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Sample records for ventral hippocampal lesion

  1. Effects of caffeine or RX821002 in rats with a neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion

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    Guy eSandner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rats with a neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL are used to model schizophrenia. They show enhanced locomotion and difficulties in learning after puberty. Such behavioural modifications are strengthened by dopaminergic psychostimulant drugs, which is also relevant for schizophrenia because illustrating its dopaminergic facet. But it remains questionable that only dopaminergic drugs elicit such effects. The behavioural effects could simply represent a non specific arousal, in which case NVHL rats should also be hyper-responsive to other vigilance enhancing drugs. We administered an adenosine (caffeine or an adrenaline receptor antagonist, (RX821002 at doses documented to modify alertness of rats, respectively 5 mg/Kg and 1 mg/Kg. Rats were selected prior to the experiments using MRI (magnetic resonance imaging. Each group contained typical and similar NVHL lesions. They were compared to sham lesioned rats. We evaluated locomotion in a new environment and the capacity to remember a visual or acoustic cue that announced the occurrence of food. Both Caffeine and RX82100 enhanced locomotion in the novel environment, particularly in NVHL rats. But, RX82100 had a biphasic effect on locomotion, consisting of an initial reduction preceding the enhancement. It was independent of the lesion. Caffeine did not modify the learning performance of NVHL rats. But, RX821002 was found to facilitate learning.Patients tend to intake much more caffeine than healthy people, which has been interpreted as a means to counter some cognitive deficits. This idea was not validated with the present results. But adrenergic drugs could be helpful for attenuating some of their cognitive deficits.

  2. Higher-order conditioning is impaired by hippocampal lesions.

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    Gilboa, Asaf; Sekeres, Melanie; Moscovitch, Morris; Winocur, Gordon

    2014-09-22

    Behavior in the real world is rarely motivated by primary conditioned stimuli that have been directly associated with potent unconditioned reinforcers. Instead, motivation and choice behavior are driven by complex chains of higher-order associations that are only indirectly linked to intrinsic reward and often exert their influence outside awareness. Second-order conditioning (SOC) [1] is a basic associative-learning mechanism whereby stimuli acquire motivational salience by proxy, in the absence of primary incentives [2, 3]. Memory-systems theories consider first-order conditioning (FOC) and SOC to be prime examples of hippocampal-independent nondeclarative memory [4, 5]. Accordingly, neurobiological models of SOC focus almost exclusively on nondeclarative neural systems that support motivational salience and reward value. Transfer of value from a conditioned stimulus to a neutral stimulus is thought to require the basolateral amygdala [6, 7] and the ventral striatum [2, 3], but not the hippocampus. We developed a new paradigm to measure appetitive SOC of tones in rats. Hippocampal lesions severely impaired both acquisition and expression of SOC despite normal FOC. Unlike controls, rats with hippocampal lesions could not discriminate between positive and negative secondary conditioned tones, although they exhibited general familiarity with previously presented tones compared with new tones. Importantly, normal rats' behavior, in contrast to that of hippocampal groups, also revealed different confidence levels as indexed by effort, a central characteristic of hippocampal relational memory. The results indicate, contrary to current systems models, that representations of intrinsic relationships between reward value, stimulus identity, and motivation require hippocampal mediation when these relationships are of a higher order. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neonatal hippocampal lesions in rhesus macaques alter the monitoring, but not maintenance, of information in working memory

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    Heuer, Eric; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal hippocampal damage in rodents impairs medial prefrontal working memory functions. To examine whether similar impairment will follow the same damage in primates, adult monkeys with neonatal hippocampal lesions and sham-operated controls were trained on two working memory tasks. The Session Unique-Delayed Non-Match-to-Sample (SU-DNMS) measures maintenance of information in working memory mediated by the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex. The Object Self-Ordered Task (Obj-SO) measures m...

  4. Haloperidol treatment at pre-exposure phase reduces the disturbance of latent inhibition in rats with neonatal ventral hippocampus lesions.

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    Ouhaz, Zakaria; Ba-M'hamed, Saadia; Bennis, Mohamed

    2014-10-01

    Animals with neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions develop during or after adolescence abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia such as anxiety and latent inhibition disruption. The aim of this study was to test whether haloperidol injection prior to pre-exposure session in the latent inhibition test would facilitate latent inhibition. Lesioned animals showed a significant decrease in the number and duration of social interactions, a decrease in the marbles buried, a significant increase in locomotor activity, and a disruption of latent inhibition. In the conditioned taste aversion test, injection of haloperidol produced the recovery of latent inhibition. These findings demonstrate that neonatal lidocaine lesion of the ventral hippocampus can induce behavioral changes related to schizophrenia, and injection of haloperidol, when restricted only to a three-day pre-exposure, is sufficient to facilitate latent inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Reward cues in space: commonalities and differences in neural coding by hippocampal and ventral striatal ensembles.

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    Lansink, Carien S; Jackson, Jadin C; Lankelma, Jan V; Ito, Rutsuko; Robbins, Trevor W; Everitt, Barry J; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2012-09-05

    Forming place-reward associations critically depends on the integrity of the hippocampal-ventral striatal system. The ventral striatum (VS) receives a strong hippocampal input conveying spatial-contextual information, but it is unclear how this structure integrates this information to invigorate reward-directed behavior. Neuronal ensembles in rat hippocampus (HC) and VS were simultaneously recorded during a conditioning task in which navigation depended on path integration. In contrast to HC, ventral striatal neurons showed low spatial selectivity, but rather coded behavioral task phases toward reaching goal sites. Outcome-predicting cues induced a remapping of firing patterns in the HC, consistent with its role in episodic memory. VS remapped in conjunction with the HC, indicating that remapping can take place in multiple brain regions engaged in the same task. Subsets of ventral striatal neurons showed a "flip" from high activity when cue lights were illuminated to low activity in intertrial intervals, or vice versa. The cues induced an increase in spatial information transmission and sparsity in both structures. These effects were paralleled by an enhanced temporal specificity of ensemble coding and a more accurate reconstruction of the animal's position from population firing patterns. Altogether, the results reveal strong differences in spatial processing between hippocampal area CA1 and VS, but indicate similarities in how discrete cues impact on this processing.

  6. Reward Expectancy Strengthens CA1 Theta and Beta Band Synchronization and Hippocampal-Ventral Striatal Coupling.

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    Lansink, Carien S; Meijer, Guido T; Lankelma, Jan V; Vinck, Martin A; Jackson, Jadin C; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2016-10-12

    The use of information from the hippocampal memory system in motivated behavior depends on its communication with the ventral striatum. When an animal encounters cues that signal subsequent reward, its reward expectancy is raised. It is unknown, however, how this process affects hippocampal dynamics and their influence on target structures, such as ventral striatum. We show that, in rats, reward-predictive cues result in enhanced hippocampal theta and beta band rhythmic activity during subsequent action, compared with uncued goal-directed navigation. The beta band component, also labeled theta's harmonic, involves selective hippocampal CA1 cell groups showing frequency doubling of firing periodicity relative to theta rhythmicity and it partitions the theta cycle into segments showing clear versus poor spike timing organization. We found that theta phase precession occurred over a wider range than previously reported. This was apparent from spikes emitted near the peak of the theta cycle exhibiting large "phase precessing jumps" relative to spikes in foregoing cycles. Neither this phenomenon nor the regular manifestation of theta phase precession was affected by reward expectancy. Ventral striatal neuronal firing phase-locked not only to hippocampal theta, but also to beta band activity. Both hippocampus and ventral striatum showed increased synchronization between neuronal firing and local field potential activity during cued compared with uncued goal approaches. These results suggest that cue-triggered reward expectancy intensifies hippocampal output to target structures, such as the ventral striatum, by which the hippocampus may gain prioritized access to systems modulating motivated behaviors. Here we show that temporally discrete cues raising reward expectancy enhance both theta and beta band activity in the hippocampus once goal-directed navigation has been initiated. These rhythmic activities are associated with increased synchronization of neuronal firing

  7. The effects of vestibular lesions on hippocampal function in rats.

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    Smith, Paul F; Horii, Arata; Russell, Noah; Bilkey, David K; Zheng, Yiwen; Liu, Ping; Kerr, D Steve; Darlington, Cynthia L

    2005-04-01

    Interest in interaction between the vestibular system and the hippocampus was stimulated by evidence that peripheral vestibular lesions could impair performance in learning and memory tasks requiring spatial information processing. By the 1990s, electrophysiological data were emerging that the brainstem vestibular nucleus complex (VNC) and the hippocampus were connected polysynaptically and that hippocampal place cells could respond to vestibular stimulation. The aim of this review is to summarise and critically evaluate research published in the last 5 years that has seen major progress in understanding the effects of vestibular damage on the hippocampus. In addition to new behavioural studies demonstrating that animals with vestibular lesions exhibit impairments in spatial memory tasks, electrophysiological studies have confirmed long-latency, polysynaptic pathways between the VNC and the hippocampus. Peripheral vestibular lesions have been shown to cause long-term changes in place cell function, hippocampal EEG activity and even CA1 field potentials in brain slices maintained in vitro. During the same period, neurochemical investigations have shown that some hippocampal subregions exhibit long-term changes in the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, arginase I and II, and the NR1 and NR2A N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits following peripheral vestibular damage. Despite the progress, a number of important issues remain to be resolved, such as the possible contribution of auditory damage associated with vestibular lesions, to the hippocampal effects observed. Furthermore, although these studies demonstrate that damage to the vestibular system does have a long-term impact on the electrophysiological and neurochemical function of the hippocampus, they do not indicate precisely how vestibular information might be used in hippocampal functions such as developing spatial representations of the environment. Understanding this will require detailed

  8. Transcriptome differentiation along the dorso-ventral axis in laser-captured microdissected rat hippocampal granular cell layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T.; Bisgaard, C.F.; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2010-01-01

    Several findings suggest a functional and anatomical differentiation along the dorso-ventral axis of the hippocampus. Lesion studies in rats have indicated that the dorsal hippocampus preferentially plays a role in spatial learning and memory, while the ventral hippocampus is involved in anxiety...

  9. Regulation of actions and habits by ventral hippocampal trkB and adolescent corticosteroid exposure.

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    Barfield, Elizabeth T; Gerber, Kyle J; Zimmermann, Kelsey S; Ressler, Kerry J; Parsons, Ryan G; Gourley, Shannon L

    2017-11-01

    In humans and rodents, stress promotes habit-based behaviors that can interfere with action-outcome decision-making. Further, developmental stressor exposure confers long-term habit biases across rodent-primate species. Despite these homologies, mechanisms remain unclear. We first report that exposure to the primary glucocorticoid corticosterone (CORT) in adolescent mice recapitulates multiple neurobehavioral consequences of stressor exposure, including long-lasting biases towards habit-based responding in a food-reinforced operant conditioning task. In both adolescents and adults, CORT also caused a shift in the balance between full-length tyrosine kinase receptor B (trkB) and a truncated form of this neurotrophin receptor, favoring the inactive form throughout multiple corticolimbic brain regions. In adolescents, phosphorylation of the trkB substrate extracellular signal-regulated kinase 42/44 (ERK42/44) in the ventral hippocampus was also diminished, a long-term effect that persisted for at least 12 wk. Administration of the trkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) during adolescence at doses that stimulated ERK42/44 corrected long-lasting corticosterone-induced behavioral abnormalities. Meanwhile, viral-mediated overexpression of truncated trkB in the ventral hippocampus reduced local ERK42/44 phosphorylation and was sufficient to induce habit-based and depression-like behaviors. Together, our findings indicate that ventral hippocampal trkB is essential to goal-directed action selection, countering habit-based behavior otherwise facilitated by developmental stress hormone exposure. They also reveal an early-life sensitive period during which trkB-ERK42/44 tone determines long-term behavioral outcomes.

  10. Clinical and neurobiological advances in promoting regeneration of the ventral root avulsion lesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggers, R.; Tannemaat, Martijn R; De Winter, F.; Malessy, Martijn J A; Verhaagen, J.

    Root avulsions due to traction to the brachial plexus causes complete and permanent loss of function. Until fairly recent, such lesions were considered impossible to repair. Here we review clinical repair strategies and current progress in experimental ventral root avulsion lesions. The current gold

  11. Effects of ventral striatal lesions on first- and second-order appetitive conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    McDannald, Michael A.; Setlow, Barry; Holland, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Rats with bilateral lesions of the ventral striatal nucleus accumbens failed to acquire Pavlovian second-order conditioning to auditory stimuli paired with visual stimuli that had previously received first-order pairings with food. This deficit in second-order conditioning was specific to learning driven by incentive properties of the first-order cues, and was observed whether the first-order training had occurred prior to or after lesion surgery. Lesions also produced deficits in the display...

  12. Reduced Ventral Tegmental Area-Hippocampal Connectivity in Children and Adolescents Exposed to Early Threat.

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    Marusak, Hilary A; Hatfield, Joshua R B; Thomason, Moriah E; Rabinak, Christine A

    2017-03-01

    Preclinical data suggest that early life stress has detrimental effects on the brain's dopaminergic system, particularly the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Altered dopamine function is thought to contribute to the development of stress-related pathologies; yet, little is known about the impact of early stress on dopamine systems during childhood and adolescence, when stress-related disorders frequently emerge. Here, we evaluate the impact of early threat exposure (violence, abuse) on functional connectivity of putative dopaminergic midbrain regions, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN), giving rise to mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways, respectively. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were completed in 43 trauma-exposed and 43 matched comparison youth (ages 7-17). Functional connectivity of the VTA and SN were compared between groups. The trauma group demonstrated lower functional connectivity between the VTA and hippocampus. No group differences in SN connectivity were observed. Across all participants, there were age-related decreases in connectivity of both VTA and SN with the hippocampus, suggesting that age-related attenuations in VTA-hippocampal circuitry may be exacerbated in trauma-exposed youth. Higher levels of anxiety symptomology were associated with reduced SN-nucleus accumbens connectivity. Prior research suggests that VTA-hippocampal circuitry is critical for the gating of new information into long-term memory. Lower connectivity in this circuitry suggests a novel mechanism that may serve to adaptively prevent the overwriting of a previously stored trauma memory, but at the same time contribute to the broad range of cognitive and emotional difficulties linked to early stress exposure.

  13. Exposure to short photoperiod regime reduces ventral subicular lesion-induced anxiety-like behavior in Wistar rats.

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    Subhadeep, Duttagupta; Srikumar, B N; Shankaranarayana Rao, B S; Kutty, Bindu M

    2017-03-01

    Neurodegeneration of hippocampal structures is implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients with AD exhibit 'sundown syndrome' featuring mood swings and anxiety. Although there are studies demonstrating circadian rhythm disruption associated with sundown phenomenon, the mechanisms underlying the emotional disturbances remain elusive. In the present study, we examined the relationship between subiculum (a key hippocampal output structure) and anxiety. Our study demonstrates that bilateral ventral subicular lesion (VSL) leads to anxiogenic behavior. In the elevated plus maze test, VSL rats made less number of entries into the open arms and spent significantly more time in the closed arms. Similarly, in the light-dark exploration test, VSL rats spent significantly more time in the dark chamber and made fewer entries into the light chamber. VSL also produced significant neurodegeneration in the paraventricular, suprachiasmatic and dorsomedial nuclei of the hypothalamus. Exposing VSL rats to a short photoperiod regime (SPR; 06/18h light-dark cycle) for 21days ameliorated the anxiety-like behavior. VSL rats on SPR also exhibited increased food consumption and higher core body temperature. Our study supports the hypothesis that the ventral subiculum regulates anxiety-like behavior and that SPR helps in the alleviation of such behavior. Even though the mechanisms underlying anxiolytic effects of light-dark cycle manipulation are yet to be elucidated, such non-pharmacological strategies can help to mitigate anxiety-like behavior. A proper understanding of the effectiveness of photoperiod manipulation will help in developing strategies in the management of emotional disturbances associated with affective and neurodegenerative disorders including AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of ventral striatal lesions on first- and second-order appetitive conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannald, Michael A; Setlow, Barry; Holland, Peter C

    2013-08-01

    Rats with bilateral lesions of the ventral striatal nucleus accumbens failed to acquire Pavlovian second-order conditioning to auditory stimuli paired with visual stimuli that had previously received first-order pairings with food. This deficit in second-order conditioning was specific to learning driven by incentive properties of the first-order cues, and was observed whether the first-order training had occurred prior to or after lesion surgery. Lesions also produced deficits in the display of conditioned responses to the first-order conditioned stimulus, but only when they were made after first-order training. These results suggest a specific role for the ventral striatum in acquiring and expressing incentive properties of conditioned stimuli through second-order conditioning, as well as a more general role in expressing previously acquired Pavlovian conditioned responses. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effects of neonatal excitotoxic lesions in ventral thalamus on social interaction in the rat.

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    Wolf, Rainer; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Nullmeier, Sven; Bogerts, Bernhard; Schwegler, Herbert

    2017-03-30

    The role of the thalamus in schizophrenia has increasingly been studied in recent years. Deficits in the ventral thalamus have been described in only few postmortem and neuroimaging studies. We utilised our previously introduced neurodevelopmental animal model, the neonatal excitotoxic lesion of the ventral thalamus of Sprague-Dawley rats (Wolf et al., Pharmacopsychiatry 43:99-109, 22). At postnatal day (PD7), male pubs received bilateral thalamic infusions with ibotenic acid (IBA) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (control). In adulthood, social interaction of two animals not familiar to each other was studied by a computerised video tracking system. This study displays clear lesion effects on social interaction of adult male rats. The significant reduction of total contact time and the significant increase in distance between the animals in the IBA group compared to controls can be interpreted as social withdrawal modelling a negative symptom of schizophrenia. The significant increase of total distance travelled in the IBA group can be hypothesised as agitation modelling a positive symptom of schizophrenia. Using a triple concept of social interaction, the percentage of no social interaction (Non-SI%) was significantly larger, and inversely, the percentage of passive social interaction (SI-passive%) was significantly smaller in the IBA group when compared to controls. In conclusion, on the background of findings in schizophrenic patients, the effects of neonatal ventral thalamic IBA lesions in adult male rats support the hypothesis of face and construct validity as animal model of schizophrenia.

  16. Minimally invasive approach for small ventrally located intradural lesions of the craniovertebral junction.

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    Eicker, Sven O; Mende, Klaus Christian; Dührsen, Lasse; Schmidt, Nils Ole

    2015-04-01

    The surgical management of lesions ventral to the neuraxis at the level of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) and upper cervical spine is challenging. Here, the authors describe a minimally invasive dorsal approach for small ventrally located intradural lesions at the CVJ as an alternative for the more extensive classic transoral approach or variants of suboccipital approaches. Between 2012 and 2014, 6 symptomatic patients with a small lesion of the ventral aspect at the CVJ level were treated using a minimally invasive dorsal approach at the University Medical Center in Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany. The anatomical distance between the posterior atlantooccipital membrane and the posterior atlantoaxial ligament, as determined by CT images, was assessed in the treated patients and in 100 untreated persons. The authors treated 6 patients (mean age 54.7 years) who had a clinical presentation of mild neurological symptoms that disappeared after resection. Minimally invasive surgical dorsal access was achieved by using tubular systems and using the natural space between the occiput (C-0) and C-1, and in 1 case between C-1 and C-2, without having to remove bony structures. The postoperative course in each of the 6 patients was uneventful. The neuropatho-logical findings confirmed a meningotheliomatous meningioma (WHO Grade I) in 5 cases and an extramedullary cavernous hemangioma in 1 case. MRI confirmed complete resection of all the lesions. The atlantooccipital distances ranged from 3 to 17 mm (mean 8.98 mm) in the supine neutral position, and the atlantoaxial distances ranged from 5 to 17 mm (mean 10.56 mm). There were no significant differences between women and men (atlantooccipital p = 0.14; atlantoaxial p = 0.72). The results of this study demonstrate that the minimally invasive dorsal approach using the space between C-0 and C-1 or C-1 and C-2 provides direct and sufficient exposure for the safe surgical resection of small ventrally located intradural lesions at the

  17. Effects of Ventral Striatum Lesions on Stimulus-Based versus Action-Based Reinforcement Learning.

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    Rothenhoefer, Kathryn M; Costa, Vincent D; Bartolo, Ramón; Vicario-Feliciano, Raquel; Murray, Elisabeth A; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2017-07-19

    Learning the values of actions versus stimuli may depend on separable neural circuits. In the current study, we evaluated the performance of rhesus macaques with ventral striatum (VS) lesions on a two-arm bandit task that had randomly interleaved blocks of stimulus-based and action-based reinforcement learning (RL). Compared with controls, monkeys with VS lesions had deficits in learning to select rewarding images but not rewarding actions. We used a RL model to quantify learning and choice consistency and found that, in stimulus-based RL, the VS lesion monkeys were more influenced by negative feedback and had lower choice consistency than controls. Using a Bayesian model to parse the groups' learning strategies, we also found that VS lesion monkeys defaulted to an action-based choice strategy. Therefore, the VS is involved specifically in learning the value of stimuli, not actions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Reinforcement learning models of the ventral striatum (VS) often assume that it maintains an estimate of state value. This suggests that it plays a general role in learning whether rewards are assigned based on a chosen action or stimulus. In the present experiment, we examined the effects of VS lesions on monkeys' ability to learn that choosing a particular action or stimulus was more likely to lead to reward. We found that VS lesions caused a specific deficit in the monkeys' ability to discriminate between images with different values, whereas their ability to discriminate between actions with different values remained intact. Our results therefore suggest that the VS plays a specific role in learning to select rewarded stimuli. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/376902-13$15.00/0.

  18. Effects of dorsal and ventral vertical lobe electrolytic lesions on spatial learning and locomotor activity in Sepia officinalis.

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    Graindorge, Nicolas; Alves, Christelle; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Chichery, Raymond; Dickel, Ludovic; Bellanger, Cécile

    2006-10-01

    This study aims to analyze the effects of electrolytic lesion, restricted to either the ventral or the dorsal parts of the vertical lobe (VL), on the behavior of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis). Two behavioral tests were performed on sham-operated and lesioned cuttlefish: assessment of locomotor activity in an open field and determination of spatial learning abilities in a T maze. The results showed that ventral lesions of the VL led to marked impairment in the acquisition of spatial learning, whereas dorsal lesions of the VL increased locomotor activity in the open field and impaired long-term retention of spatial learning. This study establishes for the first time the existence of distinct functions in the ventral and the dorsal parts of the VL in cephalopods.

  19. Ventral striatum lesions enhance stimulus and response encoding in dorsal striatum.

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    Burton, Amanda C; Bissonette, Gregory B; Lichtenberg, Nina T; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Roesch, Matthew R

    2014-01-15

    The development of addiction is thought to reflect a transition from goal-directed to stimulus-response driven behavior, functions attributed to ventral (VS) and dorsal striatum (DS), respectively. In line with this theory, neuroadaptations that occur during prolonged drug use progress from VS to DS. Here we ask if VS dysfunction alone, independent of drug use, can affect neural selectivity in DS. To address this issue, we recorded from single neurons in DS while rats performed an odor-guided choice task for differently valued rewards in rats with and without unilateral VS lesions. In a separate group of animals, we used bilateral VS lesions to determine if VS was critical for performance on this task. We describe data showing that unilateral lesions of VS enhance neural representations in DS during performance of a task that is dependent on VS. Furthermore, we show that VS is critical for reward-guided decision-making initially, but that rats regain function after several days. These results suggest that loss of VS function, independent of chronic drug use, can trigger stronger encoding in DS in a reward-guided decision-making task and that the transition from VS to DS governed behavior observed in addiction might be due, in part, to initial loss of VS function. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Anterior Thalamic Lesions Alter Both Hippocampal-Dependent Behavior and Hippocampal Acetylcholine Release in the Rat

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    Savage, Lisa M.; Hall, Joseph M.; Vetreno, Ryan P.

    2011-01-01

    The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) are important for learning and memory as damage to this region produces a persistent amnestic syndrome. Dense connections between the ATN and the hippocampus exist, and importantly, damage to the ATN can impair hippocampal functioning. Acetylcholine (ACh) is a key neurotransmitter in the hippocampus, and in vivo…

  1. Less means more: The magnitude of synaptic plasticity along the hippocampal dorso-ventral axis is inversely related to the expression levels of plasticity-related neurotransmitter receptors.

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    Dubovyk, Valentyna; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2018-02-01

    The dorsoventral axis of the hippocampus exhibits functional differentiations with regard to (spatial Vs emotional) learning and information retention (rapid encoding Vs long-term storage), as well as its sensitivity to neuromodulation and information received from extrahippocampal structures. The mechanisms that underlie these differentiations remain unclear. Here, we explored neurotransmitter receptor expression along the dorsoventral hippocampal axis and compared hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region of the dorsal (DH), intermediate (IH) and ventral hippocampi (VH). We observed a very distinct gradient of expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor GluN2B subunit in the Stratum radiatum (DH IH > VH). Neurotransmitter release probability was lowest in DH. Surprisingly, identical afferent stimulation conditions resulted in hippocampal synaptic plasticity that was the most robust in the DH, compared with IH and VH. These data suggest that differences in hippocampal information processing and synaptic plasticity along the dorsoventral axis may relate to specific differences in the expression of plasticity-related neurotransmitter receptors. This gradient may support the fine-tuning and specificity of hippocampal synaptic encoding. © 2017 The Authors. Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Mumps Meningoencephalitis with Bilateral Hippocampal Lesions without Preceding Acute Parotitis: A Case Report.

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    Woo, Ah Reum; Lee, Ha Young; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kang, Young Hye; Cho, Soon Gu; Choi, Seong Hye; Baek, Ji Hyeon

    2017-01-01

    Meningitis is a common central nervous system (CNS) complication of the mumps, a viral infection, but encephalitis and meningoencephalitis are less common in mumps. We describe magnetic resonance imaging findings of acute mumps meningoencephalitis in a 32-year-old male who showed bilateral hippocampal lesions without preceding parotitis. Although it is rare, hippocampal involvement should be considered a CNS complication of mumps infection.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of mumps meningoencephalitis with bilateral hippocampal lesions without preceding acute parotitis: A case report

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    Woo, Ah Reum; Lee, Ha Young; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kang, Young Hye; Cho, Soon Gu; Choi, Seong Hye; Baek, Ji Hyeon [Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Meningitis is a common central nervous system (CNS) complication of the mumps, a viral infection, but encephalitis and meningoencephalitis are less common in mumps. We describe magnetic resonance imaging findings of acute mumps meningoencephalitis in a 32-year-old male who showed bilateral hippocampal lesions without preceding parotitis. Although it is rare, hippocampal involvement should be considered a CNS complication of mumps infection.

  4. Hippocampal lesions facilitate instrumental learning with delayed reinforcement but induce impulsive choice in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Timothy HC

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animals must frequently act to influence the world even when the reinforcing outcomes of their actions are delayed. Learning with action-outcome delays is a complex problem, and little is known of the neural mechanisms that bridge such delays. When outcomes are delayed, they may be attributed to (or associated with the action that caused them, or mistakenly attributed to other stimuli, such as the environmental context. Consequently, animals that are poor at forming context-outcome associations might learn action-outcome associations better with delayed reinforcement than normal animals. The hippocampus contributes to the representation of environmental context, being required for aspects of contextual conditioning. We therefore hypothesized that animals with hippocampal lesions would be better than normal animals at learning to act on the basis of delayed reinforcement. We tested the ability of hippocampal-lesioned rats to learn a free-operant instrumental response using delayed reinforcement, and what is potentially a related ability – the ability to exhibit self-controlled choice, or to sacrifice an immediate, small reward in order to obtain a delayed but larger reward. Results Rats with sham or excitotoxic hippocampal lesions acquired an instrumental response with different delays (0, 10, or 20 s between the response and reinforcer delivery. These delays retarded learning in normal rats. Hippocampal-lesioned rats responded slightly less than sham-operated controls in the absence of delays, but they became better at learning (relative to shams as the delays increased; delays impaired learning less in hippocampal-lesioned rats than in shams. In contrast, lesioned rats exhibited impulsive choice, preferring an immediate, small reward to a delayed, larger reward, even though they preferred the large reward when it was not delayed. Conclusion These results support the view that the hippocampus hinders action-outcome learning

  5. Effect of voluntary running on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cholinergic lesioned mice

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    Dawe Gavin S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholinergic neuronal dysfunction of the basal forebrain is observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and has been linked to decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus, a region involved in learning and memory. Running is a robust inducer of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This study aims to address the effect of running on hippocampal neurogenesis in lesioned mice, where septohippocampal cholinergic neurones have been selectively eliminated in the medial septum and diagonal band of Broca of the basal forebrain by infusion of mu-p75-saporin immunotoxin. Results Running increased the number of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in cholinergic denervated mice compared to non-lesioned mice 24 hours after injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU. Although similar levels of surviving cells were present in cholinergic depleted animals and their respective controls four weeks after injection of BrdU, the majority of progenitors that proliferate in response to the initial period of running were not able to survive beyond one month without cholinergic input. Despite this, the running-induced increase in the number of surviving neurones was not affected by cholinergic depletion. Conclusion The lesion paradigm used here models aspects of the cholinergic deficits associated with Alzheimer's Disease and aging. We showed that running still increased the number of newborn cells in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus in this model of neurodegenerative disease.

  6. Stress-related factors in the emergence of transient global amnesia with hippocampal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane eDöhring

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The transient global amnesia (TGA is a rare amnesic syndrome that is characterized by an acute onset episode of an anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Its origin is still debated, but there is evidence for psychological factors involved in TGA. In neuroimaging, selective lesions in the CA1 fields of the hippocampus can be detected, a region that is particularly involved in the processing of memory, stress and emotion. The aim of this study was to assess the role of psychological stress in TGA by studying the prevalence of stress related precipitating events and individual stress-related personality profiles as well as coping strategies in patients. The hypothesis of a functional differentiation of the hippocampus in mnemonic and stress-related compartments was also evaluated. From all 113 patients, 18 % (n= 24 patients experienced emotional and psychological stress episodes directly before the TGA. In a cohort of 21 acute patients, TGA patients tend to cope with stress less efficiently and less constructively than controls. Patients who experienced a stress related precipitant event exhibited a higher level of anxiety in comparison to non-stress patients and controls. However, there was no difference between the general experience of stress and the number of stress inducing life events. The majority of patients (73% did show typical MRI lesions in the CA1 region of the hippocampal cornu ammonis. There was no clear association between stressful events, distribution of hippocampal CA1 lesions and behavioral patterns during the TGA. Disadvantageous coping strategies and an elevated anxiety level may increase the susceptibility to psychological stress which may facilitate the pathophysiological cascade in TGA. The findings suggest a role of emotional stress factors in the manifestation of TGA in a subgroup of patients. Stress may be one trigger involved in the emergence of transient lesions in the hippocampal CA1 region, which are thought to be the

  7. 6-Hydroxydopamine lesions of the anteromedial ventral striatum impair opposite-sex urinary odor preference in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBenedictis, Brett T; Olugbemi, Adaeze O; Baum, Michael J; Cherry, James A

    2014-11-01

    Rodents rely upon their olfactory modality to perceive opposite-sex pheromonal odors needed to motivate courtship behaviors. Volatile and nonvolatile components of pheromonal odors are processed by the main (MOS) and accessory olfactory system (AOS), respectively, with inputs converging in the medial amygdala (Me). The Me in turn targets the mesolimbic dopamine system, including the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) and shell (AcbSh), the ventral pallidum (VP), medial olfactory tubercle (mOT) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). We hypothesized that pheromone-induced dopamine (DA) release in the ventral striatum (particularly in the mAcb and mOT) may mediate the normal preference of female mice to investigate male pheromones. We made bilateral 6-OHDA lesions of DA fibers innervating either the mAcb alone or the mAcb+mOT in female mice and tested estrous females' preference for opposite-sex urinary odors. We found that 6-OHDA lesions of either the mAcb alone or the mAcb+mOT significantly reduced the preference of sexually naïve female mice to investigate breeding male urinary odors (volatiles as well as volatiles+nonvolatiles) vs. estrous female urinary odors. These same neurotoxic lesions had no effect on subjects' ability to discriminate between these two urinary odors, on their locomotor activity, or on their preference for consuming sucrose. The integrity of the dopaminergic innervation of the mAcb and mOT is required for female mice to prefer investigating male pheromones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Disrupted Co-activation of Interneurons and Hippocampal Network after Focal Kainate Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim-Anna Sieu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available GABAergic interneurons are known to control activity balance in physiological conditions and to coordinate hippocampal networks during cognitive tasks. In temporal lobe epilepsy interneuron loss and consecutive network imbalance could favor pathological hypersynchronous epileptic discharges. We tested this hypothesis in mice by in vivo unilateral epileptogenic hippocampal kainate lesion followed by in vitro recording of extracellular potentials and patch-clamp from GFP-expressing interneurons in CA3, in an optimized recording chamber. Slices from lesioned mice displayed, in addition to control synchronous events, larger epileptiform discharges. Despite some ipsi/contralateral and layer variation, interneuron density tended to decrease, average soma size to increase. Their membrane resistance decreased, capacitance increased and contralateral interneuron required higher current intensity to fire action potentials. Examination of synchronous discharges of control and larger amplitudes, revealed that interneurons were biased to fire predominantly with the largest population discharges. Altogether, these observations suggest that the overall effect of reactive cell loss, hypertrophy and reduced contralateral excitability corresponds to interneuron activity tuning to fire with larger population discharges. Such cellular and network mechanisms may contribute to a runaway path toward epilepsy.

  9. High-Frequency Stimulation-Induced Synaptic Potentiation in Dorsal and Ventral CA1 Hippocampal Synapses: The Involvement of NMDA Receptors, mGluR5, and (L-Type) Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodoropoulos, Costas; Kouvaros, Stylianos

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the ventral hippocampus (VH) for long-lasting long-term potentiation (LTP) and the mechanisms underlying its lower ability for shortlasting LTP compared with the dorsal hippocampus (DH) are unknown. Using recordings of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) from the CA1 field of adult rat hippocampal slices, we found that…

  10. The ventral striatum in off-line processing: ensemble reactivation during sleep and modulation by hippocampal ripples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennartz, C.M.A.; Lee, E.; Verheul, J.; Lipa, P.; Barnes, C.A.; Mc. Naughton, B.L.

    2004-01-01

    Previously it has been shown that the hippocampus and neocortex can spontaneously reactivate ensemble activity patterns during post-behavioral sleep and rest periods. Here we examined whether such reactivation also occurs in a subcortical structure, the ventral striatum, which receives a direct

  11. Enhanced context-dependency of object recognition in rats with hippocampal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Norman; Lehmann, Hugo; Lecluse, Valerie; Mumby, Dave G

    2006-06-03

    Object recognition memory was assessed on a novel-object preference (NOP) task in rats with lesions of the hippocampal formation (HPC). The learning and test phases of NOP trials occurred in either the same context or in different contexts. When the learning and test contexts were the same, rats with HPC lesions performed like control rats, displaying a significant tendency to investigate a novel object more than a familiar sample object. When the test occurred in a context that was familiar but different from the learning context, performance was unaffected in control rats, but rats with HPC lesions no longer discriminated between the objects, and therefore showed no evidence of recognizing the sample object. When the test context was unfamiliar, novel-object preference in control rats was attenuated but still above chance levels, whereas rats with HPC lesions did not show a preference. The data suggest that the HPC is not critical for encoding or retrieving conjunctive representations of the context in which incidental learning occurs, whereas it plays an essential role in recognition of objects that are subsequently encountered in different contexts.

  12. A posterolateral approach to occipitoatlantoaxial ventral lesions: a report of the long-term follow-up of 23 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limin, Liu; Chunguang, Zhou; Yueming, Song; Siqing, Huang; Hao, Liu; Quan, Gong; Tao, Li; Jiancheng, Zeng; Faming, Luo

    2013-07-01

    A retrospective study of consecutive patient series. To report a technique of odontoidectomy using a transoccipitocervical posterolateral approach for occipitoatlantoaxial ventral lesions in a long-term follow-up study. Occipitoatlantoaxial malformation and old traumatic dislocation usually cause compression of the high cervical spinal cord from a variety of different directions and angles, leading to high morbidity. The main objective of treatment is to relieve the anteroposterior compression and to restore the stability of the occipitocervical region. Currently, there are 2 approaches to perform the surgical procedure: (1) posterior decompression by suboccipital and occipitocervical fusion and internal fixation; and (2) decompression by a transoral approach to an odontoid resection. However, there are some short points, which need to be changed, such as the incomplete decompression (the former), narrow view, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, and the high infection rates. From 1999 to 2006, 23 patients with occipitoatlantoaxial ventral lesions were treated using a transoccipitocervical posterolateral approach for decompression. The procedure included an expansion of the foramen magnum, a resection of the posterior arch of atlas, a lateral occipitocervical epidural exposure to the odontoid and the C2 vertebra, and an excision of the odontoid. Thus, an anteroposterior decompression and occipitocervical spinal fusion was achieved. Neurological function, daily living ability, and the work ability of patients were assessed in a follow-up study. A 28-year-old woman died of respiratory and circulatory failure 10 hours after operation. The remaining patients survived without postoperative infection. The neurological injury in 17 patients did not deteriorate, whereas 5 patients had decreased sensation in the upper limbs, and the elbow flexor muscle strength in 2 patients declined by 1 grade on the operation side. Short-term follow-up (3-6 mo, 22 cases) indicated that 19

  13. [A surgical case of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis and traumatic neocortical lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Yu; Jin, Kazutaka; Iwasaki, Masaki; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Nakasato, Nobukazu

    2017-11-25

    A 26-year-old right-handed woman, with a history of left temporal lobe contusion caused by a fall at the age of 9 months, started to have complex partial seizures with oral automatism at the age of 7 years. The seizures occurred once or twice a month despite combination therapy with several antiepileptic agents. Her history and imaging studies suggested the diagnosis of epilepsy arising from traumatic neocortical temporal lesion. Comprehensive assessment including long-term video EEG monitoring, MRI, FDG-PET, MEG, and neuropsychological evaluation was performed at the age of 26 years. The diagnosis was left mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal atrophy and traumatic temporal cortical lesion. The patient was readmitted for surgical treatment at the age of 27 years. Intracranial EEG monitoring showed that ictal discharges started in the left hippocampus and spread to the traumatic lesion in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus 10 seconds after the onset. This case could not be classified as dual pathology exactly, because the traumatic left temporal cortical lesion did not show independent epileptogenicity. However, the traumatic lesion was highly likely to be the source of the epileptogenicity, and she had right hemispheric dominance for language and functional deterioration in the whole temporal cortex. Therefore, left amygdalo-hippocampectomy and left temporal lobectomy including the traumatic lesion were performed according to the diagnosis of dual pathology. Subsequently, she remained seizure-free for 3 years. Comprehensive assessment of seizure semiology, neurophysiology, neuroradiology, and neuropsychology is important to determine the optimum therapeutic strategies for drug-resistant epilepsy.

  14. Motor skill learning and offline-changes in TGA patients with acute hippocampal CA1 lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhring, Juliane; Stoldt, Anne; Witt, Karsten; Schönfeld, Robby; Deuschl, Günther; Born, Jan; Bartsch, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Learning and the formation of memory are reflected in various memory systems in the human brain such as the hippocampus based declarative memory system and the striatum-cortex based system involved in motor sequence learning. It is a matter of debate how both memory systems interact in humans during learning and consolidation and how this interaction is influenced by sleep. We studied the effect of an acute dysfunction of hippocampal CA1 neurons on the acquisition (on-line condition) and off-line changes of a motor skill in patients with a transient global amnesia (TGA). Sixteen patients (68 ± 4.4 yrs) were studied in the acute phase and during follow-up using a declarative and procedural test, and were compared to controls. Acute TGA patients displayed profound deficits in all declarative memory functions. During the acute amnestic phase, patients were able to acquire the motor skill task reflected by increasing finger tapping speed across the on-line condition, albeit to a lesser degree than during follow-up or compared to controls. Retrieval two days later indicated a greater off-line gain in motor speed in patients than controls. Moreover, this gain in motor skill performance was negatively correlated to the declarative learning deficit. Our results suggest a differential interaction between procedural and declarative memory systems during acquisition and consolidation of motor sequences in older humans. During acquisition, hippocampal dysfunction attenuates fast learning and thus unmasks the slow and rigid learning curve of striatum-based procedural learning. The stronger gains in the post-consolidation condition in motor skill in CA1 lesioned patients indicate a facilitated consolidation process probably occurring during sleep, and suggest a competitive interaction between the memory systems. These findings might be a reflection of network reorganization and plasticity in older humans and in the presence of CA1 hippocampal pathology. Copyright © 2016

  15. Ventral simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia for unfamiliar faces due to a right posterior superior temporal sulcus and angular gyrus lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Hamada, Kensuke; Tsugawa, Naoya; Sugimoto, Izumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with ventral simultanagnosia, prosopagnosia for "unfamiliar faces" (dorsal prosopagnosia), spatial agraphia, and constructional disorder, particularly on the left spatial side, due to a lesion in the right posterior superior and middle temporal gyri and angular gyrus. The patient showed impairment of fundamental visual and visuospatial recognition, such as in object size, configuration, and horizontal point location, which probably underlay the mechanism of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia. This case also suggests that the coexistence of simultanagnosia and prosopagnosia results from a right hemispheric insult, and damage to the temporoparietal area interrupts the incorporation of spatial information into object recognition. This disconnection of information flow, together with impaired object recognition per se, may impair the parallel processing of multiple objects, leading to object-by-object or part-by-part recognition.

  16. The influence of context on recognition memory in monkeys: effects of hippocampal, parahippocampal and perirhinal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Nemanic, Sarah; Alvarado, Maria C

    2015-05-15

    This study further investigated the specific contributions of the medial temporal lobe structures to contextual recognition memory. Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with either neurotoxic lesions of the hippocampus, aspiration lesions of the perirhinal cortex and parahippocampal areas TH/TF, or sham operations were tested on five conditions of a visual-paired comparison (VPC) task in which 3-dimensional objects were presented over multicolored backgrounds. In two conditions (Conditions 1 and 2: Context-changes), the sample object was presented on a new background during the retention tests, whereas in the three others (Conditions 3-5: No-context-changes) the sample object was presented over its familiar background. Novelty preference scores of control animals were weaker, but still significantly different from chance, in the Context-changes conditions than on the No-context-changes conditions. Animals in the three experimental groups showed strong preference for novelty on the No-context-change conditions, but weaker novelty preference on the Context-change conditions than controls. Thus, animals in all three lesion types had greater difficulty recognizing an object when its background was different from that used during encoding. The data are consistent with the view that the hippocampal formation, areas TH/TF, and perirhinal cortex contribute interactively to contextual memory processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronic pramipexole treatment increases tolerance for sucrose in normal and ventral tegmental lesioned rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eDARDOU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of dopamine neurons observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD elicits severe motor control deficits which are reduced by the use of dopamine agonists. However, recent works have indicated that D3-preferential agonists such as pramipexole can induce impulse control disorders such as food craving or compulsive eating. In the present study, we performed an intermittent daily feeding experiment to assess the effect of chronic treatment by pramipexole and VTA bilateral lesion on tolerance for sucrose solution. The impact of such chronic treatment on spontaneous locomotion and spatial memory was also examined. Changes in sucrose tolerance could indicate the potential development of a change in food compulsion or addiction related to the action of pramipexole. Neither the bilateral lesion of the VTA nor chronic treatment with pramipexole altered the spontaneous locomotion or spatial memory in rats. Rats without pramipexole treatment quickly developed a stable intake of sucrose solution in the 12h access phase. On the contrary, when under daily pramipexole treatment, rats developed a stronger and ongoing escalation of their sucrose solution intakes. In addition, we noted that the change in sucrose consumption was sustained by an increase of the expression of the dopamine 3 receptor in the core and the shell regions of the nucleus accumbens. The present results may suggest that long term stimulation of the dopamine 3 receptor in animals induces a strong increase in sucrose consumption, indicating an effect of this receptor on certain pathological aspects of food eating.

  18. Relative Contributions of the Dorsal vs. Ventral Speech Streams to Speech Perception are Context Dependent: a lesion study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corianne Rogalsky

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The neural basis of speech perception has been debated for over a century. While it is generally agreed that the superior temporal lobes are critical for the perceptual analysis of speech, a major current topic is whether the motor system contributes to speech perception, with several conflicting findings attested. In a dorsal-ventral speech stream framework (Hickok & Poeppel 2007, this debate is essentially about the roles of the dorsal versus ventral speech processing streams. A major roadblock in characterizing the neuroanatomy of speech perception is task-specific effects. For example, much of the evidence for dorsal stream involvement comes from syllable discrimination type tasks, which have been found to behaviorally doubly dissociate from auditory comprehension tasks (Baker et al. 1981. Discrimination task deficits could be a result of difficulty perceiving the sounds themselves, which is the typical assumption, or it could be a result of failures in temporary maintenance of the sensory traces, or the comparison and/or the decision process. Similar complications arise in perceiving sentences: the extent of inferior frontal (i.e. dorsal stream activation during listening to sentences increases as a function of increased task demands (Love et al. 2006. Another complication is the stimulus: much evidence for dorsal stream involvement uses speech samples lacking semantic context (CVs, non-words. The present study addresses these issues in a large-scale lesion-symptom mapping study. 158 patients with focal cerebral lesions from the Mutli-site Aphasia Research Consortium underwent a structural MRI or CT scan, as well as an extensive psycholinguistic battery. Voxel-based lesion symptom mapping was used to compare the neuroanatomy involved in the following speech perception tasks with varying phonological, semantic, and task loads: (i two discrimination tasks of syllables (non-words and words, respectively, (ii two auditory comprehension tasks

  19. Dendritic morphology changes in neurons from the ventral hippocampus, amygdala and nucleus accumbens in rats with neonatal lesions into the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, Zayda; Solis, Oscar; Díaz, Alfonso; Brambila, Eduardo; Aguilar-Alonso, Patricia; Guevara, Jorge; Flores, Gonzalo

    2015-06-01

    Neonatal prefrontal cortex (nPFC) lesions in rats could be a potential animal model to study the early neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with the behavioral and morphological brain changes observed in schizophrenia. Morphological alterations in pyramidal neurons from the ventral hippocampus (VH) have been observed in post-mortem schizophrenic brains, mainly because of decreased dendritic arbor and spine density. We assessed the effects of nPFC-lesions on the dendritic morphology of neurons from the VH, basolateral-amygdala (BLA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in rats. nPFC lesions were made on postnatal day 7 (PD7), after dendritic morphology was studied by the Golgi-Cox stain procedure followed by Sholl analysis at PD35 (prepubertal) and PD60 (adult) ages. We also evaluated the effects of PFC-lesions on locomotor activity caused by a novel environment. Adult animals with nPFC lesions showed a decreased spine density in pyramidal neurons from the VH and in medium spiny cells from the NAcc. An increased locomotion was observed in a novel environment for adult animals with a PFC-lesion. Our results indicate that PFC-lesions alter the neuronal dendrite morphology of the NAcc and the VH, suggesting a disconnection between these limbic structures. The locomotion paradigms suggest that dopaminergic transmission is altered in the PFC lesion model. This could help to understand the consequences of an earlier PFC dysfunction in schizophrenia. To evaluate possible dendritic changes in neonatal prefrontal cortex lesions in schizophrenia-related regions including nucleus accumbens, ventral hippocampus and basolateral amygdala, we used the Golgi-Cox stain samples at PD35 and PD70. Our results suggest that neonatal prefrontal cortex damage alters dendritic parameters in limbic regions, and this has potential implications for schizophrenia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Temporary inhibition of dorsal or ventral hippocampus by muscimol: distinct effects on measures of innate anxiety on the elevated plus maze, but similar disruption of contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Ning; Bast, Tobias; Xu, Yan; Feldon, Joram

    2014-04-01

    Studies in rats, involving hippocampal lesions and hippocampal drug infusions, have implicated the hippocampus in the modulation of anxiety-related behaviors and conditioned fear. The ventral hippocampus is considered to be more important for anxiety- and fear-related behaviors than the dorsal hippocampus. In the present study, we compared the role of dorsal and ventral hippocampus in innate anxiety and classical fear conditioning in Wistar rats, examining the effects of temporary pharmacological inhibition by the GABA-A agonist muscimol (0.5 ug/0.5 ul/side) in the elevated plus maze and on fear conditioning to a tone and the conditioning context. In the elevated plus maze, dorsal and ventral hippocampal muscimol caused distinct behavioral changes. The effects of ventral hippocampal muscimol were consistent with suppression of locomotion, possibly accompanied by anxiolytic effects, whereas the pattern of changes caused by dorsal hippocampal muscimol was consistent with anxiogenic effects. In contrast, dorsal and ventral hippocampal muscimol caused similar effects in the fear conditioning experiments, disrupting contextual, but not tone, fear conditioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lesion of the Ventral Periaqueductal Gray Reduces Conditioned Fear but Does Not Change Freezing Induced by Stimulation of the Dorsal Periaqueductal Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Daniel M.L.; Graeff, Frederico G.; Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus; Brandão, Marcus L.

    2001-01-01

    Previously-reported evidence showed that freezing to a context previously associated with footshock is impaired by lesion of the ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG). It has also been shown that stepwise increase in the intensity of the electrical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) produces alertness, then freezing, and finally escape. These aversive responses are mimicked by microinjections of GABA receptor antagonists, such as bicuculline, or blockers of the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), such as semicarbazide, into the dPAG. In this work, we examined whether the expression of these defensive responses could be the result of activation of ventral portion of the periaqueductal gray. Sham- or vPAG electrolytic–lesioned rats were implanted with an electrode in the dPAG for the determination of the thresholds of freezing and escape responses. The vPAG electrolytic lesions were behaviorally verified through a context-conditioned fear paradigm. Results indicated that lesion of the vPAG disrupted conditioned freezing response to contextual cues associated with footshocks but did not change the dPAG electrical stimulation for freezing and escape responses. In a second experiment, lesion of the vPAG also did not change the amount of freezing and escape behavior produced by microinjections of semicarbazide into the dPAG. These findings indicate that freezing and escape defensive responses induced by dPAG stimulation do not depend on the integrity of the vPAG. A discussion on different neural circuitries that might underlie different inhibitory and active defensive behavioral patterns that animals display during threatening situations is presented. PMID:11390636

  2. Exercise partly reverses the effect of maternal separation on hippocampal proteins in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimatelis, J J; Hendricks, S; Hsieh, J; Vlok, N M; Bugarith, K; Daniels, W M U; Russell, V A

    2013-01-01

    Animals subjected to maternal separation stress during the early stages of development display behavioural, endocrine and growth factor abnormalities that mirror the clinical findings in anxiety/depression. In addition, maternal separation has been shown to exacerbate the behavioural deficits induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. In contrast, voluntary exercise reduced the detrimental effects of 6-OHDA in the rat model. The beneficial effects of exercise appeared to be largely due to compensation in the non-lesioned hemisphere. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary exercise for 3 weeks could reverse the effects of maternal separation in rats challenged with the neurotoxin 6-OHDA infused into the medial forebrain bundle after 1 week of exercise, at postnatal day 60. The rats were killed 2 weeks later, at postnatal day 74. Their brains were dissected and the hippocampus rapidly removed for proteomic analysis by isobaric tagging (iTRAQ) and quantification of peptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/MS). Maternal separation upregulated hippocampal proteins functionally involved in energy metabolism (nucleoside diphosphate kinase B, enolase and triosephosphate isomerase) and synaptic plasticity (α-synuclein, tenascin-R, Ba1-667, brevican and neurocan core protein) in the non-lesioned hemisphere. Exercise reversed many of these changes by downregulating the levels of hippocampal proteins functionally associated with energy metabolism (nucleoside diphosphate kinase B, enolase and triosephosphate isomerase) and synaptic plasticity (α-synuclein, tenascin-R, Ba1-667, brevican and neurocan core protein) in the non-lesioned hemisphere of rats subjected to maternal separation. Exercise and maternal separation therefore appeared to have opposing effects on the hippocampus in the non-lesioned hemisphere of the rat brain. Exercise seemed partly to reverse the

  3. Reversible Hippocampal Lesions Disrupt Water Maze Performance during Both Recent and Remote Memory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Nicola J.; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional lesion methods have shown that damage to the rodent hippocampus can impair previously acquired spatial memory in tasks such as the water maze. In contrast, work with reversible lesion methods using a different spatial task has found remote memory to be spared. To determine whether the finding of spared remote spatial memory depends on…

  4. Perforant path lesioning induces sprouting of CA3-associated fibre systems in mouse hippocampal formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drøjdahl, Nina; Hegelund, Iørn V; Poulsen, Frantz R

    2002-01-01

    In comparison to the rat, the anatomy of the mouse hippocampus, and in particular the response to entorhinal cortex lesioning, is less well characterised. Here we studied the axonal sprouting response after lesioning of the entorhinodentate perforant path projection in young adult SJL/J and C57BL...

  5. Hippocampus and two-way active avoidance conditioning: Contrasting effects of cytotoxic lesion and temporary inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Bast, Tobias; Wang, Yu-Cong; Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2015-12-01

    Hippocampal lesions tend to facilitate two-way active avoidance (2WAA) conditioning, where rats learn to cross to the opposite side of a conditioning chamber to avoid a tone-signaled footshock. This classical finding has been suggested to reflect that hippocampus-dependent place/context memory inhibits 2WAA (a crossing response to the opposite side is inhibited by the memory that this is the place where a shock was received on the previous trial). However, more recent research suggests other aspects of hippocampal function that may support 2WAA learning. More specifically, the ventral hippocampus has been shown to contribute to behavioral responses to aversive stimuli and to positively modulate the meso-accumbens dopamine system, whose activation has been implicated in 2WAA learning. Permanent hippocampal lesions may not reveal these contributions because, following complete and permanent loss of hippocampal output, other brain regions may mediate these processes or because deficits could be masked by lesion-induced extra-hippocampal changes, including an upregulation of accumbal dopamine transmission. Here, we re-examined the hippocampal role in 2WAA learning in Wistar rats, using permanent NMDA-induced neurotoxic lesions and temporary functional inhibition by muscimol or tetrodotoxin (TTX) infusion. Complete hippocampal lesions tended to facilitate 2WAA learning, whereas ventral (VH) or dorsal hippocampal (DH) lesions had no effect. In contrast, VH or DH muscimol or TTX infusions impaired 2WAA learning. Ventral infusions caused an immediate impairment, whereas after dorsal infusions rats showed intact 2WAA learning for 40-50 min, before a marked deficit emerged. These data show that functional inhibition of ventral hippocampus disrupts 2WAA learning, while the delayed impairment following dorsal infusions may reflect the time required for drug diffusion to ventral hippocampus. Overall, using temporary functional inhibition, our study shows that the ventral

  6. The impact of hippocampal lesions on trace-eyeblink conditioning and forebrain-cerebellar interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Craig; Disterhoft, John F

    2015-08-01

    Behavioral Neuroscience published a pivotal paper by Moyer, Deyo, and Disterhoft (1990) 25 years ago that described the impaired acquisition of trace-eyeblink conditioning in rabbits with complete removal of the hippocampus. As part of the Behavioral Neuroscience celebration commemorating the 30th anniversary of the journal, we reflect upon the impact of that study on understanding the role of the hippocampus, forebrain, and forebrain-cerebellar interactions that mediate acquisition and retention of trace-conditioned responses, and of declarative memory more globally. We discuss the expansion of the conditioning paradigm to species other than the rabbit, the heterogeneity of responses among hippocampal neurons during trace conditioning, the responsivity of hippocampal neurons following consolidation of conditioning, the role of awareness in conditioning, how blink conditioning can be used as a translational tool by assaying potential therapeutics for cognitive enhancement, how trace and delay classical conditioning may be used to investigate neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, and how the 2 paradigms may be used to understand the relationship between declarative (explicit) and nondeclarative (implicit) memory systems. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The Impact of Hippocampal Lesions on Trace Eyeblink Conditioning and Forebrain-Cerebellar Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Craig; Disterhoft, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago Behavioral Neuroscience published a pivotal paper by Moyer, Deyo and Disterhoft (1990) that described the impaired acquisition of trace eyeblink conditioning in rabbits with complete removal of the hippocampus. As part of the Behavioral Neuroscience celebration commemorating the 30th anniversary of the Journal, we reflect upon the impact of that study on understanding the role of the hippocampus, forebrain, and forebrain-cerebellar interactions that mediate acquisition and retention of trace conditioned responses, and of declarative memory more globally. We discuss the expansion of the conditioning paradigm to species other than the rabbit, the heterogeneity of responses among hippocampal neurons during trace conditioning, the responsivity of hippocampal neurons following consolidation of conditioning, the role of awareness in conditioning, how blink conditioning can be used as a translational tool by assaying potential therapeutics for cognitive enhancement, how trace and delay classical conditioning may be used to investigate neurological disorders including Alzheimer's Disease and schizophrenia, and how the two paradigms may be used to understand the relationship between declarative and nondeclarative memory systems. PMID:26214216

  8. Post-Training Reversible Disconnection of the Ventral Hippocampal-Basolateral Amygdaloid Circuits Impairs Consolidation of Inhibitory Avoidance Memory in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gong-Wu; Liu, Jian; Wang, Xiao-Qin

    2017-01-01

    The ventral hippocampus (VH) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are both crucial in inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory. However, the exact role of the VH-BLA circuit in IA memory consolidation is unclear. This study investigated the effect of post-training reversible disconnection of the VH-BLA circuit in IA memory consolidation. Male Wistar rats…

  9. Hippocampal Adult Neurogenesis Is Maintained by Neil3-Dependent Repair of Oxidative DNA Lesions in Neural Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Elisabeth Regnell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of oxidative DNA damage has been proposed as a potential cause of age-related cognitive decline. The major pathway for removal of oxidative DNA base lesions is base excision repair, which is initiated by DNA glycosylases. In mice, Neil3 is the main DNA glycosylase for repair of hydantoin lesions in single-stranded DNA of neural stem/progenitor cells, promoting neurogenesis. Adult neurogenesis is crucial for maintenance of hippocampus-dependent functions involved in behavior. Herein, behavioral studies reveal learning and memory deficits and reduced anxiety-like behavior in Neil3−/− mice. Neural stem/progenitor cells from aged Neil3−/− mice show impaired proliferative capacity and reduced DNA repair activity. Furthermore, hippocampal neurons in Neil3−/− mice display synaptic irregularities. It appears that Neil3-dependent repair of oxidative DNA damage in neural stem/progenitor cells is required for maintenance of adult neurogenesis to counteract the age-associated deterioration of cognitive performance.

  10. Anterograde and Retrograde Amnesia of Place Discrimination in Retrosplenial Cortex and Hippocampal Lesioned Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haijima, Asahi; Ichitani, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    Retrograde and anterograde amnesic effects of excitotoxic lesions of the rat retrosplenial cortex (RS) and hippocampus (HPC) were investigated. To test retrograde amnesia, rats were trained with two-arm place discrimination in a radial maze 4 wk and 1 d before surgery with a different arm pair, respectively. In the retention test 1 wk after…

  11. A new touchscreen test of pattern separation: effect of hippocampal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTighe, Stephanie M; Mar, Adam C; Romberg, Carola; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2009-06-17

    Researchers are becoming increasingly interested in the role of the hippocampus in pattern separation, a process which keeps items distinct in memory. In this study, we develop and test a new automated touchscreen-based method for studying pattern separation in rodents. Rats were trained to discriminate locations on a computer screen that varied in their similarity, that is, their distance apart on the screen. Animals with lesions of the dorsal hippocampus were impaired when the locations discriminated were close together but not when they were far apart, indicating impaired pattern separation. This test provides an automated test of pattern separation, which adds to an expanding battery of cognitive tests that can be carried out using the touchscreen testing method.

  12. Effect of intra-hippocampal injection of human recombinant growth hormone on synaptic plasticity in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis-lesioned aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Maryam; Sarkaki, Alireza; Zahedi-Asl, Saleh; Rajaei, Ziba; Farbood, Yaghoob

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we proposed that administration of hippocampal growth hormone in ageing animals with growth hormone deficiency can compensate long-term potentiation and synaptic plasticity in nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM)-lesioned rats. Aged male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (seven in each) of sham-operated healthy rats (Cont); NBM-lesioned rats (L); NBM-lesioned rats and intrahippocampal injection of growth hormone vehicle (L + Veh); NBM-lesioned and intrahippocampal injection of growth hormone (10, 20 and 40 µg.2 µl-1) (L + GH). In vivo electrophysiological recording techniques were used to characterize maintenance of long-term potentiation at distinct times (1, 2, 3, 24 and 48 hours) after high-frequency stimulation. The population spike was enhanced significantly for about 48 hours following tetanic stimulation in rats treated with a dose-dependent growth hormone compared to the vehicle group (p < 0.05), possibly through neuronal plasticity and neurogenesis in affected areas.

  13. A comparison of the effects of temporary hippocampal lesions on single and dual context versions of the olfactory sequence memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sill, Orriana C; Smith, David M

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, many animal models of memory have focused on one or more of the various components of episodic memory. For example, the odor sequence memory task requires subjects to remember individual items and events (the odors) and the temporal aspects of the experience (the sequence of odor presentation). The well-known spatial context coding function of the hippocampus, as exemplified by place cell firing, may reflect the "where" component of episodic memory. In the present study, we added a contextual component to the odor sequence memory task by training rats to choose the earlier odor in one context and the later odor in another context and we compared the effects of temporary hippocampal lesions on performance of the original single context task and the new dual context task. Temporary lesions significantly impaired the single context task, although performance remained significantly above chance levels. In contrast, performance dropped all the way to chance when temporary lesions were used in the dual context task. These results demonstrate that rats can learn a dual context version of the odor sequence learning task that requires the use of contextual information along with the requirement to remember the "what" and "when" components of the odor sequence. Moreover, the addition of the contextual component made the task fully dependent on the hippocampus.

  14. Surgical pathology of epilepsy-associated non-neoplastic cerebral lesions: a brief introduction with special reference to hippocampal sclerosis and focal cortical dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hajime; Hori, Tomokatsu; Vinters, Harry V.

    2014-01-01

    Among epilepsy-associated non-neoplastic lesions, mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE-HS) and malformation of cortical development (MCD) including focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), are the two most frequent causes of drug-resistant focal epilepsies constituting about 50% of all surgical pathology of epilepsy. Several distinct histological patterns have been historically recognized in both HS and FCD, and several studies have tried to perform clinicopathological correlation; results, however, have been controversial, particularly in terms of postsurgical seizure outcome. Recently, the International League Against Epilepsy constituted a Task Forces of Neuropathology and FCD within the Commission on Diagnostic Methods, to establish an international consensus of histological classification of HS and FCD, respectively, based on agreement with the recognition of the importance of defining a histopathological classification system that reliably has some clinicopathological correlation. Such consensus classifications are likely to facilitate future clinicopathological study. Meanwhile, we reviewed neuropathology of 41 surgical cases of mTLE, and confirmed three type/patterns of HS along with no HS, based on the qualitative evaluation of the distribution and severity of neuronal loss and gliosis within hippocampal formation; i.e., HS type 1 (61%) equivalent to ‘classical’ Ammon’s horn sclerosis, HS type 2 (2%) representing CA1 sclerosis, HS type 3 (17%) equivalent to end folium sclerosis, and no HS (19%). Furthermore we performed a neuropathological comparative study on mTLE-HS and dementia associated HS (d-HS) in elderly, and confirmed that neuropathological features differ between mTLE-HS and d-HS in the distribution of hippocampal neuronal loss and gliosis, morphology of reactive astrocytes and their protein expression, and presence of concomitant neurodegenerative changes particularly Alzheimer type and TDP-43 pathologies. These

  15. Transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic progenitor cells overexpressing high molecular weight fibroblast growth factor 2 isoforms in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpel, R; Hohmann, M; Klein, A; Wesemann, M; Baumgärtner, W; Ratzka, A; Grothe, C

    2015-02-12

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is a potent neurotrophic factor promoting survival of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in vitro and in vivo. FGF-2 is expressed in different isoforms representing distinct translation products from a single mRNA. For this study, we focused on the high molecular weight (HMW) isoform, which, after non-viral plasmid-based overexpression in embryonic day 12 (E12) rat ventral mesencephalon (VM)-derived cells, revealed increased numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH(+)) cells in a 'colayer' cell culture model. To determine the therapeutic potential of VM cells producing FGF-2-HMW as their 'own' neurotrophic factor, we transplanted cell suspensions obtained from such in vitro modified and differentiated cell cultures into the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) hemiparkinsonian rat model. Animals, having received either non-transfected cells, empty-control transfected, or FGF-2-HMW-plasmid transfected cells, were analyzed in two different transplantation paradigms each using 172,000 or 520,000 cells, respectively. The behavioral performances in the amphetamine- and apomorphine-induced rotational test as well as in the cylinder test were evaluated for up to thirteen weeks post transplantation (postTX). Finally, the integration of the grafted cells into the host striatum was analyzed by immunohistochemical measurements. Those analyses revealed improvements of behavioral deficits in all five groups receiving DA neuron grafts, except for amphetamine-induced rotation of the FGF-2-HMW small graft group. Altogether, genetic modification with the FGF-2-HMW-plasmid did not further improve functional recovery compared to the control groups and had no influence on either the number of surviving DA neurons or on the density of outgrowing TH(+) fibers. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ventral Abdominal Hernia

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    Georgi Tchernev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old Caucasian female patient presented with redness of the both foot and lower legs, as well as edema of the left lower leg, accompanied by subjective complaints of burning. Fever was not reported. Well-circumscribed oval shaped tumor formation was revealed also on the abdominal wall, with hyperpigmented and depigmented areas on its ulcerated surface, measuring approximately 10/10cm in diameter, with soft-elastic texture on palpation.  The lesion occurred in 2011, according to the patient’s history. No subjective complaints were reported in association. The performed ultrasonography revealed intestinal loops in the hernial sac, without incarceration. The diagnosis of ventral abdominal hernia without mechanical ileus was made. The patient was referred for planned surgical procedure, because of her refusal on this stage.The clinical manifestation of the tumor formation on the abdominal wall, required wide spectrum of differential diagnosis, including aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, abdominal tumor, subcutaneous tumor or metastasis or hernia. In the presented cases, the abdominal wall mass was a sporadic clinical finding in the framework of the total-body skin examination in patient with erysipelas. The lack of subjective symptoms, as well as the reported history for hysterectomy and previously abscessus were not enough indicative symptoms for the correct diagnosis. The diagnosis of non-complicated hernia was made via ultrasonography, while the clinical differentiation between hernia and other life-threatening conditions as aneurysms or tumor was not possible.

  17. Hippocampus leads ventral striatum in replay of place-reward information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansink, Carien S; Goltstein, Pieter M; Lankelma, Jan V; McNaughton, Bruce L; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2009-08-01

    Associating spatial locations with rewards is fundamental to survival in natural environments and requires the integrity of the hippocampus and ventral striatum. In joint multineuron recordings from these areas, hippocampal-striatal ensembles reactivated together during sleep. This process was especially strong in pairs in which the hippocampal cell processed spatial information and ventral striatal firing correlated to reward. Replay was dominated by cell pairs in which the hippocampal "place" cell fired preferentially before the striatal reward-related neuron. Our results suggest a plausible mechanism for consolidating place-reward associations and are consistent with a central tenet of consolidation theory, showing that the hippocampus leads reactivation in a projection area.

  18. Remembering preservation in hippocampal amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian A.; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2017-01-01

    The lesion-deficit model dominates neuropsychology. This is unsurprising given powerful demonstrations that focal brain lesions can affect specific aspects of cognition. Nowhere is this more evident than in patients with bilateral hippocampal damage. In the last sixty years the amnesia and other impairments exhibited by these patients have helped to delineate the functions of the hippocampus and shape the field of memory. We do not question the value of this approach. However, less prominent are the cognitive processes that remain intact following hippocampal lesions. Here, we collate the piecemeal reports of preservation of function following focal bilateral hippocampal damage, highlighting a wealth of information often veiled by the field’s focus on deficits. We consider how a systematic understanding of what is preserved as well as what is lost could add an important layer of precision to models of memory and the hippocampus. PMID:26361051

  19. Cavernous angioma associated with ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis

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    Okujava, M. [Institute of Radiology and Interventional Diagnostics, Tbilisi (Georgia); Ebner, A.; Schmitt, J.; Woermann, F.G. [Bethel Epilepsy Centre, Mara Hospital, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    We report two cases with extratemporal cavernous angioma (CA) and coexisting ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis. Classically dual pathology is defined as the association of hippocampal sclerosis with an extrahippocampal lesion. Subtle changes in hippocampus might be overlooked in the presence of an unequivocal extrahippocampal abnormality. Seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery in cases with dual pathology is less favourable if only one of the lesions is removed. Dual pathology must always be considered in diagnostic imaging of patients with intractable epilepsy and CA. (orig.)

  20. The flexible use of multiple cue relationships in spatial navigation : A comparison of water maze performance following hippocampal, medial septal, prefrontal cortex, or posterior parietal cortex lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, DM; Griffith, HR; McDaniel, WF; Foster, RA; Davis, BK

    Rats prepared with lesions of the prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex, hippocampus, or medial septal area were tested for acquisition of a number of variations of the open-field water maze using a version of place learning assessment described by Eichenbaum, Stewart, and Morris (1991).

  1. Associative recognition and the hippocampus: differential effects of hippocampal lesions on object-place, object-context and object-place-context memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Rosamund F; Wood, Emma R

    2010-10-01

    The hippocampus is thought to be required for the associative recognition of objects together with the spatial or temporal contexts in which they occur. However, recent data showing that rats with fornix lesions perform as well as controls in an object-place task, while being impaired on an object-place-context task (Eacott and Norman (2004) J Neurosci 24:1948-1953), suggest that not all forms of context-dependent associative recognition depend on the integrity of the hippocampus. To examine the role of the hippocampus in context-dependent recognition directly, the present study tested the effects of large, selective, bilateral hippocampus lesions in rats on performance of a series of spontaneous recognition memory tasks: object recognition, object-place recognition, object-context recognition and object-place-context recognition. Consistent with the effects of fornix lesions, animals with hippocampus lesions were impaired only on the object-place-context task. These data confirm that not all forms of context-dependent associative recognition are mediated by the hippocampus. Subsequent experiments suggested that the object-place task does not require an allocentric representation of space, which could account for the lack of impairment following hippocampus lesions. Importantly, as the object-place-context task has similar spatial requirements, the selective deficit in object-place-context recognition suggests that this task requires hippocampus-dependent neural processes distinct from those required for allocentric spatial memory, or for object memory, object-place memory or object-context memory. Two possibilities are that object, place, and context information converge only in the hippocampus, or that recognition of integrated object-place-context information requires a hippocampus-dependent mode of retrieval, such as recollection. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Hippocampal Sclerosis: Causes and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Matthew Charles

    2015-06-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis is the commonest cause of drug-resistant epilepsy in adults, and is associated with alterations to structures and networks beyond the hippocampus.In addition to being a cause of epilepsy, the hippocampus is vulnerable to damage from seizure activity. In particular, prolonged seizures (status epilepticus) can result in hippocampal sclerosis. The hippocampus is also vulnerable to other insults including traumatic brain injury, and inflammation. Hippocampal sclerosis can occur in association with other brain lesions; the prevailing view is that it is probably a secondary consequence. In such instances, successful surgical treatment usually involves the resection of both the lesion and the involved hippocampus. Experimental data have pointed to numerous neuroprotective strategies to prevent hippocampal sclerosis. Initial neuroprotective strategies aimed at glutamate receptors may be effective, but later, metabolic pathways, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species, and inflammation are involved, perhaps necessitating the use of interventions aimed at multiple targets. Some of the therapies that we use to treat status epilepticus may neuroprotect. However, prevention of neuronal death does not necessarily prevent the later development of epilepsy or cognitive deficits. Perhaps, the most important intervention is the early, aggressive treatment of seizure activity, and the prevention of prolonged seizures. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Ventral, but not dorsal, hippocampus inactivation impairs reward memory expression and retrieval in contexts defined by proximal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Sadia; Schumacher, Anett; Sivagurunathan, Seyon; Van Der Meer, Matthijs; Ito, Rutsuko

    2017-07-01

    The hippocampus (HPC) has been widely implicated in the contextual control of appetitive and aversive conditioning. However, whole hippocampal lesions do not invariably impair all forms of contextual processing, as in the case of complex biconditional context discrimination, leading to contention over the exact nature of the contribution of the HPC in contextual processing. Moreover, the increasingly well-established functional dissociation between the dorsal (dHPC) and ventral (vHPC) subregions of the HPC has been largely overlooked in the existing literature on hippocampal-based contextual memory processing in appetitively motivated tasks. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the individual roles of the dHPC and the vHPC in contextual biconditional discrimination (CBD) performance and memory retrieval. To this end, we examined the effects of transient post-acquisition pharmacological inactivation (using a combination of GABAA and GABAB receptor agonists muscimol and baclofen) of functionally distinct subregions of the HPC (CA1/CA3 subfields of the dHPC and vHPC) on CBD memory retrieval. Additional behavioral assays including novelty preference, light-dark box and locomotor activity test were also performed to confirm that the respective sites of inactivation were functionally silent. We observed robust deficits in CBD performance and memory retrieval following inactivation of the vHPC, but not the dHPC. Our data provides novel insight into the differential roles of the ventral and dorsal HPC in reward contextual processing, under conditions in which the context is defined by proximal cues. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Precise spatial coding is preserved along the longitudinal hippocampal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinath, Alexander T; Wang, Melissa E; Wann, Ellen G; Yuan, Robin K; Dudman, Joshua T; Muzzio, Isabel A

    2014-12-01

    Compared with the dorsal hippocampus, relatively few studies have characterized neuronal responses in the ventral hippocampus. In particular, it is unclear whether and how cells in the ventral region represent space and/or respond to contextual changes. We recorded from dorsal and ventral CA1 neurons in freely moving mice exposed to manipulations of visuospatial and olfactory contexts. We found that ventral cells respond to alterations of the visuospatial environment such as exposure to novel local cues, cue rotations, and contextual expansion in similar ways to dorsal cells, with the exception of cue rotations. Furthermore, we found that ventral cells responded to odors much more strongly than dorsal cells, particularly to odors of high valence. Similar to earlier studies recording from the ventral hippocampus in CA3, we also found increased scaling of place cell field size along the longitudinal hippocampal axis. Although the increase in place field size observed toward the ventral pole has previously been taken to suggest a decrease in spatial information coded by ventral place cells, we hypothesized that a change in spatial scaling could instead signal a shift in representational coding that preserves the resolution of spatial information. To explore this possibility, we examined population activity using principal component analysis (PCA) and neural location reconstruction techniques. Our results suggest that ventral populations encode a distributed representation of space, and that the resolution of spatial information at the population level is comparable to that of dorsal populations of similar size. Finally, through the use of neural network modeling, we suggest that the redundancy in spatial representation along the longitudinal hippocampal axis may allow the hippocampus to overcome the conflict between memory interference and generalization inherent in neural network memory. Our results indicate that ventral population activity is well suited for

  5. Differential response of hippocampal subregions to stress and learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darby F Hawley

    Full Text Available The hippocampus has two functionally distinct subregions-the dorsal portion, primarily associated with spatial navigation, and the ventral portion, primarily associated with anxiety. In a prior study of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS in rodents, we found that it selectively enhanced cellular plasticity in the dorsal hippocampal subregion while negatively impacting it in the ventral. In the present study, we determined whether this adaptive plasticity in the dorsal subregion would confer CUS rats an advantage in a spatial task-the radial arm water maze (RAWM. RAWM exposure is both stressful and requires spatial navigation, and therefore places demands simultaneously upon both hippocampal subregions. Therefore, we used Western blotting to investigate differential expression of plasticity-associated proteins (brain derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], proBDNF and postsynaptic density-95 [PSD-95] in the dorsal and ventral subregions following RAWM exposure. Lastly, we used unbiased stereology to compare the effects of CUS on proliferation, survival and neuronal differentiation of cells in the dorsal and ventral hippocampal subregions. We found that CUS and exposure to the RAWM both increased corticosterone, indicating that both are stressful; nevertheless, CUS animals had significantly better long-term spatial memory. We also observed a subregion-specific pattern of protein expression following RAWM, with proBDNF increased in the dorsal and decreased in the ventral subregion, while PSD-95 was selectively upregulated in the ventral. Finally, consistent with our previous study, we found that CUS most negatively affected neurogenesis in the ventral (compared to the dorsal subregion. Taken together, our data support a dual role for the hippocampus in stressful experiences, with the more resilient dorsal portion undergoing adaptive plasticity (perhaps to facilitate escape from or neutralization of the stressor, and the ventral portion involved in

  6. Hippocampus leads ventral striatum in replay of place-reward information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carien S Lansink

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Associating spatial locations with rewards is fundamental to survival in natural environments and requires the integrity of the hippocampus and ventral striatum. In joint multineuron recordings from these areas, hippocampal-striatal ensembles reactivated together during sleep. This process was especially strong in pairs in which the hippocampal cell processed spatial information and ventral striatal firing correlated to reward. Replay was dominated by cell pairs in which the hippocampal "place" cell fired preferentially before the striatal reward-related neuron. Our results suggest a plausible mechanism for consolidating place-reward associations and are consistent with a central tenet of consolidation theory, showing that the hippocampus leads reactivation in a projection area.

  7. Opposing Amygdala and Ventral Striatum Connectivity during Emotion Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Wolf, Daniel H.; Pinkham, Amy E.; Ruparel, Kosha; Elliott, Mark A.; Valdez, Jeffrey N.; Overton, Eve; Seubert, Janina; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Loughead, James

    2011-01-01

    Lesion and electrophysiological studies in animals provide evidence of opposing functions for subcortical nuclei such as the amygdala and ventral striatum, but the implications of these findings for emotion identification in humans remain poorly described. Here we report a high-resolution fMRI study in a sample of 39 healthy subjects who performed…

  8. The role of human ventral visual cortex in motion perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Ayse P.; Lorenzi, Lauren J.; Egan, Ryan; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Visual motion perception is fundamental to many aspects of visual perception. Visual motion perception has long been associated with the dorsal (parietal) pathway and the involvement of the ventral ‘form’ (temporal) visual pathway has not been considered critical for normal motion perception. Here, we evaluated this view by examining whether circumscribed damage to ventral visual cortex impaired motion perception. The perception of motion in basic, non-form tasks (motion coherence and motion detection) and complex structure-from-motion, for a wide range of motion speeds, all centrally displayed, was assessed in five patients with a circumscribed lesion to either the right or left ventral visual pathway. Patients with a right, but not with a left, ventral visual lesion displayed widespread impairments in central motion perception even for non-form motion, for both slow and for fast speeds, and this held true independent of the integrity of areas MT/V5, V3A or parietal regions. In contrast with the traditional view in which only the dorsal visual stream is critical for motion perception, these novel findings implicate a more distributed circuit in which the integrity of the right ventral visual pathway is also necessary even for the perception of non-form motion. PMID:23983030

  9. Prolonged sleep deprivation decreases cell proliferation and immature newborn neurons in both dorsal and ventral hippocampus of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yusuke; Oka, Ayana; Iseki, Ayaka; Mori, Masayoshi; Ohe, Kenji; Mine, Kazunori; Enjoji, Munechika

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have indicated that sleep deprivation negatively affects hippocampal neurogenesis, which may explain the reason for the relation between sleep loss and depression. Increasing evidence indicates that the hippocampus is anatomically and functionally segregated along a dorsolateral (cognitive function)/ventromedial (control for mood and stress response) axis. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate regional differences in the adverse effects of sleep deprivation on hippocampal neurogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sleep deprivation using the "platform on the water" method for 24- or 72-h. Quantification of hippocampal cell proliferation and immature newborn neurons was stereologically estimated using immunostaining with Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX), respectively, by optical fractionator method. A consecutive three days of sleep deprivation significantly reduced the density of Ki-67- and DCX-immunopositive cells both in the dorsal and ventral hippocampal subgranular zone and the decrease in DCX-labeled cells was more pronounced in the ventral hippocampus than in dorsal region. Our results indicate that prolonged sleep deprivation decreases hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis in both the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus. Future studies will be needed to clarify the impact of sleep deprivation-induced decreases in hippocampal neurogenesis on the development of depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  10. ANI inactivation: unconditioned anxiolytic effects of anisomycin in the ventral hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Anastasia; Ward-Flanagan, Rachel; Dickson, Clayton T; Treit, Dallas

    2014-11-01

    Although hippocampal function is typically described in terms of memory, recent evidence suggests a differentiation along its dorsal/ventral axis, with dorsal regions serving memory and ventral regions serving emotion. While long-term memory is thought to be dependent on de novo protein synthesis because it is blocked by translational inhibitors such as anisomycin (ANI), online (moment-to-moment) functions of the hippocampus (such as unconditioned emotional responding) should not be sensitive to such manipulations since they are unlikely to involve neuroplasticity. However, ANI has recently been shown to suppress neural activity which suggests (1) that protein synthesis is critical for neural function and (2) that paradigms using ANI are confounded by its inactivating effects. We tested this idea using a neurobehavioral assay which compared the influence of intrahippocampal infusions of ANI at dorsal and ventral sites on unconditioned emotional behavior of rats. We show that ANI infusions in ventral, but not dorsal, hippocampus produced a suppression of anxiety-related responses in two well-established rodent tests: the elevated plus maze and shock-probe burying tests. These results are similar to those previously observed when ventral hippocampal activity is directly suppressed (e.g., by using sodium channel blockers). The present study offers compelling behavioral evidence for the proposal that ANI adversely affects ongoing neural function and therefore its influence is not simply limited to impairing the consolidation of long-term memories Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Nicotinic receptors in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus differentially modulate contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Justin W; Raybuck, Jonathan D; Gould, Thomas J

    2012-08-01

    Nicotine administration alters various forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Increasing work has found that the dorsal and ventral hippocampus differentially contribute to multiple behaviors. Thus, the present study examined whether the effects of nicotine in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus have distinct influences on contextual fear learning in male C57BL/6J mice. Direct infusion of nicotine into the dorsal hippocampus resulted in an enhancement of contextual fear learning, whereas nicotine infused into the ventral hippocampus resulted in deficits. Nicotine infusions into the ventral hippocampus did not alter hippocampus-independent cued fear conditioning or time spent in the open arm of the elevated plus maze, a measure of anxiety, suggesting that the effects are due to alterations in contextual learning and not other general processes. Finally, results from using direct infusions of MLA, a low-affinity α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, in conjunction with systemic nicotine, provide evidence that α7-nAChRs in the ventral hippocampus mediate the detrimental effect of ventral hippocampal nicotine on contextual fear learning. These results suggest that with systemic nicotine administration, competition exists between the dorsal and ventral hippocampus for behavioral control over contextual learning. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Goldfish hippocampal pallium is essential to associate temporally discontiguous events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Expósito, B; Gómez, A; Martín-Monzón, I; Reiriz, M; Rodríguez, F; Salas, C

    2017-03-01

    There is general agreement that the hippocampus of vertebrates, from fish to mammals, is involved in map-like spatial memory. However, in mammals the role of the hippocampus goes beyond the spatial domain as it is also involved in binding the temporally separate events that compose episodic memories. In this regard, the hippocampus of mammals is essential for trace classical conditioning, in which a stimulus-free time gap separates the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US), but not for delay conditioning, in which both stimuli coincide in time. Although the involvement of the hippocampus in encoding relational memories based on a temporal frame-work has been extensively studied in mammals, there is scarce evidence about the possible contribution of the hippocampus of non-mammalian vertebrates to the temporal, non-spatial dimension of relational memories. The present work was aimed to determine if the ventral part of the lateral division of the area dorsalis telencephali (Dlv) of goldfish, proposed as homologous to the hippocampus of mammals, is also involved in trace classical conditioning. With this purpose, goldfish with lesions in Dlv, complete telencephalon ablation and sham operation, were trained in delay and trace heart rate classical conditioning. Dlv lesions severely impaired the acquisition of the conditioned response when a stimulus-free time gap was elapsed between the CS and the US (trace conditioning), but not when both stimuli overlapped in time (delay conditioning), revealing that this region, like the hippocampus of mammals, is essential to form the temporal associative memories required by trace conditioning. Present data suggest that the presence of a hippocampal pallium involved in relational, episodic-like memory that preserves both the spatial and the temporal dimensions of past events, could be a primitive feature of the vertebrate brain that has been conserved through evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  13. Task constraints modulate activation in right ventral lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Goel, Vinod

    2005-10-01

    Lesion data suggest that right prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in open-ended problem solving. To test this hypothesis, we scanned fifteen normal subjects with fMRI as they completed three types of anagram problems varying in the level of constraints placed on the search space. On unconstrained trials, they rearranged letters to generate solutions (e.g., Can you make a "Word with ZJAZ?"). On semantically constrained trials, they rearranged letters to generate solutions within particular semantic categories (e.g., Can you make a type of "Music with ZJAZ?"). On baseline trials, they rearranged letters to make specific words (e.g., Can you make the word "JAZZ with ZJAZ?"). As predicted, the critical comparison of unconstrained vs. semantically constrained trials revealed significant activation in right ventral lateral PFC, as well as left superior frontal gyrus, frontopolar cortex, right superior parietal lobe, right post central gyrus, and the occipital-parietal sulcus. Furthermore, activation in right ventral lateral PFC (BA 47) increased as the constraints placed on the anagram search space were reduced. We argue that the activation in right ventral lateral PFC is related to hypothesis generation in unconstrained settings, whereas activation in other structures is related to additional processes linked to anagram problems such as semantic retrieval, semantic categorization, and cognitive monitoring. These results extend the lesion data and imaging studies by demonstrating that a relative absence of constraints on the solution space is sufficient to engage right ventral lateral PFC in hypothesis generation tasks.

  14. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Darío Moreno Fernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a normal developmental process associated with neurobiological changes leading to cognitive alterations with preserved, impaired, and enhanced functions. Evidence from animal and human studies is reviewed to explore the potential role of hippocampal plasticity on age-related cognitive changes with special attention to adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Results from lesion and stimulation strategies, as well as correlation data, support either a direct or modulatory role for adult newborn neurons in cognition at advanced ages. Further research on this topic may help to develop new treatments and to improve the quality of life of older people.

  15. A study of hippocampal structure-function relations along the septo-temporal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrard, Leonard E; Luu, Lisa P; Davidson, Terry L

    2012-04-01

    This study examined structural-functional differences along the septo-temporal axis of hippocampus using radial-maze tasks that involved two different memory processes [reference memory (RM) and working memory (WM)], and the use of two kinds of information (spatial vs. nonspatial cue learning). In addition, retention of the nonspatial cue task was tested nine weeks following completion of acquisition, and the rats then underwent discrimination reversal training. Ibotenic acid lesions limited to either the dorsal pole, intermediate area, or ventral pole had minimal effects on acquisition of the complex place and cue discrimination tasks. The one exception was that rats with lesions confined to the dorsal third of hippocampus made more WM errors on the spatial task (but not the cue task) early in training. Selective lesions of the three hippocampal regions had no effects on either long-term retention or reversal of the nonspatial cue discrimination task. In contrast, rats that had all of the hippocampus removed were severely impaired in learning the spatial task, making many RM and WM errors, whereas on the nonspatial cue task, the impairment was limited to WM errors. Further analysis of the WM errors made in acquisition showed that rats with complete lesions were significantly more likely on both the spatial and nonspatial cue tasks to reenter arms that had been baited and visited on that trial compared to arms that had not been baited. A similar pattern of errors emerged for complete hippocampal lesioned rats during reversal discrimination. This pattern of errors suggests that in addition to an impairment in handling spatial information, complete removal of hippocampus also interferes with the ability to inhibit responding to cues that signal reward under some conditions but not under others. The finding that selective lesions limited to the intermediate zone of the hippocampus produce no impairment in either WM ("rapid place learning") or RM in our radial maze

  16. Amnesia due to bilateral hippocampal glioblastoma. MRI finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimauchi, M.; Wakisaka, S.; Kinoshita, K. (Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery)

    1989-11-01

    The authors report a unique case of glioblastoma which caused permanent amnesia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the lesion to be limited to the hippocampal formation bilaterally. Although glioblastoma extends frequently into fiber pathways and expands into the opposite cerebral hemisphere, making a 'butterfly' lesion, it is unusual for it to invade the limbic system selectively to this extent. (orig.).

  17. Perirhinal and hippocampal contributions to visual recognition memory can be distinguished from those of occipito-temporal structures based on conscious awareness of prior occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, S L; Gati, J S; Menon, R S; Köhler, S

    2007-01-01

    The ability of humans to distinguish consciously between new and previously encountered objects can be probed with visual recognition memory tasks that require explicit old-new discriminations. Medial temporal-lobe (MTL) lesions impair performance on such tasks. Within the MTL, both perirhinal cortex and the hippocampus have been implicated. Cognitive processes can also be affected by past object encounters in the absence of conscious recognition, as in repetition priming tasks. Past functional neuroimaging findings in healthy individuals suggest that even in tasks that require conscious recognition decisions for visual stimuli, posterior cortical structures in the ventral visual pathway distinguish between old and new objects at a nonconscious level. Conclusive evidence that differentiates the neural underpinnings of conscious from nonconscious processes in recognition memory, however, is still missing. In particular, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings for the MTL have been inconsistent towards this end. In the present fMRI study, we tested whether perirhinal and hippocampal contributions to recognition memory can be distinguished from those of occipito-temporal structures in the ventral visual pathway based on the participants' reported conscious awareness of prior occurrence. Images of objects with a large degree of feature overlap served as stimuli; they were selected to ensure an involvement of perirhinal cortex in the present recognition task, based on evidence from past lesion-based research. We found that both perirhinal cortex and occipito-temporal cortex showed a differential old-new response that reflected a repetition-related decrease in activity (i.e., new > old). Whereas in perirhinal cortex this decrease was observed with respect to whether subjects reported objects to be old or new, irrespective of the true item status, in occipito-temporal cortex it occurred in relation to whether objects were truly old or new, irrespective of

  18. The role of the ventral dentate gyrus in olfactory pattern separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Christy S S; Hu, Nathan J; Ho, Liana U N; Kesner, Raymond P

    2014-05-01

    Dorsoventral lesion studies of the hippocampus have indicated that the dorsal axis of the hippocampus is important for spatial processing and the ventral axis of the hippocampus is important for olfactory learning and memory and anxiety. There is some evidence to suggest that the ventral CA3 and ventral CA1 conduct parallel processes for pattern completion and temporal processing, respectively. Studies have indicated that the dorsal dentate gyrus (DG) is importantly involved in processes reflecting underlying pattern separation activity for spatial information. However, the ventral DG is less understood. The current study investigated the less-understood role of the ventral DG in olfactory pattern separation. A series of odor stimuli that varied on only one level, number of carbon chains (methyl groups), was used in a matching-to-sample paradigm in order to investigate ventral DG involvement in working memory for similar and less similar odors. Rats with ventral DG lesions were impaired at delays of 60 sec, but not at delays of 15 sec. A memory-based pattern separation effect was observed performance was poorest with only one carbon chain separation between trial odors and was highest for trials with four separations. The present study indicates that the ventral DG plays an important role in olfactory learning and memory processes for highly similar odors. The results also indicate a role for the ventral DG in pattern separation for odor information, which may have further implications for parallel processing across the dorsoventral axis for the DG in spatial (dorsal) and olfactory (ventral) pattern separation. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Lithium pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in postnatal day 20 rats results in greater neuronal injury in ventral versus dorsal hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Jeffrey J.; Pouliot, Wendy; Scheerlinck, Peter; Dudek, F. Edward

    2011-01-01

    Many quantitative animal studies examining the possible relationship between hippocampal neuronal loss and the development of epilepsy have examined only the dorsal hippocampus. The ventral hippocampus, however, represents the more homologous structure to the anterior hippocampus in humans which is the area associated with the maximal damage in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. This study tested the hypothesis that the ventral hippocampus has greater neuronal injury than the dorsal hippocampus in an animal model of chemoconvulsant-status epilepticus at postnatal day 20. Status epilepticus was induced in postnatal day 20 Sprague Dawley rat pups with the chemoconvulsant lithium-pilocarpine and brain tissue was examined with Fluoro-Jade B. Horizontal sections (n=7) favoring a visualization of the ventral hippocampus showed marked Fluoro-Jade B staining in CA1, CA3, and hilar region. Coronal sections favoring a visualization of the dorsal hippocampus did not consistently show as robust a staining pattern in these regions. In coronal sections where both the dorsal and ventral hippocampus could be viewed, greater staining was always seen in ventral versus dorsal hippocampus. Quantitative analysis of cell counts demonstrated a significant difference between ventral and dorsal hippocampus in CA1and CA3, but not hilus. These results demonstrate that in ventral hippocampus, lithium pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus consistently results in hippocampal neuronal injury in postnatal day 20 rats. This study shows the importance of including the ventral hippocampus in any analysis of seizure-induced hippocampal neuronal injury, and raises concerns about the accuracy of studies quantifying hippocampal neuronal loss when only the dorsal hippocampus is examined. PMID:21669257

  20. Amygdala and Ventral Striatum Make Distinct Contributions to Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vincent D; Dal Monte, Olga; Lucas, Daniel R; Murray, Elisabeth A; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2016-10-19

    Reinforcement learning (RL) theories posit that dopaminergic signals are integrated within the striatum to associate choices with outcomes. Often overlooked is that the amygdala also receives dopaminergic input and is involved in Pavlovian processes that influence choice behavior. To determine the relative contributions of the ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala to appetitive RL, we tested rhesus macaques with VS or amygdala lesions on deterministic and stochastic versions of a two-arm bandit reversal learning task. When learning was characterized with an RL model relative to controls, amygdala lesions caused general decreases in learning from positive feedback and choice consistency. By comparison, VS lesions only affected learning in the stochastic task. Moreover, the VS lesions hastened the monkeys' choice reaction times, which emphasized a speed-accuracy trade-off that accounted for errors in deterministic learning. These results update standard accounts of RL by emphasizing distinct contributions of the amygdala and VS to RL. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The Danish ventral hernia database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Frederik; Jorgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The Danish Ventral Hernia Database (DVHD) provides national surveillance of current surgical practice and clinical postoperative outcomes. The intention is to reduce postoperative morbidity and hernia recurrence, evaluate new treatment strategies, and facilitate nationwide implementation...... of operations and is an excellent tool for observing changes over time, including adjustment of several confounders. This national database registry has impacted on clinical practice in Denmark and led to a high number of scientific publications in recent years....

  2. Ventral pallidum roles in reward and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S; Tindell, Amy J; Aldridge, J Wayne; Berridge, Kent C

    2009-01-23

    In recent years the ventral pallidum has become a focus of great research interest as a mechanism of reward and incentive motivation. As a major output for limbic signals, the ventral pallidum was once associated primarily with motor functions rather than regarded as a reward structure in its own right. However, ample evidence now suggests that ventral pallidum function is a major mechanism of reward in the brain. We review data indicating that (1) an intact ventral pallidum is necessary for normal reward and motivation, (2) stimulated activation of ventral pallidum is sufficient to cause reward and motivation enhancements, and (3) activation patterns in ventral pallidum neurons specifically encode reward and motivation signals via phasic bursts of excitation to incentive and hedonic stimuli. We conclude that the ventral pallidum may serve as an important 'limbic final common pathway' for mesocorticolimbic processing of many rewards.

  3. Isolated punctuate hippocampal infarction and transient global amnesia are indistinguishable by means of MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, A; Al-Zghloul, M; Wenz, H; Böhme, J; Groden, C; Neumaier-Probst, E

    2017-04-01

    Background Small punctuate lesions in the hippocampus on diffusion-weighted images are a typical finding in transient global amnesia. Consequently, it has been suggested that diffusion-weighted images findings might corroborate the diagnosis of transient global amnesia. However, isolated punctuate hippocampal infarction might be a differential diagnosis of transient global amnesia. Aim Evaluation of isolated punctuate hippocampal infarction frequency and comparison of its clinical presentation and MRI findings to transient global amnesia. Methods From an MRI database, we identified 10 patients with isolated punctuate hippocampal infarction and compared these to 12 patients with transient global amnesia with diffusion-weighted images lesion with regard to clinical symptoms and MRI findings. Results Disorientation and memory deficits were more common in transient global amnesia patients, whereas dysphasia/aphasia and vertigo were more common in hippocampal infarction patients. MRI findings in isolated punctuate hippocampal infarction and transient global amnesia did not differ significantly, neither regarding the affected hemisphere, lesion distribution, size, nor relative ADC values. Conclusions Differentiation of isolated punctuate hippocampal infarction and transient global amnesia based on neuroimaging findings is not possible. Thus, in the case of isolated punctuate hippocampal diffusion-weighted images lesions the final diagnosis of hippocampal infarction or transient global amnesia should be based on the clinical presentation.

  4. Expectancies in decision making, reinforcement learning, and ventral striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs A A Van Der Meer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Decisions can arise in different ways, such as a gut feeling, doing what worked last time, or planful deliberation. Different decision-making systems are dissociable behaviorally, map onto distinct brain systems, and require different computational demands. For instance, ’model-free’ decision strategies use prediction errors to estimate scalar action values from previous experience, while ’model-based’ strategies leverage internal forward models to generate and evaluate potentially rich outcome expectancies. Animal learning studies indicate that expectancies may arise from different sources, including not only forward models but also Pavlovian associations, and the flexibility with which such representations impact behavior may depend on how they are generated. In the light of these considerations, we review the results of van der Meer and Redish (2009a, who found that ventral striatal neurons that respond to reward delivery can also be activated at other points, notably at a decision point where hippocampal forward representations were also observed. These data suggest the possibility that ventral striatal reward representations contribute to model-based expectancies used in deliberative decision-making.

  5. A Key Role for Nectin-1 in the Ventral Hippocampus in Contextual Fear Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Jocelyn; Krummenacher, Claude; Sandi, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Nectins are cell adhesion molecules that are widely expressed in the brain. Nectin expression shows a dynamic spatiotemporal regulation, playing a role in neural migratory processes during development. Nectin-1 and nectin-3 and their heterophilic trans-interactions are important for the proper formation of synapses. In the hippocampus, nectin-1 and nectin-3 localize at puncta adherentia junctions and may play a role in synaptic plasticity, a mechanism essential for memory and learning. We evaluated the potential involvement of nectin-1 and nectin-3 in memory consolidation using an emotional learning paradigm. Rats trained for contextual fear conditioning showed transient nectin-1—but not nectin-3—protein upregulation in synapse-enriched hippocampal fractions at about 2 h posttraining. The upregulation of nectin-1 was found exclusively in the ventral hippocampus and was apparent in the synaptoneurosomal fraction. This upregulation was induced by contextual fear conditioning but not by exposure to context or shock alone. When an antibody against nectin-1, R165, was infused in the ventral-hippocampus immediately after training, contextual fear memory was impaired. However, treatment with the antibody in the dorsal hippocampus had no effect in contextual fear memory formation. Similarly, treatment with the antibody in the ventral hippocampus did not interfere with acoustic memory formation. Further control experiments indicated that the effects of ventral hippocampal infusion of the nectin-1 antibody in contextual fear memory cannot be ascribed to memory non-specific effects such as changes in anxiety-like behavior or locomotor behavior. Therefore, we conclude that nectin-1 recruitment to the perisynaptic environment in the ventral hippocampus plays an important role in the formation of contextual fear memories. Our results suggest that these mechanisms could be involved in the connection of emotional and contextual information processed in the amygdala and dorsal

  6. BID Mediates Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced Neuronal Injury in Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures and Modulates Tissue Inflammation in a Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia Model without Changing Lesion Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Nellie Anne; Bonner, Helena; Elkjær, Maria Louise

    2016-01-01

    deficiency protected organotypic hippocampal slice cultures in vitro from neuronal injury induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation. In vivo, BID-knockout (KO) mice and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to 60 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) to induce focal cerebral ischemia......, and allowed to recover for 24 h. Infarct volumes and functional outcome were assessed and the inflammatory response was evaluated using immunofluorescence, Western blotting, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Mesoscale multiplex analysis. We observed no difference in the infarct volume or neurological outcome...

  7. Empathy in hippocampal amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadle, J N; Tranel, D; Cohen, N J; Duff, M C

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is critical to the quality of our relationships with others and plays an important role in life satisfaction and well-being. The scientific investigation of empathy has focused on characterizing its cognitive and neural substrates, and has pointed to the importance of a network of brain regions involved in emotional experience and perspective taking (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, anterior insula, cingulate). While the hippocampus has rarely been the focus of empathy research, the hallmark properties of the hippocampal declarative memory system (e.g., representational flexibility, relational binding, on-line processing capacity) make it well-suited to meet some of the crucial demands of empathy, and a careful investigation of this possibility could make a significant contribution to the neuroscientific understanding of empathy. The present study is a preliminary investigation of the role of the hippocampal declarative memory system in empathy. Participants were three patients (1 female) with focal, bilateral hippocampal (HC) damage and severe declarative memory impairments and three healthy demographically matched comparison participants. Empathy was measured as a trait through a battery of gold standard questionnaires and through on-line ratings and prosocial behavior in response to a series of empathy inductions. Patients with hippocampal amnesia reported lower cognitive and emotional trait empathy than healthy comparison participants. Unlike healthy comparison participants, in response to the empathy inductions hippocampal patients reported no increase in empathy ratings or prosocial behavior. The results provide preliminary evidence for a role for hippocampal declarative memory in empathy.

  8. Prefrontal-hippocampal dynamics involved in learning regularities across episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeller, Christian F; Opitz, Bertram; Krick, Christoph M; Mecklinger, Axel; Reith, Wolfgang

    2005-08-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the neural correlates of context-specific memories and invariant memories about regularities across episodes were investigated. Volunteers had to learn conjunctions between objects and positions. In an invariant learning condition, positions were held constant, enabling subjects to learn regularities across trials. By contrast, in a context-specific condition object-position conjunctions were trial unique. Performance increase in the invariant learning condition was paralleled by a learning-related increase of inferior frontal gyrus activation and ventral striatal activation and a decrease of hippocampus activation. Conversely, in the context-specific condition hippocampal activation was constant across trials. We argue that the learning-related hippocampal activation pattern might be due to reduced relational binding requirements once regularities are extracted. Furthermore, we propose that the learning-related prefrontal modulation reflects the requirement to extract and maintain regularities across trials and the adjustment of object-position conjunctions on the basis of the extracted knowledge. Finally, our data suggest that the ventral striatum encodes the increased predictability of spatial features as a function of learning. Taken together, these results indicate a transition of the relative roles of distinct brain regions during learning regularities across multiple episodes: regularity learning is characterized by a shift from a hippocampal to a prefrontal-striatal brain system.

  9. Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Damage Is Associated with Decreased Ventral Striatum Volume and Response to Reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujara, Maia S; Philippi, Carissa L; Motzkin, Julian C; Baskaya, Mustafa K; Koenigs, Michael

    2016-05-04

    The ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) are two central nodes of the "reward circuit" of the brain. Human neuroimaging studies have demonstrated coincident activation and functional connectivity between these brain regions, and animal studies have demonstrated that the vmPFC modulates ventral striatum activity. However, there have been no comparable data in humans to address whether the vmPFC may be critical for the reward-related response properties of the ventral striatum. In this study, we used fMRI in five neurosurgical patients with focal vmPFC lesions to test the hypothesis that the vmPFC is necessary for enhancing ventral striatum responses to the anticipation of reward. In support of this hypothesis, we found that, compared with age- and gender-matched neurologically healthy subjects, the vmPFC-lesioned patients had reduced ventral striatal activity during the anticipation of reward. Furthermore, we observed that the vmPFC-lesioned patients had decreased volumes of the accumbens subregion of the ventral striatum. Together, these functional and structural neuroimaging data provide novel evidence for a critical role for the vmPFC in contributing to reward-related activity of the ventral striatum. These results offer new insight into the functional and structural interactions between key components of the brain circuitry underlying human affective function and decision-making. Maladaptive decision-making is a common problem across multiple mental health disorders. Developing new pathophysiologically based strategies for diagnosis and treatment thus requires a better understanding of the brain circuits responsible for adaptive decision-making and related psychological subprocesses (e.g., reward valuation, anticipation, and motivation). Animal studies provide evidence that these functions are mediated through direct interactions between two key nodes of a posited "reward circuit," the ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal

  10. Hippocampal Area CA1 and Remote Memory in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Amber C.; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Hippocampal lesions often produce temporally graded retrograde amnesia (TGRA), whereby recent memory is impaired more than remote memory. This finding has provided support for the process of systems consolidation. However, temporally graded memory impairment has not been observed with the watermaze task, and the findings have been inconsistent…

  11. Laparoscopic Ventral and Incisional Hernia Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ventral and incisional hernia repair is one of the most frequently performed operations in daily surgical practice. Laparoscopic ventral and incisional hernia repair (LVIHR) is gaining increasing adoption in surgical practice. It has theoretical advantages but improvements in technique can still be

  12. Investigating the dynamics of the brain response to music: A central role of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Karsten; Fritz, Thomas; Mildner, Toralf; Richter, Maxi; Schulze, Katrin; Lepsien, Jöran; Schroeter, Matthias L; Möller, Harald E

    2015-08-01

    Ventral striatal activity has been previously shown to correspond well to reward value mediated by music. Here, we investigate the dynamic brain response to music and manipulated counterparts using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Counterparts of musical excerpts were produced by either manipulating the consonance/dissonance of the musical fragments or playing them backwards (or both). Results show a greater involvement of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens both when contrasting listening to music that is perceived as pleasant and listening to a manipulated version perceived as unpleasant (backward dissonant), as well as in a parametric analysis for increasing pleasantness. Notably, both analyses yielded a ventral striatal response that was strongest during an early phase of stimulus presentation. A hippocampal response to the musical stimuli was also observed, and was largely mediated by processing differences between listening to forward and backward music. This hippocampal involvement was again strongest during the early response to the music. Auditory cortex activity was more strongly evoked by the original (pleasant) music compared to its manipulated counterparts, but did not display a similar decline of activation over time as subcortical activity. These findings rather suggest that the ventral striatal/nucleus accumbens response during music listening is strongest in the first seconds and then declines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Amphetamine withdrawal differentially affects hippocampal and peripheral corticosterone levels in response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Brenna; Scholl, Jamie L; Tu, Wenyu; Watt, Michael J; Renner, Kenneth J; Forster, Gina L

    2016-08-01

    Amphetamine withdrawal is associated with heightened anxiety-like behavior, which is directly driven by blunted stress-induced glucocorticoid receptor-dependent serotonin release in the ventral hippocampus. This suggests that glucocorticoid availability in the ventral hippocampus during stress may be reduced during amphetamine withdrawal. Therefore, we tested whether amphetamine withdrawal alters either peripheral or hippocampal corticosterone stress responses. Adult male rats received amphetamine (2.5mg/kg, ip) or saline for 14 days followed by 2 weeks of withdrawal. Contrary to our prediction, microdialysis samples from freely-moving rats revealed that restraint stress-induced corticosterone levels in the ventral hippocampus are enhanced by amphetamine withdrawal relative to controls. In separate groups of rats, plasma corticosterone levels increased immediately after 20min of restraint and decreased to below stress-naïve levels after 1h, indicating negative feedback regulation of corticosterone following stress. However, plasma corticosterone responses were similar in amphetamine-withdrawn and control rats. Neither amphetamine nor stress exposure significantly altered protein expression or enzyme activity of the steroidogenic enzymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1) or hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PD) in the ventral hippocampus. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that amphetamine withdrawal potentiates stress-induced corticosterone in the ventral hippocampus, which may contribute to increased behavioral stress sensitivity previously observed during amphetamine withdrawal. However, this is not mediated by either changes in plasma corticosterone or hippocampal steroidogenic enzymes. Establishing enhanced ventral hippocampal corticosterone as a direct cause of greater stress sensitivity may identify the glucocorticoid system as a novel target for treating behavioral symptoms of amphetamine withdrawal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  14. Dissociation between recall and recognition memory in amnesia: The case of a patient with hippocampal damage following carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Bastin, Christine; Van Der Linden, Martial; Charnallet, Annik; Denby, Christine; Montaldi, Daniela; Roberts, Neil; Mayes, Andrew R.

    2005-01-01

    There is currently a debate regarding the status of recall and recognition memory in amnesic patients with focal hippocampal damage. Proportionate deficits of recall and recognition memory have been observed in some patients with selective hippocampal damage. In addition, these patients showed an impairment of both the recollection and familiarity aspects of recognition memory. In contrast, other amnesic patients with selective hippocampal lesions demonstrated relatively preserved recognition...

  15. Empathy in hippocampal amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle N Beadle

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The scientific investigation of empathy has become a cornerstone in the field of social cognition. Empathy is critical to the quality of our relationships with others and plays an important role in life satisfaction and well-being. Scientific investigations of empathy have focused on characterizing its cognitive and neural substrates, pointing to a network of brain regions involved in emotional experience and perspective taking (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, anterior insula, cingulate. While the hippocampus has rarely been the focus of empathy research, we propose that there are compelling reasons to inquire about the contribution of the hippocampus to social cognition. We propose that the hallmark properties of the hippocampal declarative memory system (e.g., representational flexibility, relational binding, on-line processing capacity make it well-suited to meet the demands of empathy. The present study is a preliminary investigation of the role of the hippocampal declarative memory system in empathy. Participants were three patients (1 female with focal, bilateral hippocampal (HC damage and severe declarative memory impairments and three healthy demographically matched comparison participants. Empathy was measured as a trait through a battery of gold standard questionnaires and through on-line ratings and prosocial behavior in response to a series of empathy inductions. Patients with hippocampal amnesia reported lower cognitive and emotional trait empathy than healthy comparison participants. In response to the empathy inductions, unlike healthy comparison participants, hippocampal patients reported no increase in empathy ratings or prosocial behavior from the control condition. Taken together, these results provide preliminary evidence for a role of hippocampal declarative memory in empathy.

  16. Ventral aspect of the visual form pathway is not critical for the perception of biological motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Lorenzi, Lauren J.; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the movements of those around us is fundamental for many daily activities, such as recognizing actions, detecting predators, and interacting with others socially. A key question concerns the neurobiological substrates underlying biological motion perception. Although the ventral “form” visual cortex is standardly activated by biologically moving stimuli, whether these activations are functionally critical for biological motion perception or are epiphenomenal remains unknown. To address this question, we examined whether focal damage to regions of the ventral visual cortex, resulting in significant deficits in form perception, adversely affects biological motion perception. Six patients with damage to the ventral cortex were tested with sensitive point-light display paradigms. All patients were able to recognize unmasked point-light displays and their perceptual thresholds were not significantly different from those of three different control groups, one of which comprised brain-damaged patients with spared ventral cortex (n > 50). Importantly, these six patients performed significantly better than patients with damage to regions critical for biological motion perception. To assess the necessary contribution of different regions in the ventral pathway to biological motion perception, we complement the behavioral findings with a fine-grained comparison between the lesion location and extent, and the cortical regions standardly implicated in biological motion processing. This analysis revealed that the ventral aspects of the form pathway (e.g., fusiform regions, ventral extrastriate body area) are not critical for biological motion perception. We hypothesize that the role of these ventral regions is to provide enhanced multiview/posture representations of the moving person rather than to represent biological motion perception per se. PMID:25583504

  17. BID Mediates Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced Neuronal Injury in Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures and Modulates Tissue Inflammation in a Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia Model without Changing Lesion Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nellie Anne; Bonner, Helena; Elkjær, Maria Louise; D'Orsi, Beatrice; Chen, Gang; König, Hans Georg; Svensson, Martina; Deierborg, Tomas; Pfeiffer, Shona; Prehn, Jochen H; Lambertsen, Kate Lykke

    2016-01-01

    The BH3 interacting-domain death agonist (BID) is a pro-apoptotic protein involved in death receptor-induced and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Recently, it has also been suggested that BID is involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses in the central nervous system. We found that BID deficiency protected organotypic hippocampal slice cultures in vitro from neuronal injury induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation. In vivo, BID-knockout (KO) mice and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to 60 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) to induce focal cerebral ischemia, and allowed to recover for 24 h. Infarct volumes and functional outcome were assessed and the inflammatory response was evaluated using immunofluorescence, Western blotting, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Mesoscale multiplex analysis. We observed no difference in the infarct volume or neurological outcome between BID-KO and WT mice. The inflammatory response was reduced by BID deficiency as indicated by a change in microglial/leukocyte response. In conclusion, our data suggest that BID deficiency is neuroprotective in an in vitro model and modulates the inflammatory response to focal cerebral ischemia in vivo. However, this is not translated into a robust neuroprotection in vivo.

  18. Primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oma, Erling; Bay-Nielsen, M; Jensen, K K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence, management, and risk of emergency operation for primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy are unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalences of primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy and the potential risks for elective and emergency repair...... was conducted to identify patients registered with a primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy. Follow-up was conducted by review of medical record notes within the Capital Region of Denmark supplemented with structured telephone interviews on indication. RESULTS: In total, 20,714 pregnant women were...... included in the study cohort. Seventeen (0.08%) and 25 (0.12%) women were registered with a primary ventral and groin hernia, respectively. None underwent elective or emergency repair in pregnancy, and all had uncomplicated childbirth. In 10 women, the groin bulge disappeared spontaneously after delivery...

  19. Brain Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Brain lesions By Mayo Clinic Staff A brain lesion is an abnormality seen on a brain-imaging test, such as ... tomography (CT). On CT or MRI scans, brain lesions appear as dark or light spots that don' ...

  20. Functional organization of locomotor interneurons in the ventral lumbar spinal cord of the newborn rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Antri

    Full Text Available Although the mammalian locomotor CPG has been localized to the lumbar spinal cord, the functional-anatomical organization of flexor and extensor interneurons has not been characterized. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flexor and extensor interneuronal networks for walking are physically segregated in the lumbar spinal cord. For this purpose, we performed optical recordings and lesion experiments from a horizontally sectioned lumbar spinal cord isolated from neonate rats. This ventral hemi spinal cord preparation produces well-organized fictive locomotion when superfused with 5-HT/NMDA. The dorsal surface of the preparation was visualized using the Ca(2+ indicator fluo-4 AM, while simultaneously monitoring motor output at ventral roots L2 and L5. Using calcium imaging, we provided a general mapping view of the interneurons that maintained a stable phase relationship with motor output. We showed that the dorsal surface of L1 segment contains a higher density of locomotor rhythmic cells than the other segments. Moreover, L1 segment lesioning induced the most important changes in the locomotor activity in comparison with lesions at the T13 or L2 segments. However, no lesions led to selective disruption of either flexor or extensor output. In addition, this study found no evidence of functional parcellation of locomotor interneurons into flexor and extensor pools at the dorsal-ventral midline of the lumbar spinal cord of the rat.

  1. HDAC I inhibition in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus differentially modulates predator-odor fear learning and generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin K Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although predator odors are ethologically relevant stimuli for rodents, the molecular pathways and contribution of some brain regions involved remain elusive. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs in the dorsal hippocampus has been shown to enhance shock-induced contextual fear learning, but it is unknown if HDACs have differential effects along the dorso-ventral hippocampal axis during predator odor fear learning. We injected MS-275, a class I HDAC inhibitor, bilaterally in the dorsal or ventral hippocampus of mice and found that it had no effects on innate anxiety in either region. We then assessed the effects of MS-275 at different stages of fear learning along the longitudinal hippocampal axis. Animals were injected with MS-275 or vehicle after context pre-exposure (pre-conditioning injections, when a representation of the context is first formed, or after exposure to coyote urine (post-conditioning injections, when the context becomes associated with predator odor. When MS-275 was administered after context pre-exposure, dorsally injected animals showed enhanced fear in the training context but were able to discriminate it from a neutral environment. Conversely, ventrally injected animals did not display enhanced learning in the training context but generalized the fear response to a neutral context. However, when MS-275 was administered after conditioning, there were no differences between MS-275 or vehicle control groups in either the dorsal or ventral hippocampus. Surprisingly, all groups displayed generalization to a neutral context, suggesting that predator odor exposure followed by the restraint necessary for the injections leads to fear generalization. These results may elucidate distinct functions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in predator odor-induced fear conditioning as well as some of the molecular mechanisms underlying fear generalization.

  2. Oxytocin induces penile erection when injected into the ventral subiculum: role of nitric oxide and glutamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Maria Rosaria; Succu, Salvatora; Cocco, Cristina; Caboni, Emanuela; Sanna, Fabrizio; Boi, Antonio; Ferri, Gian Luca; Argiolas, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Oxytocin (100 ng) induces penile erection when injected unilaterally into the ventral subiculum of the hippocampus of male rats. The pro-erectile effect started mostly 30 min after treatment and occurred 15 min after an increase in both nitric oxide (NO) production, measured by the concentration of NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-), the main metabolites of newly formed NO, and extra-cellular glutamic acid concentration in the dialysate obtained from the ventral subiculum by intracerebral microdialysis. These responses were abolished by d(CH(2))(5)Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin (2 microg), an oxytocin receptor antagonist, S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC), a selective inhibitor of neuronal NO-synthase (25 microg), and haemoglobin, a NO scavenger (25 microg), given into the ventral subiculum before oxytocin. Unlike d(CH(2))(5)Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin, SMTC and haemoglobin, (+)MK-801 (5 microg), a noncompetitive antagonist of NMDA receptors abolished oxytocin-induced penile erection, but reduced only partially the increase in NO production and extra-cellular glutamic acid. As NMDA (0.25-1 microg) injected into the ventral subiculum induces penile erection episodes, which also occurred with an increase of NO production and extra-cellular glutamic acid, and NMDA responses were abolished by (+)MK-801 (5 microg), but not by SMTC (25 microg) or haemoglobin (25 microg), injected into the ventral subiculum, these results show that oxytocin injected into the ventral subiculum increases NO production by activating its own receptors. NO in turn increases glutamic acid neurotransmission, leading to penile erection, possibly through neural (glutamatergic) efferent projections from the ventral subiculum to extra-hippocampal brain areas (e.g., prefrontal cortex) modulating the activity of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hippocampal MR volumetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, John W.; Botteron, K.; Brunsden, Barry S.; Sheline, Yvette I.; Walkup, Ronald K.; Black, Kevin J.; Gado, Mokhtar; Vannier, Michael W.

    1994-09-01

    Goal: To estimate hippocampal volumes from in vivo 3D magnetic resonance (MR) brain images and determine inter-rater and intra- rater repeatability. Objective: The precision and repeatability of hippocampal volume estimates using stereologic measurement methods is sought. Design: Five normal control and five schizophrenic subjects were MR scanned using a MPRAGE protocol. Fixed grid stereologic methods were used to estimate hippocampal volumes on a graphics workstation. The images were preprocessed using histogram analysis to standardize 3D MR image scaling from 16 to 8 bits and image volumes were interpolated to 0.5 mm3 isotropic voxels. The following variables were constant for the repeated stereologic measures: grid size, inter-slice distance (1.5 mm), voxel dimensions (0.5 mm3), number of hippocampi measured (10), total number of measurements per rater (40), and number of raters (5). Two grid sizes were tested to determine the coefficient of error associated with the number of sampled 'hits' (approximately 140 and 280) on the hippocampus. Starting slice and grid position were randomly varied to assure unbiased volume estimates. Raters were blind to subject identity, diagnosis, and side of the brain from which the image volumes were extracted and the order of subject presentation was randomized for each of the raters. Inter- and intra-rater intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were determined. Results: The data indicate excellent repeatability of fixed grid stereologic hippocampal volume measures when using an inter-slice distance of 1.5 mm and a 6.25 mm2 grid (inter-rater ICCs equals 0.86 - 0.97, intra- rater ICCs equals 0.85 - 0.97). One major advantage of the current study was the use of 3D MR data which significantly improved visualization of hippocampal boundaries by providing the ability to access simultaneous orthogonal views while counting stereological marks within the hippocampus. Conclusion: Stereological estimates of 3D volumes from 2D MR

  4. Structural and functional hippocampal changes in multiple sclerosis patients with intact memory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosendaal, Stefan D; Hulst, Hanneke E; Vrenken, Hugo; Feenstra, Heleen E M; Castelijns, Jonas A; Pouwels, Petra J W; Barkhof, Frederik; Geurts, Jeroen J G

    2010-05-01

    To investigate changes in hippocampal functional connectivity and structural measures of hippocampal damage in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with intact spatial memory, a cognitive domain frequently affected in progressive MS. The study protocol was approved by the institutional ethics review board; all subjects gave written informed consent prior to participation. Twenty-five MS patients with intact spatial memory function were compared with 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Hippocampal volume differences, based on manually drawn masks, were evaluated by using the Student t test. Additionally, focal hippocampal lesions and mean diffusivity were obtained as descriptive measures of structural hippocampal damage. Multiple regression analyses of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data were performed for each subject by using hippocampal time series. Between-group analyses were conducted with a mixed-effects model, corrected for multiple comparisons by a cluster defining threshold level of z = 2 and a corrected cluster size significance level of P state functional connectivity between the hippocampus and its anatomic input or target areas, including the anterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and prefrontal cortex, were significantly decreased in MS patients. Decreased hippocampal functional connectivity was more pronounced in a subgroup of MS patients with hippocampal atrophy, although subtle decreases of functional connectivity were also found in patients with normal hippocampal volume. In MS patients, substantial abnormalities of hippocampal functional connectivity are already present before spatial memory function is impaired, especially in those patients with more pronounced hippocampal atrophy. Longitudinal studies should now assess whether these functional connectivity and structural changes may precede memory impairment in MS.

  5. Laceration of the muscle ventral serrato

    OpenAIRE

    Dragonetti, Ana María; Boccia, Francisco Osvaldo; Luna, M. M.; Leone, F.

    2005-01-01

    La presentación es informar al profesional veterinario sobre el desgarro bilateral del músculo serrato ventral, una afección de escasa incidencia en la clínica de pequeños animales, a través de la descripción detallada de un caso clínico y su resolución quirúrgica exitosa. The presentation of the work has as objective to inform the veterinary professional on an affection of scarce incidence in the clinic of the small animals, like is the bilateral laceration of the muscle ventral serrato, ...

  6. Dorsal and Ventral Pathways for Prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammler, Daniela; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Anwander, Alfred; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Belin, Pascal

    2015-12-07

    Our vocal tone--the prosody--contributes a lot to the meaning of speech beyond the actual words. Indeed, the hesitant tone of a "yes" may be more telling than its affirmative lexical meaning. The human brain contains dorsal and ventral processing streams in the left hemisphere that underlie core linguistic abilities such as phonology, syntax, and semantics. Whether or not prosody--a reportedly right-hemispheric faculty--involves analogous processing streams is a matter of debate. Functional connectivity studies on prosody leave no doubt about the existence of such streams, but opinions diverge on whether information travels along dorsal or ventral pathways. Here we show, with a novel paradigm using audio morphing combined with multimodal neuroimaging and brain stimulation, that prosody perception takes dual routes along dorsal and ventral pathways in the right hemisphere. In experiment 1, categorization of speech stimuli that gradually varied in their prosodic pitch contour (between statement and question) involved (1) an auditory ventral pathway along the superior temporal lobe and (2) auditory-motor dorsal pathways connecting posterior temporal and inferior frontal/premotor areas. In experiment 2, inhibitory stimulation of right premotor cortex as a key node of the dorsal stream decreased participants' performance in prosody categorization, arguing for a motor involvement in prosody perception. These data draw a dual-stream picture of prosodic processing that parallels the established left-hemispheric multi-stream architecture of language, but with relative rightward asymmetry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ventral-clap modes of hovering passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hung; Ting, Shang-Chieh; Su, Jian-Yuan; Soong, Chyi-Yeou; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2013-02-01

    Some small birds typically clap their wings ventrally, particularly during hovering. To investigate this phenomenon, we analyzed the kinematic motion and wake flow field of two passerine species that hover with the same flapping frequency. For these two birds, the ventral clap is classified as direct and cupping. Japanese White-eyes undertake a direct clap via their hand wings, whereas Gouldian Finches undertake a cupping clap with one wing overlaying the other. As a result of their morphological limitation, birds of both greater size and wing span cup their wings to increase the wing speed during a ventral clap because of the larger wing loading. This morphological limitation leads also to a structural discrepancy of the wake flow fields between these two passerine species. At the instant of clapping, the direct clap induces a downward air velocity 1.68 times and generates a weight-normalized lift force 1.14 times that for the cupping clap. The direct clap produces a small upward jet and a pair of counter-rotating vortices, both of which abate the transient lift at the instant of clapping, but they are not engendered by the cupping clap. The aerodynamic mechanisms generated with a ventral clap help the small birds to avoid abrupt body swinging at the instant of clapping so as to maintain their visual stability during hovering.

  8. Updating stored memory requires adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez-Pereira, Irene; Carrión, Ángel M

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis appears to influence hippocampal functions, such as memory formation for example. While adult hippocampal neurogenesis is known to be involved in hippocampal-dependent learning and consolidation processes, the role of such immature neurons in memory reconsolidation, a process involved in the modification of stored memories, remains unclear. Here, using a novel fast X-ray ablation protocol to deplete neurogenic cells, we have found that adult hippocampal neurogen...

  9. Surgery for ventral intradural thoracic spinal tumors with a posterolateral transpedicular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kiyoshi; Aoyama, Tatsuro; Miyaoka, Yoshinari; Seguchi, Tatsuya; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Surgery for ventrally seated thoracic tumors requires an anatomically specific approach that is distinct from cervical or lumbar spinal cord surgery as the narrower spinal canal of the thoracic spinal cord makes it sensitive to surgical procedures. However, reports describing this operative technique are few. To obtain a wide operative field and minimize thoracic spinal cord retraction, we employed a posterolateral transpedicular approach in ventral-located tumors and investigated the efficacy and limitations of this technique. Eighteen patients with lesions (meningioma or neurinoma) located in the ventral intradural thoracic region were surgically treated between 2009 and 2014. The relationship among the clinical outcome, tumor location, and postoperative spinal alignment was analyzed. Postoperative neurological function improved in all patients, namely those with meningioma (p = 0.012) and schwannoma (p = 0.018). One patient who underwent removal of two facet joints suffered a postoperative compression fracture. Removal of two facet joints and pedicles resulted in a worsening of spinal alignment (p = 0.03), while this was not the case for the removal of one facet joint and pedicle (p = 0.72). This case series clarified the benefits of the posterolateral transpedicular approach for resection of ventral intradural extramedullary tumors. Removal of one pedicle and facet joint seems to be more beneficial.

  10. Differential roles of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in predator odor contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Melissa E; Fraize, Nicolas P; Yin, Linda; Yuan, Robin K; Petsagourakis, Despina; Wann, Ellen G; Muzzio, Isabel A

    2013-06-01

    The study of fear memory is important for understanding various anxiety disorders in which patients experience persistent recollections of traumatic events. These memories often involve associations of contextual cues with aversive events; consequently, Pavlovian classical conditioning is commonly used to study contextual fear learning. The use of predator odor as a fearful stimulus in contextual fear conditioning has become increasingly important as an animal model of anxiety disorders. Innate fear responses to predator odors are well characterized and reliable; however, attempts to use these odors as unconditioned stimuli in fear conditioning paradigms have proven inconsistent. Here we characterize a contextual fear conditioning paradigm using coyote urine as the unconditioned stimulus. We found that contextual conditioning induced by exposure to coyote urine produces long-term freezing, a stereotypic response to fear observed in mice. This paradigm is context-specific and parallels shock-induced contextual conditioning in that it is responsive to extinction training and manipulations of predator odor intensity. Region-specific lesions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus indicate that both areas are independently required for the long-term expression of learned fear. These results in conjunction with c-fos immunostaining data suggest that while both the dorsal and ventral hippocampus are required for forming a contextual representation, the ventral region also modulates defensive behaviors associated with predators. This study provides information about the individual contributions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus to ethologically relevant fear learning. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Update on Hippocampal Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Juliana R; Cortés, Etty P; Vonsattel, Jean Paul G

    2015-10-01

    The diagnostic hallmarks of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) are severe volume loss of the hippocampus, severe neuronal loss, and reactive gliosis involving primarily two especially vulnerable fields, CA1 and the subiculum. Occasionally, HS may be the only neuropathological change detected in older individuals with dementia and is known as pure HS. In the majority of cases, HS occurs in the setting of other degenerative changes, usually Alzheimer's disease (AD). In these cases, it is classified as combined HS. Although a clinical profile for HS has been identified, its similarities with AD make the diagnosis during life quite challenging; thus, the diagnosis is often made postmortem. The pathogenesis of HS is not completely understood, but the strong association with transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), in approximately 90%, and the recent discovery of genetic risk factors are important contributions to a better understanding of the disease process.

  12. Neuroimaging observations linking neurocysticercosis and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchin, Marino M; Velasco, Tonicarlo R; Wichert-Ana, Lauro; Araújo, David; Alexandre, Veriano; Scornavacca, Francisco; Escorsi-Rosset, Sara R; dos Santos, Antonio Carlos; Carlotti, Carlos G; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M; Sakamoto, Américo C

    2015-10-01

    To test if chronic calcificed neurocysticercosis (cNCC) and hippocampal sclerosis occur more often than by chance ipsilateral to the same brain hemisphere or brain region in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) plus neurocysticercosis. This proof-of-concept would provide important evidence of a direct pathogenic relationship between neurocysticercosis and MTLE-HS. A cohort of 290 consecutive MTLE-HS surgical patients was studied. A test of proportions was used to analyze if the proportion of patients with a single cNCC lesion matching the same brain hemisphere or region of hippocampal sclerosis was significantly greater than 50%, as expected by the chance. Neuroimaging findings of cNCC were observed in 112 (38.6%) of 290 MTLE-HS patients and a single cNCC lesion occurred in 58 (51.8%) of them. There were no differences in main basal clinical characteristics of MTLE-HS patients with single or multiple cNCC lesions. In patients with single cNCC lesions, the lesion matched the side in which hippocampal sclerosis was observed in 43 (74.1%) patients, a proportion significantly greater than that expected to occur by chance (p=0.008). Neurocysticercosis in temporal lobe was ipsilateral to hippocampal sclerosis in 85.0% of patients and accounted mostly for this result. This work is a proof-of-concept that the association of neurocysticercosis and MTLE-HS cannot be explained exclusively by patients sharing common biological or socio-economic predisposing variables. Instead, our results suggest the involvement of more direct pathogenic mechanisms like regional inflammation, repetitive seizures or both. Neurocysticercosis within temporal lobes was particularly related with ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis in MTLE-HS, a finding adding new contributions for understanding MTLE-HS plus cNCC or perhaps to other forms of dual pathology in MTLE-HS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hippocampal deep brain stimulation in nonlesional refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongbo; Li, Wenling; Dong, Changzheng; Wu, Jiang; Zhao, Wenqing; Zhao, Zengyi; Ma, Li; Ma, Fa; Chen, Yao; Liu, Qianwei

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of chronic continuous hippocampal deep brain stimulation (DBS) in nonlesional refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Three adult patients with medically intractable epilepsy treated with hippocampal DBS were studied. Two patients underwent invasive recordings with depth stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) electrodes to localize ictal onset zone prior to implantation of DBS electrodes. All the patients with no lesion in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan received bilateral implantation of DBS electrodes. Chronic continuous high-frequency hippocampal stimulation was applied during treatment. The number of seizures in each patient before and after stimulation was compared. Long-term hippocampal stimulation produced a median reduction in seizure frequency of 93%. Two out of these patients received unilateral activation of the electrodes and experienced a 95% and 92% reduction in seizure frequency after hippocampal DBS respectively. The last patient had bilateral electrode activation and had a seizure-frequency reduction of 91%. None of the patients had neuropsychological deterioration and showed side effects. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures disappeared completely after hippocampal DBS. Chronic continuous hippocampal DBS demonstrated a potential efficiency and safety in nonlesional refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and might represent an effective therapeutic option for these patients. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hippocampal inactivation with TTX impairs long-term spatial memory retrieval and modifies brain metabolic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida María Conejo

    Full Text Available Functional inactivation techniques enable studying the hippocampal involvement in each phase of spatial memory formation in the rat. In this study, we applied tetrodotoxin unilaterally or bilaterally into the dorsal hippocampus to evaluate the role of this brain structure in retrieval of memories acquired 28 days before in the Morris water maze. We combined hippocampal inactivation with the assessment of brain metabolism using cytochrome oxidase histochemistry. Several brain regions were considered, including the hippocampus and other related structures. Results showed that both unilateral and bilateral hippocampal inactivation impaired spatial memory retrieval. Hence, whereas subjects with bilateral hippocampal inactivation showed a circular swim pattern at the side walls of the pool, unilateral inactivation favoured swimming in the quadrants adjacent to the target one. Analysis of cytochrome oxidase activity disclosed regional differences according to the degree of hippocampal functional blockade. In comparison to control group, animals with bilateral inactivation showed increased CO activity in CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus during retrieval, while the activity of the dentate gyrus substantially decreased. However, unilateral inactivated animals showed decreased CO activity in Ammon's horn and the dentate gyrus. This study demonstrated that retrieval recruits differentially the hippocampal subregions and the balance between them is altered with hippocampal functional lesions.

  15. Neuromuscular blockade during laparoscopic ventral herniotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medici, Roar; Madsen, Matias V; Asadzadeh, Sami

    2015-01-01

    's rating of surgical conditions during suturing, duration of surgery and duration of the suturing of the hernia. CONCLUSION: This randomised cross-over study investigated a potential effect on the surgical workspace in laparoscopic ventral herniotomy using deep NMB compared with no NMB. The study may......INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic herniotomy is the preferred technique for some ventral hernias. Several factors may influence the surgical conditions, one being the depth of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) applied. We hypothesised that deep neuromuscular blockade defined as a post-tetanic count below eight...... would provide a better surgical workspace. METHODS: This was an investigator-initiated, assessor- and patient-blinded randomised cross-over study. A total of 34 patients with planned laparoscopic umbilical, incisional and linea alba herniotomy were studied. Patients would be randomised to receive deep...

  16. Enhanced recovery after giant ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K K; Brøndum, T L; Harling, H.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Giant ventral hernia repair is associated with a high risk of postoperative morbidity and prolonged length of stay (LOS). Enhanced recovery (ERAS) measures have proved to lead to decreased morbidity and LOS after various surgical procedures, but never after giant hernia repair. The current...... study prospectively examined the results of implementation of an ERAS pathway including high-dose preoperative glucocorticoid, and compared the outcome with patients previously treated according to standard care (SC). METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent giant ventral hernia repair were included...... was 0.92. There were no differences when comparing readmission (5 vs. 2, P = 0.394), postoperative complications (7 vs. 4, P = 0. 458), or reoperation (5 vs. 1, P = 0.172) in ERAS versus controls. CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggests that an ERAS pathway including preoperative high...

  17. Neuromuscular blockade during laparoscopic ventral herniotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medici, Roar; Madsen, Matias V; Asadzadeh, Sami

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic herniotomy is the preferred technique for some ventral hernias. Several factors may influence the surgical conditions, one being the depth of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) applied. We hypothesised that deep neuromuscular blockade defined as a post-tetanic count below eight......'s rating of surgical conditions during suturing, duration of surgery and duration of the suturing of the hernia. CONCLUSION: This randomised cross-over study investigated a potential effect on the surgical workspace in laparoscopic ventral herniotomy using deep NMB compared with no NMB. The study may...... provide knowledge relevant to other laparoscopic techniques. FUNDING: The study is funded by a research grant from the Investigator Initiated Studies Program of Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02247466....

  18. Attentional functions in dorsal and ventral simultanagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, John; Bundesen, Claus; Olson, Andrew; Humphreys, Glyn; Ward, Robert; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; van Raamsdonk, Monique; Rorden, Chris; Chavda, Swarup

    2003-12-01

    Whole report of brief letter arrays is used to analyse basic attentional deficits in dorsal and ventral variants of simultanagnosia. Using Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), a number of previous theoretical suggestions are formalised and tested, including primary deficit in processing more than one display element, attentional stickiness, foveal bias, and global weakness of the visual representation. Interestingly, data from two cases, one dorsal and one ventral, show little true deficit in simultaneous perception, or selective deficit in those TVA parameters (short-term memory capacity, attentional weighting) specifically associated with multi-element displays. Instead there is a general reduction in speed of visual processing (processing rate in TVA), effective even for a single display element but compounded when two or more elements compete.

  19. Delayed presentation of osteochondroma on the ventral surface of the scapula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, O S; Kelly, J I V

    2012-04-01

    Osteochondroma is a cartilage-covered bony excrescence that arises from the surface of a bone. It is the most common benign bone tumor in the scapula and can also present as multiple masses in multiple hereditary exostosis. A solitary scapular lesion might lead to "snapping scapula" syndrome, which is characterized by a sometimes audible but usually palpable grinding sensation experienced with scapular abduction. Snapping scapula is usually painless without specific symptoms; however, discomfort may result from the mechanical effects of a ventral scapular mass projecting onto a normally smooth, gliding scapulothoracic joint. Furthermore, malignant transformation of the cartilaginous cap, by virtue of the increased mass, may precipitate symptoms. The visual deformities and interference with major joint function are the most frequent musculoskeletal complaints related by patients. Indications for operative intervention include painful mechanical dysfunction unresponsive to conservative measures and sarcomatous change. Ventral scapular osteochondromas have been reported to cause scapular asymmetry and should be ruled out as part of a differential diagnosis to a "winged" scapula. A solitary osteochondroma can be excised either by arthroscopic or by open means, with the size of the lesion dictating precise management. Scapular osteochondromas usually are detected early during maturation due to mechanical symptoms or gross deformity. Unfortunately, most require surgical excision. Most surgical excisions have been reported in adolescents and young adults. We report an unusual case of osteochondroma from the ventral surface of the scapula in 56-year-old woman who had experienced delayed onset mechanical symptoms which required surgical excision.

  20. Ambulatory groin and ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, P; Pélissier, E; Levard, H; Perniceni, T; Denet, C; Gayet, B

    2010-10-01

    Ambulatory surgery is not commonly practiced in France today. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the feasibility of ambulatory hernia repair in a consecutive series of unselected patients. From June 2008 to October 2009, 257 patients (238 men and 19 women, median age 65 years) were treated in a same-day surgery unit for 270 hernias (244 groin hernias, 25 ventral hernias and one Spiegelian hernia). For groin hernia, the techniques included the totally extraperitoneal repair (TEP) in 108 cases, the transinguinal preperitoneal (TIPP) approach in 106 cases and other alternative techniques in 30 cases; for ventral hernias, the technique was an open suture in 20 cases, an open prosthetic repair in four cases and laparoscopic repair in one case. Anesthesia was general in 145 cases, local in 121 cases and spinal in four cases. Repair was completed in a same-day surgery setting in 242 (89.6%) cases; hospital stay greater than 23 hours was planned for 21 (7.8%) patients while non-programmed hospitalizations were necessary for seven (2.6%) patients. There were two (0.7%) readmissions and nine (3.3%) benign postoperative complications. These results suggest that groin and ventral hernia repair can be performed in an outpatient setting in nearly 90% of unselected patients. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Ventral hernia repair with simultaneous panniculectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K C; Weider, L; Fischer, J; Hopkins, J; Antonetti, A; Manders, E K; Dunn, E

    1996-08-01

    The repair of a ventral hernia in an obese patient presents an interesting clinical challenge. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 55 patients who, over a 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, concomitantly underwent both ventral herniorrhaphy and panniculectomy or abdominoplasty. In six of 55 patients, the hernia was recurrent. Forty-six patients had primary abdominal wall hernias or diastasis recti. Nineteen of 55 patients had weight greater than 200 lbs. This last subset of patients had a significantly higher incidence of complications, such as seroma, cellulitis, and persistent wound drainage. In our 55 patients, we experienced only two hernia recurrences (3.6%) during an average patient follow-up of 53 weeks. From this experience, we believe that simultaneous ventral hernia repair and panniculectomy is a safe and efficacious approach to these two problems so commonly found in the obese patient. Patients with a preoperative weight greater than 200 lbs can be expected to have a greater risk of wound complications. In all cases, the wounds eventually healed with no long-term sequelae.

  2. Penile septoplasty for congenital ventral penile curvature: results in 51 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpi, Giovanni; Piediferro, Guido; Castiglioni, Fabrizio; Contalbi, Gianfranco; Carmignani, Luca

    2009-10-01

    The technique most widely used to correct congenital ventral penile curvature is still corporoplasty as originally described by Nesbit. We present results in patients treated with a variation of Nesbit corporoplasty used specifically for congenital ventral penile curvature. From June 2000 to June 2007 we treated 51 patients with congenital ventral penile curvature using modified corporoplasty (septoplasty), consisting of accessing the bed of the penile dorsal vein and excising 1 or more diamonds of tunica albuginea from it, extending in wedge-like formation 4 to 5 mm deep into the septum, until the penis is completely straightened. Patient history, clinical findings, self-photography results and the International Index of Erectile Function score were assessed. Curvature grade is expressed using the equation, 180 degrees - X, where X represents the deviation in degrees from the penis axis. Mean preoperative ventral curvature was 131.4 degrees (median 135, range 145 to 110). Of the patients 13 also had erectile dysfunction. At followup postoperative mean ventral curvature was 178.3 degrees (median 179.1, range 180 to 175). A total of 49 stated that they were completely satisfied. Penile shortening was 5 to 15 mm. Compared to preoperative values there were marked improvements in the International Index of Erectile Function score in the various groups. No major postoperative complications developed. In 4 patients wound healing occurred by secondary intent. This technique provides excellent straightening of the curved penis. By avoiding isolation of the whole dorsal neurovascular bundle there is no risk of neurovascular lesions. Suture perception is minimized.

  3. Hippocampal serotonin-1A receptor function in a mouse model of anxiety induced by long-term voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Johannes; Vogt, Miriam A; Weber, Klaus-Josef; Burke, Teresa F; Gass, Peter; Hensler, Julie G

    2013-10-01

    We have recently demonstrated that, in C57/Bl6 mice, long-term voluntary wheel running is anxiogenic, and focal hippocampal irradiation prevents the increase in anxiety-like behaviors and neurobiological changes in the hippocampus induced by wheel running. Evidence supports a role of hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors in anxiety. Therefore, we investigated hippocampal binding and function of 5-HT1A receptors in this mouse model of anxiety. Four weeks of voluntary wheel running resulted in hippocampal subregion-specific changes in 5-HT1A receptor binding sites and function, as measured by autoradiography of [(3) H] 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin binding and agonist-stimulated binding of [(35) S]GTPγS to G proteins, respectively. In the dorsal CA1 region, 5-HT1A receptor binding and function were not altered by wheel running or irradiation. In the dorsal dentate gyrus and CA2/3 region, 5-HT1A receptor function was decreased by not only running but also irradiation. In the ventral pyramidal layer, wheel running resulted in a decrease of 5-HT1A receptor function, which was prevented by irradiation. Neither irradiation nor wheel running affected 5-HT1A receptors in medial prefrontal cortex or in the dorsal or median raphe nuclei. Our data indicate that downregulation of 5-HT1A receptor function in ventral pyramidal layer may play a role in anxiety-like behavior induced by wheel running. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Covert expectation-of-reward in rat ventral striatum at decision points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs A A Van Der Meer

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Flexible decision-making strategies (such as planning are a key component of adaptive behavior, yet their neural mechanisms have remained resistant to experimental analysis. Theories of planning require prediction and evaluation of potential future rewards, suggesting that reward signals may covertly appear at decision points. To test this idea, we recorded ensembles of ventral striatal neurons on a spatial decision task, in which hippocampal ensembles are known to represent future possibilities at decision points. We found representations of reward which were not only activated at actual reward delivery sites, but also at a high-cost choice point and before error correction. This expectation-of-reward signal at decision points was apparent at both the single cell and the ensemble level, and vanished with behavioral automation. We conclude that ventral striatal representations of reward are more dynamic than suggested by previous reports of reward- and cue-responsive cells, and may provide the necessary signal for evaluation of internally generated possibilities considered during flexible decision-making.

  5. Lesiones laborales

    OpenAIRE

    Plachesi, Pierina

    2015-01-01

    Las lesiones laborales se producen por un esfuerzo repetitivo, cuando un exceso de presión se ejerce sobre una parte del cuerpo provocando lesiones óseas, articulares, musculares y daños en los tejidos. Los accidentes laborales también pueden producir una lesión en el organismo y esto sumado a diversos factores es un problema para la reinserción laboral de los trabajadores de la energía eléctrica. Objetivo: Establecer cuáles son las lesiones más frecuentes que afectan a los ...

  6. [Symptoms and lesion localization in visual agnosia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kyoko

    2004-11-01

    There are two cortical visual processing streams, the ventral and dorsal stream. The ventral visual stream plays the major role in constructing our perceptual representation of the visual world and the objects within it. Disturbance of visual processing at any stage of the ventral stream could result in impairment of visual recognition. Thus we need systematic investigations to diagnose visual agnosia and its type. Two types of category-selective visual agnosia, prosopagnosia and landmark agnosia, are different from others in that patients could recognize a face as a face and buildings as buildings, but could not identify an individual person or building. Neuronal bases of prosopagnosia and landmark agnosia are distinct. Importance of the right fusiform gyrus for face recognition was confirmed by both clinical and neuroimaging studies. Landmark agnosia is related to lesions in the right parahippocampal gyrus. Enlarged lesions including both the right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri can result in prosopagnosia and landmark agnosia at the same time. Category non-selective visual agnosia is related to bilateral occipito-temporal lesions, which is in agreement with the results of neuroimaging studies that revealed activation of the bilateral occipito-temporal during object recognition tasks.

  7. Theta activity in local field potential of the ventral tegmental area in sleeping and waking rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzeł-Gryglewska, Jolanta; Matulewicz, Paweł; Jurkowlaniec, Edyta

    2014-05-15

    Hippocampal theta rhythm appears in two vigilance states: active waking and paradoxical sleep. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is active in sleep and waking and is connected to the hippocampus. We assessed the relationship between local field potential (LFP) of the VTA and sleep-waking stages in freely moving rats. Electrical activity of the VTA was divided into: quiet waking (W), waking with theta (WT), slow wave sleep (SWS) and paradoxical sleep (PS), depending on the hippocampal signal and the animal's behavior. We analyzed total power in the VTA signal and we also extracted peak power (Pmax) and corresponding frequency (Fmax) in theta and delta bands from both the VTA and hippocampal recording. In the VTA the 6-9 Hz band had the highest power during PS, and the ratio of the 6-9 to 3-6 Hz power was highest during both PS and WT, which accentuated Pmax of this particular theta sub-band. During W, a very slight increase (or plateau) in signal power was seen in theta range. Pmax and Fmax of theta were higher in PS than in both WT and W, and these parameters did not differ between W and WT. During WT and PS, Fmax in the 6-9 Hz band was greatly correlated between the VTA and hippocampus signal. We also detected high cross-correlation in power spectra between the hippocampus and the VTA (for delta and theta, during WT and PS). The results suggest that the VTA may belong to the broad network involved in theta rhythm induction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Hibar (Derrek); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); N. Jahanshad (Neda); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); J.L. Stein; E. Hofer (Edith); M.E. Rentería (Miguel); J.C. Bis (Joshua); A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro); Ikram, M.K. (M. Kamran); S. Desrivières (Sylvane); M.W. Vernooij (Meike); L. Abramovic (Lucija); S. Alhusaini (Saud); N. Amin (Najaf); M. Andersson (Micael); K. Arfanakis (Konstantinos); B. Aribisala (Benjamin); N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); L. Athanasiu (Lavinia); T. Axelsson (Tomas); A.H. Beecham (Ashley); A. Beiser (Alexa); M. Bernard (Manon); S.H. Blanton (Susan H.); M.M. Bohlken (Marc M.); M.P.M. Boks (Marco); L.B.C. Bralten (Linda); A.M. Brickman (Adam M.); Carmichael, O. (Owen); M.M. Chakravarty (M. Mallar); Q. Chen (Qiang); C.R.K. Ching (Christopher); V. Chouraki (Vincent); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); F. Crivello (Fabrice); A. den Braber (Anouk); Doan, N.T. (Nhat Trung); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); S. Giddaluru (Sudheer); A.L. Goldman (Aaron L.); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); O. Grimm (Oliver); M.D. Griswold (Michael); T. Guadalupe (Tulio); Gutman, B.A. (Boris A.); J. Hass (Johanna); U.K. Haukvik (Unn); D. Hoehn (David); A.J. Holmes (Avram); M. Hoogman (Martine); D. Janowitz (Deborah); T. Jia (Tianye); Jørgensen, K.N. (Kjetil N.); N. Karbalai (Nazanin); D. Kasperaviciute (Dalia); S. Kim (Shinseog); M. Klein (Marieke); B. Kraemer (Bernd); P.H. Lee (Phil); D.C. Liewald (David C.); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); M. Luciano (Michelle); C. MacAre (Christine); Marquand, A.F. (Andre F.); M. Matarin (Mar); R. Mather; M. Mattheisen (Manuel); McKay, D.R. (David R.); Milaneschi, Y. (Yuri); S. Muñoz Maniega (Susana); K. Nho (Kwangsik); A.C. Nugent (Allison); P. Nyquist (Paul); Loohuis, L.M.O. (Loes M. Olde); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap); M. Papmeyer (Martina); Pirpamer, L. (Lukas); B. Pütz (Benno); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); Richards, J.S. (Jennifer S.); S.L. Risacher (Shannon); R. Roiz-Santiañez (Roberto); N. Rommelse (Nanda); S. Ropele (Stefan); E.J. Rose (Emma); N.A. Royle (Natalie); T. Rundek (Tatjana); P.G. Sämann (Philipp); Saremi, A. (Arvin); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); L. Schmaal (Lianne); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); Shen, L. (Li); J. Shin (Jean); Shumskaya, E. (Elena); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); R. Sprooten (Roy); V.M. Strike (Vanessa); A. Teumer (Alexander); D. Tordesillas-Gutierrez (Diana); R. Toro (Roberto); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); S. Trompet (Stella); D. Vaidya (Dhananjay); J. van der Grond (Jeroen); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); Van Der Meer, D. (Dennis); M.M.J. Van Donkelaar (Marjolein M. J.); K.R. van Eijk (Kristel); T.G.M. van Erp (Theo G.); Van Rooij, D. (Daan); E. Walton (Esther); L.T. Westlye (Lars); C.D. Whelan (Christopher); B.G. Windham (B Gwen); A.M. Winkler (Anderson); K. Wittfeld (Katharina); G. Woldehawariat (Girma); A. Björnsson (Asgeir); Wolfers, T. (Thomas); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); Yang, J. (Jingyun); A.P. Zijdenbos; M.P. Zwiers (Marcel); I. Agartz (Ingrid); L. Almasy (Laura); D.J. Ames (David); Amouyel, P. (Philippe); O.A. Andreassen (Ole); S. Arepalli (Sampath); A.A. Assareh; S. Barral (Sandra); M.E. Bastin (Mark); Becker, D.M. (Diane M.); J.T. Becker (James); D.A. Bennett (David A.); J. Blangero (John); H. van Bokhoven (Hans); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); H. Brodaty (Henry); R.M. Brouwer (Rachel); H.G. Brunner; M. Buckner; J.K. Buitelaar (Jan); K. Bulayeva (Kazima); W. Cahn (Wiepke); V.D. Calhoun Vince D. (V.); D.M. Cannon (Dara); G. Cavalleri (Gianpiero); Cheng, C.-Y. (Ching-Yu); S. Cichon (Sven); M.R. Cookson (Mark); A. Corvin (Aiden); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M. Czisch (Michael); A.M. Dale (Anders); G.E. Davies (Gareth); A.J. de Craen (Anton); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); P.L. de Jager (Philip); G.I. de Zubicaray (Greig); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); S. Debette (Stéphanie); C. DeCarli (Charles); N. Delanty; C. Depondt (Chantal); A.L. DeStefano (Anita); A. Dillman (Allissa); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); D.J. Donohoe (Dennis); D.A. Drevets (Douglas); Duggirala, R. (Ravi); M.D. Dyer (Matthew); C. Enzinger (Christian); S. Erk; T. Espeseth (Thomas); Fedko, I.O. (Iryna O.); Fernández, G. (Guillén); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); S.E. Fisher (Simon); D. Fleischman (Debra); I. Ford (Ian); M. Fornage (Myriam); T. Foroud (Tatiana); P.T. Fox (Peter); C. Francks (Clyde); Fukunaga, M. (Masaki); Gibbs, J.R. (J. Raphael); D.C. Glahn (David); R.L. Gollub (Randy); H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); R.C. Green (Robert C.); O. Gruber (Oliver); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Guelfi (Sebastian); Håberg, A.K. (Asta K.); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); J. Hardy (John); C.A. Hartman (C.); Hashimoto, R. (Ryota); K. Hegenscheid (Katrin); J. Heinz (Judith); S. Le Hellard (Stephanie); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.J. Heslenfeld (Dirk); Ho, B.-C. (Beng-Choon); P.J. Hoekstra (Pieter); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); A. Hofman (Albert); F. Holsboer (Florian); G. Homuth (Georg); N. Hosten (Norbert); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M.J. Huentelman (Matthew); H.H. Pol; Ikeda, M. (Masashi); Jack, C.R. (Clifford R.); S. Jenkinson (Sarah); R. Johnson (Robert); Jönsson, E.G. (Erik G.); J.W. Jukema; R. Kahn (René); Kanai, R. (Ryota); I. Kloszewska (Iwona); Knopman, D.S. (David S.); P. Kochunov (Peter); Kwok, J.B. (John B.); S. Lawrie (Stephen); H. Lemaître (Herve); X. Liu (Xinmin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); O.L. Lopez (Oscar L.); S. Lovestone (Simon); Martinez, O. (Oliver); J.-L. Martinot (Jean-Luc); V.S. Mattay (Venkata S.); McDonald, C. (Colm); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); McMahon, F.J. (Francis J.); McMahon, K.L. (Katie L.); P. Mecocci (Patrizia); I. Melle (Ingrid); Meyer-Lindenberg, A. (Andreas); S. Mohnke (Sebastian); Montgomery, G.W. (Grant W.); D.W. Morris (Derek W); T.H. Mosley (Thomas H.); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); M.A. Nalls (Michael); M. Nauck (Matthias); T.E. Nichols (Thomas); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); L. Nyberg (Lars); Ohi, K. (Kazutaka); R.L. Olvera (Rene); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); M. Pandolfo (Massimo); T. Paus (Tomas); Z. Pausova (Zdenka); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); Pike, G.B. (G. Bruce); S.G. Potkin (Steven); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); S. Reppermund; M. Rietschel (Marcella); J.L. Roffman (Joshua); N. Seiferth (Nina); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); M. Ryten (Mina); Sacco, R.L. (Ralph L.); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); A.J. Saykin (Andrew); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); Schmidt, H. (Helena); C.J. Schofield (Christopher); Sigursson, S. (Sigurdur); Simmons, A. (Andrew); A. Singleton (Andrew); S.M. Sisodiya (Sanjay); Smith, C. (Colin); J.W. Smoller; H. Soininen (H.); V.M. Steen (Vidar); D.J. Stott (David J.); J. Sussmann (Jessika); A. Thalamuthu (Anbupalam); A.W. Toga (Arthur W.); B. Traynor (Bryan); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); M. Tsolaki (Magda); C. Tzourio (Christophe); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); Hernández, M.C.V. (Maria C. Valdés); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); A. van der Lugt (Aad); N.J. van der Wee (Nic); N.E.M. van Haren (Neeltje E.); D. van 't Ent (Dennis); M.J.D. van Tol (Marie-José); B.N. Vardarajan (Badri); B. Vellas (Bruno); D.J. Veltman (Dick); H. Völzke (Henry); H.J. Walter (Henrik); J. Wardlaw (Joanna); A.M.J. Wassink (Annemarie); M.E. Weale (Michael); Weinberger, D.R. (Daniel R.); Weiner, M.W. (Michael W.); Wen, W. (Wei); E. Westman (Eric); T.J.H. White (Tonya); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Y.); Wright, C.B. (Clinton B.); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); A.B. Zonderman; N.G. Martin (Nicholas); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); M.J. Wright (Margaret); W.T. Longstreth Jr; G. Schumann (Gunter); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); B. Franke (Barbara); L.J. Launer (Lenore); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); S. Seshadri (Sudha); P.M. Thompson (Paul); M.K. Ikram (Kamran)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic

  9. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L.; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E.; Bis, Joshua C.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M. Kamran; Desrivières, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W.; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf; Andersson, Micael; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Axelsson, Tomas; Beecham, Ashley H.; Beiser, Alexa; Bernard, Manon; Blanton, Susan H.; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brickman, Adam M.; Carmichael, Owen; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Chouraki, Vincent; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Crivello, Fabrice; den Braber, Anouk; Doan, Nhat Trung; Ehrlich, Stefan; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Grimm, Oliver; Griswold, Michael E.; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gutman, Boris A.; Hass, Johanna; Haukvik, Unn K.; Hoehn, David; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Jørgensen, Kjetil N.; Karbalai, Nazanin; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Marquand, Andre F.; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; McKay, David R.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C.; Nyquist, Paul; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Papmeyer, Martina; Pirpamer, Lukas; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Richards, Jennifer S.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rommelse, Nanda; Ropele, Stefan; Rose, Emma J.; Royle, Natalie A.; Rundek, Tatjana; Sämann, Philipp G.; Saremi, Arvin; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shen, Li; Shin, Jean; Shumskaya, Elena; Smith, Albert V.; Sprooten, Emma; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Toro, Roberto; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trompet, Stella; Vaidya, Dhananjay; van der Grond, Jeroen; van der Lee, Sven J.; van der Meer, Dennis; van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; van Eijk, Kristel R.; van Erp, Theo G. M.; van Rooij, Daan; Walton, Esther; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Windham, Beverly G.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Wolfers, Thomas; Yanek, Lisa R.; Yang, Jingyun; Zijdenbos, Alex; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Agartz, Ingrid; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Amouyel, Philippe; Andreassen, Ole A.; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Barral, Sandra; Bastin, Mark E.; Becker, Diane M.; Becker, James T.; Bennett, David A.; Blangero, John; van Bokhoven, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brodaty, Henry; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cichon, Sven; Cookson, Mark R.; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; de Jager, Philip L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Deary, Ian J.; Debette, Stéphanie; Decarli, Charles; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; DeStefano, Anita; Dillman, Allissa; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drevets, Wayne C.; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Enzinger, Christian; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fedko, Iryna O.; Fernández, Guillén; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fisher, Simon E.; Fleischman, Debra A.; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Francks, Clyde; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Glahn, David C.; Gollub, Randy L.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Gruber, Oliver; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guelfi, Sebastian; Håberg, Asta K.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huentelman, Matthew; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Jönsson, Erik G.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kahn, René S.; Kanai, Ryota; Kloszewska, Iwona; Knopman, David S.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Lemaître, Hervé; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Lovestone, Simon; Martinez, Oliver; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mattay, Venkata S.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, Katie L.; Mecocci, Patrizia; Melle, Ingrid; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Derek W.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nalls, Michael A.; Nauck, Matthias; Nichols, Thomas E.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nyberg, Lars; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pandolfo, Massimo; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L.; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rotter, Jerome I.; Ryten, Mina; Sacco, Ralph L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schmidt, Helena; Schofield, Peter R.; Sigursson, Sigurdur; Simmons, Andrew; Singleton, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W.; Soininen, Hilkka; Steen, Vidar M.; Stott, David J.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Tsolaki, Magda; Tzourio, Christophe; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hernández, Maria C. Valdés; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Lugt, Aad; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; van 't Ent, Dennis; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Vardarajan, Badri N.; Vellas, Bruno; Veltman, Dick J.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; Westman, Eric; White, Tonya; Wong, Tien Y.; Wright, Clinton B.; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Wright, Margaret J.; Longstreth, W. T.; Schumann, Gunter; Grabe, Hans J.; Franke, Barbara; Launer, Lenore J.; Medland, Sarah E.; Seshadri, Sudha; Thompson, Paul M.; Ikram, M. Arfan

    2017-01-01

    The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of

  10. Differential contributions of dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal prefrontal white matter tracts to cognitive control in healthy older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Strenziok

    Full Text Available Prefrontal cortex mediates cognitive control by means of circuitry organized along dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal axes. Along the dorso-ventral axis, ventrolateral PFC controls semantic information, whereas dorsolateral PFC encodes task rules. Along the rostro-caudal axis, anterior prefrontal cortex encodes complex rules and relationships between stimuli, whereas posterior prefrontal cortex encodes simple relationships between stimuli and behavior. Evidence of these gradients of prefrontal cortex organization has been well documented in fMRI studies, but their functional correlates have not been examined with regard to integrity of underlying white matter tracts. We hypothesized that (a the integrity of specific white matter tracts is related to cognitive functioning in a manner consistent with the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal organization of the prefrontal cortex, and (b this would be particularly evident in healthy older adults. We assessed three cognitive processes that recruit the prefrontal cortex and can distinguish white matter tracts along the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal dimensions -episodic memory, working memory, and reasoning. Correlations between cognition and fractional anisotropy as well as fiber tractography revealed: (a Episodic memory was related to ventral prefrontal cortex-thalamo-hippocampal fiber integrity; (b Working memory was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; and (c Reasoning was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving rostral and caudal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings confirm the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex's role in semantic control and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex's role in rule-based processing, in accordance with the dorso-ventral prefrontal cortex gradient. Reasoning-related rostral and caudal superior frontal white matter may facilitate different levels of task rule complexity. This study is the

  11. Hippocampal Damage Increases Deontological Responses during Moral Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cornelia; Rosenthal, Clive R; Miller, Thomas D; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2016-11-30

    Complex moral decision making is associated with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in humans, and damage to this region significantly increases the frequency of utilitarian judgments. Since the vmPFC has strong anatomical and functional links with the hippocampus, here we asked how patients with selective bilateral hippocampal damage would derive moral decisions on a classic moral dilemmas paradigm. We found that the patients approved of the utilitarian options significantly less often than control participants, favoring instead deontological responses-rejecting actions that harm even one person. Thus, patients with hippocampal damage have a strikingly opposite approach to moral decision making than vmPFC-lesioned patients. Skin-conductance data collected during the task showed increased emotional arousal in the hippocampal-damaged patients and they stated that their moral decisions were based on emotional instinct. By contrast, control participants made moral decisions based on the integration of an adverse emotional response to harming others, visualization of the consequences of one's action, and the rational re-evaluation of future benefits. This integration may be disturbed in patients with either hippocampal or vmPFC damage. Hippocampal lesions decreased the ability to visualize a scenario and its future consequences, which seemed to render the adverse emotional response overwhelmingly dominant. In patients with vmPFC damage, visualization might also be reduced alongside an inability to detect the adverse emotional response, leaving only the utilitarian option open. Overall, these results provide insights into the processes involved in moral decision making and highlight the complementary roles played by two closely connected brain regions. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is closely associated with the ability to make complex moral judgements. When this area is damaged, patients become more utilitarian (the ends justify the means) and have

  12. Laparoscopic management of nonmidline ventral hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Romesh; Sharma, Deborshi; Hazrah, Priya; Kumar, Pawan; Borgharia, Saurabh; Agarwal, Abhinav

    2014-07-01

    Ventral hernias may be primary or incisional and classified as midline ventral hernias (MVHs) or non-MVHs (NMVHs). NMVHs are rarer, and their laparoscopic management is technically challenging because of varied anatomic locations, differences in patient positioning at time of surgery, and lack of adequate lateral space for mesh fixation, compounded by the proximity of major organs and bony landmarks. A retrospective review of all the NMVHs operated on in a clinical unit is presented. One hundred eighty-three cases met the criteria of ventral hernia, with 25 cases (13.66%) as NMVH. These NMVHs included lumbar (n=5), suprapubic (n=7), iliac (n=10), and subcostal (n=3). Univariate and multivariate analyses were done using SPSS version 19 software (IBM, Armonk, NY). Continuous data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test/t test, and categorical data were analyzed using the chi-squared test. A P value of ≤.05 was considered significant. Demographic profile and presentation were similar in all groups. One case each had seromuscular intestinal injury in the iliac group (P=.668), splenic injury in the lumbar group, and liver injury in the subcostal group (P=.167). In the iliac group there was 1 patient with hematoma (P=.668), whereas seroma was seen in 1 lumbar group patient and 2 iliac group patients (P=.518). Persistent cough impulse was seen in 1 case each in the iliac and lumbar groups (P=.593). One case in the iliac group recurred after primary surgery (P=.668). NMVHs have a similar spectrum of difficulty and complication profile as those of laparoscopic MVH repairs. Laparoscopic repair of a non-midline hernia is technically challenging but definitely feasible. The incidence of complications and recurrence rate might be more than those for MVHs, but its actual validation needs a much larger comparative study having a longer follow-up.

  13. MIECTOMÍA SACROCOCCIGEA VENTRAL EN EQUINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastoby Martínez M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una técnica quirúrgica basada en una incisión pequeña del músculo sacrococcigeo ventral,con el fin de realzar la elegancia del caballo al andar teniendo presente los aspectos bioéticos dela medicina veterinaria. En los animales intervenidos no se presento complicación y se logró elobjetivo, por lo que se propone esta técnica quirúrgica para que sea practicada por los veterianriosdurante su ejercicio profesional.

  14. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume.

    OpenAIRE

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Adams, Hieab H.H.; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L.; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E.; Bis, Joshua C; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M. Kamran; Desrivières, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal ...

  15. Mapping local hippocampal changes in Alzheimer's disease and normal ageing with MRI at 3 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisoni, Giovanni B; Ganzola, Rossana; Canu, Elisa; Rüb, Udo; Pizzini, Francesca B; Alessandrini, Franco; Zoccatelli, Giada; Beltramello, Alberto; Caltagirone, Carlo; Thompson, Paul M

    2008-12-01

    Histological studies have suggested differing involvement of the hippocampal subfields in ageing and in Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to assess in vivo local hippocampal changes in ageing and Alzheimer's disease based on high resolution MRI at 3 Tesla. T(1)-weighted images were acquired from 19 Alzheimer's disease patients [age 76 +/- 6 years, three males, Mini-Mental State Examination 13 +/- 4] and 19 controls (age 74 +/- 5 years, 11 males, Mini-Mental State Examination 29 +/- 1). The hippocampal formation was isolated by manual tracing. Radial atrophy mapping was used to assess group differences and correlations by averaging hippocampal shapes across subjects using 3D parametric surface mesh models. Percentage difference, Pearson's r, and significance maps were produced. Hippocampal volumes were inversely correlated with age in older healthy controls (r = 0.56 and 0.6 to the right and left, respectively, P mapped to medial and lateral areas of the tail and body corresponding to the CA1 subfield and ventral areas of the head corresponding to the presubiculum. Significantly increased volume with older age mapped to a few small spots mainly located to the CA1 sector of the right hippocampus. Volumes were 35% and 30% smaller in Alzheimer's disease patients to the right and left (P mapped not only to CA1 areas of the body and tail corresponding to those also associated with age, but also to dorsal CA1 areas of the head unaffected by age. Regions corresponding to the CA2-3 fields were relatively spared in both ageing and Alzheimer's disease. Hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer's disease maps to areas in the body and tail that partly overlap those affected by normal ageing. Specific areas in the anterior and dorsal CA1 subfield involved in Alzheimer's disease were not in normal ageing. These patterns might relate to differential neural systems involved in Alzheimer's disease and ageing.

  16. Enriched encoding: reward motivation organizes cortical networks for hippocampal detection of unexpected events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; Adcock, R Alison

    2014-08-01

    Learning how to obtain rewards requires learning about their contexts and likely causes. How do long-term memory mechanisms balance the need to represent potential determinants of reward outcomes with the computational burden of an over-inclusive memory? One solution would be to enhance memory for salient events that occur during reward anticipation, because all such events are potential determinants of reward. We tested whether reward motivation enhances encoding of salient events like expectancy violations. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants performed a reaction-time task in which goal-irrelevant expectancy violations were encountered during states of high- or low-reward motivation. Motivation amplified hippocampal activation to and declarative memory for expectancy violations. Connectivity of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) with medial prefrontal, ventrolateral prefrontal, and visual cortices preceded and predicted this increase in hippocampal sensitivity. These findings elucidate a novel mechanism whereby reward motivation can enhance hippocampus-dependent memory: anticipatory VTA-cortical-hippocampal interactions. Further, the findings integrate literatures on dopaminergic neuromodulation of prefrontal function and hippocampus-dependent memory. We conclude that during reward motivation, VTA modulation induces distributed neural changes that amplify hippocampal signals and records of expectancy violations to improve predictions-a potentially unique contribution of the hippocampus to reward learning. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Hippocampal Infusion of Zeta Inhibitory Peptide Impairs Recent, but Not Remote, Recognition Memory in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena B. Hales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial memory in rodents can be erased following the infusion of zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP into the dorsal hippocampus via indwelling guide cannulas. It is believed that ZIP impairs spatial memory by reversing established late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP. However, it is unclear whether other forms of hippocampus-dependent memory, such as recognition memory, are also supported by hippocampal LTP. In the current study, we tested recognition memory in rats following hippocampal ZIP infusion. In order to combat the limited targeting of infusions via cannula, we implemented a stereotaxic approach for infusing ZIP throughout the dorsal, intermediate, and ventral hippocampus. Rats infused with ZIP 3–7 days after training on the novel object recognition task exhibited impaired object recognition memory compared to control rats (those infused with aCSF. In contrast, rats infused with ZIP 1 month after training performed similar to control rats. The ability to form new memories after ZIP infusions remained intact. We suggest that enhanced recognition memory for recent events is supported by hippocampal LTP, which can be reversed by hippocampal ZIP infusion.

  18. Complex Ventral Hernias: A Review of Past to Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Charles N; Fowler, Aaron; Al-Temimi, Mohammed H; Ali, Aamna; Johna, Samir; Tessier, Deron

    2018-01-01

    With the incidence of ventral hernias increasing, surgeons are faced with greater complexity in dealing with these conditions. Proper knowledge of the history and the advancements made in managing complex ventral hernias will enhance surgical results. This review article highlights the literature regarding complex ventral hernias, including a shift from a focus that stressed surgical technique toward a multimodal approach, which involves optimization and identification of suboptimal characteristics.

  19. Conceptual size representation in ventral visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Shai; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Henik, Avishai; Gronau, Nurit

    2016-01-29

    Recent findings suggest that visual objects may be mapped along the ventral occipitotemporal cortex according to their real-world size (Konkle and Oliva, 2012). It has been argued that such mapping does not reflect an abstract, conceptual size representation, but rather the visual or functional properties associated with small versus big real-world objects. To determine whether a more abstract conceptual size representation may affect visual cortical activation we used meaningless geometrical shapes, devoid of semantic or functional associations, which were associated with specific size representations by virtue of extensive training. Following training, participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while performing a conceptual size comparison task on the geometrical shapes. In addition, a size comparison task was conducted for numeral digits denoting small and big numbers. A region-of-interest analysis revealed larger blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses for conceptually 'big' than for conceptually 'small' shapes, as well as for big versus small numbers, within medial (parahippocampal place area, PPA) and lateral (occipital place area, OPA) place-selective regions. Processing of the 'big' visual shapes further elicited enhanced activation in early visual cortex, possibly reflecting top-down projections from PPA. By using arbitrary shapes and numbers we minimized visual, categorical, or functional influences on fMRI measurement, providing evidence for a possible neural mechanism underlying the representation of abstract conceptual size within the ventral visual stream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Regional hippocampal vulnerability in early multiple sclerosis: Dynamic pathological spreading from dentate gyrus to CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planche, Vincent; Koubiyr, Ismail; Romero, José E; Manjon, José V; Coupé, Pierrick; Deloire, Mathilde; Dousset, Vincent; Brochet, Bruno; Ruet, Aurélie; Tourdias, Thomas

    2018-01-13

    Whether hippocampal subfields are differentially vulnerable at the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis (MS) and how this impacts memory performance is a current topic of debate. We prospectively included 56 persons with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of MS in a 1-year longitudinal study, together with 55 matched healthy controls at baseline. Participants were tested for memory performance and scanned with 3 T MRI to assess the volume of 5 distinct hippocampal subfields using automatic segmentation techniques. At baseline, CA4/dentate gyrus was the only hippocampal subfield with a volume significantly smaller than controls (p lesion-load, and global brain atrophy as covariates). The volume of CA4/dentate gyrus at baseline was associated with MS diagnosis during follow-up, independently of T2-lesion load and demographic variables (p < .05). Whereas CA4/dentate gyrus volume was not correlated with memory scores at baseline, CA1 atrophy was an independent correlate of episodic verbal memory performance one year after CIS (ß = 0.87, p < .05). The hippocampal degenerative process spread from dentate gyrus to CA1 at the earliest stage of MS. This dynamic vulnerability is associated with MS diagnosis after CIS and will ultimately impact hippocampal-dependent memory performance. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Hippocampal microstructural damage correlates with memory impairment in clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planche, Vincent; Ruet, Aurélie; Coupé, Pierrick; Lamargue-Hamel, Delphine; Deloire, Mathilde; Pereira, Bruno; Manjon, José V; Munsch, Fanny; Moscufo, Nicola; Meier, Dominik S; Guttmann, Charles Rg; Dousset, Vincent; Brochet, Bruno; Tourdias, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    We investigated whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could reveal early hippocampal damage and clinically relevant correlates of memory impairment in persons with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). A total of 37 persons with CIS, 32 with MS and 36 controls prospectively included from 2011 to 2014 were tested for cognitive performances and scanned with 3T-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess volumetric and DTI changes within the hippocampus, whole brain volume and T2-lesion load. While there was no hippocampal atrophy in the CIS group, hippocampal fractional anisotropy (FA) was significantly decreased compared to controls. Decrease in hippocampal FA together with increased mean diffusivity (MD) was even more prominent in MS patients. In CIS, hippocampal MD was correlated with episodic verbal memory performance ( r = -0.57, p = 0.0002 and odds ratio (OR) = 0.058, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.0057-0.59, p = 0.016 adjusted for age, gender, depression and T2-lesion load), but not with cognitive tasks unrelated to hippocampal functions. Hippocampal MD was the only variable discriminating memory-impaired from memory-preserved persons with CIS (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.77, sensitivity = 90.0%, specificity = 70.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) = 52.9%, negative predictive value (NPV) = 95.0%). DTI alterations within the hippocampus might reflect early neurodegenerative processes that are correlated with episodic memory performance, discriminating persons with CIS according to their memory status.

  2. New surgical technique for ventral penile curvature without circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alei, Giovanni; Letizia, Piero; Alei, Lavinia; Massoni, Francesco; Ricci, Serafino

    2014-06-01

    To describe and report on our variant of penile corporoplasty, the ‘double-breasted’ corporoplasty, with penoscrotal and infrapubic access not requiring circumcision. The medicolegal aspects of treatment are also discussed. Between February 1995 and October 2012, double-breasted corporoplasty was performed in 93 patients with congenital ventral penile curvature. Preoperative assessment comprised RigiScan monitoring, prostaglandin E1 injection with photographic documentation and measurement of penile angulation, administration of the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire, and biothesiometry up until 5 years ago when it was substituted with the Genito Sensory Analyser for testing sensitivity. Dorsal infrapubic access was used in the patients with ventral curvature. After preparation and incision of Colles' fascia, the penis is degloved and double-breasted corporoplasty is performed at the site established at preoperative assessment. The tunica albuginea is prepared, an incision is made, and the cavernous tissue is isolated from the albuginea to obtain two flaps that are then overlaid and sutured asymmetrically with interrupted 2-0 polyglactin 910 (Vicryl®) sutures. After the free edge of the albuginea is sutured with a running polyglactin 910 suture, a non-absorbable monofilament and uncoated suture made of polypropylene (Premicron®) suture is placed at the point of maximum traction. Complete correction of penile curvature was achieved in 96% of patients; recurrence occurred in 4%. No major complications were reported, nor were there neurovascular lesions or change in erectile function. Palpable subcutaneous irregularities at the site of the corporoplasty, without functional or aesthetic impairment, were reported by 35% of patients. There was no change in the appearance of the penis as circumcision was not performed and the residual scar was barely noticeable as it was hidden in the infrapubic fold. The corporoplasty technique can

  3. A vertex model of Drosophila ventral furrow formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Spahn

    Full Text Available Ventral furrow formation in Drosophila is an outstanding model system to study the mechanisms involved in large-scale tissue rearrangements. Ventral cells accumulate myosin at their apical sides and, while being tightly coupled to each other via apical adherens junctions, execute actomyosin contractions that lead to reduction of their apical cell surface. Thereby, a band of constricted cells along the ventral epithelium emerges which will form a tissue indentation along the ventral midline (the ventral furrow. Here we adopt a 2D vertex model to simulate ventral furrow formation in a surface view allowing easy comparison with confocal live-recordings. We show that in order to reproduce furrow morphology seen in vivo, a gradient of contractility must be assumed in the ventral epithelium which renders cells more contractile the closer they lie to the ventral midline. The model predicts previous experimental findings, such as the gain of eccentric morphology of constricting cells and an incremental fashion of apical cell area reduction. Analysis of the model suggests that this incremental area reduction is caused by the dynamical interplay of cell elasticity and stochastic contractility as well as by the opposing forces from contracting neighbour cells. We underpin results from the model through in vivo analysis of ventral furrow formation in wildtype and twi mutant embryos. Our results show that ventral furrow formation can be accomplished as a "tug-of-war" between stochastically contracting, mechanically coupled cells and may require less rigorous regulation than previously thought.For the developmental biologist it is a fascinating question how cells can coordinate major tissue movements during embryonic development. The so-called ventral furrow of the Drosophila embryo is a well-studied example of such a process when cells from a ventral band, spanning nearly the entire length of the embryo, undergo dramatic shape change by contracting their

  4. Hippocampal Abnormalities and Seizure Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal volumetry and T2 relaxometry were performed on 84 consecutive patients (adolescents and adults with partial epilepsy submitted to antiepileptic drug (AED withdrawal after at least 2 years of seizure control, in a study at State University of Campinas-UNICAMP, Brazil.

  5. "Limulus" Psychophysics: Spectral Sensitivity of the Ventral Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Gerald S.

    1976-01-01

    The ventral eye of "Limulus" (horseshoe crab) contains only one type of photoreceptor. Behaviors mediated by the ventral eye provide an unambiguous representation of the function of that single-receptor type. Compares such behaviors with results of acute, single-cell investigations to assay for the contributions of candidate neural codes in the…

  6. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ~ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos

  7. Ventral onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the ongoing role of ventral onlay oral mucosa free graft in the treatment of bulbar urethral stricture. Methods: Detailed review of technical consideration and outcomes from the author's institution along with review of other peer reviewed literature. Results: Of 62 patients undergoing ventral onlay buccal ...

  8. The issue of ventral versus dorsal approach in bulbar urethral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. Palminteri

    increased over time the use of Ventral Graft and decreased the use of dorsal graft [7]. From surgical point of view, the Barbagli Dorsal Grafting by Dor- sal approach ... seems reduce the risk of fistula; in reality there is a similar rate of fistula with both ventral and dorsal grafting. The disadvantage of the dorsal approach is that it ...

  9. Prior high corticosterone exposure reduces activation of immature neurons in the ventral hippocampus in response to spatial and nonspatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Joanna L; Chan, Melissa Y T; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-03-01

    Chronic stress or chronically high glucocorticoids attenuate adult hippocampal neurogenesis by reducing cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation in male rodents. Neurons are still produced in the dentate gyrus during chronically high glucocorticoids, but it is not known whether these new neurons are appropriately activated in response to spatial memory. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether immature granule neurons generated during chronically high glucocorticoids (resulting in a depressive-like phenotype) are differentially activated by spatial memory retrieval. Male Sprague Dawley rats received either 40 mg/kg corticosterone (CORT) or vehicle for 18 days prior to behavioral testing. Rats were tested in the forced swim test (FST) and then tested in a spatial (hippocampus-dependent) or cued (hippocampus-independent) Morris Water Maze. Tissue was then processed for doublecortin (DCX) to identify immature neurons and zif268, an immediate early gene product. As expected, CORT increased depressive-like behavior (greater immobility in the FST) however, prior CORT modestly enhanced spatial learning and memory compared with oil. Prior CORT reduced the number of DCX-expressing cells and proportion of DCX-expressing cells colabeled for zif268, but only in the ventral hippocampus. Prior CORT shifted the proportion of cells in the ventral hippocampus away from postmitotic cells and toward immature, proliferative cells, likely due to the fact that postmitotic cells were produced and matured during CORT exposure but proliferative cells were produced after high CORT exposure ceased. Compared with cue training, spatial training slightly increased DCX-expressing cells and shifted cells toward the postmitotic stage in the ventral hippocampus. These data suggest that the effects of CORT and spatial training on immature neurons are more pronounced in the ventral hippocampus. Further, high CORT reduced activation of immature neurons, suggesting that exposure

  10. Development of a Modelling to Correlate Site and Diameter of Brain Metastases with Hippocampal Sparing Using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Chiesa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To correlate site and diameter of brain metastases with hippocampal sparing in patients treated by RapidArc (RA technique on whole brain with simultaneously integrated boost (SIB. Methods and Materials. An RA plan was calculated for brain metastases of 1-2-3 cm of diameter. The whole brain dose was 32.25 Gy (15 fractions, and SIB doses to brain metastases were 63 Gy (2 and 3 cm or 70.8 Gy (1 cm. Plans were optimized and evaluated for conformity, target coverage, prescription isodose to target volume, homogeneity index, and hippocampal sparing. Results. Fifteen brain lesions and RA plan were generated. Hippocampal volume was 4.09 cm3, and hippocampal avoidance volume was 17.50 cm3. Related to site of metastases, the mean hippocampal dose was 9.68 Gy2 for occipital lobe, 10.56 Gy2 for frontal lobe, 10.56 Gy2 for parietal lobe, 10.94 Gy2 for deep brain structures, and 40.44 Gy2 for temporal lobe. The mean hippocampal dose was 9.45 Gy2, 10.15 Gy2, and 11.70 Gy2 for diameter’s metastases of 1.2 and 3 cm, respectively, excluding results relative to temporal brain lesions. Conclusions. Location more than size of metastases can adversely influence the hippocampus sparing. Further investigation is necessary to meet definitive considerations.

  11. Ventral medial prefrontal cortex and emotional perseveration: the memory for prior extinction training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Maria A; Schulkin, Jay; LeDoux, Joseph E

    2003-11-30

    Several years ago, we found that lesions of ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFCv) disrupted performance during the extinction component of a classical fear conditioning task without affecting acquisition performance. We called this emotional perseveration, hypothesizing that mPFCv may normally act to inhibit fear responses to a conditioned stimulus (CS) when the CS no longer signals danger. Subsequent studies have supported this hypothesis, showing that mPFCv is crucial for the memory of prior extinction training. The present study examined the effects of mPFCv lesions made after training. Such lesions resulted in reduced freezing to contextual stimuli and normal responding to the CS presented alone during a retention test. Rats were then subjected to extinction trials (CS without US) over multiple days. In contrast to pre-training lesions, post-training lesions had little effect on extinction rate. All rats were given additional training. Lesioned rats expressed greater fear reactions than controls, indicating that prior extinction was less effective in them. Lesioned rats also showed resistance to extinction during reextinction trials, confirming our earlier finding that lesions made before training weaken the effectiveness of extinction trials. These results suggest three conclusions. First, an intact mPFCv during acquisition may protect the animal from prolonged responding during extinction trials following brain insult. Second, changes in mPFCv may predispose subjects toward enhanced fear reactions that are difficult to extinguish when reexposed to fearful stimuli, due to a diminished capacity to benefit from the fear-reducing impact of prior extinction experience. Third, contextual cues processed by mPFCv may influence extinction performance.

  12. The ventral hippocampus, but not the dorsal hippocampus is critical for learned approach-avoidance decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Anett; Vlassov, Ekaterina; Ito, Rutsuko

    2016-04-01

    The resolution of an approach-avoidance conflict induced by ambivalent information involves the appraisal of the incentive value of the outcomes and associated stimuli to orchestrate an appropriate behavioral response. Much research has been directed at delineating the neural circuitry underlying approach motivation and avoidance motivation separately. Very little research, however, has examined the neural substrates engaged at the point of decision making when opposing incentive motivations are experienced simultaneously. We hereby examine the role of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus (HPC) in a novel approach-avoidance decision making paradigm, revisiting a once popular theory of HPC function, which posited the HPC to be the driving force of a behavioral inhibition system that is activated in situations of imminent threat. Rats received pre-training excitotoxic lesions of the dorsal or ventral HPC, and were trained to associate different non-spatial cues with appetitive, aversive and neutral outcomes in three separate arms of the radial maze. On the final day of testing, a state of approach-avoidance conflict was induced by simultaneously presenting two cues of opposite valences, and comparing the time the rats spent interacting with the superimposed 'conflict' cue, and the neutral cue. The ventral HPC-lesioned group showed significant preference for the conflict cue over the neutral cue, compared to the dorsal HPC-lesioned, and control groups. Thus, we provide evidence that the ventral, but not dorsal HPC, is a crucial component of the neural circuitry concerned with exerting inhibitory control over approach tendencies under circumstances in which motivational conflict is experienced. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Efficacy of the transtemporal approach with awake brain mapping to reach the dominant posteromedial temporal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Kentaro; Motomura, Kazuya; Chalise, Lushun; Hirano, Masaki; Natsume, Atsushi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Surgeries for lesions in the dominant hippocampal and parahippocampal gyrus involving the posteromedial temporal regions are challenging to perform because they are located close to Wernicke's area; white matter fibers related with language; the optic radiations; and critical neurovascular structures. We performed a transtemporal approach with awake functional mapping for lesions affecting the dominant posteromedial temporal regions. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of awake craniotomy for these lesions. We retrospectively reviewed four consecutive patients with tumors or cavernous angiomas located in the left hippocampal and parahippocampal gyrus, which further extended to the posteromedial temporal regions, who underwent awake surgery between December 2014 and January 2016. Four patients with lesions associated with the left hippocampal and parahippocampal gyrus, including the posteromedial temporal area, who underwent awake surgery were registered in the study. In all four patients, cortical and subcortical eloquent areas were identified via direct electrical stimulation. This allowed determination of the optimal surgical route to the angioma or tumor, even in the language-dominant hippocampal and parahippocampal gyrus. In particular, this approach enabled access to the upper part of posteromedial temporal lesions, while protecting the subcortical language-related fibers, such as the superior longitudinal fasciculus. This study revealed that awake brain mapping can enable the safe resection of dominant posteromedial temporal lesions, while protecting cortical and subcortical eloquent areas. Furthermore, our experience with four patients demonstrates the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of awake surgery for these lesions.

  14. Robust hippocampal responsivity during retrieval of consolidated associative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Shoai; Chen, Lillian; Weiss, Craig; Disterhoft, John F

    2015-05-01

    A contentious point in memory research is whether or not the hippocampus plays a time-limited role in the consolidation of declarative memories. A widely held view is that declarative memories are initially encoded in the hippocampus, then transferred to the neocortex for long-term storage. Alternate views argue instead that the hippocampus continues to play a role in remote memory recall. These competing theories are largely based on human amnesic and animal lesion/inactivation studies. However, in vivo electrophysiological evidence supporting these views is scarce. Given that other studies examining the role of the hippocampus in remote memory retrieval using lesion and imaging techniques in human and animal models have provided mixed results, it would be particularly useful to gain insight at the in vivo electrophysiological level. Here we report hippocampal single-neuron and theta activity recorded longitudinally during acquisition and remote retrieval of trace eyeblink conditioning. Results from conditioned rabbits were compared to those obtained from yoked pseudo-conditioned control rabbits. Results reveal continued learning-specific hippocampal activity one month after initial acquisition of the task. Our findings yield insight into the normal physiological responses of the hippocampus during memory processes and provide compelling in vivo electrophysiological evidence that the hippocampus is involved in both acquisition and retrieval of consolidated memories. © 2014 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Hippocampal GABA transporter distribution in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijns, O.; Karaca, U.; Andrade, P.; Nijs, L. de; Kusters, B.; Peeters, A.; Dings, J.; Pannek, H.; Ebner, A.; Rijkers, K.; Hoogland, G.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine hippocampal expression of neuronal GABA-transporter (GAT-1) and glial GABA-transporter (GAT-3) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS). METHODS: Hippocampal sections were immunohistochemically stained for GABA-transporter 1 and

  16. Hippocampal GABA transporter distribution in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijns, Olaf; Karaca, Ümit; Andrade, Pablo; de Nijs, Laurence; Küsters, Benno; Peeters, Andrea; Dings, Jim; Pannek, Heinz; Ebner, Alois; Rijkers, Kim; Hoogland, Govert

    2015-10-01

    To determine hippocampal expression of neuronal GABA-transporter (GAT-1) and glial GABA-transporter (GAT-3) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Hippocampal sections were immunohistochemically stained for GABA-transporter 1 and GABA-transporter-3, followed by quantification of the immunoreactivity in the hilus by optical density measurements. GABA-transporter 3 positive hilar cells were counted and GABA-transporter protein expression in sections that included all hippocampal subfields was quantified by Western blot. The hilar GABA-transporter 1 expression of patients with severe hippocampal sclerosis was about 7% lower compared to that in the mild hippocampal sclerosis/control group (psclerosis group than in the mild hippocampal sclerosis/control group (non-significant). Also, severe hippocampal sclerosis samples contained 34% less (non-significant) GABA-transporter 3 positive cells compared to that of controls. Protein expression as assessed by Western blot showed that GABA-transporter 1 was equally expressed in mild and severe hippocampal sclerosis samples, whereas GABA-transporter 3 was reduced by about 62% in severe hippocampal sclerosis samples (psclerosis. Implications for the use of GABAergic antiepileptic therapies in hippocampal sclerosis vs non-hippocampal sclerosis patients remain to be studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ischemic damage in hippocampal CA1 is dependent on glutamate release and intact innervation from CA3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benveniste, H; Jørgensen, M B; Sandberg, M

    1989-01-01

    The removal of glutamatergic afferents to CA1 by destruction of the CA3 region is known to protect CA1 pyramidal cells against 10 min of transient global ischemia. To investigate further the pathogenetic significance of glutamate, we measured the release of glutamate in intact and CA3-lesioned CA1...... hippocampal tissue. In intact CA1 hippocampal tissue, glutamate increased sixfold during ischemia; in the CA3-lesioned CA1 region, however, glutamate only increased 1.4-fold during ischemia. To assess the neurotoxic potential of the ischemia-induced release of glutamate, we injected the same concentration...... of glutamate into the CA1 region as is released during ischemia in normal, CA3-lesioned, and ischemic CA1 tissue. We found that this particular concentration of glutamate was sufficient to destroy CA1 pyramids in the vicinity of the injection site in intact and CA3-lesioned CA1 tissue when administered during...

  18. Quantifying the behavioural relevance of hippocampal neurogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lazic, Stanley E; Fuss, Johannes; Gass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    .... A systematic review of the literature was conducted and the data reanalysed using causal mediation analysis, which can estimate the behavioural contribution of new hippocampal neurons separately...

  19. Why trace and delay conditioning are sometimes (but not always) hippocampal dependent: A computational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Wufong, Ella; Servatius, Richard J.; Pang, Kevin C. H.; Gluck, Mark A.; Myers, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    A recurrent-network model provides a unified account of the hippocampal region in mediating the representation of temporal information in classical eyeblink conditioning. Much empirical research is consistent with a general conclusion that delay conditioning (in which the conditioned stimulus CS and unconditioned stimulus US overlap and co-terminate) is independent of the hippocampal system, while trace conditioning (in which the CS terminates before US onset) depends on the hippocampus. However, recent studies show that, under some circumstances, delay conditioning can be hippocampal-dependent and trace conditioning can be spared following hippocampal lesion. Here, we present an extension of our prior trial-level models of hippocampal function and stimulus representation that can explain these findings within a unified framework. Specifically, the current model includes adaptive recurrent collateral connections that aid in the representation of intra-trial temporal information. With this model, as in our prior models, we argue that the hippocampus is not specialized for conditioned response timing, but rather is a general-purpose system that learns to predict the next state of all stimuli given the current state of variables encoded by activity in recurrent collaterals. As such, the model correctly predicts that hippocampal involvement in classical conditioning should be critical not only when there is an intervening trace interval, but also when there is a long delay between CS onset and US onset. Our model simulates empirical data from many variants of classical conditioning, including delay and trace paradigms in which the length of the CS, the inter-stimulus interval, or the trace interval is varied. Finally, we discuss model limitations, future directions, and several novel empirical predictions of this temporal processing model of hippocampal function and learning. PMID:23178699

  20. Resting-state functional connectivity of ventral parietal regions associated with attention reorienting and episodic recollection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander M Daselaar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In functional neuroimaging studies, ventral parietal cortex (VPC is recruited by very different cognitive tasks. Explaining the contributions VPC to these tasks has become a topic of intense study and lively debate. Perception studies frequently find VPC activations during tasks involving attention-reorienting, and memory studies frequently find them during tasks involving episodic recollection. According to the Attention to Memory (AtoM model, both phenomena can be explained by the same VPC function: bottom-up attention. Yet, a recent functional MRI (fMRI meta-analysis suggested that attention-reorienting activations are more frequent in anterior VPC, whereas recollection activations are more frequent in posterior VPC. Also, there is evidence that anterior and posterior VPC regions have different functional connectivity patterns. To investigate these issues, we conducted a resting-state functional connectivity analysis using as seeds the center-of-mass of attention-reorienting and recollection activations in the meta-analysis, which were located in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG, around the temporo-parietal junction—TPJ and in the angular gyrus (AG, respectively. The SMG seed showed stronger connectivity with ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC and occipito-temporal cortex, whereas the AG seed showed stronger connectivity with the hippocampus and default network regions. To investigate whether these connectivity differences were graded or sharp, VLPFC and hippocampal connectivity was measured in VPC regions traversing through the SMG and AG seeds. The results showed a graded pattern: VLPFC connectivity gradually decreases from SMG to AG, whereas hippocampal connectivity gradually increases from SMG to AG. Importantly, both gradients showed an abrupt break when extended beyond VPC borders. This finding suggests that functional differences between SMG and AG are more subtle than previously thought. These connectivity differences can be

  1. Unilateral lesion of dorsal hippocampus in adult rats impairs contralateral long-term potentiation in vivo and spatial memory in the early postoperative phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjie; Wu, Xiaoyan; Bai, Yanrui; Huang, Yan; He, Wenting; Dong, Zhifang

    2012-05-01

    It is well documented that bilateral hippocampal lesions or unilateral hippocampal lesion at birth causes impairment of contralateral LTP and long-term memory. However, effects of unilateral hippocampal lesion in adults on contralateral in vivo LTP and memory are not clear. We here examined the influence of unilateral electrolytic dorsal hippocampal lesion in adult rats on contralateral LTP in vivo and spatial memory during different postoperative phases. We found that acute unilateral hippocampal lesion had no effect on contralateral LTP. However, contralateral LTP was impaired at 1 week after lesion, and was restored to the control level at postoperative week 4. Similarly, spatial memory was also impaired at postoperative week 1, and was restored at postoperative week 4. In addition, the rats at postoperative week 1 showed stronger spatial exploratory behavior in a novel open-field environment. The sham operation had no effects on contralateral LTP, spatial memory and exploration at either postoperative week 1 or week 4. These results suggest that unilateral dorsal hippocampal lesion in adult rats causes transient contralateral LTP impairment and spatial memory deficit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hippocampal sclerosis and associated focal cortical dysplasia-related epilepsy in neurofibromatosis type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, Jordan; Prayson, Richard A

    2017-03-01

    Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is a relatively common disorder associated with a range of neurologic sequelae. Refractory epilepsy occurs in 4-13% of NF1 patients. Hippocampal sclerosis and focal cortical dysplasia, both well-defined epilepsy-related entities, have been described in a subset of cases. To our knowledge, there has been only one other series describing coexistent focal cortical dysplasia and hippocampal sclerosis in the setting of NF1. We report two such patients who presented with intractable seizures requiring epilepsy surgery. Histologically, the hippocampal sclerosis specimen met criteria for the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) hippocampal sclerosis subtypes Ia and II respectively. The associated focal cortical dysplasia observed within the resected temporal lobe were both consistent with ILAE focal cortical dysplasia type IIIa (e.g. associated with a secondary lesion). Post-operatively, both patients had recurrence of habitual seizures, with one case continuing to have intractable seizures following two subsequent temporal lobectomies. Although hippocampal sclerosis association with focal cortical dysplasia is well document in epilepsy, it has been rarely described in the setting of neurofibromatosis type I. Although prior surgical series have shown good epilepsy surgery outcomes within neurofibromatosis type I, these two cases did not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of hippocampal NMDA receptor blockade by MK-801 on cued fear extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Chuan-Yu; Wang, Xiu-Song

    2017-08-14

    Extinction of conditioned fear has been suggested to be a new form of learning instead of erasure of what was originally learned, and the process is NMDA (N-methyl d-aspartate) receptor (NMDAR) dependent. Most of studies have so far revealed the important roles of NMDARs in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in cued fear extinction. Although the ventral hippocampus has intimately reciprocal connections with the amygdala and mPFC, the role of its NMDARs in cued fear extinction remains unclear. The present experiment explored the issue by bilateral pre-extinction microinjection of the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801 into the ventral hippocampus. Four groups of rats were given habituation, tone cued fear conditioning, fear extinction training and extinction test. Prior to extinction training, rats received bilateral infusions of either MK-801 (1.5, 3, or 6μg/0.5μl) or saline. Our results showed that MK-801 reduced freezing on the first trial of extinction training with no impact on within-session acquisition of extinction, and that the lower doses of MK-801 resulted in increased freezing on the extinction retrieval test. These findings suggest that ventral hippocampal NMDARs are necessary for the consolidation of tone cued fear extinction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Short communication: hippocampal neuronal activity and imprinting in the behaving domestic chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, A U; Brown, M W; Horn, G

    1998-08-01

    The hippocampus of the chick projects to the intermediate and medial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale (IMHV) which stores information acquired through the learning process of imprinting. We have investigated whether the response properties of hippocampal neurons are similar to those of IMHV neurons. Chicks were imprinted by exposure, one group (n = 7) to a rotating red box (RB), the other (n = 5) to a rotating blue cylinder (BC). Four chicks were untrained. The following day, when the chicks were approximately 48 h old, neuronal activity was recorded in the left hippocampus. The proportion of neurons responding to the RB and that to the BC in untrained chicks were compared with the proportions in trained birds. (i) In RB-trained chicks both the proportion responding to the RB and that to the BC were significantly increased. (ii) In BC-trained chicks no significant effect on these proportions was found. Of the responsive neurons some were colour (red or blue) sensitive and others were shape (box or cylinder) sensitive; the proportions so responsive were not influenced by training condition. Certain neurons responded significantly differently when a stimulus was 0.5 m or 2 m from the chick (35%; d-sensitive); very few neurons were equivalently responsive to a stimulus at both distances (3%; d-invariant). These proportions were not significantly affected by training condition. Hippocampal responses are compared with those in the left IMHV. It is concluded that IMHV responses do not passively reflect those of hippocampal neurons.

  5. Trap-door durotomy for ventral calcified thoracic meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob D. Dickerman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ventral calcified meningiomas of the upper thoracic spine provide a unique challenge due to their location. The posterior approach has long been utilized for resection of ventral meningiomas with high success rates and low morbidity. There are a number of anatomical factors that can increase the difficulty in the case including patient body habitus, calcified tumors ventrally located can be adherent to the cord or anterior spinal artery, angle of the ribs and the vascularity in and around the tumor. We present a very challenging case of a large ventral calcified meningioma at T4 in a patient with body mass index of 50 (5′6, 337 lbs who presented with progressive paraplegia.

  6. Amphioxus mouth after dorso-ventral inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Takao; Reimer, James D; Morov, Arseniy R; Kuratani, Shigeru; Yasui, Kinya

    2016-01-01

    Deuterostomes (animals with 'secondary mouths') are generally accepted to develop the mouth independently of the blastopore. However, it remains largely unknown whether mouths are homologous among all deuterostome groups. Unlike other bilaterians, in amphioxus the mouth initially opens on the left lateral side. This peculiar morphology has not been fully explained in the evolutionary developmental context. We studied the developmental process of the amphioxus mouth to understand whether amphioxus acquired a new mouth, and if so, how it is related to or differs from mouths in other deuterostomes. The left first somite in amphioxus produces a coelomic vesicle between the epidermis and pharynx that plays a crucial role in the mouth opening. The vesicle develops in association with the amphioxus-specific Hatschek nephridium, and first opens into the pharynx and then into the exterior as a mouth. This asymmetrical development of the anterior-most somites depends on the Nodal-Pitx signaling unit, and the perturbation of laterality-determining Nodal signaling led to the disappearance of the vesicle, producing a symmetric pair of anterior-most somites that resulted in larvae lacking orobranchial structures. The vesicle expressed bmp2/4, as seen in ambulacrarian coelomic pore-canals, and the mouth did not open when Bmp2/4 signaling was blocked. We conclude that the amphioxus mouth, which uniquely involves a mesodermal coelomic vesicle, shares its evolutionary origins with the ambulacrarian coelomic pore-canal. Our observations suggest that there are at least three types of mouths in deuterostomes, and that the new acquisition of chordate mouths was likely related to the dorso-ventral inversion that occurred in the last common ancestor of chordates.

  7. Novel candidate genes associated with hippocampal oscillations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.; Timmerman, J.; Loos, M.; Spijker, S.; van Ooyen, A.; Brussaard, A.B.; Mansvelder, H.D.; Smit, A.B.; de Gunst, M.; Linkenkaer-Hansen, K.

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampus is critical for a wide range of emotional and cognitive behaviors. Here, we performed the first genome-wide search for genes influencing hippocampal oscillations. We measured local field potentials (LFPs) using 64-channel multi-electrode arrays in acute hippocampal slices of 29 BXD

  8. Coexistence of meningoencephalocele and hippocampal sclerosis: a new type of dual pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinoni, Matteo; Marucci, Gianluca; Gagliardini, Gabriele; Tinuper, Paolo; Michelucci, Roberto; Giulioni, Marco

    2017-05-01

    Both temporal lobe meningoencephalocele (TE) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) are causes of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. Spontaneous TE constitutes a rare but well-known and increasingly recognised cause of refractory epilepsy. It is well known that HS may be associated with another neocortical lesion (dual pathology). Here we report for the first time a new type of dual pathology; namely, the coexistence of temporal pole meningoencephalocele and HS.

  9. Activity-based anorexia during adolescence disrupts normal development of the CA1 pyramidal cells in the ventral hippocampus of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Tara G; Ríos, Mariel B; Chan, Thomas E; Cassataro, Daniela S; Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C; Aoki, Chiye

    2014-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness characterized by restricted eating and irrational fears of gaining weight. There is no accepted pharmacological treatment for AN, and AN has the highest mortality rate among psychiatric illnesses. Anorexia nervosa most commonly affects females during adolescence, suggesting an effect of sex and hormones on vulnerability to the disease. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a rodent model of AN that shares symptoms with AN, including over-exercise, elevation of stress hormones, and genetic links to anxiety traits. We previously reported that ABA in adolescent female rats results in increased apical dendritic branching in CA1 pyramidal cells of the ventral hippocampus at postnatal day 44 (P44). To examine the long-term effects of adolescent ABA (P44) in female rats, we compared the apical branching in the ventral hippocampal CA1 after recovery from ABA (P51) and after a relapse of ABA (P55) with age-matched controls. To examine the age-dependence of the hippocampal plasticity, we examined the effect of ABA during adulthood (P67). We found that while ABA at P44 resulted in increased branching of ventral hippocampal pyramidal cells, relapse of ABA at P55 resulted in decreased branching. ABA induced during adulthood did not have an effect on dendritic branching, suggesting an age-dependence of the vulnerability to structural plasticity. Cells from control animals were found to exhibit a dramatic increase in branching, more than doubling from P44 to P51, followed by pruning from P51 to P55. The proportion of mature spines on dendrites from the P44-ABA animals is similar to that on dendrites from P55-CON animals. These results suggest that the experience of ABA may cause precocious anatomical development of the ventral hippocampus. Importantly, we found that adolescence is a period of continued development of the hippocampus, and increased vulnerability to mental disorders during adolescence may be due to insults during this

  10. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and ventromedial frontal lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irle, E; Exner, C; Thielen, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine the long-term outcome of subjects with severe and refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who had undergone ventromedial frontal leukotomy during the 1970s. Special emphasis was given to the analysis of specific lesion sites. METHOD: Sixteen OCD...... subjects who had undergone ventromedial frontal leukotomy were evaluated clinically and neuropsychologically and compared to seven well comparison OCD subjects without leukotomy. The 16 leukotomized subjects were divided into three groups according to the main lesion sites as determined by current magnetic...... significantly less. Of 11 subjects with lesions of the ventral striatum, eight had developed substance dependence postoperatively. Intellectual functions were largely preserved in subjects with ventromedial frontal lesions only or frontostriatal lesions. However, all subjects showed subnormal performance...

  11. Financial implications of ventral hernia repair: a hospital cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Drew; Davenport, Daniel L; Korosec, Ryan L; Roth, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    Complicated ventral hernias are often referred to tertiary care centers. Hospital costs associated with these repairs include direct costs (mesh materials, supplies, and nonsurgeon labor costs) and indirect costs (facility fees, equipment depreciation, and unallocated labor). Operative supplies represent a significant component of direct costs, especially in an era of proprietary synthetic meshes and biologic grafts. We aim to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of complex abdominal wall hernia repair at a tertiary care referral facility. Cost data on all consecutive open ventral hernia repairs (CPT codes 49560, 49561, 49565, and 49566) performed between 1 July 2008 and 31 May 2011 were analyzed. Cases were analyzed based upon hospital status (inpatient vs. outpatient) and whether the hernia repair was a primary or secondary procedure. We examined median net revenue, direct costs, contribution margin, indirect costs, and net profit/loss. Among primary hernia repairs, cost data were further analyzed based upon mesh utilization (no mesh, synthetic, or biologic). Four-hundred and fifteen patients underwent ventral hernia repair (353 inpatients and 62 outpatients); 173 inpatients underwent ventral hernia repair as the primary procedure; 180 inpatients underwent hernia repair as a secondary procedure. Median net revenue ($17,310 vs. 10,360, p financial loss was $8,370. Outpatient ventral hernia repairs, with and without synthetic mesh, resulted in median net losses of $1,560 and 230, respectively. Ventral hernia repair is associated with overall financial losses. Inpatient synthetic mesh repairs are essentially budget neutral. Outpatient and inpatient repairs without mesh result in net financial losses. Inpatient biologic mesh repairs result in a negative contribution margin and striking net financial losses. Cost-effective strategies for managing ventral hernias in a tertiary care environment need to be developed in light of the financial implications of this patient

  12. A ventral root avulsion injury model for neurogenic underactive bladder studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huiyi H; Havton, Leif A

    2016-11-01

    Detrusor underactivity (DU) is defined as a contraction of reduced strength and/or duration during bladder emptying and results in incomplete and prolonged bladder emptying. The clinical diagnosis of DU is challenging when present alone or in association with other bladder conditions such as detrusor overactivity, urinary retention, detrusor hyperactivity with impaired contractility, aging, and neurological injuries. Several etiologies may be responsible for DU or the development of an underactive bladder (UAB), but the pathobiology of DU or UAB is not well understood. Therefore, new clinically relevant and interpretable models for studies of UAB are much needed in order to make progress towards new treatments and preventative strategies. Here, we review a neuropathic cause of DU in the form of traumatic injuries to the cauda equina (CE) and conus medullaris (CM) portions of the spinal cord. Lumbosacral ventral root avulsion (VRA) injury models in rats mimic the clinical phenotype of CM/CE injuries. Bilateral VRA injuries result in bladder areflexia, whereas a unilateral lesion results in partial impairment of lower urinary tract and visceromotor reflexes. Surgical re-implantation of avulsed ventral roots into the spinal cord and pharmacological strategies can augment micturition reflexes. The translational research need for the development of a large animal model for UAB studies is also presented, and early studies of lumbosacral VRA injuries in rhesus macaques are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hippocampal atrophy and memory dysfunction associated with physical inactivity in community-dwelling elderly subjects: The Sefuri study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Manabu; Araki, Yuko; Takashima, Yuki; Nogami, Kohjiro; Uchino, Akira; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Yao, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the modifiable risk factors for hippocampal atrophy and Alzheimer's disease. We investigated the relationship between physical activity, hippocampal atrophy, and memory using structural equation modeling (SEM). We examined 213 community-dwelling elderly subjects (99 men and 114 women with a mean age of 68.9 years) without dementia or clinically apparent depression. All participants underwent Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT). Physical activities were assessed with a structured questionnaire. We evaluated the degree of hippocampal atrophy (z-score-referred to as ZAdvance hereafter), using a free software program-the voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer's disease (VSRAD) based on statistical parametric mapping 8 plus Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through an Exponentiated Lie algebra. Routine magnetic resonance imaging findings were as follows: silent brain infarction, n = 24 (11.3%); deep white matter lesions, n = 72 (33.8%); periventricular hyperintensities, n = 35 (16.4%); and cerebral microbleeds, n = 14 (6.6%). Path analysis based on SEM indicated that the direct paths from leisure-time activity to hippocampal atrophy (β = -.18, p < .01) and from hippocampal atrophy to memory dysfunction (RBMT) (β = -.20, p < .01) were significant. Direct paths from "hippocampus" gray matter volume to RBMT and MMSE were highly significant, while direct paths from "whole brain" gray matter volume to RBMT and MMSE were not significant. The presented SEM model fit the data reasonably well. Based on the present SEM analysis, we found that hippocampal atrophy was associated with age and leisure-time physical inactivity, and hippocampal atrophy appeared to cause memory dysfunction, although we are unable to infer a causal or temporal association between hippocampal atrophy and memory dysfunction from the present observational study.

  14. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L.; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E.; Bis, Joshua C.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M. Kamran; Desrivières, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W.; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf; Andersson, Micael; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Axelsson, Tomas; Beecham, Ashley H.; Beiser, Alexa; Bernard, Manon; Blanton, Susan H.; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brickman, Adam M.; Carmichael, Owen; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Chouraki, Vincent; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Crivello, Fabrice; Den Braber, Anouk; Doan, Nhat Trung; Ehrlich, Stefan; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Grimm, Oliver; Griswold, Michael E.; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gutman, Boris A.; Hass, Johanna; Haukvik, Unn K.; Hoehn, David; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Jørgensen, Kjetil N.; Karbalai, Nazanin; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Marquand, Andre F.; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; McKay, David R.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C.; Nyquist, Paul; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Papmeyer, Martina; Pirpamer, Lukas; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Richards, Jennifer S.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rommelse, Nanda; Ropele, Stefan; Rose, Emma J.; Royle, Natalie A.; Rundek, Tatjana; Sämann, Philipp G.; Saremi, Arvin; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shen, Li; Shin, Jean; Shumskaya, Elena; Smith, Albert V.; Sprooten, Emma; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Toro, Roberto; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trompet, Stella; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Van der Grond, Jeroen; Van der Lee, Sven J.; Van der Meer, Dennis; Van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; Van Eijk, Kristel R.; Van Erp, Theo G. M.; Van Rooij, Daan; Walton, Esther; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Windham, Beverly G.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Wolfers, Thomas; Yanek, Lisa R.; Yang, Jingyun; Zijdenbos, Alex; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Agartz, Ingrid; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Amouyel, Philippe; Andreassen, Ole A.; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Barral, Sandra; Bastin, Mark E.; Becker, Diane M.; Becker, James T.; Bennett, David A.; Blangero, John; van Bokhoven, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brodaty, Henry; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cichon, Sven; Cookson, Mark R.; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; De Craen, Anton J. M.; De Geus, Eco J. C.; De Jager, Philip L.; De Zubicaray, Greig I.; Deary, Ian J.; Debette, Stéphanie; DeCarli, Charles; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; DeStefano, Anita; Dillman, Allissa; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drevets, Wayne C.; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Enzinger, Christian; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fedko, Iryna O.; Fernández, Guillén; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fisher, Simon E.; Fleischman, Debra A.; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Francks, Clyde; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Glahn, David C.; Gollub, Randy L.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Gruber, Oliver; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guelfi, Sebastian; Håberg, Asta K.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huentelman, Matthew; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack Jr, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Jönsson, Erik G.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kahn, René S.; Kanai, Ryota; Kloszewska, Iwona; Knopman, David S.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Lemaître, Hervé; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Lovestone, Simon; Martinez, Oliver; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mattay, Venkata S.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, Katie L.; Mecocci, Patrizia; Melle, Ingrid; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Derek W.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nalls, Michael A.; Nauck, Matthias; Nichols, Thomas E.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nyberg, Lars; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pandolfo, Massimo; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L.; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rotter, Jerome I.; Ryten, Mina; Sacco, Ralph L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schmidt, Helena; Schofield, Peter R.; Sigursson, Sigurdur; Simmons, Andrew; Singleton, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W.; Soininen, Hilkka; Steen, Vidar M.; Stott, David J.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Tsolaki, Magda; Tzourio, Christophe; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hernández, Maria C. Valdés; Van der Brug, Marcel; van der Lugt, Aad; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; van 't Ent, Dennis; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; Vardarajan, Badri N.; Vellas, Bruno; Veltman, Dick J.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; Westman, Eric; White, Tonya; Wong, Tien Y.; Wright, Clinton B.; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Wright, Margaret J.; Longstreth, W. T.; Schumann, Gunter; Grabe, Hans J.; Franke, Barbara; Launer, Lenore J.; Medland, Sarah E.; Seshadri, Sudha; Thompson, Paul M.; Ikram, M. Arfan

    2017-01-01

    The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (rg=−0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness. PMID:28098162

  15. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P; Adams, Hieab H H; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E; Bis, Joshua C; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M Kamran; Desrivières, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf; Andersson, Micael; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Axelsson, Tomas; Beecham, Ashley H; Beiser, Alexa; Bernard, Manon; Blanton, Susan H; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; Bralten, Janita; Brickman, Adam M; Carmichael, Owen; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Chouraki, Vincent; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Crivello, Fabrice; Den Braber, Anouk; Doan, Nhat Trung; Ehrlich, Stefan; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Grimm, Oliver; Griswold, Michael E; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gutman, Boris A; Hass, Johanna; Haukvik, Unn K; Hoehn, David; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Jørgensen, Kjetil N; Karbalai, Nazanin; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Marquand, Andre F; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; McKay, David R; Milaneschi, Yuri; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C; Nyquist, Paul; Loohuis, Loes M Olde; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Papmeyer, Martina; Pirpamer, Lukas; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Richards, Jennifer S; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rommelse, Nanda; Ropele, Stefan; Rose, Emma J; Royle, Natalie A; Rundek, Tatjana; Sämann, Philipp G; Saremi, Arvin; Satizabal, Claudia L; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shen, Li; Shin, Jean; Shumskaya, Elena; Smith, Albert V; Sprooten, Emma; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Toro, Roberto; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trompet, Stella; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Van der Grond, Jeroen; Van der Lee, Sven J; Van der Meer, Dennis; Van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; Van Eijk, Kristel R; Van Erp, Theo G M; Van Rooij, Daan; Walton, Esther; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Windham, Beverly G; Winkler, Anderson M; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Wolfers, Thomas; Yanek, Lisa R; Yang, Jingyun; Zijdenbos, Alex; Zwiers, Marcel P; Agartz, Ingrid; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Amouyel, Philippe; Andreassen, Ole A; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Barral, Sandra; Bastin, Mark E; Becker, Diane M; Becker, James T; Bennett, David A; Blangero, John; van Bokhoven, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brodaty, Henry; Brouwer, Rachel M; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cichon, Sven; Cookson, Mark R; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; De Craen, Anton J M; De Geus, Eco J C; De Jager, Philip L; De Zubicaray, Greig I; Deary, Ian J; Debette, Stéphanie; DeCarli, Charles; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; DeStefano, Anita; Dillman, Allissa; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drevets, Wayne C; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Enzinger, Christian; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fedko, Iryna O; Fernández, Guillén; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fisher, Simon E; Fleischman, Debra A; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Francks, Clyde; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Glahn, David C; Gollub, Randy L; Göring, Harald H H; Green, Robert C; Gruber, Oliver; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guelfi, Sebastian; Håberg, Asta K; Hansell, Narelle K; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huentelman, Matthew; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Jönsson, Erik G; Jukema, J Wouter; Kahn, René S; Kanai, Ryota; Kloszewska, Iwona; Knopman, David S; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Lemaître, Hervé; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; Lopez, Oscar L; Lovestone, Simon; Martinez, Oliver; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mattay, Venkata S; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; McMahon, Francis J; McMahon, Katie L; Mecocci, Patrizia; Melle, Ingrid; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Derek W; Mosley, Thomas H; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nalls, Michael A; Nauck, Matthias; Nichols, Thomas E; Niessen, Wiro J; Nöthen, Markus M; Nyberg, Lars; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Ophoff, Roel A; Pandolfo, Massimo; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Psaty, Bruce M; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rotter, Jerome I; Ryten, Mina; Sacco, Ralph L; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schmidt, Helena; Schofield, Peter R; Sigursson, Sigurdur; Simmons, Andrew; Singleton, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W; Soininen, Hilkka; Steen, Vidar M; Stott, David J; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Tsolaki, Magda; Tzourio, Christophe; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hernández, Maria C Valdés; Van der Brug, Marcel; van der Lugt, Aad; van der Wee, Nic J A; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; van 't Ent, Dennis; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; Vardarajan, Badri N; Vellas, Bruno; Veltman, Dick J; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Wassink, Thomas H; Weale, Michael E; Weinberger, Daniel R; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; Westman, Eric; White, Tonya; Wong, Tien Y; Wright, Clinton B; Zielke, Ronald H; Zonderman, Alan B; Martin, Nicholas G; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Wright, Margaret J; Longstreth, W T; Schumann, Gunter; Grabe, Hans J; Franke, Barbara; Launer, Lenore J; Medland, Sarah E; Seshadri, Sudha; Thompson, Paul M; Ikram, M Arfan

    2017-01-18

    The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r g =-0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.

  16. Hippocampal subfield volumes in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, B; Passos, I C; Mwangi, B; Amaral-Silva, H; Tannous, J; Wu, M-J; Zunta-Soares, G B; Soares, J C

    2017-09-01

    Volume reduction and shape abnormality of the hippocampus have been associated with mood disorders. However, the hippocampus is not a uniform structure and consists of several subfields, such as the cornu ammonis (CA) subfields CA1-4, the dentate gyrus (DG) including a granule cell layer (GCL) and a molecular layer (ML) that continuously crosses adjacent subiculum (Sub) and CA fields. It is known that cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with mood disorders may be localized to specific hippocampal subfields. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the link between the in vivo hippocampal subfield volumes and specific mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present study, we used a state-of-the-art hippocampal segmentation approach, and we found that patients with BD had reduced volumes of hippocampal subfields, specifically in the left CA4, GCL, ML and both sides of the hippocampal tail, compared with healthy subjects and patients with MDD. The volume reduction was especially severe in patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I). We also demonstrated that hippocampal subfield volume reduction was associated with the progression of the illness. For patients with BD-I, the volumes of the right CA1, ML and Sub decreased as the illness duration increased, and the volumes of both sides of the CA2/3, CA4 and hippocampal tail had negative correlations with the number of manic episodes. These results indicated that among the mood disorders the hippocampal subfields were more affected in BD-I compared with BD-II and MDD, and manic episodes had focused progressive effect on the CA2/3 and CA4 and hippocampal tail.

  17. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Hikspoors, Jill P J M; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-11-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ~ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos between 4 and 10 weeks of development were studied, using amira reconstruction and cinema 4D remodeling software for visualization. Initially, vertebrae and ribs had formed medially, and primordia of sternum and hypaxial flank muscle primordium laterally in the body wall at Carnegie Stage (CS)15 (5.5 weeks). The next week, ribs and muscle primordium expanded in ventrolateral direction only. At CS18 (6.5 weeks), separate intercostal and abdominal wall muscles differentiated, and ribs, sterna, and muscles began to expand ventromedially and caudally, with the bilateral sternal bars fusing in the midline after CS20 (7 weeks) and the rectus muscles reaching the umbilicus at CS23 (8 weeks). The near-constant absolute distance between both rectus muscles and approximately fivefold decline of this distance relative to body circumference between 6 and 10 weeks identified dorsoventral growth in the dorsal body wall as determinant of the 'closure' of the ventral body wall. Concomitant with the straightening of the embryonic body axis after the 6th week, the abdominal muscles expanded ventrally and caudally to form the infraumbilical body wall. Our data, therefore, show that the ventral body wall is formed by differential dorsoventral growth in the dorsal part of the body. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  18. [Collagen types ratio in prediction of postoperative ventral hernias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarenko, V A; Ivanov, S V; Ivanov, I S; Rosberg, E P; Tsukanov, A V; Popova, L P; Tarabrin, D V; Obyedkov, E G

    To analyze collagen types ratio in skin and aponeurosis in order to predict postoperative ventral hernias. The trial included 141 patients for the period 2012-2015. Group I (n=65) of patients without ventral hernias was divided into subgroup AI (primary operation, n=41) and BI (re-operation, n=24). Group II consisted of 76 patients with ventral hernias. We performed histological examination of skin and aponeurosis to define the collagen structure of connective tissue. There were significant differences between collagen type I/III ratio in skin (2.81±0.52 in group I vs. 1.13±0.48 in group II) and aponeurosis (2.69±0.41 vs. 1.09±0.21, respectively, p≤0.05). We revealed strong direct correlation (r=+0.92) between aponeurosis and skin specimens in one group. Collagen type I level was 73.81±2.74% in subgroup AI and 72.03±2.47% in subgroup BI. Collagen type I was predominant (p≤0.05). In patients with ventral hernias collagen type I/III ratio in skin is 2.54 times lower than in patients without hernias. Significant correlation of collagen types in skin and aponeurosis (r= +0.92) allows to predict the risk of postoperative ventral hernias on basis of skin fragment.

  19. Head Tilting Elicited by Head Turning in Three Dogs with Hypoplastic Cerebellar Nodulus and Ventral Uvula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Tamura

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The nodulus and ventral uvula (NU of the cerebellum play a major role in vestibular function in humans and experimental animals; however, there is almost no information about NU function in the veterinary clinical literature. In this report, we describe three canine cases diagnosed with presumptive NU hypoplasia. Of them, one adult dog presented with cervical intervertebral disk disease, and two juvenile dogs presented with signs of central vestibular disease. Interestingly, an unusual and possibly overlooked neurological sign that we called positioning head tilt was observed in these dogs. The dogs were able to turn freely in any direction at will. The head was in a level position when static or when the dog walked in a straight line. However, the head was tilted to the opposite side when the dog turned. Veterinary clinicians should be aware of this neurological sign, which has not been reported previously, and its application in lesion localization in dogs.

  20. Left-right functional asymmetry of ventral hippocampus depends on aversiveness of situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yukitoshi; Sakurai, Yoshio

    2017-05-15

    Many studies suggest that animals exhibit lateralized behaviors during aversive situations, and almost all animals exhibit right hemisphere-dominant behaviors associated with fear or anxiety. However, which brain structure in each hemisphere underlies such lateralized function is unclear. In this study, we focused on the hippocampus and investigated the effects of bilateral and unilateral lesions of the ventral hippocampus (VH) on anxiety-like behavior using the successive alleys test. We also examined the expression of c-fos in the VH, which was induced by an aversive situation. Results revealed that consistent right VH dominance trended with the anxiety level. Weaker anxiety induced both right and left VH functions, whereas stronger anxiety induced right VH function. From these results, we conclude that animals are able to adaptively regulate their behaviors to avoid aversive stimuli by changing the functional dominance of their left and right VH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hippocampal electrical stimulation disrupts associative learning when targeted at dentate spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokia, Miriam S; Gureviciene, Irina; Waselius, Tomi; Tanila, Heikki; Penttonen, Markku

    2017-07-15

    Dentate spikes are fast fluctuations of hilar local-field potentials that take place during rest and are thought to reflect input arriving from the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampus. During dentate spikes, neuronal firing in hippocampal input (dentate gyrus) and output (CA1/CA3) regions is uncoupled. To date, the behavioural significance of dentate spikes is unknown. Here, we provide evidence that disrupting the dentate spike-related uncoupling of the dentate gyrus and the CA1/CA3 subregions for 1 h after training retards associative learning. We suggest dentate spikes play a significant role in memory consolidation. Hippocampal electrophysiological oscillations, namely theta and ripples, have been implicated in encoding and consolidation of new memories, respectively. According to existing literature, hippocampal dentate spikes are prominent, short-duration (<30 ms), large-amplitude (∼2-4 mV) fluctuations in hilar local-field potentials that take place during awake immobility and sleep. Interestingly, previous studies indicate that during dentate spikes dentate gyrus granule cells increase their firing while firing of CA1 pyramidal cells are suppressed, thus resulting in momentary uncoupling of the two hippocampal subregions. To date, the behavioural significance of dentate spikes is unknown. Here, to study the possible role of dentate spikes in learning, we trained adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in trace eyeblink classical conditioning. For 1 h immediately following each conditioning session, one group of animals received hippocampal stimulation via the ventral hippocampal commissure (vHC) contingent on dentate spikes to disrupt the uncoupling between the dentate gyrus and the CA1 subregions. A yoked control group was stimulated during immobility, irrespective of brain state, and another control group was not stimulated at all. As a result, learning was impaired only in the group where vHC stimulation was administered contingent on dentate spikes. Our

  2. Solitary Osteochondroma of the Ventral Scapula Associated with Large Bursa Formation and Pseudowinging of the Scapula: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyohisa Ogawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteochondroma (OC is the most common benign bone tumor and may occur on any bone in which endochondral ossification develops. Although scapular OC accounts for less than 5% of the cases of solitary OC, OC is the most common lesion among the tumors and tumor-like lesions of the scapula. OC that develops near the medial scapular border easily causes friction with the ribcage; hence, almost half the number of cases of OC associated with marked bursa formation develops in the ventral scapula. We report a case of a 27-year-old female with a painful OC of the ventral scapular surface associated with large bursa formation and pseudowinging of the scapula. After l2 years of follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging, we confirm that the accompanied bursa left at surgery disappears.

  3. Selective noradrenaline depletion impairs working memory and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradazzi, Marino; Gulino, Rosario; Fieramosca, Francesco; Falzacappa, Lucia Verga; Riggi, Margherita; Leanza, Giampiero

    2016-12-01

    Noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus play a role in learning and memory, and their loss is an early event in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Moreover, noradrenaline may sustain hippocampal neurogenesis; however, whether are these events related is still unknown. Four to five weeks following the selective immunotoxic ablation of locus coeruleus neurons, young adult rats underwent reference and working memory tests, followed by postmortem quantitative morphological analyses to assess the extent of the lesion, as well as the effects on proliferation and/or survival of neural progenitors in the hippocampus. When tested in the Water Maze task, lesioned animals exhibited no reference memory deficit, whereas working memory abilities were seen significantly impaired, as compared with intact or sham-lesioned controls. Stereological analyses confirmed a dramatic noradrenergic neuron loss associated to reduced proliferation, but not survival or differentiation, of 5-bromo-2'deoxyuridine-positive progenitors in the dentate gyrus. Thus, ascending noradrenergic afferents may be involved in more complex aspects of cognitive performance (i.e., working memory) possibly via newly generated progenitors in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Abnormalities of hippocampal-cortical connectivity in temporal lobe epilepsy patients with hippocampal sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; He, Huiguang; Lu, Jingjing; Wang, Chunheng; Li, Meng; Lv, Bin; Jin, Zhengyu

    2011-03-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common damage seen in the patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In the present study, the hippocampal-cortical connectivity was defined as the correlation between the hippocampal volume and cortical thickness at each vertex throughout the whole brain. We aimed to investigate the differences of ipsilateral hippocampal-cortical connectivity between the unilateral TLE-HS patients and the normal controls. In our study, the bilateral hippocampal volumes were first measured in each subject, and we found that the ipsilateral hippocampal volume significantly decreased in the left TLE-HS patients. Then, group analysis showed significant thinner average cortical thickness of the whole brain in the left TLE-HS patients compared with the normal controls. We found significantly increased ipsilateral hippocampal-cortical connectivity in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, the right cingulate gyrus and the left parahippocampal gyrus of the left TLE-HS patients, which indicated structural vulnerability related to the hippocampus atrophy in the patient group. However, for the right TLE-HS patients, no significant differences were found between the patients and the normal controls, regardless of the ipsilateral hippocampal volume, the average cortical thickness or the patterns of hippocampal-cortical connectivity, which might be related to less atrophies observed in the MRI scans. Our study provided more evidence for the structural abnormalities in the unilateral TLE-HS patients.

  5. Human V4 and ventral occipital retinotopic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winawer, Jonathan; Witthoft, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    The ventral surface of the human occipital lobe contains multiple retinotopic maps. The most posterior of these maps is considered a potential homolog of macaque V4, and referred to as human V4 (‘hV4’). The location of the hV4 map, its retinotopic organization, its role in visual encoding, and the cortical areas it borders have been the subject of considerable investigation and debate over the last 25 years. We review the history of this map and adjacent maps in ventral occipital cortex, and consider the different hypotheses for how these ventral occipital maps are organized. Advances in neuroimaging, computational modeling, and characterization of the nearby anatomical landmarks and functional brain areas have improved our understanding of where human V4 is and what kind of visual representations it contains. PMID:26241699

  6. Normative development of ventral striatal resting state connectivity in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareri, Dominic S.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Gee, Dylan G.; Lumian, Daniel S.; Caldera, Christina; Tottenham, Nim

    2017-01-01

    Incentives play a crucial role in guiding behavior throughout our lives, but perhaps no more so than during the early years of life. The ventral striatum is a critical piece of an incentive-based learning circuit, sharing robust anatomical connections with subcortical (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus) and cortical structures (e.g., medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), insula) that collectively support incentive valuation and learning. Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is a powerful method that provides insight into the development of the functional architecture of these connections involved in incentive-based learning. We employed a seed-based correlation approach to investigate ventral striatal rsFC in a cross-sectional sample of typically developing individuals between the ages of 4.5 and 23-years old (n=66). Ventral striatal rsFC with the mPFC showed regionally specific linear age-related changes in connectivity that were associated with age-related increases in circulating testosterone levels. Further, ventral striatal connectivity with the posterior hippocampus and posterior insula demonstrated quadratic age-related changes characterized by negative connectivity in adolescence. Finally, across this age range, the ventral striatum demonstrated positive coupling with the amygdala beginning during childhood and remaining consistently positive across age. In sum, our findings suggest normative ventral striatal rsFC development is dynamic and characterized by early establishment of connectivity with medial prefrontal and limbic structures supporting incentive-based learning, as well as substantial functional reorganization with later developing regions during transitions into and out of adolescence. PMID:26087377

  7. [Gene expression profile of spinal ventral horn in ALS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Sobue, Gen

    2007-10-01

    The causative pathomechanism of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not clearly understood. Using microarray technology combined with laser-captured microdissection, gene expression profiles of degenerating spinal motor neurons as well as spinal ventral horn from autopsied patients with sporadic ALS were examined. Spinal motor neurons showed a distinct gene expression profile from the whole spinal ventral horn. Three percent of genes examined were significantly downregulated, and 1% were upregulated in motor neurons. In contrast with motor neurons, the total spinal ventral horn homogenates demonstrated 0.7% and 0.2% significant upregulation and downregulation of gene expression, respectively. Downregulated genes in motor neurons included those associated with cytoskeleton/axonal transport, transcription and cell surface antigens/receptors, such as dynactin 1 (DCTN1) and early growth response 3 (EGR3). In particular, DCTN1 was markedly downregulated in most residual motor neurons prior to the accumulation of pNF-H and ubiquitylated protein. Promoters for cell death pathway, death receptor 5 (DR5), cyclins C (CCNC) and A1 (CCNA), and caspases were upregulated, whereas cell death inhibitors, acetyl-CoA transporter (ACATN) and NF-kappaB (NFKB) were also upregulated. In terms of spinal ventral horn, the expression of genes related to cell surface antigens/receptors, transcription and cell adhesion/ECM were increased. The gene expression resulting in neurodegenerative and neuroprotective changes were both present in spinal motor neurons and ventral horn. Moreover, Inflammation-related genes, such as belonging to the cytokine family were not, however, significantly upregulated in either motor neurons or ventral horn. The sequence of motor neuron-specific gene expression changes from early DCTN1 downregulation to late CCNC upregulation in sporadic ALS can provide direct information on the genes leading to neurodegeneration and neuronal death, and are helpful

  8. Talar Dome Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Please enable Javascript in your browser. Talar Dome Lesion What Is a Talar Dome Lesion? The ankle joint is composed of the bottom ... on the specific case. Complications of Talar Dome Lesions Depending on the amount of damage to the ...

  9. Crossmodal recruitment of the ventral visual stream in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptito, Maurice; Matteau, Isabelle; Zhi Wang, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform......, inferotemporal (IT), cortex, lateral occipital tactile vision area (LOtv), and fusiform gyrus. Control subjects activated area LOtv and precuneus but not cuneus, IT and fusiform gyrus. These results indicate that congenitally blind subjects recruit key regions in the ventral visual pathway during nonhaptic...

  10. Ventral Striatum Connectivity During Reward Anticipation in Adolescent Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollans, Lee; Zhipeng, Cao; Icke, Ilknur; Greene, Ciara; Kelly, Clare; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Paus, Tomáš; Smolka, Michael N.; Walter, Henrik; Schumann, Gunter; Whelan, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Substance misusers, including adolescent smokers, often have reduced reward system activity during processing of non-drug rewards. Using a psychophysiological interaction approach, we examined functional connectivity with the ventral striatum during reward anticipation in a large (n=206) sample of adolescent smokers. Increased smoking frequency was associated with 1) increased connectivity with regions involved in saliency and valuation, including the orbitofrontal cortex; 2) reduced connectivity between the ventral striatum and regions associated with inhibition and risk aversion, including the right inferior frontal gyrus. These results demonstrate that functional connectivity during reward processing is relevant to adolescent addiction. PMID:27074029

  11. Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Ventral Foregut Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothová, Michaela; Hölzenspies, Jurriaan J; Livigni, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Anterior definitive endoderm (ADE), the ventral foregut precursor, is both an important embryonic signaling center and a unique multipotent precursor of liver, pancreas, and other organs. Here, a method is described for the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to definitive...... endoderm with pronounced anterior character. ADE-containing cultures can be produced in vitro by suspension (embryoid body) culture or in a serum-free adherent monolayer culture. ESC-derived ADE cells are committed to endodermal fates and can undergo further differentiation in vitro towards ventral foregut...

  12. Conditioned Medium Reconditions Hippocampal Neurons against Kainic Acid Induced Excitotoxicity: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar K. Bevinahal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy is gaining attention as a promising treatment option for neurodegenerative diseases. The functional efficacy of grafted cells is a matter of debate and the recent consensus is that the cellular and functional recoveries might be due to “by-stander” effects of grafted cells. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of conditioned medium (CM derived from human embryonic kidney (HEK cells in a kainic acid (KA induced hippocampal degeneration model system in in vitro condition. Hippocampal cell line was exposed to KA (200 µM for 24 hrs (lesion group whereas, in the treatment group, hippocampal cell line was exposed to KA in combination with HEK-CM (KA + HEK-CM. We observed that KA exposure to cells resulted in significant neuronal loss. Interestingly, HEK-CM cotreatment completely attenuated the excitotoxic effects of KA. In HEK-CM cotreatment group, the cell viability was ~85–95% as opposed to 47% in KA alone group. Further investigation demonstrated that treatment with HEK-CM stimulated the endogenous cell survival factors like brain derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF and antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2, revealing the possible mechanism of neuroprotection. Our results suggest that HEK-CM protects hippocampal neurons against excitotoxicity by stimulating the host’s endogenous cell survival mechanisms.

  13. Hippocampal adaptive response following extensive neuronal loss in an inducible transgenic mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Myczek

    Full Text Available Neuronal loss is a common component of a variety of neurodegenerative disorders (including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease and brain traumas (stroke, epilepsy, and traumatic brain injury. One brain region that commonly exhibits neuronal loss in several neurodegenerative disorders is the hippocampus, an area of the brain critical for the formation and retrieval of memories. Long-lasting and sometimes unrecoverable deficits caused by neuronal loss present a unique challenge for clinicians and for researchers who attempt to model these traumas in animals. Can these deficits be recovered, and if so, is the brain capable of regeneration following neuronal loss? To address this significant question, we utilized the innovative CaM/Tet-DT(A mouse model that selectively induces neuronal ablation. We found that we are able to inflict a consistent and significant lesion to the hippocampus, resulting in hippocampally-dependent behavioral deficits and a long-lasting upregulation in neurogenesis, suggesting that this process might be a critical part of hippocampal recovery. In addition, we provide novel evidence of angiogenic and vasculature changes following hippocampal neuronal loss in CaM/Tet-DTA mice. We posit that angiogenesis may be an important factor that promotes neurogenic upregulation following hippocampal neuronal loss, and both factors, angiogenesis and neurogenesis, can contribute to the adaptive response of the brain for behavioral recovery.

  14. Heterarchic reinstatement of long-term memory: A concept on hippocampal amnesia in rodent memory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin Q; Zelinski, Erin L; McDonald, Robert J; Sutherland, Robert J

    2016-12-01

    Evidence from clinical and animal research highlights the role of the hippocampus in long-term memory (LTM). Decades of experimental work have produced numerous theoretical accounts of the hippocampus in LTM, and each suggests that hippocampal disruption produces amnesia for specific categories of memory. These accounts also imply that hippocampal disruption before or soon after a learning episode should have equivalent amnestic effects. Recent evidence from lesion and inactivation experiments in rodents illustrates that hippocampal disruption after a learning episode causes memory impairment in a wider range of memory tasks than if the same disruption occurs before learning. Although this finding supports that multiple circuits can acquire and retrieve similar information, it also suggests they do not do so independently. In addition, damage after learning produces amnesia for simple elements of a task as well as complex, conjunctive features. Here we develop an explanation for why anterograde and retrograde hippocampal effects differ. This explanation, the heterarchic reinstatement view, also generates novel predictions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphological Variations of Hippocampal Formation in Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Hospital Sao Paulo and other centers in Brazil compared the hippocampal formation (HF morphology of healthy asymptomatic individuals (n=30 with that of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS(n=68, of patients with malformations of cortical development (MCD(n=34, and of patients with morphological HF variations without other structural signs (pure MVHF(n=12.

  16. Temporal lobe epilepsy, depression, and hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Sadat; Hasler, Gregor; Liew, Clarissa; Sato, Susumu; Theodore, William H

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between hippocampal volume loss, depression, and epilepsy. There is a significantly increased incidence of depression and suicide in patients with epilepsy. Both epilepsy and depression are associated with reduced hippocampal volumes, but it is uncertain whether patients with both conditions have greater atrophy than those with epilepsy alone. Previous studies used depression measures strongly weighted to current state, and did not necessarily assess the influence of chronic major depressive disorder ("trait"), which could have a greater impact on hippocampal volume. Fifty-five epilepsy patients with complex partial seizures (CPS) confirmed by electroencephalography (EEG) had three-dimensional (3D)-spoiled gradient recall (SPGR) acquisition magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans for hippocampal volumetric analysis. Depression screening was performed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, 51 patients) and with the structured clinical inventory for DSM-IV (SCID, 34 patients). For the BDI, a score above 10 was considered mild to moderate, above 20 moderate to severe, and above 30 severe depression. MRI and clinical analysis were performed blinded to other data. Statistical analysis was performed with Systat using Student's t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). There was a significant interaction between depression detected on SCID, side of focus, and left hippocampal volume. Patients with a diagnosis of depression and a right temporal seizure focus had significantly lower left hippocampal volume. A similar trend for an effect of depression on right hippocampal volume in patients with a right temporal focus did not reach statistical significance. Our results suggest that patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy and depression have hippocampal atrophy that cannot be explained by epilepsy alone.

  17. Hippocampal synaptic plasticity, spatial memory and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Bannerman, David M.; Sprengel, Rolf; Sanderson, David J.; McHugh, Stephen B.; Rawlins, J. Nicholas P.; Monyer, Hannah; Seeburg, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies using transgenic mice lacking NMDA receptors in the hippocampus challenge the long-standing hypothesis that hippocampal long-term potentiation-like mechanisms underlie the encoding and storage of associative long-term spatial memories. However, it may not be the synaptic plasticity-dependent memory hypothesis that is wrong; instead, it may be the role of the hippocampus that needs to be re-examined. We present an account of hippocampal function that explains its role in both me...

  18. Large scale hippocampal cellular distress may explain the behavioral consequences of repetitive traumatic experiences--a proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Joachim D K; Hattingh, Suzél M; Stein, Dan J; Daniels, Willie M U

    2008-09-01

    Early life traumatic experiences are associated with psychopathology in adulthood. This may be due in part to the effects of trauma on hippocampal development and protein expression. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of early life trauma and adult re-stress on ventral hippocampal protein expression. Adolescent rats (n = 19) were subjected to a triple stressor on post-natal day 28 followed 7 days later by the first re-stress session and 25 days later (post-natal day 60 = adulthood) by the second re-stress session. Ventral hippocampi were collected on post-natal day 68 for protein expression determinations using protein arrays and 2D-gel electrophoresis with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Compared to controls, traumatized animals showed an increase in Ca(2+) homeostatic proteins, dysregulated signaling pathways and energy metabolism enzymes, cytoskeletal protein changes, a decrease in neuroplasticity regulators, energy metabolism enzymes and an increase in apoptotic initiator proteins. These results indicate the extensive impact of trauma on adult brain development and behavior.

  19. Early Experience of Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interest in less morbid herniorrhaphies and the appeal of minimally invasive surgery encouraged development of laparoscopic methods for repairing ventral hernias. The technique is based on the same physical and surgical Pascal's principle as the open underlay procedure (7,8,9). Since the first report of laparoscopic ...

  20. Specialization of Binaural Responses in Ventral Auditory Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Nathan C.; Storace, Douglas A.; Escabí, Monty A.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate orientation to sound under challenging conditions requires auditory cortex, but it is unclear how spatial attributes of the auditory scene are represented at this level. Current organization schemes follow a functional division whereby dorsal and ventral auditory cortices specialize to encode spatial and object features of sound source, respectively. However, few studies have examined spatial cue sensitivities in ventral cortices to support or reject such schemes. Here Fourier optical imaging was used to quantify best frequency responses and corresponding gradient organization in primary (A1), anterior, posterior, ventral (VAF), and suprarhinal (SRAF) auditory fields of the rat. Spike rate sensitivities to binaural interaural level difference (ILD) and average binaural level cues were probed in A1 and two ventral cortices, VAF and SRAF. Continuous distributions of best ILDs and ILD tuning metrics were observed in all cortices, suggesting this horizontal position cue is well covered. VAF and caudal SRAF in the right cerebral hemisphere responded maximally to midline horizontal position cues, whereas A1 and rostral SRAF responded maximally to ILD cues favoring more eccentric positions in the contralateral sound hemifield. SRAF had the highest incidence of binaural facilitation for ILD cues corresponding to midline positions, supporting current theories that auditory cortices have specialized and hierarchical functional organization. PMID:20980610

  1. Ventral onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Wessells

    2016-01-21

    Jan 21, 2016 ... web page of the journal www.ees.elsevier.com/afju · www.sciencedirect.com. Review. Ventral onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using ..... use and increase probability of long term success in patients with compromised urethras. Conflict of interest. No conflict of interest. References. [1] Santucci RA, Joyce GF, ...

  2. Establishment and initial experiences from the Danish Ventral Hernia Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, F; Rosenberg, J; Bay-Nielsen, M

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Outcome after ventral hernia repair is not optimal. The surgical technique relies on personal preferences or evidence from small-scale studies, rather than large-scale prospective data with high external validity. The purpose of this paper was to describe the establishment and potential...

  3. [Indication and results of ventral approach spinal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, O

    1984-01-01

    It is reported on 168 cases with pathologic alterations on the columna vertebralis that were operated from the ventral approach. After listing the indications of various operations (lumbarscoliosis, spondylolisthesis, tumorosteolysis, spondylitis, traumatic alterations, kyphosis, degenerative changes, spondyloepiphyseodesis) it is reported on the results.

  4. Crossmodal Recruitment of the Ventral Visual Stream in Congenital Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Ptito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We used functional MRI (fMRI to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform a tactile-form recognition task with the tongue display unit (TDU. Both groups learned the task at the same rate. In line with our hypothesis, the fMRI data showed that during nonhaptic shape recognition, blind subjects activated large portions of the ventral visual stream, including the cuneus, precuneus, inferotemporal (IT, cortex, lateral occipital tactile vision area (LOtv, and fusiform gyrus. Control subjects activated area LOtv and precuneus but not cuneus, IT and fusiform gyrus. These results indicate that congenitally blind subjects recruit key regions in the ventral visual pathway during nonhaptic tactile shape discrimination. The activation of LOtv by nonhaptic tactile shape processing in blind and sighted subjects adds further support to the notion that this area subserves an abstract or supramodal representation of shape. Together with our previous findings, our data suggest that the segregation of the efferent projections of the primary visual cortex into a dorsal and ventral visual stream is preserved in individuals blind from birth.

  5. Control of REM sleep by ventral medulla GABAergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Franz; Chung, Shinjae; Beier, Kevin T; Xu, Min; Luo, Liqun; Dan, Yang

    2015-10-15

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a distinct brain state characterized by activated electroencephalogram and complete skeletal muscle paralysis, and is associated with vivid dreams. Transection studies by Jouvet first demonstrated that the brainstem is both necessary and sufficient for REM sleep generation, and the neural circuits in the pons have since been studied extensively. The medulla also contains neurons that are active during REM sleep, but whether they play a causal role in REM sleep generation remains unclear. Here we show that a GABAergic (γ-aminobutyric-acid-releasing) pathway originating from the ventral medulla powerfully promotes REM sleep in mice. Optogenetic activation of ventral medulla GABAergic neurons rapidly and reliably initiated REM sleep episodes and prolonged their durations, whereas inactivating these neurons had the opposite effects. Optrode recordings from channelrhodopsin-2-tagged ventral medulla GABAergic neurons showed that they were most active during REM sleep (REMmax), and during wakefulness they were preferentially active during eating and grooming. Furthermore, dual retrograde tracing showed that the rostral projections to the pons and midbrain and caudal projections to the spinal cord originate from separate ventral medulla neuron populations. Activating the rostral GABAergic projections was sufficient for both the induction and maintenance of REM sleep, which are probably mediated in part by inhibition of REM-suppressing GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey. These results identify a key component of the pontomedullary network controlling REM sleep. The capability to induce REM sleep on command may offer a powerful tool for investigating its functions.

  6. Experience With Ventral Penile Skin Island Flap urethroplasty | Ntia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Island flap techniques currently used in urethroplasty utilize the prepuce and the dorsal penile skin. Our experience with a one-stage island flap urethroplasty for urethral strictures utilizing the ventral penile skin is described. Patients and Method: This is a longitudinal study of seventy six consecutive patients ...

  7. Early Experience of Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) is gaining popularity amongst minimal access surgeons with numerous advantages over conventional open repair. We present the first local series of LVHR and analyse morbidity profile of the patients. Methods: Records of all patients who had LVHR were analysed in ...

  8. Dynamic intermittent strain can rapidly impair ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallinowski, Friedrich; Baumann, Elena; Harder, Felix; Siassi, Michael; Mahn, Axel; Vollmer, Matthias; Morlock, Michael M

    2015-11-26

    Ventral hernia repair fails frequently despite advanced mesh inserting surgery. A model for dynamic intermittent straining (DIS) of ventral hernia repairs was developed. The influence of phospholipids, position, overlap, fixation and tissue quality of various meshes on the durability of hernia repair was studied. DIS comprises the repetition of submaximal impacts delivered via a hydraulically driven plastic containment. Pig tissues simulate a ventral hernia with a standardized 5cm defect. Commercially available meshes strengthened with tacks, glue and sutures were used to bridge this defect in an underlay (IPOM) or sublay (retromuscular) position starting with a 5cm overlap in all directions. We tested 35 different ways of ventral hernia repair with up to 425 submaximal intermittent dynamic impacts until mesh dislocation occurred 10 times or a maximum of 4000 impacts each were withstood. The likelihood of a failing repair was related to the mesh, the lubricants, the position, the overlap, the fixation and the tissue quality. Most meshes dislocated easily and required fixation. One of the meshes tested was stable without fixation with a 5cm overlap and failed after reducing the overlap. Phospholipids exerted a strong influence on the biomaterial tested. The sublay position was about 10% more durable in comparison to the IPOM position. DIS revealed distinct degrees of stability with primarily stable, intermediate and primarily unstable repairs. Based on the DIS results available, the currently used ventral hernia repair options can be classified. In the future, DIS investigations can improve the durability of hernia repair. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal control of the Drosophila dorsal–ventral body axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David S.; Stevens, Leslie M.

    2016-01-01

    The pathway that generates the dorsal–ventral (DV) axis of the Drosophila embryo has been the subject of intense investigation over the previous three decades. The initial asymmetric signal originates during oogenesis by the movement of the oocyte nucleus to an anterior corner of the oocyte, which establishes DV polarity within the follicle through signaling between Gurken, the Drosophila Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-α homologue secreted from the oocyte, and the Drosophila Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) that is expressed by the follicular epithelium cells that envelop the oocyte. Follicle cells that are not exposed to Gurken follow a ventral fate and express Pipe, a sulfotransferase that enzymatically modifies components of the inner vitelline membrane layer of the eggshell, thereby transferring DV spatial information from the follicle to the egg. These ventrally sulfated eggshell proteins comprise a localized cue that directs the ventrally restricted formation of the active Spätzle ligand within the perivitelline space between the eggshell and the embryonic membrane. Spätzle activates Toll, a transmembrane receptor in the embryonic membrane. Transmission of the Toll signal into the embryo leads to the formation of a ventral-to-dorsal gradient of the transcription factor Dorsal within the nuclei of the syncytial blastoderm stage embryo. Dorsal controls the spatially specific expression of a large constellation of zygotic target genes, the Dorsal gene regulatory network, along the embryonic DV circumference. This article reviews classic studies and integrates them with the details of more recent work that has advanced our understanding of the complex pathway that establishes Drosophila embryo DV polarity. PMID:25124754

  10. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Hikspoors, Jill P J M; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-01-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ∼ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos between 4 and 10 weeks of development were studied, using amira® reconstruction and cinema 4D® remodeling software for visualization. Initially, vertebrae and ribs had formed medially, and primordia of sternum and hypaxial flank muscle primordium laterally in the body wall at Carnegie Stage (CS)15 (5.5 weeks). The next week, ribs and muscle primordium expanded in ventrolateral direction only. At CS18 (6.5 weeks), separate intercostal and abdominal wall muscles differentiated, and ribs, sterna, and muscles began to expand ventromedially and caudally, with the bilateral sternal bars fusing in the midline after CS20 (7 weeks) and the rectus muscles reaching the umbilicus at CS23 (8 weeks). The near-constant absolute distance between both rectus muscles and approximately fivefold decline of this distance relative to body circumference between 6 and 10 weeks identified dorsoventral growth in the dorsal body wall as determinant of the ‘closure’ of the ventral body wall. Concomitant with the straightening of the embryonic body axis after the 6th week, the abdominal muscles expanded ventrally and caudally to form the infraumbilical body wall. Our data, therefore, show that the ventral body wall is formed by differential dorsoventral growth in the dorsal part of the body. PMID:26467243

  11. Changes in the distribution of the neuron-specific B-50, neurofilament protein and glial fibrillary acidic proteins following an unilateral mesencephalic lesion in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Oestreicher, A.B.; Devay, P.; Isaacson, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Following a unilateral electrolytic lesion in the ventral rat mesencephalon, changes in the immunocytochemical distribution of the neuron-specific B-50, neurofilament (NF) protein and glial fibrillary acidic (GFAP) proteins were studied around the lesion after 0, 3, 10 and 28 days. At all recovery

  12. Moxibustion upregulates hippocampal progranulin expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, moxibustion is reported to be useful and has few side effects for chronic fatigue syndrome, but its mechanisms are largely unknown. More recently, the focus has been on the wealth of information supporting stress as a factor in chronic fatigue syndrome, and largely concerns dysregulation in the stress-related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of moxibustion on behavioral symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome rats and examine possible mechanisms. Rats were subjected to a combination of chronic restraint stress and forced swimming to induce chronic fatigue syndrome. The acupoints Guanyuan (CV4 and Zusanli (ST36, bilateral were simultaneously administered moxibustion. Untreated chronic fatigue syndrome rats and normal rats were used as controls. Results from the forced swimming test, open field test, tail suspension test, real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and western blot assay showed that moxibustion treatment decreased mRNA expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus, and adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels in plasma, and markedly increased progranulin mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that moxibustion may relieve the behavioral symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome, at least in part, by modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and upregulating hippocampal progranulin.

  13. Cocaine- or stress-induced metaplasticity of LTP in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keralapurath, Madhusudhanan M; Clark, Jason K; Hammond, Sherri; Wagner, John J

    2014-05-01

    Despite the well documented role of the hippocampus in various modes of drug reinstatement behavior, the persisting effects of in vivo cocaine exposure on hippocampal synaptic plasticity are not sufficiently understood. In this report we investigated the effects of cocaine conditioning on long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of hippocampus along its septotemporal axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats experienced a behavioral protocol, in which locomotor activity was monitored in response to various conditioning treatments. LTP was measured in ex vivo slice preparations taken 1-2 weeks after the last behavioral session from the ventral (vH) and dorsal (dH) sectors of hippocampus. Unexpectedly, experiencing the minor intermittent stimuli of the behavioral protocol caused stress-induced metaplastic changes in both vH (increased LTP) and dH (decreased LTP) in the saline conditioned rats relative to behaviorally naïve controls. These stress effects in the vH and dH were blocked by conditioning with either mineralocorticoid (spironolactone) or glucocorticoid (mifepristone) antagonists, respectively. Stress-induced metaplasticity in the vH was also prevented by prior administration of the kappa opioid antagonist nor-binaltorphimine. Cocaine conditioning induced locomotor sensitization and significantly increased LTP in the vH without causing significant change in LTP in the dH. Cocaine-induced metaplasticity in the vH was prevented by co-administration of the dopamine D2-like antagonist eticlopride during cocaine conditioning, but not by co-administration of the D1/5 antagonist SCH 23390. Our results suggest that the functional connectivity of hippocampus is altered by metaplastic triggers such as exposure to drugs of abuse and/or stressors, thereby shifting the efferent output of hippocampus from dH (cortical) toward vH (limbic) influenced circuits. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. New approaches to the management of schizophrenia: focus on aberrant hippocampal drive of dopamine pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez SM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie M Perez, Daniel J LodgeDepartment of Pharmacology and Center for Biomedical Neuroscience, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USAAbstract: Schizophrenia is a disease affecting up to 1% of the population. Current therapies are based on the efficacy of chlorpromazine, discovered over 50 years ago. These drugs block dopamine D2-like receptors and are effective at primarily treating positive symptoms in a subset of patients. Unfortunately, current therapies are far from adequate, and novel treatments require a better understanding of disease pathophysiology. Here we review the dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, and glutamate hypotheses of schizophrenia and describe a pathway whereby a loss of inhibitory signaling in ventral regions of the hippocampus actually drives a dopamine hyperfunction. Moreover, we discuss novel therapeutic approaches aimed at attenuating ventral hippocampal activity in a preclinical model of schizophrenia, namely the MAM GD17 rat. Specifically, pharmacological (allosteric modulators of the α5 GABAA receptor, neurosurgical (deep brain stimulation, and cell-based (GABAergic precursor transplants therapies are discussed. By better understanding the underlying circuit level dysfunctions in schizophrenia, novel treatments can be advanced that may provide better efficacy and a superior side effect profile to conventional antipsychotic medications.Keywords: dopamine, GABA, glutamate, schizophrenia, hippocampus, MAM rat

  15. Development of hippocampal functional connectivity during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Sarah L; Redcay, Elizabeth; Dougherty, Lea R; Riggins, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    The hippocampus is a medial temporal lobe structure involved in memory, spatial navigation, and regulation of stress responses, making it a structure critical to daily functioning. However, little is known about the functional development of the hippocampus during childhood due to methodological challenges of acquiring neuroimaging data in young participants. This is a critical gap given evidence that hippocampally-mediated behaviors (e.g., episodic memory) undergo rapid and important changes during childhood. To address this gap, the present investigation collected resting-state fMRI scans in 97, 4- to 10-year-old children. Whole brain seed-based analyses of anterior, posterior, and whole hippocampal connectivity were performed to identify regions demonstrating stable (i.e., age-controlled) connectivity profiles as well as age-related differences in connectivity. Results reveal that the hippocampus is a highly connected structure of the brain and that most of the major components of the adult network are evident during childhood, including both unique and overlapping connectivity between anterior and posterior regions. Despite widespread age-controlled connectivity, the strength of hippocampal connectivity with regions of lateral temporal lobes and the anterior cingulate increased throughout the studied age range. These findings have implications for future investigations of the development of hippocampally-mediated behaviors and methodological applications for the appropriateness of whole versus segmented hippocampal seeds in connectivity analyses. Hum Brain Mapp 38:182-201, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Multisensory control of hippocampal spatiotemporal selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravassard, Pascal; Kees, Ashley; Willers, Bernard; Ho, David; Aharoni, Daniel A; Cushman, Jesse; Aghajan, Zahra M; Mehta, Mayank R

    2013-06-14

    The hippocampal cognitive map is thought to be driven by distal visual cues and self-motion cues. However, other sensory cues also influence place cells. Hence, we measured rat hippocampal activity in virtual reality (VR), where only distal visual and nonvestibular self-motion cues provided spatial information, and in the real world (RW). In VR, place cells showed robust spatial selectivity; however, only 20% were track active, compared with 45% in the RW. This indicates that distal visual and nonvestibular self-motion cues are sufficient to provide selectivity, but vestibular and other sensory cues present in RW are necessary to fully activate the place-cell population. In addition, bidirectional cells preferentially encoded distance along the track in VR, while encoding absolute position in RW. Taken together, these results suggest the differential contributions of these sensory cues in shaping the hippocampal population code. Theta frequency was reduced, and its speed dependence was abolished in VR, but phase precession was unaffected, constraining mechanisms governing both hippocampal theta oscillations and temporal coding. These results reveal cooperative and competitive interactions between sensory cues for control over hippocampal spatiotemporal selectivity and theta rhythm.

  17. Cortical and hippocampal correlates of deliberation during model-based decisions for rewards in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M Bornstein

    Full Text Available How do we use our memories of the past to guide decisions we've never had to make before? Although extensive work describes how the brain learns to repeat rewarded actions, decisions can also be influenced by associations between stimuli or events not directly involving reward - such as when planning routes using a cognitive map or chess moves using predicted countermoves - and these sorts of associations are critical when deciding among novel options. This process is known as model-based decision making. While the learning of environmental relations that might support model-based decisions is well studied, and separately this sort of information has been inferred to impact decisions, there is little evidence concerning the full cycle by which such associations are acquired and drive choices. Of particular interest is whether decisions are directly supported by the same mnemonic systems characterized for relational learning more generally, or instead rely on other, specialized representations. Here, building on our previous work, which isolated dual representations underlying sequential predictive learning, we directly demonstrate that one such representation, encoded by the hippocampal memory system and adjacent cortical structures, supports goal-directed decisions. Using interleaved learning and decision tasks, we monitor predictive learning directly and also trace its influence on decisions for reward. We quantitatively compare the learning processes underlying multiple behavioral and fMRI observables using computational model fits. Across both tasks, a quantitatively consistent learning process explains reaction times, choices, and both expectation- and surprise-related neural activity. The same hippocampal and ventral stream regions engaged in anticipating stimuli during learning are also engaged in proportion to the difficulty of decisions. These results support a role for predictive associations learned by the hippocampal memory system to

  18. Anatomic Site Based Ploidy Analysis of Oral Premalignant Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. N.; Kornberg, L.; Veenker, E.; Cohen, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    The location of oral leukoplakia correlates strongly with the probability of finding dysplastic or malignant alterations at biopsy. It is well established that early detection can dramatically improve the 5-year survival rates for oral squamous cell carcinomas. Since aneuploidy is predictive of future conversion to malignancy, we hypothesized that dysplastic lesions from high-risk sites (floor of mouth, tongue and lips) would exhibit greater aneuploidy than low-risk sites (palate, gingiva and buccal mucosa). Epithelial sections from 60 archival samples diagnosed as mild dysplasia (36 females, 20 males) from various high/low risk locations were stained with Blue Feulgen Stain for DNA Ploidy Analysis (Clarient, Aliso Viejo, CA) and ploidy was analyzed using a ChromaVision ACIS II (Clarient, ALiso Viejo, CA) Image cytometry system. A DNA histogram was generated using an image analyzing software that evaluated the amount of Feulgen stain which is proportional to the amount of nuclear DNA. An ANOVA analysis followed by the Student’s‘t’ test revealed significant differences between means (P ≤ 0.05). Lesions originating from lateral/ventral tongue (85%), floor of mouth (50%) and soft palate (44%) exhibited a higher frequency of aneuploidy than lesions from gingiva (22%) and lower lip (25%). This pilot study demonstrates that dysplastic lesions from high-risk sites such as the floor of the mouth and lateral/ventral tongue have higher frequency of aneuploidy. PMID:20237983

  19. Dorsal and ventral stream contributions to form-from-motion perception in a patient with form-from motion deficit: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Manuel R; Schwartz, Sophie; Spinelli, Laurent; Michel, Christoph M; Blanke, Olaf

    2017-03-01

    brain activity. By revealing a brain circuit involving the most rostral part of the dorsal pathway, this study provides further support for neuro-imaging studies and brain lesion investigations that have suggested the existence of different brain circuits associated with different profiles of interaction between the dorsal and the ventral streams.

  20. Aquisição de uma tarefa espacial por ratos submetidos a lesão hipocampal neonatal induzida por radiação ionizante Acquisition of a non-matching to place task by rats with neonatal hippocampal lesion induced by ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Catelli Infantozzi Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Costa, Bueno e Xavier (2005 mostraram que ratos com lesão do giro denteado hipocampal produzida por colchicina apresentam prejuízo de desempenho em testes pós-operatórios em uma tarefa espacial de discriminação condicional (tarefa de non-matching-to-place, NMTP, embora o treino repetitivo promova recuperação do desempenho dos animais lesados. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o desempenho de ratos com danos seletivos no giro denteado, induzidos pela exposição neonatal a radiação ionizante, na tarefa de NMTP. O grupo irradiado apresentou prejuízo nas primeiras sessões de treino quando comparado ao grupo controle; porém, seu desempenho se igualou ao dos animais controles nas últimas sessões, replicando resultados anteriores. Os resultados são discutidos no contexto da teoria do mapa espacial cognitivo.Costa, Bueno e Xavier (2005 showed that rats with hippocampus dentate gyrus lesions produced by colchicine have post-surgical tests deficits in spatial tasks involving conditional discrimination (non-matching-to-place, NMTP, although repetitive training does promote the recovery of the lamed subject's performance. The purpose of this experiment was to assess the performance of rats with selective lesions of dentate gyrus induced by neonatal ionizing radiation in the NMTP task. The irradiated group showed deficits in the first training sessions when compared to the control group. Nevertheless, the performance of lesion and control groups was similar at the end of the sessions, as previously reported. The results are discussed in light of the cognitive map theory.

  1. Childhood maltreatment modifies the relationship of depression with hippocampal volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, L.; van Velzen, L.; Schmaal, L.; van der Graaf, Y.; van der Wee, N.; van Tol, M.J.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Geerlings, M.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) may modify the relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD) and hippocampal volume reduction. To disentangle the impact of MDD and CM on hippocampal volume we investigated the association between MDD and hippocampal volume in persons with and without a history of

  2. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gebara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging.

  3. Preferential reactivation of motivationally relevant information in the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansink, Carien S; Goltstein, Pieter M; Lankelma, Jan V; Joosten, Ruud N J M A; McNaughton, Bruce L; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2008-06-18

    Spontaneous "off-line" reactivation of neuronal activity patterns may contribute to the consolidation of memory traces. The ventral striatum exhibits reactivation and has been implicated in the processing of motivational information. It is unknown, however, whether reactivating neuronal ensembles specifically recapitulate information relating to rewards that were encountered during wakefulness. We demonstrate a prolonged reactivation in rat ventral striatum during quiet wakefulness and slow-wave but not rapid eye movement sleep. Reactivation of reward-related information processed in this structure was particularly prominent, and this was primarily attributable to spike trains temporally linked to reward sites. It was accounted for by small, strongly correlated subgroups in recorded cell assemblies and can thus be characterized as a sparse phenomenon. Our results indicate that reactivated memory traces may not only comprise feature- and context-specific information but also contain a value component.

  4. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, J; Peterson, E; Doudet, D J

    2010-01-01

    suggest a dopaminergic basis of monetary losses in pathological gambling, which might explain loss-chasing behavior. The findings may have implications for the understanding of dopamine dysfunctions and impaired decision-making in pathological gambling and substance-related addictions.......Linnet J, Peterson E, Doudet DJ, Gjedde A, Møller A. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money. Objective: To investigate dopaminergic neurotransmission in relation to monetary reward and punishment in pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (PG) often continue...... gambling despite losses, known as 'chasing one's losses'. We therefore hypothesized that losing money would be associated with increased dopamine release in the ventral striatum of PG compared with healthy controls (HC). Method: We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [(11)C]raclopride to measure...

  5. Role of the amygdala in antidepressant effects on hippocampal cell proliferation and survival and on depression-like behavior in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Castro

    Full Text Available The stimulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by antidepressants has been associated with multiple molecular pathways, but the potential influence exerted by other brain areas has received much less attention. The basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA, a region involved in anxiety and a site of action of antidepressants, has been implicated in both basal and stress-induced changes in neural plasticity in the dentate gyrus. We investigated here whether the BLA modulates the effects of the SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine on hippocampal cell proliferation and survival in relation to a behavioral index of depression-like behavior (forced swim test. We used a lesion approach targeting the BLA along with a chronic treatment with fluoxetine, and monitored basal anxiety levels given the important role of this behavioral trait in the progress of depression. Chronic fluoxetine treatment had a positive effect on hippocampal cell survival only when the BLA was lesioned. Anxiety was related to hippocampal cell survival in opposite ways in sham- and BLA-lesioned animals (i.e., negatively in sham- and positively in BLA-lesioned animals. Both BLA lesions and low anxiety were critical factors to enable a negative relationship between cell proliferation and depression-like behavior. Therefore, our study highlights a role for the amygdala on fluoxetine-stimulated cell survival and on the establishment of a link between cell proliferation and depression-like behavior. It also reveals an important modulatory role for anxiety on cell proliferation involving both BLA-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Our findings underscore the amygdala as a potential target to modulate antidepressants' action in hippocampal neurogenesis and in their link to depression-like behaviors.

  6. Proteomic investigation of the ventral rat hippocampus links DRP-2 to escitalopram treatment resistance and SNAP to stress resilience in the chronic mild stress model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Christina; Jayatissa, Magdalena N; Enghild, Jan J

    2007-01-01

    The development of depression as well as recovery from depression is most likely accompanied by a change in protein expression profiles. The purpose of the present study was to quantitatively investigate global protein expression differences independent of any hypothesis describing depression...... etiology and recovery. Thus two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis was employed to compare the ventral hippocampal proteomes between different treatment groups in the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression. The CMS paradigm induces anhedonic behaviour, which is a major symptom...... of depression, by exposing rats to a series of mild stressors for 7 weeks, with antidepressant treatment during the last 4 weeks. In the CMS model, animals were split into six different groups at the end of treatment; unchallenged control escitalopram (n = 12), unchallenged control vehicle (n = 12), CMS vehicle...

  7. Evaluation of Composite Mesh for Ventral Hernia Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, Jim F.; Agee, Neal; Nguyen, Phuong H.; Heath, Jessica J.; Lau, Kwan N.; Mckillop, Iain H.; Sindram, David; Martinie, John B.; Iannitti, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Composite mesh prostheses incorporate the properties of multiple materials for ventral hernia repair. This study evaluated a polypropylene/ePTFE composite mesh with a novel internal polydioxanone (PDO) absorbable ring. Methods: Composite mesh was placed intraperitoneally in 16 pigs through an open laparotomy and explanted at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Intraabdominal adhesions were measured laparoscopically. Host tissue in-growth was assessed histologically and tensiometrically. Degr...

  8. Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair using only 5-mm ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Allen, Nicholas; O'Rourke, Harriet; Hong, Lisa; O'Rourke, Nicholas

    2017-10-12

    The technique of laparoscopic ventral hernia repair has been evolving since it was first described over 20 years ago. We report a new technique where polyester mesh was back loaded through a 5-mm port site, coming into contact with the skin. This avoids the need for any 10-12-mm ports. A prospective database of laparoscopic ventral hernia repairs was examined. A single surgeon performed 344 laparoscopic ventral hernia repairs using this technique over 60 months. Follow-up was conducted by both clinical and independent phone review. Laparoscopic access was achieved via a 5-mm optical port, adding two, or occasionally three, 5-mm extra ports. Hernia contents were reduced and the extra-peritoneal fat excised; 5-mm tooth graspers were placed through the lateral port and then in a retrograde fashion through the uppermost port. The port was removed, and the mesh pulled back into the abdominal cavity and positioned with a minimum of 3-cm overlap. The mesh was fixed using absorbable tacks and sutures. Most patients had primary umbilical hernias. There was one case of mesh infection due to enteric organisms. This occurred in a patient undergoing repair of a stoma site hernia, resulting from a Hartmann's procedure for perforated diverticulitis. There was no other evidence of acute or chronic mesh infection despite cutaneous contact with the mesh. In this series, there was an overall hernia recurrence rate of 2.4%. Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair using only 5-mm ports is a safe, effective technique with no extra risk of infection. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  9. Ventral Tegmental Area Afferents and Drug-Dependent Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Idaira eOliva; Matthew eWanat

    2016-01-01

    Drug-related behaviors in both humans and rodents are commonly thought to arise from aberrant learning processes. Preclinical studies demonstrate that the acquisition and expression of many drug-dependent behaviors involves the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a midbrain structure comprised of dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neurons. Drug experience alters the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input onto VTA dopamine neurons, suggesting a critical role for VTA afferents in mediating the effects o...

  10. Dorsal and ventral language pathways in persistent developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld-Duenias, Vered; Amir, Ofer; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Civier, Oren; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2016-08-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering is a speech disorder that affects an individual's ability to fluently produce speech. While the disorder mainly manifests in situations that require language production, it is still unclear whether persistent developmental stuttering is indeed a language impairment, and if so, which language stream is implicated in people who stutter. In this study, we take a neuroanatomical approach to this question by examining the structural properties of the dorsal and ventral language pathways in adults who stutter (AWS) and fluent controls. We use diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and individualized tract identification to extract white matter volumes and diffusion properties of these tracts in samples of adults who do and do not stutter. We further quantify diffusion properties at multiple points along the tract and examine group differences within these diffusivity profiles. Our results show differences in the dorsal, but not in the ventral, language-related tracts. Specifically, AWS show reduced volume of the left dorsal stream, as well as lower anisotropy in the right dorsal stream. These data provide neuroanatomical support for the view that stuttering involves an impairment in the bidirectional mapping between auditory and articulatory cortices supported by the dorsal pathways, not in lexical access and semantic aspects of language processing which are thought to rely more heavily on the left ventral pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 3T MRI quantification of hippocampal volume and signal in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy improves detection of hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, A C; Kubota, B; Bergo, F P G; Campos, B M; Cendes, F

    2014-01-01

    In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, MR imaging quantification of hippocampal volume and T2 signal can improve the sensitivity for detecting hippocampal sclerosis. However, the current contributions of these analyses for the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis in 3T MRI are not clear. Our aim was to compare visual analysis, volumetry, and signal quantification of the hippocampus for detecting hippocampal sclerosis in 3T MRI. Two hundred three patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy defined by clinical and electroencephalogram criteria had 3T MRI visually analyzed by imaging epilepsy experts. As a second step, we performed automatic quantification of hippocampal volumes with FreeSurfer and T2 relaxometry with an in-house software. MRI of 79 healthy controls was used for comparison. Visual analysis classified 125 patients (62%) as having signs of hippocampal sclerosis and 78 (38%) as having normal MRI findings. Automatic volumetry detected atrophy in 119 (95%) patients with visually detected hippocampal sclerosis and in 10 (13%) with visually normal MR imaging findings. Relaxometry analysis detected hyperintense T2 signal in 103 (82%) patients with visually detected hippocampal sclerosis and in 15 (19%) with visually normal MR imaging findings. Considered together, volumetry plus relaxometry detected signs of hippocampal sclerosis in all except 1 (99%) patient with visually detected hippocampal sclerosis and in 22 (28%) with visually normal MR imaging findings. In 3T MRI visually inspected by experts, quantification of hippocampal volume and signal can increase the detection of hippocampal sclerosis in 28% of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

  12. Dissociable effects of prefrontal and anterior temporal cortical lesions on stereotypical gender attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzi, Marta; Raymont, Vanessa; Solomon, Jeffrey; Koenigs, Michael; Grafman, Jordan

    2009-08-01

    Clinical observations of patients with ventral frontal and anterior temporal cortical lesions reveal marked abnormalities in social attitudes. A previous study in seven patients with ventral prefrontal lesions provided the first direct experimental evidence for abnormalities in social attitudes using a well-established measure of gender stereotypes, the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Here, we were able to test whether these first findings could be reproduced in a larger sample of 154 patients with penetrating head injuries, and to determine the differential effects of ventromedial prefrontal (vmPFC) and ventrolateral prefrontal (vlPFC) cortical lesions on IAT performance. In addition, we investigated the role of the superior anterior temporal lobe (aTL), recently shown to represent conceptual social knowledge. First, we used a linear regression model to identify the role of each of the three regions, while controlling for the extent of damage to other regions. We found that larger lesions in either the vmPFC or the superior aTL were associated with increased stereotypical attitudes, whereas larger lesions in the vlPFC were associated with decreased stereotypical attitudes. Second, in a confirmatory analysis, we grouped patients by lesion location and compared their performance on the IAT with that of healthy volunteers. Compared to controls, patients with lesions in either the vmPFC or the superior aTL showed increased stereotypical attitudes, whereas patients with lesions in the vlPFC showed decreased stereotypical attitudes. The functional contributions of these regions in social attitudes are discussed.

  13. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    of predictors increases the accuracy of lesion activity prediction for both primary coronal and root lesions. Three surrogate methods have been used for evaluating lesion activity (construct validity); all have disadvantages. If construct validity is accepted as a 'gold standard', it is possible to assess......This chapter focusses on the probability of a caries lesion detected during a clinical examination being active (progressing) or arrested. Visual and tactile methods to assess primary coronal lesions and primary root lesions are considered. The evidence level is rated as low (R...... in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  14. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shave excision - skin; Excision of skin lesions - benign; Skin lesion removal - benign; Cryosurgery - skin, benign; BCC - removal; Basal cell cancer - removal; Actinic keratosis - removal; Wart - removal; Squamous cell - removal; ...

  15. Skin lesion of blastomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000865.htm Skin lesion of blastomycosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A skin lesion of blastomycosis is a symptom of an infection ...

  16. Skin lesion aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003451.htm Skin lesion aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skin lesion aspiration is the withdrawal of fluid from a ...

  17. Target-specific deep brain stimulation of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chencheng; Li, Dianyou; Jin, Haiyan; Zeljic, Kristina; Sun, Bomin

    2017-10-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a well-established therapy for Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. An accumulating body of evidence supports the extension of DBS application for the treatment of refractory psychiatric disorders. The ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) is the most common anatomical target for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), addiction, and depression. However, no specific electrode is available for the clinical targeting of these areas for DBS. According to the anatomical features of the VC/VS, a novel electrode was developed for simultaneous and independently programmed stimulation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC). This VC/VS-specific electrode has the potential to enhance stimulus intensity, provide independent and flexible target stimulation.

  18. Effects of Environmental Enrichment on Doublecortin and BDNF Expression along the Dorso-Ventral Axis of the Dentate Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Fabio; Brégère, Catherine; Laws, Grace C; Armstrong, Elena A; Wylie, Nicholas J; Moxham, Theo T; Guzman, Raphael; Boswell, Timothy; Smulders, Tom V

    2017-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in the dentate gyrus is known to respond to environmental enrichment, chronic stress, and many other factors. The function of AHN may vary across the septo-temporal axis of the hippocampus, as different subdivisions are responsible for different functions. The dorsal pole regulates cognitive-related behaviors, while the ventral pole mediates mood-related responses through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In this study, we investigate different methods of quantifying the effect of environmental enrichment on AHN in the dorsal and ventral parts of the dentate gyrus (dDG and vDG). To this purpose, 11-week-old female CD-1 mice were assigned for 8 days to one of two conditions: the Environmental Enrichment (E) group received (i) running wheels, (ii) larger cages, (iii) plastic tunnels, and (iv) bedding with male urine, while the Control (C) group received standard housing. Dorsal CA (Cornu Ammonis) and DG regions were larger in the E than the C animals. Distance run linearly predicted the volume of the dorsal hippocampus, as well as of the intermediate and ventral CA regions. In the dDG, the amount of Doublecortin (DCX) immunoreactivity was significantly higher in E than in C mice. Surprisingly, this pattern was the opposite in the vDG (C > E). Real-time PCR measurement of Dcx mRNA and DCX protein analysis using ELISA showed the same pattern. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) immunoreactivity and mRNA displayed no difference between E and C, suggesting that upregulation of DCX was not caused by changes in BDNF levels. BDNF levels were higher in vDG than in dDG, as measured by both methods. Bdnf expression in vDG correlated positively with the distance run by individual E mice. The similarity in the patterns of immunoreactivity, mRNA and protein for differential DCX expression and for BDNF distribution suggests that the latter two methods might be effective tools for more rapid quantification of AHN.

  19. Cell type- and region-specific enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by daidzein in middle-aged female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Jun; Hatabe, Jun; Tankyo, Kaori; Jinno, Shozo

    2016-12-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with various brain functions, such as learning, memory, and emotion. Intriguingly, reduction in new cell production in the hippocampus in middle age may underlie some of the cognitive deficits. Among several factors that may affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis, estrogens have been suggested to be critically involved in the cognitive impairment of postmenopausal women. Phytoestrogens, such as daidzein and genistein, are expected to work as estrogen substitutes. In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of daidzein on adult hippocampal neurogenesis using middle-aged (12-month-old) female mice. Animals received daily intraperitoneal injections of daidzein or vehicle for four weeks, and the cells at specific stages of neurogenesis were presumptively defined using molecular markers. Administration of daidzein did not affect the numerical densities (NDs) of primary progenitors, early transient amplifying progenitors (TAPs), and astrocytes. In contrast, the NDs of late TAPs, neural progenitors, and immature granule cells were increased by daidzein. The NDs of proliferating cells, but not apoptotic cells, were also increased by daidzein. To examine the effects of daidzein on maturation of adult-born cells, we three-dimensionally traced their dendritic arbors: the branch number, total length, and intersection number (Sholl analysis) of immature granule cells were increased by daidzein. In general, the effects of daidzein were more dominant in the dorsal region than in the ventral region. The cell type- and region-specific enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by daidzein provides a key to understanding the actions of estrogen substitutes for the treatment of postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Verruciform xanthoma of the penis: A rare benign lesion that simulates carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Franco De Rose

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Verruciform xanthoma is a rare and benign condition predominantly affecting the oral cavity, but also skin and female anogenital mucosa. It can be flat, papular-warty or crateriform-cystic. Furthermore it can simulate HPV viral lesion such as condyloma and malignant neoplasia such as verrucous squamous cell carcinoma. An accurate diagnosis is important to avoid overtreatment, considering it is a benign lesion that does not require any radical treatment. We present an extremely rare case of a 64 year-old man with a small, slighty raised, gray reddish-dotted lesion on the left portion of the ventral side of his glans.

  1. Detection of volume loss in hippocampal layers in Alzheimer's disease using 7 T MRI: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Boutet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD, the hippocampus is an early site of tau pathology and neurodegeneration. Histological studies have shown that lesions are not uniformly distributed within the hippocampus. Moreover, alterations of different hippocampal layers may reflect distinct pathological processes. 7 T MRI dramatically improves the visualization of hippocampal subregions and layers. In this study, we aimed to assess whether 7 T MRI can detect volumetric changes in hippocampal layers in vivo in patients with AD. We studied four AD patients and seven control subjects. MR images were acquired using a whole-body 7 T scanner with an eight channel transmit–receive coil. Hippocampal subregions were manually segmented from coronal T2*-weighted gradient echo images with 0.3 × 0.3 × 1.2 mm3 resolution using a protocol that distinguishes between layers richer or poorer in neuronal bodies. Five subregions were segmented in the region of the hippocampal body: alveus, strata radiatum, lacunosum and moleculare (SRLM of the cornu Ammonis (CA, hilum, stratum pyramidale of CA and stratum pyramidale of the subiculum. We found strong bilateral reductions in the SRLM of the cornu Ammonis and in the stratum pyramidale of the subiculum (p < 0.05, with average cross-sectional area reductions ranging from −29% to −49%. These results show that it is possible to detect volume loss in distinct hippocampal layers using segmentation of 7 T MRI. 7 T MRI-based segmentation is a promising tool for AD research.

  2. Relationships between hippocampal activity and breathing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, R M; Poe, G R; Rector, D M

    1998-01-01

    Single cell discharge, EEG activity, and optical changes accompanying alterations in breathing patterns, as well as the knowledge that respiratory musculature is heavily involved in movement and other behavioral acts, implicate hippocampal regions in some aspects of breathing control. The control...

  3. Stress, hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition: functional correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.J.; Oomen, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    The brain of many species including humans, harbors stem cells that continue to generate new neurons up into adulthood. This form of structural plasticity occurs in a limited number of brain regions, i.e. the subventricular zone and the hippocampal dentate gyrus and is regulated by environmental and

  4. Glucocorticoid receptor knockdown and adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijdonk, Leonarda Wilhelmina Antonia van

    2010-01-01

    The research in this thesis is aimed at the elucidation of the role of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in hippocampal neuroplasticity and functioning. To achieve this, we have developed a novel method to specifically knockdown GR in a discrete cell population of the mouse brain. In this thesis I

  5. Hippocampal atrophy in subcortical vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, L.A.; Gertz, H.J.; Scheltens, P.; Wolf, H

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: New research criteria for subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD) have been suggested to define a more homogeneous subgroup of vascular dementia. Hippocampal (Hc) atrophy is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it also occurs in other dementia disorders including vascular

  6. Stimulus Configuration, Classical Conditioning, and Hippocampal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmajuk, Nestor A.; DiCarlo, James J.

    1991-01-01

    The participation of the hippocampus in classical conditioning is described in terms of a multilayer network portraying stimulus configuration. A model of hippocampal function is presented, and computer simulations are used to study neural activity in the various brain areas mapped according to the model. (SLD)

  7. Hippocampal theta frequency shifts and operant behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Kamp, A.

    1. 1. A shift of hippocampal dominant theta frequency to 6 c/sec has been demonstrated in the post-reward period in two dogs, which occurs consistently related in time to a well defined behavioural pattern in the course of an operant conditioning paradigm. 2. 2. The frequency shift was detected and

  8. Resveratrol: A Potential Hippocampal Plasticity Enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Pereira Dias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for molecules capable of restoring altered hippocampal plasticity in psychiatric and neurological conditions is one of the most important tasks of modern neuroscience. It is well established that neural plasticity, such as the ability of the postnatal hippocampus to continuously generate newly functional neurons throughout life, a process called adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN, can be modulated not only by pharmacological agents, physical exercise, and environmental enrichment, but also by “nutraceutical” agents. In this review we focus on resveratrol, a phenol and phytoalexin found in the skin of grapes and red berries, as well as in nuts. Resveratrol has been reported to have antioxidant and antitumor properties, but its effects as a neural plasticity inducer are still debated. The current review examines recent evidence implicating resveratrol in regulating hippocampal neural plasticity and in mitigating the effects of various disorders and diseases on this important brain structure. Overall, findings show that resveratrol can improve cognition and mood and enhance hippocampal plasticity and AHN; however, some studies report opposite effects, with resveratrol inhibiting aspects of AHN. Therefore, further investigation is needed to resolve these controversies before resveratrol can be established as a safe coadjuvant in preventing and treating neuropsychiatric conditions.

  9. Hippocampal gamma oscillations increase with memory load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vugt, Marieke K.; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Litt, Brian; Brandt, Armin; Kahana, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Although the hippocampus plays a crucial role in encoding and retrieval of contextually mediated episodic memories, considerable controversy surrounds the role of the hippocampus in short-term or working memory. To examine both hippocampal and neocortical contributions to working memory function, we

  10. Klotho regulates CA1 hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Vo, Hai T; Wang, Jing; Fox-Quick, Stephanie; Dobrunz, Lynn E; King, Gwendalyn D

    2017-04-07

    Global klotho overexpression extends lifespan while global klotho-deficiency shortens it. As well, klotho protein manipulations inversely regulate cognitive function. Mice without klotho develop rapid onset cognitive impairment before they are 2months old. Meanwhile, adult mice overexpressing klotho show enhanced cognitive function, particularly in hippocampal-dependent tasks. The cognitive enhancing effects of klotho extend to humans with a klotho polymorphism that increases circulating klotho and executive function. To affect cognitive function, klotho could act in or on the synapse to modulate synaptic transmission or plasticity. However, it is not yet known if klotho is located at synapses, and little is known about its effects on synaptic function. To test this, we fractionated hippocampi and detected klotho expression in both pre and post-synaptic compartments. We find that loss of klotho enhances both pre and post-synaptic measures of CA1 hippocampal synaptic plasticity at 5weeks of age. However, a rapid loss of synaptic enhancement occurs such that by 7weeks, when mice are cognitively impaired, there is no difference from wild-type controls. Klotho overexpressing mice show no early life effects on synaptic plasticity, but decreased CA1 hippocampal long-term potentiation was measured at 6months of age. Together these data suggest that klotho affects cognition, at least in part, by regulating hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hippocampal P3-Like Auditory Event-Related Potentials are Disrupted in a Rat Model of Cholinergic Degeneration in Alzheimer's Disease: Reversal by Donepezil Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bettina; Mørk, Arne; Kristiansen, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    to several psychiatric and neurological diseases, e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, only a very limited number of rodent studies have addressed the back-translational validity of the P3-like ERPs as suitable markers of cognition. Thus, the potential of rodent P3-like ERPs to predict pro...... intracerebroventricular infusion of 1.25 μg SAP or PBS (sham lesion) and recording electrodes were implanted in hippocampal CA1. Relative to sham-lesioned rats, SAP-lesioned rats had significantly reduced amplitude of P3-like ERPs. P3 amplitude was significantly increased in SAP-treated rats following pre-treatment...... with 1 mg/kg donepezil. Infusion of SAP reduced the hippocampal choline acetyltransferase activity by 75%. Behaviorally defined cognitive performance was comparable between treatment groups. The present study suggests that AD-like deficits in P3-like ERPs may be mimicked by the basal forebrain...

  12. Ventral extradural spinal meningeal cyst causing cord compression: neurosurgical treatment Cisto meníngeo extradural ventral do canal espinhal causando compressão medular: tratamento neurocirúrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Monte-Serrat Prevedello

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Spinal extradural meningeal cysts are typically formed by a thin fibrotic membranous capsule, macroscopically similar that of an arachnoid membrane, filled by cerebro spinal fluid and related to a nerve root or to the posterior midline. Ventral location is extremely rare and when it occurs they usually cause spinal cord herniation through the ventral dural gap. A 61 year-old man who began with a two years long history of insidious tetraparesis, spasticity and hyperreflexia in lower extremities, and flaccid atrophy of upper limbs, without sensory manifestations, is presented. Investigation through magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an extensive spinal ventral extradural cystic collection from C6 to T11. The lesion was approached through a laminectomy and a cyst-peritoneal shunt was introduced. The cyst reduced in size significantly and the patient is asymptomatic over a 48 months follow-up. This is the first reported case of a spontaneous ventral extradural spinal meningeal cyst causing cord compression. Cyst-peritoneal shunt was effective in the treatment of the case and it should be considered in cases in which complete resection of the cyst is made more difficult or risky by the need of more aggressive surgical maneuvers.Cistos meníngeos extradurais espinhais são formados tipicamente por estreita cápsula membranosa fibrótica, macroscopicamente semelhante a uma membrana de aracnóide, repleta de líquor e relacionada com uma raiz nervosa ou com a linha média posterior. Eles são extremamente raros em posição anterior e, quando ocorrem, habitualmente causam herniação da medula espinhal pela falha dural ventral. O caso de um homem de 61 anos de idade que iniciou com tetraparesia, espasticidade e hiperreflexia em membros inferiores, e flacidez com hipotrofia nos membros superiores, sem manifestação sensitiva, é apresentado. A investigação com ressonância magnética demonstrou extensa coleção cística extradural ventral

  13. A multicenter prospective study of patients undergoing open ventral hernia repair with intraperitoneal positioning using the monofilament polyester composite ventral patch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berrevoet, Frederik; Doerhoff, Carl; Muysoms, Filip

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed the recurrence rate and other safety and efficacy parameters following ventral hernia repair with a polyester composite prosthesis (Parietex™ Composite Ventral Patch [PCO-VP]). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single-arm, multicenter prospective study of 126 patients undergoing...

  14. Tumefactive demyelinating lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, A.P. [Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Div. of Neuroradiology; Smirniotopoulos, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Div. of Neuroradiology]|[Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Radiological Pathology

    1996-08-01

    We studied 21 cases of pathologically confirmed tumefactive demyelinating lesions and reviewed the spectrum of tumefactive demyelinating lesions in the literature. Radiological features and clinical data were reviewed to characterize the lesions as consistent with a known demyelinating disease, most notably multiple sclerosis. Atypical clinical or radiological features (other than tumefaction) were noted. Most lesions were part of a clinical and/or radiological picture consistent with multiple sclerosis. No case strongly suggestive of variants or related diseases, such as Schilder`s disease or Balo`s concentric sclerosis, were found. There was one case suggestive of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Features which help distinguish the lesions from tumour are discussed. (orig.)

  15. The effect of intra-ventral hippocampus administration of TRPV1 agonist and antagonist on spatial learning and memory in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiresmaili, Sedigheh; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Pourshanazari, Ali Asghar; Roohbakhsh, Ali

    2014-02-01

    The role of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in peripheral nervous system has been studied well but its role in the central nervous system remains to be studied in detail. The expression of TRPV1 receptors in hippocampus is suggesting that they may play an important role in higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory. In the present study, the role of TRPV1 receptors in acquisition and retrieval of spatial memory of male Wistar rats was evaluated by intra-ventral hippocampus administration of TRPV1 selective agonist (OLDA) and antagonist (AMG9810) using Morris water maze. The results demonstrated that administration of either OLDA (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 μg/rat) or AMG9810 (0.003, 0.03 and 0.3 μg/rat) did not influence memory acquisition or retrieval. These data suggest that ventral-hippocampal TRPV1 receptors possibly are not involved in spatial learning and memory. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. Subfield-specific loss of hippocampal N-acetyl aspartate in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielhaber, Stefan; Niessen, Heiko G; Debska-Vielhaber, Grazyna; Kudin, Alexei P; Wellmer, Jörg; Kaufmann, Jörn; Schönfeld, Mircea Ariel; Fendrich, Robert; Willker, Wieland; Leibfritz, Dieter; Schramm, Johannes; Elger, Christian E; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Kunz, Wolfram S

    2008-01-01

    In patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) it remains an unresolved issue whether the interictal decrease in N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) reflects the epilepsy-associated loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons or metabolic dysfunction. To address this problem, we applied high-resolution (1)H-MRS at 14.1 Tesla to measure metabolite concentrations in ex vivo tissue slices from three hippocampal subfields (CA1, CA3, dentate gyrus) as well as from the parahippocampal region of 12 patients with MTLE. In contrast to four patients with lesion-caused MTLE, we found a large variance of NAA concentrations in the individual hippocampal regions of patients with Ammon's horn sclerosis (AHS). Specifically, in subfield CA3 of AHS patients despite of a moderate preservation of neuronal cell densities the concentration of NAA was significantly lowered, while the concentrations of lactate, glucose, and succinate were elevated. We suggest that these subfield-specific alterations of metabolite concentrations in AHS are very likely caused by impairment of mitochondrial function and not related to neuronal cell loss. A subfield-specific impairment of energy metabolism is the probable cause for lowered NAA concentrations in sclerotic hippocampi of MTLE patients.

  17. Depression-like behavior in rat: Involvement of galanin receptor subtype 1 in the ventral periaqueductal gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Li, Hui; Barde, Swapnali; Zhang, Ming-Dong; Sun, Jing; Wang, Tong; Zhang, Pan; Luo, Hanjiang; Wang, Yongjun; Yang, Yutao; Wang, Chuanyue; Svenningsson, Per; Theodorsson, Elvar; Hökfelt, Tomas G M; Xu, Zhi-Qing David

    2016-08-09

    The neuropeptide galanin coexists in rat brain with serotonin in the dorsal raphe nucleus and with noradrenaline in the locus coeruleus (LC), and it has been suggested to be involved in depression. We studied rats exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS), a rodent model of depression. As expected, these rats showed several endophenotypes relevant to depression-like behavior compared with controls. All these endophenotypes were normalized after administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The transcripts for galanin and two of its receptors, galanin receptor 1 (GALR1) and GALR2, were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR using laser capture microdissection in the following brain regions: the hippocampal formation, LC, and ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG). Only Galr1 mRNA levels were significantly increased, and only in the latter region. After knocking down Galr1 in the vPAG with an siRNA technique, all parameters of the depressive behavioral phenotype were similar to controls. Thus, the depression-like behavior in rats exposed to CMS is likely related to an elevated expression of Galr1 in the vPAG, suggesting that a GALR1 antagonist could have antidepressant effects.

  18. Posterolateral approach for spinal intradural meningioma with ventral attachment

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    Toshihiro Takami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal meningioma with ventral attachment is a challenging pathology. Several technical modifications have been proposed to secure safe and precise resection of these tumors. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study focused on the precise and safe surgery of spinal meningiomas with strictly ventral attachment of cervical or thoracic spine. The surgical technique included a lateral oblique position for the patient, laminectomy with unilateral medial facetectomy on the tumor side, and spinal cord rotation with the dentate ligament. The neurological status of patients was assessed using the modified McCormick functional schema (mMFS and sensory pain scale (SPS before and at least 3 months after surgery. Patients were followed-up for a mean of 23.7 months. Tumor removal was graded using the Simpson grade for removal of meningiomas, and the extent of excision was confirmed using early postoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Simpson grade 1 or 2 resections were achieved in all cases. No major surgery-related complications were encountered, postoperatively. The mean mMFS score before surgery was 3.1, improving significantly to 1.7 after surgery (P < 0.05. The mean SPS score before surgery was 2.4, improving significantly to 1.6 after surgery (P < 0.05. Conclusions: This surgical technique offers a posterolateral surgical corridor to the ventral canal of both cervical and thoracic spine. The present preliminary analysis suggests that functional outcomes were satisfactory with minimal surgery-related complications, although considerable surgical experience is needed to achieve a high level of surgical confidence.

  19. Two-criteria optimisation problem for ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Czesław; Lubowiecka, Izabela; Szepietowska, Katarzyna; Tomaszewska, Agnieszka

    2017-05-01

    Two-criteria optimisation problem related to laparoscopic ventral hernia repair is formulated in this paper. An optimal implant from a given set and its orientation is sought. The implant is subjected to kinematic extortions due to a patient's body movement and intra-abdominal pressure. The first criterion of the optimisation problem deals with the reaction force in the implant fastener, while the deflection of the implant constitutes the second criterion. A two-stage optimization procedure is proposed and the optimal solution is determined with the aid of minimization of an additional objective function. Numerical examples for typical locations of hernia are provided.

  20. [Alloplastics of median ventral hernias with polypropylene gauze].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkova, T A

    2008-01-01

    The article summarizes an experience with 83 alloplastics with polypropylene gauze performed in 75 patients with median ventral hernias. An original method is described of confrontation and retention of the rectal abdominal muscles in the middle position with the help of prosthesis. The proposed method of operation improves its results: postoperative complications developed two times rarer, less amount of the implanted synthetic material used, the patients were at the hospital for a shorter time. In these patients there were no recurrent hernias and diastasis recti abdominis.

  1. Fatal attraction: ventral striatum predicts costly choice errors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumbley, J R; Tobler, P N; Fehr, E

    2014-04-01

    Animals approach rewards and cues associated with reward, even when this behavior is irrelevant or detrimental to the attainment of these rewards. Motivated by these findings we study the biology of financially-costly approach behavior in humans. Our subjects passively learned to predict the occurrence of erotic rewards. We show that neuronal responses in ventral striatum during this Pavlovian learning task stably predict an individual's general tendency towards financially-costly approach behavior in an active choice task several months later. Our data suggest that approach behavior may prevent some individuals from acting in their own interests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hippocampal sclerosis affects fMR-adaptation of lyrics and melodies in songs

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    Irene eAlonso

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Songs constitute a natural combination of lyrics and melodies, but it is unclear whether and how these two song components are integrated during the emergence of a memory trace. Network theories of memory suggest a prominent role of the hippocampus, together with unimodal sensory areas, in the build-up of conjunctive representations. The present study tested the modulatory influence of the hippocampus on neural adaptation to songs in lateral temporal areas. Patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis and healthy matched controls were presented with blocks of short songs in which lyrics and/or melodies were varied or repeated in a crossed factorial design. Neural adaptation effects were taken as correlates of incidental emergent memory traces. We hypothesized that hippocampal lesions, particularly in the left hemisphere, would weaken adaptation effects, especially the integration of lyrics and melodies. Results revealed that lateral temporal lobe regions showed weaker adaptation to repeated lyrics as well as a reduced interaction of the adaptation effects for lyrics and melodies in patients with left hippocampal sclerosis. This suggests a deficient build-up of a sensory memory trace for lyrics and a reduced integration of lyrics with melodies, compared to healthy controls. Patients with right hippocampal sclerosis showed a similar profile of results although the effects did not reach significance in this population. We highlight the finding that the integrated representation of lyrics and melodies typically shown in healthy participants is likely tied to the integrity of the left medial temporal lobe. This novel finding provides the first neuroimaging evidence for the role of the hippocampus during repetitive exposure to lyrics and melodies and their integration into a song.

  3. Aphasia severity in chronic stroke patients: a combined disconnection in the dorsal and ventral language pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Charlotte; Vargas, Patricia; Valabregue, Romain; Arbizu, Céline; Henry-Amar, François; Leger, Anne; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Samson, Yves

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of lesion size and location in poststroke aphasia is debated, especially the extent to which aphasia severity is affected by damage to specific white matter areas. To identify specific white matter areas critical for poststroke aphasia global severity and to determine whether injury to these areas had more impact on aphasia severity than the infarct volume. Twenty-three chronic poststroke aphasic patients were assessed with the Aphasia Rapid Test (ART) and the Boston Diagnosis Aphasia Examination (BDAE) global severity scales and underwent diffusion tensor and structural imaging. Voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging regression analysis was used to determine in which areas fractional anisotropy (FA) abnormalities were correlated with ART and BDAE severity scales. The relationships between aphasia severity, FA values, and infarct volumes were investigated using global and partial correlations. We found a critical area associated with aphasia severity overlapping with the arcuate and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi, resulting in a combined disconnection of the dorsal and ventral pathways. ART scores were inversely correlated with FA values in this region, with greater severity present with lower FA values (correlation coefficient = -0.833, P aphasia severity disappeared when damage to this critical white matter area was taken into account (P = .38). The assessment of the integrity of this region may potentially have a clinical impact in neurorehabilitation and acute decision making. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. APOE-Sensitive Cholinergic Sprouting Compensates for Hippocampal Dysfunctions Due to Reduced Entorhinal Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Jean-Bastien; Héraud, Céline; Cosquer, Brigitte; Herbeaux, Karine; Aubert, Julien; Sartori, Maxime; Goutagny, Romain; Mathis, Chantal

    2016-10-05

    Brain mechanisms compensating for cerebral lesions may mitigate the progression of chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which often precedes AD, is characterized by neuronal loss in the entorhinal cortex (EC). This loss leads to a hippocampal disconnection syndrome that drives clinical progression. The concomitant sprouting of cholinergic terminals in the hippocampus has been proposed to compensate for reduced EC glutamatergic input. However, in absence of direct experimental evidence, the compensatory nature of the cholinergic sprouting and its putative mechanisms remain elusive. Transgenic mice expressing the human APOE4 allele, the main genetic risk factor for sporadic MCI/AD, display impaired cholinergic sprouting after EC lesion. Using these mice as a tool to manipulate cholinergic sprouting in a disease-relevant way, we showed that this sprouting was necessary and sufficient for the acute compensation of EC lesion-induced spatial memory deficit before a slower glutamatergic reinnervation took place. We also found that partial EC lesion generates abnormal hyperactivity in EC/dentate networks. Dentate hyperactivity was abolished by optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic fibers. Therefore, control of dentate hyperactivity by cholinergic sprouting may be involved in functional compensation after entorhinal lesion. Our results also suggest that dentate hyperactivity in MCI patients may be directly related to EC neuronal loss. Impaired sprouting during the MCI stage may contribute to the faster cognitive decline reported in APOE4 carriers. Beyond the amyloid contribution, the potential role of both cholinergic sprouting and dentate hyperactivity in AD symptomatogenesis should be considered in designing new therapeutic approaches. Currently, curative treatment trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have failed. The endogenous ability of the brain to cope with neuronal loss probably represents one of the

  5. Investigating the Interactive Effects of Sex Steroid Hormones and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor during Adolescence on Hippocampal NMDA Receptor Expression

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    Cushla R. McCarthny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex steroid hormones have neuroprotective properties which may be mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. This study sought to determine the interactive effects of preadolescent hormone manipulation and BDNF heterozygosity (+/− on hippocampal NMDA-R expression. Wild-type and BDNF+/− mice were gonadectomised, and females received either 17β-estradiol or progesterone treatment, while males received either testosterone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT treatment. Dorsal (DHP and ventral hippocampus (VHP were dissected, and protein expression of GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B, and PSD-95 was assessed by Western blot analysis. Significant genotype × OVX interactions were found for GluN1 and GluN2 expression within the DHP of female mice, suggesting modulation of select NMDA-R levels by female sex hormones is mediated by BDNF. Furthermore, within the DHP BDNF+/− mice show a hypersensitive response to hormone treatment on GluN2 expression which may result from upstream alterations in TrkB phosphorylation. In contrast to the DHP, the VHP showed no effects of hormone manipulation but significant effects of genotype on NMDA-R expression. Castration had no effect on NMDA-R expression; however, androgen treatment had selective effects on GluN2B. These data show case distinct, interactive roles for sex steroid hormones and BDNF in the regulation of NMDA-R expression that are dependent on dorsal versus ventral hippocampal region.

  6. Evaluation of composite mesh for ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Jim F; Agee, Neal; Nguyen, Phuong H; Heath, Jessica J; Lau, Kwan N; McKillop, Iain H; Sindram, David; Martinie, John B; Iannitti, David A

    2011-01-01

    Composite mesh prostheses incorporate the properties of multiple materials for ventral hernia repair. This study evaluated a polypropylene/ePTFE composite mesh with a novel internal polydioxanone (PDO) absorbable ring. Composite mesh was placed intraperitoneally in 16 pigs through an open laparotomy and explanted at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Intraabdominal adhesions were measured laparoscopically. Host tissue in-growth was assessed histologically and tensiometrically. Degradation of the internal PDO ring component was also measured tensiometrically. Appropriate statistical tests were used, and P ≤.05 indicated significance. No adhesions were formed in 50% of the grafts explanted at 8 weeks and 25% of grafts explanted at 12 weeks. There were significantly more vascular structures at 8 weeks, 73.5 ± 28, compared with 2 weeks, 6.75 ± 2 (P ≤.01). The T-peel force at the mesh-host tissue interface was not significantly different among time points. The absorbable PDO ring underwent complete degradation by 12 weeks. This composite mesh was associated with minimal intraabdominal adhesions, progressive in-growth of host tissues, and complete degradation of a novel internal PDO ring that aided mesh positioning. This composite hernia mesh showed a favorable performance in a porcine model of open ventral hernia repair.

  7. Specificity of intraabdominal endoprosthesis of umbilical and postoperative ventral hernias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriev S.G.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The research work objective was to examine the results of intraperitoneal plastics in the hernias of anterior abdominal wall. The experience of treatment of 89 patients with uncomplicated umbilical and postoperative ventral hernias was analized. The surgical treatment included an open intraperitoneal prosthetic hernioplasty. The hernial sac was not removed during the operation. The original techniques of treatment of hernia sac were used. Anatomical and morphological features in the structure of middle ventral hernias and their pathophysiological assessment were revealed. Practical recommendations for technology of intraperitoneal prosthesis were given. The early postoperative complications occurred: seroma (n=2, the outflow of serous fluid drainage for 5 days (n=1, infiltration of the umbilical area (n=3, suppuration of wounds (n=1. Vacuum drainage was performed in 24 patients after removal of large hernial defects. During the period from 6 months to 4 years recurrences were not revealed. The intraperitoneal surgery using a complex of musculo-aponeurotic tissues provided hernial implant fixation. Operation without the removal of the hernial sac reduced the trauma intervention. Method of suturing the surgical wound reduced the time of drainage and reduced the number of wound complications

  8. Uterine vascular lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management.

  9. Effective Connectivity between Ventral Occipito-Temporal and Ventral Inferior Frontal Cortex during Lexico-Semantic Processing. A Dynamic Causal Modeling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that dorsal and ventral pathways support distinct aspects of language processing. Yet, the full extent of their involvement and their inter-regional connectivity in visual word recognition is still unknown. Studies suggest that they might reflect the dual-route model of reading, with the dorsal pathway more involved in grapho-phonological conversion during phonological tasks, and the ventral pathway performing lexico-semantic access during semantic tasks. Furthermore, this subdivision is also suggested at the level of the inferior frontal cortex, involving ventral and dorsal parts for lexico-semantic and phonological processing, respectively. In the present study, we assessed inter-regional brain connectivity and task-induced modulations of brain activity during a phoneme detection and semantic categorization tasks, using fMRI in healthy subject. We used a dynamic causal modeling approach to assess inter-regional connectivity and task demand modulation within the dorsal and ventral pathways, including the following network components: the ventral occipito-temporal cortex (vOTC; dorsal and ventral, the superior temporal gyrus (STG; dorsal, the dorsal inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG; dorsal, and the ventral IFG (vIFG; ventral. We report three distinct inter-regional interactions supporting orthographic information transfer from vOTC to other language regions (vOTC -> STG, vOTC -> vIFG and vOTC -> dIFG regardless of task demands. Moreover, we found that (a during semantic processing (direct ventral pathway the vOTC -> vIFG connection strength specifically increased and (b a lack of modulation of the vOTC -> dIFG connection strength by the task that could suggest a more general involvement of the dorsal pathway during visual word recognition. Results are discussed in terms of anatomo-functional connectivity of visual word recognition network.

  10. Dissociable roles for hippocampal and amygdalar volume in human fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Pohlack, Sebastian T; Flor, Herta; Nees, Frauke

    2015-09-01

    Fear conditioning is a basic learning process which involves the association of a formerly neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) with a biologically relevant aversive unconditioned stimulus (US). Previous studies conducted in brain-lesioned patients have shown that while the acquisition of autonomic fear responses requires an intact amygdala, a spared hippocampus is necessary for the development of the CS-US contingency awareness. Although these data have been supported by studies using functional neuroimaging techniques in healthy people, attempts to extend these findings to the morphological aspects of amygdala and hippocampus are missing. Here we tested the hypothesis that amygdalar and hippocampal volumes play dissociable roles in determining autonomic responses and contingency awareness during fear conditioning. Fifty-two healthy individuals (mean age 21.83) underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. We used a differential delay fear conditioning paradigm while assessing skin conductance responses (SCRs), subjective ratings of CS-US contingency, as well as emotional valence and perceived arousal. Left amygdalar volume significantly predicted the magnitude of differential SCRs during fear acquisition, but had no impact on contingency learning. Conversely, bilateral hippocampal volumes were significantly related to contingency ratings, but not to SCRs. Moreover, left amygdalar volume predicted SCRs to the reinforced CS alone, but not those elicited by the US. Our findings bridge the gap between previous lesion and functional imaging studies, by showing that amygdalar and hippocampal volumes differentially modulate the acquisition of conditioned fear. Further, our results reveal that the morphology of these limbic structures moderate learning and memory already in healthy persons.

  11. Early detection of Alzheimer's disease using MRI hippocampal texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Igel, Christian; Hansen, Naja Liv

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with reduction in hippocampal volume in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, it is unknown whether hippocampal texture changes in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that does not have a change in hippocam......Cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with reduction in hippocampal volume in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, it is unknown whether hippocampal texture changes in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that does not have a change...... in hippocampal volume. We tested the hypothesis that hippocampal texture has association to early cognitive loss beyond that of volumetric changes. The texture marker was trained and evaluated using T1-weighted MRI scans from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database, and subsequently...

  12. Hippocampal sclerosis and chronic epilepsy following posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapina, Viktoria; Vargas, Maria-Isabel; Wohlrab, Gabriele; Vulliemoz, Serge; Fluss, Joel; Seeck, Margitta

    2013-12-01

    Chronic epilepsy has rarely been reported after posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and the association with hippocampal sclerosis has been suggested only once before. We report the case of a girl admitted at the age of 8 years with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. On the second day of admission, she presented with focal complex seizures and cerebral MRI showed posterior encephalopathy and no hippocampal sclerosis. MRI after one month confirmed the diagnosis of PRES. The seizures recurred and the girl developed pharmacoresistant epilepsy and was admitted to our hospital for further investigation. Cerebral MRI three years after the diagnosis of PRES showed hippocampal sclerosis which was not present on the initial MRI. We conclude that there is a triggering role of PRES in the development of hippocampal sclerosis. Hippocampal sclerosis may have resulted from seizure-associated damage, alternatively, hypertensive encephalopathy may have led to hippocampal damage via a vascular mechanism.

  13. Prediction of dementia by hippocampal shape analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achterberg, Hakim C.; van der Lijn, Fedde; den Heijer, Tom

    2010-01-01

    and, if necessary, manually corrected by a trained observer. From this data a statistical model of hippocampal shape was constructed, using an entropy-based particle system. This shape model provided the input for a Support Vector Machine classifier to predict dementia. Cross validation experiments......This work investigates the possibility of predicting future onset of dementia in subjects who are cognitively normal, using hippocampal shape and volume information extracted from MRI scans. A group of 47 subjects who were non-demented normal at the time of the MRI acquisition, but were diagnosed...... showed that shape information can predict future onset of dementia in this dataset with an accuracy of 70%. By incorporating both shape and volume information into the classifier, the accuracy increased to 74%....

  14. Inhibition shapes the organization of hippocampal representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Sam

    2017-09-16

    Hippocampal neurons become tuned to stimuli that predict behaviorally salient outcomes. This plasticity suggests that memory formation depends upon shifts in how different anatomical inputs can drive hippocampal activity. Here, I present evidence that inhibitory neurons can provide such a mechanism for learning-related changes in the tuning of pyramidal cells. Inhibitory currents arriving on the dendrites of pyramidal cells determine whether an excitatory input can drive action potential output. Specificity and plasticity of this dendritic modulation allows for precise, modifiable changes in how afferent inputs are integrated, a process that defines a neuron's receptive field. In addition, feedback inhibition plays a fundamental role in biasing which excitatory neurons may be co-active. By defining the rules of synchrony and the rules of input integration, interneurons likely play an important role in the organization of memory representation within the hippocampus. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Depressive Disorders, and Antidepressant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Paizanis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence that neural stem cells reside in the adult central nervous system where neurogenesis occurs throughout lifespan. Neurogenesis concerns mainly two areas in the brain: the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus and the subventricular zone, where it is controlled by several trophic factors and neuroactive molecules. Neurogenesis is involved in processes such as learning and memory and accumulating evidence implicates hippocampal neurogenesis in the physiopathology of depression. We herein review experimental and clinical data demonstrating that stress and antidepressant treatments affect neurogenesis in opposite direction in rodents. In particular, the stimulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by all types of antidepressant drugs supports the view that neuroplastic phenomena are involved in the physiopathology of depression and underlie—at least partly—antidepressant therapy.

  16. A Compressed Sensing Perspective of Hippocampal Function

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    Panagiotis ePetrantonakis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampus is one of the most important information processing units in the brain. Input from the cortex passes through convergent axon pathways to the downstream hippocampal subregions and, after being appropriately processed, is fanned out back to the cortex. Here, we review evidence of the hypothesis that information flow and processing in the hippocampus complies with the principles of Compressed Sensing (CS. The CS theory comprises a mathematical framework that describes how and under which conditions, restricted sampling of information (data set can lead to condensed, yet concise, forms of the initial, subsampled information entity (i.e. of the original data set. In this work, hippocampus related regions and their respective circuitry are presented as a CS-based system whose different components collaborate to realize efficient memory encoding and decoding processes. This proposition introduces a unifying mathematical framework for hippocampal function and opens new avenues for exploring coding and decoding strategies in the brain.

  17. Impairment on a self-ordered working memory task in patients with early-acquired hippocampal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Sharon; Cooper, Janine M; Gadian, David G; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2016-08-01

    One of the features of both adult-onset and developmental forms of amnesia resulting from bilateral medial temporal lobe damage, or even from relatively selective damage to the hippocampus, is the sparing of working memory. Recently, however, a number of studies have reported deficits on working memory tasks in patients with damage to the hippocampus and in macaque monkeys with neonatal hippocampal lesions. These studies suggest that successful performance on working memory tasks with high memory load require the contribution of the hippocampus. Here we compared performance on a working memory task (the Self-ordered Pointing Task), between patients with early onset hippocampal damage and a group of healthy controls. Consistent with the findings in the monkeys with neonatal lesions, we found that the patients were impaired on the task, but only on blocks of trials with intermediate memory load. Importantly, only intermediate to high memory load blocks yielded significant correlations between task performance and hippocampal volume. Additionally, we found no evidence of proactive interference in either group, and no evidence of an effect of time since injury on performance. We discuss the role of the hippocampus and its interactions with the prefrontal cortex in serving working memory. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Impairment on a self-ordered working memory task in patients with early-acquired hippocampal atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Geva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the features of both adult-onset and developmental forms of amnesia resulting from bilateral medial temporal lobe damage, or even from relatively selective damage to the hippocampus, is the sparing of working memory. Recently, however, a number of studies have reported deficits on working memory tasks in patients with damage to the hippocampus and in macaque monkeys with neonatal hippocampal lesions. These studies suggest that successful performance on working memory tasks with high memory load require the contribution of the hippocampus. Here we compared performance on a working memory task (the Self-ordered Pointing Task, between patients with early onset hippocampal damage and a group of healthy controls. Consistent with the findings in the monkeys with neonatal lesions, we found that the patients were impaired on the task, but only on blocks of trials with intermediate memory load. Importantly, only intermediate to high memory load blocks yielded significant correlations between task performance and hippocampal volume. Additionally, we found no evidence of proactive interference in either group, and no evidence of an effect of time since injury on performance. We discuss the role of the hippocampus and its interactions with the prefrontal cortex in serving working memory.

  19. Long-term effects of peripubertal binge EtOH exposure on hippocampal microRNA expression in the rat.

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    Sarah A Prins

    Full Text Available Adolescent binge alcohol abuse induces long-term changes in gene expression, which impacts the physiological stress response and memory formation, two functions mediated in part by the ventral (VH and dorsal (DH hippocampus. microRNAs (miRs are small RNAs that play an important role in gene regulation and are potential mediators of long-term changes in gene expression. Two genes important for regulating hippocampal functions include brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and sirtuin-1 (SIRT1, which we identified as putative gene targets of miR-10a-5p, miR-26a, miR-103, miR-495. The purpose of this study was to quantify miR-10a-5p, miR-26a, miR-103, miR-495 expression levels in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus of male Wistar rats during normal pubertal development and then assess the effects of repeated binge-EtOH exposure. In addition, we measured the effects of binge EtOH-exposure on hippocampal Drosha and Dicer mRNA levels, as well as the putative miR target genes, BDNF and SIRT1. Overall, mid/peri-pubertal binge EtOH exposure altered the normal expression patterns of all miRs tested in an age- and brain region-dependent manner and this effect persisted for up to 30 days post-EtOH exposure. Moreover, our data revealed that mid/peri-pubertal binge EtOH exposure significantly affected miR biosynthetic processing enzymes, Drosha and Dicer. Finally, EtOH-induced significant changes in the expression of a subset of miRs, which correlated with changes in the expression of their predicted target genes. Taken together, these data demonstrate that EtOH exposure during pubertal development has long-term effects on miRNA expression in the rat hippocampus.

  20. Active sulforhodamine 101 uptake into hippocampal astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schnell

    Full Text Available Sulforhodamine 101 (SR101 is widely used as a marker of astrocytes. In this study we investigated labeling of astrocytes by SR101 in acute slices from the ventrolateral medulla and the hippocampus of transgenic mice expressing EGFP under the control of the astrocyte-specific human GFAP promoter. While SR101 efficiently and specifically labeled EGFP-expressing astrocytes in hippocampus, we found that the same staining procedure failed to label astrocytes efficiently in the ventrolateral medulla. Although carbenoxolone is able to decrease the SR101-labeling of astrocytes in the hippocampus, it is unlikely that SR101 is taken up via gap-junction hemichannels because mefloquine, a blocker for pannexin and connexin hemichannels, was unable to prevent SR101-labeling of hippocampal astrocytes. However, SR101-labeling of the hippocampal astrocytes was significantly reduced by substrates of organic anion transport polypeptides, including estron-3-sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, suggesting that SR101 is actively transported into hippocampal astrocytes.

  1. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebara, Elias; Udry, Florian; Sultan, Sébastien; Toni, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Sirt6 alters adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan Okun

    Full Text Available Sirtuins are pleiotropic NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases involved in metabolism, DNA damage repair, inflammation and stress resistance. SIRT6, a member of the sirtuin family, regulates the process of normal aging and increases the lifespan of male mice over-expressing Sirt6 by 15%. Neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons within the hippocampus of adult mammals, involves several complex stages including stem cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and network integration. During aging, the number of newly generated neurons continuously declines, and this is correlated with a decline in neuronal plasticity and cognitive behavior. In this study we investigated the involvement of SIRT6 in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Mice over-expressing Sirt6 exhibit increased numbers of young neurons and decreased numbers of mature neurons, without affecting glial differentiation. This implies of an involvement of SIRT6 in neuronal differentiation and maturation within the hippocampus. This work adds to the expanding body of knowledge on the regulatory mechanisms underlying adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and describes novel roles for SIRT6 as a regulator of cell fate during adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  3. Tuberous sclerosis complex coexistent with hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Min; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    Tuberous sclerosis and hippocampal sclerosis are both well-defined entities associated with medically intractable epilepsy. To our knowledge, there has been only one prior case of these two pathologies being co-existent. We report a 7-month-old boy who presented with intractable seizures at 2 months of age. MRI studies showed diffuse volume loss in the brain with bilateral, multiple cortical tubers and subcortical migration abnormalities. Subependymal nodules were noted without subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. Genetic testing revealed TSC2 and PRD gene deletions. Histopathology of the hippocampus showed CA1 sclerosis marked by loss of neurons in the CA1 region. Sections from the temporal, parietal and occipital lobes showed multiple cortical tubers characterized by cortical architectural disorganization, gliosis, calcifications and increased number of large balloon cells. Focal white matter balloon cells and spongiform changes were also present. The patient underwent resection of the right fronto-parietal lobe and a subsequent resection of the right temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. The patient is free of seizures on anti-epileptic medication 69 months after surgery. Although hippocampal sclerosis is well documented to be associated with coexistent focal cortical dysplasia, the specific co-existence of cortical tubers and hippocampal sclerosis appears to be rare. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantifying the Behavioural Relevance of Hippocampal Neurogenesis: e113855

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanley E Lazic; Johannes Fuss; Peter Gass

    2014-01-01

    .... A systematic review of the literature was conducted and the data reanalysed using causal mediation analysis, which can estimate the behavioural contribution of new hippocampal neurons separately...

  5. Single centre observational study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Proceed™ Ventral Patch to repair small ventral hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontinck, J; Kyle-Leinhase, I; Pletinckx, P; Vergucht, V; Beckers, R; Muysoms, F

    2014-10-01

    There is evidence that mesh repair for primary umbilical hernias results in less recurrences and similar wound complication rates compared to tissue repair. In recent years, several mesh devices for the repair of small ventral hernias have been developed, but some reports have been published on serious complications and adverse effects encountered with those mesh devices. The Proceed™ Ventral Patch (PVP™) is a partially absorbable lightweight polypropylene mesh. We introduced PVP™ in our department in April 2009 and collected patient data and outcome in an observational study of 101 consecutive patients until December 2011 (Clinical.Trials.gov: NCT01307696). In addition to the routine control 3 weeks postoperative, prospective follow-up included a questionnaire, clinical investigation and ultrasound after 12 months. The study included 91 primary (76 umbilical/15 epigastric) and 10 incisional ventral hernias (including 6 trocar hernias). In all patients a PVP™ with a diameter of 6.4 cm was used. Wound problems were the most frequent complication (n = 18). Follow-up of at least 12 months was achieved in 98 patients (97 %) and the mean follow-up time was 15.9 months. Follow-up by clinical examination diagnosed a recurrence in 11/92 patients (12.0 %). Only four patients were aware of their recurrent hernia, the seven others reported no problems in the questionnaire. The additional ultrasound performed did not reveal recurrences that were not already diagnosed by clinical examination. In five patients a reoperation for repair of the recurrence was performed (reoperation rate 5/98 = 5.1 %). Hernia defect size (p = 0.032) and type of hernia (p = 0.029) were found to be a significant risk factors for development of a recurrent hernia (Fisher's exact test). Hernia size was a significant risk factor both in a univariate (p = 0.005) and in a multivariate Cox model (p = 0.017). Incisional hernia was of borderline significance in a univariate (p

  6. Ventral free oral mucous membrane graft for bulbar urethral stricture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M E; Rahman, M A; Islam, M F; Siddique, F H; Uddin, M M; Khondoker, M I; Kaiser, I; Siddiqui, O; Karim, M M; Saha, P; Salam, M A

    2012-10-01

    The use of oral mucous membrane graft onlay urethroplasty represents the most widespread method of bulbar urethral stricture repair. We investigated the short term result of oral mucous membrane graft placed on the ventral surface for management of bulbar urethral stricture. Patients with Bulbar urethral stricture of any length, infection free urinary tract and informed consent for oral mucosa harvesting and urethroplasty were selected for study. We enrolled 108 cases of bulbar urethral stricture patients from January 2004 to July 2009. The mean ± SD preoperative maximum flow rate of 5.2 ± 2.6 ml/sec and mean ± SD PVR 87 ± 58.3 ml were treated by substitution urethroplasty with oral mucous membrane by a single surgical team in a private hospital. Causes of stricture were trauma 26(24.1%), infection 58(53.7%), catheter induced 8(7.4%), post TURP 11(10.2%) and unknown 5(4.6%). Oral mucous membrane was harvested from the cheek or from the inner side of lower lip. Defect of the urethra displayed by longitudinal ventral urethrotomy and the graft was sutured over the edges of the incised urethral mucosa over a 14 Fr latex Foley's catheter. Spongiosum tissue was closed over the graft. Pericatheter urethrogram was performed in all cases to check for the anastomotic leakage and the Catheter was removed after 2 weeks of the procedure. After removal of catheter uroflowmetry & ultrasound scan of bladder were performed to estimate the maximum flow rate and post voidal residue. The patient was followed-up every 3 months with uroflowmetry & ultrasonography. The median (range) age of the patients was 32(21-72) years. Mean follow up period was 36 months (range 12-54). Mean ± SD stricture length was 3.7 ± 2.6 cm. The overall success rate was 91.7%. Mean ± SD flow rate was 23 ± 4.2 ml/sec, mean ± SD post void residue was 25 ± 15.5 ml and patient quality of life (QOL) was excellent in almost all patients. Overall complications were seen in 9(8.3%) cases. Of which

  7. Distinct effects of chronic dopaminergic stimulation on hippocampal neurogenesis and striatal doublecortin expression in adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachele eSalvi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While adult neurogenesis is considered to be restricted to the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG and the subventricular zone (SVZ, recent studies in humans and rodents provide evidence for newly generated neurons in regions generally considered as non-neurogenic, e.g. the striatum. Stimulating dopaminergic neurotransmission has the potential to enhance adult neurogenesis in the SVZ and the DG most likely via D2/D3 dopamine (DA receptors. Here, we investigated the effect of two distinct preferential D2/D3 DA agonists, Pramipexole (PPX and Ropinirole (ROP, on adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and striatum of adult naïve mice. To determine newly generated cells in the DG incorporating 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU a proliferation paradigm was performed in which two BrdU injections (100 mg/kg were applied intraperitoneally within 12 hours after a 14-day-DA agonist treatment. Interestingly, PPX, but not ROP significantly enhanced the proliferation in the DG by 42% compared to phosphate buffered saline (PBS-injected control mice. To analyze the proportion of newly generated cells differentiating into mature neurons, we quantified cells co-expressing BrdU and NeuN 32 days after the last of five BrdU injections (50 mg/kg applied at the beginning of 14-day DA agonist or PBS administration. Again, PPX only enhanced neurogenesis in the DG significantly compared to ROP- and PBS-injected mice. Moreover, we explored the pro-neurogenic effect of both DA agonists in the striatum by quantifying neuroblasts expressing doublecortin (DCX in the entire striatum, as well as in the dorsal and ventral sub-regions separately. We observed a significantly higher number of DCX+ neuroblasts in the dorsal compared to the ventral sub-region of the striatum in PPX-injected mice. These results suggest that the stimulation of hippocampal and dorsal striatal neurogenesis may be up-regulated by PPX. The increased generation of neural cells, both in constitutively active and

  8. Regional Hippocampal Atrophy and Higher Levels of Plasma Amyloid-Beta Are Associated With Subjective Memory Complaints in Nondemented Elderly Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantero, Jose L; Iglesias, Juan E.; Van Leemput, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests a link between the presence of subjective memory complaints (SMC) and lower volume of the hippocampus, one of the first regions to show neuropathological lesions in Alzheimer's disease. However, it remains unknown whether this pattern of hippocampal atrophy is region......Background: Evidence suggests a link between the presence of subjective memory complaints (SMC) and lower volume of the hippocampus, one of the first regions to show neuropathological lesions in Alzheimer's disease. However, it remains unknown whether this pattern of hippocampal atrophy...... volume differences in hippocampal subregions were further correlated with plasma Aβ levels and with objective memory performance. Results: Individuals with SMC exhibited significantly higher Aβ1-42 concentrations and lower volumes of CA1, CA4, dentate gyrus, and molecular layer compared with SMC......(-) participants. Regression analyses further showed significant associations between lower volume of the dentate gyrus and both poorer memory performance and higher plasma Aβ1-42 levels in SMC(+) participants. Conclusions: The presence of SMC, lower volumes of specific hippocampal regions, and higher plasma Aβ1...

  9. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    Severe pain is usual after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR). Mesh fixation with titanium tacks may play a key role in the development of acute and chronic pain and alternative fixation methods should therefore be investigated. This PhD thesis was based on three studies and aimed too: 1......) assess the intensity and impact of postoperative pain by detailed patient-reported description of pain and convalescence after LVHR (Study I), 2) evaluate the feasibility of fibrin sealant (FS) for mesh fixation in an experimental pig model (Study II), and 3) investigate FS vs. tacks for mesh fixation...... at POD 14. In Study II - a randomised experimental study in pigs - nine pigs were operated laparoscopically with insertion of two different meshes fixed with either FS or tacks. All pigs were euthanized on POD 30. The primary outcome parameter was strength of ingrowth between the mesh and the anterior...

  10. Cognitive Neurostimulation: Learning to Volitionally Sustain Ventral Tegmental Area Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnes, Jeff J.; Dickerson, Kathryn C.; Chen, Nan-kuei; Adcock, R. Alison

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and mesolimbic networks is essential to motivation, performance, and learning. Humans routinely attempt to motivate themselves, with unclear efficacy or impact on VTA networks. Using fMRI, we found untrained participants’ motivational strategies failed to consistently activate VTA. After real-time VTA neurofeedback training, however, participants volitionally induced VTA activation without external aids, relative to baseline, Pre-Test, and control groups. VTA self-activation was accompanied by increased mesolimbic network connectivity. Among two comparison groups (no neurofeedback, false neurofeedback) and an alternate neurofeedback group (nucleus accumbens), none sustained activation in target regions of interest nor increased VTA functional connectivity. The results comprise two novel demonstrations: learning and generalization after VTA neurofeedback training and the ability to sustain VTA activation without external reward or reward cues. These findings suggest theoretical alignment of ideas about motivation and midbrain physiology and the potential for generalizable interventions to improve performance and learning. PMID:26948894

  11. Ventral striatal activity links adversity and reward processing in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki H. Kamkar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adversity impacts many aspects of psychological and physical development including reward-based learning and decision-making. Mechanisms relating adversity and reward processing in children, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that adversity is associated with potentiated learning from positive outcomes and impulsive decision-making, but unrelated to learning from negative outcomes. We then show via functional magnetic resonance imaging that the link between adversity and reward processing is partially mediated by differences in ventral striatal response to rewards. The findings suggest that early-life adversity is associated with alterations in the brain’s sensitivity to rewards accounting, in part, for the link between adversity and altered reward processing in children.

  12. Neurons controlling voluntary vocalization in the macaque ventral premotor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Coudé

    Full Text Available The voluntary control of phonation is a crucial achievement in the evolution of speech. In humans, ventral premotor cortex (PMv and Broca's area are known to be involved in voluntary phonation. In contrast, no neurophysiological data are available about the role of the oro-facial sector of nonhuman primates PMv in this function. In order to address this issue, we recorded PMv neurons from two monkeys trained to emit coo-calls. Results showed that a population of motor neurons specifically fire during vocalization. About two thirds of them discharged before sound onset, while the remaining were time-locked with it. The response of vocalization-selective neurons was present only during conditioned (voluntary but not spontaneous (emotional sound emission. These data suggest that the control of vocal production exerted by PMv neurons constitutes a newly emerging property in the monkey lineage, shedding light on the evolution of phonation-based communication from a nonhuman primate species.

  13. Functional specialization in dorsal and ventral premotor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Eiji; Tanji, Jun

    2004-01-01

    The premotor cortex (PM) in the bilateral lateral hemisphere of nonhuman primates and the human has been implicated in the sensorial guidance of movements. This is in contrast to more medial motor areas that are involved more in the temporal structuring of movements based on memorized information. The PM is further subdivided into dorsal (PMd) and ventral (PMv) parts. In this chapter, we describe our attempts to find differences in the use of these two areas in a nonhuman primate for programming future motor actions based on visual signals. We show that neurons in the PMv are involved primarily in receiving visuospatial signals and in specifying the spatial location of the target to be reached. In contrast, neurons in the PMd are involved more in integrating information about which arm to use and the target to be reached. Thus, PMd neurons are more implicated than those of the PMv in the preparation for a future motor action.

  14. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    , and general well-being were obtained from each patient. Follow-up was six months. Average pain from postoperative day (POD) 0-2 and POD 0-6 measured on a 0-100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) was 61 and 48, respectively. Pain scores reached preoperative values at POD 30. The incidence of severe chronic pain...... to group assignment. The primary outcome was average pain from POD 0-2 (VAS score). Secondary outcome parameters were fatigue, general well-being and time to resume normal daily activity. Follow-up was one month for all. Patients in the FS group reported significantly less pain at POD 0-2 (median VAS 38...... satisfaction. This issue must have first priority in future ventral hernia repair research. It is now documented, that the simple application of fibrin glue instead of titanium tacks for mesh fixation in LVHR of defects period of convalescence. Long...

  15. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    2011-01-01

    , and general well-being were obtained from each patient. Follow-up was six months. Average pain from postoperative day (POD) 0-2 and POD 0-6 measured on a 0-100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) was 61 and 48, respectively. Pain scores reached preoperative values at POD 30. The incidence of severe chronic pain...... to group assignment. The primary outcome was average pain from POD 0-2 (VAS score). Secondary outcome parameters were fatigue, general well-being and time to resume normal daily activity. Follow-up was one month for all. Patients in the FS group reported significantly less pain at POD 0-2 (median VAS 38...... satisfaction. This issue must have first priority in future ventral hernia repair research. It is now documented, that the simple application of fibrin glue instead of titanium tacks for mesh fixation in LVHR of defects period of convalescence. Long...

  16. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    Severe pain is usual after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR). Mesh fixation with titanium tacks may play a key role in the development of acute and chronic pain and alternative fixation methods should therefore be investigated. This PhD thesis was based on three studies and aimed too: 1...... histological parameters. In Study III - a randomised, controlled, double-blinded, multicenter trial - 40 patients with umbilical hernia defects between 1.5-5 cm, were randomly assigned to receive FS or titanium tacks for mesh fixation in LVHR. Patients, care givers and those assessing the outcomes were blinded...... difference was found in fatigue score between groups. No significant difference in hospital stay, hernia diameter, or morphine consumption in the post anesthesia care unit was found between groups. Patients in the FS group resumed normal daily activity at POD 7 (1-66) versus POD 18 (1-95) in the tack group...

  17. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    2011-01-01

    Severe pain is usual after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR). Mesh fixation with titanium tacks may play a key role in the development of acute and chronic pain and alternative fixation methods should therefore be investigated. This PhD thesis was based on three studies and aimed too: 1...... histological parameters. In Study III - a randomised, controlled, double-blinded, multicenter trial - 40 patients with umbilical hernia defects between 1.5-5 cm, were randomly assigned to receive FS or titanium tacks for mesh fixation in LVHR. Patients, care givers and those assessing the outcomes were blinded...... difference was found in fatigue score between groups. No significant difference in hospital stay, hernia diameter, or morphine consumption in the post anesthesia care unit was found between groups. Patients in the FS group resumed normal daily activity at POD 7 (1-66) versus POD 18 (1-95) in the tack group...

  18. Human ventromedial prefrontal lesions alter incentivisation by reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Sanjay G; Husain, Masud

    2016-03-01

    Although medial frontal brain regions are implicated in valuation of rewards, evidence from focal lesions to these areas is scant, with many conflicting results regarding motivation and affect, and no human studies specifically examining incentivisation by reward. Here, 19 patients with isolated, focal damage in ventral and medial prefrontal cortex were selected from a database of 453 individuals with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Using a speeded saccadic task based on the oculomotor capture paradigm, we manipulated the maximum reward available on each trial using an auditory incentive cue. Modulation of behaviour by motivation permitted quantification of reward sensitivity. At the group level, medial frontal damage was overall associated with significantly reduced effects of reward on invigorating saccadic velocity and autonomic (pupil) responses compared to age-matched, healthy controls. Crucially, however, some individuals instead showed abnormally strong incentivisation effects for vigour. Increased sensitivity to rewards within the lesion group correlated with damage in subgenual ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) areas, which have recently become the target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in depression. Lesion correlations with clinical apathy suggested that the apathy associated with prefrontal damage is in fact reduced by damage at those coordinates. Reduced reward sensitivity showed a trend to correlate with damage near nucleus accumbens. Lesions did not, on the other hand, influence reward sensitivity of cognitive control, as measured by distractibility. Thus, although medial frontal lesions may generally reduce reward sensitivity, damage to key subregions paradoxically protect from this effect. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Oral, intestinal, and skin bacteria in ventral hernia mesh implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd Langbach

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In ventral hernia surgery, mesh implants are used to reduce recurrence. Infection after mesh implantation can be a problem and rates around 6–10% have been reported. Bacterial colonization of mesh implants in patients without clinical signs of infection has not been thoroughly investigated. Molecular techniques have proven effective in demonstrating bacterial diversity in various environments and are able to identify bacteria on a gene-specific level. Objective: The purpose of this study was to detect bacterial biofilm in mesh implants, analyze its bacterial diversity, and look for possible resemblance with bacterial biofilm from the periodontal pocket. Methods: Thirty patients referred to our hospital for recurrence after former ventral hernia mesh repair, were examined for periodontitis in advance of new surgical hernia repair. Oral examination included periapical radiographs, periodontal probing, and subgingival plaque collection. A piece of mesh (1×1 cm from the abdominal wall was harvested during the new surgical hernia repair and analyzed for bacteria by PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. From patients with positive PCR mesh samples, subgingival plaque samples were analyzed with the same techniques. Results: A great variety of taxa were detected in 20 (66.7% mesh samples, including typical oral commensals and periodontopathogens, enterics, and skin bacteria. Mesh and periodontal bacteria were further analyzed for similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequences. In 17 sequences, the level of resemblance between mesh and subgingival bacterial colonization was 98–100% suggesting, but not proving, a transfer of oral bacteria to the mesh. Conclusion: The results show great bacterial diversity on mesh implants from the anterior abdominal wall including oral commensals and periodontopathogens. Mesh can be reached by bacteria in several ways including hematogenous spread from an oral site. However, other sites such as gut and skin may also

  20. The increased cost of ventral hernia recurrence: a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, D G; Parikh, N; Frelich, M J; Goldblatt, M I

    2016-12-01

    Over 300,000 ventral hernia repairs (VHRs) are performed each year in the US. We sought to assess the economic burden related to ventral hernia recurrences with a focused comparison of those with the initial open versus laparoscopic surgery. The Premier Alliance database from 2009 to 2014 was utilized to obtain patient demographics and comorbid indices, including the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Total hospital cost and resource expenses during index laparoscopic and open VHRs and subsequent recurrent repairs were also obtained. The sample was separated into laparoscopic and open repair groups from the initial operation. Adjusted and propensity score matched cost outcome data were then compared amongst groups. One thousand and seventy-seven patients were used for the analysis with a recurrence rate of 3.78 %. For the combined sample, costs were significantly higher during recurrent hernia repair hospitalization ($21,726 versus $19,484, p cost and department level costs were similar during the index and the recurrent visit. The costs and resource utilization did not go up due to recurrence, even though these patients had greater severity during the recurrent visit (CCI score 0.92 versus 1.06; p = 0.0092). Using a matched sample, the total hospital recurrence cost was higher for the initial open group compared to laparoscopic group ($14,520 versus $12,649; p = 0.0454). Based on our analysis, need for recurrent VHR adds substantially to total hospital costs and resource utilization. Following initial laparoscopic repair, however, the total cost of recurrent repair is not significantly increased, as it is following initial open repair. When comparing the initial laparoscopic repair versus open, the cost of recurrence was higher for the prior open repair group.

  1. Art for reward's sake: visual art recruits the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Simon; Hagtvedt, Henrik; Patrick, Vanessa M; Anderson, Amy; Stilla, Randall; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Hu, Xiaoping; Sato, João R; Reddy, Srinivas; Sathian, K

    2011-03-01

    A recent study showed that people evaluate products more positively when they are physically associated with art images than similar non-art images. Neuroimaging studies of visual art have investigated artistic style and esthetic preference but not brain responses attributable specifically to the artistic status of images. Here we tested the hypothesis that the artistic status of images engages reward circuitry, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during viewing of art and non-art images matched for content. Subjects made animacy judgments in response to each image. Relative to non-art images, art images activated, on both subject- and item-wise analyses, reward-related regions: the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and orbitofrontal cortex. Neither response times nor ratings of familiarity or esthetic preference for art images correlated significantly with activity that was selective for art images, suggesting that these variables were not responsible for the art-selective activations. Investigation of effective connectivity, using time-varying, wavelet-based, correlation-purged Granger causality analyses, further showed that the ventral striatum was driven by visual cortical regions when viewing art images but not non-art images, and was not driven by regions that correlated with esthetic preference for either art or non-art images. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis, leading us to propose that the appeal of visual art involves activation of reward circuitry based on artistic status alone and independently of its hedonic value. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Suture, synthetic, or biologic in contaminated ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondre, Ioana L; Holihan, Julie L; Askenasy, Erik P; Greenberg, Jacob A; Keith, Jerrod N; Martindale, Robert G; Roth, J Scott; Liang, Mike K

    2016-02-01

    Data are lacking to support the choice between suture, synthetic mesh, or biologic matrix in contaminated ventral hernia repair (VHR). We hypothesize that in contaminated VHR, suture repair is associated with the lowest rate of surgical site infection (SSI). A multicenter database of all open VHR performed at from 2010-2011 was reviewed. All patients with follow-up of 1 mo and longer were included. The primary outcome was SSI as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The secondary outcome was hernia recurrence (assessed clinically or radiographically). Multivariate analysis (stepwise regression for SSI and Cox proportional hazard model for recurrence) was performed. A total of 761 VHR were reviewed for a median (range) follow-up of 15 (1-50) mo: there were 291(38%) suture, 303 (40%) low-density and/or mid-density synthetic mesh, and 167(22%) biologic matrix repair. On univariate analysis, there were differences in the three groups including ethnicity, ASA, body mass index, institution, diabetes, primary versus incisional hernia, wound class, hernia size, prior VHR, fascial release, skin flaps, and acute repair. The unadjusted outcomes for SSI (15.1%; 17.8%; 21.0%; P = 0.280) and recurrence (17.8%; 13.5%; 21.5%; P = 0.074) were not statistically different between groups. On multivariate analysis, biologic matrix was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in both SSI and recurrences, whereas synthetic mesh associated with fewer recurrences compared to suture (hazard ratio = 0.60; P = 0.015) and nonsignificant increase in SSI. Interval estimates favored biologic matrix repair in contaminated VHR; however, these results were not statistically significant. In the absence of higher level evidence, surgeons should carefully balance risk, cost, and benefits in managing contaminated ventral hernia repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chewing Prevents Stress-Induced Hippocampal LTD Formation and Anxiety-Related Behaviors: A Possible Role of the Dopaminergic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumie Ono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of chewing on stress-induced long-term depression (LTD and anxiogenic behavior. Experiments were performed in adult male rats under three conditions: restraint stress condition, voluntary chewing condition during stress, and control condition without any treatments except handling. Chewing ameliorated LTD development in the hippocampal CA1 region. It also counteracted the stress-suppressed number of entries to the center region of the open field when they were tested immediately, 30 min, or 60 min after restraint. At the latter two poststress time periods, chewing during restraint significantly increased the number of times of open arm entries in the elevated plus maze, when compared with those without chewing. The in vivo microdialysis further revealed that extracellular dopamine concentration in the ventral hippocampus, which is involved in anxiety-related behavior, was significantly greater in chewing rats than in those without chewing from 30 to 105 min after stress exposure. Development of LTD and anxiolytic effects ameliorated by chewing were counteracted by administering the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390, which suggested that chewing may activate the dopaminergic system in the ventral hippocampus to suppress stress-induced anxiogenic behavior.

  4. The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+ alters hippocampal excitatory synaptic transmission by modulation of the GABAergic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YuYing eHuang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP induces Parkinson’s disease (PD-like symptoms following administration to mice, monkeys and humans. A common view is that MPTP is metabolized to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+ to induce its neurodegenerative effects on dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Moreover, the hippocampus contains dopaminergic fibers, which are projecting from the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and pars compacta and contain the whole machinery required for dopamine synthesis making them sensitive to MPTP and MPP+. Here we present data showing that acute bath-application of MPP+ elicited a dose-dependent facilitation followed by a depression of synaptic transmission of hippocampal Schaffer collaterals-CA1 synapses in mice. The effects of MPP+ were not mediated by D1/D5- and D2-like receptor activation. Inhibition of the dopamine transporters (DAT did not prevent but increased the depression of excitatory postsynaptic field potentials. In the search for a possible mechanism, we observed that MPP+ reduced the appearance of polyspikes in population spikes recorded in str. pyramidale and increased the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents. The acute effect of MPP+ on synaptic transmission was attenuated by co-application of a GABAA receptor antagonist. Taking these data together, we suggest that MPP+ affects hippocampal synaptic transmission by enhancing some aspects of

  5. Intraosseous osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, C.P.; Wenz, W.

    1981-10-01

    Any pathological damage occurring in a bone will produce either an osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesion which can be seen in the macroscopic specimen as well as in the roentgenogram. Various bone lesions may lead to local destructions of the bone. An osteoma or osteoplastic osteosarcoma produces an osteosclerotic lesion showing a dense mass in the roentgenogram; a chondroblastoma or an osteoclastoma, on the other hand, induces an osteolytic focal lesion. This paper presents examples of different osteolytic lesions of the humerus. An osteolytic lesion seen in the roentgenogram may be either produced by an underlying non-ossifying fibroma of the bone, by fibrous dysplasia, osteomyelitis or Ewing's sarcoma. Differential diagnostic considerations based on the radiological picture include eosinophilic bone granuloma, juvenile or aneurysmal bone cyst, multiple myeloma or bone metastases. Serious differential diagnostic problems may be involved in case of osteolytic lesions occurring in the humerus. Cases of this type involving complications have been reported and include the presence of an teleangiectatic osteosarcoma as well as that of a hemangiosarcoma of the bone.

  6. Prey selection of a captive Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus hammering Mussels Mytilus edulis from the ventral side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ens, Bruno J.; Alting, D

    1996-01-01

    We studied prey choice of a captive Oystercatcher:hat hammered Mussels from the ventral side. The results replicate previous findings that ventral hammerers select Mussels of intermediate size, select against thick-shelled Mussels, abandon an increasing proportion of Mussels with increasing size and

  7. The Role of the Ventral and Dorsal Pathways in Reading Chinese Characters and English Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yafeng; Yang, Yanhui; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Li; Peng, Danling

    2011-01-01

    Previous literature in alphabetic languages suggests that the occipital-temporal region (the ventral pathway) is specialized for automatic parallel word recognition, whereas the parietal region (the dorsal pathway) is specialized for serial letter-by-letter reading (and). However, few studies have directly examined the role of the ventral and…

  8. Functional Dissociations within the Ventral Object Processing Pathway: Cognitive Modules or a Hierarchical Continuum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Rosemary A.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Saksida, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the organization and function of the ventral object processing pathway. The prevailing theoretical approach in this field holds that the ventral object processing stream has a modular organization, in which visual perception is carried out in posterior regions and visual memory is carried out, independently, in the anterior temporal…

  9. Deep neural networks reveal a gradient in the complexity of neural representations across the ventral stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güçlü, U.; Gerven, M.A.J. van

    2015-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that the primate ventral visual pathway encodes increasingly complex stimulus features in downstream areas. We quantitatively show that there indeed exists an explicit gradient for feature complexity in the ventral pathway of the human brain. This was achieved by mapping

  10. Comparative Brain Stem Lesions on MRI of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, Neuromyelitis Optica, and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhuang; Shen, Liping; Long, Youming; Huang, Junqi; Hu, Xueqiang

    2011-01-01

    Background Brain stem lesions are common in patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Objectives To investigate comparative brain stem lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among adult patients with ADEM, NMO, and MS. Methods Sixty-five adult patients with ADEM (n = 17), NMO (n = 23), and MS (n = 25) who had brain stem lesions on MRI were enrolled. Morphological features of brain stem lesions among these diseases were assessed. Results Patients with ADEM had a higher frequency of midbrain lesions than did patients with NMO (94.1% vs. 17.4%, P<0.001) and MS (94.1% vs. 40.0%, P<0.001); patients with NMO had a lower frequency of pons lesions than did patients with MS (34.8% vs. 84.0%, P<0.001) and ADEM (34.8% vs. 70.6%, P = 0.025); and patients with NMO had a higher frequency of medulla oblongata lesions than did patients with ADEM (91.3% vs. 35.3%, P<0.001) and MS (91.3% vs. 36.0%, P<0.001). On the axial section of the brain stem, the majority (82.4%) of patients with ADEM showed lesions on the ventral part; the brain stem lesions in patients with NMO were typically located in the dorsal part (91.3%); and lesions in patients with MS were found in both the ventral (44.0%) and dorsal (56.0%) parts. The lesions in patients with ADEM (100%) and NMO (91.3%) had poorly defined margins, while lesions of patients with MS (76.0%) had well defined margins. Brain stem lesions in patients with ADEM were usually bilateral and symmetrical (82.4%), while lesions in patients with NMO (87.0%) and MS (92.0%) were asymmetrical or unilateral. Conclusions Brain stem lesions showed various morphological features among adult patients with ADEM, NMO, and MS. The different lesion locations may be helpful in distinguishing these diseases. PMID:21853047

  11. Comparative brain stem lesions on MRI of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neuromyelitis optica, and multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqi Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain stem lesions are common in patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM, neuromyelitis optica (NMO, and multiple sclerosis (MS. OBJECTIVES: To investigate comparative brain stem lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI among adult patients with ADEM, NMO, and MS. METHODS: Sixty-five adult patients with ADEM (n = 17, NMO (n = 23, and MS (n = 25 who had brain stem lesions on MRI were enrolled. Morphological features of brain stem lesions among these diseases were assessed. RESULTS: Patients with ADEM had a higher frequency of midbrain lesions than did patients with NMO (94.1% vs. 17.4%, P<0.001 and MS (94.1% vs. 40.0%, P<0.001; patients with NMO had a lower frequency of pons lesions than did patients with MS (34.8% vs. 84.0%, P<0.001 and ADEM (34.8% vs. 70.6%, P = 0.025; and patients with NMO had a higher frequency of medulla oblongata lesions than did patients with ADEM (91.3% vs. 35.3%, P<0.001 and MS (91.3% vs. 36.0%, P<0.001. On the axial section of the brain stem, the majority (82.4% of patients with ADEM showed lesions on the ventral part; the brain stem lesions in patients with NMO were typically located in the dorsal part (91.3%; and lesions in patients with MS were found in both the ventral (44.0% and dorsal (56.0% parts. The lesions in patients with ADEM (100% and NMO (91.3% had poorly defined margins, while lesions of patients with MS (76.0% had well defined margins. Brain stem lesions in patients with ADEM were usually bilateral and symmetrical (82.4%, while lesions in patients with NMO (87.0% and MS (92.0% were asymmetrical or unilateral. CONCLUSIONS: Brain stem lesions showed various morphological features among adult patients with ADEM, NMO, and MS. The different lesion locations may be helpful in distinguishing these diseases.

  12. Hippocampal serotonin depletion unmasks differences in the hyperlocomotor effects of phencyclidine and MK-801: quantitative versus qualitative analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy K Adams

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Antagonism of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors by phencyclidine is thought to underlie its ability to induce a schizophrenia-like syndrome in humans, yet evidence indicates it has a broader pharmacological profile. Our previous lesion studies highlighted a role for serotonergic projections from the median, but not dorsal, raphe nucleus in mediating the hyperlocomotor effects of phencyclidine, without changing the action of the more selective NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801. Here we compared locomotor responses to phencyclidine and MK 801 in rats that were administered 5,7 dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT into either the dorsal or ventral hippocampus, which are preferentially innervated by median and dorsal raphe, respectively. Dorsal hippocampus lesions potentiated phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion (0.5, 2.5 mg/kg, but not the effect of MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg. Ventral hippocampus lesions did not alter the hyperlocomotion elicited by either compound. Given that phencyclidine and MK-801 may induce different spatiotemporal patterns of locomotor behavior, together with the known role of the dorsal hippocampus in spatial processing, we also assessed whether the 5,7-DHT-lesions caused any qualitative differences in locomotor responses. Treatment with phencyclidine or MK-801 increased the smoothness of the path travelled (reduced spatial d and decreased the predictability of locomotor patterns within the chambers (increased entropy. 5,7-DHT-lesions of the dorsal hippocampus did not alter the effects of phencyclidine on spatial d or entropy—despite potentiating total distance moved—but caused a slight reduction in levels of MK-801-induced entropy. Taken together, serotonergic lesions targeting the dorsal hippocampus unmask a functional differentiation of the hyperlocomotor effects of phencyclidine and MK 801. These findings have implications for studies utilising NMDA receptor antagonists in modeling glutamatergic dysfunction in schizophrenia.

  13. Fluoxetine induces input-specific hippocampal dendritic spine remodeling along the septo-temporal axis in adulthood and middle age

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Kathleen; Russo, Craig; Kim, Shannen; Rankin, Genelle; Sahay, Amar

    2015-01-01

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is known to induce structural rearrangements and changes in synaptic transmission in hippocampal circuitry. In the adult hippocampus, structural changes include neurogenesis, dendritic and axonal plasticity of pyramidal and dentate granule neurons, and dedifferentiation of dentate granule neurons. However, much less is known about how chronic fluoxetine affects these processes along the septo-temporal axis and during the aging process. Importantly, studies documenting the effects of fluoxetine on density and distribution of spines along different dendritic segments of dentate granule neurons and CA1 pyramidal neurons along the septo-temporal axis of hippocampus in adulthood and during aging are conspicuously absent. Here, we use a transgenic mouse line in which mature dentate granule neurons and CA1 pyramidal neurons are genetically labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) to investigate the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment (18mg/kg/day) on input-specific spine remodeling and mossy fiber structural plasticity in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in adulthood and middle age. In addition, we examine levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, maturation state of dentate granule neurons, neuronal activity and glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 expression in response to chronic fluoxetine in adulthood and middle age. Our studies reveal that while chronic fluoxetine fails to augment adult hippocampal neurogenesis in middle age, the middle-aged hippocampus retains high sensitivity to changes in the dentate gyrus (DG) such as dematuration, hypoactivation, and increased glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) expression. Interestingly, the middle-aged hippocampus shows greater sensitivity to fluoxetine-induced input-specific synaptic remodeling than the hippocampus in adulthood with the stratum-oriens of CA1 exhibiting heightened structural plasticity. The input-specific changes and circuit

  14. Fluoxetine induces input-specific hippocampal dendritic spine remodeling along the septotemporal axis in adulthood and middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Kathleen; Russo, Craig; Kim, Shannen; Rankin, Genelle; Sahay, Amar

    2015-11-01

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is known to induce structural rearrangements and changes in synaptic transmission in hippocampal circuitry. In the adult hippocampus, structural changes include neurogenesis, dendritic, and axonal plasticity of pyramidal and dentate granule neurons, and dedifferentiation of dentate granule neurons. However, much less is known about how chronic fluoxetine affects these processes along the septotemporal axis and during the aging process. Importantly, studies documenting the effects of fluoxetine on density and distribution of spines along different dendritic segments of dentate granule neurons and CA1 pyramidal neurons along the septotemporal axis of hippocampus in adulthood and during aging are conspicuously absent. Here, we use a transgenic mouse line in which mature dentate granule neurons and CA1 pyramidal neurons are genetically labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) to investigate the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment (18 mg/kg/day) on input-specific spine remodeling and mossy fiber structural plasticity in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in adulthood and middle age. In addition, we examine levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, maturation state of dentate granule neurons, neuronal activity, and glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 expression in response to chronic fluoxetine in adulthood and middle age. Our studies reveal that while chronic fluoxetine fails to augment adult hippocampal neurogenesis in middle age, the middle-aged hippocampus retains high sensitivity to changes in the dentate gyrus (DG) such as dematuration, hypoactivation, and increased glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) expression. Interestingly, the middle-aged hippocampus shows greater sensitivity to fluoxetine-induced input-specific synaptic remodeling than the hippocampus in adulthood with the stratum-oriens of CA1 exhibiting heightened structural plasticity. The input-specific changes and circuit

  15. Automatic calculation of hippocampal atrophy rates using a hippocampal template and the boundary shift integral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J; Boyes, R G; Lewis, E B; Schott, J M; Frost, C; Scahill, R I; Fox, N C

    2007-11-01

    We describe a method of automatically calculating hippocampal atrophy rates on T1-weighted MR images without manual delineation of hippocampi. This method was applied to a group of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=36) and control (n=19) subjects and compared with manual methods (manual segmentation of baseline and repeat-image hippocampi) and semi-automated methods (manual segmentation of baseline hippocampi only). In controls, mean (S.D.) atrophy rates for manual, semi-automated, and automated methods were 18.1 (53.5), 15.3 (50.2) and 11.3 (50.4) mm3 loss per year, respectively. In AD patients these rates were 174.6 (106.5) 159.4 (101.2) and 172.1 (123.1) mm3 loss per year, respectively. The automated method was a significant predictor of disease (p=0.001) and gave similar group discrimination compared with both semi-automated and manual methods. The automated hippocampal analysis in this small study took approximately 20 min per hippocampal pair on a 3.4 GHz Intel Xeon server, whereas manual delineation of each hippocampal pair took approximately 90 min of operator-intensive labour. This method may be useful diagnostically or in studies where analysis of many scans may be required.

  16. BDNF val(66)met affects hippocampal volume and emotion-related hippocampal memory activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molendijk, M. L.; van Tol, M-J; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; van der Wee, N. J. A.; Aleman, A.; Veltman, D. J.; Spinhoven, P.; Elzinga, B. M.

    The val(66)met polymorphism on the BDNF gene has been reported to explain individual differences in hippocampal volume and memory-related activity. These findings, however, have not been replicated consistently and no studies to date controlled for the potentially confounding impact of early life

  17. Hippocampal EEG and behaviour in dog. I. Hippocampal EEG correlates of gross motor behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnolds, D.E.A.T.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Aitink, J.W.; Kamp, A.

    It was shown that rewarding spectral shifts (i.e. increase in amplitude or peak frequency of the hippocampal EEG) causes a solitary dog to show increased motor behaviour. Rewarded spectral shifts concurred with a variety of behavioural transitions. It was found that statistically significant

  18. Functional substrate for memory function differences between patients with left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Chun Kee

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the functional substrate for memory function differences in patients with left or right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) from an electrophysiological perspective. To characterize these differences, we hypothesized that hippocampal theta connectivity in the resting-state might be different between patients with left and right mTLE with HS and be correlated with memory performance. Resting-state hippocampal theta connectivity, identified via whole-brain magnetoencephalography, was evaluated. Connectivity and memory function in 41 patients with mTLE with HS (left mTLE=22; right mTLE=19) were compared with those in 46 age-matched healthy controls and 28 patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) but without HS. Connectivity between the right hippocampus and the left middle frontal gyrus was significantly stronger in patients with right mTLE than in patients with left mTLE. Moreover, this connectivity was positively correlated with delayed verbal recall and recognition scores in patients with mTLE. Patients with left mTLE had greater delayed recall impairment than patients with right mTLE and FCD. Similarly, delayed recognition performance was worse in patients with left mTLE than in patients with right mTLE and FCD. No significant differences in memory function between patients with right mTLE and FCD were detected. Patients with right mTLE showed significantly stronger hippocampal theta connectivity between the right hippocampus and left middle frontal gyrus than patients with FCD and left mTLE. Our results suggest that right hippocampal-left middle frontal theta connectivity could be a functional substrate that can account for differences in memory function between patients with left and right mTLE. This functional substrate might be related to different compensatory mechanisms against the structural hippocampal lesions in left and right mTLE groups. Given the positive correlation between

  19. Expression of lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 and relation with cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis on preneoplastic changes induced by cadmium chloride in the rat ventral prostate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riánsares Arriazu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA is a phospholipid growth factor involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, inflammation, angiogenesis, wound healing, cancer invasion, and survival. This study was directed to evaluate the immunoexpression of LPA-1, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis markers in preneoplastic lesions induced with cadmium chloride in rat prostate. METHODS: The following parameters were calculated in ventral prostate of normal rats and rats that received Cd in drinking water during 24 months: percentages of cells immunoreactive to LPA-1 (LILPA1, PCNA (LIPCNA, MCM7 (LIMCM7, ubiquitin (LIUBI, apoptotic cells (LIAPO, and p53 (LIp53; volume fraction of Bcl-2 (VFBcl-2; and length of microvessels per unit of volume (LVMV/mm3. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and Pearson correlation test. RESULTS: The LILPA1 in dysplastic lesions and normal epithelium of Cd-treated rats was significantly higher than those in the control group. Markers of proliferation were significantly increased in dysplastic lesions, whereas some apoptotic markers were significantly decreased. No significant differences between groups were found in VFBcl-2. Dysplastic lesions showed a significant increase of LIp53. The length of microvessels per unit of volume was elevated in dysplastic acini. Statistically significant correlations were found only between LILPA1 and LIUBI. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that LPA-1 might be implicated in dysplastic lesions induced by cadmium chloride development. More studies are needed to confirm its potential contribution to the disease.

  20. hippocampal slow rhythms in ongoing behaviour and during

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-02-06

    Feb 6, 1971 ... HIPPOCAMPAL SLOW RHYTHMS IN ONGOING BEHAVIOUR AND DURING CLASSICAL. CONDITIONING*. R. C. ALBINO AND K. CAIGER, Psychology Department, University of Natal, Durban. Experiments on the relationships between hippocampal slow (or theta) rhythms and phases of approach ...

  1. Effortful Retrieval Reduces Hippocampal Activity and Impairs Incidental Encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Reas, Emilie T.; Brewer, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Functional imaging studies frequently report that the hippocampus is engaged by successful episodic memory retrieval. However, considering that concurrent encoding of the background environment occurs during retrieval and influences medial temporal lobe activity, it is plausible that hippocampal encoding functions are reduced with increased attentional engagement during effortful retrieval. Expanding upon evidence that retrieval efforts suppress activity in hippocampal regions implicated in e...

  2. Development of hippocampal subfield volumes from 4 to 22 years

    OpenAIRE

    Krogsrud, Stine Kleppe; Tamnes, Christian Krog; Fjell, Anders Martin; Amlien, Inge; Grydeland, Håkon; Sulutvedt, Unni; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Bjørnerud, Atle; Sølsnes, Anne Elisabeth; Håberg, Asta; Skranes, Jon Sverre; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus supports several important cognitive functions known to undergo substantial development during childhood and adolescence, for example, encoding and consolidation of vivid personal memories. However, diverging developmental effects on hippocampal volume have been observed across studies. It is possible that the inconsistent findings may attribute to varying developmental processes and functions related to different hippocampal subregions. Most studies to date have measured glob...

  3. The Neuropsychology of Down Syndrome: Evidence for Hippocampal Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Bruce F.; Moon, Jennifer; Edgin, Jamie; Stedron, Jennifer; Nadel, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Tested prefrontal and hippocampal functions in school-aged individuals with Down syndrome (DS) compared functions with those of typically developing children individually matched on mental age. Found that hippocampal and prefrontal composite scores contributed unique variance to the prediction of mental age and adaptive behavior. Noted a…

  4. Gram stain of skin lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin lesion gram stain ... skin sore. This procedure is called a skin lesion biopsy . Before the biopsy, your provider will numb ... means bacteria have been found in the skin lesion. Further tests are needed to confirm the results. ...

  5. Dopamine inhibits mitochondrial motility in hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeng Chen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The trafficking of mitochondria within neurons is a highly regulated process. In an earlier study, we found that serotonin (5-HT, acting through the 5-HT1A receptor subtype, promotes axonal transport of mitochondria in cultured hippocampal neurons by increasing Akt activity, and consequently decreasing glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3beta activity. This finding suggests a critical role for neuromodulators in the regulation of mitochondrial trafficking in neurons. In the present study, we investigate the effects of a second important neuromodulator, dopamine, on mitochondrial transport in hippocampal neurons.Here, we show that dopamine, like 5-HT, regulates mitochondrial motility in cultured hippocampal neurons through the Akt-GSK3beta signaling cascade. But, in contrast to the stimulatory effect of 5-HT, administration of exogenous dopamine or bromocriptine, a dopamine 2 receptor (D2R agonist, caused an inhibition of mitochondrial movement. Moreover, pretreatment with bromocriptine blocked the stimulatory effect of 5-HT on mitochondrial movement. Conversely, in cells pretreated with 5-HT, no further increases in movement were observed after administration of haloperidol, a D2R antagonist. In contrast to the effect of the D2R agonist, addition of SKF38393, a dopamine 1 receptor (D1R agonist, promoted mitochondrial transport, indicating that the inhibitory effect of dopamine was actually the net summation of opposing influences of the two receptor subtypes. The most pronounced effect of dopamine signals was on mitochondria that were already moving directionally. Western blot analysis revealed that treatment with either a D2R agonist or a D1R antagonist decreased Akt activity, and conversely, treatment with either a D2R antagonist or a D1R agonist increased Akt activity.Our observations strongly suggest a role for both dopamine and 5-HT in regulating mitochondrial movement, and indicate that the integrated effects of these two neuromodulators may be

  6. Acute periodontal lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Gonzalez, David; Alonso Álvarez, Bettina; Arriba de la Fuente, Lorenzo; Santa- Cruz Astorqui, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz Alonso, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    This is a review and update on acute conditions affecting the gingival tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases, and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious process not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, muco-cutanenous disorders, and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important since it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodo...

  7. Hippocampal “Time Cells”: Time versus Path Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Benjamin J.; Robinson, Robert J.; White, John A.; Eichenbaum, Howard; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent studies have reported the existence of hippocampal “time cells,” neurons that fire at particular moments during periods when behavior and location are relatively constant. However, an alternative explanation of apparent time coding is that hippocampal neurons “path integrate” to encode the distance an animal has traveled. Here, we examined hippocampal neuronal firing patterns as rats ran in place on a treadmill, thus “clamping” behavior and location, while we varied the treadmill speed to distinguish time elapsed from distance traveled. Hippocampal neurons were strongly influenced by time and distance, and less so by minor variations in location. Furthermore, the activity of different neurons reflected integration over time and distance to varying extents, with most neurons strongly influenced by both factors and some significantly influenced by only time or distance. Thus, hippocampal neuronal networks captured both the organization of time and distance in a situation where these dimensions dominated an ongoing experience. PMID:23707613

  8. Traditional lesion detection aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, K W; Ellwood, R; Lussi, A; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    Lesion detection aids ideally aim at increasing the sensitivity of visual caries detection without trading off too much in terms of specificity. The use of a dental probe (explorer), bitewing radiography and fibre-optic transillumination (FOTI) have long been recommended for this purpose. Today, probing of suspected lesions in the sense of checking the 'stickiness' is regarded as obsolete, since it achieves no gain of sensitivity and might cause irreversible tooth damage. Bitewing radiography helps to detect lesions that are otherwise hidden from visual examination, and it should therefore be applied to a new patient. The diagnostic performance of radiography at approximal and occlusal sites is different, as this relates to the 3-dimensional anatomy of the tooth at these sites. However, treatment decisions have to take more into account than just lesion extension. Bitewing radiography provides additional information for the decision-making process that mainly relies on the visual and clinical findings. FOTI is a quick and inexpensive method which can enhance visual examination of all tooth surfaces. Both radiography and FOTI can improve the sensitivity of caries detection, but require sufficient training and experience to interpret information correctly. Radiography also carries the burden of the risks and legislation associated with using ionizing radiation in a health setting and should be repeated at intervals guided by the individual patient's caries risk. Lesion detection aids can assist in the longitudinal monitoring of the behaviour of initial lesions. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Oral lesions in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa A

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprotic oral lesions are more common in the lepromatous form of leprosy, indicate a late manifestation, and have a great epidemiological importance as a source of infection. METHODS: Patients with leprosy were examined searching for oral lesions. Biopsies of the left buccal mucosa in all patients, and of oral lesions, were performed and were stained with H&E and Wade. RESULTS: Oral lesions were found in 26 patients, 11 lepromatous leprosy, 14 borderline leprosy, and one tuberculoid leprosy. Clinically 5 patients had enanthem of the anterior pillars, 3 of the uvula and 3 of the palate. Two had palatal infiltration. Viable bacilli were found in two lepromatous patients. Biopsies of the buccal mucosa showed no change or a nonspecific inflammatory infiltrate. Oral clinical alterations were present in 69% of the patients; of these 50% showed histopathological features in an area without any lesion. DISCUSSION: Our clinical and histopathological findings corroborate earlier reports that there is a reduced incidence of oral changes, which is probably due to early treatment. The maintenance of oral infection in this area can also lead to and maintain lepra reactions, while they may also act as possible infection sources. Attention should be given to oral disease in leprosy because detection and treatment of oral lesions can prevent the spread of the disease.

  10. [Effects of sleep deprivation in hippocampal neurogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Virgen, Verónica; Zárate-López, David; Adirsch, Fabián L; Collas-Aguilar, Jorge; González-Pérez, Óscar

    2015-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) in the hippocampus is a process that involves proliferation, differentiation, maturation, migration, and integration of young neurons in the granular layer of DG. These newborn neurons mature in three to four weeks and incorporate into neural circuits in the hippocampus. There, these new neurons play a role in cognitive functions, such as acquisition and retention of memory, which are consolidated during sleep period. In this review, we describe recent findings that associate sleep deprivation with changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive processes. In addition, we describe possible mechanisms implicated in this deterioration such as circadian rhythm, melatonin receptors, and growth factors.

  11. Differential Sampling of Visual Space in Ventral and Dorsal Early Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silson, Edward H; Reynolds, Richard C; Kravitz, Dwight J; Baker, Chris I

    2018-02-28

    A fundamental feature of cortical visual processing is the separation of visual processing for the upper and lower visual fields. In early visual cortex (EVC), the upper visual field is processed ventrally, with the lower visual field processed dorsally. This distinction persists into several category-selective regions of occipitotemporal cortex, with ventral and lateral scene-, face-, and object-selective regions biased for the upper and lower visual fields, respectively. Here, using an elliptical population receptive field (pRF) model, we systematically tested the sampling of visual space within ventral and dorsal divisions of human EVC in both male and female participants. We found that (1) pRFs tend to be elliptical and oriented toward the fovea with distinct angular distributions for ventral and dorsal divisions of EVC, potentially reflecting a radial bias; and (2) pRFs in ventral areas were larger (∼1.5×) and more elliptical (∼1.2×) than those in dorsal areas. These differences potentially reflect a tendency for receptive fields in ventral temporal cortex to overlap the fovea with less emphasis on precise localization and isotropic representation of space compared with dorsal areas. Collectively, these findings suggest that ventral and dorsal divisions of EVC sample visual space differently, likely contributing to and/or stemming from the functional differentiation of visual processing observed in higher-level regions of the ventral and dorsal cortical visual pathways. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The processing of visual information from the upper and lower visual fields is separated in visual cortex. Although ventral and dorsal divisions of early visual cortex (EVC) are commonly assumed to sample visual space equivalently, we demonstrate systematic differences using an elliptical population receptive field (pRF) model. Specifically, we demonstrate that (1) ventral and dorsal divisions of EVC exhibit diverging distributions of pRF angle, which are biased

  12. Hindlimb spasticity after unilateral motor cortex lesion in rats is reduced by contralateral nerve root transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Haiyang; Ma, Fenfen; Zhang, Laiyin; Lu, Huiping; Gong, Jingru; Cai, Min; Lin, Haodong; Zhu, Yizhun; Hou, Chunlin

    2016-12-01

    Lower extremity spasticity is a common sequela among patients with acquired brain injury. The optimum treatment remains controversial. The aim of our study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of contralateral nerve root transfer in reducing post stroke spasticity of the affected hindlimb muscles in rats. In our study, we for the first time created a novel animal hindlimb spastic hemiplegia model in rats with photothrombotic lesion of unilateral motor cortex and we established a novel surgical procedure in reducing motor cortex lesion-induced hindlimb spastic hemiplegia in rats. Thirty six rats were randomized into three groups. In group A, rats received sham operation. In group B, rats underwent unilateral hindlimb motor cortex lesion. In group C, rats underwent unilateral hindlimb cortex lesion followed by contralateral L4 ventral root transfer to L5 ventral root of the affected side. Footprint analysis, Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex), cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) retrograde tracing of gastrocnemius muscle (GM) motoneurons and immunofluorescent staining of vesicle glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) on CTB-labelled motoneurons were used to assess spasticity of the affected hindlimb. Sixteen weeks postoperatively, toe spread and stride length recovered significantly in group C compared with group B (Pcortex lesion-induced hindlimb spasticity in rats. Our data indicated that this could be an alternative treatment for unilateral lower extremity spasticity after brain injury. Therefore, contralateral neurotization may exert a potential therapeutic candidate to improve the function of lower extremity in patients with spastic hemiplegia. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Selective reinnervation of hippocampal area CA1 and the fascia dentata after destruction of CA3-CA4 afferents with kainic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, J V; Perry, B W; Cotman, C W

    1980-01-20

    Intraventricular injections of kainic acid were used to destroy the hippocampal CA3-CA4 cells, thus denervating the inner third of the molecular layer of the fascia dentata and stratum radiatum and stratum oriens of area CA1. The responses of intact afferents to such lesions were then examined histologically. The hippocampal mossy fibers densely reinnervated the inner portion of the dentate molecular layer after bilateral destruction of CA4 neurons and to a lesser extent after unilateral destruction. Septohippocampal fibers replaced CA4-derived fibers in the dentate molecular layer only after particularly extensive bilateral CA4 lesions. Medial perforant path fibers showed no anatomical response to any of these lesions. Neither septohippocampal, temporoammonic nor mossy fibers proliferated in or grew into the denervated laminae of area CA1. These results show a preferential ordering in the reinnervation of dentate granule cells which is not readily explained by proximity to the degenerating fibers and also that removal of CA3-CA4-derived innervation more readily elicits translaminar growth in the fascia dentata than in area CA1. These results may be relevant to clinical situations in which neurons of the hippocampal end-blade are lost.

  14. Activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the ventral hippocampus improved stress-induced amnesia in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadmirzaei, Negin; Rezayof, Ameneh; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra

    2016-09-01

    The ventral hippocampus (VH) has a high distribution of cannabinoid CB1 receptors which are important in modulating stress responses. Stress exposure activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) which can impact hippocampal formation to change hippocampus-based memories. The purpose of the present study was to determine the possible role of the VH cannabinoid CB1 receptors in stress-induced amnesia using a step-through passive avoidance procedure in male Wistar rats. In order to induce acute stress, the animals were placed on an elevated platform for different time periods (10, 20 and 30min). Our results indicated that post-training 20 and 30min exposure to stress, but not 10min, induced amnesia. Post-training microinjection of a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, arachydonilcyclopropylamide (ACPA; 2.5-7.5ng/rat) into the VH (intra-VH) induced amnesia. Interestingly, post-training intra-VH microinjection of the same doses of ACPA improved stress-induced amnesia. On the other hand, post-training intra-VH microinjection of a selective CB1 receptor antagonist, AM-251 (20-50ng/rat) with exposure to an ineffective stress (10min) potentiated the effect of stress on memory consolidation and induced amnesia. It should be noted that post-training intra-VH microinjection of the same doses of AM-251 alone had no effect on memory consolidation. Our results revealed that post-training intra-VH microinjection of AM-251, prior to ACPA microinjection, inhibited the reversal effect of ACPA on acute elevated platform stress. Taken together, it can be concluded that exposure to post-training inescapable stress impaired memory consolidation. The impairing effects of stress on memory retrieval may be mediated by the VH cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Apamin induces plastic changes in hippocampal neurons in senile Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Curiel, Alejandra; López-Carpinteyro, Diana; Gamboa, Citlalli; De la Cruz, Fidel; Zamudio, Sergio; Flores, Gonzalo

    2011-10-01

    Apamin is a neurotoxin extracted from honey bee venom and is a selective blocker of small-conductance Ca²⁺-activated K⁺ channels (SK). Several behavioral and electrophysiological studies indicate that SK-blockade by apamin may enhance neuron excitability, synaptic plasticity, and long-term potentiation in the CA1 hippocampal region, and, for that reason, apamin has been proposed as a therapeutic agent in Alzheimer's disease treatment. However, the dendritic morphological mechanisms implied in such enhancement are unknown. In the present work, Golgi-Cox stain protocol and Sholl analysis were used to study the effect of apamin on the dendritic morphology of pyramidal neurons from hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex as well as on the medium spiny neurons from the nucleus accumbens and granule cells from the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. We found that only granule cells from the DG and pyramidal neurons from dorsal and ventral hippocampus were altered in senile rats injected with apamin. Our research suggests that apamin may increase the dendritic morphology in the hippocampus, which could be related to the neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity enhancement induced by apamin. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Seizure Freedom After Limited Hippocampal Radiofrequency Thermocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han-Tao; Lee, Ching-Yi; Lim, Siew-Na; Chang, Chun-Wei; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Tony

    2016-12-01

    Surgical interventions are often used for freedom from seizure in patients with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. A patient with seizure foci in the left mesiotemporal region underwent limited-size stereotactic radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RF-TC) over the left hippocampus. A 37-year-old woman with febrile convulsion in her childhood was admitted to our neurologic department with complex partial seizure with secondary generalization. Electroencephalography showed epileptogenic focus mainly from the left mesiotemporal region, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a left hippocampal atrophy. Because of failure to control seizure after use of several antiepileptic drugs, drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy was diagnosed. RF-TC was done in the left hippocampus. Unique features of our technique include intraoperative electroencephalography recordings directly from electrodes on the left hippocampus, an aura sensation provoked during the low-temperature test thermocoagulation, and therapeutic thermocoagulation performed via a Radionics radiofrequency lead. In the 16-week period following the surgery, the patient experienced no seizure attacks and no significant postoperative adverse effects or memory impairments. Compared with other reports using RF-TC, our case demonstrates a 1-step minimally invasive surgery that reduces hippocampal volume loss, shortens the length of hospital stay, decreases the occurrence of postoperative infection, and achieves good outcomes for epilepsy control. Favorable seizure control was achieved with minimally invasive RF-TC. Further use of this technique is warranted in cases of drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasticity of the hippocampal place cell representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Kathryn J; Hayman, Robin

    2004-01-01

    The role of the hippocampus in the representation of 'place' has been attributed to the place cells, whose spatially localised firing suggests their participation in forming a cognitive map of the environment. That this map is necessary for spatial memory formation is indicated by the propensity of almost all navigational tasks to be disrupted by hippocampal damage. The hippocampus has also long been implicated in the formation of episodic memories, and the unusually plastic nature of hippocampal synapses testifies to its probable mnemonic role. Arguably, the place cell representation should, if it is to support spatial learning, be modifiable according to known principles of synaptic reorganization. The present article reviews evidence that the place cell representation is indeed plastic, and that its plasticity depends on the same neurobiological mechanisms known to underlie experimentally induced synaptic plasticity. Inferences are drawn regarding the architecture of the spatial representation and the principles by which it is modified. Spatial learning is promising to be the first kind of memory which is completely understood at all levels, from molecular through circuitry to behaviour and beyond.

  18. Stochastic resonance in hippocampal CA1 neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, William Charles

    Stochastic Resonance (SR) is a phenomenon observed in nonlinear systems whereby the introduction of noise enhances the detection of a subthreshold signal for a certain range of noise intensity. Many central neurons, such as hippocampal CAI cells, are good candidates for SR due to their function of signal detection in a noisy environment, but the role of SR in the CNS is unclear. Physiological levels of noise are able to improve signal detection through SR, as found in simulated CAI neurons and in vitro rat hippocampal slices. Further investigation, utilizing a novel method of in vitro noise modulation, shows that endogenous noise sources can generate SR activity. These results suggest SR may provide a means for the hippocampus to modulate detection of specific inputs through endogenous noise sources. The role of noise in signal detection for a network of CAI cells is tested with a network simulation. The network shows improved detection as the number of cells and coupling increase for noise with low variance. One cell receiving the signal cannot recruit the remaining cells unless the network is very active and tuned by the coupling and noise. Periodic oscillations at high noise amplitudes corrupt all outputs. These oscillations develop into synchronized, periodic bursts as a function of both noise and coupling. These findings are relevant for the analysis of the role of physiological noise in signal processing in the brain and in the synchronization of neural activity as in epilepsy.

  19. Can Molecular Hippocampal Alterations Explain Behavioral ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies in both humans and animals have shown that prenatal stress can alter cognitive function and other neurological behaviors in adult offspring. One possible underlying mechanism for this may lie with alterations in hippocampal gene expression. The present study examined genotypical outcomes in adult male and female offspring of rats exposed to variable stress during pregnancy. Dams (n=15/treatment) were subjected to several non-chemical stressors including intermittent noise, light, crowding, restraint, and altered circadian lighting, from gestational day (GD) 13 to 20. Tail blood was drawn on GD 12, 16 and 20 to verify a stress response. Corticosterone levels were not different between the stressed and non-stressed dams on GD12 but was significantly increased in stressed dams on GD 16 and 20 compared to controls. Dams gave birth on GD22 (postnatal day or PND 0). Several behavioral tests were used to assess the cognitive and behavioral phenotype of the offspring from PND 49 through 86, including the Morris water maze and novel object recognition. Male and female stressed offspring showed reduced reversal learning on the Morris water maze and stressed females did not show a significant preference for the novel object (57 ± 8%) while control females did (71 ± 3%). This indicates altered cognition in prenatally stressed offspring. On PND 91-92, offspring were necropsied and hippocampal tissue was collected. Genotypic outcomes of prenatal stress w

  20. Epigenetics, estradiol, and hippocampal memory consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Karyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations of histone proteins and DNA are essential for hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function, and contribute to the etiology of psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Hippocampal memory formation depends on histone alterations and DNA methylation, and increasing evidence suggests that regulation of these epigenetic processes by modulatory factors such as environmental enrichment, stress, and hormones substantially influences memory function. Recent work from our laboratory suggests that the ability of the sex-steroid hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) to enhance novel object recognition memory consolidation in young adult female mice is dependent on histone H3 acetylation and DNA methylation in the dorsal hippocampus. Our data also suggest that enzymes mediating DNA methylation and histone acetylation work in concert to regulate the effects of E2 on memory consolidation. These findings shed light on the epigenetic mechanisms that influence hormonal modulation of cognitive function, and may have important implications for understanding how hormones influence cognition in adulthood and aging. This review will provide a brief overview of the literature on epigenetics and memory, describe in detail our findings demonstrating that epigenetic alterations regulate E2-induced memory enhancement in female mice, and discuss future directions for research on the epigenetic regulation of E2-induced memory enhancement. PMID:24028406

  1. Primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy: a cohort study of 20,714 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oma, E; Bay-Nielsen, M; Jensen, K K; Jorgensen, L N; Pinborg, A; Bisgaard, T

    2017-06-01

    Prevalence, management, and risk of emergency operation for primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy are unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalences of primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy and the potential risks for elective and emergency repair. This single-institutional retrospective study included all pregnant women attending one or more prenatal consultations at Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, during a 3-year period. Patients' medical records were electronically retrieved. A free-text search algorithm and subsequent manual review was conducted to identify patients registered with a primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy. Follow-up was conducted by review of medical record notes within the Capital Region of Denmark supplemented with structured telephone interviews on indication. In total, 20,714 pregnant women were included in the study cohort. Seventeen (0.08%) and 25 (0.12%) women were registered with a primary ventral and groin hernia, respectively. None underwent elective or emergency repair in pregnancy, and all had uncomplicated childbirth. In 10 women, the groin bulge disappeared spontaneously after delivery. During postpartum follow-up of median 4.4 years (range 0.2-6.0 years), five (0.02%) and four (0.02%) underwent elective primary ventral and groin hernia repair, respectively. Primary ventral or groin hernia seems rare in pregnancy, and the incidence of emergency repair is extremely low. Watchful waiting strategy is recommended during pregnancy in women suspected for a primary ventral or groin hernia.

  2. Laparoscopic versus open ventral hernia repair: longitudinal outcomes and cost analysis using statewide claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Brett L; Kuo, Lindsay E Y; Simmons, Kristina D; Fischer, John P; Morris, Jon B; Kelz, Rachel R

    2016-03-01

    There is still considerable debate regarding the best operative approach to ventral hernia repair. Using two large statewide databases, this study sought to evaluate the longitudinal outcomes and associated costs of laparoscopic and open ventral hernia repair. All patients undergoing elective ventral hernia repair from 2007-2011 were identified from inpatient discharge data from California and New York. In-hospital morbidity, in-hospital mortality, incidence of readmission, and incidence of revisional ventral hernia repair were evaluated as a function of surgical technique. The associated costs of medical care for laparoscopic versus open ventral hernia repair were evaluate for both the index procedure and all subsequent admissions and procedures within the study period. A total of 13,567 patients underwent elective ventral hernia repair with mesh; 9228 (69%) underwent OVHR and 4339 (31%) underwent LVHR. At time of the index procedure, LVHR was associated with a lower incidence of reoperation (OR 0.29, CI 0.12-0.58, p = 0.001), wound disruption (OR 0.35, CI 0.16-0.78, p = 0.01), wound infection (OR 0.50, CI 0.25-0.70, p Open ventral hernia repair was associated with a higher incidence of perioperative complications, postoperative readmissions and need for revisional hernia repair when compared to laparoscopic ventral hernia repair, even when controlling for patient sociodemographics. In congruence, open ventral hernia repair was associated with higher costs for both the index hernia repair and tallied over the length of follow-up for readmissions and revisional hernia repair.

  3. A fate map of the murine pancreas buds reveals a multipotent ventral foregut organ progenitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse R Angelo

    Full Text Available The definitive endoderm is the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the budding endodermal organs including the thyroid, lung, liver and pancreas as well as the remainder of the gut tube. DiI fate mapping and whole embryo culture were used to determine the endodermal origin of the 9.5 days post coitum (dpc dorsal and ventral pancreas buds. Our results demonstrate that the progenitors of each bud occupy distinct endodermal territories. Dorsal bud progenitors are located in the medial endoderm overlying somites 2-4 between the 2 and 11 somite stage (SS. The endoderm forming the ventral pancreas bud is found in 2 distinct regions. One territory originates from the left and right lateral endoderm caudal to the anterior intestinal portal by the 6 SS and the second domain is derived from the ventral midline of the endoderm lip (VMEL. Unlike the laterally located ventral foregut progenitors, the VMEL population harbors a multipotent progenitor that contributes to the thyroid bud, the rostral cap of the liver bud, ventral midline of the liver bud and the midline of the ventral pancreas bud in a temporally restricted manner. This data suggests that the midline of the 9.5 dpc thyroid, liver and ventral pancreas buds originates from the same progenitor population, demonstrating a developmental link between all three ventral foregut buds. Taken together, these data define the location of the dorsal and ventral pancreas progenitors in the prespecified endodermal sheet and should lead to insights into the inductive events required for pancreas specification.

  4. A Fate Map of the Murine Pancreas Buds Reveals a Multipotent Ventral Foregut Organ Progenitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Jesse R.; Guerrero-Zayas, Mara-Isel; Tremblay, Kimberly D.

    2012-01-01

    The definitive endoderm is the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the budding endodermal organs including the thyroid, lung, liver and pancreas as well as the remainder of the gut tube. DiI fate mapping and whole embryo culture were used to determine the endodermal origin of the 9.5 days post coitum (dpc) dorsal and ventral pancreas buds. Our results demonstrate that the progenitors of each bud occupy distinct endodermal territories. Dorsal bud progenitors are located in the medial endoderm overlying somites 2–4 between the 2 and 11 somite stage (SS). The endoderm forming the ventral pancreas bud is found in 2 distinct regions. One territory originates from the left and right lateral endoderm caudal to the anterior intestinal portal by the 6 SS and the second domain is derived from the ventral midline of the endoderm lip (VMEL). Unlike the laterally located ventral foregut progenitors, the VMEL population harbors a multipotent progenitor that contributes to the thyroid bud, the rostral cap of the liver bud, ventral midline of the liver bud and the midline of the ventral pancreas bud in a temporally restricted manner. This data suggests that the midline of the 9.5 dpc thyroid, liver and ventral pancreas buds originates from the same progenitor population, demonstrating a developmental link between all three ventral foregut buds. Taken together, these data define the location of the dorsal and ventral pancreas progenitors in the prespecified endodermal sheet and should lead to insights into the inductive events required for pancreas specification. PMID:22815796

  5. Reduction of Cav1.3 channels in dorsal hippocampus impairs the development of dentate gyrus newborn neurons and hippocampal-dependent memory tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available Cav1.3 has been suggested to mediate hippocampal neurogenesis of adult mice and contribute to hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes. However, the mechanism of Cav1.3 contribution in these processes is unclear. Here, roles of Cav1.3 of mouse dorsal hippocampus during newborn cell development were examined. We find that knock-out (KO of Cav1.3 resulted in the reduction of survival of newborn neurons at 28 days old after mitosis. The retroviral eGFP expression showed that both dendritic complexity and the number and length of mossy fiber bouton (MFB filopodia of newborn neurons at ≥ 14 days old were significantly reduced in KO mice. Both contextual fear conditioning (CFC and object-location recognition tasks were impaired in recent (1 day memory test while passive avoidance task was impaired only in remote (≥ 20 days memory in KO mice. Results using adeno-associated virus (AAV-mediated Cav1.3 knock-down (KD or retrovirus-mediated KD in dorsal hippocampal DG area showed that the recent memory of CFC was impaired in both KD mice but the remote memory was impaired only in AAV KD mice, suggesting that Cav1.3 of mature neurons play important roles in both recent and remote CFC memory while Cav1.3 in newborn neurons is selectively involved in the recent CFC memory process. Meanwhile, AAV KD of Cav1.3 in ventral hippocampal area has no effect on the recent CFC memory. In conclusion, the results suggest that Cav1.3 in newborn neurons of dorsal hippocampus is involved in the survival of newborn neurons while mediating developments of dendritic and axonal processes of newborn cells and plays a role in the memory process differentially depending on the stage of maturation and the type of learning task.

  6. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol. PMID:27504467

  7. Monitoring pigmented skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Vincent P.; Bamber, Jeffery C.; Ott, Robert J.; Crawford, Diane C.; Mortimer, Peter S.

    2002-06-01

    The rising incidence of skin cancer has led to an increase in the number of patients with skin lesions that require diagnosis, mostly using subjective visual examination. Successful treatment depends on early diagnosis. Unfortunately diagnostic accuracy, even by experts, can be as low as 56%; therefore, an accurate, objective diagnostic aid is greatly needed. Reflectance characteristics of pigmented skin lesions were documented to evaluate their diagnostic potential. Reflectance spectra in the wavelength range 320-1100nm were obtained from 260 lesions. Differences between spectra from benign and malignant lesions were utilized by extracting features with the best discriminating power. Discrimination was evaluated using two techniques: multivariate statistical analysis and artificial neural networks, using histology as the standard. Each technique was tested in a blind study and assessed in terms of its ability to diagnose new cases and compared to the clinical diagnosis. The artificial neural network achieved the best diagnostic performance for discriminating between malignant melanoma and benign nevi, having a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 65%. Utilization of visible and infrared techniques for monitoring skin lesions has lead to improvements in diagnostic accuracy. We conclude that these techniques are worthy of further development and evaluation in clinical practice as a screening tool.

  8. Cocaine-Induced Endocannabinoid Mobilization in the Ventral Tegmental Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huikun Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is a highly addictive drug that acts upon the brain’s reward circuitry via the inhibition of monoamine uptake. Endogenous cannabinoids (eCB are lipid molecules released from midbrain dopamine (DA neurons that modulate cocaine’s effects through poorly understood mechanisms. We find that cocaine stimulates release of the eCB, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, in the rat ventral midbrain to suppress GABAergic inhibition of DA neurons, through activation of presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Cocaine mobilizes 2-AG via inhibition of norepinephrine uptake and promotion of a cooperative interaction between Gq/11-coupled type-1 metabotropic glutamate and α1-adrenergic receptors to stimulate internal calcium stores and activate phospholipase C. The disinhibition of DA neurons by cocaine-mobilized 2-AG is also functionally relevant because it augments DA release in the nucleus accumbens in vivo. Our results identify a mechanism through which the eCB system can regulate the rewarding and addictive properties of cocaine.

  9. Commissural neurons in the rat ventral cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, John R; Lenihan, Nicole M; May, Bradford J

    2009-06-01

    Commissural neurons connect the cochlear nucleus complexes of both ears. Previous studies have suggested that the neurons may be separated into two anatomical subtypes on the basis of percent apposition (PA); that is, the percentage of the soma apposed by synaptic terminals. The present study combined tract tracing with synaptic immunolabeling to compare the soma area, relative number, and location of Type I (low PA) and Type II (high PA) commissural neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of rats. Confocal microscopic analysis revealed that 261 of 377 (69%) commissural neurons have medium-sized somata with Type I axosomatic innervation. The commissural neurons also showed distinct topographical distributions. The majority of Type I neurons were located in the small cell cap of the VCN, which serves as a nexus for regulatory pathways within the auditory brainstem. Most Type II neurons were found in the magnocellular core. This anatomical dichotomy should broaden current views on the function of the commissural pathway that stress the fast inhibitory interactions generated by Type II neurons. The more prevalent Type I neurons may underlie slow regulatory influences that enhance binaural processing or the recovery of function after injury.

  10. Seroma in ventral incisional herniorrhaphy: incidence, predictors and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Hur, Kwan; Hirter, Angie; Kim, Lawrence T; Thomas, Anthony; Berger, David H; Reda, Domenic; Itani, Kamal M F

    2009-11-01

    Factors leading to seroma following ventral incisional herniorrhaphy (VIH) are poorly understood. Between 2004 and 2006, patients were prospectively randomized at 4 Veterans Affairs hospitals to undergo laparoscopic or open VIH. Patients who developed seromas within 8 weeks postoperatively were compared with those who did not. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of seroma. Of 145 patients who underwent VIH, 24 (16.6%) developed seromas. Patients who underwent open VIH had more seromas than those who underwent laparoscopic VIH (23.3% vs 6.8%, P = .011). Seroma patients had hernias that were never spontaneously reducible (0% vs 21%, P = .015), had more abdominal incisions preoperatively (mean, 2.4 vs 1.8; P = .037), and were less likely to have drain catheters placed than those without seromas (30.0% vs 63.1%, P = .011). In multivariate analyses, open VIH predicted seroma (odds ratio, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-18.8), as well as the specific hospital at which the procedure was performed. Spontaneous resolution occurred in 71% of seromas; 29% required aspiration. Procedural characteristics and hernia characteristics rather than patient comorbidities predicted seroma in VIH.

  11. Laryngeal dislocation after ventral fusion of the cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Krauel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 70-year-old patient who underwent ventral fusion of the cervical spine (C3/4 and C4/5 for spinal canal stenosis performed by the neurosurgery department. The patient suffered an exceedingly rare complication of the surgery - laryngeal dislocation. Had the deformed laryngeal structures been overlooked and the patient extubated as usual after surgery, reintubation would have been impossible due to the associated swelling, which might have had disastrous consequences. Leftward dislocation of the larynx became apparent post-operatively, but prior to extubation. Extubation was therefore postponed and a subsequent computed tomography (CT scan revealed entrapment of laryngeal structures within the osteosynthesis. A trial of repositioning using microlaryngoscopy performed by otolaryngology (ears, nose and throat specialists failed, making open surgical revision necessary. At surgery, the entrapped laryngeal tissue was successfully mobilised. Laryngeal oedema developed despite prompt repositioning; thus, necessitating tracheotomy and long-term ventilation. Laryngeal dislocation may be an unusual cause of post-operative neck swelling after anterior cervical spine surgery and should be considered in the differential diagnosis if surgical site haematoma and other causes have been ruled out. Imaging studies including CT of the neck may be needed before extubation to confirm the suspicion and should be promptly obtained to facilitate specific treatment.

  12. Ventral tegmental area afferents and drug-dependent behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idaira eOliva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug-related behaviors in both humans and rodents are commonly thought to arise from aberrant learning processes. Preclinical studies demonstrate that the acquisition and expression of many drug-dependent behaviors involves the ventral tegmental area (VTA, a midbrain structure comprised of dopamine, GABA and glutamate neurons. Drug experience alters the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input onto VTA dopamine neurons, suggesting a critical role for VTA afferents in mediating the effects of drugs. In this review we present evidence implicating the VTA in drug-related behaviors, highlight the diversity of neuronal populations in the VTA, and discuss the behavioral effects of selectively manipulating VTA afferents. Future experiments are needed to determine which VTA afferents and what neuronal populations in the VTA mediate specific drug-dependent behaviors. Further studies are also necessary for identifying the afferent-specific synaptic alterations onto dopamine and non-dopamine neurons in the VTA following drug administration. The identification of neural circuits and adaptations involved with drug-dependent behaviors can highlight potential neural targets for pharmacological and deep brain stimulation interventions to treat substance abuse disorders.

  13. The role of the ventral noradrenergic bundle in relation to endorphins in the control of core temperature, open-field and ingestive behaviour in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, M J; Millan, M H; Herz, A

    1983-03-21

    Discrete, bilateral, radiofrequency destruction of the ventral noradrenergic bundle (VB) resulted in a pronounced fall in levels of noradrenaline in the hypothalamus but not in the cortex. On days 4 and 12, but not 28, post-surgery, VB-lesioned rats were hyperactive (rearing and ambulation) upon exposure to a novel open-field space. This hyperactivity was greatly attenuated by naloxone, which did not significantly modify sham activity. These data suggest that the VB may be involved in the control of locomotor-exploratory activity via an interaction with an endorphinergic system. On day 4, but not 12 or 25, VB-lesioned rats displayed a significant elevation in core temperature (Tc). No difference in the hyperthermia elicited by introduction into the open-field was, however, seen between VB-lesioned and sham rats on day 4. In both groups, this rise in Tc was strongly attenuated by naloxone. These data indicate that the VB may be involved in the control of Tc but that it does not mediate novelty-stress evoked hyperthermia, for which endorphins are primarily responsible. Within 7 days post-surgery, VB-lesioned rats developed an enhancement of daily food intake which led to a slight obesity. From day 15 onward, a hyperdipsia was also seen in VB-lesioned rats. Naltrexone reduced the food and water intake of both sham and VB-lesioned animals but failed to totally block this hyperphagia. It is suggested that the VB is involved in the regulation of daily ingestive behaviour and that endorphins do not exclusively mediate the VB-lesion induced hyperphagia.

  14. Increased synthesis of heparin affin regulatory peptide in the perforant path lesioned mouse hippocampal formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, F R; Lagord, C; Courty, J

    2000-01-01

    axonal sprouting within the perforant path zones of the fascia dentata and hippocampus as well as axotomy-induced retrograde neuronal degeneration in the entorhinal cortex. Analysis of sham- and unoperated control mice showed that HARP mRNA is expressed in neurons and white and gray matter glial cells...

  15. Motor recovery and synaptic preservation after ventral root avulsion and repair with a fibrin sealant derived from snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbizan, Roberta; Castro, Mateus V; Rodrigues, Antônio C; Barraviera, Benedito; Ferreira, Rui S; Oliveira, Alexandre L R

    2013-01-01

    Ventral root avulsion is an experimental model of proximal axonal injury at the central/peripheral nervous system interface that results in paralysis and poor clinical outcome after restorative surgery. Root reimplantation may decrease neuronal degeneration in such cases. We describe the use of a snake venom-derived fibrin sealant during surgical reconnection of avulsed roots at the spinal cord surface. The present work investigates the effects of this fibrin sealant on functional recovery, neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and glial reaction in the spinal motoneuron microenvironment after ventral root reimplantation. Female Lewis rats (7 weeks old) were subjected to VRA and root replantation. The animals were divided into two groups: 1) avulsion only and 2) replanted roots with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom. Post-surgical motor performance was evaluated using the CatWalk system twice a week for 12 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 12 weeks after surgery, and their lumbar intumescences were processed for motoneuron counting and immunohistochemistry (GFAP, Iba-1 and synaptophysin antisera). Array based qRT-PCR was used to evaluate gene regulation of several neurotrophic factors and receptors as well as inflammatory related molecules. The results indicated that the root reimplantation with fibrin sealant enhanced motor recovery, preserved the synaptic covering of the motoneurons and improved neuronal survival. The replanted group did not show significant changes in microglial response compared to VRA-only. However, the astroglial reaction was significantly reduced in this group. In conclusion, the present data suggest that the repair of avulsed roots with snake venom fibrin glue at the exact point of detachment results in neuroprotection and preservation of the synaptic network at the microenvironment of the lesioned motoneurons. Also such procedure reduced the astroglial reaction and increased mRNA levels to neurotrophins and anti

  16. Motor recovery and synaptic preservation after ventral root avulsion and repair with a fibrin sealant derived from snake venom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Barbizan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ventral root avulsion is an experimental model of proximal axonal injury at the central/peripheral nervous system interface that results in paralysis and poor clinical outcome after restorative surgery. Root reimplantation may decrease neuronal degeneration in such cases. We describe the use of a snake venom-derived fibrin sealant during surgical reconnection of avulsed roots at the spinal cord surface. The present work investigates the effects of this fibrin sealant on functional recovery, neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and glial reaction in the spinal motoneuron microenvironment after ventral root reimplantation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female Lewis rats (7 weeks old were subjected to VRA and root replantation. The animals were divided into two groups: 1 avulsion only and 2 replanted roots with fibrin sealant derived from snake venom. Post-surgical motor performance was evaluated using the CatWalk system twice a week for 12 weeks. The rats were sacrificed 12 weeks after surgery, and their lumbar intumescences were processed for motoneuron counting and immunohistochemistry (GFAP, Iba-1 and synaptophysin antisera. Array based qRT-PCR was used to evaluate gene regulation of several neurotrophic factors and receptors as well as inflammatory related molecules. The results indicated that the root reimplantation with fibrin sealant enhanced motor recovery, preserved the synaptic covering of the motoneurons and improved neuronal survival. The replanted group did not show significant changes in microglial response compared to VRA-only. However, the astroglial reaction was significantly reduced in this group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, the present data suggest that the repair of avulsed roots with snake venom fibrin glue at the exact point of detachment results in neuroprotection and preservation of the synaptic network at the microenvironment of the lesioned motoneurons. Also such procedure reduced the

  17. Expression of Fos during sham sucrose intake in rats with central gustatory lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungarndee, Suriyaphun S; Lundy, Robert F; Norgren, Ralph

    2008-09-01

    For humans and rodents, ingesting sucrose is rewarding. This experiment tested the prediction that the neural activity produced by sapid sucrose reaches reward systems via projections from the pons through the limbic system. Gastric cannulas drained ingested fluid before absorption. For 10 days, the rats alternated an hour of this sham ingestion between sucrose and water. On the final test day, half of them sham drank water and the other half 0.6 M sucrose. Thirty minutes later, the rats were killed and their brains immunohistochemically stained for Fos. The groups consisted of controls and rats with excitotoxic lesions in the gustatory thalamus (TTA), the medial (gustatory) parabrachial nucleus (PBN), or the lateral (visceral afferent) parabrachial nucleus. In controls, compared with water, sham ingesting sucrose produced significantly more Fos-positive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract, PBN, TTA, and gustatory cortex (GC). In the ventral forebrain, sucrose sham licking increased Fos in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central nucleus of amygdala, and the shell of nucleus accumbens. Thalamic lesions blocked the sucrose effect in GC but not in the ventral forebrain. After lateral PBN lesions, the Fos distributions produced by distilled H(2)O or sucrose intake did not differ from controls. Bilateral medial PBN damage, however, eliminated the sucrose-induced Fos increase not only in the TTA and GC but also in the ventral forebrain. Thus ventral forebrain areas associated with affective responses appear to be activated directly by PBN gustatory neurons rather than via the thalamocortical taste system.

  18. Anatomical study of endoscope-assisted far lateral keyhole approach to the ventral craniocervical region with neuronavigational guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Min-wu; Wang, Jia-yin; Feng, Dong-xia; Fu, Paul; Chen, Li-hua; Li, Ming-chu; Zhang, Qiu-hang; Samii, Amir; Samii, Madjid; Kong, Feng; Zhang, Zhi-ping; Chen, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Image-guided neurosurgery, endoscopic-assisted neurosurgery and the keyhole approach are three important parts of minimally invasive neurosurgery and have played a significant role in treating skull base lesions. This study aimed to investigate the potential usefulness of coupling of the endoscope with the far lateral keyhole approach and image guidance at the ventral craniocervical junction in a cadaver model. We simulated far lateral keyhole approach bilaterally in five cadaveric head specimens (10 cranial hemispheres). Computed tomography-based image guidance was used for intraoperative navigation and for quantitative measurements. Skull base structures were observed using both an operating microscope and a rigid endoscope. The jugular tubercle and one-third of the occipital condyle were then drilled, and all specimens were observed under the microscope again. We measured and compared the exposure of the petroclivus area provided by the endoscope and by the operating microscope. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. With endoscope assistance and image guidance, it was possible to observe the deep ventral craniocervical junction structures through three nerve gaps (among facial-acoustical nerves and the lower cranial nerves) and structures normally obstructed by the jugular tubercle and occipital condyle in the far lateral keyhole approach. The surgical area exposed in the petroclival region was significantly improved using the 0° endoscope (1147.80 mm(2)) compared with the operating microscope ((756.28 ± 50.73) mm(2)). The far lateral retrocondylar keyhole approach, using both 0° and 30° endoscopes, provided an exposure area ((1147.80 ± 159.57) mm(2) and (1409.94 ± 155.18) mm(2), respectively) greater than that of the far lateral transcondylar transtubercular keyhole approach ((1066.26 ± 165.06) mm(2)) (P approach the ventral craniocervical junction with the far lateral keyhole approach. The

  19. Cortisol, Cytokines, and Hippocampal Volume in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Daniel Sudheimer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Separate bodies of literature report that elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol negatively affect hippocampal structure and cognitive functioning, particularly in older adults. Although interactions between cytokines and cortisol occur through a variety of known mechanisms, few studies consider how their interactions affect brain structure. In this preliminary study, we assess the impact of interactions between circulating levels of IL-1Beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha, and waking cortisol on hippocampal volume. Twenty-eight community-dwelling older adults underwent blood draws for quantification of circulating cytokines and saliva collections to quantify the cortisol awakening response. Hippocampal volume measurements were made using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Elevated levels of waking cortisol in conjunction with higher concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. In addition, independent of cortisol, higher levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were also associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. These data provide preliminary evidence that higher cortisol, in conjunction with higher IL-6 and TNF-alpha, are associated with smaller hippocampal volume in older adults. We suggest that the dynamic balance between the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis and inflammation processes may explain hippocampal volume reductions in older adults better than either set of measures do in isolation.

  20. Acupuncture reversed hippocampal mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular dementia rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Yi; Lin, Li-Ting; Wang, Xue-Rui; Du, Si-Qi; Yan, Chao-Qun; He, Tian; Yang, Jing-Wen; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal mitochondrial dysfunction due to oxidative stress has been considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of vascular dementia (VD). Previous studies suggested that acupuncture could improve cerebral hypoperfusion-induced cognitive impairments. However, whether hippocampal mitochondria are associated with this cognitive improvement remains unclear. In this study, an animal model of VD was established via bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) to investigate the alterations of cognitive ability and hippocampal mitochondrial function. BCCAO rats showed impairments in hippocampal mitochondrial function, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and learning and memory deficits. After two-week acupuncture treatment, BCCAO-induced spatial learning and memory impairments as shown in Morris water maze were ameliorated. Hippocampal mitochondrial respiratory complex enzymes (complex I, II, IV) activities and cytochrome c oxidase IV expression significantly increased, which might contribute to the reduction of hippocampal ROS generation. In addition, acupuncture significantly improve mitochondrial bioenergy parameters such as mitochondrial respiratory control rate and membrane potential not PDH A1 expression. Placebo-acupuncture did not produce similar therapeutic effects. These findings suggested that acupuncture reversed BCCAO-induced hippocampal mitochondrial dysfunction, which might contribute to its prevention on cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Suspected Acoustic Neuroma Demyelinating Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiuming; Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Xiejun; Wu, Qiang; Huang, Guodong; Li, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    Demyelinating lesions were recognized as a kind of rare central nervous system demyelinating lesion. The diagnosis and differential diagnosis of demyelinating lesions is difficult. Once the diagnosis was delayed or incorrect, it will make a great impact on patients.Demyelinating lesions often involved in young and middle-aged, but this patient was the aged, which is rare.

  2. From attention to memory along the dorsal-ventral axis of the medial prefrontal cortex: Some methodological limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen J. Cassaday

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Distinctions along the dorsal-ventral axis of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, between anterior cingulate (AC, prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL sub-regions, have been proposed on a variety of neuroanatomical and neurophysiological grounds. Conventional lesion approaches (as well as some electrophysiological studies have shown that these distinctions relate to function in that a number behavioural dissociations have been demonstrated, particularly using rodent models of attention, learning and memory. For example, there is evidence to suggest that AC has a relatively greater role in attention, whereas IL is more involved in executive function. However, the well-established methods of behavioral neuroscience have the limitation that neuromodulation is not addressed. The neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine has been used to deplete dopamine (DA in mPFC sub-regions, but these lesions are not selective anatomically and noradrenalin is typically also depleted. Microinfusion of drugs through indwelling cannulae provides an alternative approach, to address the role of neuromodulation and moreover that of specific receptor subtypes within mPFC sub-regions, but the effects of such treatments cannot be assumed to be anatomically restricted either. New methodological approaches to the functional delineation of the role of mPFC in attention, learning and memory will also be considered. Taken in isolation, the conventional lesion methods which have been a first line of approach may suggest that a particular mPFC sub-region is not necessary for a particular aspect of function. However, this does not exclude a neuromodulatory role and more neuropsychopharmacological approaches are needed to explain some of the apparent inconsistencies in the results.

  3. In vivo modulation of hippocampal epileptiform activity with radial electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kristen A; Gluckman, Bruce J; Weinstein, Steven L; Glosch, Caryn E; Moon, Jessica B; Gwinn, Ryder P; Gale, Karen; Schiff, Steven J

    2003-06-01

    Electric field stimulation can interact with brain activity in a subthreshold manner. Electric fields have been previously adaptively applied to control seizures in vitro. We report the first results from establishing suitable electrode geometries and trajectories, as well as stimulation and recording electronics, to apply this technology in vivo. Electric field stimulation was performed in a rat kainic acid injection seizure model. Radial electric fields were generated unilaterally in hippocampus from an axial depth electrode. Both sinusoidal and multiphasic stimuli were applied. Hippocampal activity was recorded bilaterally from tungsten microelectrode pairs. Histologic examination was performed to establish electrode trajectory and characterize lesioning. Electric field modulation of epileptiform neural activity in phase with the stimulus was observed in five of six sinusoidal and six of six multiphasic waveform experiments. Both excitatory and suppressive modulation were observed in the two experiments with stimulation electrodes most centrally placed within the hippocampus. Distinctive modulation was observed in the period preceding seizure-onset detection in two of six experiments. Short-term histologic tissue damage was observed in one of six experiments associated with high unbalanced charge delivery. We demonstrated in vivo electric field modulation of epileptiform hippocampal activity, suggesting that electric field control of in vivo seizures may be technically feasible. The response to stimulation before seizure could be useful for triggering control systems, and may be a novel approach to define a preseizure state.

  4. The human hippocampal formation mediates short-term memory of colour-location associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Carsten; Braun, Mischa; Ostendorf, Florian; Lehmann, Thomas-Nicolas; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Kopp, Ute; Ploner, Christoph J

    2008-01-31

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) has long been considered essential for declarative long-term memory, whereas the fronto-parietal cortex is generally seen as the anatomical substrate of short-term memory. This traditional dichotomy is questioned by recent studies suggesting a possible role of the MTL for short-term memory. In addition, there is no consensus on a possible specialization of MTL sub-regions for memory of associative information. Here, we investigated short-term memory for single features and feature associations in three humans with post-surgical lesions affecting the right hippocampal formation and in 10 healthy controls. We used three delayed-match-to-sample tasks with two delays (900/5000 ms) and three set sizes (2/4/6 items). Subjects were instructed to remember either colours, locations or colour-location associations. In colour-only and location-only conditions, performance of patients did not differ from controls. By contrast, a significant group difference was found in the association condition at 5000 ms delay. This difference was largely independent of set size, thus suggesting that it cannot be explained by the increased complexity of the association condition. These findings show that the hippocampal formation plays a significant role for short-term memory of simple visuo-spatial associations, and suggest a specialization of MTL sub-regions for associative memory.

  5. Factors predicting the outcome following medical treatment of mesial temporal epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sànchez, Javier; Centanaro, Mirella; Solís, Juanita; Delgado, Fabrizio; Yépez, Luis

    2014-06-01

    There is a lack of information from South America regarding factors that predict the clinical outcomes of patients treated medically for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). This study was conducted to determine which of these factors are the most important. This study included 110 South American patients with MTLE-HS treated with antiepileptic drugs. The factors considered included age, gender, age of epilepsy onset, interval between the lesion and the first seizure, central nervous system infection, traumatic brain injury, perinatal asphyxia, febrile convulsion, history of status epilepticus, types of seizures, site of hippocampal sclerosis (HS), extrahippocampal pathology, and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. The patients were divided into two groups based on the response to treatment: Group I, seizure free for at least two years; and Group II, not seizure free. On the multivariate analysis, the factors associated with a poor prognosis in terms of seizure frequency and control following treatment included the presence of an early onset of seizure, more than 10 seizures per month before treatment, and EEG abnormalities. The recognition of risk factors, such as early onset of seizures, more than 10 seizures per month before treatment, and EEG abnormalities, could lead to the identification of risk groups among patients with MTLE-HS and refractory epilepsy, possibly designating these individuals as candidates for early epilepsy surgery. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Localized gene transfer into organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and acute hippocampal slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaccia-Bonnefil, P; Benedikz, Eirikur; Shen, H

    1993-01-01

    that directs expression of E. coli beta-galactosidase (beta-gal), were microapplied into stratum pyramidale or stratum granulosum of slice cultures. Twenty-four hours later, a cluster of transduced cells expressing beta-gal was observed at the microapplication site. Gene transfer by microapplication was both...... effective and rapid. The titer of the HSVlac stocks was determined on NIH3T3 cells. Eighty-three percent of the beta-gal forming units successfully transduced beta-gal after microapplication to slice cultures. beta-Gal expression was detected as rapidly as 4 h after transduction into cultures of fibroblasts...... or hippocampal slices. The rapid expression of beta-gal by HSVlac allowed efficient transduction of acute hippocampal slices. Many genes have been transduced and expressed using HSV vectors; therefore, this microapplication method can be applied to many neurobiological questions....

  7. Electroacupuncture Regulates Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity via miR-134-Mediated LIMK1 Function in Rats with Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weilin; Wu, Jie; Huang, Jia; Zhuo, Peiyuan; Lin, Yunjiao; Wang, Lulu; Lin, Ruhui; Chen, Lidian; Tao, Jing

    2017-01-01

    MircoRNAs (miRs) have been implicated in learning and memory, by regulating LIM domain kinase (LIMK1) to induce synaptic-dendritic plasticity. The study aimed to investigate whether miRNAs/LIMK1 signaling was involved in electroacupuncture- (EA-) mediated synaptic-dendritic plasticity in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion induced cognitive deficit (MICD). Compared to untreatment or non-acupoint-EA treatment, EA at DU20 and DU24 acupoints could shorten escape latency and increase the frequency of crossing platform in Morris water maze test. T2-weighted imaging showed that the MICD rat brain lesions were located in cortex, hippocampus, corpus striatum, and thalamus regions and injured volumes were reduced after EA. Furthermore, we found that the density of dendritic spine and the number of synapses in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells were obviously reduced at Day 14 after MICD. However, synaptic-dendritic loss could be rescued after EA. Moreover, the synaptic-dendritic plasticity was associated with increases of the total LIMK1 and phospho-LIMK1 levels in hippocampal CA1 region, wherein EA decreased the expression of miR-134, negatively regulating LIMK1 to enhance synaptic-dendritic plasticity. Therefore, miR-134-mediated LIMK1 was involved in EA-induced hippocampal synaptic plasticity, which served as a contributor to improving learning and memory during the recovery stage of ischemic stroke.

  8. Schizophrenia polygenic risk score predicts mnemonic hippocampal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Ursini, Gianluca; Romer, Adrienne L; Knodt, Annchen R; Mezeivtch, Karleigh; Xiao, Ena; Pergola, Giulio; Blasi, Giuseppe; Straub, Richard E; Callicott, Joseph H; Berman, Karen F; Hariri, Ahmad R; Bertolino, Alessandro; Mattay, Venkata S; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2018-02-03

    The use of polygenic risk scores has become a practical translational approach to investigating the complex genetic architecture of schizophrenia, but the link between polygenic risk scores and pathophysiological components of this disorder has been the subject of limited research. We investigated in healthy volunteers whether schizophrenia polygenic risk score predicts hippocampal activity during simple memory encoding, which has been proposed as a risk-associated intermediate phenotype of schizophrenia. We analysed the relationship between polygenic risk scores and hippocampal activity in a discovery sample of 191 unrelated healthy volunteers from the USA and in two independent replication samples of 76 and 137 healthy unrelated participants from Europe and the USA, respectively. Polygenic risk scores for each individual were calculated as the sum of the imputation probability of reference alleles weighted by the natural log of odds ratio from the recent schizophrenia genome-wide association study. We examined hippocampal activity during simple memory encoding of novel visual stimuli assessed using blood oxygen level-dependent functional MRI. Polygenic risk scores were significantly associated with hippocampal activity in the discovery sample [P = 0.016, family-wise error (FWE) corrected within Anatomical Automatic Labeling (AAL) bilateral hippocampal-parahippocampal mask] and in both replication samples (P = 0.033, FWE corrected within AAL right posterior hippocampal-parahippocampal mask in Bari sample, and P = 0.002 uncorrected in the Duke Neurogenetics Study sample). The relationship between polygenic risk scores and hippocampal activity was consistently negative, i.e. lower hippocampal activity in individuals with higher polygenic risk scores, consistent with previous studies reporting decreased hippocampal-parahippocampal activity during declarative memory tasks in patients with schizophrenia and in their healthy siblings. Polygenic risk scores accounted for

  9. Ventralization of an indirect developing hemichordate by NiCl₂ suggests a conserved mechanism of dorso-ventral (D/V) patterning in Ambulacraria (hemichordates and echinoderms).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttinger, E; Martindale, M Q

    2011-06-01

    One of the earliest steps in embryonic development is the establishment of the future body axes. Morphological and molecular data place the Ambulacraria (echinoderms and hemichordates) within the Deuterostomia and as the sister taxon to chordates. Extensive work over the last decades in echinoid (sea urchins) echinoderms has led to the characterization of gene regulatory networks underlying germ layer specification and axis formation during embryogenesis. However, with the exception of recent studies from a direct developing hemichordate (Saccoglossus kowalevskii), very little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying early hemichordate development. Unlike echinoids, indirect developing hemichordates retain the larval body axes and major larval tissues after metamorphosis into the adult worm. In order to gain insight into dorso-ventral (D/V) patterning, we used nickel chloride (NiCl₂), a potent ventralizing agent on echinoderm embryos, on the indirect developing enteropneust hemichordate, Ptychodera flava. Our present study shows that NiCl₂ disrupts the D/V axis and induces formation of a circumferential mouth when treated before the onset of gastrulation. Molecular analysis, using newly isolated tissue-specific markers, shows that the ventral ectoderm is expanded at expense of dorsal ectoderm in treated embryos, but has little effect on germ layer or anterior-posterior markers. The resulting ventralized phenotype, the effective dose, and the NiCl₂ sensitive response period of Ptychodera flava, is very similar to the effects of nickel on embryonic development described in larval echinoderms. These strong similarities allow one to speculate that a NiCl₂ sensitive pathway involved in dorso-ventral patterning may be shared between echinoderms, hemichordates and a putative ambulacrarian ancestor. Furthermore, nickel treatments ventralize the direct developing hemichordate, S. kowalevskii indicating that a common pathway patterns both larval and adult

  10. Effects of dorsal hippocampal damage on conditioning and conditioned-response timing: A pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shu K E; Jennings, Dómhnall J; Bonardi, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Behavioral findings suggest that the dorsal hippocampus (DHPC) plays a role in timing of appetitive conditioned responding. The present article explored the relationship between the extent of DHPC damage and timing ability, in a pooled analysis of three published studies from our laboratory. Initial analyses of variance confirmed our previous reports that DHPC damage reduced peak time (a measure of timing accuracy). However, the spread (a measure of timing precision) was unchanged, such that the coefficient of variation (spread/peak time) was significantly larger in DHPC-lesioned animals. This implies that, in addition to the well-established effect of DHPC lesions on timing accuracy, DHPC damage produced a deficit in precision of timing. To complement this analysis, different generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMMs) were performed on the combined dataset, to examine which combinations of the different behavioral measures of timing were the best predictors of the degree of hippocampal damage. The results from the GLMM analysis suggested that the greater the DHPC damage, the greater the absolute difference between the observed peak time and reinforced duration. Nevertheless, this systematic relationship between damage and performance was not specific to the temporal domain: paradoxically the greater the damage the greater the magnitude of peak responding. We discuss these lesion effects in terms of scalar timing theory. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Is hippocampal neurogenesis modulated by the sensation of self-motion encoded by the vestibular system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F

    2017-12-01

    It is now well accepted that physical exercise stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and may promote cognitive ability. Less clear are the mechanisms by which this process occurs. One potential contributing influence, that is usually neglected, is the vestibular system, which by its very nature must be activated during physical exercise and which essentially cannot be turned off without complete bilateral vestibular lesions. This paper reviews a small literature that demonstrates that bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) in rats modulates cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) and that artificial electrical activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation, does also. Although there are only a few piecemeal studies of this subject, because of the way that they were controlled, it is likely that the vestibular system has a regulatory role in cell proliferation in the DG and therefore possibly in neurogenesis, which needs to be taken into account in the interpretation of neurogenesis studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The treatment of ventral penile chordee without hypospadias by dorsal midline plication in an adolescent boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Coban

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Herein we report of a case with isolated ventral penile chordee who underwent dorsal midline plication procedure. We aimed to present our experience and to review of the literature on current management.

  13. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor induces growth of the rat ventral prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, N; Jensen, L V; Wen, J G

    2001-01-01

    composition. RESULTS: Treatment with EGF increased the weight of the ventral prostate, relative to body weight, by 50% compared with placebo (p coagulating glands were affected by EGF. Prostate tissue showed a significant increase in the volume...

  14. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor induces growth of the rat ventral prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, N; Jensen, L V; Wen, J G

    2001-01-01

    composition.RESULTS: Treatment with EGF increased the weight of the ventral prostate, relative to body weight, by 50% compared with placebo (p coagulating glands were affected by EGF. Prostate tissue showed a significant increase in the volume...

  15. 'Batman excision' of ventral skin in hypospadias repair, clue to aesthetic repair (point of technique).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebeke, P B; De Kuyper, P; Van Laecke, E

    2002-11-01

    In the hypospadiac penis the ventral skin is poorly developed, while dorsal skin is redundant. The classical Byars' flaps are a way to use the excess dorsal skin to cover the penile shaft. The appearance after Byars' flaps however is not natural. We use a more natural looking skin allocation with superior aesthetic results. The clue in this reconstruction is an inverted triangle shaped excision of ventral skin expanding over the edges of the hooded prepuce (which makes it look like Batman). After excision of the ventral skin it is possible to close the penile skin in the midline, thus mimicking the natural raphe. In case of preputial reconstruction the excised ventral skin makes the prepuce look more natural. The trend of further refining aesthetic appearance of the hypospadiac penis often neglects the penile skin reconstruction. A technique is presented by which the total penile appearances after surgery ameliorates due to better skin reconstruction.

  16. Transient inactivation of the neonatal ventral hippocampus impairs attentional set-shifting behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Julie M; Pershing, Michelle L; Thomsen, Morten Skøtt

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive deficits represent a core symptom cluster in schizophrenia that are thought to reflect developmental dysregulations within a neural system involving the ventral hippocampus (VH), nucleus accumbens (NAC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC). The present experiments determined the cognitive effects...

  17. Large Contaminated Ventral Hernia Repair Using Component Separation Technique with Synthetic Mesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slater, N.J.; Knaapen, L.; Bökkerink, W.J.V.; Biemans, M.J.; Buyne, O.R.; Ulrich, D.J.O.; Bleichrodt, R.P.; Goor, H. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Large ventral hernia repair represents a major reconstructive surgical challenge, especially under contaminated conditions. Synthetic mesh is usually avoided in these circumstances because of fear of mesh infection, although evidence is outdated and does not regard new materials and

  18. Functional organization and visual representations in human ventral lateral prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Wai Yiu Chan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies in both human and non-human primates have identified face selective activation in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex even in the absence of working memory demands. Further, research has suggested that this face-selective response is largely driven by the presence of the eyes. However, the nature and origin of visual category responses in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex remain unclear. Further, in a broader sense, how do these findings relate to our current understandings of lateral prefrontal cortex? What do these findings tell us about the underlying function and organization principles of the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex? What is the future direction for investigating visual representations in this cortex? This review focuses on the function, topography, and circuitry of the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex to enhance our understanding of the evolution and development of this cortex.

  19. Mallory-Weiss lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, J.; Jensen, Lone Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Malory-Weiss syndrome (MW) has been known since 1929. Only few studies exist which focus on the prognosis of the lesion. No Danish MW data are available. The purpose of the study was to describe the demographics of patients admitted with an MW to a Danish surgical unit during a 5-year...

  20. Common conjunctival lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    where vision is affected, if the pterygium looks suspicious or if it is cosmetically unacceptable. Limbal dermoid (Fig. 6). A limbal dermoid is a congenital tumour that usually occurs at the inferotemporal limbus or globe. ... Such lesions may be multiple and appear in the caruncle or fornix. e sessile papilloma is more frequently ...

  1. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants asso...

  2. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    or permanent teeth,selective removal to soft dentineshould be performed, although in permanent teeth,stepwise removalis an option. The evidence and, therefore, these recommendations support less invasive carious lesion management, delaying entry to, and slowing down, the restorative cycle by preserving tooth...

  3. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  4. Transcolonic ventral wall hernia mesh fixation in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, D G; Ryou, M; Pai, R D; Tavakkolizadeh, A; Rattner, D W; Thompson, C C

    2007-10-01

    A natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) approach to ventral wall hernia repair may represent a potentially less invasive alternative to current transabdominal surgical techniques. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of using transcolonic NOTES to deliver hernia repair mesh into the peritoneal cavity, as well as the ability to manipulate composite mesh and secure it to the abdominal wall. Five pigs weighing 20 to 25 kg were used in this feasibility study involving two acute and three survival experiments. A prototype mesh delivery system was used to transfer 1.5 - 2-cm x 2.5 - 3-cm pieces of composite hernia mesh into the peritoneal cavity. Neodymium magnets on a prototype control arm were used to help position the mesh by magnetically engaging previously placed endoscopic clips. Transfascial fixation of the mesh with 3-0 monofilament sutures was achieved using a 19-gauge hollow needle, pusher wire, and a suture tag system. Composite hernia mesh was successfully transferred and secured in 5/5 attempts. All three survival animals thrived for 14 days prior to elective sacrifice. At necropsy, the mesh sites were found to be well peritonealized without adhesions. Suture placement through the posterior fascia was confirmed in 10/12 sutures. Of these, four sutures were within the abdominal musculature, and two sutures were through the anterior fascia (transfascial). Transcolonic delivery, transcutaneous magnetic manipulation, and fixation of composite hernia mesh are technically feasible in a porcine model with animal survival. An effective suturing method that allows consistent anchoring through the anterior fascia would be preferred and may require the development of novel devices.

  5. Reading without the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L.; Neufeld, Nicholas H.; Zeidman, Peter; Leff, Alex P.; Mechelli, Andrea; Nagendran, Arjuna; Riddoch, Jane M.; Humphreys, Glyn W.; Price, Cathy J.

    2012-01-01

    The left ventral occipito-temporal cortex (LvOT) is thought to be essential for the rapid parallel letter processing that is required for skilled reading. Here we investigate whether rapid written word identification in skilled readers can be supported by neural pathways that do not involve LvOT. Hypotheses were derived from a stroke patient who acquired dyslexia following extensive LvOT damage. The patient followed a reading trajectory typical of that associated with pure alexia, re-gaining the ability to read aloud many words with declining performance as the length of words increased. Using functional MRI and dynamic causal modelling (DCM), we found that, when short (three to five letter) familiar words were read successfully, visual inputs to the patient’s occipital cortex were connected to left motor and premotor regions via activity in a central part of the left superior temporal sulcus (STS). The patient analysis therefore implied a left hemisphere “reading-without-LvOT” pathway that involved STS. We then investigated whether the same reading-without-LvOT pathway could be identified in 29 skilled readers and whether there was inter-subject variability in the degree to which skilled reading engaged LvOT. We found that functional connectivity in the reading-without-LvOT pathway was strongest in individuals who had the weakest functional connectivity in the LvOT pathway. This observation validates the findings of our patient’s case study. Our findings highlight the contribution of a left hemisphere reading pathway that is activated during the rapid identification of short familiar written words, particularly when LvOT is not involved. Preservation and use of this pathway may explain how patients are still able to read short words accurately when LvOT has been damaged. PMID:23017598

  6. Photodynamic damage of glial cells in crayfish ventral nerve cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, M. S.; Duz, E.; Uzdensky, A. B.

    2011-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising method for treatment of brain tumors, the most of which are of glial origin. In the present work we studied PDT-mediated injury of glial cells in nerve tissue, specifically, in abdominal connectives in the crayfish ventral nerve cord. The preparation was photosensitized with alumophthalocyanine Photosens and irradiated 30 min with the diode laser (670 nm, 0.1 or 0.15 W/cm2). After following incubation in the darkness during 1- 10 hours it was fluorochromed with Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide to reveal nuclei of living, necrotic and apoptotic cells. The chain-like location of the glial nuclei allowed visualization of those enveloping giant axons and blood vessels. The level of glial necrosis in control preparations was about 2-5 %. Apoptosis was not observed in control preparations. PDT significantly increased necrosis of glial cells to 52 or 67 % just after irradiation with 0.1 or 0.15 W/cm2, respectively. Apoptosis of glial cells was observed only at 10 hours after light exposure. Upper layers of the glial envelope of the connectives were injured stronger comparing to deep ones: the level of glial necrosis decreased from 100 to 30 % upon moving from the connective surface to the plane of the giant axon inside the connective. Survival of glial cells was also high in the vicinity of blood vessels. One can suggest that giant axons and blood vessels protect neighboring glial cells from photodynamic damage. The mechanism of such protective action remains to be elucidated.

  7. Identification of Rat Ventral Tegmental Area GABAergic Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Elyssa B.; Toy, Brian; Himmels, Patricia; Morales, Marisela; Fields, Howard L.

    2012-01-01

    The canonical two neuron model of opioid reward posits that mu opioid receptor (MOR) activation produces reward by disinhibiting midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons through inhibition of local GABAergic interneurons. Although indirect evidence supports the neural circuit postulated by this model, its validity has been called into question by growing evidence for VTA neuronal heterogeneity and the recent demonstration that MOR agonists inhibit GABAergic terminals in the VTA arising from extrinsic neurons. In addition, VTA MOR reward can be dopamine-independent. To directly test the assumption that MOR activation directly inhibits local GABAergic neurons, we investigated the properties of rat VTA GABA neurons directly identified with either immunocytochemistry for GABA or GAD65/67, or in situ hybridization for GAD65/67 mRNA. Utilizing co-labeling with an antibody for the neural marker NeuN and in situ hybridization against GAD65/67, we found that 23±3% of VTA neurons are GAD65/67(+). In contrast to the assumptions of the two neuron model, VTA GABAergic neurons are heterogeneous, both physiologically and pharmacologically. Importantly, only 7/13 confirmed VTA GABA neurons were inhibited by the MOR selective agonist DAMGO. Interestingly, all confirmed VTA GABA neurons were insensitive to the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen (0/6 inhibited), while all confirmed dopamine neurons were inhibited (19/19). The heterogeneity of opioid responses we found in VTA GABAergic neurons, and the fact that GABA terminals arising from neurons outside the VTA are inhibited by MOR agonists, make further studies essential to determine the local circuit mechanisms underlying VTA MOR reward. PMID:22860119

  8. Reading without the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Neufeld, Nicholas H; Zeidman, Peter; Leff, Alex P; Mechelli, Andrea; Nagendran, Arjuna; Riddoch, Jane M; Humphreys, Glyn W; Price, Cathy J

    2012-12-01

    The left ventral occipito-temporal cortex (LvOT) is thought to be essential for the rapid parallel letter processing that is required for skilled reading. Here we investigate whether rapid written word identification in skilled readers can be supported by neural pathways that do not involve LvOT. Hypotheses were derived from a stroke patient who acquired dyslexia following extensive LvOT damage. The patient followed a reading trajectory typical of that associated with pure alexia, re-gaining the ability to read aloud many words with declining performance as the length of words increased. Using functional MRI and dynamic causal modelling (DCM), we found that, when short (three to five letter) familiar words were read successfully, visual inputs to the patient's occipital cortex were connected to left motor and premotor regions via activity in a central part of the left superior temporal sulcus (STS). The patient analysis therefore implied a left hemisphere "reading-without-LvOT" pathway that involved STS. We then investigated whether the same reading-without-LvOT pathway could be identified in 29 skilled readers and whether there was inter-subject variability in the degree to which skilled reading engaged LvOT. We found that functional connectivity in the reading-without-LvOT pathway was strongest in individuals who had the weakest functional connectivity in the LvOT pathway. This observation validates the findings of our patient's case study. Our findings highlight the contribution of a left hemisphere reading pathway that is activated during the rapid identification of short familiar written words, particularly when LvOT is not involved. Preservation and use of this pathway may explain how patients are still able to read short words accurately when LvOT has been damaged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of neostigmine and atropine on basal and handling-induced acetylcholine output from ventral hippocampus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, E; Schirm, Eric; Jacsó, J; Westerink, B.H.C.

    The involvement of muscarinic autoreceptors in the regulation of hippocampal acetylcholine levels during acetylcholinesterase inhibition was examined by perfusing the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine bromide(10, 100 or 1000 nM) alone and in the presence of the muscarinic receptor

  10. Interleukin-17 inhibits Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Xin, Wei; He, Ping; Turner, Dharshaun; Yin, Junxiang; Gan, Yan; Shi, Fu-Dong; Wu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin 17(A) (IL-17) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine that acts as a central regulator of inflammatory response within the brain, but its physiological roles under non-inflammatory conditions remain elusive. Here we report that endogenous IL-17 ablates neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus. Genetic deletion of IL-17 increased the number of adult-born neurons in the DG. Further, we found that IL-17 deletion altered cytokine network, facilitated basal excitatory synaptic transmission, enhanced intrinsic neuronal excitability, and increased expression of proneuronal genes in neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs). Our findings suggest a profound role of IL-17 in the negative regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis under physiology conditions. PMID:25523081

  11. Tau protein and adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena eFuster-Matanzo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tau protein is a microtubule associated protein found in the axonal compartment that stabilizes neuronal microtubules under normal physiological conditions. Tau metabolism has attracted much attention because of its role in neurodegenerative disorders called tauopathies, mainly Alzheimer disease. Here, we review recent findings suggesting that axonal outgrowth in subgranular zone during adult hippocampal neurogenesis requires a dynamic microtubule network and tau protein facilitates to maintain that dynamic cytoskeleton. Those functions are carried out in part by tau isoform with only three microtubule-binding domains (without exon 10 and by presence of hypherphosphorylated tau forms. Thus, tau is a good marker and a valuable tool to study new axons in adult neurogenesis.

  12. Fast synaptic subcortical control of hippocampal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Viktor; Losonczy, Attila; Zemelman, Boris V; Borhegyi, Zsolt; Nyiri, Gábor; Domonkos, Andor; Hangya, Balázs; Holderith, Noémi; Magee, Jeffrey C; Freund, Tamás F

    2009-10-16

    Cortical information processing is under state-dependent control of subcortical neuromodulatory systems. Although this modulatory effect is thought to be mediated mainly by slow nonsynaptic metabotropic receptors, other mechanisms, such as direct synaptic transmission, are possible. Yet, it is currently unknown if any such form of subcortical control exists. Here, we present direct evidence of a strong, spatiotemporally precise excitatory input from an ascending neuromodulatory center. Selective stimulation of serotonergic median raphe neurons produced a rapid activation of hippocampal interneurons. At the network level, this subcortical drive was manifested as a pattern of effective disynaptic GABAergic inhibition that spread throughout the circuit. This form of subcortical network regulation should be incorporated into current concepts of normal and pathological cortical function.

  13. Spatial relational memory requires hippocampal adult neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dupret

    Full Text Available The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few regions of the mammalian brain where new neurons are generated throughout adulthood. This adult neurogenesis has been proposed as a novel mechanism that mediates spatial memory. However, data showing a causal relationship between neurogenesis and spatial memory are controversial. Here, we developed an inducible transgenic strategy allowing specific ablation of adult-born hippocampal neurons. This resulted in an impairment of spatial relational memory, which supports a capacity for flexible, inferential memory expression. In contrast, less complex forms of spatial knowledge were unaltered. These findings demonstrate that adult-born neurons are necessary for complex forms of hippocampus-mediated learning.

  14. Contraction of the ventral abdomen potentiates extracardiac retrograde hemolymph propulsion in the mosquito hemocoel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W Andereck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemolymph circulation in mosquitoes is primarily controlled by the contractile action of a dorsal vessel that runs underneath the dorsal midline and is subdivided into a thoracic aorta and an abdominal heart. Wave-like peristaltic contractions of the heart alternate in propelling hemolymph in anterograde and retrograde directions, where it empties into the hemocoel at the terminal ends of the insect. During our analyses of hemolymph propulsion in Anopheles gambiae, we observed periodic ventral abdominal contractions and hypothesized that they promote extracardiac hemolymph circulation in the abdominal hemocoel. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We devised methods to simultaneously analyze both heart and abdominal contractions, as well as to measure hemolymph flow in the abdominal hemocoel. Qualitative and quantitative analyses revealed that ventral abdominal contractions occur as series of bursts that propagate in the retrograde direction. Periods of ventral abdominal contraction begin only during periods of anterograde heart contraction and end immediately following a heartbeat directional reversal, suggesting that ventral abdominal contractions function to propel extracardiac hemolymph in the retrograde direction. To test this functional role, fluorescent microspheres were intrathoracically injected and their trajectory tracked throughout the hemocoel. Quantitative measurements of microsphere movement in extracardiac regions of the abdominal cavity showed that during periods of abdominal contractions hemolymph flows in dorsal and retrograde directions at a higher velocity and with greater acceleration than during periods of abdominal rest. Histochemical staining of the abdominal musculature then revealed that ventral abdominal contractions result from the contraction of intrasegmental lateral muscle fibers, intersegmental ventral muscle bands, and the ventral transverse muscles that form the ventral diaphragm. CONCLUSIONS

  15. Opposing interactions between homothorax and Lobe define the ventral eye margin of Drosophila eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit; Tare, Meghana; Kango-Singh, Madhuri; Son, Won-Seok; Cho, Kyung-Ok; Choi, Kwang-wook

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Patterning in multi-cellular organisms involves progressive restriction of cell fates by generation of boundaries to divide an organ primordium into smaller fields. We have employed the Drosophila eye model to understand the genetic circuitry responsible for defining the boundary between the eye and the head cuticle on the ventral margin. The default state of the early eye is ventral and depends on the function of Lobe (L) and the Notch ligand Serrate (Ser). We identified homothorax (hth) as a strong enhancer of the L mutant phenotype of loss of ventral eye. Hth is a MEIS class gene with a highly conserved Meis-Hth (MH) domain and a homeodomain (HD). Hth is known to bind Extradenticle (Exd) via its MH domain for its nuclear translocation. Loss-of-function of hth, a negative regulator of eye, results in ectopic ventral eye enlargements. This phenotype is complementary to the L mutant phenotype of loss-of-ventral eye. However, if L and hth interact during ventral eye development remains unknown. Here we show that (i) L acts antagonistically to hth, (ii) Hth is upregulated in the L mutant background, and (iii) MH domain of Hth is required for its genetic interaction with L, while its homeodomain is not, (iv) in L mutant background ventral eye suppression function of Hth involves novel MH domain-dependent factor(s), (v) Nuclear localization of Exd is not sufficient to mediate the Hth function in the L mutant background. Further, Exd is not a critical rate-limiting factor for the Hth function. Thus, optimum levels of L and Hth are required to define the boundary between the developing eye and head cuticle on the ventral margin. PMID:21920354

  16. Contraction of the Ventral Abdomen Potentiates Extracardiac Retrograde Hemolymph Propulsion in the Mosquito Hemocoel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andereck, Jonathan W.; King, Jonas G.; Hillyer, Julián F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Hemolymph circulation in mosquitoes is primarily controlled by the contractile action of a dorsal vessel that runs underneath the dorsal midline and is subdivided into a thoracic aorta and an abdominal heart. Wave-like peristaltic contractions of the heart alternate in propelling hemolymph in anterograde and retrograde directions, where it empties into the hemocoel at the terminal ends of the insect. During our analyses of hemolymph propulsion in Anopheles gambiae, we observed periodic ventral abdominal contractions and hypothesized that they promote extracardiac hemolymph circulation in the abdominal hemocoel. Methodology/Principal Findings We devised methods to simultaneously analyze both heart and abdominal contractions, as well as to measure hemolymph flow in the abdominal hemocoel. Qualitative and quantitative analyses revealed that ventral abdominal contractions occur as series of bursts that propagate in the retrograde direction. Periods of ventral abdominal contraction begin only during periods of anterograde heart contraction and end immediately following a heartbeat directional reversal, suggesting that ventral abdominal contractions function to propel extracardiac hemolymph in the retrograde direction. To test this functional role, fluorescent microspheres were intrathoracically injected and their trajectory tracked throughout the hemocoel. Quantitative measurements of microsphere movement in extracardiac regions of the abdominal cavity showed that during periods of abdominal contractions hemolymph flows in dorsal and retrograde directions at a higher velocity and with greater acceleration than during periods of abdominal rest. Histochemical staining of the abdominal musculature then revealed that ventral abdominal contractions result from the contraction of intrasegmental lateral muscle fibers, intersegmental ventral muscle bands, and the ventral transverse muscles that form the ventral diaphragm. Conclusions/Significance These data show that

  17. Ventral striatum activity when watching preferred pornographic pictures is correlated with symptoms of Internet pornography addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Snagowski, Jan; Laier, Christian; Maderwald, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    One type of Internet addiction is excessive pornography consumption, also referred to as cybersex or Internet pornography addiction. Neuroimaging studies found ventral striatum activity when participants watched explicit sexual stimuli compared to non-explicit sexual/erotic material. We now hypothesized that the ventral striatum should respond to preferred pornographic compared to non-preferred pornographic pictures and that the ventral striatum activity in this contrast should be correlated with subjective symptoms of Internet pornography addiction. We studied 19 heterosexual male participants with a picture paradigm including preferred and non-preferred pornographic materials. Subjects had to evaluate each picture with respect to arousal, unpleasantness, and closeness to ideal. Pictures from the preferred category were rated as more arousing, less unpleasant, and closer to ideal. Ventral striatum response was stronger for the preferred condition compared to non-preferred pictures. Ventral striatum activity in this contrast was correlated with the self-reported symptoms of Internet pornography addiction. The subjective symptom severity was also the only significant predictor in a regression analysis with ventral striatum response as dependent variable and subjective symptoms of Internet pornography addiction, general sexual excitability, hypersexual behavior, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, and sexual behavior in the last days as predictors. The results support the role for the ventral striatum in processing reward anticipation and gratification linked to subjectively preferred pornographic material. Mechanisms for reward anticipation in ventral striatum may contribute to a neural explanation of why individuals with certain preferences and sexual fantasies are at-risk for losing their control over Internet pornography consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Fangjie; Lei, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity. Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses. It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice. A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords: Morel-Lavallee lesion, closed degloving injury, concealed degloving injury, Morel-Lavallee effusion, Morel-Lavallee hematoma, posttraumatic pseudocyst, posttraumatic soft tissue cyst. Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected. Their references were also reviewed. Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury. It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia. Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter, MLLs have been described in other parts of the body. The natural history of MLL has not yet been established. The lesion may decrease in volume, remain stable, enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern. Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL. Treatment of MLL has included compression, local aspiration, open debridement, and sclerodesis. No standard treatment has been established. A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft, fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis. Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures, the condition of the lesion, symptom and desire of the patient.

  19. Tuning afferent synapses of hippocampal interneurons by neuropeptide Y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledri, Marco; Sørensen, Andreas Toft; Erdelyi, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    extrahippocampal afferents. Various excitatory and inhibitory afferent and efferent synapses of the hippocampal CCK basket cells express serotoninergic, cholinergic, cannabinoid, and benzodiazepine sensitive receptors, all contributing to their functional plasticity. We explored whether CCK basket cells...

  20. Extent of hippocampal atrophy predicts degree of deficit in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patai, Eva Zita; Gadian, David G; Cooper, Janine M; Dzieciol, Anna M; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-10-13

    Which specific memory functions are dependent on the hippocampus is still debated. The availability of a large cohort of patients who had sustained relatively selective hippocampal damage early in life enabled us to determine which type of mnemonic deficit showed a correlation with extent of hippocampal injury. We assessed our patient cohort on a test that provides measures of recognition and recall that are equated for difficulty and found that the patients' performance on the recall tests correlated significantly with their hippocampal volumes, whereas their performance on the equally difficult recognition tests did not and, indeed, was largely unaffected regardless of extent of hippocampal atrophy. The results provide new evidence in favor of the view that the hippocampus is essential for recall but not for recognition.

  1. Alcohol and adult hippocampal neurogenesis: Promiscuous drug, wanton effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geil, Chelsea R.; Hayes, Dayna M.; McClain, Justin A.; Liput, Daniel J.; Marshall, S. Alex; Chen, Kevin Y.; Nixon, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is now widely accepted as an important contributor to hippocampal integrity and function but also dysfunction when adult neurogenesis is affected in neuropsychiatric diseases such as alcohol use disorders. Excessive alcohol consumption, the defining characteristic of alcohol use disorders, results in a variety of cognitive and behavioral impairments related wholly or in part to hippocampal structure and function. Recent preclinical work has shown that adult neurogenesis may be one route by which alcohol produces hippocampal neuropathology. Alcohol is a pharmacologically promiscuous drug capable of interfering with adult neurogenesis through multiple mechanisms. This review will discuss the primary mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis including alcohol's effects on neurotransmitters, CREB and its downstream effectors, and the neurogenic niche. PMID:24842804

  2. Rhinal-hippocampal EEG coherence is reduced during human sleep.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fell, J.; Staedtgen, M.; Burr, W.; Kockelmann, E.; Helmstaedter, C.; Schaller, C.; Elger, C.E.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2003-01-01

    The deficiency of declarative memory compared with waking state is an often overlooked characteristic of sleep. Here, we investigated whether rhinal-hippocampal coherence, an electrophysiological correlate of declarative memory formation, is significantly altered during sleep as compared with waking

  3. Differential response of hippocampal subregions to stress and learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hawley, Darby F; Morch, Kristin; Christie, Brian R; Leasure, J Leigh

    2012-01-01

    .... In a prior study of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in rodents, we found that it selectively enhanced cellular plasticity in the dorsal hippocampal subregion while negatively impacting it in the...

  4. Modulating Hippocampal Plasticity with In Vivo Brain Stimulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rohan, Joyce G; Carhuatanta, Kim A; McInturf, Shawn M; Miklasevich, Molly K; Jankord, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    .... However, the mechanisms by which tDCS effects brain function remain under scrutiny. We have demonstrated that in vivo tDCS in rats produced a lasting effect on hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as measured using extracellular recordings...

  5. Information in small neuronal ensemble activity in the hippocampal CA1 during delayed non-matching to sample performance in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Susumu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The matrix-like organization of the hippocampus, with its several inputs and outputs, has given rise to several theories related to hippocampal information processing. Single-cell electrophysiological studies and studies of lesions or genetically altered animals using recognition memory tasks such as delayed non-matching-to-sample (DNMS tasks support the theories. However, a complete understanding of hippocampal function necessitates knowledge of the encoding of information by multiple neurons in a single trial. The role of neuronal ensembles in the hippocampal CA1 for a DNMS task was assessed quantitatively in this study using multi-neuronal recordings and an artificial neural network classifier as a decoder. Results The activity of small neuronal ensembles (6-18 cells over brief time intervals (2-50 ms contains accurate information specifically related to the matching/non-matching of continuously presented stimuli (stimulus comparison. The accuracy of the combination of neurons pooled over all the ensembles was markedly lower than those of the ensembles over all examined time intervals. Conclusion The results show that the spatiotemporal patterns of spiking activity among cells in the small neuronal ensemble contain much information that is specifically useful for the stimulus comparison. Small neuronal networks in the hippocampal CA1 might therefore act as a comparator during recognition memory tasks.

  6. Rescue and sprouting of motoneurons following ventral root avulsion and reimplantation combined with intraspinal adeno-associated viral vector-mediated expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor or brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blits, Bas; Carlstedt, Thomas P; Ruitenberg, Marc Jan; de Winter, Fred; Hermens, Wim T J M C; Dijkhuizen, Paul A; Claasens, Jill W C; Eggers, Ruben; van der Sluis, Ronald; Tenenbaum, Liliane; Boer, Gerard J; Verhaagen, Joost

    2004-10-01

    Following avulsion of a spinal ventral root, motoneurons that project through the avulsed root are axotomized. Avulsion between, for example, L2 and L6 leads to denervation of hind limb muscles. Reimplantation of an avulsed root directed to the motoneuron pool resulted in re-ingrowth of some motor axons. However, most motoneurons display retrograde atrophy and subsequently die. Two neurotrophic factors, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), promote the survival of motoneurons after injury. The long-term delivery of these neurotrophic factors to the motoneurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord is problematic. One strategy to improve the outcome of the neurosurgical reinsertion of the ventral root following avulsion would involve gene transfer with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors encoding these neurotrophic factors near the denervated motoneuron pool. Here, we show that AAV-mediated overexpression of GDNF and BDNF in the spinal cord persisted for at least 16 weeks. At both 1 and 4 months post-lesion AAV-BDNF- and -GDNF-treated animals showed an increased survival of motoneurons, the effect being more prominent at 1 month. AAV vector-mediated overexpression of neurotrophins also promoted the formation of a network of motoneuron fibers in the ventral horn at the avulsed side, but motoneurons failed to extent axons into the reinserted L4 root towards the sciatic nerve nor to improve functional recovery of the hind limbs. This suggests that high levels of neurotrophic factors in the ventral horn promote sprouting, but prevent directional growth of axons of a higher number of surviving motoneurons into the implanted root.

  7. Le Projet hippocampe devient un important protagoniste de la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le Projet hippocampe devient un important protagoniste de la conservation de la faune marine. 29 octobre 2012. Image. Stephen Dale. Des effets durables. Pour certains, le Projet hippocampe est un organisme qui a mobilisé des collectivités de pêcheurs pauvres des Philippines pour créer des dizaines d'aires protégées ...

  8. Damage of hippocampal neurons in rats with chronic alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Ailin; Jiang, Hongbo; Xu, Lei; An, Na; Liu, Hui; Li, Yinsheng; Zhang, Ruiling

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism can damage the cytoskeleton and aggravate neurological deficits. However, the effect of chronic alcoholism on hippocampal neurons remains unclear. In this study, a model of chronic alcoholism was established in rats that were fed with 6% alcohol for 42 days. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide content and cystathionine-beta-synthase activity in the hippocampus of rats with chronic alcoholism were significantly increased, while F-actin expression was decreased. Hippocampal neurons i...

  9. Comparison of mesencephalic free-floating tissue culture grafts and cell suspension grafts in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Morten; Widmer, H R; Wagner, B

    1998-01-01

    , calbindin, and parvalbumin showed no differences in the neuronal expression of these proteins between the two graft types. In conclusion, we found comparable dopaminergic cell survival and functional effects of tissue-culture grafts and cell-suspension grafts, which currently is the type of graft most......Ventral mesencephalon (VM) of fetal rat and human origin grown as free-floating roller-tube (FFRT) cultures can survive subsequent grafting to the adult rat striatum. To further explore the functional efficacy of such grafts, embryonic day 13 ventral mesencephalic tissue was grafted either after 7...... days in culture or directly as dissociated cell suspensions, and compared with regard to neuronal survival and ability to normalize rotational behavior in adult rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions. Other lesioned rats received injections of cell-free medium and served as controls...

  10. Sleep-stage correlates of hippocampal electroencephalogram in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoi Tamura

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated in the rodent hippocampus that rhythmic slow activity (theta predominantly occurs during rapid eye movement (REM sleep, while sharp waves and associated ripples occur mainly during non-REM sleep. However, evidence is lacking for correlates of sleep stages with electroencephalogram (EEG in the hippocampus of monkeys. In the present study, we recorded hippocampal EEG from the dentate gyrus in monkeys overnight under conditions of polysomnographical monitoring. As result, the hippocampal EEG changed in a manner similar to that of the surface EEG: during wakefulness, the hippocampal EEG showed fast, desynchronized waves, which were partly replaced with slower waves of intermediate amplitudes during the shallow stages of non-REM sleep. During the deep stages of non-REM sleep, continuous, slower oscillations (0.5-8 Hz with high amplitudes were predominant. During REM sleep, the hippocampal EEG again showed fast, desynchronized waves similar to those found during wakefulness. These results indicate that in the monkey, hippocampal rhythmic slow activity rarely occurs during REM sleep, which is in clear contrast to that of rodents. In addition, the increase in the slower oscillations of hippocampal EEG during non-REM sleep, which resembled that of the surface EEG, may at least partly reflect cortical inputs to the dentate gyrus during this behavioral state.

  11. Growth hormone rescues hippocampal synaptic function after sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunyoung; Bertolotti, Don; Green, Todd L.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep is required for, and sleep loss impairs, normal hippocampal synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor function and expression, hippocampal NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity, and hippocampal-dependent memory function. Although sleep is essential, the signals linking sleep to hippocampal function are not known. One potential signal is growth hormone. Growth hormone is released during sleep, and its release is suppressed during sleep deprivation. If growth hormone links sleep to hippocampal function, then restoration of growth hormone during sleep deprivation should prevent adverse consequences of sleep loss. To test this hypothesis, we examined rat hippocampus for spontaneous excitatory synaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons, long-term potentiation in area CA1, and NMDA receptor subunit proteins in synaptic membranes. Three days of sleep deprivation caused a significant reduction in NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic currents compared with control treatments. When rats were injected with growth hormone once per day during sleep deprivation, the loss of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic currents was prevented. Growth hormone injections also prevented the impairment of long-term potentiation that normally follows sleep deprivation. In addition, sleep deprivation led to a selective loss of NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) from hippocampal synaptic membranes, but normal NR2B expression was restored by growth hormone injection. Our results identify growth hormone as a critical mediator linking sleep to normal synaptic function of the hippocampus. PMID:20237303

  12. Religious factors and hippocampal atrophy in late life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy D Owen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite a growing interest in the ways spiritual beliefs and practices are reflected in brain activity, there have been relatively few studies using neuroimaging data to assess potential relationships between religious factors and structural neuroanatomy. This study examined prospective relationships between religious factors and hippocampal volume change using high-resolution MRI data of a sample of 268 older adults. Religious factors assessed included life-changing religious experiences, spiritual practices, and religious group membership. Hippocampal volumes were analyzed using the GRID program, which is based on a manual point-counting method and allows for semi-automated determination of region of interest volumes. Significantly greater hippocampal atrophy was observed for participants reporting a life-changing religious experience. Significantly greater hippocampal atrophy was also observed from baseline to final assessment among born-again Protestants, Catholics, and those with no religious affiliation, compared with Protestants not identifying as born-again. These associations were not explained by psychosocial or demographic factors, or baseline cerebral volume. Hippocampal volume has been linked to clinical outcomes, such as depression, dementia, and Alzheimer's Disease. The findings of this study indicate that hippocampal atrophy in late life may be uniquely influenced by certain types of religious factors.

  13. Lesion progression in post-treatment persistent endodontic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Victoria Soo Hoon; Messer, Harold Henry; Shen, Liang; Yee, Robert; Hsu, Chin-ying Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Radiographic lesions related to root-filled teeth may persist for long periods after treatment and are considered to indicate failure of initial treatment. Persistent lesions are found in a proportion of cases, but information on lesion progression is lacking. This study examined the incidence of lesion improvement, remaining unchanged, and deterioration among persistent lesions in a group of patients recruited from a university-based clinic and identified potential predictors for lesion progression. Patients of a university clinic with persistent endodontic lesions at least 4 years since treatment and with original treatment radiographs available were recruited with informed consent. Data were obtained by interview and from dental records and clinical and radiographic examinations. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out by using SPSS (version 19). One hundred fifty-one persistent lesions were identified in 114 patients. A majority of the lesions (107, 70.9%) received treatment between 4 and 5 years prior. Eighty-six lesions (57.0%) improved, 18 (11.9%) remained unchanged, and 47 (31.1%) deteriorated since treatment. Potential predictors for lesions that did not improve included recall lesion size, pain on biting at recall examination, history of a postobturation flare-up, and a non-ideal root-filling length (P < .05). Lesions that had persisted for a longer period appeared less likely to be improving (relative risk, 1.038; 95% confidence interval, 1.000-1.077). A specific time interval alone should not be used to conclude that a lesion will not resolve without intervention. This study identified several clinical factors that are associated with deteriorating persistent lesions, which should aid in identifying lesions that require further intervention. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Concurrent TMS-fMRI Reveals Interactions between Dorsal and Ventral Attentional Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Joana; Thielscher, Axel; Tünnerhoff, Johannes; Noppeney, Uta

    2015-08-12

    Adaptive behavior relies on combining bottom-up sensory inputs with top-down control signals to guide responses in line with current goals and task demands. Over the past decade, accumulating evidence has suggested that the dorsal and ventral frontoparietal attentional systems are recruited interactively in this process. This fMRI study used concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a causal perturbation approach to investigate the interactions between dorsal and ventral attentional systems and sensory processing areas. In a sustained spatial attention paradigm, human participants detected weak visual targets that were presented in the lower-left visual field on 50% of the trials. Further, we manipulated the presence/absence of task-irrelevant auditory signals. Critically, on each trial we applied 10 Hz bursts of four TMS (or Sham) pulses to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). IPS-TMS relative to Sham-TMS increased activation in the parietal cortex regardless of sensory stimulation, confirming the neural effectiveness of TMS stimulation. Visual targets increased activations in the anterior insula, a component of the ventral attentional system responsible for salience detection. Conversely, they decreased activations in the ventral visual areas. Importantly, IPS-TMS abolished target-evoked activation increases in the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) of the ventral attentional system, whereas it eliminated target-evoked activation decreases in the right fusiform. Our results demonstrate that IPS-TMS exerts profound directional causal influences not only on visual areas but also on the TPJ as a critical component of the ventral attentional system. They reveal a complex interplay between dorsal and ventral attentional systems during target detection under sustained spatial attention. Adaptive behavior relies on combining bottom-up sensory inputs with top-down attentional control. Although the dorsal and ventral frontoparietal systems are key players in

  15. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LAPRADE, ROBERT F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and conse...

  16. Skin lesions in sadomasochism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sønderbo, K; Nyfors, A

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the case of a 35-year-old man who consulted the department of venereology because of healing problems with some wounds caused by burning his skin perianally with cigarettes as part of a sexual satisfaction ritual. Knowledge of such lesions may be useful to physicians and social workers. Sadomasochism and 'offers' in the intimate-massage clinics in Copenhagen are surveyed.

  17. A model of posttraumatic epilepsy after penetrating brain injuries: effect of lesion size and metal fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendirli, M Tansel; Rose, Dominique T; Bertram, Edward H

    2014-12-01

    Penetrating brain injury (PBI) has the highest risk for inducing posttraumatic epilepsy, and those PBIs with retained foreign materials such as bullet fragments carry the greatest risk. This study examines the potential contribution of copper, a major component of bullets, to the development of epilepsy following PBI. Anesthetized adult male rats received a penetrating injury from the dorsal cortex to the ventral hippocampus from a high speed small bit drill. In one group of animals, copper wire was inserted into the lesion. Control animals had only the lesion or the lesion plus stainless steel wire (biologically inert foreign body). From 6 to up to 11 months following the injury the rats were monitored intermittently for the development of epilepsy with video-electroencephalography (EEG). A separate set of animals was examined for possible acute seizures in the week following the injury. Twenty-two of the 23 animals with copper wire developed chronic epilepsy, compared to three of the 20 control rats (lesion and lesion with stainless steel). Copper was associated with more extensive injury. The control rats with epilepsy had larger lesions. In the acute injury group, there was no difference in the incidence of seizures (83% lesion plus stainless steel, 70% lesion plus copper). Copper increases the risk for epilepsy and may increase damage over time, but there were no differences between the groups in the incidence of acute postinjury seizures. Lesion size may contribute to epilepsy development in lesion-only animals. Copper may be an independent risk factor for the development of epilepsy and possible secondary injury, but lesion size also contributes to the development of epilepsy. The consequences of prolonged exposure of the brain to copper observed in these animals may have clinical implications that require further evaluation. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  18. Skin lesion removal-aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shave excision - skin aftercare; Excision of skin lesions - benign aftercare; Skin lesion removal - benign aftercare; Cryosurgery - skin aftercare; BCC - removal aftercare; Basal cell cancer - removal aftercare; Actinic keratosis - removal aftercare; Wart - ...

  19. Morphological classifications of gastrointestinal lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, Jasper L. A.; Hazewinkel, Yark; Dekker, Evelien

    2017-01-01

    In the era of spreading adoption of gastrointestinal endoscopy screening worldwide, endoscopists encounter an increasing number of complex lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. For decision-making on optimal treatment, precise lesion characterization is crucial. Especially the assessment of

  20. Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis along the Dorsoventral Axis Contributes Differentially to Environmental Enrichment Combined with Voluntary Exercise in Alleviating Chronic Inflammatory Pain in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Jiang, Ying-Ying; Xu, Ling-Chi; Ma, Long-Yu; Liu, Feng-Yu; Cui, Shuang; Cai, Jie; Liao, Fei-Fei; Wan, You; Yi, Ming

    2017-04-12

    Cognitive behavioral therapy, such as environmental enrichment combined with voluntary exercise (EE-VEx), is under active investigation as an adjunct to pharmaceutical treatment for chronic pain. However, the effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of EE-VEx remain unclear. In mice with intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant, our results revealed that EE-VEx alleviated perceptual, affective, and cognitive dimensions of chronic inflammatory pain. These effects of EE-VEx on chronic pain were contingent on the occurrence of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus in a functionally dissociated manner along the dorsoventral axis: neurogenesis in the ventral dentate gyrus participated in alleviating perceptual and affective components of chronic pain by EE-VEx, whereas neurogenesis in the dorsal dentate gyrus was involved in EE-VEx's cognitive-enhancing effects. Chronic inflammatory pain was accompanied by decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the dentate gyrus, which were reversed by EE-VEx. Overexpression of BDNF in the dentate gyrus mimicked the effects of EE-VEx. Our results demonstrate distinct contribution of adult hippocampal neurogenesis along the dorsoventral axis to EE-VEx's beneficial effects on different dimensions of chronic pain.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Environmental enrichment combined with voluntary exercise (EE-VEx) is under active investigation as an adjunct to pharmaceutical treatment for chronic pain, but its effectiveness and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In a mouse model of inflammatory pain, the present study demonstrates that the beneficial effects of EE-VEx on chronic pain depend on adult neurogenesis with a dorsoventral dissociation along the hippocampal axis. Adult neurogenesis in the ventral dentate gyrus participates in alleviating perceptual and affective components of chronic pain by EE-VEx, whereas that in the dorsal pole is involved in EE-VEx's cognitive-enhancing effects in chronic pain

  1. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    2011-12-01

    Severe pain is usual after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR). Mesh fixation with titanium tacks may play a key role in the development of acute and chronic pain and alternative fixation methods should therefore be investigated. This PhD thesis was based on three studies and aimed too: 1) assess the intensity and impact of postoperative pain by detailed patient-reported description of pain and convalescence after LVHR (Study I), 2) evaluate the feasibility of fibrin sealant (FS) for mesh fixation in an experimental pig model (Study II), and 3) investigate FS vs. tacks for mesh fixation in LVHR in a randomised, double-blinded, clinical controlled study with acute postoperative pain as the primary outcome (Study III). In Study I - a prospective descriptive study - 35 patients were prospectively included and underwent LVHR. Scores of pain, quality of life, convalescence, fatigue, and general well-being were obtained from each patient. Follow-up was six months. Average pain from postoperative day (POD) 0-2 and POD 0-6 measured on a 0-100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) was 61 and 48, respectively. Pain scores reached preoperative values at POD 30. The incidence of severe chronic pain was 7%. No parameter predicted postoperative pain significantly. Significant correlations were found between pain, and general well-being (rS= -0.8, p pigs - nine pigs were operated laparoscopically with insertion of two different meshes fixed with either FS or tacks. All pigs were euthanized on POD 30. The primary outcome parameter was strength of ingrowth between the mesh and the anterior abdominal wall. A mechanical peel test was performed for each tissue sample. The secondary outcome parameters were grade and strength of adhesions to the mesh, shrinkage and displacement/folding of the mesh and histological parameters. All nine pigs survived without complications until sacrifice. No meshes were displaced from their initial position at autopsy, but in two cases mesh folding was

  2. Acute periodontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano

    2014-06-01

    This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute

  3. Transgastric ventral hernia repair: a controlled study in a live porcine model (with videos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsevoy, Sergey V; Dray, Xavier; Shin, Eun Ji; Buscaglia, Jonathan M; Magno, Priscilla; Assumpcao, Lia; Marohn, Michael R; Redan, Jay; Giday, Samuel A; Schweitzer, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Ventral hernia repair is currently performed via open surgery or laparoscopic approach. To develop an alternative ventral hernia repair technique. Acute and survival experiments on twelve 50-kg pigs. An endoscope was introduced transgastrically into the peritoneal cavity. An abdominal wall hernia was created through a 5-mm skin incision followed by a 5-cm-long incision of the abdominal wall muscles and aponeurosis. A hernia repair technique was developed in 3 acute experiments. Then animals were randomized into 2 groups. In the experimental group (5 animals) Gore-Tex mesh was transgastrically attached to the abdominal wall, repairing the previously created abdominal wall hernia. In the control group (4 animals), the hernia was not repaired. In both groups, the endoscope was then withdrawn into the stomach, and the gastric wall incision was closed with T-bars. The animals survived for 2 weeks and were then euthanized. The presence of ventral hernia on necropsy. In the control group, the ventral hernia was present on necropsy in all animals. In the experimental group, the ventral hernia was easily repaired, with no evidence of hernia on necropsy. In the first animal in the experimental group, necropsy revealed infected mesh. After this discovery, we used sterilized cover for mesh delivery and did not find any signs of infection in 4 subsequent study animals. The study was performed in a porcine model. Transgastric ventral hernia repair is feasible, technically easy, and effective. It can become a less invasive alternative to the currently used laparoscopic and surgical ventral hernia repair.

  4. Gene expression suggests decoupled dorsal and ventral segmentation in the millipede Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ralf; Prpic, Nikola-Michael; Damen, Wim G M

    2004-04-01

    Diplopods (millipedes) are known for their irregular body segmentation. Most importantly, the number of dorsal segmental cuticular plates (tergites) does not match the number of ventral structures (e.g., sternites). Controversial theories exist to explain the origin of this so-called diplosegmentation. We have studied the embryology of a representative diplopod, Glomeris marginata, and have analyzed the segmentation genes engrailed (en), hedgehog (hh), cubitus-interruptus (ci), and wingless (wg). We show that dorsal segments can be distinguished from ventral segments. They differ not only in number and developmental history, but also in gene expression patterns. engrailed, hedgehog, and cubitus-interruptus are expressed in both ventral and dorsal segments, but at different intrasegmental locations, whereas wingless is expressed only in the ventral segments, but not in the dorsal segments. Ventrally, the patterns are similar to what has been described from Drosophila and other arthropods, consistent with a conserved role of these genes in establishing parasegment boundaries. On the dorsal side, however, the gene expression patterns are different and inconsistent with a role in boundary formation between segments, but they suggest that these genes might function to establish the tergite borders. Our data suggest a profound and rather complete decoupling of dorsal and ventral segmentation leading to the dorsoventral discrepancies in the number of segmental elements. Based on gene expression, we propose a model that may resolve the hitherto controversial issue of the correlation between dorsal tergites and ventral leg pairs in basal diplopods (e.g., Glomeris) and is suggestive also for derived, ring-forming diplopods (e.g., Juliformia).

  5. In vivo detection of lateral-ventral tier nigral degeneration in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Daniel E; Langley, Jason; Sedlacik, Jan; Boelmans, Kai; Factor, Stewart A; Hu, Xiaoping P

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to measure neuromelanin-sensitive MRI contrast changes in the lateral-ventral tier of substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease (PD). Histopathological studies of PD have demonstrated both massive loss of melanized dopamine neurons and iron accumulation in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Neurodegeneration is most profound in the lateral-ventral tier of this structure. We have previously shown in both healthy controls and individuals with PD that neuromelanin-sensitive MRI and iron-sensitive MRI contrast regions in substantia nigra overlap. This overlap region is located in the lateral-ventral tier. Exploiting this area of contrast overlap for region of interest selection, we developed a semi-automated image processing approach to characterize the lateral-ventral tier in MRI data. Here we apply this approach to measure magnetization transfer contrast, which corresponds to local neuromelanin density, in both the lateral-ventral tier and the entire pars compacta in 22 PD patients and 19 controls. Significant contrast reductions were seen in PD in both the entire pars compacta (P = 0.009) and in its lateral-ventral tier (P = 0.0002); in PD contrast was significantly lower in the lateral-ventral tier than in the entire pars compacta (P = 0.0008). These findings are the first in vivo evidence of the selective vulnerability of this nigral subregion in PD, and this approach may be developed for high impact biomarker applications. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2627-2634, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  7. Glutamate Imaging (GluCEST) Lateralizes Epileptic Foci in Non-Lesional Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kathryn Adamiak; Nanga, Ravi Prakash Reddy; Das, Sandhitsu; Chen, Stephanie H.; Hadar, Peter N.; Pollard, John R.; Lucas, Timothy H.; Shinohara, Russell T.; Litt, Brian; Hariharan, Hari; Elliott, Mark A.; Detre, John A.; Reddy, Ravinder

    2015-01-01

    When neuroimaging reveals a brain lesion, drug-resistant epilepsy patients show better outcomes after resective surgery than do the one-third of drug resistant epilepsy patients who have normal brain MRIs. We applied a glutamate imaging method, GluCEST (Glutamate Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer), to patients with non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) based on conventional MRI. GluCEST correctly lateralized the temporal lobe seizure focus on visual and quantitative analysis in all patients. MR spectra, available in a subset of patients and controls, corroborated the GluCEST findings. Hippocampal volumes were not significantly different between hemispheres. GluCEST allowed for high-resolution functional imaging of brain glutamate and has potential to identify the epileptic focus in patients previously deemed non-lesional. This method may lead to improved clinical outcomes for temporal lobe epilepsy as well as other localization-related epilepsies. PMID:26468323

  8. Selective Silencing of Hippocampal Parvalbumin Interneurons Induces Development of Recurrent Spontaneous Limbic Seizures in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexel, Meinrad; Romanov, Roman A; Wood, James; Weger, Stefan; Heilbronn, Regine; Wulff, Peer; Tasan, Ramon O; Harkany, Tibor; Sperk, Günther

    2017-08-23

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequent form of focal epilepsies and is generally associated with malfunctioning of the hippocampal formation. Recently, a preferential loss of parvalbumin (PV) neurons has been observed in the subiculum of TLE patients and in animal models of TLE. To demonstrate a possible causative role of defunct PV neurons in the generation of TLE, we permanently inhibited GABA release selectively from PV neurons of the ventral subiculum by injecting a viral vector expressing tetanus toxin light chain in male mice. Subsequently, mice were subjected to telemetric EEG recording and video monitoring. Eighty-eight percent of the mice presented clusters of spike-wave discharges (C-SWDs; 40.0 ± 9.07/month), and 64% showed spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs; 5.3 ± 0.83/month). Mice injected with a control vector presented with neither C-SWDs nor SRSs. No neurodegeneration was observed due to vector injection or SRS. Interestingly, mice that presented with only C-SWDs but no SRSs, developed SRSs upon injection of a subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole after 6 weeks. The initial frequency of SRSs declined by ∼30% after 5 weeks. In contrast to permanent silencing of PV neurons, transient inhibition of GABA release from PV neurons through the designer receptor hM4Di selectively expressed in PV-containing neurons transiently reduced the seizure threshold of the mice but induced neither acute nor recurrent seizures. Our data demonstrate a critical role for perisomatic inhibition mediated by PV-containing interneurons, suggesting that their sustained silencing could be causally involved in the development of TLE.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) generally takes years after an initial insult during which maladaptation of hippocampal circuitries takes place. In human TLE and in animal models of TLE, parvalbumin neurons are selectively lost in the subiculum, the major output area of the hippocampus. The present

  9. Brain lesions at autopsy in older Japanese-American men as related to cognitive impairment and dementia in the final years of life: a summary report from the Honolulu-Asia aging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lon

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from 443 autopsies on Japanese-American men followed as active participants in the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study from 1991 through 2003. Five distinct neuropathological lesion types were found to have strong, partially, or completely independent associations with cognitive impairment and/or dementia in the final years of life. They were: Alzheimer lesions (neocortical neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques), microvascular infarcts (microinfarcts and lacunar infarcts), neocortical Lewy bodies, hippocampal sclerosis, and generalized brain atrophy. Atrophy was strongly associated with both Alzheimer lesions and microvascular infarcts, but was also observed in decedents with negligible levels of these and the other lesions. About half of the hippocampal sclerosis cases appeared to be linked to Alzheimer lesions. A weak association of hippocampal sclerosis with microvascular infarcts was also noted. Comparable 3-level indices were defined for each of the five lesion types to facilitate comparisons of associations with cognitive impairment and dementia. Multiple combinations of the five lesion types were observed. The development of dementia in the final years of life was more closely correlated with their combined numbers and severities than with specific lesion types. In this autopsy panel, microvascular infarcts were identified as the sole or dominant lesion in 33.8% of the demented or definitely impaired decedents, compared with Alzheimer lesions in 18.6% and co-dominant lesions (most often Alzheimer and microvascular) in 14.2%. These or one or more of the other lesion types were observed in 87.9% of the demented or definitely impaired decedents.

  10. Stimulation of the ventral tegmental area increased nociceptive thresholds and decreased spinal dorsal horn neuronal activity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Ling; Sibi, Jiny E; Yang, Xiaofei; Chiao, Jung-Chih; Peng, Yuan Bo

    2016-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation has been found to be effective in relieving intractable pain. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays a role not only in the reward process, but also in the modulation of nociception. Lesions of VTA result in increased pain thresholds and exacerbate pain in several pain models. It is hypothesized that direct activation of VTA will reduce pain experience. In this study, we investigated the effect of direct electrical stimulation of the VTA on mechanical, thermal and carrageenan-induced chemical nociceptive thresholds in Sprague-Dawley rats using our custom-designed wireless stimulator. We found that: (1) VTA stimulation itself did not show any change in mechanical or thermal threshold; and (2) the decreased mechanical and thermal thresholds induced by carrageenan injection in the hind paw contralateral to the stimulation site were significantly reversed by VTA stimulation. To further explore the underlying mechanism of VTA stimulation-induced analgesia, spinal cord dorsal horn neuronal responses to graded mechanical stimuli were recorded. VTA stimulation significantly inhibited dorsal horn neuronal activity in response to pressure and pinch from the paw, but not brush. This indicated that VTA stimulation may have exerted its analgesic effect via descending modulatory pain pathways, possibly through its connections with brain stem structures and cerebral cortex areas.

  11. Brain tissue oxygen amperometry in behaving rats demonstrates functional dissociation of dorsal and ventral hippocampus during spatial processing and anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Stephen B; Fillenz, Marianne; Lowry, John P; Rawlins, J Nicolas P; Bannerman, David M

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, the function of the hippocampus (HPC) has been viewed in unitary terms, but there is growing evidence that the HPC is functionally differentiated along its septotemporal axis. Lesion studies in rodents and functional brain imaging in humans suggest a preferential role for the septal HPC in spatial learning and a preferential role for the temporal HPC in anxiety. To better enable cross-species comparison, we present an in vivo amperometric technique that measures changes in brain tissue oxygen at high temporal resolution in freely-moving rats. We recorded simultaneously from the dorsal (septal; dHPC) and ventral (temporal; vHPC) HPC during two anxiety tasks and two spatial tasks on the radial maze. We found a double-dissociation of function in the HPC, with increased vHPC signals during anxiety and increased dHPC signals during spatial processing. In addition, dHPC signals were modulated by spatial memory demands. These results add a new dimension to the growing consensus for a differentiation of HPC function, and highlight tissue oxygen amperometry as a valuable tool to aid translation between animal and human research. PMID:21105915

  12. Associative reinstatement memory measures hippocampal function in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Melanie; Giannoylis, Irene; De Belder, Maya; Saint-Cyr, Jean A; McAndrews, Mary Pat

    2016-09-01

    In Parkinson's Disease (PD), hippocampal atrophy is associated with rapid cognitive decline. Hippocampal function is typically assessed using memory tests but current clinical tools (e.g., free recall) also rely on executive functions or use material that is not optimally engaging hippocampal memory networks. Because of the ubiquity of executive dysfunction in PD, our ability to detect true memory deficits is suboptimal. Our previous behavioural and neuroimaging work in other populations suggests that an experimental memory task - Associative Reinstatement Memory (ARM) - may prove useful in investigating hippocampal function in PD. In this study, we investigated whether ARM is compromised in PD and we assessed its convergent and divergent validity by comparing it to standardized measures of memory and of attention and executive functioning in PD, respectively. Using fMRI, we also investigated whether performance in PD relates to degree of hippocampal engagement. Fifteen participants with PD and 13 age-matched healthy controls completed neuropsychological testing as well as an ARM fMRI recognition paradigm in which they were instructed to identify word pairs comprised of two studied words (intact or rearranged pairs) and those containing at least one new word (new or half new pairs). ARM is measured by the differences in hit rates between intact and rearranged pairs. Behaviourally, ARM was poorer in PD relative to controls and was correlated with verbal memory measures, but not with attention or executive functioning in the PD group. Hippocampal activation associated with ARM was reduced in PD relative to controls and covaried with ARM scores in both groups. To conclude, ARM is a sensitive measure of hippocampal memory function that is unaffected by attention or executive dysfunction in PD. Our study highlights the benefit of integrating cognitive neuroscience frameworks and novel experimental tasks to improve the practice of clinical neuropsychology in PD

  13. The ventral habenulae of zebrafish develop in prosomere 2 dependent on Tcf7l2 function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The conserved habenular neural circuit relays cognitive information from the forebrain into the ventral mid- and hindbrain. In zebrafish, the bilaterally formed habenulae in the dorsal diencephalon are made up of the asymmetric dorsal and symmetric ventral habenular nuclei, which are homologous to the medial and lateral nuclei respectively, in mammals. These structures have been implicated in various behaviors related to the serotonergic/dopaminergic neurotransmitter system. The dorsal habenulae develop adjacent to the medially positioned pineal complex. Their precursors differentiate into two main neuronal subpopulations which differ in size across brain hemispheres as signals from left-sided parapineal cells influence their differentiation program. Unlike the dorsal habenulae and despite their importance, the ventral habenulae have been poorly studied. It is not known which genetic programs underlie their development and why they are formed symmetrically, unlike the dorsal habenulae. A main reason for this lack of knowledge is that the vHb origin has remained elusive to date. Results To address these questions, we applied long-term 2-photon microscopy time-lapse analysis of habenular neural circuit development combined with depth color coding in a transgenic line, labeling all main components of the network. Additional laser ablations and cell tracking experiments using the photoconvertible PSmOrange system in GFP transgenic fish show that the ventral habenulae develop in prosomere 2, posterior and lateral to the dorsal habenulae in the dorsal thalamus. Mutant analysis demonstrates that the ventral habenular nuclei only develop in the presence of functional Tcf7l2, a downstream modulator of the Wnt signaling cascade. Consistently, photoconverted thalamic tcf7l2exl/exl mutant cells do not contribute to habenula formation. Conclusions We show in vivo that dorsal and ventral habenulae develop in different regions of prosomere 2. In the process of ventral

  14. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100

  15. Reward-associated gamma oscillations in ventral striatum are regionally differentiated and modulate local firing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenscher, Tobias; Lansink, Carien S; Lankelma, Jan V; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2010-03-01

    Oscillations of local field potentials (LFPs) in the gamma range are found in many brain regions and are supposed to support the temporal organization of cognitive, perceptual, and motor functions. Even though gamma oscillations have also been observed in ventral striatum, one of the brain's most important structures for motivated behavior and reward processing, their specific function during ongoing behavior is unknown. Using a movable tetrode array, we recorded LFPs and activity of neural ensembles in the ventral striatum of rats performing a reward-collection task. Rats were running along a triangle track and in each round collected one of three different types of rewards. The gamma power of LFPs on subsets of tetrodes was modulated by reward-site visits, discriminated between reward types, between baitedness of reward locations and was different before versus after arrival at a reward site. Many single units in ventral striatum phase-locked their discharge pattern to the gamma oscillations of the LFPs. Phase-locking occurred more often in reward-related than in reward-unrelated neurons and LFPs. A substantial number of simultaneously recorded LFPs correlated poorly with each other in terms of gamma rhythmicity, indicating that the expression of gamma activity was heterogeneous and regionally differentiated. The orchestration of LFPs and single-unit activity by way of gamma rhythmicity sheds light on the functional architecture of the ventral striatum and the temporal coordination of ventral striatal activity for modulating downstream areas and regulating synaptic plasticity.

  16. Integrating early results on ventral striatal gamma oscillations in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Matthijs A A; Kalenscher, Tobias; Lansink, Carien S; Pennartz, Cyriel M A; Berke, Joshua D; Redish, A David

    2010-01-01

    A vast literature implicates the ventral striatum in the processing of reward-related information and in mediating the impact of such information on behavior. It is characterized by heterogeneity at the local circuit, connectivity, and functional levels. A tool for dissecting this complex structure that has received relatively little attention until recently is the analysis of ventral striatal local field potential oscillations, which are more prominent in the gamma band compared to the dorsal striatum. Here we review recent results on gamma oscillations recorded from freely moving rats. Ventral striatal gamma separates into distinct frequency bands (gamma-50 and gamma-80) with distinct behavioral correlates, relationships to different inputs, and separate populations of phase-locked putative fast-spiking interneurons. Fast switching between gamma-50 and gamma-80 occurs spontaneously but is influenced by reward delivery as well as the application of dopaminergic drugs. These results provide novel insights into ventral striatal processing and highlight the importance of considering fast-timescale dynamics of ventral striatal activity.

  17. Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumichi Itoh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 were diagnosed in a 6-month-old female Pomeranian with tetraplegia as a clinical sign. Lateral survey radiography of the neck with flexion revealed atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral subluxation of C2. Computed tomography revealed absence of dens and atlanto-occipital overlapping. Magnetic resonance imaging showed compression of the spinal cord and indentation of caudal cerebellum. The diagnosis was Chiari-like malformation, atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral displacement of C2, atlanto-occipital overlapping, and syringomyelia. The dog underwent foramen magnum decompression, dorsal laminectomy of C1, and ventral fixation of the atlantoaxial joint. Soon after the operation, voluntary movements of the legs were recovered. Finally, the dog could stand and walk without assistance. The dog had complicated malformations at the craniocervical junction but foramen magnum decompression and dorsal laminectomy for Chiari-like malformation, and ventral fixation for atlantoaxial subluxation resulted in an excellent clinical outcome.

  18. White matter anisotropy in the ventral language pathway predicts sound-to-word learning success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Francis C K; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Garibaldi, Kyla; Wong, Patrick C M

    2011-06-15

    According to the dual stream model of auditory language processing, the dorsal stream is responsible for mapping sound to articulation and the ventral stream plays the role of mapping sound to meaning. Most researchers agree that the arcuate fasciculus (AF) is the neuroanatomical correlate of the dorsal steam; however, less is known about what constitutes the ventral one. Nevertheless, two hypotheses exist: one suggests that the segment of the AF that terminates in middle temporal gyrus corresponds to the ventral stream, and the other suggests that it is the extreme capsule that underlies this sound-to-meaning pathway. The goal of this study was to evaluate these two competing hypotheses. We trained participants with a sound-to-word learning paradigm in which they learned to use a foreign phonetic contrast for signaling word meaning. Using diffusion tensor imaging, a brain-imaging tool to investigate white matter connectivity in humans, we found that fractional anisotropy in the left parietal-temporal region positively correlated with the performance in sound-to-word learning. In addition, fiber tracking revealed a ventral pathway, composed of the extreme capsule and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, that mediated auditory comprehension. Our findings provide converging evidence supporting the importance of the ventral steam, an extreme capsule system, in the frontal-temporal language network. Implications for current models of speech processing are also discussed.

  19. Morphological and immunohistochemical comparison of three rat prostate lobes (lateral, dorsal and ventral in experimental hyperprolactinemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Gącarzewicz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The prolactin plays an important role in the regulation of growth and differentiation of prostate gland besides androgens. The goal of this study was to reveal the influence of elevated prolactin concentration on epithelial cells of prostate. We compared the morphology of epithelial cells of prostate dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes and expression of androgen receptors in these cells in rats with hyperprolactinemia and in control rats. We used sexually mature male Wistar rats. The experimental rats received metoclopramide; the control group received saline in the same way. The prostate dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes were collected routinely for light and electron microscopy. The intensity of immunohistochemical reaction of androgen receptor in epithelial cells of dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes was evaluated by measure of optical density with computer image analysis. The light and electron (transmission and scanning microscopes were used for morphological observations. Results: In experimental rats twofold increase in prolactin and twofold decrease in testosterone found. In experimental group the expression of androgen receptor was lower in columnar epithelial cells of dorsal and ventral lobes but higher in lateral one. We observed morphological abnormalities in columnar epithelial cells of lateral and dorsal lobes. The columnar epithelial cells of ventral lobes didn't show any morphological changes in hyperprolactinemia.

  20. Sustained attentional states require distinct temporal involvement of the dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex

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    Antonio Luchicchi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Attending the sensory environment for cue detection is a cognitive operation that occurs on a time scale of seconds. The dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC contribute to separate aspects of attentional processing. Pyramidal neurons in different parts of the mPFC are active during cognitive behavior, yet whether this activity is causally underlying attentional processing is not known. We aimed to determine the precise temporal requirements for activation of the mPFC subregions during the seconds prior to cue detection. To test this, we used optogenetic silencing of dorsal or ventral mPFC pyramidal neurons at defined time windows during a sustained attentional state. We find that the requirement of ventral mPFC pyramidal neuron activity is strictly time-locked to stimulus detection. Inhibiting the ventral mPFC two seconds before or during cue presentation reduces response accuracy and hampers behavioral inhibition. The requirement for dorsal mPFC activity on the other hand is temporally more loosely related to a preparatory attentional state, and short lapses in pyramidal neuron activity in dorsal mPFC do not affect performance. This only occurs when the dorsal mPFC is inhibited during the entire preparatory period. Together, our results reveal that a dissociable temporal recruitment of ventral and dorsal mPFC is required during attentional processing.

  1. Sustained Attentional States Require Distinct Temporal Involvement of the Dorsal and Ventral Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchicchi, Antonio; Mnie-Filali, Ouissame; Terra, Huub; Bruinsma, Bastiaan; de Kloet, Sybren F; Obermayer, Joshua; Heistek, Tim S; de Haan, Roel; de Kock, Christiaan P J; Deisseroth, Karl; Pattij, Tommy; Mansvelder, Huibert D

    2016-01-01

    Attending the sensory environment for cue detection is a cognitive operation that occurs on a time scale of seconds. The dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) contribute to separate aspects of attentional processing. Pyramidal neurons in different parts of the mPFC are active during cognitive behavior, yet whether this activity is causally underlying attentional processing is not known. We aimed to determine the precise temporal requirements for activation of the mPFC subregions during the seconds prior to cue detection. To test this, we used optogenetic silencing of dorsal or ventral mPFC pyramidal neurons at defined time windows during a sustained attentional state. We find that the requirement of ventral mPFC pyramidal neuron activity is strictly time-locked to stimulus detection. Inhibiting the ventral mPFC 2 s before or during cue presentation reduces response accuracy and hampers behavioral inhibition. The requirement for dorsal mPFC activity on the other hand is temporally more loosely related to a preparatory attentional state, and short lapses in pyramidal neuron activity in dorsal mPFC do not affect performance. This only occurs when the dorsal mPFC is inhibited during the entire preparatory period. Together, our results reveal that a dissociable temporal recruitment of ventral and dorsal mPFC is required during attentional processing.

  2. Imaging findings in patients with ventral dural defects and herniation of neural tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, A.; Staebler, A.; Reiser, M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Marchioninistrasse 15, D-81 377 Munich (Germany); Psenner, K. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Allgemeines Regionalkrankenhaus Bozen (Italy); Hamburger, C. [Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Marchioninistrasse 15, D-81 377 Munich (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe clinical and imaging findings in three patients with ventral dural defects and herniation of the spinal cord or cauda equina. The literature is reviewed and the clinical, radiological and operative findings are compared. Three patients with ventral dural defects of different etiologies are presented. One patient gave a longstanding history of ankylosing spondylitis, the second patient presents 37 years after spinal trauma, and the third patient presents with spontaneous spinal cord herniation. All patients had typically slowly progressive neurological symptoms with multiple hospitalizations until diagnosis was made. Characteristic findings in postmyelographic CT included a ventral or ventrolateral displacement with deformation of the spinal cord or the cauda equina. Sagittal MRI showed this abrupt and localized anterior deviation of the spinal cord or the cauda equina to the posterior portions of a vertebral body with or without a bony vertebral defect optimally. Additionally, due to the ventral displacement of the spinal cord, the dorsal subarachnoid space was relatively enlarged without evidence of an arachnoid cyst, in all patients. Magnetic resonance imaging and postmyelographic CT can diagnose ventral dural defects with spinal cord herniation or nerve root entrapment. Dural defects must be considered in the presence of neurological symptoms in cases of longstanding ankylosing spondylitis, late sequelae of fractures of vertebral bodies, and without history of spinal trauma or surgery. (orig.). With 3 figs.

  3. Ventral striatal prediction error signaling is associated with dopamine synthesis capacity and fluid intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, Florian; Rapp, Michael A.; Huys, Quentin J. M.; Beck, Anne; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Deserno, Lorenz; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Kalbitzer, Jan; Buchert, Ralph; Kienast, Thorsten; Cumming, Paul; Plotkin, Michail; Kumakura, Yoshitaka; Grace, Anthony A.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Heinz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Fluid intelligence represents the capacity for flexible problem solving and rapid behavioral adaptation. Rewards drive flexible behavioral adaptation, in part via a teaching signal expressed as reward prediction errors in the ventral striatum, which has been associated with phasic dopamine release in animal studies. We examined a sample of 28 healthy male adults using multimodal imaging and biological parametric mapping with 1) functional magnetic resonance imaging during a reversal learning task and 2) in a subsample of 17 subjects also with positron emission tomography using 6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA to assess dopamine synthesis capacity. Fluid intelligence was measured using a battery of nine standard neuropsychological tests. Ventral striatal BOLD correlates of reward prediction errors were positively correlated with fluid intelligence and, in the right ventral striatum, also inversely correlated with dopamine synthesis capacity (FDOPA Kinapp). When exploring aspects of fluid intelligence, we observed that prediction error signaling correlates with complex attention and reasoning. These findings indicate that individual differences in the capacity for flexible problem solving may be driven by ventral striatal activation during reward-related learning, which in turn proved to be inversely associated with ventral striatal dopamine synthesis capacity. PMID:22344813

  4. Integrating early results on ventral striatal gamma oscillations in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs A A Van Der Meer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A vast literature implicates the ventral striatum in the processing of reward-related information and in mediating the impact of such information on behavior. It is characterized by heterogeneity at the local circuit, connectivity, and functional levels. A tool for dissecting this complex structure that has received relatively little attention until recently is the analysis of ventral striatal local field potential oscillations, which are more prominent in the gamma band compared to the dorsal striatum. Here we review recent results on gamma oscillations recorded from freely moving rats. Ventral striatal gamma separates into distinct frequency bands (gamma-50 and gamma-80 with distinct behavioral correlates, relationships to different inputs, and separate populations of phase-locked putative fast-spiking interneurons. Fast switching between gamma-50 and gamma-80 occurs spontaneously but is influenced by reward delivery as well as the application of dopaminergic drugs. These results provide novel insights into ventral striatal processing and highlight the importance of considering fast-timescale dynamics of ventral striatal activity.

  5. Microelectrode array recordings from the ventral roots in chronically implanted cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham eDebnath

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ventral spinal roots contain the axons of spinal motoneurons and provide the only location in the peripheral nervous system where recorded neural activity can be assured to be motor rather than sensory. This study demonstrates recordings of single unit activity from these ventral root axons using floating microelectrode arrays (FMAs. Ventral root recordings were characterized by examining single unit yield and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR with 32-channel FMAs implanted chronically in the L6 and L7 spinal roots of 9 cats. Single unit recordings were performed for implant periods of up to 12 weeks. Motor units were identified based on active discharge during locomotion and inactivity under anesthesia. Motor unit yield and SNR were calculated for each electrode, and results were grouped by electrode site size, which were varied systematically between 25-160 μm to determine effects on signal quality. The unit yields and SNR did not differ significantly across this wide range of electrode sizes. Both SNR and yield decayed over time, but electrodes were able to record spikes with SNR > 2 up to 12 weeks post-implant. These results demonstrate that it is feasible to record single unit activity from multiple isolated motor units with penetrating microelectrode arrays implanted chronically in the ventral spinal roots. This approach could be useful for creating a spinal nerve interface for advanced neural prostheses, and results of this study will be used to improve design of microelectrodes for chronic neural recording in the ventral spinal roots.

  6. Direct and recurrent inguinal hernias are associated with ventral hernia repair: a database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Nadia A; Sorensen, Lars T; Bay-Nielsen, Morten; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2013-02-01

    A systemically altered connective tissue metabolism has been demonstrated in patients with abdominal wall hernias. The most pronounced connective tissue changes are found in patients with direct or recurrent inguinal hernias as opposed to patients with indirect inguinal hernias. The aim of the present study was to assess whether direct or recurrent inguinal hernias are associated with an elevated rate of ventral hernia surgery. In the nationwide Danish Hernia Database, a cohort of 92,457 patients operated on for inguinal hernias was recorded from January 1998 until June 2010. Eight-hundred forty-three (0.91 %) of these patients underwent a ventral hernia operation between January 2007 and June 2010. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to assess an association between inguinal and ventral hernia repair. Direct (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.28 [95 % CI, 1.08-1.51]) and recurrent (OR = 1.76, [95 % CI, 1.39-2.23]) inguinal hernias were significantly associated with ventral hernia repair after adjustment for age, gender, and surgical approach (open or laparoscopic). Patients with direct and recurrent inguinal herniation are more prone to ventral hernia repair than patients with indirect inguinal herniation. This is the first study to show that herniogenesis is associated with type of inguinal hernia.

  7. Laparoscopic Repair Reduces Incidence of Surgical Site Infections for All Ventral Hernias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Nestor A.; Nguyen, Mylan T.; Nguyen, Duyen H.; Berger, Rachel L.; Lew, Debbie F.; Suliburk, James T.; Askenasy, Erik P.; Kao, Lillian S.; Liang, Mike K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of laparoscopic repair of ventral hernias remains incompletely defined. We hypothesize that laparoscopy, compared to open repair with mesh, decreases surgical site infection (SSI) for all ventral hernia types. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were reviewed to identify studies evaluating outcomes of laparoscopic versus open repair with mesh of ventral hernias and divided into groups (primary or incisional). Studies with high risk of bias were excluded. Primary outcomes of interest were recurrence and SSI. Fixed effects model was used unless significant heterogeneity, assessed with the Higgins I-square (I2), was encountered. Results There were five and fifteen studies for primary and incisional cohorts. No difference was seen in recurrence between laparoscopic and open repair in the two hernia groups. SSI was more common with open repair in both hernia groups: primary (OR 4.17, 95%CI [2.03–8.55]) and incisional (OR 5.16, 95%CI [2.79–9.57]). Conclusions Laparoscopic repair, compared to open repair with mesh, decreases rates of SSI in all types of ventral hernias with no difference in recurrence. This data suggests that laparoscopic approach may be the treatment of choice for all types of ventral hernias. PMID:25294541

  8. Origins of an intrinsic hippocampal EEG pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S Rex

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sharp waves (SPWs are irregular waves that originate in field CA3 and spread throughout the hippocampus when animals are alert but immobile or as a component of the sleep EEG. The work described here used rat hippocampal slices to investigate the factors that initiate SPWs and govern their frequency. Acute transection of the mossy fibers reduced the amplitude but not the frequency of SPWs, suggesting that activity in the dentate gyrus may enhance, but is not essential for, the CA3 waves. However, selective destruction of the granule cells and mossy fibers by in vivo colchicine injections profoundly depressed SPW frequency. Reducing mossy fiber release with an mGluR2 receptor agonist or enhancing it with forskolin respectively depressed or increased the incidence of SPWs. Collectively, these results indicate that SPWs can be triggered by constitutive release from the mossy fibers. The waves were not followed by large after-hyperpolarizing potentials and their frequency was not strongly affected by blockers of various slow potassium channels. Antagonists of GABA-B mediated IPSCs also had little effect on incidence. It appears from these results that the spacing of SPWs is not dictated by slow potentials. However, modeling work suggests that the frequency and variance of large mEPSCs from the mossy boutons can account for the temporal distribution of the waves. Together, these results indicate that constitutive release from the mossy fiber terminal boutons regulates the incidence of SPWs and their contribution to information processing in hippocampus.

  9. Trafficking of astrocytic vesicles in hippocampal slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potokar, Maja; Kreft, Marko [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloska 4, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Celica Biomedical Center, Technology Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lee, So-Young; Takano, Hajime; Haydon, Philip G. [Department of Neuroscience, Room 215, Stemmler Hall, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Zorec, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Zorec@mf.uni-lj.si [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloska 4, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Celica Biomedical Center, Technology Park 24, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-12-25

    The increasingly appreciated role of astrocytes in neurophysiology dictates a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the communication between astrocytes and neurons. In particular, the uptake and release of signaling substances into/from astrocytes is considered as crucial. The release of different gliotransmitters involves regulated exocytosis, consisting of the fusion between the vesicle and the plasma membranes. After fusion with the plasma membrane vesicles may be retrieved into the cytoplasm and may continue to recycle. To study the mobility implicated in the retrieval of secretory vesicles, these structures have been previously efficiently and specifically labeled in cultured astrocytes, by exposing live cells to primary and secondary antibodies. Since the vesicle labeling and the vesicle mobility properties may be an artifact of cell culture conditions, we here asked whether the retrieving exocytotic vesicles can be labeled in brain tissue slices and whether their mobility differs to that observed in cell cultures. We labeled astrocytic vesicles and recorded their mobility with two-photon microscopy in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice with fluorescently tagged astrocytes (GFP mice) and in wild-type mice with astrocytes labeled by Fluo4 fluorescence indicator. Glutamatergic vesicles and peptidergic granules were labeled by the anti-vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) and anti-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antibodies, respectively. We report that the vesicle mobility parameters (velocity, maximal displacement and track length) recorded in astrocytes from tissue slices are similar to those reported previously in cultured astrocytes.

  10. D-serine increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eSultan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis results in the continuous formation of new neurons and is a process of brain plasticity involved in learning and memory. The neurogenic niche regulates the stem cell proliferation and the differentiation and survival of new neurons and a major contributor to the neurogenic niche are astrocytes. Among the molecules secreted by astrocytes, D-serine is an important gliotransmitter and is a co-agonist of the glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor. D-serine has been shown to enhance the proliferation of neural stem cells in vitro, but its effect on adult neurogenesis in vivo is unknown. Here, we tested the effect of exogenous administration of D-serine on adult neurogenesis in the mouse dentate gyrus. We found that 1 week of treatment with D-serine increased cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro and increased the density of neural stem cells and transit amplifying progenitors. Furthermore, D-serine increased the survival of newborn neurons. Together, these results indicate that D-serine treatment resulted in the improvement of several steps of adult neurogenesis in vivo.

  11. Quantifying the Behavioural Relevance of Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazic, Stanley E.; Fuss, Johannes; Gass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Few studies that examine the neurogenesis–behaviour relationship formally establish covariation between neurogenesis and behaviour or rule out competing explanations. The behavioural relevance of neurogenesis might therefore be overestimated if other mechanisms account for some, or even all, of the experimental effects. A systematic review of the literature was conducted and the data reanalysed using causal mediation analysis, which can estimate the behavioural contribution of new hippocampal neurons separately from other mechanisms that might be operating. Results from eleven eligible individual studies were then combined in a meta-analysis to increase precision (representing data from 215 animals) and showed that neurogenesis made a negligible contribution to behaviour (standarised effect  = 0.15; 95% CI  = −0.04 to 0.34; p = 0.128); other mechanisms accounted for the majority of experimental effects (standardised effect  = 1.06; 95% CI  = 0.74 to 1.38; p = 1.7×10−11). PMID:25426717

  12. Hippocampal volume in early onset depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMaster Frank P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormalities in limbic structures have been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD. Although MDD is as common in adolescence as in adulthood, few studies have examined youth near illness onset in order to determine the possible influence of atypical development on the pathophysiology of this disorder. Methods Hippocampal volumes were measured in 17 MDD subjects (age = 16.67 ± 1.83 years [mean ± SD]; range = 13 – 18 years and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (16.23 ± 1.61 years [mean ± SD]; 13 – 18 years using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Results An analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between MDD and control subjects (F = 8.66, df = 1, 29, P = 0.006. This was more strongly localized to the left hippocampus (P = 0.001 than the right hippocampus (P = 0.047. Conclusions Our findings provide new evidence of abnormalities in the hippocampus in early onset depression. However, our results should be considered preliminary given the small sample size studied.

  13. Hippocampal CA1 Ripples as Inhibitory Transients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Malerba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Memories are stored and consolidated as a result of a dialogue between the hippocampus and cortex during sleep. Neurons active during behavior reactivate in both structures during sleep, in conjunction with characteristic brain oscillations that may form the neural substrate of memory consolidation. In the hippocampus, replay occurs within sharp wave-ripples: short bouts of high-frequency activity in area CA1 caused by excitatory activation from area CA3. In this work, we develop a computational model of ripple generation, motivated by in vivo rat data showing that ripples have a broad frequency distribution, exponential inter-arrival times and yet highly non-variable durations. Our study predicts that ripples are not persistent oscillations but result from a transient network behavior, induced by input from CA3, in which the high frequency synchronous firing of perisomatic interneurons does not depend on the time scale of synaptic inhibition. We found that noise-induced loss of synchrony among CA1 interneurons dynamically constrains individual ripple duration. Our study proposes a novel mechanism of hippocampal ripple generation consistent with a broad range of experimental data, and highlights the role of noise in regulating the duration of input-driven oscillatory spiking in an inhibitory network.

  14. Juvenile Hippocampal CA2 Region Expresses Aggrecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asako Noguchi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Perineuronal nets (PNNs are distributed primarily around inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus, such as parvalbumin-positive interneurons. PNNs are also present around excitatory neurons in some brain regions and prevent plasticity in these neurons. A recent study demonstrated that PNNs also exist around mouse hippocampal pyramidal cells, which are the principle type of excitatory neurons, in the CA2 subregion and modulate the excitability and plasticity of these neurons. However, the development of PNNs in the CA2 region during postnatal maturation was not fully investigated. This study found that a main component of PNNs, aggrecan, existed in the pyramidal cell layer of the putative CA2 subarea prior to the appearance of the CA2 region, which was defined by the CA2 marker protein regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14. We also found that aggrecan immunoreactivity was more evident in the anterior sections of the CA2 area than the posterior sections, which suggests that the function of CA2 PNNs varies along the anterior-posterior axis.

  15. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innes, N P T; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the terminology used to describe clinical management of carious lesions has contributed to a lack of clarity in the scientific literature and beyond. In this article, the International Caries Consensus Collaboration presents 1) issues around terminology, a scoping review of current...... manifestations to the histopathology, we have based the terminology around the clinical consequences of disease (soft, leathery, firm, and hard dentine). Approaches to carious tissue removal are defined: 1)selective removal of carious tissue-includingselective removal to soft dentineandselective removal to firm...

  16. Study of genital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.

  17. Lesiones Deportivas En Corredores

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Cano, Juan Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Hoy escribo como médico pero también como corredor. Por eso hay que empezar diciendo que los corredores somos unos apasionados con este deporte. Se convierte en una adicción. No se corre de vez en cuando, se hace por lo menos 5 días a la semana. Y los días que no corremos, quedamos incompletos. Eso es lo que siente un corredor, una sensación que parecería que sólo la entiende quien ha corrido. Tal vez por eso las lesiones deportivas son tan sentidas en este gremio d...

  18. Focal Dystonia in Hemiplegic Upper Limb: Favorable Effect of Cervical Microsurgical DREZotomy Involving the Ventral Horn - A Report of 3 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindou, Marc; Georgoulis, George

    2016-01-01

    Focal dystonia in hemiplegic upper limbs is poorly responsive to medications or classical neurosurgical treatments. Only repeated botulinum toxin injections show efficacy, but in most severe cases effects are transient. Cervical DREZ lesioning, which has proven efficacious in hyperspasticity when done deeply (3-5 mm) in the dorsal horn, may have favorable effects on the dystonic component when performed down to, and including, the base of the ventral horn (5-6 mm in depth). Three patients underwent deep cervical microsurgical DREZotomy (MDT) for focal dystonia in the upper limb. Hypertonia was reduced, and sustained dystonic postures were suppressed. Residual motor function (hidden behind hypertonia) came to the surface. Cervical MDT may be a useful armamentarium for treating refractory focal dystonia in the upper limb. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Oscillatory Brain States and Learning: Impact of Hippocampal Theta-Contingent Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthew A. Seager; Lynn D. Johnson; Elizabeth S. Chabot; Yukiko Asaka; Stephen D. Berry

    2002-01-01

    .... When studying rabbits in this paradigm, we observed a dramatic modification of learning rate by conducting training during episodes of either hippocampal theta or hippocampal non-theta activity...

  20. Hippocampal-neocortical functional reorganization underlies children's cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shaozheng; Cho, Soohyun; Chen, Tianwen; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Geary, David C; Menon, Vinod

    2014-09-01

    The importance of the hippocampal system for rapid learning and memory is well recognized, but its contributions to a cardinal feature of children's cognitive development-the transition from procedure-based to memory-based problem-solving strategies-are unknown. Here we show that the hippocampal system is pivotal to this strategic transition. Longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 7-9-year-old children revealed that the transition from use of counting to memory-based retrieval parallels increased hippocampal and decreased prefrontal-parietal engagement during arithmetic problem solving. Longitudinal improvements in retrieval-strategy use were predicted by increased hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity. Beyond childhood, retrieval-strategy use continued to improve through adolescence into adulthood and was associated with decreased activation but more stable interproblem representations in the hippocampus. Our findings provide insights into the dynamic role of the hippocampus in the maturation of memory-based problem solving and establish a critical link between hippocampal-neocortical reorganization and children's cognitive development.

  1. Hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermetten, Eric; Schmahl, Christian; Lindner, Sanneke; Loewenstein, Richard J; Bremner, J Douglas

    2006-04-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in several stress-related psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline personality disorder with early abuse, and depression with early abuse. Patients with borderline personality disorder and early abuse have also been found to have smaller amygdalar volume. The authors examined hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in patients with dissociative identity disorder, a disorder that has been associated with a history of severe childhood trauma. The authors used magnetic resonance imaging to measure the volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala in 15 female patients with dissociative identity disorder and 23 female subjects without dissociative identity disorder or any other psychiatric disorder. The volumetric measurements for the two groups were compared. Hippocampal volume was 19.2% smaller and amygdalar volume was 31.6% smaller in the patients with dissociative identity disorder, compared to the healthy subjects. The ratio of hippocampal volume to amygdalar volume was significantly different between groups. The findings are consistent with the presence of smaller hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in patients with dissociative identity disorder, compared with healthy subjects.

  2. Qualitative and Quantitative Hippocampal MRI Assessments in Intractable Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramdeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To acquire normative data of hippocampal volumes and T2 relaxation times, to evaluate and compare qualitative and quantitative assessments in evaluating hippocampi in patients with different durations of intractable epilepsy, and to propose an imaging protocol based on performance of these techniques. Methods. MRI analysis was done in 50 nonepileptic controls and 30 patients with intractable epilepsy on 1.5T scanner. Visual assessment and hippocampal volumetry were done on oblique coronal IR/T2W and T1W MP-RAGE images, respectively. T2 relaxation times were measured using 16-echo Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence. Volumetric data was normalized for variation in head size between individuals. Patients were divided into temporal ( and extratemporal ( groups based on clinical and EEG localization. Results. In controls, right hippocampal volume was slightly more than the left with no effect of age or gender. In TLE patients, hippocampal volumetry provided maximum concordance with EEG. Visual assessment of unilateral pathology concurred well with measured quantitative values but poorly in cases with bilateral pathologies. There were no significant differences of mean values between extratemporal group and controls group. Quantitative techniques detected mild abnormalities, undetected on visual assessment. Conclusions. Quantitative techniques are more sensitive to diagnose bilateral and mild unilateral hippocampal abnormalities.

  3. Reducing central serotonin in adulthood promotes hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ning-Ning; Jia, Yun-Fang; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Ying; Liu, Xiao-Zhen; Hu, Ling; Lan, Wei; Chen, Ling; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Chen, Xiaoyan; Xu, Lin; Ding, Yu-Qiang

    2016-02-03

    Chronic administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which up-regulates central serotonin (5-HT) system function, enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the relationship between central 5-HT system and adult neurogenesis has not fully been understood. Here, we report that lowering 5-HT level in adulthood is also able to enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We used tamoxifen (TM)-induced Cre in Pet1-CreER(T2) mice to either deplete central serotonergic (5-HTergic) neurons or inactivate 5-HT synthesis in adulthood and explore the role of central 5-HT in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. A dramatic increase in hippocampal neurogenesis is present in these two central 5-HT-deficient mice and it is largely prevented by administration of agonist for 5-HTR2c receptor. In addition, the survival of new-born neurons in the hippocampus is enhanced. Furthermore, the adult 5-HT-deficient mice showed reduced depression-like behaviors but enhanced contextual fear memory. These findings demonstrate that lowering central 5-HT function in adulthood can also enhance adult hippocampal neurogenesis, thus revealing a new aspect of central 5-HT in regulating adult neurogenesis.

  4. Effortful retrieval reduces hippocampal activity and impairs incidental encoding.

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    Reas, Emilie T; Brewer, James B

    2013-05-01

    Functional imaging studies frequently report that the hippocampus is engaged by successful episodic memory retrieval. However, considering that concurrent encoding of the background environment occurs during retrieval and influences medial temporal lobe activity, it is plausible that hippocampal encoding functions are reduced with increased attentional engagement during effortful retrieval. Expanding upon evidence that retrieval efforts suppress activity in hippocampal regions implicated in encoding, this study examines the influence of retrieval effort on encoding performance and the interactive effects of encoding and retrieval on hippocampal and neocortical activity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted while subjects performed a word recognition task with incidental picture encoding. Both lower memory strength and increased search duration were associated with encoding failure and reduced hippocampal and default network activity. Activity in the anterior hippocampus tracked encoding, which was more strongly deactivated when incidental encoding was unsuccessful. These findings highlight potential contributions from background encoding processes to hippocampal activations during neuroimaging studies of episodic memory retrieval. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Remote semantic memory is impoverished in hippocampal amnesia.

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    Klooster, Nathaniel B; Duff, Melissa C

    2015-12-01

    The necessity of the hippocampus for acquiring new semantic concepts is a topic of considerable debate. However, it is generally accepted that any role the hippocampus plays in semantic memory is time limited and that previously acquired information becomes independent of the hippocampus over time. This view, along with intact naming and word-definition matching performance in amnesia, has led to the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in patients with hippocampal amnesia. Motivated by perspectives of word learning as a protracted process where additional features and senses of a word are added over time, and by recent discoveries about the time course of hippocampal contributions to on-line relational processing, reconsolidation, and the flexible integration of information, we revisit the notion that remote semantic memory is intact in amnesia. Using measures of semantic richness and vocabulary depth from psycholinguistics and first and second language-learning studies, we examined how much information is associated with previously acquired, highly familiar words in a group of patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and amnesia. Relative to healthy demographically matched comparison participants and a group of brain-damaged comparison participants, the patients with hippocampal amnesia performed significantly worse on both productive and receptive measures of vocabulary depth and semantic richness. These findings suggest that remote semantic memory is impoverished in patients with hippocampal amnesia and that the hippocampus may play a role in the maintenance and updating of semantic memory beyond its initial acquisition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Memory reconsolidation mediates the updating of hippocampal memory content

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    Jonathan L C Lee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval or reactivation of a memory places it into a labile state, requiring a process of reconsolidation to restabilize it. This retrieval-induced plasticity is a potential mechanism for the modification of the existing memory. Following previous data supportive of a functional role for memory reconsolidation in the modification of memory strength, here I show that hippocampal memory reconsolidation also supports the updating of contextual memory content. Using a procedure that separates the learning of pure context from footshock-motivated contextual fear learning, I demonstrate doubly dissociable hippocampal mechanisms of initial context learning and subsequent updating of the neutral contextual representation to incorporate the footshock. Contextual memory consolidation was dependent upon BDNF expression in the dorsal hippocampus, whereas the footshock modification of the contextual representation required the expression of Zif268. These mechanisms match those previously shown to be selectively involved in hippocampal memory consolidation and reconsolidation, respectively. Moreover, memory reactivation is a necessary step in modifying memory content, as inhibition of hippocampal synaptic protein degradation also prevented the footshock-mediated memory modification. Finally, dorsal hippocampal knockdown of Zif268 impaired the reconsolidation of the pure contextual memory only under conditions of weak context memory training, as well as failing to disrupt contextual freezing when a strong contextual fear memory is reactivated by further conditioning. Therefore, an adaptive function of the reactivation and reconsolidation process is to enable the updating of memory content.

  7. Hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood

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    Tracy Riggins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory relies on a distributed network of brain regions, with the hippocampus playing a critical and irreplaceable role. Few studies have examined how changes in this network contribute to episodic memory development early in life. The present addressed this gap by examining relations between hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in 4- and 6-year-old children (n = 40. Results revealed similar hippocampal functional connectivity between age groups, which included lateral temporal regions, precuneus, and multiple parietal and prefrontal regions, and functional specialization along the longitudinal axis. Despite these similarities, developmental differences were also observed. Specifically, 3 (of 4 regions within the hippocampal memory network were positively associated with episodic memory in 6-year-old children, but negatively associated with episodic memory in 4-year-old children. In contrast, all 3 regions outside the hippocampal memory network were negatively associated with episodic memory in older children, but positively associated with episodic memory in younger children. These interactions are interpreted within an interactive specialization framework and suggest the hippocampus becomes functionally integrated with cortical regions that are part of the hippocampal memory network in adults and functionally segregated from regions unrelated to memory in adults, both of which are associated with age-related improvements in episodic memory ability.

  8. Hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggins, Tracy; Geng, Fengji; Blankenship, Sarah L.; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memory relies on a distributed network of brain regions, with the hippocampus playing a critical and irreplaceable role. Few studies have examined how changes in this network contribute to episodic memory development early in life. The present addressed this gap by examining relations between hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in 4-and 6-year-old children (n=40). Results revealed similar hippocampal functional connectivity between age groups, which included lateral temporal regions, precuneus, and multiple parietal and prefrontal regions, and functional specialization along the longitudinal axis. Despite these similarities, developmental differences were also observed. Specifically, 3 (of 4) regions within the hippocampal memory network were positively associated with episodic memory in 6-year-old children, but negatively associated with episodic memory in 4-year-old children. In contrast, all 3 regions outside the hippocampal memory network were negatively associated with episodic memory in older children, but positively associated with episodic memory in younger children. These interactions are interpreted within an interactive specialization framework and suggest the hippocampus becomes functionally integrated with cortical regions that are part of the hippocampal memory network in adults and functionally segregated from regions unrelated to memory in adults, both of which are associated with age-related improvements in episodic memory ability. PMID:26900967

  9. Purines released from astrocytes inhibit excitatory synaptic transmission in the ventral horn of the spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Eva Maria Meier; Perrier, Jean-Francois Marie

    2014-01-01

    by releasing gliotransmitters, which in turn modulate synaptic transmission. Here we investigated if astrocytes present in the ventral horn of the spinal cord modulate synaptic transmission. We evoked synaptic inputs in ventral horn neurons recorded in a slice preparation from the spinal cord of neonatal mice...... an inhibition occurring at the presynaptic side of synapses. In the presence of blockers for extracellular ectonucleotidases, TFLLR did not induce presynaptic inhibition. Puffing adenosine reproduced the effect of TFLLR and blocking adenosine A1 receptors with 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine prevented it....... Altogether our results show that ventral horn astrocytes are responsible for a tonic and a phasic inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission by releasing ATP, which gets converted into adenosine that binds to inhibitory presynaptic A1 receptors....

  10. The transition in the ventral stream from feature to real-world entity representations.

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    Orban, Guy A; Zhu, Qi; Vanduffel, Wim

    2014-01-01

    We propose that the ventral visual pathway of human and non-human primates is organized into three levels: (1) ventral retinotopic cortex including what is known as TEO in the monkey but corresponds to V4A and PITd/v, and the phPIT cluster in humans, (2) area TE in the monkey and its homolog LOC and neighboring fusiform regions, and more speculatively, (3) TGv in the monkey and its possible human equivalent, the temporal pole. We attribute to these levels the visual representations of features, partial real-world entities (RWEs), and known, complete RWEs, respectively. Furthermore, we propose that the middle level, TE and its homolog, is organized into three parallel substreams, lower bank STS, dorsal convexity of TE, and ventral convexity of TE, as are their corresponding human regions. These presumably process shape in depth, 2D shape and material properties, respectively, to construct RWE representations.

  11. The transition in the ventral stream from features to real world entities representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy A Orban

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose that the ventral visual pathway of human and non-human primates is organized into three levels: 1 ventral retinotopic cortex including what is known as TEO in the monkey but corresponds to V4A and PITd/v, and the phPIT cluster in humans, 2 area TE in the monkey and its homologue LOC and neighboring fusiform regions, and more speculatively, 3 TGv in the monkey and its possible human equivalent, the temporal pole. We attribute to these levels the visual representations of features, partial real-world entities (RWEs, and known, complete RWEs, respectively. Furthermore, we propose that the middle level, TE and its homologue, is organized into three parallel substreams, lower bank STS, dorsal convexity of TE and ventral convexity of TE, as are their corresponding human regions. These presumably process shape in depth, 2D shape and material properties, respectively, to construct RWE representations.

  12. Concurrent TMS-fMRI Reveals Interactions between Dorsal and Ventral Attentional Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitao, Joana; Thielscher, Axel; Tuennerhoff, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    detected weak visual targets that were presented in the lower-left visual field on 50% of the trials. Further, we manipulated the presence/absence of task-irrelevant auditory signals. Critically, on each trial we applied 10 Hz bursts of four TMS (or Sham) pulses to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). IPS......-TMS relative to Sham-TMS increased activation in the parietal cortex regardless of sensory stimulation, confirming the neural effectiveness of TMS stimulation. Visual targets increased activations in the anterior insula, a component of the ventral attentional system responsible for salience detection....... Conversely, they decreased activations in the ventral visual areas. Importantly, IPS-TMS abolished target-evoked activation increases in the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) of the ventral attentional system, whereas it eliminated target-evoked activation decreases in the right fusiform. Our results...

  13. The clinical effects of closure of the hernia gap after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette W; Westen, Mikkel; Assaadzadeh, Sami

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Closure of the hernia gap in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair before mesh reinforcement has gained increasing acceptance among surgeons despite creating a tension-based repair. Beneficial effects of this technique have been reported sporadically, but no evidence is available from...... randomised controlled trials. The primary purpose of this paper is to compare early post-operative activity-related pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic ventral hernia repair with closure of the gap with patients undergoing standard laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (non-closure of the gap). Secondary...... outcomes are patient-rated cosmesis and hernia-specific quality of life. METHODS: A randomised, controlled, double-blinded study is planned. Based on power calculation, we will include 40 patients in each arm. Patients undergoing elective laparoscopic umbilical, epigastric or umbilical trocar-site hernia...

  14. The clinical effects of closure of the hernia gap after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette W; Westen, Mikkel; Assadzadeh, Sami

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Closure of the hernia gap in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair before mesh reinforcement has gained increasing acceptance among surgeons despite creating a tension-based repair. Beneficial effects of this technique have been reported sporadically, but no evidence is available from...... randomised controlled trials. The primary purpose of this paper is to compare early post-operative activity-related pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic ventral hernia repair with closure of the gap with patients undergoing standard laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (non-closure of the gap). Secondary...... outcomes are patient-rated cosmesis and hernia-specific quality of life. METHODS: A randomised, controlled, double-blinded study is planned. Based on power calculation, we will include 40 patients in each arm. Patients undergoing elective laparoscopic umbilical, epigastric or umbilical trocar-site hernia...

  15. Calcium regulation in long-term changes of neuronal excitability in the hippocampal formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mody, I.

    1985-01-01

    The regulation of calcium (Ca/sup 2 +/) was examined during long-term changes of neuronal excitability in the mammalian CNS. The preparations under investigation included the kindling model of epilepsy, a genetic form of epilepsy and long-term potentiation (LTP) of neuronal activity. The study also includes a discussion of the possible roles of a neuron-specific calcium-binding protein (CaBP). The findings are summarized as follows: (1) CaBP was found to have an unequal distribution in various cortical areas of the rat with higher levels in ventral structures. (2) The decline in CaBP was correlated to the number of evoked afterdischarges (AD's) during kindling-induced epilepsy. (3) Marked changes in CaBP levels were also found in the brains of the epileptic strain of mice (El). The induction of seizures further decreased the levels of CaBP in the El mice, indicating a possible genetic impairment of neuronal Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis in the El strain. (4) The levels of total hippocampal Ca/sup 2 +/ and Zn/sup 2 +/ were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in control and commissural-kindled animals. (5) To measure Ca/sup 2 +/-homeostasis, the kinetic analysis of /sup 45/Ca uptake curves was undertaken in the in vitro hippocampus. (6) The kinetic analysis of /sup 45/Ca uptake curves revealed that Ca/sup 2 +/-regulation of the hippocampus is impaired following amygdala- and commissural kindling. (7). A novel form of long-term potentiation (LTP) of neuronal activity in the CA1 region of the hippocampus is described. The findings raise the possibility that the Ca/sup 2 +/ necessary for induction of LTP may be derived from an intraneuronal storage site.

  16. Hippocampal and amygdalar local structural differences in elderly patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestia, Annapaola; Cavedo, Enrica; Boccardi, Marina; Muscio, Cristina; Adorni, Andrea; Geroldi, Cristina; Bonetti, Matteo; Thompson, Paul M; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2015-01-01

    Morphological abnormalities have been reported for the hippocampi and amygdalae in young schizophrenia patients, but very little is known about the pattern of abnormalities in elderly schizophrenia patients. Here we investigated local structural differences in the hippocampi and amygdalae of elderly schizophrenia patients compared with healthy elderly subjects. We also related these differences to clinical symptom severity. 20 schizophrenia patients (mean age: 67.4 ± 6.2 years; Mini-Mental State Exam: 22.8 ± 4.4) and 20 healthy elderly subjects (70.3 ± 7.5 years; 29.0 ± 1.1) underwent high resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. The Radial Atrophy Mapping technique was used to reconstruct the 3D shape of the amygdala and the hippocampus. Local differences in tissue reductions were computed between groups and permutation tests were run to correct for multiple comparisons, in statistical maps thresholded at p = 0.05. Significant tissue reduction was observed bilaterally in the amygdala and hippocampus of schizophrenia patients. The basolateral-ventral-medial amygdalar nucleus showed the greatest involvement, with over 30% local tissue reduction. The centro-medial, cortical, and lateral nuclei were also atrophic in patients. The hippocampus showed significant tissue loss in the medio-caudal and antero-lateral aspects of CA1, and in medial section of its left head (pre- and para-subiculum). In the left amygdala and hippocampus, local tissue volumes were significantly correlated with negative symptoms. Tissue loss and altered morphology were found in elderly schizophrenia patients. Tissue loss mapped to amygdalo-hippocampal subregions known to have bidirectional and specific connections with frontal cortical and limbic structures and was related to clinical severity. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Theta frequency prefrontal-hippocampal driving relationship during free exploration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Y

    2015-08-06

    Inter-connected brain areas coordinate to process information and synchronized neural activities engage in learning and memory processes. Recent electrophysiological studies in rodents have implicated hippocampal-prefrontal connectivity in anxiety, spatial learning and memory-related tasks. In human patients with schizophrenia and autism, robust reduced connectivity between the hippocampus (HPC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been reported. However little is known about the directionality of these oscillations and their roles during active behaviors remain unclear. Here the directional information processing in mice was measured by Granger causality, a mathematical tool that has been used in neuroscience to quantify the oscillatory driving relationship between the ventral HPC (vHPC) and the PFC in two anxiety tests and between the dorsal HPC (dHPC) and the PFC in social interaction test. In the open field test, stronger vHPC driving to the PFC was found in the center compartment than in the wall area. In the light-dark box test, PFC to vHPC causality was higher than vHPC to PFC causality although no difference was found between the light and dark areas for the causality in both directions. In the social interaction test using Cx3cr1 knockout mice which model for deficient microglia-dependent synaptic pruning, higher PFC driving to the dHPC was found than driving from the dHPC to the PFC in both knockout mice and wild-type mice. Cx3cr1 knockout mice showed reduced baseline PFC driving to the dHPC compared to their wild-type littermates. PFC to dHPC causality could predict the actual time spent interacting with the social stimuli. The current findings indicate that directed oscillatory activities between the PFC and the HPC have task-dependent roles during exploration in the anxiety test and in the social interaction test. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel Roles for the Insulin-Regulated Glucose Transporter-4 in Hippocampally Dependent Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson-Leary, Jiah; McNay, Ewan C.

    2016-01-01

    The insulin-regulated glucose transporter-4 (GluT4) is critical for insulin- and contractile-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. GluT4 is also expressed in some hippocampal neurons, but its functional role in the brain is unclear. Several established molecular modulators of memory processing regulate hippocampal GluT4 trafficking and hippocampal memory formation is limited by both glucose metabolism and insulin signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that hippocampal GluT4 might be invo...

  19. Oral lesions in lupus erythematosus: correlation with cutaneous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Marcello Menta Simonsen; Vilela, Maria Apparecida Constantino; Rivitti, Evandro Ararigbóia; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Oral lesions in the context of lupus erythematosus (LE) have long been described. However, definitive agreement on about the exact nature and correct classification of these manifestations is lacking in published studies. Controversy exists on the significance of oral LE lesions regarding patient outcome. In this article, medical and dental literature on clinical and histopathological aspects of oral LE lesions are reviewed and critically discussed. A clinico-pathological correlation of oral lesions (interface mucositis-lupus mucositis) with cutaneous lesions (interface dermatitis-lupus dermatitis) is established, for those represent the mucosal counterparts of cutaneous LE. Validity about widely used but imprecise terms such as "oral ulcers", "ulcerative plaques", and others, in the context of LE, is discussed, and the uncertain relationship of these alterations to systemic disease with a worse outcome is commented. Furthermore, insights about the nature, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of oral lesions in LE patients are presented.

  20. Hippocampal neuron populations are reduced in vervet monkeys with fetal alcohol exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Mark W; Ptito, Maurice; Ervin, Frank R

    2015-01-01

    of pregnancy. Here, we report significant numerical reductions in the principal hippocampal neurons of fetal alcohol-exposed (FAE) offspring, as compared to age-matched, similarly housed conspecifics with