamura, Masashi; Watanabe, Kouki; Schmidt, Michaela; Forman, Christoph; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2016-08-24

    Cardiovascular cine magnetic resonance (CMR) accelerated by compressed sensing (CS) is used to assess left ventricular (LV) function. However, it is difficult for prospective CS cine CMR to capture the complete end-diastolic phase, which can lead to underestimation of the end-diastolic volume (EDV), stroke volume (SV), and ejection fraction (EF), compared to retrospective standard cine CMR. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic quality and accuracy of single-breath-hold full cardiac cycle CS cine CMR, acquired over two heart beats, to quantify LV volume in comparison to multi-breath-hold standard cine CMR. Eighty-one participants underwent standard segmented breath-hold cine and CS real-time cine CMR examinations to obtain a stack of eight contiguous short-axis images with same high spatial (1.7 × 1.7 mm(2)) and temporal resolution (41 ms). Two radiologists independently performed qualitative analysis of image quality (score, 1 [i.e., "nondiagnostic"] to 5 [i.e., "excellent"]) and quantitative analysis of the LV volume measurements. The total examination time was 113 ± 7 s for standard cine CMR and 24 ± 4 s for CS cine CMR (p cine image quality was slightly lower than standard cine (4.8 ± 0.5 for standard vs. 4.4 ± 0.5 for CS; p cine were above 4 (i.e., good). No significant differences existed between standard and CS cine MR for all quantitative LV measurements. The mean differences with 95 % confidence interval (CI), based on Bland-Altman analysis, were 1.3 mL (95 % CI, -14.6 - 17.2) for LV end-diastolic volume, 0.2 mL (95 % CI, -9.8 to10.3) for LV end-systolic volume, 1.1 mL (95 % CI, -10.5 to 12.7) for LV stroke volume, 1.0 g (95 % CI, -11.2 to 13.3) for LV mass, and 0.4 % (95 % CI, -4.8 - 5.6) for LV ejection fraction. The interobserver and intraobserver variability for CS cine MR ranged from -4.8 - 1.6 % and from -7.3 - 9.3 %, respectively, with slopes of the regressions ranging 0.88-1.0 and 0

  13. Prediction of the estimated 5-year risk of sudden cardiac death and syncope or non-sustained ventricular tachycardia in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using late gadolinium enhancement and extracellular volume CMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanesov, Maxim; Münch, Julia; Weinrich, Julius; Well, Lennart; Säring, Dennis; Stehning, Christian; Tahir, Enver; Bohnen, Sebastian; Radunski, Ulf K; Muellerleile, Kai; Adam, Gerhard; Patten, Monica; Lund, Gunnar

    2017-06-14

    To evaluate the ability of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and mapping cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) including native T1 and global extracellular volume (ECV) to identify hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients at risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD) and to predict syncope or non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT). A 1.5-T CMR was performed in 73 HCM patients and 16 controls. LGE size was quantified using the 3SD, 5SD and full width at half maximum (FWHM) method. T1 and ECV maps were generated by a 3(3)5 modified Look-Locker inversion recovery sequence. Receiver-operating curve analysis evaluated the best parameter to identify patients with increased SCD risk ≥4% and patients with syncope or non-sustained VT. Global ECV was the best predictor of SCD risk with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83. LGE size was significantly inferior to global ECV with an AUC of 0.68, 0.70 and 0.70 (all P ECV significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy to identify HCM patients with syncope or non-sustained VT. Combined use of the SCD risk score and global ECV has the potential to improve HCM patient selection, benefiting most implantable cardioverter defibrillators. • Global ECV identified the best HCM patients with increased SCD risk. • Global ECV performed equally well compared to a SCD risk score. • Combined use of the SCD risk score and global ECV improved test accuracy. • Combined use potentially improves selection of HCM patients for ICD implantation.

  14. Traditional Formula, Modern Application: Chinese Medicine Formula Sini Tang Improves Early Ventricular Remodeling and Cardiac Function after Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sini Tang (SNT is a traditional Chinese herbal formula consisting of four different herbs: the root of Aconitum carmichaelii, the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, and the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. This study aims to evaluate the improvement of early ventricular remodeling and cardiac function in myocardial infarction (MI rats by SNT. A MI model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Following treatment for 4 weeks, ultrasonic echocardiography was performed. Myocardial histopathological changes were observed using haematoxylin and eosin staining. Collagens (type I and type III, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, and Toll-like receptors (TLR-2 and TLR-4 were measured in plasma, serum, and myocardial tissue. SNT treatment decreased the infarct size, the left ventricular cavity area/heart cavity area ratio, and the left ventricle dimension at end systole and increased the left ventricular ejection fraction. SNT reduced the levels of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in myocardial tissue significantly and decreased the collagens content in serum and in myocardial tissue. SNT could partially reduce the level of TGF-β1 in serum and in myocardial tissue. Our data suggest that the Chinese medicine formula SNT has the potential to improve early ventricular remodeling and cardiac function after MI.

  15. Non-invasive diagnosis and follow-up of right ventricular overload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkens, Ivo Reinier

    2008-01-01

    Right ventricular overload covers a spectrum ranging from volume overload to pressure overload, and often is a combination of these, compromising cardiac function. Part I focuses on right ventricular volume overload in adults with Fallot’s tetralogy corrected in early childhood. We determined

  16. Neurohormones as markers of right- and left-sided cardiac dimensions and function in patients with untreated chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Hildebrandt, Per; Appel, Jon

    2005-01-01

    ). Adrenaline correlated significantly with both right ventricular end-diastolic volume index and right ventricular end-systolic volume index. Lung transit time correlated with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and BNP (only ANP in multivariate analysis). CONCLUSIONS: (1) BNP reflects the LVEF as well...... as diastolic and systolic dimensions; (2) adrenaline reflects the right ventricular systolic and diastolic dimensions; and (3) ANP reflects the lung transit time. We conclude that "neuroendocrine profiling" may potentially be of diagnostic and therapeutic use....

  17. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need to restrict certain physical activities, such as weightlifting, which may temporarily raise your blood pressure. The ... Accessed April 6, 2015. Chatterjee S, et al. Meta-analysis of left ventricular hypertrophy and sustained arrhythmias. American ...

  18. Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  19. Right ventricular dysfunction affects survival after surgical left ventricular restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couperus, Lotte E; Delgado, Victoria; Palmen, Meindert; van Vessem, Marieke E; Braun, Jerry; Fiocco, Marta; Tops, Laurens F; Verwey, Harriëtte F; Klautz, Robert J M; Schalij, Martin J; Beeres, Saskia L M A

    2017-04-01

    Several clinical and left ventricular parameters have been associated with prognosis after surgical left ventricular restoration in patients with ischemic heart failure. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of right ventricular function. A total of 139 patients with ischemic heart failure (62 ± 10 years; 79% were male; left ventricular ejection fraction 27% ± 7%) underwent surgical left ventricular restoration. Biventricular function was assessed with echocardiography before surgery. The independent association between all-cause mortality and right ventricular fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain was assessed. The additive effect of multiple impaired right ventricular parameters on mortality also was assessed. Baseline right ventricular fractional area change was 42% ± 9%, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was 18 ± 3 mm, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain was -24% ± 7%. Within 30 days after surgery, 15 patients died. Right ventricular fractional area change (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.98; P right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.26; P Right ventricular function was impaired in 21%, 20%, and 27% of patients on the basis of right ventricular fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and right ventricular longitudinal peak systolic strain, respectively. Any echocardiographic parameter of right ventricular dysfunction was present in 39% of patients. The coexistence of several impaired right ventricular parameters per patient was independently associated with increased 30-day mortality (hazard ratio, 2.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.64-4.87, P right ventricular systolic dysfunction is independently associated with increased mortality in patients with ischemic heart failure undergoing surgical left

  20. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes assessment: comparison with cardiac computed tomography; Comparacao entre a afericao da fracao de ejecao e dos volumes do ventriculo esquerdo, medidos com ecocardiografia tridimensional em tempo real e com tomografia computadorizada ultra-rapida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Marcelo L.C.; Nomura, Cesar H.; Tranchesi Junior, Bernardino; Oliveira, Wercules A. de; Naccarato, Gustavo; Serpa, Bruna S.; Cury, Alexandre; Passos, Rodrigo B.D.; Nobrega, Marcel V. da; Funari, Marcelo B.G.; Pfefermam, Abhaham; Makdisse, Marcia; Fischer, Claudio H.; Morhy, Samira S., E-mail: luiz766@terra.com.br [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-10-15

    Background and objective: Few studies addressed the comparison between real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE) and cardiac computed tomography (CCT) concerning left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes assessment. We sought to compare both techniques regarding left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction function and volumes analysis. Methods: we studied by RT3DE (Philips IE 33, And, MA, USA) and by CCT (Toshiba, 64-slice, Otawara, Japan) 41 consecutive patients (29 males, 58 ± 11 yrs). We analysed by both techniques LVEF, LVEDV, LVESV. RT3DE and CCT data were compared by coefficients of determination (r: Pearson), Bland and Altman test and linear regression, 95% CI. Results: RT3DE data: LVEF ranged from 56.7 to 78.9 % (65.3 + 5.7 ); LVEDV ranged from 49.6 to 178.2 (88 + 27.5) mL; LVESV from 11.4 to 78 ( 33.9 + 13.7) mL. CCT data: LVEF ranged from 53 to 86 % (67.3 + 7.9 ); LVEDV ranged from 51 to 186 (106.4 + 30.7) mL; LVESV from 7 to 72 ( 35.1 + 13.8) mL. Correlations relative to RT3DE and CCT were: LVEF (r: 0. 7877, p<0.0001, 95 % CI 0.6327 to 0.8853 ); LVEDV (r:0.7671, p<0.0001, 95 % CI 0.5974 to 0.8745); LVESV (r: 0.8121, p<0.0001, 95 % CI 0.6659 to 0.8957). Conclusions: it was observed adequate correlation between real-time 3D echocardiography and cardiac computed tomography concerning ejection fraction and volumes assessment. (author)

  1. Assessment of global left ventricular function with dual-source computed tomography in patients with valvular heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, So Hyeon; Jeon, Hae Jeong (Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk Univ. Hospital, Konkuk Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Ko, Sung Min (Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk Univ. Hospital, Konkuk Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Inst. of Medical Science, Konkuk Univ. Hospital, Konkuk Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), Email: 20070437@kuh.ac.kr; Yang, Hyun Suk; Hwang, Hweung Kon (Dept. of Cardiology, Konkuk Univ. Hospital, Konkuk Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Song, Meong Gun (Dept. of Thoracic Surgery, Konkuk Univ. Hospital, Konkuk Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    2012-04-15

    Background: Left ventricular (LV) function is a vital parameter for prognosis, therapy guidance, and follow-up of cardiovascular disease. Dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) provides an accurate analysis of global LV function. Purpose: To assess the performance of DSCT in the determination of global LV functional parameters in comparison with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2D-TTE) in patients with valvular heart disease (VHD). Material and Methods: A total of 111 patients (58 men, mean age 49.9 years) with known VHD and who underwent DSCT, 2D-TTE, and CMR a period of 2 weeks before undergoing valve surgery were included in this study. LV end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), stroke volume (SV), and ejection fraction (EF) were calculated by DSCT using the threshold-based technique, by 2D-TTE using a modified Simpson's method, and by CMR using Simpson's method. Agreement for parameters of LV global function was determined with the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) and Bland-Altman analysis. All the DSCT and CMR data-sets were assessed independently by two readers. Results: Fifty of the total 111 patients had aortic VHD, 29 patients had mitral VHD, and 32 patients had mixed aortic and mitral VHD. An excellent inter-observer agreement was seen for the assessment of global LV function using DSCT (r 0.910-0.983) and CMR (r = 0.854-0.965). An excellent or good correlation (r 0.93, 0.95, 0.87, and 0.71, respectively, P < 0.001) was noted between the DSCT and 2D-TTE values for EDV, ESV, SV, and EF. EDV (33.7 mL, P < 0.001), ESV (12.1 mL, P < 0.001), SV (21.2 mL, P < 0.001), and EF (1.6%, P = 0.019) were significantly overestimated by DSCT when compared with 2D-TTE. An excellent correlation (r = 0.96, 0.97, 0.91, and 0.94, respectively, P < 0.001) between DSCT and CMR was seen in the evaluation of EDV, ESV, SV, and EF. EDV (15.9 mL, P < 0.001), ESV (7.3 mL, P < 0.001), and SV

  2. Fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix in right ventricular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G

    2017-10-01

    Right ventricular failure predicts adverse outcome in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), and in subjects with left ventricular heart failure and is associated with interstitial fibrosis. This review manuscript discusses the cellular effectors and molecular mechanisms implicated in right ventricular fibrosis. The right ventricular interstitium contains vascular cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells, enmeshed in a collagen-based matrix. Right ventricular pressure overload in PH is associated with the expansion of the fibroblast population, myofibroblast activation, and secretion of extracellular matrix proteins. Mechanosensitive transduction of adrenergic signalling and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone cascade trigger the activation of right ventricular fibroblasts. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines may contribute to expansion and activation of macrophages that may serve as a source of fibrogenic growth factors, such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Endothelin-1, TGF-βs, and matricellular proteins co-operate to activate cardiac myofibroblasts, and promote synthesis of matrix proteins. In comparison with the left ventricle, the RV tolerates well volume overload and ischemia; whether the right ventricular interstitial cells and matrix are implicated in these favourable responses remains unknown. Expansion of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix protein deposition are prominent features of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathies and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of arrhythmic events. Prevailing conceptual paradigms on right ventricular remodelling are based on extrapolation of findings in models of left ventricular injury. Considering the unique embryologic, morphological, and physiologic properties of the RV and the clinical significance of right ventricular failure, there is a need further to dissect RV-specific mechanisms of fibrosis and interstitial remodelling. Published on behalf of the European Society of

  3. MRI assessment of right ventricular dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Cesare, Ernesto [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, via Vetoio 1, 67100, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2003-06-01

    Right ventricular dysplasia is a new entity of unknown origin in the classification of cardiomyopathies. Also known as arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) or arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, it is a disease of the heart muscle characterised by fibroadipose atrophy mainly involving the right ventricle and responsible for severe ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death also in young people. Magnetic resonance imaging provides evidence of ventricular dilatation at the outflow tract, thinning and thickening of the wall, diastolic bulging areas (especially located at the level of the right ventricle outflow tract) and fatty substitution of the myocardium mainly at the level of the right ventricle. Many radiologists erroneously consider the previously described fatty substitution as the main sign of ARVC, even though an evaluation of fat substitution alone may be a source of error for two reasons: firstly, because isolated areas of fatty replacement are not synonymous with ARVC since small non-transmural focal fatty areas of fat are also present in the normal patients; and secondly, because the MRI detection of fat may be overestimated due to partial-volume artefacts with normal subepicardial fat. Cardiac MRI can also be employed for the diagnosis of idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia. Considering the evolutive nature of the disease, the non-invasiveness of MRI allows the follow-up of these patients and may be considered an excellent screening modality for the diagnosis of ARVC in family members. Finally, MRI can be employed in electrophysiological studies to locate the arrhythmogenic focus and reduce sampling errors. (orig.)

  4. Left ventricular function in endurance runners during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Urstad, M; Bouvier, F; Nejat, M; Saltin, B; Brodin, L A

    1998-10-01

    Left ventricular function in elite runners and controls was compared by means of nuclear angiocardiography. Fifteen middle- or long-distance runners and a control group of 10 sedentary to moderately physically active subjects were studied at rest and during semi-sitting incremental exercise. Ejection fraction was higher in the runners than the controls both at rest and during exercise. At the transition from rest to exercise left ventricular end-diastolic volume initially increased similarly in runners and controls by an average of 14 and 12%, respectively, with an increase in stroke volume by approximately 25 and 23%. The parallel increase in stroke volume and left ventricular end-diastolic volume could at least partly be because of the Frank-Starling mechanism. With increasing workloads, left ventricular end-diastolic volume and ejection fraction remained fairly constant, resulting in an unchanged stroke volume from the lowest to the highest exercise intensity. This was in the runners accomplished by a 41% increase in peak filling rate and a 38% increase in peak emptying rate with similar changes observed in the controls. This has to be due to increased myocardial contractility paralleling the systolic shortening with increasing heart rate. We conclude that endurance-trained athletes have a better systolic function expressed as higher ejection fraction both at rest and during exercise than untrained subjects reflecting an enhanced myocardial contractility contributing to the maintenance of a large stroke volume during exercise. The regulatory mechanisms however, appear to be similar for athletes and healthy controls.

  5. Comparison of left and right ventricular ejection and filling parameters by fast cine MR imaging in breath-hold technique: clinical study of 42 patients with cardiomyopathy and coronary heart disease; Vergleich links- und rechtsventrikulaerer Auswurf- und Fuellungsparameter des Herzens mittels Cine MRT in Atemanhaltetechnik: klinische Studie an 42 Patienten mit Kardiomyopathie und koronarer Herzerkrankung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rominger, M.B.; Bachmann, G.F.; Geuer, M.; Puzik, M.; Rau, W.S. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Diagnostische Radiologie; Ricken, W.W. [Kerckhoff-Klinik GmbH, Bad Nauheim (Germany). Abt. Kardiologie

    1999-06-01

    Purpose: Quantification of left and right ventricular filling and ejection of localized and diffuse heart diseases with fast cine MR imaging in breath-hold technique. Methods: 42 patients (14 idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathies (DCM), 13 hypertrophic cardiomyopathies (HCM) and 15 coronary artery diseases (CAD)) and 10 healthy volunteers were examined. Time-volume-curves of three left ventricular and one right ventricular slices were evaluated and peak ejection and filling rates (PER, PFR end-diastolic volume (EDV)/s) time to PER and PFR (TPER, TPFR ms) and time of end-systole (TSYS in % RR-intervall) were calculated. Results: There were significant regional and left-/right-sided differences of the filling and ejection of both ventricles within and between the different groups. In DCM the left ventricular PFR was reduced (DCM 3.1 EDV/s; volunteers 4.9 EDV/s) and Z-SYS prolonged (DCM 50.1%; volunteers 35.4%). In CAD there were localized decreased filling rates in comparison to the normal volunteer group (left ventricle: basal: 2.9 and 6.3 EDV/s, apical: 4.4 and 6.3 EDV/s; right ventricle: 3.6 and 5.7 EDV/s). HCM typically showed an isovolumetric lengthening of the endsystole. Conclusions: Cardiac MR imaging in breath-hold technique is suitable for measuring contraction and relaxation disturbances of localized and diffuse heart diseases by means of ejection and filling volume indices. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Quantifizierung der links- und rechtsventrikulaeren Fuellung und des Auswurfs bei umschriebenen und diffusen Herzerkrankungen mittels schneller Cine MR Bildgebung in Atemanhaltetechnik. Methoden: Untersucht wurden 42 Patienten (14 dilatative Kardiomyopathien (DCM), 13 hypertrophe obstruktive Kardiomyopathien (HCM) und 15 koronare Herzerkrankungen (KHK)) und 10 Probanden. Von drei linksventrikulaeren und einer rechtsventrikulaeren Einzelschicht wurden Zeit-Volumen-Kurven erstellt, aus denen die maximale Auswurf- und Fuellrate (MAR) (MFR eddiastolisches Volumen (EDV

  6. Left Ventricular Function in Children and Adolescents With Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chungsomprasong, Paweena; Hamilton, Robert; Luining, Wietske; Fatah, Meena; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if left ventricular (LV) contractility is reduced in children with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). For this retrospective study, children and adolescents undergoing a workup for ARVC were characterized according to the revised Task Force Criteria (rTFC). LV strain, rotation, and torsion were measured by feature-tracking cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Of 142 pediatric patients, 41% had no, 23% possible, 20% borderline, and 16% definite ARVC. LV ejection fraction (EF) did not differ between rTFC categories. Patients in higher rTFC categories had lower right ventricular (RV) EF z-scores (Z-), higher Z-RV end-diastolic volumes (EDVs) and larger Z-LVEDVs (p rights reserved.

  7. The prognostic value of right ventricular long axis strain in non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathies using standard cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenja, Nisha [University of Heidelberg, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, Heidelberg (Germany); Kantonsspital Olten, Department of Cardiology, Solothurner Spitaeler AG, Olten (Switzerland); Riffel, Johannes H.; Halder, Manuel; Djiokou, Charly N.; Fritz, Thomas; Andre, Florian; Siepen, Fabian aus dem; Zelniker, Thomas; Meder, Benjamin; Kayvanpour, Elham; Korosoglou, Grigorios [University of Heidelberg, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, Heidelberg (Germany); Katus, Hugo A. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, Heidelberg (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Buss, Sebastian J. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Pneumology, Heidelberg (Germany); Das Radiologische Zentrum - Radiology Center, Sinsheim-Eberbach-Erbach-Walldorf-Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    To investigate the association of right ventricular long axis strain (RV-LAS), a parameter of longitudinal function, with outcome in patients with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM). In 441 patients with NIDCM, RV-LAS was analysed retrospectively by measuring the length between the epicardial border of the left ventricular apex and the middle of a line connecting the origins of the tricuspidal valve leaflets in end-diastole and end-systole on non-contrast standard cine sequences. The primary endpoint (cardiac death or heart transplantation) occurred in 41 patients, whereas 95 reached the combined endpoint (including cardiac decompensation and sustained ventricular arrhythmias) during a median follow-up of 4.2 years. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed a poor outcome in patients with RV-LAS values below -10% (log-rank, p < 0.0001). In a risk stratification model RV-LAS improved prediction of outcome in addition to RV ejection fraction (RVEF) and presence of late gadolinium enhancement. Assessment of RV-LAS offered incremental information compared to clinical symptoms, biomarkers and RVEF. Even in the subgroup with normal RVEF (>45%, n = 213) reduced RV-LAS was still associated with poor outcome. Assessment of RV-LAS is an independent indicator of outcome in patients with NIDCM and offers incremental information beyond clinical and cardiac MR parameters. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of subendocardial and subepicardial left ventricular functions using tissue Doppler imaging after complete revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sürücü, Hüseyin; Tatli, Ersan; Okudan, Selnur; Aktoz, Meryem

    2009-02-01

    We aim to evaluate subepicardial and subendocardial left ventricular (LV) functions in patient single coronary artery lesion at early stage after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Additionally, a comparison of LV functions between patients and control cases was aimed. Patients with culprit left anterior descending (LAD) lesion (n = 25) and subjects with normal coronary angiography (n = 25) were evaluated. Patients underwent PCI and at least one coronary stent was placed. After PCI, the pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging (pw-TDI) parameters taken from subepicardial and subepicardial layers were compared among the patients. Left atrium (P = 0.050), LV end-diastolic (P = 0.049), and end-systolic (P = 0.006) diameters were larger compared to the control group. LV inflow velocities were not different between the patient and the control group. But, the myocardial performance index was different (P = 0.049). The systolic and diastolic pw-TDI parameters were apparently different between the patient and the control group. While the systolic pw-TDI parameters did not change, the diastolic pw-TDI parameters taken from both subepicardial (circumferential contraction) and subendocardial layers (longitudinal contraction) improved after PCI. After PCI, it was shown that while Ea velocity (P = 0.012) taken from the subendocardial layer increased, IVRa velocity (P subendocardial and subepicardial layers. These dysfunctions can be easily presented with pw-TDI. Although systolic dysfunction persists, diastolic dysfunction improves at early stage after PCI.

  9. Endothelial and non-endothelial coronary blood flow reserve and left ventricular dysfunction in systemic hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Marchi Rocha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the impairment of endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent coronary blood flow reserve after administration of intracoronary acetylcholine and adenosine, and its association with hypertensive cardiac disease. INTRODUCTION: Coronary blood flow reserve reduction has been proposed as a mechanism for the progression of compensated left ventricular hypertrophy to ventricular dysfunction. METHODS: Eighteen hypertensive patients with normal epicardial coronary arteries on angiography were divided into two groups according to left ventricular fractional shortening (FS. Group 1 (FS >0.25: n=8, FS=0.29 ± 0.03; Group 2 (FS <0.25: n=10, FS= 0.17 ± 0.03. RESULTS: Baseline coronary blood flow was similar in both groups (Group 1: 80.15 ± 26.41 mL/min, Group 2: 100.09 ± 21.51 mL/min, p=NS. In response to adenosine, coronary blood flow increased to 265.1 ± 100.2 mL/min in Group 1 and to 300.8 ± 113.6 mL/min (p <0.05 in Group 2. Endothelium-independent coronary blood flow reserve was similar in both groups (Group 1: 3.31 ± 0.68 and Group 2: 2.97 ± 0.80, p=NS. In response to acetylcholine, coronary blood flow increased to 156.08 ± 36.79 mL/min in Group 1 and to 177.8 ± 83.6 mL/min in Group 2 (p <0.05. Endothelium-dependent coronary blood flow reserve was similar in the two groups (Group 1: 2.08 ± 0.74 and group Group 2: 1.76 ± 0.61, p=NS. Peak acetylcholine/peak adenosine coronary blood flow response (Group 1: 0.65 ± 0.27 and Group 2: 0.60 ± 0.17 and minimal coronary vascular resistance (Group 1: 0.48 ± 0.21 mmHg/mL/min and Group 2: 0.34 ± 0.12 mmHg/mL/min were similar in both groups (p= NS. Casual diastolic blood pressure and end-systolic left ventricular stress were independently associated with FS. CONCLUSIONS: In our hypertensive patients, endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent coronary blood flow reserve vasodilator administrations had similar effects in patients with either normal or decreased left

  10. Predictors of the left ventricular dysfunction induced by ventricular arrhythmia

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    А. І. Vytryhovskiy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The most powerful predictor of life-threatening arrhythmia risk is a combination of low heart rate variability with low ejection fraction (EF of the left ventricle. Aim. To identify predictors of left ventricle dysfunction which is induced by ventricular arrhythmia. Materials and methods. To diagnose structural changes of left ventricular functional capacity and reserves in patients with previous myocardial infarction and patients with high and very high cardiovascular risk by SCORE scale and for establishment the relationship between morphological heart changes and pathological phenomenon of heart turbulence echocardiography and study of heart rate turbulence variability were performed. 603 patients were selected for the research. All patients were divided into groups: group 1 – patients with coronary heart disease, but without associated risk factors, such as smoking, obesity, metabolic syndrome; group 2 – patients who smoke tobacco more than 2 years (very high cardiovascular risk by scale SCORE; group 3 – patients with metabolic syndrome without coronary heart disease or arterial hypertension (very high cardiovascular risk by scale SCORE. The control group consisted of 149 persons. Results. The feature of structural changes in patients with myocardial infarction and in patients with a high cardiovascular risk by SCORE with heart rate turbulence compared with cases without НRT is considerably thickening of the left interventricular septum in systole. Based on this, it can be argued that the emergence of ventricular arrhythmia and accordingly phenomenon of heart rate turbulence in patients with existing cardiovascular diseases and risk factors has both morphological and functional character. Significant difference of echocardioscopy parameters in patients with postinfarction cardiosclerosis and risk factors by the SCORE system was established by index of intraventricular septum thickness in systole, and in persons with high risk – in

  11. Determinants of left ventricular mass in obesity; a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

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    Clarke Kieran

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is linked to increased left ventricular mass, an independent predictor of mortality. As a result of this, understanding the determinants of left ventricular mass in the setting of obesity has both therapeutic and prognostic implications. Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance our goal was to elucidate the main predictors of left ventricular mass in severely obese subjects free of additional cardiovascular risk factors. Methods 38 obese (BMI 37.8 ± 6.9 kg/m2 and 16 normal weight controls subjects, (BMI 21.7 ± 1.8 kg/m2, all without cardiovascular risk factors, underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to assess left ventricular mass, left ventricular volumes and visceral fat mass. Left ventricular mass was then compared to serum and anthropometric markers of obesity linked to left ventricular mass, i.e. height, age, blood pressure, total fat mass, visceral fat mass, lean mass, serum leptin and fasting insulin level. Results As expected, obesity was associated with significantly increased left ventricular mass (126 ± 27 vs 90 ± 20 g; p 2 = 0.77. Conclusion The left ventricular hypertrophic response to obesity in the absence of additional cardiovascular risk factors is mainly attributable to increases in lean body mass, LV stroke volume and visceral fat mass. In view of the well documented link between obesity, left ventricular hypertrophy and mortality, these findings have potentially important prognostic and therapeutic implications for primary and secondary prevention.

  12. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of high-dose HMG CoA reductase inhibitor therapy on ventricular remodeling, pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurohormonal parameters in patients with chronic systolic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krum, Henry; Ashton, Emma; Reid, Christopher; Kalff, Victor; Rogers, Jim; Amarena, John; Singh, Bhuwan; Tonkin, Andrew

    2007-02-01

    Statins decrease mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. However, chronic heart failure (CHF) patients were often excluded in such trials. Statins possess pharmacologic properties (independent of cholesterol lowering) that may be beneficial on ventricular remodeling in such patients. We conducted a 6-month randomized placebo (PBO)-controlled study of rosuvastatin (ROS) in patients with systolic (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] ventriculogram. Secondary end points included change in echocardiographic parameters, neurohormonal and inflammatory markers, Packer composite score, death, and heart failure hospitalization. Patients were well matched for baseline values. Compared with PBO (n = 46), ROS patients (n = 40) had a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (PBO +3, ROS -54%, P ventriculogram (PBO +5.3, ROS +3.2%), fractional shortening by echocardiographic (PBO +2.7, ROS +1.8%), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (PBO -1.7, ROS +0.8 mm), left ventricular end-systolic diameter (PBO -1.9, ROS +0.1 mm). Plasma norepinephrine, endothelin-1, brain natriuretic peptide, hsCRP, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, patient global assessment, Packer composite, death/heart failure hospitalization, and adverse events were similar between PBO and ROS. Despite being safe and effective at decreasing plasma cholesterol, high-dose ROS did not beneficially alter parameters of LV remodeling. Reasons for absence of benefit are uncertain, but may include patient population studied, high dose of ROS used or high use of effective background CHF medications.

  13. Utility of galectin-3 in predicting post-infarct remodeling after acute myocardial infarction based on extracellular volume fraction mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Rosario J; Morales-Ruiz, Manuel; Ortiz-Perez, Jose T; Bosch, Xavier; Andreu, David; Borras, Roger; Acosta, Juan; Penela, Diego; Prat-González, Susanna; de Caralt, Teresa M; Martínez, Mikel; Morales-Romero, Blai; Lasalvia, Luis; Donnelly, James; Jiménez, Wladimiro; Mira, Aurea; Mont, Lluis; Berruezo, Antonio

    2016-11-15

    ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) triggers remote extracellular matrix expansion. Myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV), determined by cardiovascular magnetic resonance, permits quantification of interstitial space expansion. Our aim was to determine the relationship between early serum fibrosis biomarkers and 180-day post-infarct remote myocardium remodeling using ECV. In 26 patients with STEMI, functional imaging, T1-mapping, and late-gadolinium-enhancement were performed on a 3-T CMR scanner at baseline (days 3 to 5) and 180days. Biomarkers were measured at days 1, 3, and 7 after STEMI. The mean initial and follow-up left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were 48.3±18.1% and 52.6±12.3%, respectively. Initial infarct size was 11.6±16.8% of LV mass. ECV in the remote myocardium at 180days correlated with indexed end-systolic volume (r=0.4, p=0.045). A significant correlation was observed between galectin-3 at day 7 and ECV at 6months (r=0.428, p=0.037). A trend towards a direct correlation was found for BNP (r=0.380, p=0.059). Multivariate analysis revealed that BNP and galectin-3 were independent predictors of long-term changes in ECV and explained nearly 30% of the variance in this parameter (r 2 =0.34; p=0.01). A galectin-3 cutoff value of 10.15ng/mL was the most powerful predictor of high ECV values (≥28.5%) at follow-up. Galectin-3 at day 7 was an independent predictor of high ECV values at follow-up (OR=22.51; CI 95%: 2.1-240.72; p=0.01) with 0.76 AUC (CI: 0.574-0.964; p=0.03). Galectin-3 measured acutely after STEMI is an independent predictor of increased ECV at 6-month follow-up that might be useful for long-term risk stratification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In-vivo evaluation of the HIA-VAD: : a new German ventricular assist device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhorst, G.; Hensens, A. G.; Verkerke, G. J.; Blanksma, P. K.; Bom, V. J. J.; Elstrodt, J.; Magielse, C. P. E.; van der Meer, J; Ruel, H.

    Helmholtz Ventricular Assist Devices (VAD) are pneumatically driven polyurethane membrane pumps with various volumes. The pumps are placed paracorporeally and connected with commercially available cannulas between the left atrium and aorta (left ventricular assist device) and/or right atrium and

  15. Non-invasive determination by cardiovascular magnetic resonance of right ventricular-vascular coupling in children and adolescents with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Uyen; Patel, Sonali; Kheyfets, Vitaly; Dunning, Jamie; Fonseca, Brian; Barker, Alex J; Ivy, Dunbar; Shandas, Robin; Hunter, Kendall

    2015-09-16

    Pediatric pulmonary hypertension (PH) remains a disease with high morbidity and mortality in children. Understanding ventricular-vascular coupling, a measure of how well matched the ventricular and vascular function are, may elucidate pathway leading to right heart failure. Ventricular vascular coupling ratio (VVCR), comprised of effective elastance (Ea, index of arterial load) and right ventricular maximal end-systolic elastance (Ees, index of contractility), is conventionally determined by catheterization. Here, we apply a non-invasive approach to determining VVCR in pediatric subjects with PH. This retrospective study included PH subjects who had a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) study within 14 days of cardiac catheterization. PH was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) ≥ 25 mmHg on prior or current catheterization. A non-invasive measure of VVCR was derived from CMR-only (VVCRm) and compared to VVCR estimated by catheterization-derived single beat estimation (VVCRs). Indexed pulmonary vascular resistance (PVRi) and pulmonary vascular reactivity were determined during the catheterization procedure. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between PVRi and VVCRm. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis determined the diagnostic value of VVCRm in predicting vascular reactivity. Seventeen subjects (3 months-23 years; mean 11.3 ± 7.4 years) were identified between January 2009-August 2013 for inclusion with equal gender distributions. Mean mPAP was 35 mmHg ± 15 and PVRi was 8.5 Woods unit x m2 ± 7.8. VVCRm (range 0.43-2.82) increased with increasing severity as defined by PVRi (p right ventricular functional reserve and delay the onset of RV-PA decoupling. Use of VVCRm may have significant prognostic implication.

  16. Left ventricular mural thrombus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, J.V.

    1983-08-01

    The identification of mural thrombus in patients with left ventricular aneurysm and mural thrombus probably warrants consideration of long-term anticoagulation. In patients with acute, large, anterior or anteroapical, transmural myocardial infarctions, serial noninvasive examinations are warranted to define a group of patients at high risk for the development of left ventricular aneurysm and/or mural thrombus. Anticoagulants should be considered in patients in whom mural thrombi develop as a complication of their infarction. Patients with congestive cardiomyopathy should be considered for long-term anticoagulation. These recommendations are all tempered by the realization that the use of anticoagulant therapy is not without its own risks. The decision to anticoagulate must be balanced against each individual patient's suitability for such therapy and the individual likelihood of the development of side effects.

  17. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsara, A J; Zaman, L; Gorgels, A

    2001-01-01

    Right ventricular dysplasia (RVD) is a disease entity of unknown cause that is characterised by partial or total replacement of RV-muscle by adipose or fibrous tissue. It is a well-recognized cause of arrhythmia and premature sudden death, but usually underdiagnosed. Several noninvasive and invasive diagnostic modalities have been used, however, all may not be positive in a given case. Drug therapy with class 1c, beta-blocker, and amiodarone in variable combination produce varying success rates in preventing recurrent ventricular tachycardia. Failure of the above measures calls for insertion of implantable cardioverter defibrillator. The attention of emergency physicians is drown to this disease as they are the first medical personnel to be presented with this disease as an emergency. Hence their recognition of RVD will ensure early and proper management.

  18. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Roopali; Oade, Yvette

    2011-08-24

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a rare inherited disease of the heart muscle that causes ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death in young people and athletes. It results in fibrofatty replacement of the right ventricle, and the subepicardial region of the left ventricle. It is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young people after hypertrophic heart disease. Diagnosis can be difficult and at present there is no cure for ARVC. Prevention of sudden death is the most important management strategy. Paediatricians need to be aware of the possibility of ARVC in adolescents and young adults presenting with palpitations, fatigue, syncope or cardiac arrest. The authors present two cases of apparently healthy teenage boys who died suddenly and unexpectedly. Postmortem examination of the myocardium was strongly suggestive of ARVC in both cases.

  19. Idiopathic Fascicular Ventricular Tachycardia

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    Johnson Francis

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic fascicular ventricular tachycardia is an important cardiac arrhythmia with specific electrocardiographic features and therapeutic options. It is characterized by relatively narrow QRS complex and right bundle branch block pattern. The QRS axis depends on which fascicle is involved in the re-entry. Left axis deviation is noted with left posterior fascicular tachycardia and right axis deviation with left anterior fascicular tachycardia. A left septal fascicular tachycardia with normal axis has also been described. Fascicular tachycardia is usually seen in individuals without structural heart disease. Response to verapamil is an important feature of fascicular tachycardia. Rare instances of termination with intravenous adenosine have also been noted. A presystolic or diastolic potential preceding the QRS, presumed to originate from the Purkinje fibers can be recorded during sinus rhythm and ventricular tachycardia in many patients with fascicular tachycardia. This potential (P potential has been used as a guide to catheter ablation. Prompt recognition of fascicular tachycardia especially in the emergency department is very important. It is one of the eminently ablatable ventricular tachycardias. Primary ablation has been reported to have a higher success, lesser procedure time and fluoroscopy time

  20. Ventricular hypertrophy in cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, C

    1971-01-01

    Semantic difficulties arise when hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy is seen without obstruction and with congestive failure, and also when congestive cardiomyopathy is seen with gross hypertrophy but without heart failure. Retention of a small left ventricular cavity and a normal ejection fraction characterizes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy at all stages of the disorder. Congestive cardiomyopathy is recognized by the presence of a dilated left ventricular cavity and reduced ejection fraction regardless of the amount of hypertrophy and the presence or not of heart failure. Longevity in congestive cardiomyopathy seems to be promoted when hypertrophy is great relative to the amount of pump failure as measured by increase in cavity size. Conversely, death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is most likely when hypertrophy is greatest at a time when outflow tract obstruction has been replaced by inflow restriction caused by diminishing ventricular distensibility. Hypertrophy is thus beneficial and compensatory in congestive cardiomyopathy, whereas it may be the primary disorder and eventual cause of death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Reasons are given for believing that hypertension may have been the original cause of left ventricular dilatation in some case of congestive cardiomyopathy in which loss of stroke output thenceforward is followed by normotension. Development of severe hypertension in these patients after recovery from a prolonged period of left ventricular failure with normotension lends weight to this hypothesis. No fault has been found in the large or small coronary arteries in either hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or congestive cardiomyopathy when they have been examined in life by selective coronary angiography, or by histological methods in biopsy or post-mortem material. Coronary blood supply may be a limiting factor in the compensatory hypertrophy of congestive cardiomyopathy, and the ability to hypertrophy may explain the better prognosis of some

  1. Direct volume estimation without segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, X.; Wang, Z.; Islam, A.; Bhaduri, M.; Chan, I.; Li, S.

    2015-03-01

    Volume estimation plays an important role in clinical diagnosis. For example, cardiac ventricular volumes including left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) are important clinical indicators of cardiac functions. Accurate and automatic estimation of the ventricular volumes is essential to the assessment of cardiac functions and diagnosis of heart diseases. Conventional methods are dependent on an intermediate segmentation step which is obtained either manually or automatically. However, manual segmentation is extremely time-consuming, subjective and highly non-reproducible; automatic segmentation is still challenging, computationally expensive, and completely unsolved for the RV. Towards accurate and efficient direct volume estimation, our group has been researching on learning based methods without segmentation by leveraging state-of-the-art machine learning techniques. Our direct estimation methods remove the accessional step of segmentation and can naturally deal with various volume estimation tasks. Moreover, they are extremely flexible to be used for volume estimation of either joint bi-ventricles (LV and RV) or individual LV/RV. We comparatively study the performance of direct methods on cardiac ventricular volume estimation by comparing with segmentation based methods. Experimental results show that direct estimation methods provide more accurate estimation of cardiac ventricular volumes than segmentation based methods. This indicates that direct estimation methods not only provide a convenient and mature clinical tool for cardiac volume estimation but also enables diagnosis of cardiac diseases to be conducted in a more efficient and reliable way.

  2. Assessment of the left ventricular systolic and diastolic function by the left ventricular density curve derived from intravenous digital subtraction angiography in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horigome, Hitoshi; Satoh, Hideo; Isobe, Takeshi; Takita, Hitoshi (Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine)

    1991-05-01

    To evaluate the left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, fifty-four children with various heart diseases underwent intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA). Global left ventricular density curve was obtained through densitometry of the DSA images. The curve was smoothed by a third-degree Fourier transformation and systolic and diastolic indexes were obtained. In the control group, consisting of Kawasaki disease without coronary lesion and mild pulmonary stenosis, the peak ejection rate (PER) and the peak filling rate in early diastole (PFR-E) correlated positively with the heart rate (HR) in a quadratic curve manner (PER: r= 0.93 p<0.01, PFR-E: r= 0.94 p<0.01). Time from end-diastolic to PER (T-PER) and time from end-systolic to PFR (T-PFR) were correlated negatively with HR (T-PER: r=-0.86 p<0.01, T-PFR: r=-0.91 p<0.01). However, T-PER/RR and T-PFR/RR values were rather constant (20.9+-3.2%, 17.0+-2.6%, respectively). We also found significant correlations of PER and PFR-E with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Patients with corrected tetralogy of Fallot and with cardiomyopaties showed not only abnormal systolic indexes but some depressed diastolic indexes. LV density curve also disclosed isolated diastolic dysfunction in a group of aortic stenosis and in two patients with coronary lesions. A correlation of LVEF derived from the density curve and conventional area-length method was high (r= 0.91 p<0.001). To evaluate the reproducibility, we were able to obtain the digital data twice with over one month interval on 24 patients. The intraobserver correlation was satisfactory. We applied the remasking method, resulting in improving the quality of digital images under spontaneous breathing. Our results indicated that IV-DSA was a less-invasive and clinically reliable method for assessment of LV function in children. (author).

  3. Changes in overall ventricular myocardial architecture in the setting of a porcine animal model of right ventricular dilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Peter; Ilkjær, Christine; Laustsen, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    , surgical suturing of its leaflets in seven piglets, performing sham operations in seven control animals. Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging after 12 weeks of recovery, we demonstrated significantly increased right ventricular volumes in the test group. After sacrifice, diffusion tensor imaging...

  4. Factors influencing left ventricular structure and stress-corrected systolic function in men and women with asymptomatic aortic valve stenosis (a SEAS Substudy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramariuc, D.; Rieck, A.E.; Staal, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    To identify determinants of left ventricular (LV) structure and stress-corrected systolic function in men and women with asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS), Doppler echocardiography was performed at baseline in 1,046 men and 674 women 28 to 86 years of age (mean 67 +/- 10) recruited in the Simvast......To identify determinants of left ventricular (LV) structure and stress-corrected systolic function in men and women with asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS), Doppler echocardiography was performed at baseline in 1,046 men and 674 women 28 to 86 years of age (mean 67 +/- 10) recruited.......05). In logistic regression analyses, LV hypertrophy was independently associated with male gender, severity of AS, hypertension, higher systolic blood pressure, and lower stress-corrected midwall shortening (scMWS) or stress-corrected fractional shortening (scFS; all p values ... mass, relative wall thickness, aortic regurgitation, hypertension, and end-systolic stress (R(2) = 0.23 and 0.59, respectively, p major determinants of LV hypertrophy in patients with asymptomatic AS are male gender, severity of AS, and concomitant hypertension. Women have...

  5. Ventricular-Arterial Coupling and Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension During Low-Level Exercise in Heart Failure With Preserved or Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obokata, Masaru; Nagata, Yasufumi; Kado, Yuichiro; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Otsuji, Yutaka; Takeuchi, Masaaki

    2017-03-01

    Exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension (EIPH) may develop even at low workloads in heart failure (HF) patients. Ventricular-arterial stiffening plays an important role in the pathophysiology of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). This study aimed to compare the response of ventricular-arterial coupling and PH during low-level exercise between HFpEF and HF with reduced EF (HFrEF). Echocardiography was performed at rest and during 10 W of bicycle exercise in HFpEF (n = 37) and HFrEF (n = 43). Load-independent contractility (end-systolic elastance [Ees], preload recruitable stroke work [PRSW], and peak power index [PWRI]), arterial afterload (arterial elastance [Ea]), and ventricular-arterial interaction (Ea/Ees) were measured with the use of a noninvasive single-beat technique. EIPH was defined as an estimated pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) of ≥50 mm Hg at 10 W of exercise. PASP was significantly increased during 10 W of exercise in both HF types, and ~50% of HFpEF patients developed EIPH. Arterial afterload was increased significantly during exercise in both groups. HFrEF and HFpEF patients showed a significant increase in LV contractility assessed by Ees, PRSW, and PWRI during exercise. Although Ea/Ees ratio decreased significantly in HFrEF, reduction in Ea/Ees was attenuated because of blunted Ees increases in patients with HFpEF compared with HFrEF. Even at low-level exercise, ~50% of HFpEF patients developed EIPH. Reduction in Ea/Ees was attenuated owing to less Ees increase in HFpEF compared with HFrEF. Further studies are needed to elucidate the association between ventricular-arterial coupling and EIPH in HFpEF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of abstinence on left ventricular performance in asymptomatic chronic alcoholics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slutsky, R.; Berger, F.; Garver, P.

    1983-08-01

    Twelve asymptomatic men who were chronic alcoholics (42.3+-10.7 years, mean age +- 1 SD) underwent supine bicycle exercise and gated cardiac blood pool imaging 4-7 days after alcohol withdrawal and then again 32-65 days after abstinence (42.2+-15.0 days). Workloads and exercise stages were identical during both exercise studies. Rest and exercise heart rates, blood pressures, cardiac outputs, double products, and systemic vascular resistances were similar in both studies. Ejection fraction (EF) was higher after abstinence at peak exercise (0,68+-0,07 vs. 0.61+-0.08 P<0.05); end-systolic volume (ESV) was smaller at rest and at peak exercise after abstinence (P<0.05). During the first exercise study, 6 of 12 (50%) subjects did not increase their EF by 0.05 units and 4 of 12 (33%) had no EF increase after abstinence. Even the original ''normal'' responders had greater rest and exercise EFs after abstinence. In the first exercise study end diastolic volume (EDV) rose during exercise (P<0.05) while ESV did not change. After abstinence, EDV did not change during exercise, while ESV declined (P<0.05). These results show that latent cardiac dysfunction exists in asymptomatic chronic alcoholics, which is partially although not completely resolved by abstinence of brief periods.

  7. Ventricular septal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giboney, G S

    1983-05-01

    This article has discussed the ventricular septal defect, its occurrence, physiology, and therapy, and nursing concerns. The VSD, a communication allowing left-to-right shunting of blood at the ventricular level, is the most common congenital heart defect. Surgical correction is often required for large defects before the age of 12 months, and primary correction is now considered standard procedure. Small defects usually close spontaneously, and moderate defects are closely monitored for signs indicating the need for surgical intervention. Nursing care begins with child and family assessment and evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the family system. The child's developmental level is a major consideration in formulating interventions for his benefit. Play therapy is a useful vehicle in relating to the child in a nonthreatening manner preoperatively and in allowing the child to work through his hospitalization postoperatively. Maintaining the physical integrity of a child just out of the operating room is a challenge. Continuing support of the family system is a significant aspect of nursing's responsibility toward child and family. Discharge planning and intervention strive to prepare the family for the transition from hospital to home both physically and emotionally.

  8. Right ventricular metastasis of leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stagmo Martin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metastatic presentation of leiomyosarcoma in the heart is very rare. We present transthoracic echocardiography and combined PET/CT images of a case with a large right ventricular metastasis of leiomyosarcoma. The patient was placed on cytostatic drugs for palliative purposes, but passed away one month later because of an untreatable ventricular tackycardia.

  9. Idiopathic Fascicular Left Ventricular Tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmad, Yaser; Asaad, Nidal Ahmad; Arafa, Salaheddin Omran; Ahmad Khan, Shahul Hameed; Mahmoud, Alsayed

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic left fascicular ventricular tachycardia (ILFVT) is characterized by right bundle branch block morphology and left axis deviation. We report a case of idiopathic left ventricular fascicular tachycardia in a young 31-year-old male patient presenting with a narrow complex tachycardia.

  10. Idiopathic Fascicular Left Ventricular Tachycardia

    OpenAIRE

    Alahmad, Yaser; Asaad, Nidal Ahmad; Arafa, Salaheddin Omran; Ahmad Khan, Shahul Hameed; Mahmoud, Alsayed

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic left fascicular ventricular tachycardia (ILFVT) is characterized by right bundle branch block morphology and left axis deviation. We report a case of idiopathic left ventricular fascicular tachycardia in a young 31-year-old male patient presenting with a narrow complex tachycardia.

  11. Echocardiographic and pathoanatomical characteristics of isolated left ventricular non-compaction: a step towards classification as a distinct cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, R; Oechslin, E; Schneider, J; Attenhofer Jost, C; Kaufmann, P A

    2001-12-01

    To determine clear cut echocardiographic criteria for isolated ventricular non-compaction (IVNC), a cardiomyopathy as yet "unclassified" by the World Health Organization. The disease is not widely known and its diagnosis mostly missed. In seven out of a series of 34 patients with IVNC the in vivo echocardiographic characteristics were validated against the anatomical examination of the heart removed after death in four and due to heart transplantation in three patients. Four morphological criteria diagnostic for IVNC were found. (1) Coexisting cardiac abnormalities were absent (by definition). (2) A two layer structure was seen, with a compacted thin epicardial band and a much thicker non-compacted endocardial layer of trabecular meshwork with deep endomyocardial spaces. A maximal end systolic ratio of non-compacted to compacted layers of > 2 is diagnostic. (3) The predominant localisation of the pathology was to mid-lateral (seven of seven patients), apical (six), and mid-inferior (seven) areas. The pathological preparations confirmed the echocardiographic findings. Concomitant regional hypokinesia was not confined to the non-compacted segments. (4) There was colour Doppler evidence of deep perfused intertrabecular recesses. Four clear cut echocardiographic diagnostic criteria were established. It is suggested that the WHO classification of cardiomyopathies be reconsidered to include IVNC as a distinct cardiomyopathy.

  12. Cardiogenic shock: management of right ventricular infarction shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Bailén, M; Ruiz García, M I; Ferrezuelo Mata, A; Quirós Barrera, R

    2012-04-01

    Right ventricular infarction is a not uncommon cause of cardiogenic shock, whose frecuency is variable and could be underestimated. Although left ventricular myocardial management is well defined in the right ventricular infarction are few studies with low level of evidence, to establish definitive guidelines. It is assumed that the treatment is similar to that of the left ventricle, although there are some differences. The axis of the therapeutic management, as well as the left ventricle infarction, is based on early myocardial reperfusion, particularly through percutaneous coronary interventionism. Throm-bolysis is an option, especially after an increase in systemic blood pressure using vasoactive drugs such as norepinephrine. The preload optimization by volume administration during resuscitation of shock is useful, but it must be with caution. The use of levosimendan could be potentially beneficial option. On the neurohormonal modulation of systemic inflammatory response produced after the cardiogenic shock (CS), the use of ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers is controversial.

  13. Experimental testing of a new left ventricular assist device--the microdiagonal blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Stefan; Demircan, Lütfü; Kwant, Paul B; Akdis, Mustafa; Rex, Steffen; Buhre, Wolfgang; Langebartels, Georg; Kuruc, Norbert; Nikolin, Stefan; Reul, Helmut; Autschbach, Rüdiger

    2004-01-01

    All existing ventricular assist devices are associated with a considerable number of serious complications. This article reports on the first animal tests with a newly developed microdiagonal blood pump (MDP). Six adult female sheep weighing 80 to 90 kg underwent implantation of the microdiagonal blood pump. The inflow and outflow conduits were anastomosed to the left atrium and the descending aorta. Pump flow was adjusted to 2-3 L/minute. Hemodynamic and echocardiographic data, as well as blood samples, were measured over the entire test period of 7 days. All internal organs and the pump were explanted for thorough examination at the end of the trial. Mean arterial (range 88.5 +/- 13.1-103.7 +/- 10.7 mm Hg) and mean pulmonary arterial (18.3 +/- 2.7-21.6 +/- 20.5 mm Hg) pressures, as well as the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (14.2 +/- 3.0 - 16.6 +/- 4.0 mm Hg), remained stable during the whole test period. Cardiac output (4.9 +/- 0.7 --> 3.2 +/- 0.5 L/minute) decreased postoperatively caused by partial unloading of the heart. Left ventricular end diastolic (4.1 +/- 0.5 --> 3.6 +/- 0.3 cm) and end systolic (3.2 +/- 0.4 --> 2.8 +/- 0.5 cm) diameters, as well as the ejection fraction (57 +/- 9 --> 42 +/- 5%), decreased after MDP implantation and did not change during the test period. Mean number of platelets (428 +/- 54 --> 286 +/- 66 x 10(3)/microL) and hemoglobin (9.8 +/- 1.3 --> 6.3 +/- 0.8 g/dL) decreased perioperatively because of surgical reasons and increased continuously in the postoperative course (platelet count and hemoglobin on day 7:441 +/- 74 x 10(3)/microL and 7.2 +/- 1.1 g/dL, respectively). Free hemoglobin was not enhanced in the postoperative course (mean value during the test period: 18.8 mmoL/L). Histologic examination of the organs did not demonstrate any infarctions of internal organs other than typical operative sequelae such as chronic pericarditis and some degree of atelectasis of the left lungs. These results demonstrate that the

  14. Pulmonary Hypertension in Heart Failure. Epidemiology, Right Ventricular Function, and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerges, Mario; Gerges, Christian; Pistritto, Anna-Maria; Lang, Marie B; Trip, Pia; Jakowitsch, Johannes; Binder, Thomas; Lang, Irene M

    2015-11-15

    Patients with pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (PH-LHD) and a diastolic pulmonary vascular pressure gradient ≥ 7 mm Hg, representing PH out of proportion to pulmonary arterial wedge pressure, have pulmonary vascular disease and increased mortality. Little information exists on this condition, recently labeled as "combined pre- and post-capillary PH" (Cpc-PH). To investigate epidemiology, risk factors, right ventricular function, and outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure and Cpc-PH. The study population was identified from a retrospective chart review of a clinical database of 3,107 stable patients who underwent first diagnostic right heart catheterization and from a prospective cohort of 800 consecutive patients at a national university-affiliated tertiary center. The retrospective cohort had 664 patients with systolic heart failure (SHF) and 399 patients with diastolic heart failure (DHF), 12% of whom were classified as Cpc-PH. The prospective cohort had 172 patients with SHF (14% Cpc-PH) and 219 patients with DHF (12% Cpc-PH). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P = 0.034) and the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion to systolic pulmonary artery pressure ratio (P = 0.015) predicted Cpc-PH in SHF. Younger age (P = 0.004), valvular heart disease (P = 0.046), and the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion to systolic pulmonary artery pressure ratio predicted Cpc-PH in DHF (P = 0.016). Right ventricular-pulmonary vascular coupling was worse in Cpc-PH patients (end-systolic elastance to effective arterial elastance [Ees/Ea]: SHF: 1.05 ± 0.25; P = 0.002; DHF: 1.17 ± 0.27; P = 0.027) than in those with isolated post-capillary PH (Ees/Ea: SHF: 1.52 ± 0.51; DHF: 1.45 ± 0.29). Cpc-PH is rare in chronic heart failure. Right ventricular-pulmonary vascular coupling is poor in Cpc-PH and could be one explanation for dismal outcomes.

  15. Mitral valve annuloplasty rings: review of literature and comparison of functional outcome and ventricular dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamooshian, Arash; Buijsrogge, Marc P; de Heer, Frederiek; Gründeman, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, more than 40 mitral valve annuloplasty rings of various shapes and consistency were marketed for mitral regurgitation (MR), although the effect of ring type on clinical outcome remains unclear. Our objective was to review the literature and apply a simplification method to make rings of different shapes and rigidity more comparable. We studied relevant literature from MEDLINE and EMBASE databases related to clinical studies as well as animal and finite element models. Annuloplasty rings were clustered into 3 groups as follows: rigid (R), flexible (F), and semirigid (S). Only clinical articles regarding degenerative (DEG) or ischemic/dilated cardiomyopathy (ICM) MR were included and stratified into these groups. A total of 37 rings were clustered into R, F, and S subgroups. Clinical studies with a mean follow-up of less than 1 year and a reported mean etiology of valve incompetence of less than 60% were excluded from the analysis. Forty-one publications were included. Preimplant and postimplant end points were New York Heart Association class, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-systolic dimension (LVESD), and left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD). Statistical analysis included paired-samples t test and analysis of variance with post hoc Bonferroni correction. P < 0.05 indicated statistical difference. Mean ± SD follow-up was 38.6 ± 27 and 29.7 ± 13.2 months for DEG and ICM, respectively. In DEG, LVEF remained unchanged, and LVESD decreased in all subgroups. In our analysis, LVEDD decreased only in F and R, and S did not change; however, the 4 individual studies showed a significant decline. In ICM, New York Heart Association class improved in all subgroups, and LVEF increased. Moreover, LVESD and LVEDD decreased only in F and S; R was underpowered (1 study). No statistical difference among R, F, and S in either ICM or DEG could be detected for all end points. Overall, owing to underpowered data sets

  16. [Late potentials and ventricular arrhythmia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, R; Zimmermann, M

    1986-04-01

    When electrodes are placed at the surface of the thorax, high-amplification electrocardiography (HA-ECG) combined with signal summation as a function of time provides a non-invasive method for detecting electric potentials occurring after the QRS complex of the clinical electrocardiogram. These potentials are called late, and can probably be likened to the "divided" or "fragmented" potentials recorded directly on the heart or in its ventricles near zones of ischemia, infarction or aneurysm. The prevalence of late potentials of ventricular activation (LPVA) and their association with the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias seems well established, notably in the presence of ventricular aneurysm and anamnesis of severe ventricular arrhythmia. Some studies have shown that detection of LPVAs is of value in identifying heart patients at risk of ventricular arrhythmia or sudden death. Heart disease aside, the presence of LPVAs has been demonstrated in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and reported in Fallot's tetralogy after complete correction. A standardization of recordings and a more precise definition of LPVAs are necessary before HA-ECG can become a routine clinical method. Further, the possibility of "beat by beat" recordings with "spatial" summation will allow detection of LPVAs which vary with time and in nature and hence provide a better understanding of the genesis of ventricular arrhythmias.

  17. Hemodynamic effects of ventricular defibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansegrau, Donald G.; Abboud, François M.

    1970-01-01

    Hemodynamic responses to ventricular defibrillation were studied in anesthetized dogs. Observations were made on arterial, right atrial and left ventricular end-diastolic pressures, on cardiac output (dye dilution), heart rate, and right atrial electrocardiogram. Ventricular fibrillation was induced electrically with a bipolar electrode catheter placed in the right ventricle. Fibrillation was maintained for 15 or 30 sec and terminated with a 400 w sec capacitor discharge across the thoracic cage. Responses lasted 1-10 min after conversion and included a cholinergic and an adrenergic component. The cholinergic component was characterized by sinus bradycardia, periods of sinus arrest, atrioventricular block, and ventricular premature beats. The adrenergic component included increases in arterial pressure, in cardiac output, and in left ventricular stroke work at a time when left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was normal; there was no change in total peripheral resistance. The pH of arterial blood decreased slightly and pCO2 increased but pO2 and the concentration of lactate were unchanged. Bilateral vagotomy and intravenous administration of atropine blocked the cholinergic component, unmasked a sinus tachycardia, and accentuated the adrenergic component of the response. The latter was blocked by intravenous administration of propranolol and phenoxybenzamine. These responses were related primarily to conversion of ventricular fibrillation rather than to the electrical discharge of countershock because countershock without ventricular fibrillation caused more transient and smaller responses than those observed with defibrillation: furthermore, the hemodynamic effects of defibrillation were augmented by prolongation of the duration of fibrillation. The results suggest that the cholinergic component of the response may be detrimental in that it favors spontaneous recurrence of fibrillation; on the other hand, the adrenergic component may be essential for conversion

  18. Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatatio...

  19. Quantitative evaluation of left ventricular regional wall motion by cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, Hiroshi; Okamura, Masahiro; Kondo, Takeshi (Fujita-Gakuen Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan)) (and others)

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate quantitatively the left ventricular (LV) regional wall motion abnormalities by cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the on-line wall motion analysis software that is developed by us. Eighteen patients with various heart diseases were studied by field echo cardiac cine MRI (TR/TE/flip angle = 50/22/30deg) with chain oblique technique. The LV of the right anterior oblique (RAO) left ventriculography (LVG) and vertical long-axis MRI was divided into 5 segments corresponding to those specified by the American Heart Association (AHA), respectively. The area contraction ratio of all segments using LVG and MRI showed significant (p<0.001) positive correlation (r=0.748). As for each segment evaluated independently, correlation was significant (p<0.001) and positive for segments 1 to 3 (r=0.809 in segment 1, r=0.886 in segment 2, and r=0.806 in segment 3). On the other hand, strong correlation was not seen in segment 4 (r=0.712, p<0.001), nor in segment 5 (r=0.698, p<0.002). This was because, due to the absence of respiratory gating, movement of the diaphragm hindered clear delineation of the inferior wall in some cases. In conclusion, the newly developed on-line software permits outlining of LV vertical long-axis images at the end diastole and the end systole, and readily provides quantitative analysis of the LV wall motion. We believe that this method will prove to be useful clinically. (author).

  20. [Ventricular tachycardia and cardiac hemochromatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis Moríñigo, J; Martín Luengo, C; Ledesma, C; Arribas, A; Nieto, A A; Rodríguez, J

    2001-11-01

    Hemochromatosis is characterized by an excessive iron deposit in different tissues. Cardiac involvement may be observed in one third of the patients due to hemochromatosis and occurs as a consequence of ferritin accumulation in the heart which on one hand induces alterations in systolic and diastolic ventricular function and on the other hand, an arrythmogenic substrate. The clinical manifestations can be indistinctly related to atrial tachyarrhythmia, ventricular tachyarrhythmia, atrio-ventricular blockade and congestive heart failure, with the first being the most frequent. We present the case of one patient with secondary hemochromatosis to repeated transfusions due to sideroblastic anemia with cardiac involvement, whose initial heart manifestations were recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmia and sustained ventricular tachycardia with syncope for which an automatic defibrillator was implanted.

  1. Nonlinear dynamics in ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, H M; Evans, S J; Quan, W; Chong, M L; Nwasokwa, O

    1996-09-17

    Electrogram recordings of ventricular fibrillation appear complex and possibly chaotic. However, sequences of beat-to-beat intervals obtained from these recordings are generally short, making it difficult to explicitly demonstrate nonlinear dynamics. Motivated by the work of Sugihara on atmospheric dynamics and the Durbin-Watson test for nonlinearity, we introduce a new statistical test that recovers significant dynamical patterns from smoothed lag plots. This test is used to show highly significant nonlinear dynamics in a stable canine model of ventricular fibrillation.

  2. Ventricular arrhythmias in Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Paulo Tomaz Barbosa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sudden death is one of the most characteristic phenomena of Chagas disease, and approximately one-third of infected patients develop life-threatening heart disease, including malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Fibrotic lesions secondary to chronic cardiomyopathy produce arrhythmogenic substrates that lead to the appearance and maintenance of ventricular arrhythmias. The objective of this study is to discuss the main clinical and epidemiological aspects of ventricular arrhythmias in Chagas disease, the specific workups and treatments for these abnormalities, and the breakthroughs needed to determine a more effective approach to these arrhythmias. A literature review was performed via a search of the PubMed database from 1965 to May 31, 2014 for studies of patients with Chagas disease. Clinical management of patients with chronic Chagas disease begins with proper clinical stratification and the identification of individuals at a higher risk of sudden cardiac death. Once a patient develops malignant ventricular arrhythmia, the therapeutic approach aims to prevent the recurrence of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death by the use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators, antiarrhythmic drugs, or both. In select cases, invasive ablation of the reentrant circuit causing tachycardia may be useful. Ventricular arrhythmias are important manifestations of Chagas cardiomyopathy. This review highlights the absence of high-quality evidence regarding the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias in Chagas disease. Recognizing high-risk patients who require specific therapies, especially invasive procedures such as the implantation of cardioverter defibrillators and ablative approaches, is a major challenge in clinical practice.

  3. Heart monitoring using left ventricle impedance and ventricular electrocardiography in left ventricular assist device patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Keun; Ahn, Chi Bum; Park, Sung Min; Choi, Seong Wook

    2015-03-21

    Patients who develop critical arrhythmia during left ventricular assist device (LVAD) perfusion have a low survival rate. For diagnosis of unexpected heart abnormalities, new heart-monitoring methods are required for patients supported by LVAD perfusion. Ventricular electrocardiography using electrodes implanted in the ventricle to detect heart contractions is unsuitable if the heart is abnormal. Left ventricular impedance (LVI) is useful for monitoring heart movement but does not show abnormal action potential in the heart muscle. To detect detailed abnormal heart conditions, we obtained ventricular electrocardiograms (v-ECGs) and LVI simultaneously in porcine models connected to LVADs. In the porcine models, electrodes were set on the heart apex and ascending aorta for real-time measurements of v-ECGs and LVI. As the carrier current frequency of the LVI was adjusted to 30 kHz, it was easily derived from the original v-ECG signal by using a high-pass filter (cutoff: 10 kHz). In addition, v-ECGs with a frequency band of 0.1 - 120 Hz were easily derived using a low-pass filter. Simultaneous v-ECG and LVI data were compared to detect heart volume changes during the Q-T period when the heart contracted. A new real-time algorithm for comparison of v-ECGs and LVI determined whether the porcine heartbeats were normal or abnormal. Several abnormal heartbeats were detected using the LVADs operating in asynchronous mode, most of which were premature ventricle contractions (PVCs). To evaluate the accuracy of the new method, the results obtained were compared to normal ECG data and cardiac output measured simultaneously using commercial devices. The new method provided more accurate detection of abnormal heart movements. This method can be used for various heart diseases, even those in which the cardiac output is heavily affected by LVAD operation.

  4. Efeito do exercício associado ao transplante de células-tronco sobre a função ventricular de ratos pós-infarto agudo do miocárdio Effect of exercise associated with stem cell transplantation on ventricular function in rats after acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cosmo

    2012-12-01

    a week, the animals were subjected to echocardiography for evaluation of left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF, % and dyastolic and end systolic volume of the left ventricle (EDV, ESV, ml, randomized and the transplantation of mononuclear stem cells. The animals were divided into four groups: sedentary group without cells (n=5, sedentary with cells (n=5, trained without cells (n=5 and trained with cells (n=6. The physical training was started 30 days after infarction and held in swimming during 30 days. At the beginning and at the end of the physical training protocol were held assay of lactate. The animals have been subjected to new echocardiography after 60 days of myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Two months after the transplant, were observed decrease in FE in the control group (35.2 to 23.54 P=0.022 and addition of LVEF and stabilization of ventricular remodeling in the group trained with cells (29.85 to 33.43% P=0.062 and 0.71 to 0.73 ml, P=0.776, respectively. Identified the reduction of collagen fibers, myocardial fibrosis regions in the group trained with and without cells. CONCLUSION: The group trained with cells improves ventricular function compared to the control group, suggesting the benefit of associated cell therapy will physical activity.

  5. Left ventricular noncompaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichida, Fukiko

    2009-01-01

    Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is a recently defined cardiomyopathy characterized by a pattern of prominent trabecular meshwork and deep intertrabecular recesses, and is thought to be caused by arrest of normal endomyocardial morphogenesis. Although LVNC has been classified as a primary cardiomyopathy of genetic origin, its definition and diagnostic criteria are still being debated. Isolated LVNC was thought to be rare; however, heightened awareness has resulted in an increased detection of the morphological features of LVNC in routine clinical practice, especially in the adult population. Clinical manifestations are highly variable, ranging from no symptoms to disabling congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, and systemic thromboemboli. LVNC, like other forms of inherited cardiomyopathy, is genetically heterogeneous and can be inherited as an autosomal-dominant or X-linked recessive disorder. It has been linked to mutations in several genes, including LIM domain binding protein 3 (ZASP), alpha-dystrobrevin (DTNA), tafazzin (TAZ/G4.5) and those encoding sarcomeric proteins. However, the relatively small contribution of known mutations to the disease, compared with the higher proportion of familial cases suggests that other elusive genes remain to be identified.

  6. Assessment of right ventricular geometry and mechanics in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients living at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Kul, Seref; Doğan, Coşkun; Yıldırım, Binnaz Zeynep; Karabağ, Yavuz; Cetin, Rengin; Kaya, Yüksel; Karadağ, Pelin; Değirmencioğlu, Aleks; Balcı, Bahattin

    2014-10-01

    Degree of increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and adaptive responses in right ventricular morphology and mechanics play an important role in the prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Three dimensional echocardiography and deformation imaging are recent advancements in echocardiography that allow more through assessment of right ventricle. We aimed to investigate right ventricular geometry and mechanics in a stable COPD population living at moderately high altitude. A total of 26 stable COPD patients with variable disease severity were included to this study. Pulmonary function tests, six minutes walking test (6MWT) and two- and three-dimensional echocardiography were performed for evaluation and data collection. Both systolic (43.06 ± 11.79 mmHg) and mean (33.38 ± 9.75 mmHg) PAPs were significantly higher in COPD patients compared to controls (p Right ventricular volumes were similar between groups, although right ventricular free wall thickness was significantly increased in COPD group. The number of subjects with a sub-normal (right ventricular ejection fraction was significantly higher in COPD group (45.8 vs. 17.4 %, p right ventricular strain was significantly lower (-21.05 ± 3.80 vs. -24.14 ± 5.37; p right ventricular contractility were found in COPD patients living at moderately high altitude, although right ventricular volumes were normal. Similar findings can be expected in other COPD patients with high PAP, since these findings probably represents the effect of increased PAP on right ventricular mechanics.

  7. Fluid-dynamic modeling of the human left ventricle: methodology and application to surgical ventricular reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doenst, Torsten; Spiegel, Kathrin; Reik, Michael; Markl, Michael; Hennig, Jürgen; Nitzsche, Stefan; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Oertel, Herbert

    2009-04-01

    The efficacy of surgical ventricular reconstruction (SVR) for ischemic cardiomyopathy has never been truly quantified. Methods to assess ventricular flow have not been applied to these patients. The objective is to develop a volume-independent technique for assessing the effects of ischemic remodeling and SVR on left ventricular blood flow dynamics. Cardiac magnetic resonance images from a healthy volunteer and from a patient before and after SVR were segmented and transformed to generate a grid model of the heart by generating numeric grids and running third-order approximations to achieve 850 grid images per cardiac cycle. These grids formed the skeletal structure of our patient-specific time-dependent ventricular geometry model, the Karlsruhe Heart Model, used for modeling fluid dynamics. We modeled flow, ejection fraction, and blood washout from the ventricle. The model was validated using a silicone ventricle and mock circulation. In the healthy heart and before SVR, ejection fractions were 0.61 and 0.15 and left ventricular volumes were 166 mL and 175 mL, respectively. Surgical ventricular reconstruction decreased left ventricular volume by one fourth. Postoperative ejection fraction was 0.18 in the patient. Post-SVR shape was more spherical than preoperatively and also more spherical than the healthy heart. Ventricular flow patterns in the patient were significantly altered by SVR. However, fluid washout from the ventricle was similar before and after SVR but worse than in the healthy heart. Fluid dynamic modeling of the heart is possible based on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging data and enables volume-independent quantitative assessment of the surgical procedure. In the future, preoperative modeling for patients with remodeled ventricles may help to achieve optimized post-SVR flow characteristics and potentially outcomes.

  8. Chamber-specific effects of hypokalaemia on ventricular arrhythmogenicity in isolated, perfused guinea-pig heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osadchii, Oleg E; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2009-01-01

    of hypokalaemic perfusion (2.5 mm K(+) for 30 min) were assessed in isolated guinea-pig heart preparations using simultaneous recordings of volume-conducted electrocardiogram and monophasic action potentials from six ventricular epicardial sites. Effective refractory periods, ventricular fibrillation thresholds...... for re-entrant tachyarrhythmias. Taken together, these findings suggest that proarrhythmic effects of hypokalaemia are mostly attributed to increased LV arrhythmogenicity in the guinea-pig heart....

  9. Clinical investigation of ventricular direct interaction in valvular heart diseases before and after surgery by means of the equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Kazuhiro (Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-06-01

    To elucidate direct ventricular interaction, equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography was performed on 18 cases of aortic regurgitation (AR) and 31 cases of mitral stenosis (MS) before and after open heart surgery. Patients with AR were divided into two groups by preoperative left ventricular volume: the normovolumic left ventricle (n-LV) group and the dilated left ventricle (d-LV) group. Patients with MS were divided into two groups by preoperative right ventricular volume: the normovolumic right ventricle (n-RV) group and the dilated right ventricle (d-RV) group. In patients with AR, preoperative right ventricular systolic function in the d-LV group was significantly impaired compared with that in the n-LV group. Postoperative right ventricular systolic function in the d-LV group improved to show no significant difference compared to that in the n-LV group because surgery alleviated the left ventricular dilatation. In patients with MS, preoperative left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions in the d-RV group were significantly impaired compared with that of n-RV group. In d-RV group, postoperative left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions were significantly improved when right ventricular dilatation could be relieved postoperatively. In the present study, the existence of direct ventricular interaction influenced by the volume-overloaded ventricle was clarified. (author).

  10. Hemodialysis-Induced Regional Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction: Prevalence, Patient and Dialysis Treatment-Related Factors, and Prognostic Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assa, Solmaz; Hummel, Yoran M.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Kuipers, Johanna; Westerhuis, Ralf; de Jong, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives The hemodialysis procedure may acutely induce regional left ventricular systolic dysfunction. This study evaluated the prevalence, time course, and associated patient- and dialysis-related factors of this entity and its association with outcome. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Hemodialysis patients (105) on a three times per week dialysis schedule were studied between March of 2009 and March of 2010. Echocardiography was performed before dialysis, at 60 and 180 minutes intradialysis, and at 30 minutes postdialysis. Hemodialysis-induced regional left ventricular systolic dysfunction was defined as an increase in wall motion score in more than or equal to two segments. Results Hemodialysis-induced regional left ventricular systolic dysfunction occurred in 29 (27%) patients; 17 patients developed regional left ventricular systolic dysfunction 60 minutes after onset of dialysis. Patients with hemodialysis-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction were more often male, had higher left ventricular mass index, and had worse predialysis left ventricular systolic function (left ventricular ejection fraction). The course of blood volume, BP, heart rate, electrolytes, and acid–base parameters during dialysis did not differ significantly between the two groups. Patients with hemodialysis-induced regional left ventricular systolic dysfunction had a significantly higher mortality after correction for age, sex, dialysis vintage, diabetes, cardiovascular history, ultrafiltration volume, left ventricular mass index, and predialysis wall motion score index. Conclusions Hemodialysis induces regional wall motion abnormalities in a significant proportion of patients, and these changes are independently associated with increased mortality. Hemodialysis-induced regional left ventricular systolic dysfunction occurs early during hemodialysis and is not related to changes in blood volume, electrolytes, and acid–base parameters. PMID

  11. Left ventricular function in patients with and without myocardial infarction and one, two or three vessel coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraski, R E; Russell, R O; Smith, M K; Rackley, C E

    1975-01-01

    Ninety-six patients with chest pain were studied to determine the relation between left ventricular function and severity of coronary artery disease in patients with and without a history of myocardial infarction. Coronary arteriography was performed obtaining cineangiograms (60 frames/sec) and large roll film angiograms (2 to 6 frames/sec) for precise definition of the coronary anatomy. The criteria for diagnosis of myocardial infarction were a typical history, a rise and fall in serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase levels and evolutionary S-T segment changes associated with Q waves of at least 0.03 second. Left ventricular function was assessed by measurement of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and volume, and left ventricular ejection fraction, mass and compliance. Fifteen patients had normal findings; 81 were classified according to number of diseased vessels and presence or absence of myocardial infarction. There were no group differences in age or heart rate. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was abnormally increased in patients with three vessel disease and myocardial infarction. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume was increased and the ejection fraction was reduced in patients in each vessel disease group with myocardial infarction. Although ejection fraction was reduced in patients with three vessel disease without myocardial infarction, it was further reduced when infarction occurred. Left ventricular mass increased in patients with three vessel disease with or without myocardial infarction. Values for ventricular compliance were reduced in all patients with myocardial infarction and were lower in those with two and three vessel disease and infarction than in those with two and three vessel disease without infarction. These findings suggest that a previous history of myocardial infarction needs to be considered together with anatomic abnormalities of the coronary arteries in assessing cardiac performance in patients with ischemic heart

  12. Ventricular arrhythmias and left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva e Mattos, Beatriz; Torres, Marco Antonio Rodrigues; Freitas, Valéria Centeno de; Scolari, Fernando Luís; Loreto, Melina Silva de

    2013-05-01

    In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) could influence the development of ventricular arrhythmias. In HCM, analyze the association between the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias determined by Holter electrocardiogram (ECG-Holter) and the degree of LVH determined by maximum wall thickness (MWT) in echocardiography and body mass index (BMI). Fifty-four consecutive patients with HCM underwent 24-hour ECG-Holter and echocardiography for assessment of level of LVH through MWT and BMI. Two levels were established for the occurrence of Ventricular Arrhythmias: I - alone or paired extrasystoles and II - Non- Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia (NSVT). In 13 patients (24%) with NSVT (level II), there was a higher frequency of MWT of the left ventricle (LV) > 21 mm (n = 10, 77%, 25 ± 4 mm) and LLLV = 144 g/m² (n = 10, 77%, 200 ± 30 g/m²), in comparison with those presenting with extrasystole arrhythmias (level I) (n = 41, 76%), in which these measures were identified in, respectively, 37 % (n= 15, 23 ± 1 mm), p = 0.023, and 39% (n = 16, 192 ± 53 g / m²) of the cases (p = 0.026). The cut-off values mentioned were determined by the ROC curve with a confidence interval of 95%. NSVT was more common in patients with MWTLV > 21 mm and LLLV > 144 g/m² (8 of 13, 62%) than in those with (4 of 13, 31%) or without (1 of 13; 8%) echocardiographic variables above cut-off values (p = 0.04). In HCM, occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias by Holter was associated with the degree of LVH assessed by echocardiography through MWT and BMI.

  13. Avaliação não invasiva das pressões de enchimento e remodelação do ventrículo esquerdo após infarto do miocárdio Non invasive assessment of left ventricular filling pressure and remodeling after acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Henrique Barberato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A dilatação do ventrículo esquerdo (VE após infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM é um importante determinante do prognóstico. A razão entre a velocidade diastólica E do fluxo mitral e a velocidade diastólica e' do anel mitral (relação E/e' é o melhor índice não invasivo para detectar elevação aguda da pressão de enchimento do VE. A hipótese deste estudo é que a E/e' possa predizer remodelação do VE após IAM tratado. OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a E/e' prediz remodelação ventricular após IAM, em comparação aos dados clínicos, laboratoriais e ecocardiográficos tradicionais. MÉTODO: Ecocardiogramas foram realizados em pacientes consecutivos com primeiro IAM, após angioplastia transluminal coronariana (ATC seguida de recanalização efetiva, 48 horas e 60 dias após o evento. A E/e' foi calculada pela média de quatro sítios do anel mitral. Remodelação do VE foi definida como aumento ≥ 15% do volume sistólico final ao método de Simpson. Análises estatísticas incluíram teste t de Student, curvas receptor-operador (ROC e regressão logística multivariada, com p significante BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV dilation after acute myocardial infarction (AMI is an important determinant of prognosis. The ratio of early mitral inflow velocity (E and peak early diastolic annular velocity (e' provides the best single index for noninvasive detection of acute elevation of LV filling pressure. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether E/e' ratio predicts LV remodeling after properly treated AMI compared with traditional clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic data. METHODS: Comprehensive echocardiograms were performed in a series of consecutive patients with first AMI successfully treated with primary percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTCA, both 48 hours after intervention and 60 days later. Mean E/e' was determined from four sites of the mitral annulus. LV remodeling was defined as more than 15% increase in end-systolic

  14. Right Ventricular Ejection Fraction Is Incremental to Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction for the Prediction of Future Arrhythmic Events in Patients With Systolic Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Yoko; Jolly, Umjeet; Heydari, Bobak; Peng, Mingkai; Almehmadi, Fahad; Zahrani, Mohammed; Bokhari, Mahmoud; Stirrat, John; Lydell, Carmen P; Howarth, Andrew G; Yee, Raymond; White, James A

    2017-01-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction remains the primary risk stratification tool used in the selection of patients for implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy. However, this solitary marker fails to identify a substantial portion of patients experiencing sudden cardiac arrest. In this study, we examined the incremental value of considering right ventricular ejection fraction for the prediction of future arrhythmic events in patients with systolic dysfunction using the gold standard of cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Three hundred fourteen consecutive patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy or nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing cardiovascular magnetic resonance were followed for the primary outcome of sudden cardiac arrest or appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy. Blinded quantification of left ventricular and right ventricular (RV) volumes was performed from standard cine imaging. Quantification of fibrosis from late gadolinium enhancement imaging was incrementally performed. RV dysfunction was defined as right ventricular ejection fraction ≤45%. Among all patients (164 ischemic cardiomyopathy, 150 nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy), the mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 32±12% (range, 6-54%) with mean right ventricular ejection fraction of 48±15% (range, 7-78%). At a median of 773 days, 49 patients (15.6%) experienced the primary outcome (9 sudden cardiac arrest, 40 appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapies). RV dysfunction was independently predictive of the primary outcome (hazard ratio=2.98; P=0.002). Among those with a left ventricular ejection fraction >35% (N=121; mean left ventricular ejection fraction, 45±6%), RV dysfunction provided an adjusted hazard ratio of 4.2 (P=0.02). RV dysfunction is a strong, independent predictor of arrhythmic events. Among patients with mild to moderate LV dysfunction, a cohort greatly contributing to global sudden cardiac arrest burden, this marker

  15. Galen and the ventricular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, J

    1997-12-01

    This paper examines the anatomy and physiology, together with the pathophysiology, of the ventricular system of the brain, as it was understood by arguably its greatest exponent in Western Antiquity, Galen. According to him, the purpose of the ventricles was to elaborate, store and distribute psychic pneuma, the motive force of Galenic neurology, throughout the nervous system. However, impressive as the delineation of the ventricular system is, the details of this distribution are not forthcoming from Galen. Finally, I discuss the ventricles as the site of intellect, a notion only tentatively advanced by Galen, but cast into dogma by his successors. For all the mistakes Galen made in anatomy and physiology, the study of the ventricular system reveals a mind not dissimilar to our own.

  16. Impact of Major Pulmonary Resections on Right Ventricular Function: Early Postoperative Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrakhawy, Hany M; Alassal, Mohamed A; Shaalan, Ayman M; Awad, Ahmed A; Sayed, Sameh; Saffan, Mohammad M

    2018-01-15

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction after pulmonary resection in the early postoperative period is documented by reduced RV ejection fraction and increased RV end-diastolic volume index. Supraventricular arrhythmia, particularly atrial fibrillation, is common after pulmonary resection. RV assessment can be done by non-invasive methods and/or invasive approaches such as right cardiac catheterization. Incorporation of a rapid response thermistor to pulmonary artery catheter permits continuous measurements of cardiac output, right ventricular ejection fraction, and right ventricular end-diastolic volume. It can also be used for right atrial and right ventricular pacing, and for measuring right-sided pressures, including pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. This study included 178 patients who underwent major pulmonary resections, 36 who underwent pneumonectomy assigned as group (I) and 142 who underwent lobectomy assigned as group (II). The study was conducted at the cardiothoracic surgery department of Benha University hospital in Egypt; patients enrolled were operated on from February 2012 to February 2016. A rapid response thermistor pulmonary artery catheter was inserted via the right internal jugular vein. Preoperatively the following was recorded: central venous pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, cardiac output, right ventricular ejection fraction and volumes. The same parameters were collected in fixed time intervals after 3 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours postoperatively. For group (I): There were no statistically significant changes between the preoperative and postoperative records in the central venous pressure and mean arterial pressure; there were no statistically significant changes in the preoperative and 12, 24, and 48 hour postoperative records for cardiac index; 3 and 6 hours postoperative showed significant changes. There were statistically significant changes between the preoperative and

  17. Peri-infarct zone pacing to prevent adverse left ventricular remodelling in patients with large myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, Gregg W; Chung, Eugene S; Stancak, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    -diastolic volume (ΔLVEDV) from baseline to 18 months between the pooled pacing therapy groups and the control group. ΔLVEDV increased by 15.3 ± 28.6 mL in the control group and by 16.7 ± 30.5 mL in the pooled pacing groups during follow-up (adjusted mean difference (95% CI) = 0.6 (-12.3, 13.5) mL, P = 0.......92). There were also no significant between-group differences in the change in LV end-systolic volume or ejection fraction over time. Quality of life, as assessed by the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure (HF) and European Quality of Life-5 Dimension questionnaires and New York Heart Association class, was also...... similar between groups during 18-month follow-up. Six-minute walk distance improved during follow-up to an equal degree between groups, and there were no significant differences in the 18-month rates of death or HF hospitalization between the pooled pacing therapy vs. control groups (17.4 vs. 21...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions ARVC Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy ( ARVC ) is a form of heart disease that ...

  19. [Echocardiographic study of left ventricular geometry in spontaneously hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Eduardo M; Pinilla, Oscar A; Carranza, Verónica B

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze by echocardiogram left ventricular (LV) geometry in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Echocardiographic study, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were obtained in 114 male, 4-month old rats, 73 SHR and 41 Wistar (W). Left ventricular mass index (LVMI), relative wall thickness (RWT), stroke volume, and mid ventricular shortening were calculated with echocardiographic parameters. Normal LV was defined considering the mean plus 2 SD of LVMI and RWT in W. Patterns of abnormal LV geometry were: LV concentric remodeling, LVMI 0.71; eccentric, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), LVMI > 2.06 mg/g - RWT 2.06 mg/g - RWT > 0.71. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and cardiac output (CO) were used to obtain total peripheral resistance (TPR). twelve % of SHR had normal LV geometry; 18% LV concentric remodeling; 33% concentric LVH and 37% eccentric LVH. LV concentric remodeling showed the smallest CO and highest TPR of any group. Eccentric LVH presented similar SBP as the other SHR groups and high CO with lower TPR. Our findings in SHR exhibit different patterns of LV geometry like in humans. These results strengthen the similarities between SHR and human essential hypertension.

  20. Echocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular-right atrial communication (Gerbode-type defect) in an adult with chronic renal failure: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Serpil; Sade, Elif; Bozbas, Huseyin; Pirat, Bahar; Yildirir, Aylin; Muderrisoglu, Haldun

    2008-03-01

    Left ventricular-right atrial communication, known as a Gerbode-type defect, is a rare form of ventricular septal defect. It is usually congenital, but rarely acquired. Clinical presentation is associated with the volume of the shunt. Transthoracic echocardiography is the most useful diagnostic method. We present a 63-year-old man with chronic renal failure and left ventricular-right atrial shunt.

  1. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in post-infarction left ventricular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk-Mahjoub, S; Zaghdoudi, M; Amira, Z; Chebi, H; Khabouchi, N; Finsterer, J; Mechmeche, R; Ghazouani, E

    2016-10-15

    Acute myocardial infarction (MI) leads to molecular, structural, geometric and functional changes in the heart during a process known as ventricular remodeling. Myocardial infarction is followed by an inflammatory response in which pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines play a crucial role, particularly in left ventricular remodeling. This study aimed at evaluating serum concentrations of interleukin-8 (IL8), tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-10 (IL10), pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and at correlating them with left ventricular remodeling as assessed by echocardiographic parameters. In a case-control study 30 MI patients were compared with 30 healthy controls. Serum concentrations of IL8, TNFα and IL10 were measured on day 2 and day 30 post-MI by chemiluminescence immunoassay and correlated with echocardiographic parameters. There was an increase of IL8, and TNFα together with a decrease of IL10 at both time points. IL8 was negatively correlated with the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and positively with left ventricular systolic volume. IL10 was negatively correlated with LVEDD and left atrial volume 30days post-MI. The increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL8 was accompanied by decreased anti-inflammatory IL10. This imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines might contribute to the progression of left ventricular remodeling and may lead to heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Subacute and Chronic Left Ventricular Myocardial Scar: Accuracy of Texture Analysis on Nonenhanced Cine MR Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baessler, Bettina; Mannil, Manoj; Oebel, Sabrina; Maintz, David; Alkadhi, Hatem; Manka, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To test whether texture analysis (TA) allows for the diagnosis of subacute and chronic myocardial infarction (MI) on noncontrast material-enhanced cine cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) images. Materials and Methods In this retrospective, institutional review board-approved study, 120 patients who underwent cardiac MR imaging and showed large transmural (volume of enhancement on late gadolinium enhancement [LGE] images >20%, n = 72) or small (enhanced volume ≤20%, n = 48) subacute or chronic ischemic scars were included. Sixty patients with normal cardiac MR imaging findings served as control subjects. Regions of interest for TA encompassing the left ventricle were drawn by two blinded, independent readers on cine images in end systole by using a freely available software package. Stepwise dimension reduction and texture feature selection based on reproducibility, machine learning, and correlation analyses were performed for selecting features, enabling the diagnosis of MI on nonenhanced cine MR images by using LGE imaging as the standard of reference. Results Five independent texture features allowed for differentiation between ischemic scar and normal myocardium on cine MR images in both subgroups: Teta1, Perc.01, Variance, WavEnHH.s-3, and S(5,5)SumEntrp (in patients with large MI: all P values cine MR images, with an area under the curve of 0.93 and 0.92, respectively. Conclusion This proof-of-concept study indicates that TA of nonenhanced cine MR images allows for the diagnosis of subacute and chronic MI with high accuracy. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  3. Left ventricular dimension decrement index early after axial flow assist device implantation: A novel risk marker for late pump thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Emer; Stewart, Garrick C; Hickey, Maryclare; Coakley, Lara; Rivero, Jose M; Gosev, Igor; Givertz, Michael M; Couper, Gregory S; Mehra, Mandeep R

    2015-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that pump thrombosis most likely represents the end stage of a complex interaction between the patient-pump interface. We hypothesized that early patient/pump mismatch, as manifested by suboptimal left ventricular (LV) unloading early after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, may be a harbinger of increased risk for later LVAD thrombosis. In 64 patients (59 ± 11 years old, 78% men, 44% destination therapy) discharged alive without thrombosis or other device malfunction after first HeartMate II LVAD implantation (between January 2011 and June 2014), LV dimensions in end diastole (LVIDd) and end systole (LVIDs) were compared between pre-implant and optimal set speed pre-discharge echocardiography. LV dimension decrement indices (pre-implant dimension - optimal set speed dimension ÷ pre-implant dimension × 100) for LVIDd [LVIDdDI] and LVIDs [LVIDsDI] were calculated. The incidence of pump thrombosis was 0.06 per patient year (n = 18, median time 8 [interquartile range 2, 17] months). Baseline characteristics including pre-operative LVIDd and LVIDs were similar between LVAD thrombosis and no thrombosis groups. After ventricular assist device implantation, set speed and other ramp parameters did not differ between groups. However, LVIDdDI (19 ± 13% vs 25 ± 11%, p = 0.04) and LVIDsDI (16 ± 16% vs 27 ± 13%, p = 0.008) were significantly lower in patients with later pump thrombosis. A cutoff value of ≤15% using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was 83% sensitive for LVIDdDI and LVIDsDI for predicting pump thrombosis. Patients with LVIDdDI of >15% vs ≤15% were significantly more likely to be free of pump thrombosis over a median follow-up period of 15 (interquartile range 9, 26) months (log-rank test, p = 0.045). LV dimension decrement index at optimized speed setting on pre-discharge echocardiography is associated with LVAD thrombosis. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung

  4. Right ventricular relative wall thickness as a predictor of outcomes and of right ventricular reverse remodeling for patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Motoji, Yoshiki; Fukuda, Yuko; Mochizuki, Yasuhide; Hatani, Yutaka; Matsuzoe, Hiroki; Hatazawa, Keiko; Shimoura, Hiroyuki; Ooka, Junichi; Ryo-Koriyama, Keiko; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Emoto, Noriaki; Hirata, Ken-Ichi

    2017-03-01

    Mid-term right ventricular (RV) reverse remodeling after treatment in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with long-term outcome as well as baseline RV remodeling. However, baseline factors influencing mid-term RV reverse remodeling after treatment and its prognostic capability remain unclear. We studied 54 PH patients. Mid-term RV remodeling was assessed in terms of the RV area, which was traced planimetrically at the end-systole (RVESA). RV reverse remodeling was defined as a relative decrease in the RVESA of at least 15% at 10.2 ± 9.4 months after treatment. Long-term follow-up was 5 years. Adverse events occurred in ten patients (19%) and mid-term RV reverse remodeling after treatment was observed in 37 (69%). Patients with mid-term RV reverse remodeling had more favorable long-term outcomes than those without (log-rank: p = 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that RV relative wall thickness (RV-RWT), as calculated as RV free-wall thickness/RV basal linear dimension at end-diastole, was an independent predictor of mid-term RV reverse remodeling (OR 1.334; 95% CI, 1.039-1.713; p = 0.03). Moreover, patients with RV-RWT ≥0.21 showed better long-term outcomes than did those without (log-rank p = 0.03), while those with RV-RWT ≥0.21 and mid-term RV reverse remodeling had the best long-term outcomes. Patients with RV-RWT <0.21 and without mid-term RV reverse remodeling, on the other hand, had worse long-term outcomes than other sub-groups. In conclusions, RV-RWT could predict mid-term RV reverse remodeling after treatment in PH patients, and was associated with long-term outcomes. Our finding may have clinical implications for better management of PH patients.

  5. [Cardiac dyssynchrony correlates with left ventricular remodeling after myocardial Infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Paul; Castro, Pablo; Gabrielli, Luigi; Verdejo, Hugo; Quintana, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez, José A; Corbalán, Ramón

    2009-11-01

    Cardiac dyssynchrony is common in advanced heart failure (HF), but the changes in cardiac synchrony after myocardial infarction (MI) have not been adequately descríbed. To study the relationship between cardiac synchrony and left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction. Forty nine patients aged 59+/-10 years (77% men) with a first episode of a ST segment elevation MI, were studied. Scintigraphic left ventricular function and synchrony analyses were performed at baseline and after a six months follow-up. Determinations were compared with 33 healthy subjects. At baseline, patients with MIhad a decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and significant dyssynchrony, when compared with controls. LVEF was 36.4%+/-10%, left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) 127+/-38 mL, interventricular delay (IEV) 29+/-35 miliseconds (ms), and intraventricular delay (IAV), 234+/-89 ms. After 6 months, LVEF significantly improved (38%+/-10%, p =0.042) without significant changes in LVEDV (129+/-32 mL, p =0.97), IEV (24+/-17, p =0.96) or IAV (231+/-97, p =0.34). At baseline there were significant correlations between IAV and LVEF, and between IAV and LVEDV (r =0.48, p =0.001 and r =0.41, p =0.004, respectively). These correlations remained significant after 6 months. There was a positive correlation between IAV and LVEDV changes at six months (r =0.403, p =0.04). The development of cardiac dyssynchrony correlates with adverse left ventricular remodeling after MI .

  6. Respiratory-gated electrical impedance tomography: a potential technique for quantifying stroke volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Saaid H.; Murphy, Ethan K.; Halter, Ryan J.

    2016-03-01

    Telemonitoring is becoming increasingly important as the proportion of the population living with cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases. Currently used health parameters in the suite of telemonitoring tools lack the sensitivity and specificity to accurately predict heart failure events, forcing physicians to play a reactive versus proactive role in patient care. A novel cardiac output (CO) monitoring device is proposed that leverages a custom smart phone application and a wearable electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system. The purpose of this work is to explore the potential of using respiratory-gated EIT to quantify stroke volume (SV) and assess its feasibility using real data. Simulations were carried out using the 4D XCAT model to create anatomically realistic meshes and electrical conductivity profiles representing the human thorax and the intrathoracic tissue. A single 5-second period respiration cycle with chest/lung expansion was modeled with end-diastole (ED) and end-systole (ES) heart volumes to evaluate how effective EIT-based conductivity changes represent clinically significant differences in SV. After establishing a correlation between conductivity changes and SV, the applicability of the respiratory-gated EIT was refined using data from the PhysioNet database to estimate the number of useful end-diastole (ED) and end-systole (ES) heart events attained over a 3.3 minute period. The area associated with conductivity changes was found to correlate to SV with a correlation coefficient of 0.92. A window of 12.5% around peak exhalation was found to be the optimal phase of the respiratory cycle from which to record EIT data. Within this window, ~47 useable ED and ES were found with a standard deviation of 28 using 3.3 minutes of data for 20 patients.

  7. Spontaneous haemorrhage and rupture of third ventricular colloid cyst.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ogbodo, Elisha

    2012-01-01

    Acute bleeding within a colloid cyst of the third ventricle represents a rare event causing sudden increase in the cyst volume that may lead to acute hydrocephalus and rapid neurological deterioration. We report a case of spontaneous rupture of haemorrhagic third ventricular colloid cyst and its management. A 77-year-old ex-smoker presented with unsteady gait, incontinence and gradually worsening confusion over a 3-week period. Brain CT scan findings were highly suggestive of a third ventricular colloid cyst with intraventricular rupture. He underwent cyst excision and histopathology, which confirmed the radiological diagnosis with evidence of haemorrhage within the cyst. A ventriculo peritoneal shunt was performed for delayed hydrocephalus. Surgical management of these patients must include emergency ventriculostomy followed by prompt surgical removal of the haemorrhagic cyst.

  8. Congenital left ventricular apical aneurysm presenting as ventricular tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, José; Marques, Nuno; Candeias, Rui; Gago, Paula; de Jesus, Ilídio

    2016-10-01

    The authors present the case of a 34-year-old male patient seen in our department due to palpitations. On the electrocardiogram monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) was documented, treated successfully with amiodarone. The subsequent study revealed a normal echocardiogram and an apical aneurysm of the left ventricle on magnetic resonance imaging, confirmed by computed tomography coronary angiography that also excluded coronary disease. He underwent an electrophysiological study to determine the origin of the VT and to perform catheter ablation using electroanatomical mapping. VT was induced and radiofrequency applications were performed in the left ventricular aneurysm area. VT was no longer inducible, with acute success. Despite this it was decided to implant a subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Eight months after the ablation the patient was admitted again due to VT, treated by the ICD. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Heme oxygenase-1 and inflammation in experimental right ventricular failure on prolonged overcirculation-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmae Belhaj

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase (HO-1 is a stress response enzyme which presents with cardiovascular protective and anti-inflammatory properties. Six-month chronic overcirculation-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH in piglets has been previously reported as a model of right ventricular (RV failure related to the RV activation of apoptotic and inflammatory processes. We hypothesized that altered HO-1 signalling could be involved in both pulmonary vascular and RV changes. Fifteen growing piglets were assigned to a sham operation (n = 8 or to an anastomosis of the left innominate artery to the pulmonary arterial trunk (n = 7. Six months later, hemodynamics was evaluated after closure of the shunt. After euthanasia of the animals, pulmonary and myocardial tissue was sampled for pathobiological evaluation. Prolonged shunting was associated with a tendency to decreased pulmonary gene and protein expressions of HO-1, while pulmonary gene expressions of interleukin (IL-33, IL-19, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 and -2 were increased. Pulmonary expressions of constitutive HO-2 and pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α remained unchanged. Pulmonary vascular resistance (evaluated by pressure/flow plots was inversely correlated to pulmonary HO-1 protein and IL-19 gene expressions, and correlated to pulmonary ICAM-1 gene expression. Pulmonary arteriolar medial thickness and PVR were inversely correlated to pulmonary IL-19 expression. RV expression of HO-1 was decreased, while RV gene expressions TNF-α and ICAM-2 were increased. There was a correlation between RV ratio of end-systolic to pulmonary arterial elastances and RV HO-1 expression. These results suggest that downregulation of HO-1 is associated to PAH and RV failure.

  10. Muscle fiber-type distribution predicts weight gain and unfavorable left ventricular geometry: a 19 year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernelahti Miika

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal muscle consists of type-I (slow-twitch and type-II (fast-twitch fibers, with proportions highly variable between individuals and mostly determined by genetic factors. Cross-sectional studies have associated low percentage of type-I fibers (type-I% with many cardiovascular risk factors. Methods We investigated whether baseline type-I% predicts left ventricular (LV structure and function at 19-year follow-up, and if so, which are the strongest mediating factors. At baseline in 1984 muscle fiber-type distribution (by actomyosin ATPase staining was studied in 63 healthy men (aged 32–58 years. The follow-up in 2003 included echocardiography, measurement of obesity related variables, physical activity and blood pressure. Results In the 40 men not using cardiovascular drugs at follow-up, low type-I% predicted higher heart rate, blood pressure, and LV fractional shortening suggesting increased sympathetic tone. Low type-I% predicted smaller LV chamber diameters (P ≤ 0.009 and greater relative wall thickness (P = 0.034 without increase in LV mass (concentric remodeling. This was explained by the association of type-I% with obesity related variables. Type-I% was an independent predictor of follow-up body fat percentage, waist/hip ratio, weight gain in adulthood, and physical activity (in all P ≤ 0.001. After including these risk factors in the regression models, weight gain was the strongest predictor of LV geometry explaining 64% of the variation in LV end-diastolic diameter, 72% in end-systolic diameter, and 53% in relative wall thickness. Conclusion Low type-I% predicts obesity and weight gain especially in the mid-abdomen, and consequently unfavourable LV geometry indicating increased cardiovascular risk.

  11. [Posterior ventricular septal perforation successfully repaired through right ventricular approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kazuma; Morishige, N; Iwahashi, H; Hayashida, Y; Teshima, H; Ito, N; Tashiro, T

    2006-12-01

    A 65-year-old man underwent a successful repair of a posterior ventricular septal perforation (VSP) 9 days after suffering an acute inferior myocardial infarction. After hospitalization, his hemodynamic condition gradually worsened, in spite of administering intensive medical therapy. Emergent operation was performed on the 4th day after onset. An equine pericardial patch was sutured around the VSP through the right ventricular side of the septum using the double-patch repair method and the right ventricular wall was closed as using the standard extracorporeal perfusion technique. The dimensions of the VSP measured 5 mm in diameter. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed on the 14th postoperative day. Cardiac catheter examination was done on the 18th postoperative day. No residual shunt was recognized and cardiac function was good. He was discharged on the 20th postoperative day. The occurrence of a posterior VSP is comparatively rare, and repair of VSP is difficult to perform during an acute period. Therefore, the operative results of VSP cases remain poor.

  12. Prophylactic implantable defibrillator in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia and no prior ventricular fibrillation or sustained ventricular tachycardia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corrado, Domenico

    2010-09-21

    The role of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy\\/dysplasia and no prior ventricular fibrillation (VF) or sustained ventricular tachycardia is an unsolved issue.