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Sample records for ventral anterior cingulate

  1. Activity of the anterior cingulate cortex and ventral hippocampus underlie increases in contextual fear generalization.

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    Cullen, Patrick K; Gilman, T Lee; Winiecki, Patrick; Riccio, David C; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2015-10-01

    Memories for context become less specific with time resulting in animals generalizing fear from training contexts to novel contexts. Though much attention has been given to the neural structures that underlie the long-term consolidation of a context fear memory, very little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the increase in fear generalization that occurs as the memory ages. Here, we examine the neural pattern of activation underlying the expression of a generalized context fear memory in male C57BL/6J mice. Animals were context fear conditioned and tested for fear in either the training context or a novel context at recent and remote time points. Animals were sacrificed and fluorescent in situ hybridization was performed to assay neural activation. Our results demonstrate activity of the prelimbic, infralimbic, and anterior cingulate (ACC) cortices as well as the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) underlie expression of a generalized fear memory. To verify the involvement of the ACC and vHPC in the expression of a generalized fear memory, animals were context fear conditioned and infused with 4% lidocaine into the ACC, dHPC, or vHPC prior to retrieval to temporarily inactivate these structures. The results demonstrate that activity of the ACC and vHPC is required for the expression of a generalized fear memory, as inactivation of these regions returned the memory to a contextually precise form. Current theories of time-dependent generalization of contextual memories do not predict involvement of the vHPC. Our data suggest a novel role of this region in generalized memory, which should be incorporated into current theories of time-dependent memory generalization. We also show that the dorsal hippocampus plays a prolonged role in contextually precise memories. Our findings suggest a possible interaction between the ACC and vHPC controls the expression of fear generalization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The anterior cingulate cortex

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    Pavlović D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has a role in attention, analysis of sensory information, error recognition, problem solving, detection of novelty, behavior, emotions, social relations, cognitive control, and regulation of visceral functions. This area is active whenever the individual feels some emotions, solves a problem, or analyzes the pros and cons of an action (if it is a right decision. Analogous areas are also found in higher mammals, especially whales, and they contain spindle neurons that enable complex social interactions. Disturbance of ACC activity is found in dementias, schizophrenia, depression, the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  3. Role for the Ventral Posterior Medial/Posterior Lateral Thalamus and Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Affective/Motivation Pain Induced by Varicella Zoster Virus

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    Phillip R. Kramer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Varicella zoster virus (VZV infects the face and can result in chronic, debilitating pain. The mechanism for this pain is unknown and current treatment is often not effective, thus investigations into the pain pathway become vital. Pain itself is multidimensional, consisting of sensory and affective experiences. One of the primary brain substrates for transmitting sensory signals in the face is the ventral posterior medial/posterior lateral thalamus (VPM/VPL. In addition, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has been shown to be vital in the affective experience of pain, so investigating both of these areas in freely behaving animals was completed to address the role of the brain in VZV-induced pain. Our lab has developed a place escape avoidance paradigm (PEAP to measure VZV-induced affective pain in the orofacial region of the rat. Using this assay as a measure of the affective pain experience a significant response was observed after VZV injection into the whisker pad and after VZV infusion into the trigeminal ganglion. Local field potentials (LFPs are the summed electrical current from a group of neurons. LFP in both the VPM/VPL and ACC was attenuated in VZV injected rats after inhibition of neuronal activity. This inhibition of VPM/VPL neurons was accomplished using a designer receptor exclusively activated by a designer drug (DREADD. Immunostaining showed that cells within the VPM/VPL expressed thalamic glutamatergic vesicle transporter-2, NeuN and DREADD suggesting inhibition occurred primarily in excitable neurons. From these results we conclude: (1 that VZV associated pain does not involve a mechanism exclusive to the peripheral nerve terminals, and (2 can be controlled, in part, by excitatory neurons within the VPM/VPL that potentially modulate the affective experience by altering activity in the ACC.

  4. Contributions of anterior cingulate cortex to behaviour.

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    Devinsky, O; Morrell, M J; Vogt, B A

    1995-02-01

    Assessments of anterior cingulate cortex in experimental animals and humans have led to unifying theories of its structural organization and contributions to mammalian behaviour. The anterior cingulate cortex forms a large region around the rostrum of the corpus callosum that is termed the anterior executive region. This region has numerous projections into motor systems, however, since these projections originate from different parts of anterior cingulate cortex and because functional studies have shown that it does not have a uniform contribution to brain functions, the anterior executive region is further subdivided into 'affect' and 'cognition' components. The affect division includes areas 25, 33 and rostral area 24, and has extensive connections with the amygdala and periaqueductal grey, and parts of it project to autonomic brainstem motor nuclei. In addition to regulating autonomic and endocrine functions, it is involved in conditioned emotional learning, vocalizations associated with expressing internal states, assessments of motivational content and assigning emotional valence to internal and external stimuli, and maternal-infant interactions. The cognition division includes caudal areas 24' and 32', the cingulate motor areas in the cingulate sulcus and nociceptive cortex. The cingulate motor areas project to the spinal cord and red nucleus and have premotor functions, while the nociceptive area is engaged in both response selection and cognitively demanding information processing. The cingulate epilepsy syndrome provides important support of experimental animal and human functional imaging studies for the role of anterior cingulate cortex in movement, affect and social behaviours. Excessive cingulate activity in cases with seizures confirmed in anterior cingulate cortex with subdural electrode recordings, can impair consciousness, alter affective state and expression, and influence skeletomotor and autonomic activity. Interictally, patients with anterior

  5. The Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Mood Disorders

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    Drevets, Wayne C.; Savitz, Jonathan; Trimble, Michael

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In the latest edition of our series of neuroanatomical areas of importance for neuropsychiatry, Wayne Drevets, MD, and Jonathan Savitz, PhD, have outlined the clinical importance of the ventral anterior cingulate structures for the regulation of mood. This area was an early target for interventional neurosurgery for depression some half a century ago, and today has become one of the key sites of deep brain stimulation for affective disorders. The anterior cingulate cortex was a part of the initial circuit of Papez thought to be related to the regulation of emotion. However, since then, much experimental work has outlined different cingulate regions with differing anatomical connectivity and functions. Drevets and Savitz draw attention to the subgenual area and describe the local and distant anatomical connectivities that emphasize its relevance for several neuropsychiatric disorders. ABSTRACT The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) ventral to the genu of the corpus callosum has been implicated in the modulation of emotional behavior on the basis of neuroimaging studies in humans and lesion analyses in experimental animals. In a combined positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging study of mood disorders, we demonstrated that the mean gray matter volume of this “subgenual” ACC (sgACC) cortex is abnormally reduced in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder, irrespective of mood state. Neuropathological assessments of sgACC tissue acquired postmortem from subjects with MDD or bipolar disorder confirmed the decrement in gray matter volume, and revealed that this abnormality was associated with a reduction in glia, with no equivalent loss of neurons. In positron emission tomography studies, the metabolic activity was elevated in this region in the depressed relative to the remitted phases of the same MDD subjects, and effective antidepressant treatment was associated with a reduction in sgACC activity. Other

  6. Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Schema Assimilation and Expression

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    Wang, Szu-Han; Tse, Dorothy; Morris, Richard G. M.

    2012-01-01

    In humans and in animals, mental schemas can store information within an associative framework that enables rapid and efficient assimilation of new information. Using a hippocampal-dependent paired-associate task, we now report that the anterior cingulate cortex is part of a neocortical network of schema storage with NMDA receptor-mediated…

  7. Amygdala Reactivity and Anterior Cingulate Habituation Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Maintenance After Acute Civilian Trauma.

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    Stevens, Jennifer S; Kim, Ye Ji; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Reddy, Renuka; Ely, Timothy D; Nemeroff, Charles B; Hudak, Lauren A; Jovanovic, Tanja; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Ressler, Kerry J

    2017-06-15

    Studies suggest that exaggerated amygdala reactivity is a vulnerability factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, our understanding is limited by a paucity of prospective, longitudinal studies. Recent studies in healthy samples indicate that, relative to reactivity, habituation is a more reliable biomarker of individual differences in amygdala function. We investigated reactivity of the amygdala and cortical areas to repeated threat presentations in a prospective study of PTSD. Participants were recruited from the emergency department of a large level I trauma center within 24 hours of trauma. PTSD symptoms were assessed at baseline and approximately 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after trauma. Growth curve modeling was used to estimate symptom recovery trajectories. Thirty-one individuals participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging around the 1-month assessment, passively viewing fearful and neutral face stimuli. Reactivity (fearful > neutral) and habituation to fearful faces was examined. Amygdala reactivity, but not habituation, 5 to 12 weeks after trauma was positively associated with the PTSD symptom intercept and predicted symptoms at 12 months after trauma. Habituation in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex was positively associated with the slope of PTSD symptoms, such that decreases in ventral anterior cingulate cortex activation over repeated presentations of fearful stimuli predicted increasing symptoms. Findings point to neural signatures of risk for maintaining PTSD symptoms after trauma exposure. Specifically, chronic symptoms were predicted by amygdala hyperreactivity, and poor recovery was predicted by a failure to maintain ventral anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to fearful stimuli. The importance of identifying patients at risk after trauma exposure is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex modulates dialectical self-thinking

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    Fei eWang; Kaiping ePeng; Yang eBai; Rui eLi; Ying eZhu; Pei eSun; Hua eGuo; Chun eYuan; Pia eRotshtein; Jie eSui

    2016-01-01

    Dialectical self-thinking involves holding the view that one can possess contradictory traits such as extraverted and introverted. Prior work has demonstrated that the dorsal part of anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) plays a crucial role in conflict monitoring as well as self-related processing. Here, we tested the function of dACC in dialectical self-thinking using a modified classical self-referential paradigm (self- vs. other-referential thinking), in which participants had to make a judgme...

  9. Sexual attraction enhances glutamate transmission in mammalian anterior cingulate cortex

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    Wu Long-Jun

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional human brain imaging studies have indicated the essential role of cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in romantic love and sex. However, the neurobiological basis of how the ACC neurons are activated and engaged in sexual attraction remains unknown. Using transgenic mice in which the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP is controlled by the promoter of the activity-dependent gene c-fos, we found that ACC pyramidal neurons are activated by sexual attraction. The presynaptic glutamate release to the activated neurons is increased and pharmacological inhibition of neuronal activities in the ACC reduced the interest of male mice to female mice. Our results present direct evidence of the critical role of the ACC in sexual attraction, and long-term increases in glutamate mediated excitatory transmission may contribute to sexual attraction between male and female mice.

  10. Motivation of extended behaviors by anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Holroyd, Clay B; Yeung, Nick

    2012-02-01

    Intense research interest over the past decade has yielded diverse and often discrepant theories about the function of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In particular, a dichotomy has emerged between neuropsychological theories suggesting a primary role for ACC in motivating or 'energizing' behavior, and neuroimaging-inspired theories emphasizing its contribution to cognitive control and reinforcement learning. To reconcile these views, we propose that ACC supports the selection and maintenance of 'options' - extended, context-specific sequences of behavior directed toward particular goals - that are learned through a process of hierarchical reinforcement learning. This theory accounts for ACC activity in relation to learning and control while simultaneously explaining the effects of ACC damage as disrupting the motivational context supporting the production of goal-directed action sequences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the value of control.

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    Shenhav, Amitai; Cohen, Jonathan D; Botvinick, Matthew M

    2016-09-27

    Debates over the function(s) of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) have persisted for decades. So too have demonstrations of the region's association with cognitive control. Researchers have struggled to account for this association and, simultaneously, dACC's involvement in phenomena related to evaluation and motivation. We describe a recent integrative theory that achieves this goal. It proposes that dACC serves to specify the currently optimal allocation of control by determining the overall expected value of control (EVC), thereby licensing the associated cognitive effort. The EVC theory accounts for dACC's sensitivity to a wide array of experimental variables, and their relationship to subsequent control adjustments. Finally, we contrast our theory with a recent theory proposing a primary role for dACC in foraging-like decisions. We describe why the EVC theory offers a more comprehensive and coherent account of dACC function, including dACC's particular involvement in decisions regarding foraging or otherwise altering one's behavior.

  12. Reward-based contextual learning supported by anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Umemoto, Akina; HajiHosseini, Azadeh; Yates, Michael E; Holroyd, Clay B

    2017-06-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is commonly associated with cognitive control and decision making, but its specific function is highly debated. To explore a recent theory that the ACC learns the reward values of task contexts (Holroyd & McClure in Psychological Review, 122, 54-83, 2015; Holroyd & Yeung in Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 122-128, 2012), we recorded the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) from participants as they played a novel gambling task. The participants were first required to select from among three games in one "virtual casino," and subsequently they were required to select from among three different games in a different virtual casino; unbeknownst to them, the payoffs for the games were higher in one casino than in the other. Analysis of the reward positivity, an ERP component believed to reflect reward-related signals carried to the ACC by the midbrain dopamine system, revealed that the ACC is sensitive to differences in the reward values associated with both the casinos and the games inside the casinos, indicating that participants learned the values of the contexts in which rewards were delivered. These results highlight the importance of the ACC in learning the reward values of task contexts in order to guide action selection.

  13. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex modulates dialectical self-thinking

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    Fei eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dialectical self-thinking involves holding the view that one can possess contradictory traits such as extraverted and introverted. Prior work has demonstrated that the dorsal part of anterior cingulate cortex (dACC plays a crucial role in conflict monitoring as well as self-related processing. Here we tested the function of dACC in dialectical self-thinking using a modified classical self-referential paradigm (self- vs. other-referential thinking, in which participants had to make a judgment whether a simultaneously presented pair of contradictory or non-contradictory traits properly described them while brain activity was recording using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The data showed that activity in the dACC during the processing of self-relevant conflicting information was positively correlated with participants' dispositional level of naïve dialecticism (measured with the Dialectical Self Scale. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI analyses further revealed increased functional connectivity between the dACC and the caudate, middle temporal gyrus and hippocampus during the processing of self-relevant conflicting information for dialectical thinkers. These results support the hypothesis that the dACC has a key role in dialectical self-thinking.

  14. The Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Modulates Dialectical Self-Thinking.

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    Wang, Fei; Peng, Kaiping; Bai, Yang; Li, Rui; Zhu, Ying; Sun, Pei; Guo, Hua; Yuan, Chun; Rotshtein, Pia; Sui, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Dialectical self-thinking involves holding the view that one can possess contradictory traits such as extraverted and introverted. Prior work has demonstrated that the dorsal part of anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) plays a crucial role in conflict monitoring as well as self-related processing. Here, we tested the function of dACC in dialectical self-thinking using a modified classical self-referential paradigm (self- vs. other-referential thinking), in which participants had to make a judgment whether a simultaneously presented pair of contradictory or non-contradictory traits properly described them while brain activity was recording using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The data showed that activity in the dACC during the processing of self-relevant conflicting information was positively correlated with participants' dispositional level of naïve dialecticism (measured with the Dialectical Self Scale). Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses further revealed increased functional connectivity between the dACC and the caudate, middle temporal gyrus and hippocampus during the processing of self-relevant conflicting information for dialectical thinkers. These results support the hypothesis that the dACC has a key role in dialectical self-thinking.

  15. Cognitive Functioning after Medial Frontal Lobe Damage Including the Anterior Cingulate Cortex: A Preliminary Investigation

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    Baird, Amee; Dewar, Bonnie-Kate; Critchley, Hugo; Gilbert, Sam J.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Two patients with medial frontal lobe damage involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) performed a range of cognitive tasks, including tests of executive function and anterior attention. Both patients lesions extended beyond the ACC, therefore caution needs to be exerted in ascribing observed deficits to the ACC alone. Patient performance was…

  16. A direct anterior cingulate pathway to the primate primary olfactory cortex may control attention to olfaction

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    García-Cabezas, Miguel Á.; Barbas, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and functional studies in humans suggest that attention plays a key role in activating the primary olfactory cortex through an unknown circuit mechanism. We report that a novel pathway from the anterior cingulate cortex, an area which has a key role in attention, projects directly to the primary olfactory cortex in rhesus monkeys, innervating mostly the anterior olfactory nucleus. Axons from the anterior cingulate cortex formed synapses mostly with spines of putative excitatory pyramidal neurons and with a small proportion of a neurochemical class of inhibitory neurons that are thought to have disinhibitory effect on excitatory neurons. This novel pathway from the anterior cingulate is poised to exert a powerful excitatory effect on the anterior olfactory nucleus, which is a critical hub for odorant processing via extensive bilateral connections with primary olfactory cortices and the olfactory bulb. Acting on the anterior olfactory nucleus, the anterior cingulate may activate the entire primary olfactory cortex to mediate the process of rapid attention to olfactory stimuli. PMID:23797208

  17. The anterior insular and anterior cingulate cortices in emotional processing for self-face recognition.

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    Morita, Tomoyo; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Shimada, Koji; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Sadato, Norihiro

    2014-05-01

    Individuals can experience embarrassment when exposed to self-feedback images, depending on the extent of the divergence from the internal representation of the standard self. Our previous work implicated the anterior insular cortex (AI) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the processing of embarrassment; however, their exact functional contributions have remained uncertain. Here, we explored the effects of being observed by others while viewing self-face images on the extent of embarrassment, and the activation and connectivity patterns in the AI and ACC. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging hyperscanning in pairs of healthy participants using an interaction system that allowed an individual to be observed by a partner in real time. Being observed increased the extent of embarrassment reported when viewing self-face images; a corresponding increase in self-related activity in the right AI suggested that this region played a direct role in the subjective experience. Being observed also increased the functional connectivity between the caudal ACC and prefrontal regions, which are involved in processing the reflective self. The ACC might therefore serve as a hub, integrating information about the reflective self that is used in evaluating perceptual self-face images.

  18. Dissociable recruitment of rostral anterior cingulate and inferior frontal cortex in emotional response inhibition.

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    Chiu, Pearl H; Holmes, Avram J; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2008-08-15

    The integrity of decision-making under emotionally evocative circumstances is critical to navigating complex environments, and dysfunctions in these processes may play an important role in the emergence and maintenance of various psychopathologies. The goal of the present study was to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of neural responses to emotional stimuli and emotion-modulated response inhibition. High-density event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured as participants (N=25) performed an emotional Go/NoGo task that required button presses to words of a "target" emotional valence (i.e., positive, negative, neutral) and response inhibition to words of a different "distractor" valence. Using scalp ERP analyses in conjunction with source-localization techniques, we identified distinct neural responses associated with affective salience and affect-modulated response inhibition, respectively. Both earlier (approximately 300 ms) and later (approximately 700 ms) ERP components were enhanced with successful response inhibition to emotional distractors. Only ERPs to target stimuli differentiated affective from neutral cues. Moreover, source localization analyses revealed right ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) activation in affective response inhibition regardless of emotional valence, whereas rostral anterior cingulate activation (rACC) was potentiated by emotional valence but was not modulated by response inhibition. This dissociation was supported by a significant Region x Trial Type x Emotion interaction, confirming that distinct regional dynamics characterize neural responses to affective valence and affective response-inhibition. The results are discussed in the context of an emerging affective neuroscience literature and implications for understanding psychiatric pathologies characterized by a detrimental susceptibility to emotional cues, with an emphasis on major depressive disorder.

  19. Anterior Cingulate Volumetric Alterations in Treatment-Naive Adults with ADHD: A Pilot Study

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    Makris, Nikos; Seidman, Larry J.; Valera, Eve M.; Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kennedy, David N.; Caviness, Verne S., Jr.; Bush, George; Crum, Katherine; Brown, Ariel B.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We sought to examine preliminary results of brain alterations in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in treatment-naive adults with ADHD. The ACC is a central brain node for the integration of cognitive control and allocation of attention, affect and drive. Thus its anatomical alteration may give rise to impulsivity, hyperactivity and…

  20. Divergent influences of anterior cingulate cortex GABA concentrations on the emotion circuitry

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    Levar, Nina; van Leeuwen, Judith M C; Denys, Damiaan; Van Wingen, G.

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging research has revealed that emotion processing recruits a widespread neural network including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), hippocampus, and amygdala. Recent studies have started to investigate the role of the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

  1. Pivotal role of anterior cingulate cortex in working memory after traumatic brain injury in youth

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    Fabienne eCazalis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this fMRI study, the functions of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex were studied in a group of adolescents who had sustained a moderate to severe Traumatic Brain Injury. A spatial working memory task with varying working memory loads, representing experimental conditions of increasing difficulty, was administered.In a cross-sectional comparison between the patients and a matched control group, patients performed worse than Controls, showing longer reaction times and lower response accuracy on the spatial working memory task. Brain imaging findings suggest a possible double-dissociation: activity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in the Traumatic Brain Injury group, but not in the Control group, was associated with task difficulty; conversely, activity of the left Sensorimotor Cortex in the Control group, but not in the TBI group, was correlated with task difficulty.In addition to the main cross-sectional study, a longitudinal study of a group of adolescent patients with moderate to severe Traumatic Brain Injury was done using fMRI and the same spatial working memory task. The patient group was studied at two time points: one time point during the post-acute phase and one time point 12 months later, during the chronic phase. Results indicated that patients' behavioral performance improved over time, suggesting cognitive recovery. Brain imaging findings suggest that, over this 12 month period, patients recruited less of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex and more of the left Sensorimotor Cortex in response to increasing task difficulty.The role of Anterior Cingulate Cortex in executive functions following a moderate to severe brain injury in adolescence is discussed within the context of conflicting models of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex functions in the existing literature.

  2. Efferents of anterior cingulate areas 24a and 24b and midcingulate areas 24a' and 24b' in the mouse.

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    Fillinger, Clémentine; Yalcin, Ipek; Barrot, Michel; Veinante, Pierre

    2017-12-06

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), constituted by areas 25, 32, 24a and 24b in rodents, plays a major role in cognition, emotion and pain. In a previous study, we described the afferents of areas 24a and 24b and those of areas 24a' and 24b' of midcingulate cortex (MCC) in mice and highlighted some density differences among cingulate inputs (Fillinger et al., Brain Struct Funct 222:1509-1532, 2017). To complete this connectome, we analyzed here the efferents of ACC and MCC by injecting anterograde tracers in areas 24a/24b of ACC and 24a'/24b' of MCC. Our results reveal a common projections pattern from both ACC and MCC, targeting the cortical mantle (intracingulate, retrosplenial and parietal associative cortex), the non-cortical basal forebrain, (dorsal striatum, septum, claustrum, basolateral amygdala), the hypothalamus (anterior, lateral, posterior), the thalamus (anterior, laterodorsal, ventral, mediodorsal, midline and intralaminar nuclei), the brainstem (periaqueductal gray, superior colliculus, pontomesencephalic reticular formation, pontine nuclei, tegmental nuclei) and the spinal cord. In addition to an overall denser ACC projection pattern compared to MCC, our analysis revealed clear differences in the density and topography of efferents between ACC and MCC, as well as between dorsal (24b/24b') and ventral (24a/24a') areas, suggesting a common functionality of these two cingulate regions supplemented by specific roles of each area. These results provide a detailed analysis of the efferents of the mouse areas 24a/24b and 24a'/24b' and achieve the description of the cingulate connectome, which bring the anatomical basis necessary to address the roles of ACC and MCC in mice.

  3. Exaggerated Activation of Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex During Cognitive Interference: A Monozygotic Twin Study of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

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    Shin, Lisa M.; Bush, George; Milad, Mohammed R.; Lasko, Natasha B.; Brohawn, Kathryn Handwerger; Hughes, Katherine C.; Macklin, Michael L.; Gold, Andrea L.; Karpf, Rachel D.; Orr, Scott P.; Rauch, Scott L.; Pitman, Roger K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Neuroimaging studies have revealed functional abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The goal of the current research was to determine whether hyperresponsivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate in PTSD is an acquired characteristic or familial risk factor. Method Using a case-control twin design, we studied combat-exposed veterans with PTSD (n=12) and their identical combat-unexposed co-twins (n=12), as well as combat-exposed veterans without PTSD (n=14) and their identical combat-unexposed co-twins (n=14). Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during completion of the Multi-Source Interference Task, which reliably activates the dorsal anterior cingulate. Results Combat veterans with PTSD and their co-twins had significantly greater activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate and tended to have larger response time difference scores, as compared to non-PTSD veterans and their co-twins. Dorsal anterior cingulate activation in the exposed twins was positively correlated with their PTSD symptom severity. Dorsal anterior cingulate activation in the unexposed twins was positively correlated with their combat-exposed co-twins’ PTSD symptom severity, but not with depression or alcohol use severity in the combat-exposed co-twins. Conclusions Hyperresponsivity in the dorsal anterior cingulate appears to be a familial risk factor for the development of PTSD following psychological trauma. PMID:21724666

  4. Anterior cingulate volume predicts response to cognitive behavioral therapy in major depressive disorder.

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    Fujino, Junya; Yamasaki, Nobuyuki; Miyata, Jun; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Matsukawa, Noriko; Takemura, Ariyoshi; Tei, Shisei; Sugihara, Genichi; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Inoue, Kazuomi; Murai, Toshiya

    2015-03-15

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is widely used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD). Although improved response prediction could facilitate the development of individualized treatment plans, few studies have investigated whether underlying brain structure is related to CBT response in MDD. Ten MDD patients who received individual CBT were studied in this study. We investigated the relationship between the regional gray matter (GM) volume and subsequent responses to CBT using voxel-based morphometry. The degree of improvement in depressive symptoms was positively correlated with GM volume in the caudal portion of the anterior cingulate cortex. The sample size was small, and the effects of medication on the results could not be excluded. Our results, although preliminary, suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex is a key structure whose volume can be used to predict responses to CBT and is thus a potential prognostic marker in MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Volumetric differences in the anterior cingulate cortex prospectively predict alcohol-related problems in adolescence.

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    Cheetham, Ali; Allen, Nicholas B; Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian; Yücel, Murat; Lubman, Dan I

    2014-04-01

    Individual differences in brain structure and function are suggested to exist prior to the onset of alcohol abuse. Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated abnormalities in brain regions underlying affective processes that may form a pathway to the emergence of later alcohol abuse and dependence in vulnerable individuals. However, no prospective studies have examined whether these abnormalities predict later problems with alcohol. This study aims to examine whether individual differences in affect and brain volume prospectively predict alcohol-related problems in adolescence. Adolescent drinkers (n = 98) were recruited from an ongoing prospective, longitudinal study examining adolescent emotional development. At age 12, participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging to obtain volumetric data on the amygdala, hippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and completed a self-report measure of affective temperament. At age 16, participants completed a questionnaire measuring alcohol use, with 39 % reporting alcohol-related problems in the past year. Pre-existing differences in the left ACC predicted problem drinking. Alcohol-related problems were associated with higher levels of temperamental negative affectivity; however, these were not correlated with anterior cingulate volumes. These findings indicate that individual differences in the structural morphology of the anterior cingulate, a region implicated in affective processes, self-control, and drug addiction, predict later alcohol-related problems. Although this finding remained significant after controlling for other substance use and psychopathology, future research is required to test its specificity for alcohol use disorders.

  6. Macro and micro structures in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex contribute to individual differences in self-monitoring.

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    Yang, Junyi; Tian, Xue; Wei, Dongtao; Liu, Huijuan; Zhang, Qinglin; Wang, Kangcheng; Chen, Qunlin; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Individual differences in self-monitoring, which are the capability to adjust behavior to adapt to social situations, influence a wide range of social behaviors. However, understanding of focal differences in brain structures related to individual self-monitoring is minimal, particularly when micro and macro structures are considered simultaneously. The present study investigates the relationship between self-monitoring and brain structure in a relatively large sample of young adults. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) revealed a significant positive correlation between self-monitoring and gray matter volume in the dorsal cingulate anterior cortex (dACC), dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and bilateral ventral striatum (VS). Further analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between self-monitoring and white matter (WM) integrity, as indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA) in the anterior cingulum (ACG) bundle. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between self-monitoring and mean radius diffusion (RD). These results shed light on the structural neural basis of variation in self-monitoring.

  7. Preserved self-awareness following extensive bilateral brain damage to the insula, anterior cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Philippi, Carissa L; Feinstein, Justin S; Khalsa, Sahib S; Damasio, Antonio; Tranel, Daniel; Landini, Gregory; Williford, Kenneth; Rudrauf, David

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that self-awareness (SA), a multifaceted phenomenon central to human consciousness, depends critically on specific brain regions, namely the insular cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC...

  8. Preserved Self-Awareness following Extensive Bilateral Brain Damage to the Insula, Anterior Cingulate, and Medial Prefrontal Cortices: e38413

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carissa L Philippi; Justin S Feinstein; Sahib S Khalsa; Antonio Damasio; Daniel Tranel; Gregory Landini; Kenneth Williford; David Rudrauf

    2012-01-01

      It has been proposed that self-awareness (SA), a multifaceted phenomenon central to human consciousness, depends critically on specific brain regions, namely the insular cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC...

  9. Prefrontal Thinning Affects Functional Connectivity and Regional Homogeneity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Späti, Jakub; Hänggi, Jürgen; Doerig, Nadja; Ernst, Jutta; Sambataro, Fabio; Brakowski, Janis; Jäncke, Lutz; grosse Holtforth, Martin; Seifritz, Erich; Spinelli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with structural and functional alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Enhanced ACC activity at rest (measured using various imaging methodologies) is found in treatment-responsive patients and is hypothesized to bolster treatment response by fostering adaptive rumination. However, whether structural changes influence functional coupling between fronto-cingulate regions and ACC regional homogeneity (ReHo) and whether these functional changes are related to levels of adaptive rumination and treatment response is still unclear. Cortical thickness and ReHo maps were calculated in 21 unmedicated depressed patients and 35 healthy controls. Regions with reduced cortical thickness defined the seeds for the subsequent functional connectivity (FC) analyses. Patients completed the Response Style Questionnaire, which provided a measure of adaptive rumination associated with better response to psychotherapy. Compared with controls, depressed patients showed thinning of the right anterior PFC, increased prefrontal connectivity with the supragenual ACC (suACC), and higher ReHo in the suACC. The suACC clusters of increased ReHo and FC spatially overlapped. In depressed patients, suACC ReHo scores positively correlated with PFC thickness and with FC strength. Moreover, stronger fronto-cingulate connectivity was related to higher levels of adaptive rumination. Greater suACC ReHo and connectivity with the right anterior PFC seem to foster adaptive forms of self-referential processing associated with better response to psychotherapy, whereas prefrontal thinning impairs the ability of depressed patients to engage the suACC during a major depressive episode. Bolstering the function of the suACC may represent a potential target for treatment. PMID:25598428

  10. Modulation of Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activity With Real-Time Neurofeedback

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, J. Paul; Gary H Glover; Hsu, Jung-Jiin; Johnson, Rebecca F.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of real-time neurofeedback techniques has allowed us to begin to map the controllability of sensory and cognitive and, more recently, affective centers in the brain. The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC) is thought to be involved in generation of affective states and has been implicated in psychopathology. In this study, we examined whether individuals could use realtime fMRI neurofeedback to modulate sACC activity. Following a localizer task used to identify an sACC regio...

  11. Anterior cingulate serotonin 1B receptor binding is associated with emotional response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Hjordt, Liv Vadskjær; Dam, Vibeke Høyrup; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Sestoft, Dorte; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-09-01

    Serotonin has a well-established role in emotional processing and is a key neurotransmitter in impulsive aggression, presumably by facilitating response inhibition and regulating subcortical reactivity to aversive stimuli. In this study 44 men, of whom 19 were violent offenders and 25 were non-offender controls, completed an emotional Go/NoGo task requiring inhibition of prepotent motor responses to emotional facial expressions. We also measured cerebral serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR) binding with [11C]AZ10419369 positron emission tomography within regions of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that 5-HT1BR would be positively associated with false alarms (failures to inhibit nogo responses) in the context of aversive (angry and fearful) facial expressions. Across groups, we found that frontal cortex 5-HT1BR binding was positively correlated with false alarms when angry faces were go stimuli and neutral faces were nogo stimuli (p = 0.05, corrected alpha = 0.0125), but not with false alarms for non-emotional stimuli (failures to inhibit geometric figures). A posthoc analysis revealed the strongest association in anterior cingulate cortex (p = 0.006). In summary, 5-HT1BRs in the anterior cingulate are involved in withholding a prepotent response in the context of angry faces. Our findings suggest that serotonin modulates response inhibition in the context of certain emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Proton MR Spectroscopy: Higher Right Anterior Cingulate N-Acetylaspartate/Choline Ratio in Asperger Syndrome Compared with Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, O.; Devrimci-Ozguven, H.; Oktem, F.; Yagmurlu, B.; Baskak, B.; Munir, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE One former study reported higher prefrontal N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels in patients with Asperger syndrome (AS). The objective of the current study was to test the hypothesis that patients with AS would have higher dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex NAA/creatine (Cr) and that NAA/Cr would be correlated with symptom severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS NAA/choline (Cho), NAA/Cr, and Cho/Cr values revealed by 1H-MR spectroscopy in 14 right-handed male patients with AS (6 medicated with risperidone), 17–38 years of age, diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria were compared with those of 21 right-handed male controls frequency-matched by age and intelligence quotient scores. RESULTS Patients with AS had significantly higher anterior cingulate NAA/Cho levels (z = –2.18, P = .028); there was a statistical trend for higher anterior cingulate NAA/Cr (z = –1.81, P = .069) that was significant when only the unmedicated patients with AS were taken into account (z = –1.95, P = .050). There were no significant differences in dorsolateral prefrontal MR spectroscopy values. CONCLUSIONS Our findings show that individuals with AS had higher NAA/Cho levels in the right anterior cingulate compared with healthy controls and that higher anterior cingulate NAA/Cho levels were correlated with higher Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale total scores. PMID:17846198

  13. Attention for speaking: domain-general control from the anterior cingulate cortex in spoken word production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitoria ePiai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that some degree of attentional control is required to regulate and monitor processes underlying speaking. Although progress has been made in delineating the neural substrates of the core language processes involved in speaking, substrates associated with regulatory and monitoring processes have remained relatively underspecified. We report the results of an fMRI study examining the neural substrates related to performance in three attention-demanding tasks varying in the amount of linguistic processing: vocal picture naming while ignoring distractors (picture-word interference, PWI; vocal colour naming while ignoring distractors (Stroop; and manual object discrimination while ignoring spatial position (Simon task. All three tasks had congruent and incongruent stimuli, while PWI and Stroop also had neutral stimuli. Analyses focusing on common activation across tasks identified a portion of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex that was active in incongruent trials for all three tasks, suggesting that this region subserves a domain-general attentional control function. In the language tasks, this area showed increased activity for incongruent relative to congruent stimuli, consistent with the involvement of domain-general mechanisms of attentional control in word production. The two language tasks also showed activity in anterior-superior temporal gyrus. Activity increased for neutral PWI stimuli (picture and word did not share the same semantic category relative to incongruent (categorically related and congruent stimuli. This finding is consistent with the involvement of language-specific areas in word production, possibly related to retrieval of lexical-semantic information from memory. The current results thus suggest that in addition to engaging language-specific areas for core linguistic processes, speaking also engages the anterior cingulate cortex, a region that is likely implementing domain

  14. Aberrant salience network (bilateral insula and anterior cingulate cortex) connectivity during information processing in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas P; Joseph, Verghese; Francis, Susan T; Liddle, Peter F

    2010-11-01

    A salience network, comprising bilateral insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), is thought to play a role in recruiting relevant brain regions for the processing of sensory information. Here, we present a functional network connectivity (FNC) analysis of spatial networks identified during somatosensation, performed to test the hypothesis that salience network connectivity is disturbed during information processing in schizophrenia. 19 medicated individuals with schizophrenia and 19 matched healthy controls participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. 100 Hz vibrotactile stimuli were presented to the right index fingertip while whole-head blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast gradient-echo echo-planar images were acquired. Six spatial components of interest were identified using group independent component analysis: (1) bilateral insula, superior temporal and precentral gyrus (INS); (2) dorsal ACC; (3) left dorsolateral frontal and parietal cortex (left central executive network (LCEN)); (4) right dorsolateral frontal and parietal cortex (RCEN); (5) ventromedial frontal cortex (FDMN); and (6) precuneus, posterior cingulate and angular gyrus (PDMN). Maximal-lagged correlation was examined between all pairwise combinations of components. Significantly reduced FNC was observed in schizophrenia compared to controls between: INS and ACC; INS and FDMN; and LCEN and PDMN. There was no evidence of increased FNC in schizophrenia. Reduced salience network connectivity during information processing in schizophrenia suggests disturbance to the system which effects changes between contextually-relevant functional brain states. This aberrance may provide a mechanistic explanation of several clinical features of the disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Anterior Cingulate Volumetric Alterations in Treatment-Naïve Adults With ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Nikos; Seidman, Larry J.; Valera, Eve M.; Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kennedy, David N.; Caviness, Verne S.; Bush, George; Crum, Katherine; Brown, Ariel B.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We sought to examine preliminary results of brain alterations in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in treatment-naïve adults with ADHD. The ACC is a central brain node for the integration of cognitive control and allocation of attention, affect and drive. Thus its anatomical alteration may give rise to impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention, which are cardinal behavioral manifestations of ADHD. Method Segmentation and parcellation of the ACC was performed on controls (n = 22), treated (n = 13) and treatment-naïve adults with ADHD (n = 13). Results There was a 21% volume reduction in the left ACC of the treatment-naïve group relative to the control group. Also, there was a 23% volume reduction in the right ACC of the treated group relative to the control group. Conclusion These results raise the possibility that in ADHD there are volumetric deficits persistent into adulthood, that are independent of medical treatment. PMID:20008822

  16. The expected value of control: an integrative theory of anterior cingulate cortex function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenhav, Amitai; Botvinick, Matthew M; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2013-07-24

    The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has a near-ubiquitous presence in the neuroscience of cognitive control. It has been implicated in a diversity of functions, from reward processing and performance monitoring to the execution of control and action selection. Here, we propose that this diversity can be understood in terms of a single underlying function: allocation of control based on an evaluation of the expected value of control (EVC). We present a normative model of EVC that integrates three critical factors: the expected payoff from a controlled process, the amount of control that must be invested to achieve that payoff, and the cost in terms of cognitive effort. We propose that dACC integrates this information, using it to determine whether, where and how much control to allocate. We then consider how the EVC model can explain the diverse array of findings concerning dACC function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Learning to cope with stress modulates anterior cingulate cortex stargazin expression in monkeys and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alex G; Capanzana, Roxanne; Brockhurst, Jacqueline; Cheng, Michelle Y; Buckmaster, Christine L; Absher, Devin; Schatzberg, Alan F; Lyons, David M

    2016-05-01

    Intermittent mildly stressful situations provide opportunities to learn, practice, and improve coping with gains in subsequent emotion regulation. Here we investigate the effects of learning to cope with stress on anterior cingulate cortex gene expression in monkeys and mice. Anterior cingulate cortex is involved in learning, memory, cognitive control, and emotion regulation. Monkeys and mice were randomized to either stress coping or no-stress treatment conditions. Profiles of gene expression were acquired with HumanHT-12v4.0 Expression BeadChip arrays adapted for monkeys. Three genes identified in monkeys by arrays were then assessed in mice by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Expression of a key gene (PEMT) involved in acetylcholine biosynthesis was increased in monkeys by coping but this result was not verified in mice. Another gene (SPRY2) that encodes a negative regulator of neurotrophic factor signaling was decreased in monkeys by coping but this result was only partly verified in mice. The CACNG2 gene that encodes stargazin (also called TARP gamma-2) was increased by coping in monkeys as well as mice randomized to coping with or without subsequent behavioral tests of emotionality. As evidence of coping effects distinct from repeated stress exposures per se, increased stargazin expression induced by coping correlated with diminished emotionality in mice. Stargazin modulates glutamate receptor signaling and plays a role in synaptic plasticity. Molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity that mediate learning and memory in the context of coping with stress may provide novel targets for new treatments of disorders in human mental health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inflexible Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tiffany C; Sacchet, Matthew D; Connolly, Colm G; Margulies, Daniel S; Tymofiyeva, Olga; Paulus, Martin P; Simmons, Alan N; Gotlib, Ian H; Yang, Tony T

    2017-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) maturation during adolescence contributes to or underlies the development of major depressive disorder (MDD) during this sensitive period. The ACC is a structure that sits at the intersection of several task-positive networks (eg, central executive network, CEN), which are still developing during adolescence. While recent work using seed-based approaches indicate that depressed adolescents show limited task-evoked vs resting-state connectivity (termed 'inflexibility') between the ACC and task-negative networks, no study has used network-based approaches to investigate inflexibility of the ACC in task-positive networks to understand adolescent MDD. Here, we used graph theory to compare flexibility of network-level topology in eight subregions of the ACC (spanning three task-positive networks) in 42 unmedicated adolescents with MDD and 53 well-matched healthy controls. All participants underwent fMRI scanning during resting state and a response inhibition task that robustly engages task-positive networks. Relative to controls, depressed adolescents were characterized by inflexibility in local efficiency of a key ACC node in the CEN: right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/medial frontal gyrus (R dACC/MFG). Furthermore, individual differences in flexibility of local efficiency of R dACC/MFG significantly predicted inhibition performance, consistent with current literature demonstrating that flexible network organization affords successful cognitive control. Finally, reduced local efficiency of dACC/MFG during the task was significantly associated with an earlier age of depression onset, consistent with prior work suggesting that MDD may alter functional network development. Our results support a neurodevelopmental hypothesis of MDD wherein dysfunctional self-regulation is potentially reflected by altered ACC maturation.

  19. Short-term synaptic plasticity in the nociceptive thalamic-anterior cingulate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Bai-Chuang; Vogt, Brent A

    2009-09-04

    Although the mechanisms of short- and long-term potentiation of nociceptive-evoked responses are well known in the spinal cord, including central sensitization, there has been a growing body of information on such events in the cerebral cortex. In view of the importance of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in chronic pain conditions, this review considers neuronal plasticities in the thalamocingulate pathway that may be the earliest changes associated with such syndromes. A single nociceptive electrical stimulus to the sciatic nerve induced a prominent sink current in the layer II/III of the ACC in vivo, while high frequency stimulation potentiated the response of this current. Paired-pulse facilitation by electrical stimulation of midline, mediodorsal and intralaminar thalamic nuclei (MITN) suggesting that the MITN projection to ACC mediates the nociceptive short-term plasticity. The short-term synaptic plasticities were evaluated for different inputs in vitro where the medial thalamic and contralateral corpus callosum afferents were compared. Stimulation of the mediodorsal afferent evoked a stronger short-term synaptic plasticity and effectively transferred the bursting thalamic activity to cingulate cortex that was not true for contralateral stimulation. This short-term enhancement of synaptic transmission was mediated by polysynaptic pathways and NMDA receptors. Layer II/III neurons of the ACC express a short-term plasticity that involves glutamate and presynaptic calcium influx and is an important mechanism of the short-term plasticity. The potentiation of ACC neuronal activity induced by thalamic bursting suggest that short-term synaptic plasticities enable the processing of nociceptive information from the medial thalamus and this temporal response variability is particularly important in pain because temporal maintenance of the response supports cortical integration and memory formation related to noxious events. Moreover, these modifications of cingulate

  20. The von Economo neurons in frontoinsular and anterior cingulate cortex in great apes and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, John M; Tetreault, Nicole A; Hakeem, Atiya Y; Manaye, Kebreten F; Semendeferi, Katerina; Erwin, Joseph M; Park, Soyoung; Goubert, Virginie; Hof, Patrick R

    2010-06-01

    The von Economo neurons (VENs) are large bipolar neurons located in frontoinsular (FI) and anterior cingulate cortex in great apes and humans, but not other primates. We performed stereological counts of the VENs in FI and LA (limbic anterior, a component of anterior cingulate cortex) in great apes and in humans. The VENs are more numerous in humans than in apes, although one gorilla approached the lower end of the human range. We also examined the ontological development of the VENs in FI and LA in humans. The VENs first appear in small numbers in the 36th week post-conception, are rare at birth, and increase in number during the first 8 months after birth. There are significantly more VENs in the right hemisphere than in the left in FI and LA in postnatal brains of apes and humans. This asymmetry in VEN numbers may be related to asymmetries in the autonomic nervous system. The activity of the inferior anterior insula, which contains FI, is related to physiological changes in the body, decision-making, error recognition, and awareness. The VENs appear to be projection neurons, although their targets are unknown. We made a preliminary study of the connections of FI cortex based on diffusion tensor imaging in the brain of a gorilla. The VEN-containing regions connect to the frontal pole as well as to other parts of frontal and insular cortex, the septum, and the amygdala. It is likely that the VENs in FI are projecting to some or all of these structures and relaying information related to autonomic control, decision-making, or awareness. The VENs selectively express the bombesin peptides neuromedin B (NMB) and gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) which are also expressed in another population of closely related neurons, the fork cells. NMB and GRP signal satiety. The genes for NMB and GRP are expressed selectively in small populations of neurons in the insular cortex in mice. These populations may be related to the VEN and fork cells and may be involved in the regulation

  1. The effect of regulatory mode on procrastination: Bi-stable parahippocampus connectivity with dorsal anterior cingulate and anterior prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenyan; Ni, Yan; Feng, Tingyong

    2017-06-30

    Previous research has elucidated that procrastination can be influenced by regulatory mode orientations. However, the neural mechanism of regulatory modes affecting procrastination is not well understood. To address this question, we employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) to test the influence of two regulatory modes (assessment and locomotion) on procrastination. The behavioral results showed that procrastination was positively correlated with assessment orientation but negatively correlated with locomotion orientation. Neuroimaging results indicated that the functional connectivity between parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) was negatively correlated with assessment scores, while the functional connectivity between anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) and parahippocampal cortex (PHC) was negatively correlated with locomotion scores. Critically, mediation analysis showed that the different effects of two distinct regulatory modes on procrastination were mediated by PHC-dACC and aPFC-PHC functional connectivity respectively. These results suggested that people's procrastination could be predicted by regulatory mode orientations, which is mediated by PHC connectivity with dACC and aPFC respectively. The present study extends our knowledge on procrastination and provides neural mechanism for understanding the link between regulatory mode orientations and procrastination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Resting state functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex in veterans with and without post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennis, Mitzy; Rademaker, Arthur R.; van Rooij, Sanne J H; Kahn, René S.; Geuze, Elbert

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that is associated with structural and functional alterations in several brain areas, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Here, we examine resting state functional connectivity of ACC subdivisions in PTSD, using a seed-based

  3. Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Cognitive Control: Neuropsychological and Electrophysiological Findings in Two Patients with Lesions to Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovstad, M.; Funderud, I.; Meling, T.; Kramer, U. M.; Voytek, B.; Due-Tonnessen, P.; Endestad, T.; Lindgren, M.; Knight, R. T.; Solbakk, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas neuroimaging studies of healthy subjects have demonstrated an association between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and cognitive control functions, including response monitoring and error detection, lesion studies are sparse and have produced mixed results. Due to largely normal behavioral test results in two patients with medial…

  4. Strength and Diversity of Inhibitory Signaling Differentiates Primate Anterior Cingulate from Lateral Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalla, Maria; Gilman, Joshua P; Wang, Jing-Yi; Luebke, Jennifer I

    2017-05-03

    The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of the primate play distinctive roles in the mediation of complex cognitive tasks. Compared with the LPFC, integration of information by the ACC can span longer timescales and requires stronger engagement of inhibitory processes. Here, we reveal the synaptic mechanism likely to underlie these differences using in vitro patch-clamp recordings of synaptic events and multiscale imaging of synaptic markers in rhesus monkeys. Although excitatory synaptic signaling does not differ, the level of synaptic inhibition is much higher in ACC than LPFC layer 3 pyramidal neurons, with a significantly higher frequency (∼6×) and longer duration of inhibitory synaptic currents. The number of inhibitory synapses and the ratio of cholecystokinin to parvalbumin-positive inhibitory inputs are also significantly higher in ACC compared with LPFC neurons. Therefore, inhibition is functionally and structurally more robust and diverse in ACC than in LPFC, resulting in a lower excitatory: inhibitory ratio and a greater dynamic range for signal integration and network oscillation by the ACC. These differences in inhibitory circuitry likely underlie the distinctive network dynamics in ACC and LPC during normal and pathological brain states. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) play temporally distinct roles during the execution of cognitive tasks (rapid working memory during ongoing tasks and long-term memory to guide future action, respectively). Compared with LPFC-mediated tasks, ACC-mediated tasks can span longer timescales and require stronger engagement of inhibition. This study shows that inhibitory signaling is much more robust and diverse in the ACC than in the LPFC. Therefore, there is a lower excitatory: inhibitory synaptic ratio and a greater dynamic range for signal integration and oscillatory behavior in the ACC. These significant differences in

  5. Increased anterior cingulate cortex response precedes behavioural adaptation in anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Daniel; Ritschel, Franziska; King, Joseph A.; Bernardoni, Fabio; Seidel, Maria; Boehm, Ilka; Runge, Franziska; Goschke, Thomas; Roessner, Veit; Smolka, Michael N.; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are characterised by increased self-control, cognitive rigidity and impairments in set-shifting, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural correlates of behavioural adaptation to changes in reward contingencies in young acutely ill AN patients. Thirty-six adolescent/young adult, non-chronic female AN patients and 36 age-matched healthy females completed a well-established probabilistic reversal learning task during fMRI. We analysed hemodynamic responses in empirically-defined regions of interest during positive feedback and negative feedback not followed/followed by behavioural adaptation and conducted functional connectivity analyses. Although overall task performance was comparable between groups, AN showed increased shifting after receiving negative feedback (lose-shift behaviour) and altered dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) responses as a function of feedback. Specifically, patients had increased dACC responses (which correlated with perfectionism) and task-related coupling with amygdala preceding behavioural adaption. Given the generally preserved task performance in young AN, elevated dACC responses specifically during behavioural adaption is suggestive of increased monitoring for the need to adjust performance strategies. Higher dACC-amygdala coupling and increased adaptation after negative feedback underlines this interpretation and could be related to intolerance of uncertainty which has been suggested for AN. PMID:28198813

  6. Reduced anterior cingulate gray matter volume in treatment-naïve clinically depressed adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Nienke Pannekoek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent depression is associated with increased risk for suicidality, social and educational impairment, smoking, substance use, obesity, and depression in adulthood. It is of relevance to further our insight in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this disorder in the developing brain, as this may be essential to optimize treatment and prevention of adolescent depression and its negative clinical trajectories. The equivocal findings of the limited number of studies on neural abnormalities in depressed youth stress the need for further neurobiological investigation of adolescent depression. We therefore performed a voxel-based morphometry study of the hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in 26 treatment-naïve, clinically depressed adolescents and 26 pair-wise matched healthy controls. Additionally, an exploratory whole-brain analysis was performed. Clinically depressed adolescents showed a volume reduction of the bilateral dorsal ACC compared to healthy controls. However, no association was found between gray matter volume of the ACC and clinical severity scores for depression or anxiety. Our finding of a smaller ACC in clinically depressed adolescents is consistent with literature on depressed adults. Future research is needed to investigate if gray matter abnormalities precede or follow clinical depression in adolescents.

  7. Comparison of the spatial-cognitive functions of dorsomedial striatum and anterior cingulate cortex in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Pooters

    Full Text Available Neurons in anterior cingulate cortex (aCC project to dorsomedial striatum (DMS as part of a corticostriatal circuit with putative roles in learning and other cognitive functions. In the present study, the spatial-cognitive importance of aCC and DMS was assessed in the hidden-platform version of the Morris water maze (MWM. Brain lesion experiments that focused on areas of connectivity between these regions indicated their involvement in spatial cognition. MWM learning curves were markedly delayed in DMS-lesioned mice in the absence of other major functional impairments, whereas there was a more subtle, but still significant influence of aCC lesions. Lesioned mice displayed impaired abilities to use spatial search strategies, increased thigmotaxic swimming, and decreased searching in the proximity of the escape platform. Additionally, aCC and DMS activity was compared in mice between the early acquisition phase (2 and 3 days of training and the over-trained high-proficiency phase (after 30 days of training. Neuroplasticity-related expression of the immediate early gene Arc implicated both regions during the goal-directed, early phases of spatial learning. These results suggest the functional involvement of aCC and DMS in processes of spatial cognition that model associative cortex-dependent, human episodic memory abilities.

  8. Spatiotemporal Spike Coding of Behavioral Adaptation in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureline Logiaco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The frontal cortex controls behavioral adaptation in environments governed by complex rules. Many studies have established the relevance of firing rate modulation after informative events signaling whether and how to update the behavioral policy. However, whether the spatiotemporal features of these neuronal activities contribute to encoding imminent behavioral updates remains unclear. We investigated this issue in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC of monkeys while they adapted their behavior based on their memory of feedback from past choices. We analyzed spike trains of both single units and pairs of simultaneously recorded neurons using an algorithm that emulates different biologically plausible decoding circuits. This method permits the assessment of the performance of both spike-count and spike-timing sensitive decoders. In response to the feedback, single neurons emitted stereotypical spike trains whose temporal structure identified informative events with higher accuracy than mere spike count. The optimal decoding time scale was in the range of 70-200 ms, which is significantly shorter than the memory time scale required by the behavioral task. Importantly, the temporal spiking patterns of single units were predictive of the monkeys' behavioral response time. Furthermore, some features of these spiking patterns often varied between jointly recorded neurons. All together, our results suggest that dACC drives behavioral adaptation through complex spatiotemporal spike coding. They also indicate that downstream networks, which decode dACC feedback signals, are unlikely to act as mere neural integrators.

  9. Anterior Cingulate Cortex Input to the Claustrum Is Required for Top-Down Action Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael G; Panicker, Matthew; Mu, Chaoqi; Carter, Ashley M; Roberts, Bradley M; Dharmasri, Poorna A; Mathur, Brian N

    2018-01-02

    Cognitive abilities, such as volitional attention, operate under top-down, executive frontal cortical control of hierarchically lower structures. The circuit mechanisms underlying this process are unresolved. The claustrum possesses interconnectivity with many cortical areas and, thus, is hypothesized to orchestrate the cortical mantle for top-down control. Whether the claustrum receives top-down input and how this input may be processed by the claustrum have yet to be formally tested, however. We reveal that a rich anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) input to the claustrum encodes a preparatory top-down information signal on a five-choice response assay that is necessary for optimal task performance. We further show that ACC input monosynaptically targets claustrum inhibitory interneurons and spiny glutamatergic projection neurons, the latter of which amplify ACC input in a manner that is powerfully constrained by claustrum inhibitory microcircuitry. These results demonstrate ACC input to the claustrum is critical for top-down control guiding action. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Novel Neural Prediction Error Found in Anterior Cingulate Cortex Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, James Michael; Holroyd, Clay Brian; Seamans, Jeremy Keith

    2017-07-19

    The function of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) remains controversial, yet many theories suggest a role in behavioral adaptation, partly because a robust event-related potential, the feedback-related negativity (FN), is evoked over the ACC whenever expectations are violated. We recorded from the ACC as rats performed a task identical to one that reliably evokes an FN in humans. A subset of neurons was found that encoded expected outcomes as abstract outcome representations. The degree to which a reward/non-reward outcome representation emerged during a trial depended on the history of outcomes that preceded it. A prediction error was generated on incongruent trials as the ensembles shifted from representing the expected to the actual outcome, at the same time point we have previously reported an FN in the local field potential. The results describe a novel mode of prediction error signaling by ACC neurons that is associated with the generation of an FN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nociception coma scale-revised scores correlate with metabolism in the anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Chatelle, Camille; Thibaut, Aurore; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Boly, Mélanie; Bernard, Claire; Hustinx, Roland; Schnakers, Caroline; Laureys, Steven

    2014-02-01

    The Nociception Coma Scale-Revised (NCS-R) was recently validated to assess possible pain perception in patients with disorders of consciousness. To identify correlations between cerebral glucose metabolism and NCS-R total scores. [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, NCS-R, and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised assessments were performed in 49 patients with disorders of consciousness. We identified a significant positive correlation between NCS-R total scores and metabolism in the posterior part of the anterior cingulate cortex, known to be involved in pain processing. No other cluster reached significance. No significant effect of clinical diagnosis (vegetative/unresponsive vs minimally conscious states), etiology or interval since insult was observed. Our data support the hypothesis that the NCS-R total scores are related to cortical processing of nociception and may constitute an appropriate behavioral tool to assess, monitor, and treat possible pain in brain-damaged noncommunicative patients with disorders of consciousness. Future studies using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging should investigate the correlation between NCS-R scores and brain activation in response to noxious stimulation at the single-subject level.

  12. Anterior cingulate cortex involved in social food-foraging decision-making strategies of rats.

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    Zhong, Xiaolin; Deng, Sihao; Ma, Wenbo; Yang, Yuchen; Lu, Dahua; Cheng, Na; Chen, Dan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Jianyi; Li, Fang; Li, Changqi; Huang, Hua-Lin; Li, Zhiyuan

    2017-10-01

    Decision making as a complex cognitive process involves assessing risk, reward, and costs. Typically, it has been studied in nonsocial contexts. We have developed a novel laboratory model used with rodents to detect food-foraging decision-making strategies in different social settings. However, the brain regions that mediate these behaviors are not well identified. Substantial evidence shows that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) participates in evaluation of social information and in decision making. In this study, we investigated the effect of bilateral lesions in the ACC on established behaviors. Kainic acid (KA) was administered bilaterally to induce ACC lesions, and saline microinjection into the ACC was used in the sham group. In contrast to the sham-lesioned animals, when faced with the choice of foraging under a social context, rats with ACC lesions preferred foraging for the less desirable food. Moreover, in these situations, the total amount of food foraged by the ACC-lesioned group was less than the amount foraged by the sham group. Notably, neither social interactions nor social agonistic behaviors were affected by ACC lesions. These data suggest that the ACC is a key region underlying neural processing of social decision-making, specifically tending to compete for foraging high predictive reward food.

  13. Reduced anterior cingulate gray matter volume in treatment-naïve clinically depressed adolescents☆

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    Pannekoek, Justine Nienke; van der Werff, Steven J.A.; van den Bulk, Bianca G.; van Lang, Natasja D.J.; Rombouts, Serge A.R.B.; van Buchem, Mark A.; Vermeiren, Robert R.J.M.; van der Wee, Nic J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent depression is associated with increased risk for suicidality, social and educational impairment, smoking, substance use, obesity, and depression in adulthood. It is of relevance to further our insight in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this disorder in the developing brain, as this may be essential to optimize treatment and prevention of adolescent depression and its negative clinical trajectories. The equivocal findings of the limited number of studies on neural abnormalities in depressed youth stress the need for further neurobiological investigation of adolescent depression. We therefore performed a voxel-based morphometry study of the hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in 26 treatment-naïve, clinically depressed adolescents and 26 pair-wise matched healthy controls. Additionally, an exploratory whole-brain analysis was performed. Clinically depressed adolescents showed a volume reduction of the bilateral dorsal ACC compared to healthy controls. However, no association was found between gray matter volume of the ACC and clinical severity scores for depression or anxiety. Our finding of a smaller ACC in clinically depressed adolescents is consistent with literature on depressed adults. Future research is needed to investigate if gray matter abnormalities precede or follow clinical depression in adolescents. PMID:24501702

  14. Antinociception induced by galanin in anterior cingulate cortex in rats with acute inflammation.

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    Zhang, Meng-Lin; Fu, Feng-Hua; Yu, Long-Chuan

    2017-01-18

    The present study was performed to explore the role of galanin in nociceptive modulation in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of rats with acute inflammation, and the changes in galanin and galanin receptor 2 (Gal R2) expressions in rats with acute inflammation. Intra-ACC injection of galanin induced antinociception in rats with acute inflammation, the antinociceptive effects induced by galanin were attenuated significantly by intra-ACC injection of the Gal R2 antagonist M871, indicating an involvement of Gal R2 in nociceptive modulation in ACC in rats with acute inflammation. Furthermore, we found that both the galanin mRNA expression and galanin content increased significantly in ACC in rats with acute inflammation than that in normal rats. Moreover, both the mRNA levels of Gal R2 and the content of Gal R2 in ACC increased significantly in rats with acute inflammation than that in normal rats. These results demonstrated that galanin induced antinociception in ACC in rats with acute inflammation. And there were changes in the expression of galanin and Gal R2 in rats with acute inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the regulation of craving by reappraisal in smokers.

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    Zhao, Li-Yan; Tian, Jie; Wang, Wei; Qin, Wei; Shi, Jie; Li, Qiang; Yuan, Kai; Dong, Ming-Hao; Yang, Wei-Chuang; Wang, Ya-Rong; Sun, Li-Li; Lu, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Drug cues can induce craving for drugs of abuse. Dysfunctional regulation of emotion and motivation regarding rewarding objects appears to be an integral part of addiction. It has been found that cognitive strategies decreased the intensity of craving in addicts. Reappraisal strategy is a type of cognitive strategy that requires participants to reinterpret the meaning of an emotional situation. In addition, studies have found that activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is associated with the selection and application of cognitive reappraisal. In present study, we sought to determine whether such cognitive regulation engages the dACC and improves inhibition of craving in smokers. Sixteen smokers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of a cigarette reward-conditioning procedure with cognitive reappraisal. We focused our analyses on the dACC as a key structure of cognitive control of craving. Cue induced craving under different conditions was obtained. Correlational analysis between the functional response in the dACC and the subjective craving was performed. We found that using a cognitive reappraisal was successful in decreasing the conditioned craving. Right dACC (BA 24/32) engaged in the cognitive reappraisal. In addition, the individual's subjective craving was negatively correlated with the right dACC activation. These findings suggest that the dACC are important substrates of Inhibition of cue induced craving in smokers. Cognitive regulation by cognitive reappraisal may help addicted individuals avoid the anticipated situations where they are exposed to conditioned cues.

  16. Hierarchical Error Representation: A Computational Model of Anterior Cingulate and Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, William H; Brown, Joshua W

    2015-11-01

    Anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (ACC and dlPFC, respectively) are core components of the cognitive control network. Activation of these regions is routinely observed in tasks that involve monitoring the external environment and maintaining information in order to generate appropriate responses. Despite the ubiquity of studies reporting coactivation of these two regions, a consensus on how they interact to support cognitive control has yet to emerge. In this letter, we present a new hypothesis and computational model of ACC and dlPFC. The error representation hypothesis states that multidimensional error signals generated by ACC in response to surprising outcomes are used to train representations of expected error in dlPFC, which are then associated with relevant task stimuli. Error representations maintained in dlPFC are in turn used to modulate predictive activity in ACC in order to generate better estimates of the likely outcomes of actions. We formalize the error representation hypothesis in a new computational model based on our previous model of ACC. The hierarchical error representation (HER) model of ACC/dlPFC suggests a mechanism by which hierarchically organized layers within ACC and dlPFC interact in order to solve sophisticated cognitive tasks. In a series of simulations, we demonstrate the ability of the HER model to autonomously learn to perform structured tasks in a manner comparable to human performance, and we show that the HER model outperforms current deep learning networks by an order of magnitude.

  17. The role of the anterior cingulate cortex in women's sexual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Heather A; James, Thomas W; Ketterson, Ellen D; Sengelaub, Dale R; Janssen, Erick; Heiman, Julia R

    2009-01-02

    Women's sexual decision making is a complex process balancing the potential rewards of conception and pleasure against the risks of possible low paternal care or sexually transmitted infection. Although neural processes underlying social decision making are suggested to overlap with those involved in economic decision making, the neural systems associated with women's sexual decision making are unknown. Using fMRI, we measured the brain activation of 12 women while they viewed photos of men's faces. Face stimuli were accompanied by information regarding each man's potential risk as a sexual partner, indicated by a written description of the man's number of previous sexual partners and frequency of condom use. Participants were asked to evaluate how likely they would be to have sex with the man depicted. Women reported that they would be more likely to have sex with low compared to high risk men. Stimuli depicting low risk men also elicited stronger activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), midbrain, and intraparietal sulcus, possibly reflecting an influence of sexual risk on women's attraction, arousal, and attention during their sexual decision making. Activation in the ACC was positively correlated with women's subjective evaluations of sex likelihood and response times during their evaluations of high, but not low risk men. These findings provide evidence that neural systems involved in sexual decision making in women overlap with those described previously to underlie nonsexual decision making.

  18. Decreased expression of axon-guidance receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex in autism

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    Suda Shiro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Axon-guidance proteins play a crucial role in brain development. As the dysfunction of axon-guidance signaling is thought to underlie the microstructural abnormalities of the brain in people with autism, we examined the postmortem brains of people with autism to identify any changes in the expression of axon-guidance proteins. Results The mRNA and protein expression of axon-guidance proteins, including ephrin (EFNA4, eEFNB3, plexin (PLXNA4, roundabout 2 (ROBO2 and ROBO3, were examined in the anterior cingulate cortex and primary motor cortex of autistic brains (n = 8 and n = 7, respectively and control brains (n = 13 and n = 8, respectively using real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR and western blotting. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that the relative expression levels of EFNB3, PLXNA4A and ROBO2 were significantly lower in the autistic group than in the control group. The protein levels of these three genes were further analyzed by western blotting, which showed that the immunoreactive values for PLXNA4 and ROBO2, but not for EFNB3, were significantly reduced in the ACC of the autistic brains compared with control brains. Conclusions In this study, we found decreased expression of axon-guidance proteins such as PLXNA4 and ROBO2 in the brains of people with autism, and suggest that dysfunctional axon-guidance protein expression may play an important role in the pathophysiology of autism.

  19. Changed hub and corresponding functional connectivity of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in major depressive disorder

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    Huawang Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is one of the most prevalent mental disorders. In the brain, the hubs of the brain network play a key role in integrating and transferring information between different functional modules. However, whether the changed pattern in functional network hubs contributes to the onset of MDD remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph theory methods, we investigated whether alterations of hubs can be detected in MDD. First, we constructed the whole-brain voxel-wise functional networks and calculated a functional connectivity strength (FCS map in each subject in 34 MDD patients and 34 gender-, age-, and education level-matched healthy controls (HC. Next, the two-sample t-test was applied to compare the FCS maps between HC and MDD patients and identified significant decreased FCS in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC in MDD patients. Subsequent functional connectivity analyses of sgACC showed disruptions in functional connectivity with posterior insula, middle and inferior temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum in MDD patients. Furthermore, the changed FCS of sgACC and functional connections to sgACC were significantly correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS scores in MDD patients. The results of the present study revealed the abnormal hub of sgACC and its corresponding disrupted frontal-limbic-visual cognitive-cerebellum functional networks in MDD. These findings may provide a new insight for the diagnosis and treatment of MDD.

  20. The beneficial effects of meditation: contribution of the anterior cingulate and locus coeruleus

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    Nancy Alker Craigmyle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During fMRI studies of meditation the cortical salience detecting and executive networks become active during awareness of mind wandering, shifting and sustained attention. The anterior cingulate (AC is activated during awareness of mind wandering.The AC modulates both the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (SNS and the central locus coeruleus (LC norepinephrine systems, which form the principal neuromodulatory system, regulating in multiple ways both neuronal and non-neuronal cells to maximize adaptation in changing environments. The LC is the primary source of central norepinephrine (C-NE and nearly the exclusive source of cortical norepinephrine. Normally activated by novel or salient stimuli, the AC initially inhibits the SNS reflexively, lowering peripheral norepinephrine (P-NE and activates the LC, increasing C-NE.Moderate levels of C-NE enhance working memory through alpha 2 adrenergic receptors, while higher levels of C-NE, acting on alpha 1 and beta receptors, enhance other executive network functions such as the stopping of ongoing behavior, attentional set shifting and sustained attention. The actions of the AC on both the central and peripheral noradrenergic systems are implicated in the beneficial effects of meditation. This paper will explore some of the known functions and interrelationships of the AC, SNS and LC with respect to their possible relevance to meditation.

  1. Anterior cingulate engagement in a foraging context reflects choice difficulty, not foraging value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenhav, Amitai; Straccia, Mark A; Cohen, Jonathan D; Botvinick, Matthew M

    2014-09-01

    Previous theories predict that human dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) should respond to decision difficulty. An alternative theory has been recently advanced that proposes that dACC evolved to represent the value of 'non-default', foraging behavior, calling into question its role in choice difficulty. However, this new theory does not take into account that choosing whether or not to pursue foraging-like behavior can also be more difficult than simply resorting to a default. The results of two neuroimaging experiments show that dACC is only associated with foraging value when foraging value is confounded with choice difficulty; when the two are dissociated, dACC engagement is only explained by choice difficulty, and not the value of foraging. In addition to refuting this new theory, our studies help to formalize a fundamental connection between choice difficulty and foraging-like decisions, while also prescribing a solution for a common pitfall in studies of reward-based decision making.

  2. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Kun Xie

    Full Text Available There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder.

  3. Subgenual anterior cingulate responses to peer rejection: A marker of adolescents’ risk for depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    MASTEN, CARRIE L.; EISENBERGER, NAOMI I.; BOROFSKY, LARISSA A.; MCNEALY, KRISTIN; PFEIFER, JENNIFER H.; DAPRETTO, MIRELLA

    2011-01-01

    Extensive developmental research has linked peer rejection during adolescence with a host of psychopathological outcomes, including depression. Moreover, recent neuroimaging research has suggested that increased activity in the subgenual region of the anterior cingulate cortex (subACC), which has been consistently linked with depression, is related to heightened sensitivity to peer rejection among adolescents. The goal of the current study was to directly test the hypothesis that adolescents’ subACC responses are predictive of their risk for future depression, by examining the relationship between subACC activity during peer rejection and increases in depressive symptoms during the following year. During a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, 20 13-year-olds were ostensibly excluded by peers during an online social interaction. Participants’ depressive symptoms were assessed via parental reports at the time of the scan and 1 year later. Region of interest and whole-brain analyses indicated that greater subACC activity during exclusion was associated with increases in parent-reported depressive symptoms during the following year. These findings suggest that subACC responsivity to social exclusion may serve as a neural marker of adolescents’ risk for future depression and have implications for understanding the relationship between sensitivity to peer rejection and the increased risk of depression that occurs during adolescence. PMID:21262054

  4. Subgenual anterior cingulate responses to peer rejection: a marker of adolescents' risk for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Borofsky, Larissa A; McNealy, Kristin; Pfeifer, Jennifer H; Dapretto, Mirella

    2011-02-01

    Extensive developmental research has linked peer rejection during adolescence with a host of psychopathological outcomes, including depression. Moreover, recent neuroimaging research has suggested that increased activity in the subgenual region of the anterior cingulate cortex (subACC), which has been consistently linked with depression, is related to heightened sensitivity to peer rejection among adolescents. The goal of the current study was to directly test the hypothesis that adolescents' subACC responses are predictive of their risk for future depression, by examining the relationship between subACC activity during peer rejection and increases in depressive symptoms during the following year. During a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, 20 13-year-olds were ostensibly excluded by peers during an online social interaction. Participants' depressive symptoms were assessed via parental reports at the time of the scan and 1 year later. Region of interest and whole-brain analyses indicated that greater subACC activity during exclusion was associated with increases in parent-reported depressive symptoms during the following year. These findings suggest that subACC responsivity to social exclusion may serve as a neural marker of adolescents' risk for future depression and have implications for understanding the relationship between sensitivity to peer rejection and the increased risk of depression that occurs during adolescence.

  5. Increased pregenual anterior cingulate glucose and lactate concentrations in major depressive disorder.

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    Ernst, J; Hock, A; Henning, A; Seifritz, E; Boeker, H; Grimm, S

    2017-01-01

    There is ample evidence that glucose metabolism in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (PACC) is increased in major depressive disorder (MDD), whereas it is still unknown whether glucose levels per se are also elevated. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate concentrations in MDD patients might indicate that increased glycolytical metabolization of glucose to lactate in astrocytes either alone or in conjunction with mitochondrial dysfunction results in an accumulation of lactate and contributes to pathophysiological mechanisms of MDD. However, until now, no study investigated in vivo PACC glucose and lactate levels in MDD. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was therefore used to test the hypothesis that patients with MDD have increased PACC glucose and lactate levels. In 40 healthy and depressed participants, spectra were acquired from the PACC using a maximum echo J-resolved spectroscopy protocol. Results show significant increases of glucose and lactate in patients, which are also associated with depression severity. These findings indicate impaired brain energy metabolism in MDD with increased fraction of energy utilization via glycolysis and reduced mitochondrial oxidative clearance of lactate. Targeting these metabolic disturbances might affect the balance of metabolic pathways regulating neuronal energetics and result in an attenuation of the elevated basal activity of brain regions within the neural circuitry of depression.

  6. Smoking reduces conflict-related anterior cingulate activity in abstinent cigarette smokers performing a Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Allen; Nestor, Liam J; Payer, Doris; Monterosso, John R; Brody, Arthur L; London, Edythe D

    2010-02-01

    Prior research suggests that abrupt initiation of abstinence from cigarette smoking reduces neural cognitive efficiency. When cognitive efficiency is high, processing speed and accuracy are maximized with minimal allocation of cognitive resources. The study presented here tested the effects of resumption of smoking on cognitive response conflict after overnight abstinence from smoking, hypothesizing that smoking would enhance cognitive efficiency. Twenty paid research volunteers who were chronic cigarette smokers abstained from smoking overnight (>12 h) before undergoing fMRI while performing a color-word Stroop task during two separate test sessions: one that did not include smoking before testing and another one that did. Statistical analyses were performed by modeling the Stroop effect (incongruent >congruent) BOLD response within a collection of a priori regions of interest that have consistently been associated with cognitive control. Behavioral assessment alone did not reveal any significant differences in the Stroop effect between the two sessions. BOLD activations, however, indicated that in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), smokers had significantly less task-related activity following smoking (pconflict activity together with improvement in conflict resolution involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

  7. Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Thickness Is Related to Alexithymia in Childhood Trauma-Related PTSD.

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    Lauren A Demers

    Full Text Available Alexithymia, or "no words for feelings", is highly prevalent in samples with childhood maltreatment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC has been identified as a key region involved in alexithymia, early life trauma, and PTSD. Functional alterations in the dACC also have been associated with alexithymia in PTSD. This study examined whether dACC morphology is a neural correlate of alexithymia in child maltreatment-related PTSD. Sixteen adults with PTSD and a history of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, or exposure to domestic violence, and 24 healthy controls (HC completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale 20 (TAS-20 and underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical thickness of the dACC was measured using FreeSurfer, and values were correlated with TAS-20 scores, controlling for sex and age, in both groups. Average TAS-20 score was significantly higher in the PTSD than the HC group. TAS-20 scores were significantly positively associated with dACC thickness only in the PTSD group. This association was strongest in the left hemisphere and for TAS-20 subscales that assess difficulty identifying and describing feelings. We found that increasing dACC gray matter thickness is a neural correlate of greater alexithymia in the context of PTSD with childhood maltreatment. While findings are correlational, they motivate further inquiry into the relationships between childhood adversity, emotional awareness and expression, and dACC morphologic development in trauma-related psychopathology.

  8. Anterior cingulate synapses in prefrontal areas 10 and 46 suggest differential influence in cognitive control.

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    Medalla, Maria; Barbas, Helen

    2010-12-01

    Dorsolateral prefrontal areas 46 and 10 are involved in distinct aspects of cognition. Area 46 has a key role in working memory tasks, and frontopolar area 10 is recruited in complex multitask operations. Both areas are innervated by the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a region associated with emotions and memory but is also important for attentional control through unknown synaptic mechanisms. Here, we found that in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) most axon terminals labeled from tracers injected into ACC area 32 innervated spines of presumed excitatory neurons, but ∼20-30% formed mostly large synapses with dendritic shafts of presumed inhibitory neurons in the upper layers (I-IIIa) of dorsolateral areas 10, 46, and 9. Moreover, area 32 terminals targeted preferentially calbindin and, to a lesser extent, calretinin neurons, which are thought to be inhibitory neurons that modulate the gain of task-relevant activity during working memory tasks. Area 46 was distinguished as a recipient of more (by ∼40%) area 32 synapses on putative inhibitory neurons. Area 10 stood apart as recipient of significantly larger (by ∼40% in volume) area 32 terminals on spines of putative excitatory neurons. These synaptic specializations suggest that area 32 has complementary roles, potentially enhancing inhibition in area 46 and strengthening excitation in area 10, which may help direct attention to new tasks while temporarily holding in memory another task.

  9. Longitudinal stability of the folding pattern of the anterior cingulate cortex during development

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    A. Cachia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal processes are likely critical for the differences in cognitive ability and disease risk that unfold in postnatal life. Prenatally established cortical folding patterns are increasingly studied as an adult proxy for earlier development events – under the as yet untested assumption that an individual's folding pattern is developmentally fixed. Here, we provide the first empirical test of this stability assumption using 263 longitudinally-acquired structural MRI brain scans from 75 typically developing individuals spanning ages 7 to 32 years. We focus on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC – an intensely studied cortical region that presents two qualitatively distinct and reliably classifiable sulcal patterns with links to postnatal behavior. We show – without exception–that individual ACC sulcal patterns are fixed from childhood to adulthood, at the same time that quantitative anatomical ACC metrics are undergoing profound developmental change. Our findings buttress use of folding typology as a postnatally-stable marker for linking variations in early brain development to later neurocognitive outcomes in ex utero life.

  10. Folding of the anterior cingulate cortex partially explains inhibitory control during childhood: A longitudinal study

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    G. Borst

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in cognitive control including inhibitory control (IC are related to the pathophysiology of several psychiatric conditions. In healthy subjects, IC efficiency in childhood is a strong predictor of academic and professional successes later in life. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is one of the core structures responsible for IC. Although quantitative structural characteristics of the ACC contribute to IC efficiency, the qualitative structural brain characteristics contributing to IC development are less-understood. Using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated whether the ACC sulcal pattern at age 5, a stable qualitative characteristic of the brain determined in utero, explains IC at age 9. 18 children performed Stroop tasks at age 5 and age 9. Children with asymmetrical ACC sulcal patterns (n = 7 had better IC efficiency at age 5 and age 9 than children with symmetrical ACC sulcal patterns (n = 11. The ACC sulcal patterns appear to affect specifically IC efficiency given that the ACC sulcal patterns had no effect on verbal working memory. Our study provides the first evidence that the ACC sulcal pattern – a qualitative structural characteristic of the brain not affected by maturation and learning after birth – partially explains IC efficiency during childhood.

  11. Combined bilateral anterior cingulotomy and ventral capsule/ventral striatum deep brain stimulation for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder with major depression: do combined procedures have a long-term benefit?

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    Chang, Won Seok; Roh, Daeyoung; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Chang, Jin Woo

    2013-01-01

    The ventral capsule (VC), ventral striatum (VS), and the anterior cingulate gyrus are parts of the obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and depression circuits. We assessed whether a combination of bilateral anterior cingulotomy and VC/VS deep brain stimulation (DBS) had an additive effect in patients with OCD and major depression. Three patients with refractory OCD underwent combined bilateral anterior cingulotomy and VC/VS DBS procedures. All patients met the inclusion criteria for the Korean guidelines of DBS for OCD. Baseline Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Scale (Y-BOCS) scores, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores, and global assessments of functioning were evaluated. These scores were also serially estimated for more than 24 months after surgery at 3-month intervals. The mean value of the baseline Y-BOCS scores was 34.7 (range 30-38); the mean Y-BOCS value decreased significantly to 23.0 (range 20-25) 3 months after the surgery. This score was maintained 2 years after surgery with a mean value of 19.0 (range 18-20). The combination of the two therapies did not yield superior outcomes, as the clinical outcomes were comparable to those of previous reports for VC/VS DBS alone. Wide-area VC/VS DBS may be sufficient to control refractory OCD.

  12. Is dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to social exclusion due to expectancy violation?: An fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Taishi eKawamoto; Keiichi eOnoda; Ken'ichiro eNakashima; Hiroshi eNittono; Shuhei eYamaguchi; Mitsuhiro eUra

    2012-01-01

    People are typically quite sensitive about being accepted or excluded by others. Previous studies have suggested that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is a key brain region involved in the detection of social exclusion. However, this region has also been shown to be sensitive to non-social expectancy violations. We often expect other people to follow an unwritten rule in which they include us as they would expect to be included, such that social exclusion likely involves some degre...

  13. Specialization in pyramidal cell structure in the cingulate cortex of the Chacma baboon (Papio ursinus): an intracellular injection study of the posterior and anterior cingulate gyrus with comparative notes on the macaque and vervet monkeys.

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    Elston, Guy N; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Elston, Alejandra; DeFelipe, Javier; Manger, Paul

    2005-10-28

    This study forms part of an ongoing investigation of pyramidal cell structure in the cingulate cortex of primates. Recently we have demonstrated that layer III pyramidal cells in the anterior cingulate gyrus are considerably larger, more branched and more spinous than those in the posterior cingulate gyrus (areas 24 and 23, respectively) in the macaque and vervet monkeys. Moreover, the extent of the interareal difference in specialization in pyramidal cell structure differed between the two species. These data suggest that pyramidal cell circuitry may have evolved differently in these closely related species. Presently there are too few data to speculate on what is selecting for this specialization in structure. Here we extend the basis for comparison by studying pyramidal cell structure in cingulate gyrus of the Chacma baboon (Papio ursinus). Methodology used here is the same as that for our previous studies: intracellular injection of Lucifer Yellow in flat-mounted cortical slices. We found that pyramidal cells in anterior cingulate gyrus (area 24) were more branched and more spinous than those in posterior cingulate gyrus (area 23). Moreover, the complexity in pyramidal cell structure in both the anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus of the baboon differed to that in the corresponding regions in either the macaque or vervet monkeys.

  14. Dissociative contributions of the anterior cingulate cortex to apathy and depression: Topological evidence from resting-state functional MRI.

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    Onoda, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei

    2015-10-01

    Apathy is defined as a mental state characterized by a lack of goal-directed behavior. However, the underlying mechanisms of apathy remain to be fully understood. Apathy shares certain symptoms with depression and both these affective disorders are known to be associated with dysfunctions of the frontal cortex-basal ganglia circuits. It is expected that clarifying differences in neural mechanisms between the two conditions would lead to an improved understanding of apathy. The present study was designed to investigate whether apathy and depression depend on different network properties of the frontal cortex-basal ganglia circuits, by using resting state fMRI. Resting-state fMRI measurement and neuropsychological testing were conducted on middle-aged and older adults (N=392). Based on graph theory, we estimated nodal efficiency (functional integration), local efficiency (functional segregation), and betweenness centrality. We conducted multiple regression analyses for the network parameters using age, sex, apathy, and depression as predictors. Interestingly, results indicated that the anterior cingulate cortex showed lower nodal efficiency, local efficiency, and betweenness centrality in apathy, whereas in depression, it showed higher nodal efficiency and betweenness centrality. The anterior cingulate cortex constitutes the so-called "salience network", which detects salient experiences. Our results indicate that apathy is characterized by decreased salience-related processing in the anterior cingulate cortex, whereas depression is characterized by increased salience-related processing. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Transient inactivation of the anterior cingulate cortex in rats disrupts avoidance of a dynamic object.

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    Svoboda, Jan; Lobellová, Veronika; Popelíková, Anna; Ahuja, Nikhil; Kelemen, Eduard; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2017-03-01

    Although animals often learn and monitor the spatial properties of relevant moving objects such as conspecifics and predators to properly organize their own spatial behavior, the underlying brain substrate has received little attention and hence remains elusive. Because the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) participates in conflict monitoring and effort-based decision making, and ACC neurons respond to objects in the environment, it may also play a role in the monitoring of moving cues and exerting the appropriate spatial response. We used a robot avoidance task in which a rat had to maintain at least a 25cm distance from a small programmable robot to avoid a foot shock. In successive sessions, we trained ten Long Evans male rats to avoid a fast-moving robot (4cm/s), a stationary robot, and a slow-moving robot (1cm/s). In each condition, the ACC was transiently inactivated by bilateral injections of muscimol in the penultimate session and a control saline injection was given in the last session. Compared to the corresponding saline session, ACC-inactivated rats received more shocks when tested in the fast-moving condition, but not in the stationary or slow robot conditions. Furthermore, ACC-inactivated rats less frequently responded to an approaching robot with appropriate escape responses although their response to shock stimuli remained preserved. Since we observed no effect on slow or stationary robot avoidance, we conclude that the ACC may exert cognitive efforts for monitoring dynamic updating of the position of an object, a role complementary to the dorsal hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuropeptide S receptor gene variation modulates anterior cingulate cortex Glx levels during CCK-4 induced panic.

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    Ruland, Tillmann; Domschke, Katharina; Schütte, Valerie; Zavorotnyy, Maxim; Kugel, Harald; Notzon, Swantje; Vennewald, Nadja; Ohrmann, Patricia; Arolt, Volker; Pfleiderer, Bettina; Zwanzger, Peter

    2015-10-01

    An excitatory-inhibitory neurotransmitter dysbalance has been suggested in pathogenesis of panic disorder. The neuropeptide S (NPS) system has been implicated in modulating GABA and glutamate neurotransmission in animal models and to genetically drive altered fear circuit function and an increased risk of panic disorder in humans. Probing a multi-level imaging genetic risk model of panic, in the present magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study brain glutamate+glutamine (Glx) levels in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during a pharmacological cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) panic challenge were assessed depending on the functional neuropeptide S receptor gene (NPSR1) rs324981 A/T variant in a final sample of 35 healthy male subjects. The subjective panic response (Panic Symptom Scale; PSS) as well as cortisol and ACTH levels were ascertained throughout the experiment. CCK-4 injection was followed by a strong panic response. A significant time×genotype interaction was detected (p=.008), with significantly lower ACC Glx/Cr levels in T allele carriers as compared to AA homozygotes 5min after injection (p=.003). CCK-4 induced significant HPA axis stimulation, but no effect of genotype was discerned. The present pilot data suggests NPSR1 gene variation to modulate Glx levels in the ACC during acute states of stress and anxiety, with blunted, i.e. possibly maladaptive ACC glutamatergic reactivity in T risk allele carriers. Our results underline the notion of a genetically driven rapid and dynamic response mechanism in the neural regulation of human anxiety and further strengthen the emerging role of the NPS system in anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of the anterior cingulate cortex in emotional response inhibition.

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    Albert, Jacobo; López-Martín, Sara; Tapia, Manuel; Montoya, Daniel; Carretié, Luis

    2012-09-01

    Although the involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in emotional response inhibition is well established, there are several outstanding issues about the nature of this involvement that are not well understood. The present study aimed to examine the precise contribution of the ACC to emotion-modulated response inhibition by capitalizing on fine temporal resolution of the event-related potentials (ERPs) and the recent advances in source localization. To this end, participants (N = 30) performed an indirect affective Go/Nogo task (i.e., unrelated to the emotional content of stimulation) that required the inhibition of a motor response to three types of visual stimuli: arousing negative (A-), neutral (N), and arousing positive (A+). Behavioral data revealed that participants made more commission errors to A+ than to N and A-. Electrophysiological data showed that a specific region of the ACC at the intersection of its dorsal and rostral subdivisions was significantly involved in the interaction between emotional processing and motor inhibition. Specifically, activity reflecting this interaction was observed in the P3 (but not in the N2) time range, and was greater during the inhibition of responses to A+ than to N and A-. Additionally, regression analyses showed that inhibition-related activity within this ACC region was associated with the emotional content of the stimuli (its activity increased as stimulus valence was more positive), and also with behavioral performance (both with reaction times and commission errors). The present results provide additional data for understanding how, when, and where emotion interacts with response inhibition within the ACC. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Rapid synaptic potentiation within the anterior cingulate cortex mediates trace fear learning

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    Descalzi Giannina

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the cortex has been extensively studied in long-term memory storage, less emphasis has been placed on immediate cortical contributions to fear memory formation. AMPA receptor plasticity is strongly implicated in learning and memory, and studies have identified calcium permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs as mediators of synaptic strengthening. Trace fear learning engages the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, but whether plastic events occur within the ACC in response to trace fear learning, and whether GluN2B subunits are required remains unknown. Here we show that the ACC is necessary for trace fear learning, and shows a rapid 20% upregulation of membrane AMPA receptor GluA1 subunits that is evident immediately after conditioning. Inhibition of NMDA receptor GluN2B subunits during training prevented the upregulation, and disrupted trace fear memory retrieval 48 h later. Furthermore, intra-ACC injections of the CP-AMPAR channel antagonist, 1-naphthylacetyl spermine (NASPM immediately following trace fear conditioning blocked 24 h fear memory retrieval. Accordingly, whole cell patch clamp recordings from c-fos positive and c-fos negative neurons within the ACC in response to trace fear learning revealed an increased sensitivity to NASPM in recently activated neurons that was reversed by reconsolidation update extinction. Our results suggest that trace fear learning is mediated through rapid GluN2B dependent trafficking of CP-AMPARs, and present in vivo evidence that CP-AMPAR activity within the ACC immediately after conditioning is necessary for subsequent memory consolidation processes.

  19. The anterior cingulate gyrus signals the net value of others' rewards.

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    Apps, Matthew A J; Ramnani, Narender

    2014-04-30

    Evaluating the costs and benefits of our own choices is central to most forms of decision-making and its mechanisms in the brain are becoming increasingly well understood. To interact successfully in social environments, it is also essential to monitor the rewards that others receive. Previous studies in nonhuman primates have found neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) that signal the net value (benefit minus cost) of rewards that will be received oneself and also neurons that signal when a reward will be received by someone else. However, little is understood about the way in which the human brain engages in cost-benefit analyses during social interactions. Does the ACC signal the net value (the benefits minus the costs) of rewards that others will receive? Here, using fMRI, we examined activity time locked to cues that signaled the anticipated reward magnitude (benefit) to be gained and the level of effort (cost) to be incurred either by a subject themselves or by a social confederate. We investigated whether activity in the ACC covaries with the net value of rewards that someone else will receive when that person is required to exert effort for the reward. We show that, although activation in the sulcus of the ACC signaled the costs on all trials, gyral ACC (ACC(g)) activity varied parametrically only with the net value of rewards gained by others. These results suggest that the ACC(g) plays an important role in signaling cost-benefit information by signaling the value of others' rewards during social interactions.

  20. The role of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the regulation of craving by reappraisal in smokers.

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    Li-Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Drug cues can induce craving for drugs of abuse. Dysfunctional regulation of emotion and motivation regarding rewarding objects appears to be an integral part of addiction. It has been found that cognitive strategies decreased the intensity of craving in addicts. Reappraisal strategy is a type of cognitive strategy that requires participants to reinterpret the meaning of an emotional situation. In addition, studies have found that activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC is associated with the selection and application of cognitive reappraisal. In present study, we sought to determine whether such cognitive regulation engages the dACC and improves inhibition of craving in smokers. METHODS: Sixteen smokers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during performance of a cigarette reward-conditioning procedure with cognitive reappraisal. We focused our analyses on the dACC as a key structure of cognitive control of craving. Cue induced craving under different conditions was obtained. Correlational analysis between the functional response in the dACC and the subjective craving was performed. RESULTS: We found that using a cognitive reappraisal was successful in decreasing the conditioned craving. Right dACC (BA 24/32 engaged in the cognitive reappraisal. In addition, the individual's subjective craving was negatively correlated with the right dACC activation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the dACC are important substrates of Inhibition of cue induced craving in smokers. Cognitive regulation by cognitive reappraisal may help addicted individuals avoid the anticipated situations where they are exposed to conditioned cues.

  1. Cingulate Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkawadri, Rafeed; So, Norman K.; Van Ness, Paul C.; Alexopoulos, Andreas V.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The literature on cingulate gyrus epilepsy in the magnetic resonance imaging era is limited to case reports and small case series. To our knowledge, this is the largest study of surgically confirmed epilepsy arising from the anterior or posterior cingulate region. OBJECTIVE To characterize the clinical and electrophysiological findings of epilepsies arising from the anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We studied consecutive cingulate gyrus epilepsy cases identified retrospectively from the Cleveland Clinic and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center epilepsy databases from 1992 to 2009. Participants included 14 consecutive cases of cingulate gyrus epilepsies confirmed by restricted magnetic resonance image lesions and seizure freedom or marked improvement following lesionectomy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The main outcome measure was improvement in seizure frequency following surgery. The clinical, video electroencephalography, neuroimaging, pathology, and surgical outcome data were reviewed. RESULTS All 14 patients had cingulate epilepsy confirmed by restricted magnetic resonance image lesions and seizure freedom or marked improvement following lesionectomy. They were divided into 3 groups based on anatomical location of the lesion and corresponding seizure semiology. In the posterior cingulate group, all 4 patients had electroclinical findings suggestive of temporal origin of the epilepsy. The anterior cingulate cases were divided into a typical (Bancaud) group (6 cases with hypermotor seizures and infrequent generalization with the presence of fear, laughter, or severe interictal personality changes) and an atypical group (4 cases presenting with simple motor seizures and a tendency for more frequent generalization and less-favorable long-term surgical outcome). All atypical cases were associated with an underlying infiltrative astrocytoma. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Posterior cingulate gyrus epilepsy may

  2. Psychotherapy as assisted homeostasis: activation of emotional processing mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, F M

    2004-01-01

    Although psychotherapy is successful in altering emotional distress, the biological mechanism by which it achieves this has not been the subject of intensive neurobiological investigation. Mindful processing of emotion has been proposed [Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Depression, The Guilford Press, New York, 2002] to be a key factor in prevention of relapse in depressive illness and here that hypothesis is developed and extended to include other conditions in which emotion processing may be obstructed or dysregulated. Cognitive therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, psycho-dynamic psychotherapy and dialectical behaviour therapy, each in a different way and with a distinct emphasis, encourage awareness of emotions and their associated cognitions and biographies, and their varying success may depend on the degree to which they achieve activation of internal healing processes. In eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), the selected target is formatted for endogenous processing which is facilitated and accelerated by eye movements or alternating bilateral auditory or tactile stimulation. The ability to sustain focussed attention on the affect and its visceral, cognitive and biographical components is postulated to activate a homeostatic process of distress resolution, seen most clearly in treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with EMDR, in which resolution of distress can be intense and rapid while therapist input is non-directive, although supportive, empathic, and non-judgemental. Once the therapist has helped to frame the questions, the patient's brain will find the answers needed for the resolution of the distress and all the components of the traumatic event, whether visceral, cognitive, affective or interpersonal. The anterior cingulate cortex, especially the dorsal and rostral components, is suggested to be the key neurobiological substrate for the efficacious psychotherapeutic relief of distress, and relevant functional

  3. Afferents to anterior cingulate areas 24a and 24b and midcingulate areas 24a' and 24b' in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillinger, Clémentine; Yalcin, Ipek; Barrot, Michel; Veinante, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Areas 24a and 24b of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) play a major role in cognition, emotion and pain. While their connectivity has been studied in primate and in rat, a complete mapping was still missing in the mouse. Here, we analyzed the afferents to the mouse ACC by injecting retrograde tracers in the ventral and dorsal areas of the ACC (areas 24a/b) and of the midcingulate cortex (MCC; areas 24a'/b'). Our results reveal inputs from five principal groups of structures: (1) cortical areas, mainly the orbital, medial prefrontal, retrosplenial, parietal associative, primary and secondary sensory areas and the hippocampus, (2) basal forebrain, mainly the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, the claustrum and the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, (3) the thalamus, mainly the anteromedial, lateral mediodorsal, ventromedial, centrolateral, central medial and reuniens/rhomboid nuclei, (4) the hypothalamus, mainly the lateral and retromammillary areas, and (5) the brainstem, mainly the monoaminergic centers. The neurochemical nature of inputs from the diagonal band of Broca and brainstem centers was also investigated by double-labeling, showing that only a part of these afferents were cholinergic or monoaminergic. Comparisons between the areas indicate that areas 24a and 24b receive qualitatively similar inputs, but with different densities. These differences are more pronounced when comparing the inputs to ACC's areas 24a/24b to the inputs to MCC's areas 24a'/24b'. These results provide a complete analysis of the afferents to the mouse areas 24a/24b and 24a'/24b', which shows important similarity with the connectivity of homologous areas in rats, and brings the anatomical basis necessary to address the roles of cingulate areas in mice.

  4. Amitriptyline reduces rectal pain related activation of the anterior cingulate cortex in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, V; Pickens, D; Gautam, S; Kessler, R; Mertz, H

    2005-05-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder of intestinal hypersensitivity and altered motility, exacerbated by stress. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during painful rectal distension in IBS has demonstrated greater activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), an area relevant to pain and emotions. Tricyclic antidepressants are effective for IBS. The aim of this study was to determine if low dose amitriptyline reduces ACC activation during painful rectal distension in IBS to confer clinical benefits. Secondary aims were to identify other brain regions altered by amitriptyline, and to determine if reductions in cerebral activation are greater during mental stress. Nineteen women with painful IBS were randomised to amitriptyline 50 mg or placebo for one month and then crossed over to the alternate treatment after washout. Cerebral activation during rectal distension was compared between placebo and amitriptyline groups by fMRI. Distensions were performed alternately during auditory stress and relaxing music. Rectal pain induced significant activation of the perigenual ACC, right insula, and right prefrontal cortex. Amitriptyline was associated with reduced pain related cerebral activations in the perigenual ACC and the left posterior parietal cortex, but only during stress. The tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline reduces brain activation during pain in the perigenual (limbic) anterior cingulated cortex and parietal association cortex. These reductions are only seen during stress. Amitriptyline is likely to work in the central nervous system rather than peripherally to blunt pain and other symptoms exacerbated by stress in IBS.

  5. Improved social interaction and increased anterior cingulate metabolism after group reminiscence with reality orientation approach for vascular dementia.

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    Akanuma, Kyoko; Meguro, Kenichi; Meguro, Mitsue; Sasaki, Eriko; Chiba, Kentaro; Ishii, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Naofumi

    2011-06-30

    A group reminiscence approach (GRA) with reality orientation (RO) is widely used as a psychosocial intervention for dementia. Since clinical effectiveness was reported for the intervention, interest has been directed toward areas of the neuronal network that might be being stimulated. We hypothesized that the frontal lobe associated with social interaction was being stimulated. To test this hypothesis, we studied 24 patients with vascular dementia. In addition to conventional care, a 1-h session of GRA with RO was provided once a week for 3 months in the GRA-RO arm (n=12). Only supportive care was provided in the control arm (n=12). Before and after the interventions, cognitive function, depressive state, and social activities were assessed. Since glucose metabolism is associated with brain function, cerebral glucose metabolism was measured by positron emission tomography (PET). Regarding behavioral improvement, 10 patients in the GRA-RO arm showed improvement compared with only two patients in the control arm, a significant difference. PET demonstrated that metabolism in the anterior cingulate was increased in the GRA-RO arm, whereas no significant changes were observed in the control arm. These results suggest that GRA-RO stimulates the anterior cingulate and has a positive effect on social interaction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Lactate and Glutathione Levels in Euthymic Bipolar I Disorder: 1H-MRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro-de-Souza, Márcio Gerhardt; Pastorello, Bruno F; Leite, Cláudia da Costa; Henning, Anke; Moreno, Ricardo A; Garcia Otaduy, Maria Concepción

    2016-08-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are 2 closely integrated processes implicated in the physiopathology of bipolar disorder. Advanced proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques enable the measurement of levels of lactate, the main marker of mitochondrial dysfunction, and glutathione, the predominant brain antioxidant. The objective of this study was to measure brain lactate and glutathione levels in bipolar disorder and healthy controls. Eighty-eight individuals (50 bipolar disorder and 38 healthy controls) underwent 3T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (2x2x4.5cm(3)) using a 2-D JPRESS sequence. Lactate and glutathione were quantified using the ProFit software program. Bipolar disorder patients had higher dorsal anterior cingulate cortex lactate levels compared with controls. Glutathione levels did not differ between euthymic bipolar disorder and controls. There was a positive correlation between lactate and glutathione levels specific to bipolar disorder. No influence of medications on metabolites was observed. This is the most extensive magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of lactate and glutathione in bipolar disorder to date, and results indicated that euthymic bipolar disorder patients had higher levels of lactate, which might be an indication of altered mitochondrial function. Moreover, lactate levels correlated with glutathione levels, indicating a compensatory mechanism regardless of bipolar disorder diagnosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  7. Anterior cingulate cortico-hippocampal dysconnectivity in unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients: a stochastic dynamic causal modeling study

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    Yi-Bin Xi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Familial risk plays a significant role in the etiology of schizophrenia (SZ. Many studies using neuroimaging have demonstrated structural and functional alterations in relatives of SZ patients, with significant results found in diverse brain regions involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, caudate, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, and hippocampus. This study investigated whether unaffected relatives of first episode SZ differ from healthy controls (HCs in effective connectivity measures among these regions. Forty-six unaffected first-degree relatives of first episode SZ patients — according to the DSM-IV — were studied. Fifty HCs were included for comparison. All subjects underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We used stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM to estimate the directed connections between the left ACC, right ACC, left caudate, right caudate, left DLPFC, left hippocampus, and right hippocampus. We used Bayesian parameter averaging (BPA to characterize the differences. The BPA results showed hyperconnectivity from the left ACC to right hippocampus and hypoconnectivity from the right ACC to right hippocampus in SZ relatives compared to HCs. The pattern of anterior cingulate cortico-hippocampal connectivity in SZ relatives may be a familial feature of SZ risk, appearing to reflect familial susceptibility for SZ.

  8. From Thirst to Satiety: The Anterior Mid-Cingulate Cortex and Right Posterior Insula Indicate Dynamic Changes in Incentive Value

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    Christoph A. Becker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The cingulate cortex and insula are among the neural structures whose activations have been modulated in functional imaging studies examining discrete states of thirst and drinking to satiation. Building upon these findings, the present study aimed to identify neural structures that change their pattern of activation elicited by water held in the mouth in relation to the internal body state, i.e., proportional to continuous water consumption. Accordingly, participants in a thirsty state were scanned while receiving increments of water until satiety was reached. As expected, fluid ingestion led to a clear decrease in self-reported thirst and the pleasantness ratings of the water ingested. Furthermore, linear decreases in the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD response to water ingestion were observed in the anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC and right posterior insula as participants shifted towards the non-thirsty state. In addition, regions in the superior temporal gyrus (STG, supplementary motor area (SMA, superior parietal lobule (SPL, precuneus and calcarine sulcus also showed a linear decrease with increasing fluid consumption. Further analyses related single trial BOLD responses of associated regions to trial-by-trial ratings of thirst and pleasantness. Overall, the aMCC and posterior insula may be key sites of a neural network representing the motivation for drinking based on the dynamic integration of internal state and external stimuli.

  9. Correlation between extreme fear and focal cortical dysplasia in anterior cingulate gyrus: Evidence from a surgical case of refractory epilepsy.

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    Qiao, Liang; Yu, Tao; Ni, Duanyu; Wang, Xueyuan; Xu, Cuiping; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Guojun; Li, Yongjie

    2017-12-01

    Localizing the semiology of ictal fear and seizure onset in epilepsy patients is commonly challenging due to limited value of routine electroencephalography (EEG) and very few surgical attempts. Here we reported a case of refractory epilepsy characterized by aura of extreme fear and hypermotor seizures, in which the left (dominant hemisphere) anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) was determined to be the epileptogenic zone (EZ) through multiple modalities of presurgical evaluation including analysis of high frequency oscillation on intracranial EEG. Tailored resection of EZ was thus performed and pathological examination revealed focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type IIb. The patient has been seizure free during an 18-month follow-up. The report has provided novel anatomical, electrophysiological and surgical evidences suggesting the critical role of ACG in ictal fear and possibility of surgical management of fear-manifesting refractory epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Goal-directed selective attention and response competition monitoring: evidence from unilateral parietal and anterior cingulate lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danckert, J; Maruff, P; Ymer, C; Kinsella, G; Yucel, M; de Graaff, S; Currie, J

    2000-01-01

    Competing visual stimuli lead to slower responses to targets. This response competition must be resolved before correct responses are executed. Neuroimaging suggests that response competition monitoring may be subserved by an integrated neural network including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In this study, 1 patient with a parietal lesion (Patient J.S.) and 1 with an ACC lesion (Patient G.M.) were presented with 2 flanker tasks; 1 required verbal identification of color targets, and the other required an opposite response to targets (e.g., see red and say "green"); a control group was also tested. For controls, perceptually incongruent flankers interfered with the ability to inhibit prepotent responses to targets. Patient J.S. performed in a similar manner, even when flankers appeared in the neglected field. Patient G.M. demonstrated reduced interference effects for contralesional flankers. Results are discussed in terms of goal-directed selective attention and response competition monitoring.

  11. Inactivation of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Impairs Extinction of Rabbit Jaw Movement Conditioning and Prevents Extinction-Related Inhibition of Hippocampal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Amy L.; Berry, Stephen D.

    2004-01-01

    Although past research has highlighted the involvement of limbic structures such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and hippocampus in learning, few have addressed the nature of their interaction. The current study of rabbit jaw movement conditioning used a combination of reversible lesions and electrophysiology to examine the involvement of…

  12. Impact of family history of alcoholism on glutamine/glutamate ratio in anterior cingulate cortex in substance-naïve adolescents

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    Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E.; Sneider, Jennifer T.; Crowley, David J.; Rosso, Isabelle M.; Jensen, J. Eric; Silveri, Marisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of individuals with family histories of alcoholism provide evidence suggesting neurobiological risk factors for alcoholism. Youth family history positive (FH+) for alcoholism exhibit increased impulsivity compared to family history negative (FH−) peers in conjunction with altered functional activation in prefrontal cortex, including anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). This study examined glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln), amino acids vital to protein synthesis, cellular me...

  13. fMRI Neurofeedback Training for Increasing Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activation in Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. An Exploratory Randomized, Single-Blinded Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zilverstand, A.; Sorger, B.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Kan, C.C.; Goebel, R.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by poor cognitive control/attention and hypofunctioning of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). In the current study, we investigated for the first time whether real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rt-fMRI) training targeted at

  14. Electrophysiological correlates of anterior cingulate function in a go/no-go task: Effects of response conflict and trial type frequency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, S.; Yeung, N.; van den Wildenberg, W.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2003-01-01

    Neuroimaging and computational modeling studies have led to the suggestion that response conflict monitoring by the anterior cingulate cortex plays a key role in cognitive control. For example, response conflict is high when a response must be withheld (no-go) in contexts in which there is a

  15. Muscarinic receptor binding increases in anterior thalamus and cingulate cortex during discriminative avoidance learning

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    Vogt, B.A.; Gabriel, M.; Vogt, L.J.; Poremba, A.; Jensen, E.L.; Kubota, Y.; Kang, E. (Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Training-induced neuronal activity develops in the mammalian limbic system during discriminative avoidance conditioning. This study explores behaviorally relevant changes in muscarinic ACh receptor binding in 52 rabbits that were trained to one of five stages of conditioned response acquisition. Sixteen naive and 10 animals yoked to criterion performance served as control cases. Upon reaching a particular stage of training, the brains were removed and autoradiographically assayed for 3H-oxotremorine-M binding with 50 nM pirenzepine (OxO-M/PZ) or for 3H-pirenzepine binding in nine limbic thalamic nuclei and cingulate cortex. Specific OxO-M/PZ binding increased in the parvocellular division of the anterodorsal nucleus early in training when the animals were first exposed to pairing of the conditional and unconditional stimuli. Elevated binding in this nucleus was maintained throughout subsequent training. In the parvocellular division of the anteroventral nucleus (AVp), OxO-M/PZ binding progressively increased throughout training, reached a peak at the criterion stage of performance, and returned to control values during extinction sessions. Peak OxO-M/PZ binding in AVp was significantly elevated over that for cases yoked to criterion performance. In the magnocellular division of the anteroventral nucleus (AVm), OxO-M/PZ binding was elevated only during criterion performance of the task, and it was unaltered in any other limbic thalamic nuclei. Specific OxO-M/PZ binding was also elevated in most layers in rostral area 29c when subjects first performed a significant behavioral discrimination. Training-induced alterations in OxO-M/PZ binding in AVp and layer Ia of area 29c were similar and highly correlated.

  16. Structural connectivity of the anterior cingulate in children with unilateral cerebral palsy due to white matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheck, Simon M; Pannek, Kerstin; Raffelt, David A; Fiori, Simona; Boyd, Roslyn N; Rose, Stephen E

    2015-01-01

    In this work we investigate the structural connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and its link with impaired executive function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP) due to periventricular white matter lesions. Fifty two children with UCP and 17 children with typical development participated in the study, and underwent diffusion and structural MRI. Five brain regions were identified for their high connectivity with the ACC using diffusion MRI fibre tractography: the superior frontal gyrus, medial orbitofrontal cortex, rostral middle frontal gyrus, precuneus and isthmus cingulate. Structural connectivity was assessed in pathways connecting these regions to the ACC using three diffusion MRI derived measures: fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) and apparent fibre density (AFD), and compared between participant groups. Furthermore we investigated correlations of these measures with executive function as assessed by the Flanker task. The ACC-precuneus tract had significantly different MD (p < 0.0001) and AFD (p = 0.0072) between groups, with post-hoc analysis showing significantly increased MD in the right hemisphere of children with left hemiparesis compared with controls. The ACC-superior frontal gyrus tract had significantly different FA (p = 0.0049) and MD (p = 0.0031) between groups. AFD in this tract (contralateral to side of hemiparesis; right hemisphere in controls) showed a significant relationship with Flanker task performance (p = 0.0045, β = -0.5856), suggesting that reduced connectivity correlates with executive dysfunction. Reduced structural integrity of ACC tracts appears to be important in UCP, in particular the connection to the superior frontal gyrus. Although damage to this area is heterogeneous it may be important in early identification of children with impaired executive function.

  17. Regional specialization in pyramidal cell structure in the limbic cortex of the vervet monkey (Cercopithecus pygerythrus): an intracellular injection study of the anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Guy N; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Elston, Alejandra; Manger, Paul; Defelipe, Javier

    2005-12-01

    The pyramidal cell phenotype varies quite dramatically in structure among different cortical areas in the primate brain. Comparative studies in visual cortex, in particular, but also in sensorimotor and prefrontal cortex, reveal systematic trends for pyramidal cell specialization in functionally related cortical areas. Moreover, there are systematic differences in the extent of these trends between different primate species. Recently we demonstrated differences in pyramidal cell structure in the cingulate cortex of the macaque monkey; however, in the absence of other comparative data it remains unknown as to whether the neuronal phenotype differs in cingulate cortex between species. Here we extend the basis for comparison by studying the structure of the basal dendritic trees of layer III pyramidal cells in the posterior and anterior cingulate gyrus of the vervet monkey (Brodmann's areas 23 and 24, respectively). Cells were injected with Lucifer Yellow in flat-mounted cortical slices, and processed for a light-stable DAB reaction product. Size, branching pattern, and spine density of basal dendritic arbors were determined, and somal areas measured. As in the macaque monkey, we found that pyramidal cells in anterior cingulate gyrus (area 24) were more branched and more spinous than those in posterior cingulate gyrus (area 23). In addition, the extent of the difference in pyramidal cell structure between these two cortical regions was less in the vervet monkey than in the macaque monkey.

  18. Posterior Orbitofrontal and Anterior Cingulate Pathways to the Amygdala Target Inhibitory and Excitatory Systems with Opposite Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikopoulos, Basilis; Höistad, Malin; John, Yohan; Barbas, Helen

    2017-05-17

    The bidirectional dialogue of the primate posterior orbitofrontal cortex (pOFC) with the amygdala is essential in cognitive-emotional functions. The pOFC also sends a uniquely one-way excitatory pathway to the amygdalar inhibitory intercalated masses (IM), which inhibit the medial part of the central amygdalar nucleus (CeM). Inhibition of IM has the opposite effect, allowing amygdalar activation of autonomic structures and emotional arousal. Using multiple labeling approaches to identify pathways and their postsynaptic sites in the amygdala in rhesus monkeys, we found that the anterior cingulate cortex innervated mostly the basolateral and CeM amygdalar nuclei, poised to activate CeM for autonomic arousal. By contrast, a pathway from pOFC to IM exceeded all other pathways to the amygdala by density and size and proportion of large and efficient terminals. Moreover, whereas pOFC terminals in IM innervated each of the three distinct classes of inhibitory neurons, most targeted neurons expressing dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32+), known to be modulated by dopamine. The predominant pOFC innervation of DARPP-32+ neurons suggests activation of IM and inhibition of CeM, resulting in modulated autonomic function. By contrast, inhibition of DARPP-32 neurons in IM by high dopamine levels disinhibits CeM and triggers autonomic arousal. The findings provide a mechanism to help explain how a strong pOFC pathway, which is poised to moderate activity of CeM, through IM, can be undermined by the high level of dopamine during stress, resulting in collapse of potent inhibitory mechanisms in the amygdala and heightened autonomic drive, as seen in chronic anxiety disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The dialogue between prefrontal cortex and amygdala allows thoughts and emotions to influence actions. The posterior orbitofrontal cortex sends a powerful pathway that targets a special class of amygdalar intercalated mass (IM) inhibitory neurons, whose wiring may help

  19. Role of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in obsessive-compulsive disorder: converging evidence from cognitive neuroscience and psychiatric neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Robert A; Sheth, Sameer A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Advances in understanding the neurobiological basis of psychiatric disorders will improve the ability to refine neuromodulatory procedures for treatment-refractory patients. One of the core dysfunctions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a deficit in cognitive control, especially involving the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). The authors' aim was to derive a neurobiological understanding of the successful treatment of refractory OCD with psychiatric neurosurgical procedures targeting the dACC. METHODS First, the authors systematically conducted a review of the literature on the role of the dACC in OCD by using the search terms "obsessive compulsive disorder" and "anterior cingulate." The neuroscience literature on cognitive control mechanisms in the dACC was then combined with the literature on psychiatric neurosurgical procedures targeting the dACC for the treatment of refractory OCD. RESULTS The authors reviewed 89 studies covering topics that included structural and functional neuroimaging and electrophysiology. The majority of resting-state functional neuroimaging studies demonstrated dACC hyperactivity in patients with OCD relative to that in controls, while task-based studies were more variable. Electrophysiological studies showed altered dACC-related biomarkers of cognitive control, such as error-related negativity in OCD patients. These studies were combined with the cognitive control neurophysiology literature, including the recently elaborated expected value of control theory of dACC function. The authors suggest that a central feature of OCD pathophysiology involves the generation of mis-specified cognitive control signals by the dACC, and they elaborate on this theory and provide suggestions for further study. CONCLUSIONS Although abnormalities in brain structure and function in OCD are distributed across a wide network, the dACC plays a central role. The authors propose a theory of cognitive control dysfunction in OCD that

  20. The von Economo neurons in the frontoinsular and anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, John M; Tetreault, Nicole A; Hakeem, Atiya Y; Manaye, Kebreten F; Semendeferi, Katerina; Erwin, Joseph M; Park, Soyoung; Goubert, Virginie; Hof, Patrick R

    2011-04-01

    The von Economo neurons (VENs) are large bipolar neurons located in the frontoinsular cortex (FI) and limbic anterior (LA) area in great apes and humans but not in other primates. Our stereological counts of VENs in FI and LA show them to be more numerous in humans than in apes. In humans, small numbers of VENs appear the 36th week postconception, with numbers increasing during the first 8 months after birth. There are significantly more VENs in the right hemisphere in postnatal brains; this may be related to asymmetries in the autonomic nervous system. VENs are also present in elephants and whales and may be a specialization related to very large brain size. The large size and simple dendritic structure of these projection neurons suggest that they rapidly send basic information from FI and LA to other parts of the brain, while slower neighboring pyramids send more detailed information. Selective destruction of VENs in early stages of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) implies that they are involved in empathy, social awareness, and self-control, consistent with evidence from functional imaging. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. The von Economo neurons in fronto-insular and anterior cingulate cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, John M.; Tetreault, Nicole A.; Hakeem, Atiya Y.; Manaye, Kebreten F.; Semendeferi, Katerina; Erwin, Joseph M.; Park, Soyoung; Goubert, Virginie; Hof, Patrick R.

    2011-01-01

    The von Economo neurons (VENs) are large bipolar neurons located in fronto-insular cortex (FI) and anterior limbic area (LA) in great apes and humans but not in other primates. Our stereological counts of VENs in FI and LA show them to be more numerous in humans than in apes. In humans, small numbers of VENs appear the 36th week post conception, with numbers increasing during the first eight months after birth. There are significantly more VENs in the right hemisphere in postnatal brains; this may be related to asymmetries in the autonomic nervous system. VENs are also present in elephants and whales and may be a specialization related to very large brain size. The large size and simple dendritic structure of these projection neurons suggest that they rapidly send basic information from FI and LA to other parts of the brain, while slower neighboring pyramids send more detailed information. Selective destruction of VENs in early stages of fronto-temporal dementia implies that they are involved in empathy, social awareness, and self-control, consistent with evidence from functional imaging. PMID:21534993

  2. Comparison of anterior cingulate versus insular cortex as targets for real-time fMRI regulation during pain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten eEmmert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI neurofeedback allows learning voluntary control over specific brain areas by means of operant conditioning and has been shown to decrease pain perception. To further increase the effect of rt-fMRI neurofeedback on pain, we directly compared two different target regions of the pain network i.e. the anterior insular cortex (AIC and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC.Participants for this prospective study were randomly assigned to two age-matched groups of 14 participants each (7 females per group for AIC and ACC feedback. First, a functional localizer using block-design heat pain stimulation was performed to define the pain-sensitive target region within the AIC or ACC. Second, subjects were asked to down-regulate the feedback signal in four neurofeedback runs during identical pain stimulation. Data analysis included task-related and functional connectivity analysis.At the behavioral level, pain ratings significantly decreased during feedback versus localizer runs, but there was no difference between AIC and ACC groups. Concerning neuroimaging, ACC and AIC showed consistent involvement of the caudate nucleus for subjects that learned down-regulation (17/28 in both task-related and functional connectivity analysis. The functional connectivity towards the caudate nucleus is stronger for the ACC while the AIC is more heavily connected to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.Consequently, the ACC and AIC are suitable targets for real-time fMRI neurofeedback during pain perception as they both affect the caudate nucleus, although functional connectivity indicates that the direct connection seems to be stronger with the ACC. Additionally, the caudate, an important area involved in pain perception and suppression, could be a rt-fMRI target itself. Future studies are needed to identify parameters characterizing successful regulators and to assess the effect of repeated rt-fMRI neurofeedback on pain

  3. Exposure to blue wavelength light modulates anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to 'uncertain' versus 'certain' anticipation of positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Ryan; Killgore, William D S

    2016-03-11

    Blue wavelength light has been used as an effective treatment for some types of mood disorders and circadian rhythm related sleep problems. We hypothesized that acute exposure to blue wavelength light would directly affect the functioning of neurocircuity implicated in emotion regulation (i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex [ACC]) during 'certain' and 'uncertain' anticipation of negative and positive stimuli. Thirty-five healthy adults were randomized to receive a thirty-minute exposure to either blue (active) or amber (placebo) light, immediately followed by an emotional anticipation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In contrast to placebo, participants in the blue light group showed significantly reduced activation within the rostral ACC during 'uncertain' anticipation (i.e., uncertainty regarding whether a positive or negative stimulus would be shown) in comparison to 'certain' anticipation of a positive stimulus. These findings may be explicable in terms of interactions between blue light exposure and the influence of specific neuromodulators on ACC-mediated decision-making mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of neuronal intrinsic properties and synaptic transmission in layer I of anterior cingulate cortex from adult mice

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    Li Xiang-Yao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The neurons in neocortex layer I (LI provide inhibition to the cortical networks. Despite increasing use of mice for the study of brain functions, few studies were reported about mouse LI neurons. In the present study, we characterized intrinsic properties of LI neurons of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a key cortical area for sensory and cognitive functions, by using whole-cell patch clamp recording approach. Seventy one neurons in LI and 12 pyramidal neurons in LII/III were recorded. Although all of the LI neurons expressed continuous adapting firing characteristics, the unsupervised clustering results revealed five groups in the ACC, including: Spontaneous firing neurons; Delay-sAHP neurons, Delay-fAHP neurons, and two groups of neurons with ADP, named ADP1 and ADP2, respectively. Using pharmacological approaches, we found that LI neurons received both excitatory (mediated by AMPA, kainate and NMDA receptors, and inhibitory inputs (which were mediated by GABAA receptors. Our studies provide the first report characterizing the electrophysiological properties of neurons in LI of the ACC from adult mice.

  5. Heritability of brain structure and glutamate levels in the anterior cingulate and left thalamus assessed with MR: A twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian Villumsen; Legind, Christian Stefan; Mandl, Rene C W

    included without their siblings. A 3D-T1W structural image and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (PRESS) was obtained from each subject using a 3 Tesla Philips MRI system. Total brain (TB), Gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), peripheral GM (pGM), ventricular CSF (vCSF) volumes were calculated using......Heritability of brain structure and glutamate levels in the anterior cingulate and left thalamus assessed with MR: A twin study Brian V. Broberg1,2; Christian S. Legind1,2, Rene C. Mandl1,3, Maria H. Jensen1, Simon J. Anhøj1,2, Rikke Hilker1, Egill Rostrup1,2, Birte Y. Glenthøj1 Author affiliations...... the heritability of regional cerebral glutamate levels as well as structural brain volumes. Methods Population: 18 monozygotic, 13 dizygotic twin pairs con- or discordant for schizophrenia (ICD-10, F. 20-29), 16 monozygotic healthy control pairs and 10 dizygotic healthy control pairs. Nine additional twins were...

  6. The influence of 5-HTTLPR transporter genotype on amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex connectivity in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Francisco; Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Mattson, Whitney I; Martin, Donna M; Lord, Catherine; Monk, Christopher S

    2017-04-01

    Social deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are linked to amygdala functioning and functional connection between the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC) is involved in the modulation of amygdala activity. Impairments in behavioral symptoms and amygdala activation and connectivity with the sACC seem to vary by serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) variant genotype in diverse populations. The current preliminary investigation examines whether amygdala-sACC connectivity differs by 5-HTTLPR genotype and relates to social functioning in ASD. A sample of 108 children and adolescents (44 ASD) completed an fMRI face-processing task. Youth with ASD and low expressing 5-HTTLPR genotypes showed significantly greater connectivity than youth with ASD and higher expressing genotypes as well as typically developing (TD) individuals with both low and higher expressing genotypes, in the comparison of happy vs. baseline faces and happy vs. neutral faces. Moreover, individuals with ASD and higher expressing genotypes exhibit a negative relationship between amygdala-sACC connectivity and social dysfunction. Altered amygdala-sACC coupling based on 5-HTTLPR genotype may help explain some of the heterogeneity in neural and social function observed in ASD. This is the first ASD study to combine genetic polymorphism analyses and functional connectivity in the context of a social task. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Glutamate/glutamine concentrations in the dorsal anterior cingulate vary with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, Nathaniel G; Wood, Kimberly H; Ference, Edward W; Reid, Meredith A; Lahti, Adrienne C; Knight, Amy J; Knight, David C

    2017-08-01

    Trauma and stress-related disorders (e.g., Acute Stress Disorder; ASD and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder; PTSD) that develop following a traumatic event are characterized by cognitive-affective dysfunction. The cognitive and affective functions disrupted by stress disorder are mediated, in part, by glutamatergic neural systems. However, it remains unclear whether neural glutamate concentrations, measured acutely following trauma, vary with ASD symptoms and/or future PTSD symptom expression. Therefore, the current study utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to investigate glutamate/glutamine (Glx) concentrations within the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of recently (i.e., within one month) traumatized individuals and non-traumatized controls. Although Glx concentrations within dorsal ACC did not differ between recently traumatized and non-traumatized control groups, a positive linear relationship was observed between Glx concentrations and current stress disorder symptoms in traumatized individuals. Further, Glx concentrations showed a positive linear relationship with future stress disorder symptoms (i.e., assessed 3 months post-trauma). The present results suggest glutamate concentrations may play a role in both acute and future post-traumatic stress symptoms following a traumatic experience. The current results expand our understanding of the neurobiology of stress disorder and suggest glutamate within the dorsal ACC plays an important role in cognitive-affective dysfunction following a traumatic experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring individual differences in task switching: Persistence and other personality traits related to anterior cingulate cortex function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, A; Holroyd, C B

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is involved in cognitive control and decision-making but its precise function is still highly debated. Based on evidence from lesion, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies, we have recently proposed a critical role for ACC in motivating extended behaviors according to learned task values (Holroyd and Yeung, 2012). Computational simulations based on this theory suggest a hierarchical mechanism in which a caudal division of ACC selects and applies control over task execution, and a rostral division of ACC facilitates switches between tasks according to a higher task strategy (Holroyd and McClure, 2015). This theoretical framework suggests that ACC may contribute to personality traits related to persistence and reward sensitivity (Holroyd and Umemoto, 2016). To explore this possibility, we carried out a voluntary task switching experiment in which on each trial participants freely chose one of two tasks to perform, under the condition that they try to select the tasks "at random" and equally often. The participants also completed several questionnaires that assessed personality trait related to persistence, apathy, anhedonia, and rumination, in addition to the Big 5 personality inventory. Among other findings, we observed greater compliance with task instructions by persistent individuals, as manifested by a greater facility with switching between tasks, which is suggestive of increased engagement of rostral ACC. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hypo-metabolism of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex associated with working memory impairment in 18 cases of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazgaj, Robert; Tal, Assaf; Goetz, Raymond; Lazar, Mariana; Rothman, Karen; Messinger, Julie Walsh; Malaspina, Dolores; Gonen, Oded

    2016-03-01

    Working memory (Work-Mem), the capacity to hold and manipulate information, activates the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), especially its caudal subregion. Impaired Work-Mem and structural and functional abnormalities of the ACC are reported in schizophrenia. This study aims to elucidate the pathogenesis of Work-Mem dysfunction in schizophrenia by comparing metabolite concentrations across ACC subregions. This retrospective study of 18 schizophrenia cases and 10 matched controls used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1)H-MRSI, TR/TE = 1800/35 ms, 0.5 cm(3) spatial resolution) to test whether the Work-Mem Index of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, third edition is associated with differences in the rostral to caudal ACC ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and creatine (Cr). Higher caudal:rostral ACC Cr (but not NAA) concentrations were associated with decreased Work-Mem Index in cases (r = -0.6, p = 0.02), with a similar trend in controls (r = -0.56, p = 0.10), although caudal:rostral ACC Cr correlated with NAA in cases and controls (r = 0.67 and 0.62, p working memory impairment in schizophrenia. Changes in the rostral (not the expected caudal) subregion underscore the interconnections between the ACC subregions and may offer laboratory markers for treatment trials, etiology studies, and perhaps even enhanced identification of prodromal "at risk" subjects.

  10. Abrupt changes in the patterns and complexity of anterior cingulate cortex activity when food is introduced into an environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barak Francisco Caracheo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractForaging typically involves two distinct phases, an exploration phase where an organism explores its local environment in search of needed resources and an exploitation phase where a discovered resource is consumed. The behavior and cognitive requirements of exploration and exploitation are quite different and yet organisms can quickly and efficiently switch between them many times during a foraging bout. The present study investigated neural activity state dynamics in the anterior cingulate sub-region of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC when a reliable food source was introduced into an environment. Distinct and largely independent states were detected using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM when food was present or absent in the environment. Measures of neural entropy or complexity decreased when rats went from exploring the environment to exploiting a reliable food source. Exploration in the absence of food was associated with many weak activity states, while bouts of food consumption were characterized by fewer stronger states. Widespread activity state changes in the mPFC may help to inform foraging decisions and focus behavior on what is currently most prominent or valuable in the environment.

  11. Therapygenetics: anterior cingulate cortex-amygdala coupling is associated with 5-HTTLPR and treatment response in panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueken, Ulrike; Straube, Benjamin; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Konrad, Carsten; Ströhle, Andreas; Wittmann, André; Pfleiderer, Bettina; Arolt, Volker; Kircher, Tilo; Deckert, Jürgen; Reif, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Variation in the 5'-flanking promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4, the 5-HTT-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been inconclusively associated with response to cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). As genomic functions are stronger related to neural than to behavioural markers, we investigated the association of treatment response, 5-HTTLPR and functional brain connectivity in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG). Within the national research network PANIC-NET 231 PD/AG patients who provided genetic information underwent a manualized exposure-based CBT. A subset of 41 patients participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) add-on study prior to treatment applying a differential fear conditioning task. Neither the treatment nor the reduced fMRI sample showed a direct effect of 5-HTTLPR on treatment response as defined by a reduction in the Hamilton Anxiety Scale score ≥50 % from baseline to post assessment. On a neural level, inhibitory anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-amygdala coupling during fear conditioning that had previously been shown to characterize treatment response in this sample was driven by responders with the L/L genotype. Building upon conclusive evidence from basic and preclinical findings on the association of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with emotion regulation and related brain connectivity patterns, present findings translate these to a clinical sample of PD/AG patients and point towards a potential intermediate connectivity phenotype modulating response to exposure-based CBT.

  12. Combined rTMS treatment targeting the Anterior Cingulate and the Temporal Cortex for the Treatment of Chronic Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, Peter M.; Lehner, Astrid; Schlee, Winfried; Vielsmeier, Veronika; Schecklmann, Martin; Poeppl, Timm B.; Landgrebe, Michael; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been proposed as a tinnitus treatment option. Promising results have been obtained by consecutive stimulation of lateral frontal and auditory brain regions. We investigated a combined stimulation paradigm targeting the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) with double cone coil rTMS, followed by stimulation of the temporo-parietal junction area with a figure-of-eight coil. The study was conducted as a randomized, double-blind pilot trial in 40 patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. We compared mediofrontal stimulation with double-cone-coil, (2000 stimuli, 10 Hz) followed by left temporo-parietal stimulation with figure-of-eight-coil (2000 stimuli, 1 Hz) to left dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex stimulation with figure-of-eight-coil (2000 stimuli, 10 Hz) followed by temporo-parietal stimulation with figure-of-eight-coil (2000 stimuli, 1 Hz). The stimulation was feasible with comparable dropout rates in both study arms; no severe adverse events were registered. Responder rates did not differ in both study arms. There was a significant main effect of time for the change in the TQ score, but no significant time x group interaction. This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of combined mediofrontal/temporoparietal-rTMS-stimulation with double cone coil in tinnitus patients but failed to show better outcome compared to an actively rTMS treated control group. PMID:26667790

  13. Is dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to social exclusion due to expectancy violation? An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Onoda, Keiichi; Nakashima, Ken'ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    People are typically quite sensitive about being accepted or excluded by others. Previous studies have suggested that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is a key brain region involved in the detection of social exclusion. However, this region has also been shown to be sensitive to non-social expectancy violations. We often expect other people to follow an unwritten rule in which they include us as they would expect to be included, such that social exclusion likely involves some degree of expectancy violation. The present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study sought to separate the effects of expectancy violation from those of social exclusion, such that we employed an "overinclusion" condition in which a player was unexpectedly overincluded in the game by the other players. With this modification, we found that the dACC and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) were activated by exclusion, relative to overinclusion. In addition, we identified a negative correlation between exclusion-evoked brain activity and self-rated social pain in the rVLPFC, but not in the dACC. These findings suggest that the rVLPFC is critical for regulating social pain, whereas the dACC plays an important role in the detection of exclusion. The neurobiological basis of social exclusion is different from that of mere expectancy violation.

  14. Higher media multi-tasking activity is associated with smaller gray-matter density in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kep Kee Loh

    Full Text Available Media multitasking, or the concurrent consumption of multiple media forms, is increasingly prevalent in today's society and has been associated with negative psychosocial and cognitive impacts. Individuals who engage in heavier media-multitasking are found to perform worse on cognitive control tasks and exhibit more socio-emotional difficulties. However, the neural processes associated with media multi-tasking remain unexplored. The present study investigated relationships between media multitasking activity and brain structure. Research has demonstrated that brain structure can be altered upon prolonged exposure to novel environments and experience. Thus, we expected differential engagements in media multitasking to correlate with brain structure variability. This was confirmed via Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM analyses: Individuals with higher Media Multitasking Index (MMI scores had smaller gray matter density in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Functional connectivity between this ACC region and the precuneus was negatively associated with MMI. Our findings suggest a possible structural correlate for the observed decreased cognitive control performance and socio-emotional regulation in heavy media-multitaskers. While the cross-sectional nature of our study does not allow us to specify the direction of causality, our results brought to light novel associations between individual media multitasking behaviors and ACC structure differences.

  15. Network profiles of the dorsal anterior cingulate and dorsal prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia during hippocampal-based associative memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eWoodcock

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by brain network dysfunction, particularly during behavioral tasks that depend on frontal and hippocampal mechanisms. Here, we investigated network profiles of the regions of the frontal cortex during memory encoding and retrieval, phases of processing essential to associative memory. Schizophrenia patients (n=12 and healthy control subjects (n=10 participated in an established object-location associative memory paradigm that drives frontal-hippocampal interactions. Network profiles were modeled of both the dorsal prefrontal (dPFC and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC as seeds using psychophysiological interaction analyses, a robust framework for investigating seed-based connectivity in specific task contexts. The choice of seeds was motivated by previous evidence of involvement of these regions during associative memory. Differences between patients and controls were evaluated using second-level analyses of variance with seed (dPFC vs. dACC, group (patients vs. controls, and memory process (encoding vs. retrieval as factors. Patients showed a pattern of exaggerated modulation by each of the dACC and the dPFC during memory encoding and retrieval. Furthermore, group by memory process interactions were observed within regions of the hippocampus. In schizophrenia patients, relatively diminished modulation during encoding was associated with increased modulation during retrieval. These results suggest a pattern of complex dysfunctional network signatures of critical forebrain regions in schizophrenia. Evidence of dysfunctional frontal-medial temporal lobe network signatures in schizophrenia is consistent with the illness’ characterization as a disconnection syndrome.

  16. Network Profiles of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate and Dorsal Prefrontal Cortex in Schizophrenia During Hippocampal-Based Associative Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Eric A; Wadehra, Sunali; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by brain network dysfunction, particularly during behavioral tasks that depend on frontal and hippocampal mechanisms. Here, we investigated network profiles of the regions of the frontal cortex during memory encoding and retrieval, phases of processing essential to associative memory. Schizophrenia patients (n = 12) and healthy control (HC) subjects (n = 10) participated in an established object-location associative memory paradigm that drives frontal-hippocampal interactions. Network profiles were modeled of both the dorsal prefrontal (dPFC) and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as seeds using psychophysiological interaction analyses, a robust framework for investigating seed-based connectivity in specific task contexts. The choice of seeds was motivated by previous evidence of involvement of these regions during associative memory. Differences between patients and controls were evaluated using second-level analyses of variance (ANOVA) with seed (dPFC vs. dACC), group (patients vs. controls), and memory process (encoding and retrieval) as factors. Patients showed a pattern of exaggerated modulation by each of the dACC and the dPFC during memory encoding and retrieval. Furthermore, group by memory process interactions were observed within regions of the hippocampus. In schizophrenia patients, relatively diminished modulation during encoding was associated with increased modulation during retrieval. These results suggest a pattern of complex dysfunctional network signatures of critical forebrain regions in schizophrenia. Evidence of dysfunctional frontal-medial temporal lobe network signatures in schizophrenia is consistent with the illness' characterization as a disconnection syndrome.

  17. The influence of 5-HTTLPR transporter genotype on amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex connectivity in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Velasquez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Social deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD are linked to amygdala functioning and functional connection between the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC is involved in the modulation of amygdala activity. Impairments in behavioral symptoms and amygdala activation and connectivity with the sACC seem to vary by serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR variant genotype in diverse populations. The current preliminary investigation examines whether amygdala-sACC connectivity differs by 5-HTTLPR genotype and relates to social functioning in ASD. A sample of 108 children and adolescents (44 ASD completed an fMRI face-processing task. Youth with ASD and low expressing 5-HTTLPR genotypes showed significantly greater connectivity than youth with ASD and higher expressing genotypes as well as typically developing (TD individuals with both low and higher expressing genotypes, in the comparison of happy vs. baseline faces and happy vs. neutral faces. Moreover, individuals with ASD and higher expressing genotypes exhibit a negative relationship between amygdala-sACC connectivity and social dysfunction. Altered amygdala-sACC coupling based on 5-HTTLPR genotype may help explain some of the heterogeneity in neural and social function observed in ASD. This is the first ASD study to combine genetic polymorphism analyses and functional connectivity in the context of a social task.

  18. A Chan Dietary Intervention Enhances Executive Functions and Anterior Cingulate Activity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S. Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Executive dysfunctions have been found to be related to repetitive/disinhibited behaviors and social deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. This study aims to investigate the potential effect of a Shaolin-medicine-based dietary modification on improving executive functions and behavioral symptoms of ASD and exploring the possible underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Twenty-four children with ASD were randomly assigned into the experimental (receiving dietary modification for one month and the control (no modification groups. Each child was assessed on his/her executive functions, behavioral problems based on parental ratings, and event-related electroencephalography (EEG activity during a response-monitoring task before and after the one month. The experimental group demonstrated significantly improved mental flexibility and inhibitory control after the diet modification, which continued to have a large effect size within the low-functioning subgroup. Such improvements coincided with positive evaluations by their parents on social communication abilities and flexible inhibitory control of daily behaviors and significantly enhanced event-related EEG activity at the rostral and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. In contrast, the control group did not show any significant improvements. These positive outcomes of a one-month dietary modification on children with ASD have implicated its potential clinical applicability for patients with executive function deficits.

  19. Right anterior cingulate cortical thickness and bilateral striatal volume correlate with child behavior checklist aggressive behavior scores in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Simon; Hudziak, James J; Botteron, Kelly N; Ganjavi, Hooman; Lepage, Claude; Collins, D Louis; Albaugh, Matthew D; Evans, Alan C; Karama, Sherif

    2011-08-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and basal ganglia have been implicated in pathological aggression. This study aimed at identifying neuroanatomical correlates of impulsive aggression in healthy children. Data from 193 representative 6- to 18-year-old healthy children were obtained from the National Institutes of Health Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development after a blinded quality control. Cortical thickness and subcortical volumes were obtained with automated software. Aggression levels were measured with the Aggressive Behavior scale (AGG) of the Child Behavior Checklist. AGG scores were regressed against cortical thickness and basal ganglia volumes using first- and second-order linear models while controlling for age, gender, scanner site, and total brain volume. Gender by AGG interactions were analyzed. There were positive associations between bilateral striatal volumes and AGG scores (right: r = .238, p = .001; left: r = .188, p = .01). A significant association was found with right ACC and subgenual ACC cortical thickness in a second-order linear model (p right ACC cortex. An AGG by gender interaction trend was found in bilateral OFC and ACC associations with AGG scores. This study shows the existence of relationships between impulsive aggression in healthy children and the structure of the striatum and right ACC. It also suggests the existence of gender-specific patterns of association in OFC/ACC gray matter. These results may guide research on oppositional-defiant and conduct disorders. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Glutamate Levels and Resting Cerebral Blood Flow in Anterior Cingulate Cortex Are Associated at Rest and Immediately Following Infusion of S-Ketamine in Healthy Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten Borup Bojesen; Kirsten Borup Bojesen; Kasper Aagaard Andersen; Kasper Aagaard Andersen; Kasper Aagaard Andersen; Sophie Nordahl Rasmussen; Sophie Nordahl Rasmussen; Sophie Nordahl Rasmussen; Lone Baandrup; Line Malmer Madsen; Birte Yding Glenthøj; Birte Yding Glenthøj; Egill Rostrup; Brian Villumsen Broberg

    2018-01-01

    Progressive loss of brain tissue is seen in some patients with schizophrenia and might be caused by increased levels of glutamate and resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) alterations. Animal studies suggest that the normalisation of glutamate levels decreases rCBF and prevents structural changes in hippocampus. However, the relationship between glutamate and rCBF in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of humans has not been studied in the absence of antipsychotics and illness chronicity. Ketamine i...

  1. Deep Brain Stimulation of Medial Dorsal and Ventral Anterior Nucleus of the Thalamus in OCD: A Retrospective Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Maarouf, Mohammad; Neudorfer, Clemens; El Majdoub, Faycal; Lenartz, Doris; Kuhn, Jens; Sturm, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Background The current notion that cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits are involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has instigated the search for the most suitable target for deep brain stimulation (DBS). However, despite extensive research, uncertainty about the ideal target remains with many structures being underexplored. The aim of this report is to address a new target for DBS, the medial dorsal (MD) and the ventral anterior (VA) nucleus of the thalamu...

  2. Low serotonin1B receptor binding potential in the anterior cingulate cortex in drug-free patients with recurrent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiger, Mikael; Farde, Lars; Rück, Christian; Varrone, Andrea; Forsberg, Anton; Lindefors, Nils; Halldin, Christer; Lundberg, Johan

    2016-07-30

    The pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) is not fully understood and the diagnosis is largely based on history and clinical examination. So far, several lines of preclinical data and a single imaging study implicate a role for the serotonin1B (5-HT1B) receptor subtype. We sought to study 5-HT1B receptor binding in brain regions of reported relevance in patients with MDD. Subjects were examined at the Karolinska Institutet PET centre using positron emission tomography (PET) and the 5-HT1B receptor selective radioligand [(11)C]AZ10419369. Ten drug-free patients with recurrent MDD and ten control subjects matched for age and sex were examined. The main outcome measure was [(11)C]AZ10419369 binding in brain regions of reported relevance in the pathophysiology of MDD. The [(11)C]AZ10419369 binding potential was significantly lower in the MDD group compared with the healthy control group in the anterior cingulate cortex (20% between-group difference), the subgenual prefrontal cortex (17% between-group difference), and in the hippocampus (32% between-group difference). The low anterior cingulate [(11)C]AZ10419369 binding potential in patients with recurrent MDD positions 5-HT1B receptor binding in this region as a putative biomarker for MDD and corroborate a role of the anterior cingulate cortex and associated areas in the pathophysiology of recurrent MDD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment of metabolite status of the anterior cingulate cortex in chronic pain patients and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito T

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Takahiro Ito,1 Sachiko Tanaka-Mizuno,2,3 Narihito Iwashita,4 Ikuo Tooyama,5 Akihiko Shiino,6 Katsuyuki Miura,1,7 Sei Fukui4 1Department of Public Health, Shiga University of Medical Science, 2Department of Medical Statistics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan; 3The Center for Data Science Education and Research, Shiga University, Hikone, Japan; 4Department of Anesthesiology, Interdisciplinary Pain Management Center, Shiga University of Medical Science Hospital, 5Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, 6Biomedical MR Science Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, 7Center for Epidemiologic Research in Asia, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan Background: Chronic pain is a common cause of reduced quality of life. Recent studies suggest that chronic pain patients have a different brain neurometabolic status to healthy people. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS can determine the concentrations of metabolites in a specific region of the brain without being invasive. Patients and methods: We recruited 56 chronic pain patients and 60 healthy controls to compare brain metabolic characteristics. The concentrations of glutamic acid (Glu, myo-inositol (Ins, N-acetylaspartate (NAA, Glu + glutamine (Glx, and creatine + phosphocreatine (total creatine [tCr] in the anterior cingulate cortex of participants were measured using 1H-MRS. We used age- and gender-adjusted general linear models and receiver-operating characteristic analyses for this investigation. Patients were also assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS to reveal the existence of any mental health issues. Results: Our analysis indicates that pain patients have statistically significantly higher levels of Glu/tCr (p=0.039 and Glx/tCr (p<0.001 and lower levels of NAA/tCr than controls, although this did not reach statistical significance (p=0.052. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis

  4. Fatty acid composition of the anterior cingulate cortex indicates a high susceptibility to lipid peroxidation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Sarah K; Jenner, Andrew M; Spiro, Adena S; Batterham, Marijka; Halliday, Glenda M; Garner, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to Parkinson's disease (PD) etiology. Although previous studies have focused on sources of free radical formation in brain regions affected by PD, less is known regarding changes in lipid composition and the implications for susceptibility to peroxidation. To assess fatty acid profiles from control and PD tissues that are susceptible to PD pathology but devoid of severe destruction. We used gas chromatography methods to assess fatty acid profiles from control (n = 10) and PD (n = 9) postmortem tissues. We focused on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a region that accumulates alpha-synuclein, but does not undergo severe destruction, and compared this to the occipital cortex, a region that is pathologically spared. Our data indicate a significant 33% increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (mol%) present in the PD ACC as compared to control ACC. Increases in highly unsaturated 22:5n-6 and 22:6n-3 fatty acids were particularly pronounced (109% and 73%, respectively). Calculation of a peroxidation index (accounting for total fatty acyl double bounds) indicated a 44% increase in susceptibility of the PD ACC to lipid peroxidation compared to control ACC. Such differences were not detected in the occipital cortex from the same donors. Assessment of F2-isprostane levels confirmed that PD tissue lipids were more oxidized than controls. The global composition of fatty acids in the PD ACC is altered in a way that increases susceptibility to peroxidation in a region-specific manner. This has important implications for PD, supporting the oxidative stress hypothesis of PD pathogenesis.

  5. Meditation reduces pain-related neural activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, secondary somatosensory cortex, and thalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki eNakata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that meditation inhibits or relieves pain perception. To clarify the underlying mechanisms for this phenomenon, neuroimaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and neurophysiological methods, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG, have been used. However, it has been difficult to interpret the results, because there is some paradoxical evidence. For example, some studies reported increased neural responses to pain stimulation during meditation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and insula, whereas others showed a decrease in these regions. There have been inconsistent findings to date. Moreover, in general, since the activities of the ACC and insula are correlated with pain perception, the increase in neural activities during meditation would be related to the enhancement of pain perception rather than its reduction. These contradictions might directly contribute to the ‘mystery of meditation’. In this review, we presented previous findings for brain regions during meditation and the anatomical changes that occurred in the brain with long-term meditation training. We then discussed the findings of previous studies that examined pain-related neural activity during meditation. We also described the brain mechanisms responsible for pain relief during meditation, and possible reasons for paradoxical evidence among previous studies. By thoroughly overviewing previous findings, we hypothesized that meditation reduces pain-related neural activity in the ACC, insula, secondary somatosensory cortex, and thalamus. We suggest that the characteristics of the modulation of this activity may depend on the kind of meditation and/or number of years of experience of meditation, which were associated with paradoxical findings among previous studies that investigated pain-related neural activities during meditation.

  6. Interference and conflict monitoring in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: A structural study of the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, Virginia M; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Catricalà, Eleonora; Canini, Matteo; Iadanza, Antonella; Falini, Andrea; Abutalebi, Jubin; Iannaccone, Sandro

    2016-05-04

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a clinical condition characterized by memory impairment in the absence of any other cognitive impairment and is commonly associated with high conversion to Alzheimer's disease. Recent evidence shows that executive functions and selective attention mechanisms could also be impaired in aMCI. In this study, we investigated performance differences (i.e., reaction times [RTs] and accuracy) between a group of aMCI participants and a group of age-matched healthy individuals on the attentional network task (ANT) focusing on situations with increased interference. In particular, we assessed the relationship between interference and conflict effects and grey matter volumes (GMVs) of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)/pre-supplementary motor area in the entire sample because of its crucial role in conflict monitoring. When compared with controls, aMCI participants were less accurate on the ANT, showing increased interference and conflict effects, but no differences in RTs. In addition, aMCI participants exhibited lower GMV in the ACC than controls. While better accuracy for interference and conflict effects was associated with an increase of GMV in the ACC for both groups, RTs from the interference effect were negatively correlated with GMV of the ACC only in aMCI participants. In other words, lower GMV values of the ACC were paralleled with significantly impaired performance in terms of interference resolution. In conclusion, our study suggests the presence of a selective impairment in interference and conflict monitoring in aMCI, which in turn is associated with decreased GMVs in the ACC. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Astrocyte activation in the anterior cingulate cortex and altered glutamatergic gene expression during paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willias Masocha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Spinal astrocyte activation contributes to the pathogenesis of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain (PINP in animal models. We examined glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; an astrocyte marker immunoreactivity and gene expression of GFAP, glutamate transporters and receptor subunits by real time PCR in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC at 7 days post first administration of paclitaxel, a time point when mice had developed thermal hyperalgesia. The ACC, an area in the brain involved in pain perception and modulation, was chosen because changes in this area might contribute to the pathophysiology of PINP. GFAP transcripts levels were elevated by more than fivefold and GFAP immunoreactivity increased in the ACC of paclitaxel-treated mice. The 6 glutamate transporters (GLAST, GLT-1 EAAC1, EAAT4, VGLUT-1 and VGLUT-2 quantified were not significantly altered by paclitaxel treatment. Of the 12 ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits transcripts analysed 6 (GLuA1, GLuA3, GLuK2, GLuK3, GLuK5 and GLuN1 were significantly up-regulated, whereas GLuA2, GLuK1, GLuK4, GLuN2A and GLuN2B were not significantly altered and GLuA4 was lowly expressed. Amongst the 8 metabotropic receptor subunits analysed only mGLuR8 was significantly elevated. In conclusion, during PINP there is astrocyte activation, with no change in glutamate transporter expression and differential up-regulation of glutamate receptor subunits in the ACC. Thus, targeting astrocyte activation and the glutamatergic system might be another therapeutic avenue for management of PINP.

  8. Women's Preference for a Male Acquaintance Enhances Social Reward Processing of Material Goods in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Jun; Takahashi, Muneyoshi; Okada, Rieko; Matsushima, Eisuke; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Men, like the male of many animal species, use gifts to build satisfactory relationships with a desired woman. From the woman's perspective, all gifts are not always equally rewarding; the reward value of a gift depends on two factors: (1) the giver and (2) the type of the gift (the gift's social meaning). In this study, we investigated how these two factors interactively determine the reward value of a gift. Specifically, we examined how the neural processing for understanding a gift's social meaning is modulated by preferences for the giver. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which a female participant was asked to judge a gift from a male she was acquainted with in real life. We examined the interactive effects between (1) the female participant's attitude toward the male acquaintance (liked vs. uninteresting) and (2) the type of the gift (romantic [e.g., bouquet, earrings, and perfumes] vs. non-romantic [e.g., pencils, memo pad, and moneybox]). We found that preference for an acquaintance selectively modulated activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in response to romantic gifts, compared to non-romantic gifts. In contrast, if the woman was indifferent toward an acquaintance, no activity modulation was observed in this area for the same gifts. In addition, the ACC showed functional connectivity with the supplementary motor area/dorsal ACC (SMA/dACC), an area within the dorsal mediofrontal cortex, suggesting that it integrates action monitoring and emotional and cognitive processing in decision-making. These results suggest that attitude toward an opposite sex member has a modulatory role in recognizing the social meaning of material goods--preference for the member is a powerful modulator of social reward processing.

  9. Women's Preference for a Male Acquaintance Enhances Social Reward Processing of Material Goods in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Nakagawa

    Full Text Available Men, like the male of many animal species, use gifts to build satisfactory relationships with a desired woman. From the woman's perspective, all gifts are not always equally rewarding; the reward value of a gift depends on two factors: (1 the giver and (2 the type of the gift (the gift's social meaning. In this study, we investigated how these two factors interactively determine the reward value of a gift. Specifically, we examined how the neural processing for understanding a gift's social meaning is modulated by preferences for the giver. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study in which a female participant was asked to judge a gift from a male she was acquainted with in real life. We examined the interactive effects between (1 the female participant's attitude toward the male acquaintance (liked vs. uninteresting and (2 the type of the gift (romantic [e.g., bouquet, earrings, and perfumes] vs. non-romantic [e.g., pencils, memo pad, and moneybox]. We found that preference for an acquaintance selectively modulated activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in response to romantic gifts, compared to non-romantic gifts. In contrast, if the woman was indifferent toward an acquaintance, no activity modulation was observed in this area for the same gifts. In addition, the ACC showed functional connectivity with the supplementary motor area/dorsal ACC (SMA/dACC, an area within the dorsal mediofrontal cortex, suggesting that it integrates action monitoring and emotional and cognitive processing in decision-making. These results suggest that attitude toward an opposite sex member has a modulatory role in recognizing the social meaning of material goods--preference for the member is a powerful modulator of social reward processing.

  10. Activation of cannabinoid system in anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex modulates cost-benefit decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Abbas; Kermani, Mojtaba; Hesam, Soghra; Haghparast, Abbas; Argandoña, Enrike G; Rainer, Gregor

    2015-06-01

    Despite the evidence for altered decision making in cannabis abusers, the role of the cannabinoid system in decision-making circuits has not been studied. Here, we examined the effects of cannabinoid modulation during cost-benefit decision making in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), key brain areas involved in decision making. We trained different groups of rats in a delay-based and an effort-based form of cost-benefit T-maze decision-making task. During test days, the rats received local injections of either vehicle or ACEA, a cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R) agonist in the ACC or OFC. We measured spontaneous locomotor activity following the same treatments and characterized CB1Rs localization on different neuronal populations within these regions using immunohistochemistry. We showed that CB1R activation in the ACC impaired decision making such that rats were less willing to invest physical effort to gain high reward. Similarly, CB1R activation in the OFC induced impulsive pattern of choice such that rats preferred small immediate rewards to large delayed rewards. Control tasks ensured that the effects were specific for differential cost-benefit tasks. Furthermore, we characterized widespread colocalizations of CB1Rs on GABAergic axonal ends but few colocalizations on glutamatergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic neuronal ends. These results provide first direct evidence that the cannabinoid system plays a critical role in regulating cost-benefit decision making in the ACC and OFC and implicate cannabinoid modulation of synaptic ends of predominantly interneurons and to a lesser degree other neuronal populations in these two frontal regions.

  11. Clinical and electrophysiological outcomes of deep TMS over the medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices in OCD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmi, Lior; Alyagon, Uri; Barnea-Ygael, Noam; Zohar, Joseph; Dar, Reuven; Zangen, Abraham

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a chronic and disabling disorder with poor response to pharmacological treatments. Converging evidences suggest that OCD patients suffer from dysfunction of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit, including in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). To examine whether modulation of mPFC-ACC activity by deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS) affects OCD symptoms. Treatment resistant OCD participants were treated with either high-frequency (HF; 20 Hz), low-frequency (LF; 1 Hz), or sham DTMS of the mPFC and ACC for five weeks, in a double-blinded manner. All treatments were administered following symptoms provocation, and EEG measurements during a Stroop task were acquired to examine changes in error-related activity. Clinical response to treatment was determined using the Yale-Brown-Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS). Interim analysis revealed that YBOCS scores were significantly improved following HF (n = 7), but not LF stimulation (n = 8), compared to sham (n = 8), and thus recruitment for the LF group was terminated. Following completion of the study, the response rate in the HF group (n = 18) was significantly higher than that of the sham group (n = 15) for at least one month following the end of the treatment. Notably, the clinical response in the HF group correlated with increased Error Related Negativity (ERN) in the Stroop task, an electrophysiological component that is attributed to ACC activity. HF DTMS over the mPFC-ACC alleviates OCD symptoms and may be used as a novel therapeutic intervention. Notwithstanding alternative explanations, this may stem from DTMS ability to directly modify ACC activity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of microinjection of histamine into the anterior cingulate cortex on pain-related behaviors induced by formalin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzeh-Gooshchi, Nasrin; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Farshid, Amir Abbas

    2015-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of microinjection of histamine and its H1, H2 and H3 receptor antagonists, mepyramine, ranitidine and thioperamide, respectively, into the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on pain-related behaviors induced by formalin in rats. Two stainless steel guide canulas were bilaterally implanted into the ACC of anaesthetized rats. For induction of pain, intraplantar (ipl) injection of a 2.5% formalin solution was performed. The duration of paw licking/biting and the number of paw flinching were recorded in 5 min blocks for 60 min. Locomotor activity was assessed using an open-field test. Formalin produced a marked biphasic pattern of pain. Histamine reduced the second phases of paw licking/biting and flinching. Mepyramine (2 μg/side) prevented the suppressive effect of histamine (1 μg/side) on second phase of pain, but at a dose of 8 μg/side it did not inhibit the suppressive effects of 4 μg/side of histamine. Ranitidine at doses of 2 and 8 μg/side prevented histamine (1 and 4 μg/side)-induced antinociception. Thioperamide not only suppressed the second phases of pain, but also increased the suppressive effect of histamine. Naloxone prevented suppressive effects of histamine and thioperamide on pain. Mepyramine (8 μg/side) suppressed locomotor activity. The results of the present study showed pain suppressing effects for histamine. Histamine H2 and H3, and to a lesser extent, H1 receptors might be involved in histamine-induced antinociception. Opioid receptors might be involved in suppressive effects of histamine and thioperamide. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Instrumental Learning: Blockade of Dopamine D1 Receptors Suppresses Overt but Not Covert Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayada Aly-Mahmoud

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTSBlockade of dopamine D1 receptors in ACC suppressed instrumental learning when overt responding was required.Covert learning through observation was not impaired.After treatment with a dopamine antagonist, instrumental learning recovered but not the rat's pretreatment level of effort tolerance.ACC dopamine is not necessary for acquisition of task-relevant cues during learning, but regulates energy expenditure and effort based decision.Dopamine activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is essential for various aspects of instrumental behavior, including learning and effort based decision making. To dissociate learning from physical effort, we studied both observational (covert learning, and trial-and-error (overt learning. If ACC dopamine activity is required for task acquisition, its blockade should impair both overt and covert learning. If dopamine is not required for task acquisition, but solely for regulating the willingness to expend effort for reward, i.e., effort tolerance, blockade should impair overt learning but spare covert learning. Rats learned to push a lever for food rewards either with or without prior observation of an expert conspecific performing the same task. Before daily testing sessions, the rats received bilateral ACC microinfusions of SCH23390, a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, or saline-control infusions. We found that dopamine blockade suppressed overt responding selectively, leaving covert task acquisition through observational learning intact. In subsequent testing sessions without dopamine blockade, rats recovered their overt-learning capacity but not their pre-treatment level of effort tolerance. These results suggest that ACC dopamine is not required for the acquisition of conditioned behaviors and that apparent learning impairments could instead reflect a reduced level of willingness to expend effort due to cortical dopamine blockade.

  14. Differential regulation of observational fear and neural oscillations by serotonin and dopamine in the mouse anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Sun; Lee, Junghee; Bang, Minji; Seo, Bo Am; Khalid, Arshi; Jung, Min Whan; Jeon, Daejong

    2014-11-01

    The aberrant regulation of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in the brain has been implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders associated with marked impairments in empathy, such as schizophrenia and autism. Many psychiatric drugs bind to both types of receptors, and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is known to be centrally involved with empathy. However, the relationship between the 5-HT/DA system in the ACC and empathic behavior is not yet well known. We investigated the role of 5-HT/DA in empathy-like behavior and in the regulation of ACC neural activity. An observational fear learning task was conducted following microinjections of 5-HT, DA, 5-HT and DA, methysergide (5-HT receptor antagonist), SCH-23390 (DA D1 receptor antagonist), or haloperidol (DA D2 receptor antagonist) into the mouse ACC. The ACC neural activity influenced by 5-HT and DA was electrophysiologically characterized in vitro and in vivo. The microinjection of haloperidol, but not methysergide or SCH-23390, decreased the fear response of observing mice. The administration of 5-HT and 5-HT and DA together, but not DA alone, reduced the freezing response of observing mice. 5-HT enhanced delta-band activity and reduced alpha- and gamma-band activities in the ACC, whereas DA reduced only alpha-band activity. Based on entropy, reduced complexity of ACC neural activity was observed with 5-HT treatment. The current results demonstrated that DA D2 receptors in the ACC are required for observational fear learning, whereas increased 5-HT levels disrupt observational fear and alter the regularity of ACC neural oscillations.

  15. Role of Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Instrumental Learning: Blockade of Dopamine D1 Receptors Suppresses Overt but Not Covert Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly-Mahmoud, Mayada; Carlier, Pascal; Salam, Sherine A; Houari Selmani, Mariam; Moftah, Marie Z; Esclapez, Monique; Boussaoud, Driss

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Blockade of dopamine D1 receptors in ACC suppressed instrumental learning when overt responding was required.Covert learning through observation was not impaired.After treatment with a dopamine antagonist, instrumental learning recovered but not the rat's pretreatment level of effort tolerance.ACC dopamine is not necessary for acquisition of task-relevant cues during learning, but regulates energy expenditure and effort based decision. Dopamine activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is essential for various aspects of instrumental behavior, including learning and effort based decision making. To dissociate learning from physical effort, we studied both observational (covert) learning, and trial-and-error (overt) learning. If ACC dopamine activity is required for task acquisition, its blockade should impair both overt and covert learning. If dopamine is not required for task acquisition, but solely for regulating the willingness to expend effort for reward, i.e., effort tolerance, blockade should impair overt learning but spare covert learning. Rats learned to push a lever for food rewards either with or without prior observation of an expert conspecific performing the same task. Before daily testing sessions, the rats received bilateral ACC microinfusions of SCH23390, a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, or saline-control infusions. We found that dopamine blockade suppressed overt responding selectively, leaving covert task acquisition through observational learning intact. In subsequent testing sessions without dopamine blockade, rats recovered their overt-learning capacity but not their pre-treatment level of effort tolerance. These results suggest that ACC dopamine is not required for the acquisition of conditioned behaviors and that apparent learning impairments could instead reflect a reduced level of willingness to expend effort due to cortical dopamine blockade.

  16. Cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate cortex predicts multiple sclerosis patients' fluency performance in a lateralised manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisseler, Olivia; Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Bezzola, Ladina; Reuter, Katja; Weller, David; Schuknecht, Bernhard; Brugger, Peter; Linnebank, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is as an important feature of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and might be even more relevant to patients than mobility restrictions. Compared to the multitude of studies investigating memory deficits or basic cognitive slowing, executive dysfunction is a rarely studied cognitive domain in MS, and its neural correlates remain largely unexplored. Even rarer are topological studies on specific cognitive functions in MS. Here we used several structural MRI parameters - including cortical thinning and T2 lesion load - to investigate neural correlates of executive dysfunction, both on a global and a regional level by means of voxel- and vertex-wise analyses. Forty-eight patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 48 healthy controls participated in the study. Five executive functions were assessed, i.e. verbal and figural fluency, working memory, interference control and set shifting. Patients scored lower than controls in verbal and figural fluency only, and displayed widespread cortical thinning. On a global level, cortical thickness independently predicted verbal fluency performance, when controlling for lesion volume and central brain atrophy estimates. On a regional level, cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate region correlated with deficits in verbal and figural fluency and did so in a lateralised manner: Left-sided thinning was related to reduced verbal - but not figural - fluency, whereas the opposite pattern was observed for right-sided thinning. We conclude that executive dysfunction in MS patients can specifically affect verbal and figural fluency. The observed lateralised clinico-anatomical correlation has previously been described in brain-damaged patients with large focal lesions only, for example after stroke. Based on focal grey matter atrophy, we here show for the first time comparable lateralised findings in a white matter disease with widespread pathology.

  17. Meditation reduces pain-related neural activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, secondary somatosensory cortex, and thalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that meditation inhibits or relieves pain perception. To clarify the underlying mechanisms for this phenomenon, neuroimaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, and neurophysiological methods, such as magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography, have been used. However, it has been difficult to interpret the results, because there is some paradoxical evidence. For example, some studies reported increased neural responses to pain stimulation during meditation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula, whereas others showed a decrease in these regions. There have been inconsistent findings to date. Moreover, in general, since the activities of the ACC and insula are correlated with pain perception, the increase in neural activities during meditation would be related to the enhancement of pain perception rather than its reduction. These contradictions might directly contribute to the ‘mystery of meditation.’ In this review, we presented previous findings for brain regions during meditation and the anatomical changes that occurred in the brain with long-term meditation training. We then discussed the findings of previous studies that examined pain-related neural activity during meditation. We also described the brain mechanisms responsible for pain relief during meditation, and possible reasons for paradoxical evidence among previous studies. By thoroughly overviewing previous findings, we hypothesized that meditation reduces pain-related neural activity in the ACC, insula, secondary somatosensory cortex, and thalamus. We suggest that the characteristics of the modulation of this activity may depend on the kind of meditation and/or number of years of experience of meditation, which were associated with paradoxical findings among previous studies that investigated pain-related neural activities during meditation. PMID:25566158

  18. Anterior cingulate volume predicts response to psychotherapy and functional connectivity with the inferior parietal cortex in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambataro, Fabio; Doerig, Nadja; Hänggi, Jürgen; Wolf, Robert Christian; Brakowski, Janis; Holtforth, Martin Grosse; Seifritz, Erich; Spinelli, Simona

    2018-01-01

    In major depressive disorder (MDD), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been associated with clinical outcome as well as with antidepressant treatment response. Nonetheless, the association between individual differences in ACC structure and function and the response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is still unexplored. For this aim, twenty-five unmedicated patients with MDD were scanned with structural and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging before the beginning of CBT treatment. ACC morphometry was correlated with clinical changes following psychotherapy. Furthermore, whole-brain resting state functional connectivity with the ACC was correlated with clinical measures. Greater volume in the left subgenual (subACC), the right pregenual (preACC), and the bilateral supragenual (supACC) predicted depressive symptoms improvement after CBT. Greater subACC volume was related to stronger functional connectivity with the inferior parietal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Stronger subACC-inferior parietal cortex connectivity correlated with greater adaptive rumination. Greater preACC volume was associated with stronger functional connectivity with the inferior parietal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, greater right supACC volume was related to lower functional connectivity with the inferior parietal cortex. These results suggest that ACC volume and its functional connectivity with the fronto-parietal cortex are associated with CBT response in MDD, and this may be mediated by adaptive forms of rumination. Our findings support the role of the subACC as a potential predictor for CBT response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  19. Cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate cortex predicts multiple sclerosis patients' fluency performance in a lateralised manner

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    Olivia Geisseler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is as an important feature of Multiple Sclerosis (MS, and might be even more relevant to patients than mobility restrictions. Compared to the multitude of studies investigating memory deficits or basic cognitive slowing, executive dysfunction is a rarely studied cognitive domain in MS, and its neural correlates remain largely unexplored. Even rarer are topological studies on specific cognitive functions in MS. Here we used several structural MRI parameters – including cortical thinning and T2 lesion load – to investigate neural correlates of executive dysfunction, both on a global and a regional level by means of voxel- and vertex-wise analyses. Forty-eight patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 48 healthy controls participated in the study. Five executive functions were assessed, i.e. verbal and figural fluency, working memory, interference control and set shifting. Patients scored lower than controls in verbal and figural fluency only, and displayed widespread cortical thinning. On a global level, cortical thickness independently predicted verbal fluency performance, when controlling for lesion volume and central brain atrophy estimates. On a regional level, cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate region correlated with deficits in verbal and figural fluency and did so in a lateralised manner: Left-sided thinning was related to reduced verbal – but not figural – fluency, whereas the opposite pattern was observed for right-sided thinning. We conclude that executive dysfunction in MS patients can specifically affect verbal and figural fluency. The observed lateralised clinico-anatomical correlation has previously been described in brain-damaged patients with large focal lesions only, for example after stroke. Based on focal grey matter atrophy, we here show for the first time comparable lateralised findings in a white matter disease with widespread pathology.

  20. The dorsal prefrontal and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices exert complementary network signatures during encoding and retrieval in associative memory.

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    Woodcock, Eric A; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive control includes processes that facilitate execution of effortful cognitive tasks, including associative memory. Regions implicated in cognitive control during associative memory include the dorsal prefrontal (dPFC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Here we investigated the relative degrees of network-related interactions originating in the dPFC and dACC during oscillating phases of associative memory: encoding and cued retrieval. Volunteers completed an established object-location associative memory paradigm during fMRI. Psychophysiological interactions modeled modulatory network interactions from the dPFC and dACC during memory encoding and retrieval. Results were evaluated in second level analyses of variance with seed region and memory process as factors. Each seed exerted differentiable modulatory effects during encoding and retrieval. The dACC exhibited greater modulation (than the dPFC) on the fusiform and parahippocampal gyrus during encoding, while the dPFC exhibited greater modulation (than the dACC) on the fusiform, hippocampus, dPFC and basal ganglia. During retrieval, the dPFC exhibited greater modulation (than the dACC) on the parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, superior parietal lobule, and dPFC. The most notable finding was a seed by process interaction indicating that the dACC and the dPFC exerted complementary modulatory control on the hippocampus during each of the associative memory processes. These results provide evidence for differentiable, yet complementary, control-related modulation by the dACC and dPFC, while establishing the primacy of dPFC in exerting network control during both associative memory phases. Our approach and findings are relevant for understanding basic processes in human memory and psychiatric disorders that impact associative memory-related networks. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Enhanced rostral anterior cingulate cortex activation during cognitive control is related to orbitofrontal volume reduction in unipolar depression.

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    Wagner, Gerd; Koch, Kathrin; Schachtzabel, Claudia; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Sauer, Heinrich; Schlösser Md, Ralf G M

    2008-05-01

    In patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), enhanced activation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) during conflict resolution has been demonstrated with the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which suggests dysregulation of the affective compartment of the ACC associated with error monitoring and cognitive control. Moreover, several previous studies have reported disrupted structural integrity in limbic brain areas and the orbitofrontal cortex in MDD. However, the relation between structural and functional alterations remains unclear. Therefore, the present study sought to investigate whether structural brain aberrations in terms of grey matter decreases directly in the medial frontal regions or in anatomically closely connected areas might be related to our previously reported functional alterations. A sample of 16 female, drug-free patients with an acute episode of MDD and 16 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and education were examined with structural high-resolution T(1)-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained in the same session. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) revealed grey matter decreases in the orbitofrontal and subgenual cortex, in the hippocampus-amygdala complex and in the middle frontal gyrus. The relative hyperactivation of the rACC in terms of inability to deactivate this region during the Stroop Color-Word Test showed an inverse correlation with grey matter reduction in the orbitofrontal cortex. The present study provides strong evidence for an association between structural alterations in the orbitofrontal cortex and disturbed functional activation in the emotional compartment of the ACC in patients with MDD during cognitive control.

  2. Cognitive and neural strategies during control of the anterior cingulate cortex by fMRI neurofeedback in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Cordes, Julia S; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Dyck, Miriam; Alawi, Eliza M; Gaber, Tilman J; Zepf, Florian D; Klasen, Martin; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Gur, Ruben C; Mathiak, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive functioning is impaired in patients with schizophrenia, leading to significant disabilities in everyday functioning. Its improvement is an important treatment target. Neurofeedback (NF) seems a promising method to address the neural dysfunctions underlying those cognitive impairments. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a central hub for cognitive processing, is one of the brain regions known to be dysfunctional in schizophrenia. Here we conducted NF training based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with schizophrenia to enable them to control their ACC activity. Training was performed over 3 days in a group of 11 patients with schizophrenia and 11 healthy controls. Social feedback was provided in accordance with the evoked activity in the selected region of interest (ROI). Neural and cognitive strategies were examined off-line. Both groups learned to control the activity of their ACC but used different neural strategies: patients activated the dorsal and healthy controls the rostral subdivision. Patients mainly used imagination of music to elicit activity and the control group imagination of sports. In a stepwise regression analysis, the difference in neural control did not result from the differences in cognitive strategies but from diagnosis alone. Based on social reinforcers, patients with schizophrenia can learn to regulate localized brain activity. However, cognitive strategies and neural network location differ from healthy controls. These data emphasize that for therapeutic interventions in patients with schizophrenia compensatory strategies may emerge. Specific cognitive skills or specific dysfunctional networks should be addressed to train impaired skills. Social NF based on fMRI may be one method to accomplish precise learning targets.

  3. Activation of the serotonergic system by pedaling exercise changes anterior cingulate cortex activity and improves negative emotion.

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    Ohmatsu, Satoko; Nakano, Hideki; Tominaga, Takanori; Terakawa, Yuzo; Murata, Takaho; Morioka, Shu

    2014-08-15

    Pedaling exercise (PE) of moderate intensity has been shown to ease anxiety and discomfort; however, little is known of the changes that occur in brain activities and in the serotonergic (5-HT) system after PE. Therefore, this study was conducted for the following reasons: (1) to localize the changes in the brain activities induced by PE using a distributed source localization algorithm, (2) to examine the changes in frontal asymmetry, as used in the Davidson model, with electroencephalography (EEG) activity, and (3) to examine the effect of PE on the 5-HT system. A 32-channel EEG was used to record before and after PE. Profile of Mood States tests indicated that there was a significant decrease in tension-anxiety and a significant increase in vigor after PE. A standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography analysis showed a significant decrease in brain activities after PE in the alpha-2 band (10-12.5 Hz) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Moreover, a significant increase in frontal EEG asymmetry was observed after PE in the alpha-1 band (7.5-10 Hz). Urine 5-HT levels significantly increased after PE. Urine 5-HT levels positively correlated with the degree of frontal EEG asymmetry in the alpha-1 band and negatively correlated with brain activity in ACC. Our results suggested that PE activates the 5-HT system and consequently induces increases in frontal EEG asymmetry in the alpha-1 band and reductions of brain activity in the alpha-2 band in the ACC region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inflammatory pain by carrageenan recruits low-frequency local field potential changes in the anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Harris-Bozer, Amber L; Peng, Yuan B

    2016-10-06

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been extensively cited as a key area for processing pain affect. While local field potential (LFP) studies in other fields have yielded a great deal of information about neural oscillations, there is a poverty in the pain literature about the neural LFP profile related to pain, particularly in freely moving animals. In this study, we revealed the LFP profile in the ACC in freely moving rats during carrageenan inflammation. Mechanical allodynia was recorded before and after unilateral injection of carrageenan/saline in the left hindpaw. LFP activity in the ACC was recorded at baseline, after injection, and after injection with mechanical stimulation to the paw using a von Frey filament. This study uniquely reveals that carrageenan injection significantly recruited ACC LFP activity in delta, theta, and alpha bands (0-13Hz). Application of von Frey mechanical stimulation to the carrageenan-injected paw resulted in a significant increase in delta, theta, and alpha bands over and above what was recruited by carrageenan alone and further expanded the LFP range to additionally include beta activity (13-30Hz). Taken together, these data reveal significant changes in the lowest-frequency activities in the LFP range during painful inflammation, which merit attention. LFP is a powerful window to reveal wide-range, integrated synaptic processing by low-frequency cellular events during behavior. Information about LFP during pain broadens the scope of our understanding of pain mechanisms, our greatest resource for designing management approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anterior cingulate cortex surface area relates to behavioral inhibition in adolescents with and without heavy prenatal alcohol exposure

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    Migliorini, Robyn; Moore, Eileen M.; Glass, Leila; Infante, M. Alejandra; Tapert, Susan F.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with behavioral disinhibition, yet the brain structure correlates of this deficit have not been determined with sufficient detail. We examined the hypothesis that the structure of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) relates to inhibition performance in youth with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 32) and non-exposed controls (CON, n = 21). Adolescents (12–17 years) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging yielding measures of gray matter volume, surface area, and thickness across four ACC subregions. A subset of subjects were administered the NEPSY-II Inhibition subtest. MANCOVA was utilized to test for group differences in ACC and inhibition performance and multiple linear regression was used to probe ACC-inhibition relationships. ACC surface area was significantly smaller in AE, though this effect was primarily driven by reduced right caudal ACC (rcACC). AE also performed significantly worse on inhibition speed but not on inhibition accuracy. Regression analyses with the rcACC revealed a significant group × ACC interaction. A smaller rcACC surface area was associated with slower inhibition completion time for AE but was not significantly associated with inhibition in CON. After accounting for processing speed, smaller rcACC surface area was associated with worse (i.e., slower) inhibition regardless of group. Examining processing speed independently, a decrease in rcACC surface area was associated with faster processing speed for CON but not significantly associated with processing speed in AE. Results support the theory that caudal ACC may monitor reaction time in addition to inhibition and highlight the possibility of delayed ACC neurodevelopment in prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:26025509

  6. Assessment of Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC and Left Cerebellar Metabolism in Asperger's Syndrome with Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS.

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    Aya Goji

    Full Text Available Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS is a noninvasive neuroimaging method to quantify biochemical metabolites in vivo and it can serve as a powerful tool to monitor neurobiochemical profiles in the brain. Asperger's syndrome (AS is a type of autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired social skills and restrictive, repetitive patterns of interest and activities, while intellectual levels and language skills are relatively preserved. Despite clinical aspects have been well-characterized, neurometabolic profiling in the brain of AS remains to be clear. The present study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS to investigate whether pediatric AS is associated with measurable neurometabolic abnormalities that can contribute new information on the neurobiological underpinnings of the disorder.Study participants consisted of 34 children with AS (2-12 years old; mean age 5.2 (±2.0; 28 boys and 19 typically developed children (2-11 years old; mean age 5.6 (±2.6; 12 boys who served as the normal control group. The 1H MRS data were obtained from two regions of interest: the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and left cerebellum.In the ACC, levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA, total creatine (tCr, total choline-containing compounds (tCho and myo-Inositol (mI were significantly decreased in children with AS compared to controls. On the other hand, no significant group differences in any of the metabolites were found in the left cerebellum. Neither age nor sex accounted for the metabolic findings in the regions.The finding of decreased levels of NAA, tCr, tCho, and mI in the ACC but not in left cerebellar voxels in the AS, suggests a lower ACC neuronal density in the present AS cohort compared to controls.

  7. Cognitive and neural strategies during control of the anterior cingulate cortex by fMRI neurofeedback in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia S Cordes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive functioning is impaired in patients with schizophrenia, leading to significant disabilities in everyday functioning. Its improvement is an important treatment target. Neurofeedback (NF seems a promising method to address the neural dysfunctions underlying those cognitive impairments. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a central hub for cognitive processing, is one of the dysfunctional brain regions in schizophrenia. Here we conducted NF training based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in patients with schizophrenia to enable them to control their ACC activity. Training was performed over three days in a group of 11 patients with schizophrenia and 11 healthy controls. Social feedback was provided in accordance with the evoked activity in the selected region of interest (ROI. Neural and cognitive strategies were examined off-line. Both groups learned to control the activity of their ACC but used different neural strategies: Patients activated the dorsal and healthy controls the rostral subdivision. Patients mainly used imagination of music to elicit activity and the control group imagination of sports. However, the difference in neural control did not result from the differences in cognitive strategies but from diagnosis alone. Based on social reinforcers, schizophrenia patients can learn to regulate localized brain activity. Cognitive strategies and neural network location differ, however, from healthy controls. These data emphasize that for therapeutic interventions in schizophrenia compensatory strategies may emerge. Specific cognitive skills or specific dysfunctional networks should be addressed to train impaired skills. Social neurofeedback based on fMRI may be one method to accomplish precise learning targets.

  8. Severe depression is associated with increased microglial quinolinic acid in subregions of the anterior cingulate gyrus: Evidence for an immune-modulated glutamatergic neurotransmission?

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    Mawrin Christian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune dysfunction, including monocytosis and increased blood levels of interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor α has been observed during acute episodes of major depression. These peripheral immune processes may be accompanied by microglial activation in subregions of the anterior cingulate cortex where depression-associated alterations of glutamatergic neurotransmission have been described. Methods Microglial immunoreactivity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA glutamate receptor agonist quinolinic acid (QUIN in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC, anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC of 12 acutely depressed suicidal patients (major depressive disorder/MDD, n = 7; bipolar disorder/BD, n = 5 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and compared with its expression in 10 healthy control subjects. Results Depressed patients had a significantly increased density of QUIN-positive cells in the sACC (P = 0.003 and the aMCC (P = 0.015 compared to controls. In contrast, counts of QUIN-positive cells in the pACC did not differ between the groups (P = 0.558. Post-hoc tests showed that significant findings were attributed to MDD and were absent in BD. Conclusions These results add a novel link to the immune hypothesis of depression by providing evidence for an upregulation of microglial QUIN in brain regions known to be responsive to infusion of NMDA antagonists such as ketamine. Further work in this area could lead to a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and pave the way for novel NMDA receptor therapies or immune-modulating strategies.

  9. Not all effort is equal: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in different forms of effort-reward decisions

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    Victoria eHolec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC mediates effort-based decision making when the task requires the physical effort of climbing a ramp. Normal rats will readily climb a barrier leading to high reward whereas rats with ACC lesions will opt instead for an easily obtained small reward. The present study explored whether the role of ACC in cost-benefit decisions extends beyond climbing by testing its role in ramp climbing as well as two novel cost-benefit decision tasks, one involving the physical effort of lifting weights and the other the emotional cost of overcoming fear (i.e., courage. As expected, rats with extensive ACC lesions tested on a ramp-climbing task were less likely to choose a high-reward/high-effort arm than sham controls. However, during the first few trials, lesioned rats were as likely as controls to initially turn into the high-reward arm but far less likely to actually climb the barrier, suggesting that the role of the ACC is not in deciding which course of action to pursue, but rather in maintaining a course of action in the face of countervailing forces. In the effort-reward decision task involving weight lifting, some lesion animals behaved like controls while others avoided the high reward arm. However, the results were not statistically significant and a follow-up study using incremental increasing effort failed to show any difference between lesion and control groups. The results suggest that the ACC is not needed for effort-reward decisions involving weight lifting but may affect motor abilities. Finally, a courage task explored the willingness of rats to overcome the fear of crossing an open, exposed arm to obtain a high reward. Both sham and ACC-lesioned animals exhibited equal tendencies to enter the open arm. However, whereas sham animals gradually improved on the task, ACC-lesioned rats did not. Taken together, the results suggest that the role of the ACC in effort-reward decisions may be limited to certain

  10. Does low self-esteem enhance social pain? The relationship between trait self-esteem and anterior cingulate cortex activation induced by ostracism.

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    Onoda, Keiichi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Nakashima, Ken'ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Yamawaki, Sigeto; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2010-12-01

    According to sociometer theory, self-esteem serves as a barometer of the extent to which individuals are socially included or excluded by others. We hypothesized that trait self-esteem would be related to social pain responsiveness, and we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to experimentally investigate this potential relationship. Participants (n = 26) performed a cyberball task, a computerized game of catch during which the participants were excluded from the game. Participants then rated the degree of social pain experienced during both inclusion in and exclusion from the game. Individuals with lower trait self-esteem reported increased social pain relative to individuals with higher trait self-esteem, and such individuals also demonstrated a greater degree of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation. A psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed a positive connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices for the lower trait self-esteem group, and a corresponding negative connectivity for the higher trait self-esteem group. Heightened dorsal anterior cortex activity and a corresponding connection with the prefrontal cortex might be one possible explanation for the greater levels of social pain observed experienced by individuals with low trait self-esteem.

  11. Subcortical connections of an 'oculomotor' region in the ventral bank of the anterior ectosylvian sulcus in the cat.

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    Tamai, Y; Miyashita, E

    1989-12-01

    Subcortical connections of an 'oculomotor' region in the ventral bank of the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (AESo), where eye movements were evoked by intracortical microstimulation, were studied in cats using a wheatgerm agglutinin horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) tracing method. Following injection of WGA-HRP into the AESo, both anterogradely-labeled terminals and retrogradely-labeled cells were found with the highest concentration in the suprageniculate nucleus and the medial zone of the lateroposterior nucleus of the thalamus. In the brainstem, anterogradely-labeled terminals were found in the superior colliculus, the pontine reticular formation, the pontine tegmental reticular formation and the pontine nuclei.

  12. Identification by [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD SPECT of anterior cingulate hypoperfusion in progressive supranuclear palsy, in comparison with Parkinson's disease

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    Varrone, Andrea [University Federico II, Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council/Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Stockholm (Sweden); Pagani, Marco; Salmaso, Dario [National Research Council, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome and Padua (Italy); Salvatore, Elena; Amboni, Marianna; De Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Barone, Paolo [University Federico II, Department of Neurological Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Sansone, Valeria; Pappata, Sabina; Salvatore, Marco [University Federico II, Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council/Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Endocrinological and Metabolic Sciences, Genoa (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is an akinetic-rigid syndrome that can be difficult to differentiate from Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly at an early stage. [{sup 99m}Tc]ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT could represent a widely available tool to assist in the differential diagnosis. In this study we used voxel-based analysis and Computerised Brain Atlas (CBA)-based principal component analysis (PCA) of [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD SPECT data to test whether: (1) specific patterns of rCBF abnormalities can differentiate PSP from controls and PD; (2) networks of dysfunctional brain regions can be found in PSP vs controls and PD. Nine PD patients, 16 PSP patients and ten controls were studied with [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD SPECT using a brain-dedicated device (Ceraspect). Voxel-based analysis was performed with statistical parametric mapping. PCA was applied to volume of interest data after spatial normalisation to CBA. The voxel-based analysis showed hypoperfusion of the anterior cingulate and medial frontal cortex in PSP compared with controls and PD. In PSP patients the rCBF impairment extended to the pre-supplementary motor area and prefrontal cortex, areas involved in executive function and motor networks. Compared with PSP patients, PD patients showed a mild rCBF decrease in associative visual areas which could be related to the known impairment of visuospatial function. The PCA identified three principal components differentiating PSP patients from controls and/or PD patients that included groups of cortical and subcortical brain regions with relatively decreased (cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex and caudate) or increased (parietal cortex) rCBF, representing distinct functional networks in PSP. Anterior cingulate hypoperfusion seems to be an early, distinct brain abnormality in PSP as compared with PD. (orig.)

  13. Lower In vivo Myo-Inositol in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Correlates with Delayed Melatonin Rhythms in Young Persons with Depression

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    Rébecca Robillard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Myo-inositol, a second messenger glucose isomer and glial marker, is potentiated by melatonin. In addition to common abnormalities in melatonin regulation, depressive disorders have been associated with reduced myo-inositol in frontal structures. This study examined associations between myo-inositol in the anterior cingulate cortex and the timing of evening melatonin release. Forty young persons with unipolar depression were recruited from specialized mental health services (20.3 ± 3.8 years old. Healthy controls were recruited from the community (21.7 ± 2.6 years old. The timing of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO was estimated using salivary melatonin sampling. Myo-inositol concentrations (MI/CrPCr ratio in the anterior cingulate cortex were obtained using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. After controlling for age, sex, and CrPCr concentration the depression group had significantly lower MI/CrPCr ratios than healthy controls [F(4, 75 = 11.4, p = 0.001]. In the depression group, later DLMO correlated with lower MI/CrPCr ratio (r = −0.48, p = 0.014. These findings suggest that neurochemical changes in the frontal cortex are associated with circadian disruptions in young persons with depression.

  14. Amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate connectivity during an emotional working memory task in borderline personality disorder patients with interpersonal trauma history

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    Annegret eKrause-Utz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotion dysregulation and stress-related cognitive disturbances including dissociation are key features of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD. Previous research suggests that amygdala hyperreactivity along with a failure to activate frontal brain areas implicated in inhibitory control (e.g., anterior cingulate cortex, ACC may underlie core symptoms of BPD. However, studies investigating interactions of fronto-limbic brain areas during cognitive inhibition of interfering emotional stimuli in BPD patients are still needed. Moreover, very little is known about how dissociation modulates fronto-limbic connectivity during emotional distraction in BPD. We used Psychophysiological Interaction (PPI to analyse amygdala and dorsal ACC (dACC connectivity in 22 un-medicated BPD patients with interpersonal trauma history and 22 healthy controls (HC, who performed a working memory task, while either no distractors or neutral vs. negative interpersonal pictures were presented. A measure of state dissociation was used to predict amygdala as well as dACC connectivity in the BPD group. During emotional distraction, both groups showed disrupted amygdala connectivity with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which was more pronounced in the BPD group. Patients further showed stronger amygdala-hippocampus and dACC-insula connectivity during emotional interference and demonstrated a stronger coupling of the dACC with nodes of the default mode network (e.g. posterior cingulate. Dissociation positively predicted amygdala-dACC connectivity and negatively predicted dACC connectivity with insula and posterior cingulate. Our results suggest aberrant connectivity patterns involving brain regions associated with emotion processing, salience detection, and self-referential processes, which may be modulated by dissociation, in BPD. Findings might be related to difficulties in shifting attention away from external (distracting emotional stimuli as well as internal emotional states

  15. Functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of glutamate in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder: anterior cingulate activity during a color-word Stroop task.

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    Taylor, Reggie; Neufeld, Richard W J; Schaefer, Betsy; Densmore, Maria; Rajakumar, Nagalingam; Osuch, Elizabeth A; Williamson, Peter C; Théberge, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate abnormalities have been suggested to be associated with symptoms of schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-fMRS), it is possible to monitor glutamate dynamically in the activated brain areas, which has yet to be reported in schizophrenia. It was hypothesized that subjects with schizophrenia would have weaker glutamatergic responses in the anterior cingulate to a color-word Stroop Task. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the health of GLU neurotransmission and the GLU-GLN cycle in SZ using a (1)H-fMRS protocol. Spectra were acquired from the anterior cingulate of 16 participants with schizophrenia, 16 healthy controls and 16 participants with major depressive disorder (MDD) while performing the Stroop task in a 7T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. (1)H-fMRS spectra were acquired for 20 min in which there were three 4-min blocks of cross fixation interleaved with two 4-min blocks of the Stroop paradigm. A repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a main effect of time for glutamate concentrations of all groups (P<0.001). The healthy control group increased glutamate concentrations in the first run of the Stroop task (P=0.006) followed by a decrease in the recovery period (P=0.007). Neither the schizophrenia (P=0.107) nor MDD (P=0.081) groups had significant glutamate changes in the first run of the task, while the schizophrenia group had a significant increase in glutamine (P=0.005). The MDD group decreased glutamate concentrations in the second run of the task (P=0.003), as did all the groups combined (P=0.003). (1)H-fMRS data were successfully acquired from psychiatric subjects with schizophrenia and mood disorder using a cognitive paradigm for the first time. Future study designs should further elucidate the glutamatergic response to functional activation in schizophrenia.

  16. Encoding and retrieval are differentially processed by the anterior cingulate and prelimbic cortices: a study based on trace eyeblink conditioning in the rabbit.

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    Oswald, B B; Maddox, S A; Tisdale, N; Powell, D A

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that structures along the midline of the prefrontal cortex (mPFC), including Brodmann's area 32 (prelimbic cortex) and area 24 (anterior cingulate cortex) in the rabbit play a role in retrieval of learned information. The present studies compared the effects of post-training lesions produced either immediately or 1-week following learning, to either prelimbic (area 32) or anterior cingulate (area 24) cortex on trace eyeblink (EB) conditioning. Further, because recent evidence suggests that the mPFC may play an even greater role in learning and memory when emotional arousal is low, these studies compared the effects of lesions in groups conditioned with either a relatively low-arousal corneal airpuff, or a more aversive periorbital eyeshock unconditioned stimulus (US). A total of six groups were tested, which received selective ibotenic acid or "sham" control lesions to either area 32 or 24, immediately or 1-week following asymptotic learning, and conditioned with an eyeshock US or an airpuff US. Results showed that the greatest lesion deficits were found when conditioning with the less aversive airpuff US. Further, lesions produced to area 32 one-week, but not immediately following learning, caused significant deficits in performance, while lesions produced to area 24 immediately, but not 1-week following learning, caused significant deficits in performance. These findings add to the body of evidence which shows that area 32 of the mPFC regulates retrieval, but not acquisition or storage of information, while area 24 mediates a less specific reacquisition process, but not permanent storage or retrieval of information during relearning of memories abolished by mPFC damage. These findings were, however, specific to those experiments in which the relatively non-aversive airpuff was the US. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Open label smoking cessation with varenicline is associated with decreased glutamate levels and functional changes in anterior cingulate cortex: preliminary findings

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    Muriah Dawn Wheelock

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Varenicline, the most effective single agent for smoking cessation, is a partial agonist at α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Increasing evidence implicates glutamate in the pathophysiology of addiction and one of the benefits of treatment for smoking cessation is the ability to regain cognitive control. Objective: To evaluate the effects of 12 week varenicline administration on glutamate levels in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and functional changes within the cognitive control network.Methods: We used single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS in the dACC and functional MRI (fMRI during performance of a Stroop color-naming task before and after smoking cessation with varenicline in 11 healthy smokers (open label design. Using the dACC as a seed region, we evaluated functional connectivity changes using a psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis. Results: We observed a significant decrease in dACC glutamate + glutamine (Glx/Cr levels as well as significant blood oxygen level-dependent signal (BOLD decreases in the rostral ACC/medial orbitofrontal cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex. These BOLD changes are suggestive of alterations in default mode network (DMN function and are further supported by the results of the PPI analysis that revealed changes in connectivity between the dACC and regions of the DMN. Baseline measures of nicotine dependence and craving positively correlated with baseline Glx/Cr levels.Conclusions: These results suggest possible mechanisms of action for varenicline such as reduction in Glx levels in dACC and shifts in BOLD activities between large scale brain networks. They also suggest a role for ACC Glx in the modulation of behavior. Due to the preliminary nature of this study (lack of control group and small sample size, future studies are needed to replicate these findings.

  18. The val158met polymorphism of human catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT affects anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to painful laser stimulation

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    Musso Francesco

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is a complex experience with sensory, emotional and cognitive aspects. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to pain-related phenotypes such as chronic pain states. Genetic variations in the gene coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT have been suggested to affect clinical and experimental pain-related phenotypes including regional μ-opioid system responses to painful stimulation as measured by ligand-PET (positron emission tomography. The functional val158met single nucleotide polymorphism has been most widely studied. However, apart from its impact on pain-induced opioid release the effect of this genetic variation on cerebral pain processing has not been studied with activation measures such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, PET or electroencephalography. In the present fMRI study we therefore sought to investigate the impact of the COMT val158met polymorphism on the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD response to painful laser stimulation. Results 57 subjects were studied. We found that subjects homozygous for the met158 allele exhibit a higher BOLD response in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, foremost in the mid-cingulate cortex, than carriers of the val158 allele. Conclusion This result is in line with previous studies that reported higher pain sensitivity in homozygous met carriers. It adds to the current literature in suggesting that this behavioral phenotype may be mediated by, or is at least associated with, increased ACC activity. More generally, apart from one report that focused on pain-induced opioid release, this is the first functional neuroimaging study showing an effect of the COMT val158met polymorphism on cerebral pain processing.

  19. Gray Matter and Functional Connectivity in Anterior Cingulate Cortex are Associated with the State of Mental Silence During Sahaja Yoga Meditation.

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    Hernández, Sergio Elías; Barros-Loscertales, Alfonso; Xiao, Yaqiong; González-Mora, José Luis; Rubia, Katya

    2017-12-22

    Some meditation techniques teach the practitioner to achieve the state of mental silence. The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions that are associated with their volume and functional connectivity (FC) with the depth of mental silence in long-term practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation. Twenty-three long-term practitioners of this meditation were scanned using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In order to identify the neural correlates of the depth of mental silence, we tested which gray matter volumes (GMV) were correlated with the depth of mental silence and which regions these areas were functionally connected to under a meditation condition. GMV in medial prefrontal cortex including rostral anterior cingulate cortex were positively correlated with the subjective perception of the depth of mental silence inside the scanner. Furthermore, there was significantly increased FC between this area and bilateral anterior insula/putamen during a meditation-state specifically, while decreased connectivity with the right thalamus/parahippocampal gyrus was present during the meditation-state and the resting-state. The capacity of long-term meditators to establish a durable state of mental silence inside an MRI scanner was associated with larger gray matter volume in a medial frontal region that is crucial for top-down cognitive, emotion and attention control. This is furthermore corroborated by increased FC of this region during the meditation-state with bilateral anterior insula/putamen, which are important for interoception, emotion, and attention regulation. The findings hence suggest that the depth of mental silence is associated with medial fronto-insular-striatal networks that are crucial for top-down attention and emotional control. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of family history of alcoholism on glutamine/glutamate ratio in anterior cingulate cortex in substance-naïve adolescents.

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    Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E; Sneider, Jennifer T; Crowley, David J; Rosso, Isabelle M; Jensen, J Eric; Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies of individuals with family histories of alcoholism provide evidence suggesting neurobiological risk factors for alcoholism. Youth family history positive (FH+) for alcoholism exhibit increased impulsivity compared to family history negative (FH-) peers in conjunction with altered functional activation in prefrontal cortex, including anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). This study examined glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln), amino acids vital to protein synthesis, cellular metabolism and neurotransmission, acquired from ACC and parieto-occipital cortex (POC) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 4T. Participants were 28 adolescents (13 male, 12-14 yrs) and 31 emerging adults (16 male, 18-25 yrs), stratified into FH- and FH+ groups. Significantly higher ACC Gln/Glu was observed in emerging adults versus adolescents in FH- but not FH+ groups. In FH- adolescents, higher impulsivity was significantly associated with higher ACC Gln/Glu. In FH+ emerging adults, higher impulsivity was negatively associated with ACC Gln/Glu. No differences or associations were observed for POC. These findings provide preliminary evidence that family history of alcoholism is associated with a neurochemical profile that may influence normative age differences in glutamatergic metabolites and their association with impulse control, which together could confer greater genetic risk of addiction later in life. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of family history of alcoholism on glutamine/glutamate ratio in anterior cingulate cortex in substance-naïve adolescents

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    Julia E. Cohen-Gilbert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies of individuals with family histories of alcoholism provide evidence suggesting neurobiological risk factors for alcoholism. Youth family history positive (FH+ for alcoholism exhibit increased impulsivity compared to family history negative (FH− peers in conjunction with altered functional activation in prefrontal cortex, including anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. This study examined glutamate (Glu and glutamine (Gln, amino acids vital to protein synthesis, cellular metabolism and neurotransmission, acquired from ACC and parieto-occipital cortex (POC using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS at 4T. Participants were 28 adolescents (13 male, 12–14 yrs and 31 emerging adults (16 male, 18–25 yrs, stratified into FH− and FH+ groups. Significantly higher ACC Gln/Glu was observed in emerging adults versus adolescents in FH− but not FH+ groups. In FH− adolescents, higher impulsivity was significantly associated with higher ACC Gln/Glu. In FH+ emerging adults, higher impulsivity was negatively associated with ACC Gln/Glu. No differences or associations were observed for POC. These findings provide preliminary evidence that family history of alcoholism is associated with a neurochemical profile that may influence normative age differences in glutamatergic metabolites and their association with impulse control, which together could confer greater genetic risk of addiction later in life.

  2. Effects of selective excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus accumbens core, anterior cingulate cortex, and central nucleus of the amygdala on autoshaping performance in rats.

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    Cardinal, Rudolf N; Parkinson, John A; Lachenal, Guillaume; Halkerston, Katherine M; Rudarakanchana, Nung; Hall, Jeremy; Morrison, Caroline H; Howes, Simon R; Robbins, Trevor W; Everitt, Barry J

    2002-08-01

    The nucleus accumbens core (AcbC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) are required for normal acquisition of tasks based on stimulus-reward associations. However, it is not known whether they are involved purely in the learning process or are required for behavioral expression of a learned response. Rats were trained preoperatively on a Pavlovian autoshaping task in which pairing a visual conditioned stimulus (CS+) with food causes subjects to approach the CS+ while not approaching an unpaired stimulus (CS-). Subjects then received lesions of the AcbC, ACC, or CeA before being retested. AcbC lesions severely impaired performance; lesioned subjects approached the CS+ significantly less often than controls, failing to discriminate between the CS+ and CS-. ACC lesions also impaired performance but did not abolish discrimination entirely. CeA lesions had no effect on performance. Thus, the CeA is required for learning, but not expression, of a conditioned approach response, implying that it makes a specific contribution to the learning of stimulus-reward associations.

  3. fMRI Neurofeedback Training for Increasing Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activation in Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. An Exploratory Randomized, Single-Blinded Study.

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    Zilverstand, Anna; Sorger, Bettina; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Kan, Cornelis C; Goebel, Rainer; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by poor cognitive control/attention and hypofunctioning of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). In the current study, we investigated for the first time whether real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rt-fMRI) training targeted at increasing activation levels within dACC in adults with ADHD leads to a reduction of clinical symptoms and improved cognitive functioning. An exploratory randomized controlled treatment study with blinding of the participants was conducted. Participants with ADHD (n = 7 in the neurofeedback group, and n = 6 in the control group) attended four weekly MRI training sessions (60-min training time/session), during which they performed a mental calculation task at varying levels of difficulty, in order to learn how to up-regulate dACC activation. Only neurofeedback participants received continuous feedback information on actual brain activation levels within dACC. Before and after the training, ADHD symptoms and relevant cognitive functioning was assessed. Results showed that both groups achieved a significant increase in dACC activation levels over sessions. While there was no significant difference between the neurofeedback and control group in clinical outcome, neurofeedback participants showed stronger improvement on cognitive functioning. The current study demonstrates the general feasibility of the suggested rt-fMRI neurofeedback training approach as a potential novel treatment option for ADHD patients. Due to the study's small sample size, potential clinical benefits need to be further investigated in future studies. ISRCTN12390961.

  4. Resting-state synchrony between anterior cingulate cortex and precuneus relates to body shape concern in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

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    Lee, Seojung; Ran Kim, Kyung; Ku, Jeonghun; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Namkoong, Kee; Jung, Young-Chul

    2014-01-30

    Cortical areas supporting cognitive control and salience demonstrate different neural responses to visual food cues in patients with eating disorders. This top-down cognitive control, which interacts with bottom-up appetitive responses, is tightly integrated not only in task conditions but also in the resting-state. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is a key node of a large-scale network that is involved in self-referential processing and cognitive control. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity of the dACC and hypothesized that altered connectivity would be demonstrated in cortical midline structures involved in self-referential processing and cognitive control. Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity was analyzed in women with anorexia nervosa (N=18), women with bulimia nervosa (N=20) and age matched healthy controls (N=20). Between group comparisons revealed that the anorexia nervosa group exhibited stronger synchronous activity between the dACC and retrosplenial cortex, whereas the bulimia nervosa group showed stronger synchronous activity between the dACC and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Both groups demonstrated stronger synchronous activity between the dACC and precuneus, which correlated with higher scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire. The dACC-precuneus resting-state synchrony might be associated with the disorder-specific rumination on eating, weight and body shape in patients with eating disorders. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Mechanical Stimulus-Induced Wthdrawal Behavior Increases Subsequent Pre-Stimulus Local Field Potential Power in the Rostral Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Unanesthetized Rats.

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    Shen, Zui; Sun, Jing; Liu, Boyi; Jiang, Yongliang; Wu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jialing; Shao, Xiaomei; Fang, Jianqiao

    2017-03-02

    BACKGROUND The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is important in pain expectation. Previous studies demonstrated that mechanical stimulus-induced withdrawal behaviors are spinally-mediated nocifensive reflexes in rats, but it is not known whether pain expectation is influenced by withdrawal behaviors. MATERIAL AND METHODS We reanalyzed previous mechanosensitivity measurements of 244 rats measured 5 times in succession. To study neural oscillation in the rACC, 1 recording microwire array was surgically implanted. Then, we simultaneously recorded the local field potential (LFP) of the rACC over the course of multiple withdrawal behaviors in unanesthetized rats. RESULTS From our previous withdrawal behavioral data in 244 rats, we observed that the distributions of paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) were denser and more concentrated after the first withdrawal behavior. Compared to the first mechanical stimulus, increased neuronal synchrony and a stronger delta band component existed in each pre-stimulus LFP in the rACC during subsequent stimuli. CONCLUSIONS Pain expectation could be involved in withdrawal behaviors, which is related to increased total power and delta band power of the subsequent pre-stimulus LFPs in the rACC.

  6. Pharmacological isolation of postsynaptic currents mediated by NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex

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    Cao Xiaoyan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract NMDA receptors (NMDARs are involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity associated with a variety of brain functions, from memory formation to chronic pain. Subunit-selective antagonists for NMDARs provide powerful tools to dissect NMDAR functions in neuronal activities. Recently developed antagonist for NR2A-containing receptors, NVP-AAM007, triggered debates on its selectivity and involvement of the NMDAR subunits in bi-directional synaptic plasticity. Here, we re-examined the pharmacological properties of NMDARs in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC using NVP-AAM007 as well as ifenprodil, a selective antagonist for NR2B-containing NMDARs. By alternating sequence of drug application and examining different concentrations of NVP-AAM007, we found that the presence of NVP-AAM007 did not significantly affect the effect of ifenprodil on NMDAR-mediated EPSCs. These results suggest that NVP-AAM007 shows great preference for NR2A subunit and could be used as a selective antagonist for NR2A-containing NMDARs in the ACC.

  7. Deep Brain Stimulation of Medial Dorsal and Ventral Anterior Nucleus of the Thalamus in OCD: A Retrospective Case Series.

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    Mohammad Maarouf

    Full Text Available The current notion that cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits are involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD has instigated the search for the most suitable target for deep brain stimulation (DBS. However, despite extensive research, uncertainty about the ideal target remains with many structures being underexplored. The aim of this report is to address a new target for DBS, the medial dorsal (MD and the ventral anterior (VA nucleus of the thalamus, which has thus far received little attention in the treatment of OCD.In this retrospective trial, four patients (three female, one male aged 31-48 years, suffering from therapy-refractory OCD underwent high-frequency DBS of the MD and VA. In two patients (de novo group the thalamus was chosen as a primary target for DBS, whereas in two patients (rescue DBS group lead implantation was performed in a rescue DBS attempt following unsuccessful primary stimulation.Continuous thalamic stimulation yielded no significant improvement in OCD symptom severity. Over the course of thalamic DBS symptoms improved in only one patient who showed "partial response" on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive (Y-BOCS Scale. Beck Depression Inventory scores dropped by around 46% in the de novo group; anxiety symptoms improved by up to 34%. In the de novo DBS group no effect of DBS on anxiety and mood was observable.MD/VA-DBS yielded no adequate alleviation of therapy-refractory OCD, the overall strategy in targeting MD/VA as described in this paper can thus not be recommended in DBS for OCD. The magnocellular portion of MD (MDMC, however, might prove a promising target in the treatment of mood related and anxiety disorders.

  8. Deep Brain Stimulation of Medial Dorsal and Ventral Anterior Nucleus of the Thalamus in OCD: A Retrospective Case Series.

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    Maarouf, Mohammad; Neudorfer, Clemens; El Majdoub, Faycal; Lenartz, Doris; Kuhn, Jens; Sturm, Volker

    2016-01-01

    The current notion that cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits are involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has instigated the search for the most suitable target for deep brain stimulation (DBS). However, despite extensive research, uncertainty about the ideal target remains with many structures being underexplored. The aim of this report is to address a new target for DBS, the medial dorsal (MD) and the ventral anterior (VA) nucleus of the thalamus, which has thus far received little attention in the treatment of OCD. In this retrospective trial, four patients (three female, one male) aged 31-48 years, suffering from therapy-refractory OCD underwent high-frequency DBS of the MD and VA. In two patients (de novo group) the thalamus was chosen as a primary target for DBS, whereas in two patients (rescue DBS group) lead implantation was performed in a rescue DBS attempt following unsuccessful primary stimulation. Continuous thalamic stimulation yielded no significant improvement in OCD symptom severity. Over the course of thalamic DBS symptoms improved in only one patient who showed "partial response" on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive (Y-BOCS) Scale. Beck Depression Inventory scores dropped by around 46% in the de novo group; anxiety symptoms improved by up to 34%. In the de novo DBS group no effect of DBS on anxiety and mood was observable. MD/VA-DBS yielded no adequate alleviation of therapy-refractory OCD, the overall strategy in targeting MD/VA as described in this paper can thus not be recommended in DBS for OCD. The magnocellular portion of MD (MDMC), however, might prove a promising target in the treatment of mood related and anxiety disorders.

  9. Strong Manual Acupuncture Stimulation of “Huantiao” (GB 30) Reduces Pain-Induced Anxiety and p-ERK in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain

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    Xiao-mei Shao; Zui Shen; Jing Sun; Fang Fang; Jun-fan Fang; Yuan-yuan Wu; Jian-qiao Fang

    2015-01-01

    Persistent neuropathic pain is associated with anxiety. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays an important role in pain-induced anxiety. Acupuncture is widely used for pain and anxiety. However, little is known about which acupuncture technique is optimal on pain-induced anxiety and the relationship between acupuncture effect and p-ERK. The rat model was induced by L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Male adult SD rats we...

  10. Identification of atrophy of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, in particular the subcallosal area, as an effective auxiliary means of diagnosis for major depressive disorder

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    Niida A

    2012-08-01

    cingulate cortex (sACC on the z-score map obtained.Results: No significant difference in atrophy was noted between the left and right sACCs. The VSRAD advance used in the present study was more effective than the VSRAD plus for diagnosis of MDD, with a sensitivity of 90.7%, specificity of 86.7%, accuracy of 89.5%, a positive predictive value of 94.4%, and a negative predictive value of 78.8%. In particular, atrophy was observed in the subcallosal area of the sACC.Conclusion: The identification of atrophy in the sACC, in particular of the subcallosal area, with the use of updated voxel-based morphometric software proved to be effective as an auxiliary diagnostic method for MDD.Keywords: major depressive disorder, magnetic resonance imaging, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, voxel-based morphometry, VSRAD

  11. rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex modulates dopamine release in the ipsilateral anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex.

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    Sang Soo Cho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain dopamine is implicated in the regulation of movement, attention, reward and learning and plays an important role in Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and drug addiction. Animal experiments have demonstrated that brain stimulation is able to induce significant dopaminergic changes in extrastriatal areas. Given the up-growing interest of non-invasive brain stimulation as potential tool for treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders, it would be critical to investigate dopaminergic functional interactions in the prefrontal cortex and more in particular the effect of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC (areas 9/46 stimulation on prefrontal dopamine (DA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Healthy volunteers were studied with a high-affinity DA D2-receptor radioligand, [(11C]FLB 457-PET following 10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS of the left and right DLPFC. rTMS on the left DLPFC induced a significant reduction in [(11C]FLB 457 binding potential (BP in the ipsilateral subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC (BA 25/12, pregenual ACC (BA 32 and medial orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11. There were no significant changes in [(11C]FLB 457 BP following right DLPFC rTMS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence of extrastriatal DA modulation following acute rTMS of DLPFC with its effect limited to the specific areas of medial prefrontal cortex. [(11C]FLB 457-PET combined with rTMS may allow to explore the neurochemical functions of specific cortical neural networks and help to identify the neurobiological effects of TMS for the treatment of different neurological and psychiatric diseases.

  12. Greater anterior cingulate activation and connectivity in response to visual and auditory high-calorie food cues in binge eating: Preliminary findings.

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    Geliebter, Allan; Benson, Leora; Pantazatos, Spiro P; Hirsch, Joy; Carnell, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Obese individuals show altered neural responses to high-calorie food cues. Individuals with binge eating [BE], who exhibit heightened impulsivity and emotionality, may show a related but distinct pattern of irregular neural responses. However, few neuroimaging studies have compared BE and non-BE groups. To examine neural responses to food cues in BE, 10 women with BE and 10 women without BE (non-BE) who were matched for obesity (5 obese and 5 lean in each group) underwent fMRI scanning during presentation of visual (picture) and auditory (spoken word) cues representing high energy density (ED) foods, low-ED foods, and non-foods. We then compared regional brain activation in BE vs. non-BE groups for high-ED vs. low-ED foods. To explore differences in functional connectivity, we also compared psychophysiologic interactions [PPI] with dorsal anterior cingulate cortex [dACC] for BE vs. non-BE groups. Region of interest (ROI) analyses revealed that the BE group showed more activation than the non-BE group in the dACC, with no activation differences in the striatum or orbitofrontal cortex [OFC]. Exploratory PPI analyses revealed a trend towards greater functional connectivity with dACC in the insula, cerebellum, and supramarginal gyrus in the BE vs. non-BE group. Our results suggest that women with BE show hyper-responsivity in the dACC as well as increased coupling with other brain regions when presented with high-ED cues. These differences are independent of body weight, and appear to be associated with the BE phenotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Volitional reduction of anterior cingulate cortex activity produces decreased cue craving in smoking cessation: a preliminary real-time fMRI study.

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    Li, Xingbao; Hartwell, Karen J; Borckardt, Jeffery; Prisciandaro, James J; Saladin, Michael E; Morgan, Paul S; Johnson, Kevin A; Lematty, Todd; Brady, Kathleen T; George, Mark S

    2013-07-01

    Numerous research groups are now using analysis of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results and relaying back information about regional activity in their brains to participants in the scanner in 'real time'. In this study, we explored the feasibility of self-regulation of frontal cortical activation using real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback in nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers during exposure to smoking cues. Ten cigarette smokers were shown smoking-related visual cues in a 3 Tesla MRI scanner to induce their nicotine craving. Participants were instructed to modify their craving using rtfMRI feedback with two different approaches. In a 'reduce craving' paradigm, participants were instructed to 'reduce' their craving, and decrease the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity. In a separate 'increase resistance' paradigm, participants were asked to increase their resistance to craving and to increase middle prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity. We found that participants were able to significantly reduce the BOLD signal in the ACC during the 'reduce craving' task (P=0.028). There was a significant correlation between decreased ACC activation and reduced craving ratings during the 'reduce craving' session (P=0.011). In contrast, there was no modulation of the BOLD signal in mPFC during the 'increase resistance' session. These preliminary results suggest that some smokers may be able to use neurofeedback via rtfMRI to voluntarily regulate ACC activation and temporarily reduce smoking cue-induced craving. Further research is needed to determine the optimal parameters of neurofeedback rtfMRI, and whether it might eventually become a therapeutic tool for nicotine dependence. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Low docosahexaenoic acid status is associated with reduced indices in cortical integrity in the anterior cingulate of healthy male children: a 1H MRS Study.

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    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Tso, Patrick; Weber, Wade; Chu, Wen-Jang; Strakowski, Stephen M; Adler, Caleb M; Delbello, Melissa P

    2013-07-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is the principal omega-3 fatty acid in mammalian brain gray matter, and emerging preclinical evidence suggests that DHA has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties. This study investigated relationships among DHA status, neurocognitive performance, and cortical metabolism measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in healthy developing male children (aged 8-10 years, n = 38). Subjects were segregated into low-DHA (n = 19) and high-DHA (n = 19) status groups by a median split of erythrocyte DHA levels. Group differences in 1H MRS indices of cortical metabolism, including choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), glutamine + glutamate + γ-aminobutyric acid (Glx), myo-inositol (mI), and n-acetyl aspartate (NAA), were determined in the right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (R/L-DLPFC, BA9) and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA32/33). Group differences in neurocognitive performance were evaluated with the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test and identical-pairs version of the continuous performance task (CPT-IP). Subjects in the low-DHA group consumed fish less frequently (P = 0.02), had slower reaction times on the CPT-IP (P = 0.007), and exhibited lower mI (P = 0.007), NAA (P = 0.007), Cho (P = 0.009), and Cr (P = 0.01) concentrations in the ACC compared with the high-DHA group. There were no group differences in ACC Glx or any metabolite in the L-DLPFC and R-DLPFC. These data indicate that low-DHA status is associated with reduced indices of metabolic function in the ACC and slower reaction time during sustained attention in developing male children.

  15. Involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex in time-based prospective memory task monitoring: An EEG analysis of brain sources using Independent Component and Measure Projection Analysis.

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    Gabriela Cruz

    Full Text Available Time-based prospective memory (PM, remembering to do something at a particular moment in the future, is considered to depend upon self-initiated strategic monitoring, involving a retrieval mode (sustained maintenance of the intention plus target checking (intermittent time checks. The present experiment was designed to explore what brain regions and brain activity are associated with these components of strategic monitoring in time-based PM tasks.24 participants were asked to reset a clock every four minutes, while performing a foreground ongoing word categorisation task. EEG activity was recorded and data were decomposed into source-resolved activity using Independent Component Analysis. Common brain regions across participants, associated with retrieval mode and target checking, were found using Measure Projection Analysis.Participants decreased their performance on the ongoing task when concurrently performed with the time-based PM task, reflecting an active retrieval mode that relied on withdrawal of limited resources from the ongoing task. Brain activity, with its source in or near the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, showed changes associated with an active retrieval mode including greater negative ERP deflections, decreased theta synchronization, and increased alpha suppression for events locked to the ongoing task while maintaining a time-based intention. Activity in the ACC was also associated with time-checks and found consistently across participants; however, we did not find an association with time perception processing per se.The involvement of the ACC in both aspects of time-based PM monitoring may be related to different functions that have been attributed to it: strategic control of attention during the retrieval mode (distributing attentional resources between the ongoing task and the time-based task and anticipatory/decision making processing associated with clock-checks.

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) contributes to neuropathic spontaneous pain-related aversion via NR2B receptors.

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    Zhang, Le; Wang, Gongming; Ma, Jinben; Liu, Chengxiao; Liu, Xijiang; Zhan, Yufeng; Zhang, Mengyuan

    2016-10-01

    The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) plays an important role in pain affect. Previous investigations have reported that the rACC mediates the negative affective component of inflammatory pain and contributed to the aversive state of nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an activity-dependent neuromodulator in the adult brain, is believed to play a role in the development and maintenance of inflammatory and neuropathic pain in the spinal cord. However, whether and how BDNF in the rACC regulates pain-related aversion due to peripheral nerve injury is largely unknown. Behaviorally, using conditioned place preference (CPP) training in rats, which is thought to reveal spontaneous pain-related aversion, we found that CPP was acquired following spinal clonidine in rats with partial sciatic nerve transection. Importantly, BDNF was upregulated within the rACC in of rats with nerve injury and enhanced the CPP acquisition, while a local injection of a BDNF-tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) antagonist into the rACC completely blocked this process. Finally, we demonstrated that the BDNF/TrkB pathway exerted its function by activating the NR2B receptor, which is widely accepted to be a crucial factor contributing to pain affect. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the BDNF/TrkB-mediated signaling pathway in the rACC is involved in the development of neuropathic spontaneous pain-related aversion and that this process is dependent upon activation of NR2B receptors. These findings suggest that suppression of the BDNF-related signaling pathway in the rACC may provide a novel strategy to overcome pain-related aversion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. fMRI Neurofeedback Training for Increasing Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activation in Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. An Exploratory Randomized, Single-Blinded Study.

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    Anna Zilverstand

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is characterized by poor cognitive control/attention and hypofunctioning of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC. In the current study, we investigated for the first time whether real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rt-fMRI training targeted at increasing activation levels within dACC in adults with ADHD leads to a reduction of clinical symptoms and improved cognitive functioning. An exploratory randomized controlled treatment study with blinding of the participants was conducted. Participants with ADHD (n = 7 in the neurofeedback group, and n = 6 in the control group attended four weekly MRI training sessions (60-min training time/session, during which they performed a mental calculation task at varying levels of difficulty, in order to learn how to up-regulate dACC activation. Only neurofeedback participants received continuous feedback information on actual brain activation levels within dACC. Before and after the training, ADHD symptoms and relevant cognitive functioning was assessed. Results showed that both groups achieved a significant increase in dACC activation levels over sessions. While there was no significant difference between the neurofeedback and control group in clinical outcome, neurofeedback participants showed stronger improvement on cognitive functioning. The current study demonstrates the general feasibility of the suggested rt-fMRI neurofeedback training approach as a potential novel treatment option for ADHD patients. Due to the study's small sample size, potential clinical benefits need to be further investigated in future studies.ISRCTN12390961.

  18. fMRI Neurofeedback Training for Increasing Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activation in Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. An Exploratory Randomized, Single-Blinded Study

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    Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Kan, Cornelis C.; Goebel, Rainer; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by poor cognitive control/attention and hypofunctioning of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). In the current study, we investigated for the first time whether real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rt-fMRI) training targeted at increasing activation levels within dACC in adults with ADHD leads to a reduction of clinical symptoms and improved cognitive functioning. An exploratory randomized controlled treatment study with blinding of the participants was conducted. Participants with ADHD (n = 7 in the neurofeedback group, and n = 6 in the control group) attended four weekly MRI training sessions (60-min training time/session), during which they performed a mental calculation task at varying levels of difficulty, in order to learn how to up-regulate dACC activation. Only neurofeedback participants received continuous feedback information on actual brain activation levels within dACC. Before and after the training, ADHD symptoms and relevant cognitive functioning was assessed. Results showed that both groups achieved a significant increase in dACC activation levels over sessions. While there was no significant difference between the neurofeedback and control group in clinical outcome, neurofeedback participants showed stronger improvement on cognitive functioning. The current study demonstrates the general feasibility of the suggested rt-fMRI neurofeedback training approach as a potential novel treatment option for ADHD patients. Due to the study’s small sample size, potential clinical benefits need to be further investigated in future studies. Trial Registration: ISRCTN12390961 PMID:28125735

  19. Expression of the dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex in a model of neuropathic pain

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    Ortega-Legaspi J Manuel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has been related to the affective component of pain. Dopaminergic mesocortical circuits, including the ACC, are able to inhibit neuropathic nociception measured as autotomy behaviour. We determined the changes in dopamine D1 and D2 (D1R and D2R receptor expression in the ACC (cg1 and cg2 in an animal model of neuropathic pain. The neuropathic group had noxious heat applied in the right hind paw followed 30 min. later by right sciatic denervation. Autotomy score (AS was recorded for eight days and subsequently classified in low, medium and high AS groups. The control consisted of naïve animals. A semiquantitative RT-PCR procedure was done to determine mRNA levels for D1R and D2R in cg1 and cg2, and protein levels were measured by Western Blot. Results The results of D1R mRNA in cg1 showed a decrease in all groups. D2R mRNA levels in cg1 decreased in low AS and increased in medium and high AS. Regarding D1R in cg2, there was an increase in all groups. D2R expression levels in cg2 decreased in all groups. In cg1, the D2R mRNA correlated positively with autotomy behaviour. Protein levels of D2R in cg1 increased in all groups but to a higher degree in low AS. In cg2 D2R protein only decreased discretely. D1R protein was not found in either ACC region. Conclusions This is the first evidence of an increase of inhibitory dopaminergic receptor (D2R mRNA and protein in cg1 in correlation with nociceptive behaviour in a neuropathic model of pain in the rat.

  20. Induction and requirement of gene expression in the anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex for the consolidation of inhibitory avoidance memory

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    Zhang Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Memory consolidation is a process to stabilize short-term memory, generating long-term memory. A critical biochemical feature of memory consolidation is a requirement for gene expression. Previous studies have shown that fear memories are consolidated through the activation of gene expression in the amygdala and hippocampus, indicating essential roles of these brain regions in memory formation. However, it is still poorly understood whether gene expression in brain regions other than the amygdala/hippocampus is required for the consolidation of fear memory; however, several brain regions are known to play modulatory roles in fear memory formation. Results To further understand the mechanisms underlying the formation of fear memory, we first identified brain regions where gene expression is activated after learning inhibitory avoidance (IA by analyzing the expression of the immediately early genes c-fos and Arc as markers. Similarly with previous findings, the induction of c-fos and Arc expression was observed in the amygdala and hippocampus. Interestingly, we also observed the induction of c-fos and Arc expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC: prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL regions and Arc expression in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. We next examined the roles of these brain regions in the consolidation of IA memory. Consistent with previous findings, inhibiting protein synthesis in the hippocampus blocked the consolidation of IA memory. More importantly, inhibition in the mPFC or ACC also blocked the formation of IA memory. Conclusion Our observations indicated that the formation of IA memory requires gene expression in the ACC and mPFC as well as in the amygdala and hippocampus, suggesting essential roles of the ACC and mPFC in IA memory formation.

  1. Anterior cingulate cortex is crucial for contra- but not ipsi-lateral electro-acupuncture in the formalin-induced inflammatory pain model of rats

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    Xing Guo-Gang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acupuncture and electro-acupuncture (EA are now widely used to treat disorders like pain. We and others have shown previously that current frequency, intensity and treatment duration all significantly influence the anti-nociceptive effects of EA. There is evidence that stimulating sites also affect the antinociception, with EA applied ipsilaterally to the pain site being more effective under some pain states but contralateral EA under others. It was recently reported that local adenosine A1 receptors were responsible for ipsilateral acupuncture, but what mechanisms specifically mediate the anti-nociceptive effects of contralateral acupuncture or EA remains unclear. In the present study, we applied 100 Hz EA on the ipsi- or contra-lateral side of rats with inflammatory pain induced by intra-plantar injection of formalin, and reported distinct anti-nociceptive effects and mechanisms between them. Both ipsi- and contra-lateral EA reduced the paw lifting time in the second phase of the formalin test and attenuated formalin-induced conditioned place aversion. Contralateral EA had an additional effect of reducing paw licking time, suggesting a supraspinal mechanism. Lesions of rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC completely abolished the anti-nociceptive effects of contra- but not ipsi-lateral EA. These findings were not lateralized effects, since injection of formalin into the left or right hind paws produced similar results. Overall, these results demonstrated distinct anti-nociceptive effects and mechanisms between different stimulating sides and implied the necessity of finding the best stimulating protocols for different pain states.

  2. Relationship of γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate+glutamine concentrations in the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex with performance of Cambridge Gambling Task.

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    Fujihara, Kazuyuki; Narita, Kosuke; Suzuki, Yusuke; Takei, Yuichi; Suda, Masashi; Tagawa, Minami; Ujita, Koichi; Sakai, Yuki; Narumoto, Jin; Near, Jamie; Fukuda, Masato

    2015-04-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), consisting of the perigenual ACC (pgACC) and mid-ACC (i.e., affective and cognitive areas, respectively), plays a significant role in the performance of gambling tasks, which are used to measure decision-making behavior under conditions of risk. Although recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration in the pgACC is associated with decision-making behavior, knowledge regarding the relationship of GABA concentrations in subdivisions of the ACC with gambling task performance is still limited. The aim of our magnetic resonance spectroscopy study is to investigate in 20 healthy males the relationship of concentrations of GABA and glutamate+glutamine (Glx) in the pgACC, mid-ACC, and occipital cortex (OC) with multiple indexes of decision-making behavior under conditions of risk, using the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT). The GABA/creatine (Cr) ratio in the pgACC negatively correlated with delay aversion score, which corresponds to the impulsivity index. The Glx/Cr ratio in the pgACC negatively correlated with risk adjustment score, which is reported to reflect the ability to change the amount of the bet depending on the probability of winning or losing. The scores of CGT did not significantly correlate with the GABA/Cr or Glx/Cr ratio in the mid-ACC or OC. Results of this study suggest that in the pgACC, but not in the mid-ACC or OC, GABA and Glx concentrations play a distinct role in regulating impulsiveness and risk probability during decision-making behavior under conditions of risk, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Is treatment-resistance in unipolar melancholic depression characterized by decreased serotonin₂A receptors in the dorsal prefrontal - anterior cingulate cortex?

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    Baeken, Chris; De Raedt, Rudi; Bossuyt, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Quite a number of patients diagnosed with major depression are resistant to several well carried-out psychopharmacological interventions. It remains unclear as to how the serotonergic system is implicated in the phenomenon of treatment-resistance. We examined the involvement of post-synaptic 5-HT(2A) receptors in the pathophysiology of treatment-resistance in unipolar melancholic major depression with (123)I-5-I-R91150 SPECT. 15 antidepressant-naïve (ADN) first-episode depressed patients, 15 antidepressant-free treatment-resistant depressed (TRD) patients and 15 never-depressed individuals, matched for age and gender were studied. Compared to ADN patients and healthy controls, TRD patients displayed significantly lower 5-HT(2A) receptor binding index (BI) in the dorsal regions of the prefrontal and the anterior cingulate cortex. No significant 5-HT(2A) receptor BI differences between ADN patients and controls were observed. At the cortical level, 5-HT(2A) receptor BI does not significantly differ in first-episode melancholic depressed patients compared to healthy controls. This observation might imply a limited short-term impact on the serotonergic system in first episode depression. Our results also suggest that when encountered with treatment-resistance, the 5-HT(2A) receptors in the DPFC-ACC axis are significantly down-regulated. However, whether this assumed underlying pathophysiological mechanism is due solely to abnormalities in the serotonergic system remains to be answered. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin)2A receptors in rat anterior cingulate cortex mediate the discriminative stimulus properties of d-lysergic acid diethylamide.

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    Gresch, Paul J; Barrett, Robert J; Sanders-Bush, Elaine; Smith, Randy L

    2007-02-01

    d-Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), an indoleamine hallucinogen, produces profound alterations in mood, thought, and perception in humans. The brain site(s) that mediates the effects of LSD is currently unknown. In this study, we combine the drug discrimination paradigm with intracerebral microinjections to investigate the anatomical localization of the discriminative stimulus of LSD in rats. Based on our previous findings, we targeted the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to test its involvement in mediating the discriminative stimulus properties of LSD. Rats were trained to discriminate systemically administered LSD (0.085 mg/kg s.c.) from saline. Following acquisition of the discrimination, bilateral cannulae were implanted into the ACC (AP, +1.2 mm; ML, +/-1.0 mm; DV, -2.0 mm relative to bregma). Rats were tested for their ability to discriminate varying doses of locally infused LSD (0.1875, 0.375, and 0.75 microg/side) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (n = 3-7). LSD locally infused into ACC dose-dependently substituted for systemically administered LSD, with 0.75 microg/side LSD substituting completely (89% correct). Systemic administration of the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) (5-HT)(2A) receptor antagonist R-(+)-alpha-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-[2-(4-fluorophenylethyl)]-4-piperidine-methanol (M100907; 0.4 mg/kg) blocked the discriminative cue of LSD (0.375 microg/side) infused into ACC (from 68 to 16% drug lever responding). Furthermore, M100907 (0.5 microg/microl/side) locally infused into ACC completely blocked the stimulus effects of systemic LSD (0.04 mg/kg; from 80 to 12% on the LSD lever). Taken together, these data indicate that 5-HT(2A) receptors in the ACC are a primary target mediating the discriminative stimulus properties of LSD.

  5. Involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex in time-based prospective memory task monitoring: An EEG analysis of brain sources using Independent Component and Measure Projection Analysis.

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    Cruz, Gabriela; Burgos, Pablo; Kilborn, Kerry; Evans, Jonathan J

    2017-01-01

    Time-based prospective memory (PM), remembering to do something at a particular moment in the future, is considered to depend upon self-initiated strategic monitoring, involving a retrieval mode (sustained maintenance of the intention) plus target checking (intermittent time checks). The present experiment was designed to explore what brain regions and brain activity are associated with these components of strategic monitoring in time-based PM tasks. 24 participants were asked to reset a clock every four minutes, while performing a foreground ongoing word categorisation task. EEG activity was recorded and data were decomposed into source-resolved activity using Independent Component Analysis. Common brain regions across participants, associated with retrieval mode and target checking, were found using Measure Projection Analysis. Participants decreased their performance on the ongoing task when concurrently performed with the time-based PM task, reflecting an active retrieval mode that relied on withdrawal of limited resources from the ongoing task. Brain activity, with its source in or near the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), showed changes associated with an active retrieval mode including greater negative ERP deflections, decreased theta synchronization, and increased alpha suppression for events locked to the ongoing task while maintaining a time-based intention. Activity in the ACC was also associated with time-checks and found consistently across participants; however, we did not find an association with time perception processing per se. The involvement of the ACC in both aspects of time-based PM monitoring may be related to different functions that have been attributed to it: strategic control of attention during the retrieval mode (distributing attentional resources between the ongoing task and the time-based task) and anticipatory/decision making processing associated with clock-checks.

  6. Women with multiple chemical sensitivity have increased harm avoidance and reduced 5-HT(1A receptor binding potential in the anterior cingulate and amygdala.

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    Lena Hillert

    Full Text Available Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS is a common condition, characterized by somatic distress upon exposure to odors. As in other idiopathic environmental intolerances, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Contrary to the expectations it was recently found that persons with MCS activate the odor-processing brain regions less than controls, while their activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is increased. The present follow-up study was designed to test the hypotheses that MCS subjects have increased harm avoidance and deviations in the serotonin system, which could render them intolerant to environmental odors. Twelve MCS and 11 control subjects, age 22-44, all working or studying females, were included in a PET study where 5-HT(1A receptor binding potential (BP was assessed after bolus injection of [(11C]WAY100635. Psychological profiles were assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Swedish universities Scales of Personality. All MCS and 12 control subjects were also tested for emotional startle modulation in an acoustic startle test. MCS subjects exhibited significantly increased harm avoidance, and anxiety compared to controls. They also had a reduced 5-HT(1A receptor BP in amygdala (p = 0.029, ACC (p = 0.005 (planned comparisons, significance level 0.05, and insular cortex (p = 0.003; significance level p<0.005 with Bonferroni correction, and showed an inverse correlation between degree of anxiety and the BP in the amygdala (planned comparison. No group by emotional category difference was found in the startle test. Increased harm avoidance and the observed changes in the 5-HT(1A receptor BP in the regions processing harm avoidance provides a plausible pathophysiological ground for the symptoms described in MCS, and yields valuable information for our general understanding of idiopathic environmental intolerances.

  7. Gene expression profile of sodium channel subunits in the anterior cingulate cortex during experimental paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in mice.

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    Masocha, Willias

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent, causes neuropathic pain whose supraspinal pathophysiology is not fully understood. Dysregulation of sodium channel expression, studied mainly in the periphery and spinal cord level, contributes to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. We examined gene expression of sodium channel (Nav) subunits by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) at day 7 post first administration of paclitaxel, when mice had developed paclitaxel-induced thermal hyperalgesia. The ACC was chosen because increased activity in the ACC has been observed during neuropathic pain. In the ACC of vehicle-treated animals the threshold cycle (Ct) values for Nav1.4, Nav1.5, Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 were above 30 and/or not detectable in some samples. Thus, comparison in mRNA expression between untreated control, vehicle-treated and paclitaxel treated animals was done for Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.3, Nav1.6, Nax as well as Navβ1-Navβ4. There were no differences in the transcript levels of Nav1.1-Nav1.3, Nav1.6, Nax, Navβ1-Navβ3 between untreated and vehicle-treated mice, however, vehicle treatment increased Navβ4 expression. Paclitaxel treatment significantly increased the mRNA expression of Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.6 and Nax, but not Nav1.3, sodium channel alpha subunits compared to vehicle-treated animals. Treatment with paclitaxel significantly increased the expression of Navβ1 and Navβ3, but not Navβ2 and Navβ4, sodium channel beta subunits compared to vehicle-treated animals. These findings suggest that during paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain (PINP) there is differential upregulation of sodium channels in the ACC, which might contribute to the increased neuronal activity observed in the area during neuropathic pain.

  8. Memory-enhancing intra-basolateral amygdala infusions of clenbuterol increase Arc and CaMKII-alpha protein expression in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex

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    Crystal M Holloway-Erickson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Activation of β-adrenoceptors in the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA modulates memory through interactions with multiple memory systems. The cellular mechanisms for this interaction remain unresolved. Memory-modulating BLA manipulations influence expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc in the dorsal hippocampus, and hippocampal expression of Arc protein is critically involved in memory consolidation and long-term potentiation. The present studies examined whether this influence of the BLA is specific to the hippocampus and to Arc protein. Like the hippocampus, the rostral portion of the anterior cingulate cortex (rACC is involved in the consolidation of inhibitory avoidance (IA memory, and IA training increases Arc protein in the rACC. Because the BLA interacts with the rACC in the consolidation of IA memory, the rACC is a potential candidate for further studies of BLA modulation of synaptic plasticity. The alpha isoform of the Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIα and the immediate early gene c-Fos are involved in long-term potentiation and memory. Both Arc and CaMKIIα proteins can be translated in isolated synapses, where the mRNA is localized, but c-Fos protein remains in the soma. To examine the influence of memory-modulating manipulations of the BLA on expression of these memory and plasticity-associated proteins in the rACC, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on an IA task and given intra-BLA infusions of either clenbuterol or lidocaine immediately after training. Findings suggest that noradrenergic stimulation of the BLA may modulate memory consolidation through effects on both synaptic proteins Arc and CaMKIIα, but not the somatic protein c-Fos. Furthermore, protein changes observed in the rACC following BLA manipulations suggest that the influence of the BLA on synaptic proteins is not limited to those in the dorsal

  9. Gene expression profile of sodium channel subunits in the anterior cingulate cortex during experimental paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in mice

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    Willias Masocha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent, causes neuropathic pain whose supraspinal pathophysiology is not fully understood. Dysregulation of sodium channel expression, studied mainly in the periphery and spinal cord level, contributes to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. We examined gene expression of sodium channel (Nav subunits by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC at day 7 post first administration of paclitaxel, when mice had developed paclitaxel-induced thermal hyperalgesia. The ACC was chosen because increased activity in the ACC has been observed during neuropathic pain. In the ACC of vehicle-treated animals the threshold cycle (Ct values for Nav1.4, Nav1.5, Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 were above 30 and/or not detectable in some samples. Thus, comparison in mRNA expression between untreated control, vehicle-treated and paclitaxel treated animals was done for Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.3, Nav1.6, Nax as well as Navβ1–Navβ4. There were no differences in the transcript levels of Nav1.1–Nav1.3, Nav1.6, Nax, Navβ1–Navβ3 between untreated and vehicle-treated mice, however, vehicle treatment increased Navβ4 expression. Paclitaxel treatment significantly increased the mRNA expression of Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.6 and Nax, but not Nav1.3, sodium channel alpha subunits compared to vehicle-treated animals. Treatment with paclitaxel significantly increased the expression of Navβ1 and Navβ3, but not Navβ2 and Navβ4, sodium channel beta subunits compared to vehicle-treated animals. These findings suggest that during paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain (PINP there is differential upregulation of sodium channels in the ACC, which might contribute to the increased neuronal activity observed in the area during neuropathic pain.

  10. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex responses to repeated social evaluative feedback in young women with and without past history of Major Depressive Disorder

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    Katarina eDedovic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC is recruited when a person is socially rejected or negatively evaluated. However, it remains to be fully understood how this region responds to repeated exposure to personally-relevant social evaluation, in both healthy populations and those vulnerable to Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, as well as how responding in these regions is associated with subsequent clinical functioning. To address this gap in the literature, we recruited 17 young women with past history of MDD (previously depressed and 31 healthy controls and exposed them to a social evaluative session in a neuroimaging environment. In two bouts, participants received an equal amount of positive, negative, and neutral feedback from a confederate. All participants reported increases in feelings of social evaluation in response to the evaluative task. However, compared to healthy controls, previously depressed participants tended to show greater increases in depressed mood following the task. At the neural level, in response to negative (vs. positive feedback, no main effect of group or evaluation periods was observed. However, a significant interaction between group and evaluation periods was found. Specifically, over the two bouts of evaluation, activity in the dACC decreased among healthy participants while it increased among previously depressed individuals. Interestingly and unexpectedly, in the previously depressed group specifically, this increased activity in dACC over time was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms at baseline and at 6-months following the evaluation session (controlling for baseline levels. Thus, the subset of previously depressed participants who showed increases in the recruitment of the dACC over time in response to the negative evaluation seemed to fair better emotionally. These findings suggest that examining how the dACC responds to repeated bouts of negative evaluation reveals a new dimension to the

  11. Neurofeedback of the difference in activation of the anterior cingulate cortex and posterior insular cortex: two functionally connected areas in the processing of pain

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    Mariela eRance

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the analysis of the effect of a learned increase in the dissociation between the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC and the left posterior insula (pInsL on pain intensity and unpleasantness and the contribution of each region to the effect, exploring the possibility to influence the perception of pain with neurofeedback methods. We trained ten healthy subjects to increase the difference in the blood oxygenation level-dependent response between the rACC and pInsL to painful electric stimuli. Subjects learned to increase the dissociation with either the rACC (state 1 or the pInsL (state 2 being higher. For feedback we subtracted the signal of one region from the other and provided feedback in four conditions with six trials each yielding two different states: (rACC – pInsL increase (state 1, rACC – pInsL decrease (state 2, pInsL – rACC increase (state 2, pInsL – rACC decrease (state 1. Significant changes in the dissociation from trial one to six were seen in all conditions. There were significant changes from trial one to six in the pInsL in three of the four conditions, the rACC showed no significant change. Pain intensity or unpleasantness ratings were unrelated to the dissociation between the regions and the activation in each region. Learning success in the conditions did not significantly correlate and there was no significant correlation between the two respective conditions of one state, i.e. learning to achieve a specific state is not a stable ability. The pInsL seems to be the driving force behind changes in the learned dissociation between the regions. Despite successful differential modulation of activation in areas responsive to the painful stimulus, no corresponding changes in the perception of pain intensity or unpleasantness emerged. Learning to induce different states of dissociation between the areas is not a stable ability since success did not correlate overall or between two conditions of

  12. The Impact of Accelerated HF-rTMS on the Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Refractory Unipolar Major Depression: Insights From 18FDG PET Brain Imaging.

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    Baeken, Chris; Marinazzo, Daniele; Everaert, Hendrik; Wu, Guo-Rong; Van Hove, Christian; Audenaert, Kurt; Goethals, Ingeborg; De Vos, Filip; Peremans, Kathelijne; De Raedt, Rudi

    2015-01-01

    Although one of the most frequent diagnosed mental illnesses worldwide, it appears to be challenging to successfully treat major depressive disorder (MDD). Although the phenomenon of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) still remains unclear, the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) has been put forward as a possible neurobiological marker to evaluate clinical effects of a variety of antidepressant treatments, including repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Accelerated high-frequency (HF)-rTMS may have the potential to rapidly result in beneficial clinical outcomes in TRD. No studies yet examined the clinical effects of such accelerated stimulation treatment paradigms on sgACC regional glucose metabolism (CMRglc), nor the predictive value of the latter for clinical outcome. First, we investigated the predictive value of baseline sgACC metabolic activity for clinical outcome. Second, we hypothesized that in clinical responders only accelerated HF-rTMS treatment would result in significant metabolic decreases. We recruited right-handed antidepressant-free unipolar melancholic TRD patients to participate in a two-week randomized sham-controlled crossover HF-rTMS treatment study. Stimulation was applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Fifteen patients underwent 18FDG PET (CMRglc) at baseline (T0), after the first week (T1) of accelerated HF-rTMS and at the end of the treatment after the second week (T2). Higher baseline sgACC metabolic activity may indicate beneficial clinical outcome to this kind of accelerated HF-rTMS treatment. Moreover, clinical response resulted in a significant decrease in sgACC CMRglc. Non-response did not affect sgACC CMRglc. Our results add to the sgACC as a specific neurobiological marker for anti-depressive response in accelerated HF-rTMS treatment paradigms. Such protocols may not only have the ability to result in fast clinical responses but they may also have potential to acutely modulate a

  13. Bilingual Language Control in Perception versus Action: MEG Reveals Comprehension Control Mechanisms in Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Domain-General Control of Production in Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.

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    Blanco-Elorrieta, Esti; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2016-01-13

    For multilingual individuals, adaptive goal-directed behavior as enabled by cognitive control includes the management of two or more languages. This work used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate the degree of neural overlap between language control and domain-general cognitive control both in action and perception. Highly proficient Arabic-English bilingual individuals participated in maximally parallel language-switching tasks in production and comprehension as well as in analogous tasks in which, instead of the used language, the semantic category of the comprehended/produced word changed. Our results indicated a clear dissociation of language control mechanisms in production versus comprehension. Language-switching in production recruited dorsolateral prefrontal regions bilaterally and, importantly, these regions were similarly recruited by category-switching. Conversely, effects of language-switching in comprehension were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex and were not shared by category-switching. These results suggest that bilingual individuals rely on adaptive language control strategies and that the neural involvement during language-switching could be extensively influenced by whether the switch is active (e.g., in production) or passive (e.g., in comprehension). In addition, these results support that humans require high-level cognitive control to switch languages in production, but the comprehension of language switches recruits a distinct neural circuitry. The use of MEG enabled us to obtain the first characterization of the spatiotemporal profile of these effects, establishing that switching processes begin ∼ 400 ms after stimulus presentation. This research addresses the neural mechanisms underlying multilingual individuals' ability to successfully manage two or more languages, critically targeting whether language control is uniform across linguistic domains (production and comprehension) and whether it is a subdomain of general

  14. Neurofeedback of the difference in activation of the anterior cingulate cortex and posterior insular cortex: two functionally connected areas in the processing of pain.

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    Rance, Mariela; Ruttorf, Michaela; Nees, Frauke; Schad, Lothar R; Flor, Herta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the analysis of the effect of a learned increase in the dissociation between the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and the left posterior insula (pInsL) on pain intensity and unpleasantness and the contribution of each region to the effect, exploring the possibility to influence the perception of pain with neurofeedback methods. We trained ten healthy subjects to increase the difference in the blood oxygenation level-dependent response between the rACC and pInsL to painful electric stimuli. Subjects learned to increase the dissociation with either the rACC (state 1) or the pInsL (state 2) being higher. For feedback we subtracted the signal of one region from the other and provided feedback in four conditions with six trials each yielding two different states: [rACC-pInsL increase (state 1), rACC-pInsL decrease (state 2), pInsL-rACC increase (state 2), pInsL-rACC decrease (state 1)]. Significant changes in the dissociation from trial one to six were seen in all conditions. There were significant changes from trial one to six in the pInsL in three of the four conditions, the rACC showed no significant change. Pain intensity or unpleasantness ratings were unrelated to the dissociation between the regions and the activation in each region. Learning success in the conditions did not significantly correlate and there was no significant correlation between the two respective conditions of one state, i.e., learning to achieve a specific state is not a stable ability. The pInsL seems to be the driving force behind changes in the learned dissociation between the regions. Despite successful differential modulation of activation in areas responsive to the painful stimulus, no corresponding changes in the perception of pain intensity or unpleasantness emerged. Learning to induce different states of dissociation between the areas is not a stable ability since success did not correlate overall or between two conditions of the the same state.

  15. Shaped magnetic field pulses by multi-coil repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) differentially modulate anterior cingulate cortex responses and pain in volunteers and fibromyalgia patients.

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    Tzabazis, Alexander; Aparici, Carina Mari; Rowbotham, Michael C; Schneider, M Bret; Etkin, Amit; Yeomans, David C

    2013-07-02

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has shown promise in the alleviation of acute and chronic pain by altering the activity of cortical areas involved in pain sensation. However, current single-coil rTMS technology only allows for effects in surface cortical structures. The ability to affect activity in certain deep brain structures may however, allow for a better efficacy, safety, and tolerability. This study used PET imaging to determine whether a novel multi-coil rTMS would allow for preferential targeting of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), an area always activated with pain, and to provide preliminary evidence as to whether this targeted approach would allow for efficacious, safe, and tolerable analgesia both in a volunteer/acute pain model as well as in fibromyalgia chronic pain patients. Part 1: Different coil configurations were tested in a placebo-controlled crossover design in volunteers (N = 16). Tonic pain was induced using a capsaicin/thermal pain model and functional brain imaging was performed by means of H2(15)O positron emission tomography - computed tomography (PET/CT) scans. Differences in NRS pain ratings between TMS and sham treatment (NRS(TMS)-NRS(placebo)) which were recorded each minute during the 10 minute PET scans. Part 2: 16 fibromyalgia patients were subjected to 20 multi-coil rTMS treatments over 4 weeks and effects on standard pain scales (Brief Pain Inventory, item 5, i.e. average pain NRS over the last 24 hours) were recorded. A single 30 minute session using one of 3 tested rTMS coil configurations operated at 1 Hz consistently produced robust reduction (mean 70% on NRS scale) in evoked pain in volunteers. In fibromyalgia patients, the 20 rTMS sessions also produced a significant pain inhibition (43% reduction in NRS pain over last 24 hours), but only when operated at 10 Hz. This degree of pain control was maintained for at least 4 weeks after the final session. Multi-coil rTMS may be a safe and

  16. Spinogenesis and pruning in the anterior ventral inferotemporal cortex of the macaque monkey: an intracellular injection study of layer III pyramidal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy N. Elston

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cortical pyramidal cells grow and mature at different rates in visual, auditory and prefrontal cortex of the macaque monkey. In particular, differences across the areas have been reported in both the timing and magnitude of growth, branching, spinogenesis and pruning in the basal dendritic trees of cells in layer III. Presently available data suggest that these different growth profiles reflect the type of functions performed by these cells in the adult brain. However, to date, studies have focussed on only a relatively few cortical areas. In the present investigation we quantified the growth of the dendritic trees of layer III pyramidal cells in the anterior ventral portion of cytoarchitectonic area TE (TEav to better comprehend developmental trends in the cerebral cortex. We quantified the growth and branching of the dendrities, and spinogenesis and pruning of spines, from post-natal day 2 (PND2 to four and a half years of age. We found that the dendritic trees increase in size from PND2 to 7 months of age and thereafter become smaller. The dendritic trees became increasingly more branched from PND2 into adulthood. There was a 2-fold increase in the number of spines in the basal dendritic trees of pyramidal cells from PND2 to 3½ months of age and then a 10% net decrease in spine number into adulthood. Thus, the growth profile of layer III pyramidal cells in the anterior ventral portion of the inferotemporal cortex differs to that in other cortical areas associated with visual processing.

  17. Errors Recruit both Cognitive and Emotional Monitoring Systems: Simultaneous Intracranial Recordings in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Gyrus and Amygdala Combined with fMRI

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    Pourtois, Gilles; Vocat, Roland; N'Diaye, Karim; Spinelli, Laurent; Seeck, Margitta; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    We studied error monitoring in a human patient with unique implantation of depth electrodes in both the left dorsal cingulate gyrus and medial temporal lobe prior to surgery. The patient performed a speeded go/nogo task and made a substantial number of commission errors (false alarms). As predicted, intracranial Local Field Potentials (iLFPs) in…

  18. Reduced Activation in Lateral Prefrontal Cortex and Anterior Cingulate during Attention and Cognitive Control Functions in Medication-Naive Adolescents with Depression Compared to Controls

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    Halari, Rozmin; Simic, Mima; Pariante, Carmine M.; Papadopoulos, Andrew; Cleare, Anthony; Brammer, Michael; Fombonne, Eric; Rubia, Katya

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is increasing recognition of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence. In adult MDD, abnormalities of fronto-striatal and fronto-cingulate circuitries mediating cognitive control functions have been implicated in the pathogenesis and been related to problems with controlling negative thoughts. No neuroimaging studies of…

  19. Direct Exploration of the Role of the Ventral Anterior Temporal Lobe in Semantic Memory: Cortical Stimulation and Local Field Potential Evidence From Subdural Grid Electrodes.

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    Shimotake, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Riki; Ueno, Taiji; Kunieda, Takeharu; Saito, Satoru; Hoffman, Paul; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Miyamoto, Susumu; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Ikeda, Akio; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2015-10-01

    Semantic memory is a crucial higher cortical function that codes the meaning of objects and words, and when impaired after neurological damage, patients are left with significant disability. Investigations of semantic dementia have implicated the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) region, in general, as crucial for multimodal semantic memory. The potentially crucial role of the ventral ATL subregion has been emphasized by recent functional neuroimaging studies, but the necessity of this precise area has not been selectively tested. The implantation of subdural electrode grids over this subregion, for the presurgical assessment of patients with partial epilepsy or brain tumor, offers the dual yet rare opportunities to record cortical local field potentials while participants complete semantic tasks and to stimulate the functionally identified regions in the same participants to evaluate the necessity of these areas in semantic processing. Across 6 patients, and utilizing a variety of semantic assessments, we evaluated and confirmed that the anterior fusiform/inferior temporal gyrus is crucial in multimodal, receptive, and expressive, semantic processing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Long-term culture and differentiation of CNS precursors derived from anterior human neural rosettes following exposure to ventralizing factors

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    Colleoni, Silvia, E-mail: silviacolleoni@avantea.it [Laboratorio di Tecnologie della Riproduzione, Avantea, Via Porcellasco 7/f, 26100 Cremona (Italy); Galli, Cesare [Laboratorio di Tecnologie della Riproduzione, Avantea, Via Porcellasco 7/f, 26100 Cremona (Italy); Dipartimento Clinico Veterinario, Universita di Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (Italy); Giannelli, Serena G. [Stem Cells and Neurogenesis Unit, Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan (Italy); Armentero, Marie-Therese; Blandini, Fabio [Laboratory of Functional Neurochemistry, Interdepartmental Research Center for Parkinson' s Disease, Neurological Institute C. Mondino, Via Mondino 2, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Broccoli, Vania, E-mail: broccoli.vania@hsr.it [Stem Cells and Neurogenesis Unit, Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan (Italy); Lazzari, Giovanna, E-mail: giovannalazzari@avantea.it [Laboratorio di Tecnologie della Riproduzione, Avantea, Via Porcellasco 7/f, 26100 Cremona (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    In this study we demonstrated that neural rosettes derived from human ES cells can give rise either to neural crest precursors, following expansion in presence of bFGF and EGF, or to dopaminergic precursors after exposure to ventralizing factors Shh and FGF8. Both regionalised precursors are capable of extensive proliferation and differentiation towards the corresponding terminally differentiated cell types. In particular, peripheral neurons, cartilage, bone, smooth muscle cells and also pigmented cells were obtained from neural crest precursors while tyrosine hydroxylase and Nurr1 positive dopaminergic neurons were derived from FGF8 and Shh primed rosette cells. Gene expression and immunocytochemistry analyses confirmed the expression of dorsal and neural crest genes such as Sox10, Slug, p75, FoxD3, Pax7 in neural precursors from bFGF-EGF exposed rosettes. By contrast, priming of rosettes with FGF8 and Shh induced the expression of dopaminergic markers Engrailed1, Pax2, Pitx3, floor plate marker FoxA2 and radial glia markers Blbp and Glast, the latter in agreement with the origin of dopaminergic precursors from floor plate radial glia. Moreover, in vivo transplant of proliferating Shh/FGF8 primed precursors in parkinsonian rats demonstrated engraftment and terminal dopaminergic differentiation. In conclusion, we demonstrated the derivation of long-term self-renewing precursors of selected regional identity as potential cell reservoirs for cell therapy applications, such as CNS degenerative diseases, or for the development of toxicological tests.

  1. Episodic Social Stress-Escalated Cocaine Self-Administration: Role of Phasic and Tonic Corticotropin Releasing Factor in the Anterior and Posterior Ventral Tegmental Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyson, Christopher O.; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Stein, Dirson J.; Gobrogge, Kyle L.; DeBold, Joseph F.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent social defeat stress escalates later cocaine self-administration. Reward and stress both activate ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons, increasing downstream extracellular dopamine concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. The stress neuropeptide corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and its receptors (CRF-R1, CRF-R2) are located in the VTA and influence dopaminergic activity. These experiments explore how CRF release and the activation of its receptors within the VTA both during and after stress influence later cocaine self-administration in rats. In vivo microdialysis of CRF in the VTA demonstrated that CRF is phasically released in the posterior VTA (pVTA) during acute defeat, but, with repeated defeat, CRF is recruited into the anterior VTA (aVTA) and CRF tone is increased in both subregions. Intra-VTA antagonism of CRF-R1 in the pVTA and CRF-R2 in the aVTA during each social defeat prevented escalated cocaine self-administration in a 24 h “binge.” VTA CRF continues to influence cocaine seeking in stressed animals long after social defeat exposure. Unlike nonstressed controls, previously stressed rats show significant cocaine seeking after 15 d of forced abstinence. Previously stressed rats continue to express elevated CRF tone within the VTA and antagonism of pVTA CRF-R1 or aVTA CRF-R2 reverses cocaine seeking. In conclusion, these experiments demonstrate neuroadaptive changes in tonic and phasic CRF with repeated stress, that CRF release during stress may contribute to later escalated cocaine taking, and that persistently elevated CRF tone in the VTA may drive later cocaine seeking through increased activation of pVTA CRF-R1 and aVTA CRF-R2. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) has emerged as a likely candidate molecule underlying the fundamental link between stress history and escalated drug self-administration. However, the nature of CRF

  2. Doubling down: increased risk-taking behavior following a loss by individuals with cocaine use disorder is associated with striatal and anterior cingulate dysfunction.

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    Gowin, Joshua L; May, April C; Wittmann, Marc; Tapert, Susan F; Paulus, Martin P

    2017-01-01

    Cocaine use disorders (CUDs) have been associated with increased risk-taking behavior. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that altered activity in reward and decision-making circuitry may underlie cocaine user's heightened risk-taking. It remains unclear if this behavior is driven by greater reward salience, lack of appreciation of danger, or another deficit in risk-related processing. Twenty-nine CUD participants and forty healthy comparison participants completed the Risky Gains Task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. During the Risky Gains Task, participants choose between a safe option for a small, guaranteed monetary reward and risky options with larger rewards but also the chance to lose money. Frequency of risky choice overall and following a win versus a loss were compared. Neural activity during the decision and outcome phase were examined using linear mixed effects models. Although the groups did not differ in overall risk-taking frequency, the CUD group chose a risky option more often following a loss. Neuroimaging analyses revealed that the comparison group showed increasing activity in the bilateral ventral striatum as they chose higher-value, risky options, but the CUD group failed to show this increase. During the outcome phase, the CUD group showed a greater decrease in bilateral striatal activity relative to the comparison group when losing the large amount, and this response was correlated with risk-taking frequency after a loss. The brains of CUD individuals are hypersensitive to losses, leading to increased risk-taking behaviors, and this may help explain why these individuals take drugs despite aversive outcomes.

  3. Frontal and anterior cingulate activation during overt verbal fluency in patients with first episode psychosis Ativação frontal e do cíngulo anterior durante tarefa de fluência verbal em pacientes em primeiro episódio psicótico

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    Maristela Schaufelberger

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Functional neuroimaging studies using phonological verbal fluency tasks allow the assessment of neural circuits relevant to the neuropsychology of psychosis. There is evidence that the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus present different activation patterns in subjects with chronic schizophrenia relative to healthy controls. We assessed the functioning in these brain regions during phonological verbal fluency in subjects with recent-onset functional psychoses, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI. METHODS: Seven patients with functional psychoses (3 schizophreniform, 4 affective and 9 healthy controls were studied. We compared functional magnetic resonance images acquired during articulation of words beginning with letters classified as easy for word production in Portuguese. Statistical comparisons were performed using non-parametric tests. RESULTS: There were no differences between patients and controls in task performance. Controls showed greater activation than patients in the left rostral anterior cingulate gyrus and right inferior prefrontal cortex, whereas patients showed stronger activation than controls in a more dorsal part of the anterior cingulate gyrus bilaterally and in a more superior portion of the right prefrontal cortex. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary findings of attenuated engagement of inferior prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus in patients with recent onset psychosis during phonological verbal fluency are consistent with those of previous studies. The greater activation found in other parts of the anterior cingulate gyrus and prefrontal cortex in patients may be related to a compensatory response that is required to maintain normal task performance, and suggests a pattern of disorganized activity of different functional anterior cingulate gyrus units in association with psychotic conditions.OBJETIVO: Estudos de neuroimagem funcional empregando tarefa de fluência verbal fonol

  4. Deep Brain Stimulation of the Ventral Anterior Limb of the Internal Capsule for Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

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    Bergfeld, Isidoor O; Mantione, Mariska; Hoogendoorn, Mechteld L C; Ruhé, Henricus G; Notten, Peter; van Laarhoven, Jan; Visser, Ieke; Figee, Martijn; de Kwaasteniet, Bart P; Horst, Ferdinand; Schene, Aart H; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Beute, Guus; Schuurman, Rick; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-05-01

    Patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) do not respond sufficiently to several consecutive treatments for major depressive disorder. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising treatment for these patients, but presently placebo effects cannot be ruled out. To assess the efficacy of DBS of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule (vALIC), controlling for placebo effects with active and sham stimulation phases. Twenty-five patients with TRD from 2 hospitals in the Netherlands were enrolled between March 22, 2010, and May 8, 2014. Patients first entered a 52-week open-label trial during which they received bilateral implants of 4 contact electrodes followed by optimization of DBS until a stable response was achieved. A randomized, double-blind, 12-week crossover phase was then conducted with patients receiving active treatment followed by sham or vice versa. Response and nonresponse to treatment were determined using intention-to-treat analyses. Deep brain stimulation targeted to the vALIC. The change in the investigator-rated score of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17) was the main outcome used in analysis of the optimization phase. The primary outcome of the crossover phase was the difference in the HAM-D-17 scores between active and sham DBS. The score range of this tool is 0 to 52, with higher scores representing more severe symptoms. Patients were classified as responders to treatment (≥50% decrease of the HAM-D-17 score compared with baseline) and partial responders (≥25 but Deep brain stimulation of the vALIC resulted in a significant decrease of depressive symptoms in 10 of 25 patients and was tolerated well. The randomized crossover design corroborates that vALIC DBS causes symptom reduction rather than sham. trialregister.nl Identifier: NTR2118.

  5. Killing two birds with one stone: the potential role of aripiprazole for patients with comorbid major depressive disorder and nicotine dependence via altering brain activity in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Che-Sheng; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Chang, Hsin-An; Chang, Chuan-Chia; Chen, Tien-Yu

    2014-09-01

    The high comorbidity between major depressive disorder (MDD) and nicotine dependence (ND) is well recognized. Patients with comorbid MDD and ND often have increased suicidal risk and poor outcomes. A dysfunctional dopaminergic brain reward system might be a neurobiological link between MDD and ND. Aripiprazole has been considered as a dopamine stabilizer and was the first atypical antipsychotic agent approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as an adjunctive to the treatment of unipolar MDD. Bupropion is well known as a dual norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, and has been shown to be effective in smoking cessation. One reason bupropion is useful in treating ND is that it enhances the level of dopamine in the brain. Aripiprazole might act as a dopamine agonist similar to the way that bupropion does because of its partial dopamine D2 agonist and 30% intrinsic dopaminergic activity. Several recent studies have applied the unique pharmacodynamic characteristics of aripiprazole to treat patients with ND. Based on neuroimaging findings, aripiprazole can reduce substance cravings by altering brain activity, particularly in the brain regions of the anterior cingulate cortex. Therefore, we hypothesize that adjunctive aripiprazole with antidepressant may be an effective treatment for patients with MDD and ND comorbidity. A new drug invention that combines an antidepressant with an adequate dose of aripiprazole thus should be considered. The neurobiological basis for this combination to treat patients with MDD and ND comorbidity deserves further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychosocial functioning is correlated with activation in the anterior cingulate cortex and left lateral prefrontal cortex during a verbal fluency task in euthymic bipolar disorder: a preliminary fMRI study.

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    Yoshimura, Yasushi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Onoda, Keiichi; Okada, Go; Toki, Shigeru; Yoshino, Atsuo; Yamashita, Hidehisa; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive impairment may account for functional and occupational disability in patients with bipolar disorder even during periods of euthymia. While imaging suggests structural, neurochemical, and functional abnormalities in bipolar disorder patients, the pathophysiology of these deficits has not been elucidated. It was hypothesized that euthymic bipolar patients would have different cortical activation during a verbal fluency task compared to healthy controls, and that psychosocial functioning would be associated with prefrontal cortical activation during the task in the bipolar group. Ten euthymic bipolar patients and 10 healthy control participants (matched for age, gender, and years of education) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a verbal fluency task, tapping task and visual task. Correlational analysis between the fMRI brain activation and clinical variables of the participants, including Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score, was performed. Compared to the controls, euthymic bipolar patients had significantly greater activation in the bilateral precuneus with similar behavioral performance during the verbal fluency task. There were no significant differences between the groups for the visual task or the simple motor task. Activation in both the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) were significantly positively correlated with GAF score in the euthymic bipolar patients. Both the ACC and lateral PFC regions are components of a neural network that plays a critical role in psychosocial functioning, and are often found to be affected in bipolar patients.

  7. Differential activation of the anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus during a gambling simulation in persons with a family history of alcoholism: studies from the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Ashley; Robinson, Jennifer L; Glahn, David C; Lovallo, William R; Fox, Peter T

    2009-02-01

    Individuals with a family history of alcoholism (FH+) are at enhanced risk of developing an alcohol or other substance use disorder relative to those without this history (FH-). Recent studies comparing FH+ and FH- individuals have revealed differences in cognition, emotion processing, sociability, and decision-making. These differences suggest possible altered brain functioning in FH+ individuals that may play a crucial role in vulnerability to substance use disorders. In the present study, 15 FH+ and 19 FH- individuals performed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a simulated card game requiring integration of payoff-to-penalty ratios, while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. All participants performed the task more conservatively as the session progressed, and the FH groups achieved similar payoffs by the end of the game. Imaging revealed a distributed network of brain regions that was engaged when subjects performed this task, including the right inferior frontal and postcentral gyri, left parahippocampal gyrus, insula and precuneous cortices, left inferior and superior parietal lobules, left lentiform nucleus and bilateral culmen, claustrum, lingual gyri and cerebellar tonsils. Despite a lack of behavioral differences between groups, the FH+ participants showed significantly more activation in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and left caudate nucleus. These findings correspond to models of risk in FH+ persons that postulate biases in brain decision-making systems as underlying elevated risk for alcoholism.

  8. Strong Manual Acupuncture Stimulation of “Huantiao” (GB 30 Reduces Pain-Induced Anxiety and p-ERK in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-mei Shao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent neuropathic pain is associated with anxiety. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC plays an important role in pain-induced anxiety. Acupuncture is widely used for pain and anxiety. However, little is known about which acupuncture technique is optimal on pain-induced anxiety and the relationship between acupuncture effect and p-ERK. The rat model was induced by L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL. Male adult SD rats were randomly divided into control, SNL, strong manual acupuncture (sMA, mild manual acupuncture (mMA, and electroacupuncture (EA group. Bilateral “Huantiao” (GB 30 were stimulated by sMA, mMA, and EA, respectively. The pain withdrawal thresholds (PWTs and anxiety behavior were measured, and p-ERK protein expression and immunoreactivity cells in ACC were detected. PWTs increased significantly in both sMA and EA groups. Meanwhile, anxiety-like behavior was improved significantly in the sMA and mMA groups. Furthermore, the overexpression of p-ERK induced by SNL was downregulated by strong and mild manual acupuncture. Therefore, strong manual acupuncture on bilateral “Huantiao” (GB 30 could be a proper therapy relieving both pain and pain-induced anxiety. The effect of different acupuncture techniques on pain-induced anxiety may arise from the regulation of p-ERK in ACC.

  9. Strong Manual Acupuncture Stimulation of "Huantiao" (GB 30) Reduces Pain-Induced Anxiety and p-ERK in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiao-Mei; Shen, Zui; Sun, Jing; Fang, Fang; Fang, Jun-Fan; Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Fang, Jian-Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Persistent neuropathic pain is associated with anxiety. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays an important role in pain-induced anxiety. Acupuncture is widely used for pain and anxiety. However, little is known about which acupuncture technique is optimal on pain-induced anxiety and the relationship between acupuncture effect and p-ERK. The rat model was induced by L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Male adult SD rats were randomly divided into control, SNL, strong manual acupuncture (sMA), mild manual acupuncture (mMA), and electroacupuncture (EA) group. Bilateral "Huantiao" (GB 30) were stimulated by sMA, mMA, and EA, respectively. The pain withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) and anxiety behavior were measured, and p-ERK protein expression and immunoreactivity cells in ACC were detected. PWTs increased significantly in both sMA and EA groups. Meanwhile, anxiety-like behavior was improved significantly in the sMA and mMA groups. Furthermore, the overexpression of p-ERK induced by SNL was downregulated by strong and mild manual acupuncture. Therefore, strong manual acupuncture on bilateral "Huantiao" (GB 30) could be a proper therapy relieving both pain and pain-induced anxiety. The effect of different acupuncture techniques on pain-induced anxiety may arise from the regulation of p-ERK in ACC.

  10. Impaired cognitive control and reduced cingulate activity during mental fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorist, MM; Boksem, MAS; Ridderinkhof, KR

    Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the effects of mental fatigue are poorly understood. Here, we examined whether error-related brain activity, indexing performance monitoring by the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and strategic behavioural adjustments were modulated by mental fatigue, as induced

  11. Impaired cognitive control and reduced cingulate activity during mental fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorist, M.M.; Boksem, M.A.S.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the effects of mental fatigue are poorly understood. Here, we examined whether error-related brain activity, indexing performance monitoring by the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and strategic behavioural adjustments were modulated by mental fatigue, as induced

  12. Relationship between the SNAP-25 gene and the effects of methylphenidate on the anterior cingulate cortex of patients with adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

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    Ünal, G A; İnci Kenar, A N; Tepeli, E; Kıroğlu, Y; Herken, H

    2016-06-01

    The effects of certain genetic alterations in the brain function of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remain unclear and, in fact, there is a limited amount of data in this field. For example, the relationship between the SNAP-25 polymorphism and brain metabolites in response to methylphenidate (MPH) has yet to be investigated. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the relationship between changes in creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of adults with ADHD and the SNAP-25 gene polymorphism following the use of MPH. The present study assessed 60 patients between 18 and 60 years of age who were diagnosed with ADHD according to criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV). Genetic analyses were carried out using blood samples obtained from the ADHD patients and included a detailed clinical evaluation for the SNAP-25 gene polymorphism. The NAA, Cr, and Cho levels in the ACC and PFC were measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Following the evaluation, 10 mg of oral MPH was given to the patients, and the same metabolite levels were measured after 30 minutes. The levels of NAA, Cr, and Cho in the PFC and ACC of patients with the SNAP-25 Ddel and Mnll polymorphism genotypes did not significantly differ before and after the administration of MPH. However, in patients with the SNAP-25 Ddel polymorphism T/T genotype and the Mnll polymorphism G/G genotype, there was a significant increase in NAA levels in the ACC after MPH treatment compared with before MPH treatment. The present results suggest that the SNAP-25 Ddel and Mnll polymorphisms might be associated with MPH-related changes in NAA levels in the ACC.

  13. Attenuation of pCREB and Egr1 expression in the insular and anterior cingulate cortices associated with enhancement of CFA-evoked mechanical hypersensitivity after repeated forced swim stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbe, Hiroki; Kimura, Akihisa

    2017-09-01

    The perception and response to pain are severely impacted by exposure to stressors. In some animal models, stress increases pain sensitivity, which is termed stress-induced hyperalgesia (SIH). The insular cortex (IC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which are typically activated by noxious stimuli, affect pain perception through the descending pain modulatory system. In the present study, we examined the expression of phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and early growth response 1 (Egr1) in the IC and ACC at 3h (the acute phase of peripheral tissue inflammation) after complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection in naïve rats and rats preconditioned with forced swim stress (FS) to clarify the effect of FS, a stressor, on cortical cell activities in the rats showing SIH induced by FS. The CFA injection into the hindpaw induced mechanical hypersensitivity and increased the expression of the pCREB and Egr1 in the IC and ACC at 3h after the injection. FS (day 1, 10min; days 2-3, 20min) prior to the CFA injection enhanced the CFA-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and attenuated the increase in the expression of pCREB and Egr1 in the IC and ACC. These findings suggested that FS modulates the CFA injection-induced neuroplasticity in the IC and ACC to enhance the mechanical hypersensitivity. These findings are thought to signify stressor-induced dysfunction of the descending pain modulatory system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional dissociation of ventral frontal and dorsomedial default mode network components during resting state and emotional autobiographical recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bado, Patricia; Engel, Annerose; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Bramati, Ivanei E; Paiva, Fernando F; Basilio, Rodrigo; Sato, João R; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Moll, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    Humans spend a substantial share of their lives mind-wandering. This spontaneous thinking activity usually comprises autobiographical recall, emotional, and self-referential components. While neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that a specific brain "default mode network" (DMN) is consistently engaged by the "resting state" of the mind, the relative contribution of key cognitive components to DMN activity is still poorly understood. Here we used fMRI to investigate whether activity in neural components of the DMN can be differentially explained by active recall of relevant emotional autobiographical memories as compared with the resting state. Our study design combined emotional autobiographical memory, neutral memory and resting state conditions, separated by a serial subtraction control task. Shared patterns of activation in the DMN were observed in both emotional autobiographical and resting conditions, when compared with serial subtraction. Directly contrasting autobiographical and resting conditions demonstrated a striking dissociation within the DMN in that emotional autobiographical retrieval led to stronger activation of the dorsomedial core regions (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex), whereas the resting state condition engaged a ventral frontal network (ventral striatum, subgenual and ventral anterior cingulate cortices) in addition to the IPL. Our results reveal an as yet unreported dissociation within the DMN. Whereas the dorsomedial component can be explained by emotional autobiographical memory, the ventral frontal one is predominantly associated with the resting state proper, possibly underlying fundamental motivational mechanisms engaged during spontaneous unconstrained ideation.

  15. Spiders, ladybugs and bees: A case of unusual sensations in a child with cingulate epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Whitney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cingulate epilepsy is a rare form of epilepsy. Seizures from the anterior cingulate may present with mood change, fear, hypermotor activity, and autonomic signs, while posterior cingulate seizures resemble temporal lobe seizures. We describe a child with cingulate epilepsy who experienced unpleasant/painful sensory phenomenon. The sensations were described as spiders crawling on his forehead/right leg, ladybugs causing right ear pain and bees stinging his head/right extremities. Unpleasant sensory phenomenon/pain are rarely reported in cingulate epilepsy. Recognizing the role of the cingulate in producing pain/unusual sensory phenomenon is important, and may have localizing value when evaluating children for epilepsy surgery.

  16. Spiders, ladybugs and bees: A case of unusual sensations in a child with cingulate epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Robyn; AlMehmadi, Sameer; Go, Cristina; Ochi, Ayako; Otsubo, Hiroshi; Bradbury, Laura; Jones, Kevin; Christian, Eisha; Rutka, James; McCoy, Bláthnaid

    2017-01-01

    Cingulate epilepsy is a rare form of epilepsy. Seizures from the anterior cingulate may present with mood change, fear, hypermotor activity, and autonomic signs, while posterior cingulate seizures resemble temporal lobe seizures. We describe a child with cingulate epilepsy who experienced unpleasant/painful sensory phenomenon. The sensations were described as spiders crawling on his forehead/right leg, ladybugs causing right ear pain and bees stinging his head/right extremities. Unpleasant sensory phenomenon/pain are rarely reported in cingulate epilepsy. Recognizing the role of the cingulate in producing pain/unusual sensory phenomenon is important, and may have localizing value when evaluating children for epilepsy surgery.

  17. Spiders, ladybugs and bees: A case of unusual sensations in a child with cingulate epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Robyn Whitney; Sameer AlMehmadi; Cristina Go; Ayako Ochi; Hiroshi Otsubo; Laura Bradbury; Kevin Jones; Eisha Christian; James Rutka; Bláthnaid McCoy

    2017-01-01

    Cingulate epilepsy is a rare form of epilepsy. Seizures from the anterior cingulate may present with mood change, fear, hypermotor activity, and autonomic signs, while posterior cingulate seizures resemble temporal lobe seizures. We describe a child with cingulate epilepsy who experienced unpleasant/painful sensory phenomenon. The sensations were described as spiders crawling on his forehead/right leg, ladybugs causing right ear pain and bees stinging his head/right extremities. Unpleasant se...

  18. Segregated and integrated coding of reward and punishment in the cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Juri; Tobler, Philippe N; Taira, Masato; Iijima, Toshio; Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro

    2009-06-01

    Reward and punishment have opposite affective value but are both processed by the cingulate cortex. However, it is unclear whether the positive and negative affective values of monetary reward and punishment are processed by separate or common subregions of the cingulate cortex. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using a free-choice task and compared cingulate activations for different levels of monetary gain and loss. Gain-specific activation (increasing activation for increasing gain, but no activation change in relation to loss) occurred mainly in the anterior part of the anterior cingulate and in the posterior cingulate cortex. Conversely, loss-specific activation (increasing activation for increasing loss, but no activation change in relation to gain) occurred between these areas, in the middle and posterior part of the anterior cingulate. Integrated coding of gain and loss (increasing activation throughout the full range, from biggest loss to biggest gain) occurred in the dorsal part of the anterior cingulate, at the border with the medial prefrontal cortex. Finally, unspecific activation increases to both gains and losses (increasing activation to increasing gains and increasing losses, possibly reflecting attention) occurred in dorsal and middle regions of the cingulate cortex. Together, these results suggest separate and common coding of monetary reward and punishment in distinct subregions of the cingulate cortex. Further meta-analysis suggested that the presently found reward- and punishment-specific areas overlapped with those processing positive and negative emotions, respectively.

  19. The Cingulate Cortex and Human Memory Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M.Pyasik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents data from a magnetic-resonance morphometric (MRMM analysisof the main regions of the cingulate cortex (in both hemispheres and theirrole in memory processes in a group of healthy, females of older age. The resultsdemonstrate a statistically reliable correlation between overall performance andthe type of errors in different neuropsychological memory tests and the relativesize of these regions. The discovered pattern of correlations can be explained byhypothesizing the reciprocal functional influence of the two major areas of thecingulate cortex – its anterior and posterior dorsal parts – on performance in neuropsychologicalmemory tests.

  20. Altered quinpirole-induced local cerebral glucose utilization in anterior cortical regions in rats after sensitization to quinpirole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Toni L; Pazdernik, Thomas L; Levant, Beth

    2005-04-25

    Dopaminergic psychostimulants produce behavioral responses of greater magnitude with repeated, intermittent administration, than a single, acute dose, a phenomenon known as "sensitization." Most studies of sensitization have focused on the "motive circuit"; however, some additional anterior cortical regions also appear to be affected. In this study, alterations in regional neuronal activity in anterior cortical brain areas produced by quinpirole, a D(2)/D(3) agonist, were assessed on the basis of local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) using the [(14)C]-2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) method. Adult, male Long-Evans rats (180-200 g, n = 7-9/group) were subjected to ten injections of quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) administered every third day; controls and drug-naive rats received saline. Locomotor activity was quantitated after injections one and ten to confirm sensitization. The 2-DG procedure was initiated 60 min after an 11th injection in freely moving rats. LCGU was determined in 11 anterior cortical brain regions by quantitative autoradiography. In drug-naive rats, quinpirole decreased LCGU in the cingulate cortex-area 3 (-16%) and infralimbic cortex (-16%). In sensitized rats, quinpirole decreased LCGU in the cingulate cortex-area 1 (-19%), frontal cortex-area 3 (-19%), lateral orbital cortex (-18%), medial/ventral orbital cortex (-17%), and parietal cortex (-17%) as well as in the cingulate cortex-area 3 (-19%) and infralimbic cortex (-20%); (all P < 0.05 v. control). This suggests that decreased neuronal activity in the cingulate cortex-area 1, frontal cortex-area 3, lateral orbital cortex, medial/ventral orbital cortex, and parietal cortex, in addition to altered activity in the motive circuit, may underlie the augmented behavioral response to quinpirole in sensitized animals.

  1. Impaired target detection in schizophrenia and the ventral attentional network: Findings from a joint event-related potential–functional MRI analysis

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    Jonathan K. Wynn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia patients have abnormal neural responses to salient, infrequent events. We integrated event-related potentials (ERP and fMRI to examine the contributions of the ventral (salience and dorsal (sustained attention networks to this dysfunctional neural activation. Twenty-one schizophrenia patients and 22 healthy controls were assessed in separate sessions with ERP and fMRI during a visual oddball task. Visual P100, N100, and P300 ERP waveforms and fMRI activation were assessed. A joint independent components analysis (jICA on the ERP and fMRI data were conducted. Patients exhibited reduced P300, but not P100 or N100, amplitudes to targets and reduced fMRI neural activation in both dorsal and ventral attentional networks compared with controls. However, the jICA revealed that the P300 was linked specifically to activation in the ventral (salience network, including anterior cingulate, anterior insula, and temporal parietal junction, with patients exhibiting significantly lower activation. The P100 and N100 were linked to activation in the dorsal (sustained network, with no group differences in level of activation. This joint analysis approach revealed the nature of target detection deficits that were not discernable by either imaging methodology alone, highlighting the utility of a multimodal fMRI and ERP approach to understand attentional network deficits in schizophrenia.

  2. Impact of brain shift on subcallosal cingulate deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Sueng; Noecker, Angela M; Riva-Posse, Patricio; Rajendra, Justin K; Gross, Robert E; Mayberg, Helen S; McIntyre, Cameron C

    2017-12-06

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal cingulate (SCC) is an emerging experimental therapy for treatment-resistant depression. New developments in SCC DBS surgical targeting are focused on identifying specific axonal pathways for stimulation that are estimated from preoperatively collected diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data. However, brain shift induced by opening burr holes in the skull may alter the position of the target pathways. Quantify the effect of electrode location deviations on tractographic representations for stimulating the target pathways using longitudinal clinical imaging datasets. Preoperative MRI and DWI data (planned) were coregistered with postoperative MRI (1 day, near-term) and CT (3 weeks, long-term) data. Brain shift was measured with anatomical control points. Electrode models corresponding to the planned, near-term, and long-term locations were defined in each hemisphere of 15 patients. Tractography analyses were performed using estimated stimulation volumes as seeds centered on the different electrode positions. Mean brain shift of 2.2 mm was observed in the near-term for the frontal pole, which resolved in the long-term. However, electrode displacements from the planned stereotactic target location were observed in the anterior-superior direction in both the near-term (mean left electrode shift: 0.43 mm, mean right electrode shift: 0.99 mm) and long-term (mean left electrode shift: 1.02 mm, mean right electrode shift: 1.47 mm). DBS electrodes implanted in the right hemisphere (second-side operated) were more displaced from the plan than those in the left hemisphere. These displacements resulted in 3.6% decrease in pathway activation between the electrode and the ventral striatum, but 2.7% increase in the frontal pole connection, compared to the plan. Remitters from six-month chronic stimulation had less variance in pathway activation patterns than the non-remitters. Brain shift is an important concern for SCC DBS

  3. Loss of integrity and atrophy in cingulate structural covariance networks in Parkinson's disease

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    Laura J. de Schipper

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: We identified loss of integrity and atrophy in the anterior and posterior cingulate networks in PD patients. Abnormalities of both networks were associated with predominantly non-dopaminergic features, specifically cognition and excessive daytime sleepiness. Our findings suggest that (components of the cingulate networks display a specific vulnerability to the pathobiology of PD and may operate as interfaces between networks involved in cognition and alertness.

  4. The tipping point: Value differences and parallel dorsal-ventral frontal circuits gating human approach-avoidance behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlund, Michael W; Brewer, Adam T; Magee, Sandy K; Richman, David M; Solomon, Scott; Ludlum, MaDonna; Dymond, Simon

    2016-08-01

    Excessive avoidance and diminished approach behavior are both prominent features of anxiety, trauma and stress related disorders. Despite this, little is known about the neuronal mechanisms supporting gating of human approach-avoidance behavior. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to track dorsal anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal (dACC/dmPFC) activation along an approach-avoidance continuum to assess sensitivity to competing appetitive and aversive contingencies and correspondence with behavior change. Behavioral and fMRI experiments were conducted using a novel approach-avoidance task where a monetary reward appeared in the presence of a conditioned stimulus (CS), or threat, that signaled increasing probability of unconditioned stimulus (US) delivery. Approach produced the reward or probabilistic US, while avoidance prevented US delivery, and across trials, reward remained fixed while the CS threat level varied unpredictably. Increasing the CS threat level (i.e., US probability) produced the desired approach-avoidance transition and inverted U-shaped changes in decision times, electrodermal activity and activation in pregenual ACC, dACC/dmPFC, striatum, anterior insula and inferior frontal regions. Conversely, U-shaped changes in activation were observed in dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and bimodal changes in the orbitofrontal and ventral hippocampus. These new results show parallel dorsal-ventral frontal circuits support gating of human approach-avoidance behavior where dACC/dmPFC signals inversely correlate with value differences between approach and avoidance contingencies while ventral frontal signals correlate with the value of predictable outcomes. Our findings provide an important bridge between basic research on brain mechanisms of value-guided decision-making and value-focused clinical theories of anxiety and related interventions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Intra- and Interhemispheric Propagation of Electrophysiological Synchronous Activity and Its Modulation by Serotonin in the Cingulate Cortex of Juvenile Mice.

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    Víctor Rovira

    Full Text Available Disinhibition of the cortex (e.g., by GABA -receptor blockade generates synchronous and oscillatory electrophysiological activity that propagates along the cortex. We have studied, in brain slices of the cingulate cortex of mice (postnatal age 14-20 days, the propagation along layer 2/3 as well as the interhemispheric propagation through the corpus callosum of synchronous discharges recorded extracellularly and evoked in the presence of 10 μM bicuculline by electrical stimulation of layer 1. The latency of the responses obtained at the same distance from the stimulus electrode was longer in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC: 39.53 ± 2.83 ms, n = 7 than in retrosplenial cortex slices (RSC: 21.99 ± 2.75 ms, n = 5; p<0.05, which is equivalent to a lower propagation velocity in the dorso-ventral direction in ACC than in RSC slices (43.0 mm/s vs 72.9 mm/s. We studied the modulation of this propagation by serotonin. Serotonin significantly increased the latency of the intracortical synchronous discharges (18.9% in the ipsilateral hemisphere and 40.2% in the contralateral hemisphere, and also increased the interhemispheric propagation time by 86.4%. These actions of serotonin were mimicked by the activation of either 5-HT1B or 5-HT2A receptors, but not by the activation of the 5-HT1A subtype. These findings provide further knowledge about the propagation of synchronic electrical activity in the cerebral cortex, including its modulation by serotonin, and suggest the presence of deep differences between the ACC and RSC in the structure of the local cortical microcircuits underlying the propagation of synchronous discharges.

  6. The association between cingulate cortex glutamate concentration and delay discounting is mediated by resting state functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaal, Lianne; Goudriaan, Anna E; van der Meer, Johan; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J

    2012-09-01

    Humans vary in their ability to delay gratification and impulsive decision making is a common feature in various psychiatric disorders. The level of delay discounting is a relatively stable psychological trait, and therefore neural processes implicated in delay discounting are likely to be based on the overall functional organization of the brain (under task-free conditions) in which state-dependent shifts from baseline levels occur. The current study investigated whether delay discounting can be predicted by intrinsic properties of brain functioning. Fourteen healthy male subjects performed a delay discounting task. In addition, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H MRS) were used to investigate the relationship between individual differences in delay discounting and molecular and regional measures of resting state (baseline) activity of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Results showed that delay discounting was associated with both dACC glutamate concentrations and resting state functional connectivity of the dACC with a midbrain region including ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. In addition, a neural pathway was established, showing that the effect of glutamate concentrations in the dACC on delay discounting is mediated by functional connectivity of the dACC with the midbrain. The current findings are important to acknowledge because spontaneous intrinsic brain processes have been proposed to be a potential promising biomarker of disease and impulsive decision making is associated with several psychiatric disorders.

  7. Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Ventral Foregut Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothová, Michaela; Hölzenspies, Jurriaan J; Livigni, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Anterior definitive endoderm (ADE), the ventral foregut precursor, is both an important embryonic signaling center and a unique multipotent precursor of liver, pancreas, and other organs. Here, a method is described for the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to definitive...... endoderm with pronounced anterior character. ADE-containing cultures can be produced in vitro by suspension (embryoid body) culture or in a serum-free adherent monolayer culture. ESC-derived ADE cells are committed to endodermal fates and can undergo further differentiation in vitro towards ventral foregut...

  8. Functional Dissociations within the Ventral Object Processing Pathway: Cognitive Modules or a Hierarchical Continuum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Rosemary A.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Saksida, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the organization and function of the ventral object processing pathway. The prevailing theoretical approach in this field holds that the ventral object processing stream has a modular organization, in which visual perception is carried out in posterior regions and visual memory is carried out, independently, in the anterior temporal…

  9. Trap-door durotomy for ventral calcified thoracic meningioma

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    Rob D. Dickerman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ventral calcified meningiomas of the upper thoracic spine provide a unique challenge due to their location. The posterior approach has long been utilized for resection of ventral meningiomas with high success rates and low morbidity. There are a number of anatomical factors that can increase the difficulty in the case including patient body habitus, calcified tumors ventrally located can be adherent to the cord or anterior spinal artery, angle of the ribs and the vascularity in and around the tumor. We present a very challenging case of a large ventral calcified meningioma at T4 in a patient with body mass index of 50 (5′6, 337 lbs who presented with progressive paraplegia.

  10. Functions of the anterior insula in taste, autonomic, and related functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T

    2016-12-01

    The anterior insula contains the primary taste cortex, in which neurons in primates respond to different combinations providing a distributed representation of different prototypical tastes, oral texture including fat texture, and oral temperature. These taste neurons do not represent food reward value, in that feeding to satiety does not reduce their responses to zero, in contrast to the next stage of processing, the orbitofrontal cortex, where food reward value is represented. Corresponding results are found with fMRI in humans. A more ventral part of the anterior insula is implicated using fMRI in autonomic-visceral functions. 'Salient' stimuli, including rewarding, punishing, non-rewarding, and novel stimuli may activate this viscero-autonomic system, via inputs received from regions that represent these stimuli such as the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex. More posteriorly in the insula, there is an oral somatosensory region, and posterior to this somatosensory regions that respond to touch to the body. These taste and somatosensory representations in the insula provide representations that are about the external world (touch), are intermediate (oral taste and texture), and are about internal signals related to visceral and autonomic function. This functionality needs to be taken into account when considering activations of the insula found in cognitive tasks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Positive Allosteric Modulator of GABA Lowers BOLD Responses in the Cingulate Cortex.

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    Susanna A Walter

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the neural underpinnings of the negative blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD responses in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is still limited. We hypothesized that pharmacological GABAergic modulation attenuates BOLD responses, and that blood concentrations of a positive allosteric modulator of GABA correlate inversely with BOLD responses in the cingulate cortex. We investigated whether or not pure task-related negative BOLD responses were co-localized with pharmacologically modulated BOLD responses. Twenty healthy adults received either 5 mg diazepam or placebo in a double blind, randomized design. During fMRI the subjects performed a working memory task. Results showed that BOLD responses in the cingulate cortex were inversely correlated with diazepam blood concentrations; that is, the higher the blood diazepam concentration, the lower the BOLD response. This inverse correlation was most pronounced in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior mid-cingulate cortex. For subjects with diazepam plasma concentration > 0.1 mg/L we observed negative BOLD responses with respect to fixation baseline. There was minor overlap between cingulate regions with task-related negative BOLD responses and regions where the BOLD responses were inversely correlated with diazepam concentration. We interpret that the inverse correlation between the BOLD response and diazepam was caused by GABA-related neural inhibition. Thus, this study supports the hypothesis that GABA attenuates BOLD responses in fMRI. The minimal overlap between task-related negative BOLD responses and responses attenuated by diazepam suggests that these responses might be caused by different mechanisms.

  12. Functional connectivity of the human rostral and caudal cingulate motor areas in the brain resting state at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habas, Christophe [CHNO des Quinze-Vingts, UPMC Paris 6, Service de NeuroImagerie, Paris (France)

    2010-01-15

    Three cingulate motor areas have been described in monkeys, the rostral, dorsal, and ventral cingulate motor areas, and would control limbic-related motor activity. However, little anatomical data are available in human about the functional networks these cingulate areas underlie. Therefore, networks anchored in the rostral and caudal cingulate motor areas (rCMA and cCMA, respectively) were studied in human using functional connectivity during the brain resting state. Since the rCMA and cCMA are located just under the pre-supplementary and supplementary motor areas (pre-SMA and SMA), the pre-SMA- and SMA-centered networks were also studied to ensure that these four circuits were correctly dissociated. Data from 14 right-handed healthy volunteers were acquired at rest and analyzed by region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity. The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations of separate ROIs located in rCMA, cCMA, pre-SMA, and SMA were successively used to identify significant temporal correlations with BOLD signal fluctuations of other brain regions. Low-frequency BOLD signal of the CMA was correlated with signal fluctuations in the prefrontal, cingulate, insular, premotor, motor, medial and inferior parietal cortices, putamen and thalamus, and anticorrelated with the default-mode network. rCMA was more in relation with prefrontal, orbitofrontal, and language-associated cortices than cCMA more related to sensory cortex. These cingulate networks were very similar to the pre-SMA- and SMA-centered networks, although pre-SMA and SMA showed stronger correlation with the prefrontal and inferior parietal cortices and with the cerebellum and the superior parietal cortex, respectively. The human cingulate motor areas constitute an interface between sensorimotor, limbic and executive systems, sharing common cortical, striatal, and thalamic relays with the overlying premotor medial areas. (orig.)

  13. Task-related deactivation and functional connectivity of the subgenual cingulate cortex in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Davey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Major depressive disorder is associated with functional alterations in activity and resting-state connectivity of the extended medial frontal network. In this study we aimed to examine how task-related medial network activity and connectivity were affected by depression.Methods: Eighteen patients with major depressive disorder, aged 15- to 24-years-old, were matched with 19 healthy control participants. We characterised task-related activations and deactivations while participants engaged with an executive-control task (the multi-source interference task; MSIT. We used a psycho-physiological interactions (PPI approach to examine functional connectivity changes with subgenual ACC. Voxelwise statistical maps for each analysis were compared between the patient and control groups.Results: There were no differences between groups in their behavioral performances on the MSIT task, and nor in patterns of activation and deactivation. Assessment of functional connectivity with the subgenual cingulate showed that depressed patients did not demonstrate the same reduction in functional connectivity with the ventral striatum during task performance, but that they showed greater reduction in functional connectivity with adjacent ventromedial frontal cortex. The magnitude of this latter connectivity change predicted the relative activation of task-relevant executive control regions in depressed patients.Conclusions: The study reinforces the importance of the subgenual cingulate cortex for depression, and demonstrates how dysfunctional connectivity with ventral brain regions might influence executive–attentional processes.

  14. Ventral Abdominal Hernia

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    Georgi Tchernev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old Caucasian female patient presented with redness of the both foot and lower legs, as well as edema of the left lower leg, accompanied by subjective complaints of burning. Fever was not reported. Well-circumscribed oval shaped tumor formation was revealed also on the abdominal wall, with hyperpigmented and depigmented areas on its ulcerated surface, measuring approximately 10/10cm in diameter, with soft-elastic texture on palpation.  The lesion occurred in 2011, according to the patient’s history. No subjective complaints were reported in association. The performed ultrasonography revealed intestinal loops in the hernial sac, without incarceration. The diagnosis of ventral abdominal hernia without mechanical ileus was made. The patient was referred for planned surgical procedure, because of her refusal on this stage.The clinical manifestation of the tumor formation on the abdominal wall, required wide spectrum of differential diagnosis, including aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, abdominal tumor, subcutaneous tumor or metastasis or hernia. In the presented cases, the abdominal wall mass was a sporadic clinical finding in the framework of the total-body skin examination in patient with erysipelas. The lack of subjective symptoms, as well as the reported history for hysterectomy and previously abscessus were not enough indicative symptoms for the correct diagnosis. The diagnosis of non-complicated hernia was made via ultrasonography, while the clinical differentiation between hernia and other life-threatening conditions as aneurysms or tumor was not possible.

  15. Cingulate Alpha-2A Adrenoceptors Mediate the Effects of Clonidine on Spontaneous Pain Induced by Peripheral Nerve Injury

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    Yong-Jie Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is an important brain area for the regulation of neuropathic pain. The α2A adrenoceptor is a good target for pain management. However, the role of cingulate α2A adrenoceptors in the regulation of neuropathic pain has been less studied. In this study, we investigated the involvement of cingulate α2A adrenoceptors in the regulation of neuropathic pain at different time points after peripheral nerve injury in mice. The application of clonidine, either systemically (0.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally or specifically to the ACC, increased paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs and induced conditioned place preference (CPP at day 7 after nerve injury, suggesting that cingulate α2 adrenoceptors are involved in the regulation of pain-like behaviors. Quantitative real-time PCR data showed that α2A adrenoceptors are the dominant α2 adrenoceptors in the ACC. Furthermore, the expression of cingulate α2A adrenoceptors was increased at day 3 and day 7 after nerve injury, but decreased at day 14, while no change was detected in the concentration of adrenaline or noradrenaline. BRL-44408 maleate, a selective antagonist of α2A adrenoceptors, was microinfused into the ACC. This blocking of cingulate α2A adrenoceptors activity abolished the CPP induced by clonidine (0.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally but not the effects on PWTs at day 7. However, clonidine applied systemically or specifically to the ACC at day 14 increased the PWTs but failed to induce CPP; this negative effect was reversed by the overexpression of cingulate α2A adrenoceptors. These results suggest that cingulate α2A adrenoceptors are necessary for the analgesic effects of clonidine on spontaneous pain.

  16. The cingulate cortex of older adults with excellent memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Ren, Ping; Mapstone, Mark; Meyers, Steven P; Porsteinsson, Anton; Baran, Timothy M

    2017-01-01

    Memory deterioration is the earliest and most devastating cognitive deficit in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some older adults, known as "Supernormals", maintain excellent memory. This study examined relationships between cerebral amyloid deposition and functional connectivity (FC) within the cingulate cortex (CC) and between CC and other regions involved in memory maintenance between Supernormals, healthy controls (HC), and those at risk for AD (amnestic mild cognitive impairment [MCI]). Supernormals had significantly stronger FC between anterior CC and R-hippocampus, middle CC (MCC) and L-superior temporal gyrus, and posterior CC (PCC) and R-precuneus, while weaker FC between MCC and R-middle frontal gyrus and MCC and R-thalamus than other groups. All of these FC were significantly related to memory and global cognition in all participants. Supernormals had less amyloid deposition than other groups. Relationships between global cognition and FC were stronger among amyloid positive participants. Relationships between memory and FC remained regardless of amyloid level. This revealed how CC-related neural function participates in cognitive maintenance in the presence of amyloid deposition, potentially explaining excellent cognitive function among Supernormals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Specialization of Binaural Responses in Ventral Auditory Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Nathan C.; Storace, Douglas A.; Escabí, Monty A.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate orientation to sound under challenging conditions requires auditory cortex, but it is unclear how spatial attributes of the auditory scene are represented at this level. Current organization schemes follow a functional division whereby dorsal and ventral auditory cortices specialize to encode spatial and object features of sound source, respectively. However, few studies have examined spatial cue sensitivities in ventral cortices to support or reject such schemes. Here Fourier optical imaging was used to quantify best frequency responses and corresponding gradient organization in primary (A1), anterior, posterior, ventral (VAF), and suprarhinal (SRAF) auditory fields of the rat. Spike rate sensitivities to binaural interaural level difference (ILD) and average binaural level cues were probed in A1 and two ventral cortices, VAF and SRAF. Continuous distributions of best ILDs and ILD tuning metrics were observed in all cortices, suggesting this horizontal position cue is well covered. VAF and caudal SRAF in the right cerebral hemisphere responded maximally to midline horizontal position cues, whereas A1 and rostral SRAF responded maximally to ILD cues favoring more eccentric positions in the contralateral sound hemifield. SRAF had the highest incidence of binaural facilitation for ILD cues corresponding to midline positions, supporting current theories that auditory cortices have specialized and hierarchical functional organization. PMID:20980610

  18. Effects of nicotine on hippocampal and cingulate activity during smooth pursuit eye movement in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Jody; Tregellas, Jason R; Martin, Laura F; Freedman, Robert

    2006-04-15

    Abnormal smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM) in schizophrenic patients is a well known phenomenon, but the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the deficit are unknown. Nicotine temporarily improves SPEM and has been associated with reduced hippocampal hemodynamic activity in schizophrenics. Nicotine's effect on brain activity in control subjects performing SPEM has not been studied. The purpose of this work was to determine if nicotine differentially affects brain activity in schizophrenic and control subjects during pursuit eye tracking. 16 subjects with schizophrenia and 16 control subjects underwent functional MR imaging during SPEM after receiving placebo or nicotine gum. Four brain regions were analyzed for main effects of group, drug, and interactions: hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, frontal eye fields, and area MT. Nicotine reduced hippocampal activity in both groups, but the effect was greater in control subjects. A group by drug interaction was observed in the anterior cingulate gyrus, where nicotine decreased activity in control subjects and increased activity in schizophrenic subjects. There were no significant effects of group, drug, or interactions in frontal eye fields or area MT. Nicotine may improve SPEM performance in people with schizophrenia through cholinergic stimulation of the hippocampus and cingulate gyrus. Potential mechanisms include improved inhibitory function and attention.

  19. Target-specific deep brain stimulation of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chencheng; Li, Dianyou; Jin, Haiyan; Zeljic, Kristina; Sun, Bomin

    2017-10-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a well-established therapy for Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. An accumulating body of evidence supports the extension of DBS application for the treatment of refractory psychiatric disorders. The ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) is the most common anatomical target for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), addiction, and depression. However, no specific electrode is available for the clinical targeting of these areas for DBS. According to the anatomical features of the VC/VS, a novel electrode was developed for simultaneous and independently programmed stimulation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC). This VC/VS-specific electrode has the potential to enhance stimulus intensity, provide independent and flexible target stimulation.

  20. Impairments of cingulated cortex in the generalized tonic-clonic seizure epilepsy by combining morphological and functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Ming; Jin, Bixia; Liu, Guangyao; Yang, Xiaoping

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that the patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizure had structural abnormalities in the thalamus, cingulated cortex and some other specific brain regions. Concurrently, the abnormality in thalamocortical network and basal ganglia network has been found in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. The cingulated cortex, a nexus of information processing and regulation in human brain, is implicated in the propagation of generalized spike in IGE and the previous studies have suggested that the structural features and functional connectivity of the cingulated cortex have been changed. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the alterations in the cingulated cortex in generalized tonic-clonic seizure by combining morphological and functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging. 19 patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizure and 19 age-and gender-matched healthy controls were involved in the study. The three-dimensional high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired for voxel-based morphometry analysis, two-sample t-test run on the T1-weighted structural images revealed clusters exhibiting significant decreases in grey-matter volume in the generalized tonic-clonic seizure group, located within the cingulated cortex, thalamus, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and cerebellum. The decreased gray matter volume in the cingulated cortex indicating that the cingulated cortex has structural impairments in generalized tonic-clonic seizure patients. The bilateral cingulated cortex, as detected with decreased gray matter volume in patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizure through voxel-based morphometry analysis, was selected as seed regions for functional connectivity analysis. Compared with controls, we found decreased functional connectivity to left anterior cingulated cortex (ROI1) in the cuneus, frontal lobe and precentral gyrus. There was no significant result when seeding at the right anterior cingulum gyrus (ROI2

  1. Emotional fronto-cingulate cortex activation and brain derived neurotrophic factor polymorphism in premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comasco, Erika; Hahn, Andreas; Ganger, Sebastian; Gingnell, Malin; Bannbers, Elin; Oreland, Lars; Wikström, Johan; Epperson, C Neill; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2014-09-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is the prototypical sex-specific disorder in which symptom onset and offset require a particular hormonal milieu and for which there is moderate heritability. The present study investigated brain emotion processing in PMDD and healthy controls, as well as functional polymorphisms in two candidate genes for PMDD, the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The 5-HTT linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms were genotyped in 31 patients with PMDD and 31 healthy controls. A subset of 16 patients and 15 controls participated in two functional magnetic resonance imaging-sessions performing an emotion processing task; once in the mid-follicular, and once in the late luteal phase which corresponds with maximum severity of mood symptoms. Genotypes were not directly associated with PMDD. A main effect of group was found in the whole brain analysis, with patients having lower activation of the pre-genual anterior cingulate and ventro-medial prefrontal cortex, independent of menstrual cycle phase. Post-hoc functional ROI analyses in the fronto-cingulate cluster showed no effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype but a genotype-by-group-by-phase interaction effect of BDNF Val66Met. Women with PMDD who were carriers of the Met-allele had lower fronto-cingulate cortex activation in the luteal phase compared to Met-allele carrying controls. The results provide suggestive evidence of impaired emotion-induced fronto-cingulate cortex activation in PMDD patients. Although limited by a small sample, the potential influence of BDNF Val66Met in PMDD is in line with preclinical findings. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Maternal control of the Drosophila dorsal–ventral body axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David S.; Stevens, Leslie M.

    2016-01-01

    The pathway that generates the dorsal–ventral (DV) axis of the Drosophila embryo has been the subject of intense investigation over the previous three decades. The initial asymmetric signal originates during oogenesis by the movement of the oocyte nucleus to an anterior corner of the oocyte, which establishes DV polarity within the follicle through signaling between Gurken, the Drosophila Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-α homologue secreted from the oocyte, and the Drosophila Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) that is expressed by the follicular epithelium cells that envelop the oocyte. Follicle cells that are not exposed to Gurken follow a ventral fate and express Pipe, a sulfotransferase that enzymatically modifies components of the inner vitelline membrane layer of the eggshell, thereby transferring DV spatial information from the follicle to the egg. These ventrally sulfated eggshell proteins comprise a localized cue that directs the ventrally restricted formation of the active Spätzle ligand within the perivitelline space between the eggshell and the embryonic membrane. Spätzle activates Toll, a transmembrane receptor in the embryonic membrane. Transmission of the Toll signal into the embryo leads to the formation of a ventral-to-dorsal gradient of the transcription factor Dorsal within the nuclei of the syncytial blastoderm stage embryo. Dorsal controls the spatially specific expression of a large constellation of zygotic target genes, the Dorsal gene regulatory network, along the embryonic DV circumference. This article reviews classic studies and integrates them with the details of more recent work that has advanced our understanding of the complex pathway that establishes Drosophila embryo DV polarity. PMID:25124754

  3. From attention to memory along the dorsal-ventral axis of the medial prefrontal cortex: Some methodological limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen J. Cassaday

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Distinctions along the dorsal-ventral axis of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, between anterior cingulate (AC, prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL sub-regions, have been proposed on a variety of neuroanatomical and neurophysiological grounds. Conventional lesion approaches (as well as some electrophysiological studies have shown that these distinctions relate to function in that a number behavioural dissociations have been demonstrated, particularly using rodent models of attention, learning and memory. For example, there is evidence to suggest that AC has a relatively greater role in attention, whereas IL is more involved in executive function. However, the well-established methods of behavioral neuroscience have the limitation that neuromodulation is not addressed. The neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine has been used to deplete dopamine (DA in mPFC sub-regions, but these lesions are not selective anatomically and noradrenalin is typically also depleted. Microinfusion of drugs through indwelling cannulae provides an alternative approach, to address the role of neuromodulation and moreover that of specific receptor subtypes within mPFC sub-regions, but the effects of such treatments cannot be assumed to be anatomically restricted either. New methodological approaches to the functional delineation of the role of mPFC in attention, learning and memory will also be considered. Taken in isolation, the conventional lesion methods which have been a first line of approach may suggest that a particular mPFC sub-region is not necessary for a particular aspect of function. However, this does not exclude a neuromodulatory role and more neuropsychopharmacological approaches are needed to explain some of the apparent inconsistencies in the results.

  4. Mouse and human genetic analyses associate kalirin with ventral striatal activation during impulsivity and with alcohol misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda ePeña-Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Impulsivity is associated with a spectrum of psychiatric disorders including drug addiction. To investigate genetic associations with impulsivity and initiation of drug taking, we took a two-step approach. First, we identified genes whose expression level in prefrontal cortex, striatum and accumbens were associated with impulsive behaviour in the 5-choice serial reaction time task across 10 BXD recombinant inbred (BXD RI mouse strains and their progenitor C57BL/6J and DBA2/J strains. Behavioural data were correlated with regional gene expression using GeneNetwork (www.genenetwork.org, to identify 44 genes whose probability of association with impulsivity exceeded a false discovery rate of <0.05. We then interrogated the IMAGEN database of 1423 adolescents for potential associations of SNPs in human homologues of those genes identified in the mouse study, with brain activation during impulsive performance in the Monetary Incentive Delay task, and with novelty seeking scores from the Temperament and Character Inventory, as well as alcohol-experience. There was a significant overall association between the human homologues of impulsivity-related genes and percentage of premature responses in the MID task and with fMRI BOLD-response in ventral striatum (VS during reward anticipation. In contrast, no significant association was found between the polygenic scores and anterior cingulate cortex activation. Univariate association analyses revealed that the G allele (major of the intronic SNP rs6438839 in the KALRN gene was significantly associated with increased VS activation. Additionally, the A-allele (minor of KALRN intronic SNP rs4634050, belonging to the same haplotype block, was associated with increased frequency of binge drinking.

  5. Amphioxus mouth after dorso-ventral inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Takao; Reimer, James D; Morov, Arseniy R; Kuratani, Shigeru; Yasui, Kinya

    2016-01-01

    Deuterostomes (animals with 'secondary mouths') are generally accepted to develop the mouth independently of the blastopore. However, it remains largely unknown whether mouths are homologous among all deuterostome groups. Unlike other bilaterians, in amphioxus the mouth initially opens on the left lateral side. This peculiar morphology has not been fully explained in the evolutionary developmental context. We studied the developmental process of the amphioxus mouth to understand whether amphioxus acquired a new mouth, and if so, how it is related to or differs from mouths in other deuterostomes. The left first somite in amphioxus produces a coelomic vesicle between the epidermis and pharynx that plays a crucial role in the mouth opening. The vesicle develops in association with the amphioxus-specific Hatschek nephridium, and first opens into the pharynx and then into the exterior as a mouth. This asymmetrical development of the anterior-most somites depends on the Nodal-Pitx signaling unit, and the perturbation of laterality-determining Nodal signaling led to the disappearance of the vesicle, producing a symmetric pair of anterior-most somites that resulted in larvae lacking orobranchial structures. The vesicle expressed bmp2/4, as seen in ambulacrarian coelomic pore-canals, and the mouth did not open when Bmp2/4 signaling was blocked. We conclude that the amphioxus mouth, which uniquely involves a mesodermal coelomic vesicle, shares its evolutionary origins with the ambulacrarian coelomic pore-canal. Our observations suggest that there are at least three types of mouths in deuterostomes, and that the new acquisition of chordate mouths was likely related to the dorso-ventral inversion that occurred in the last common ancestor of chordates.

  6. Loss of integrity and atrophy in cingulate structural covariance networks in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Schipper, Laura J; van der Grond, Jeroen; Marinus, Johan; Henselmans, Johanna M L; van Hilten, Jacobus J

    2017-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), the relation between cortical brain atrophy on MRI and clinical progression is not straightforward. Determination of changes in structural covariance networks - patterns of covariance in grey matter density - has shown to be a valuable technique to detect subtle grey matter variations. We evaluated how structural network integrity in PD is related to clinical data. 3 Tesla MRI was performed in 159 PD patients. We used nine standardized structural covariance networks identified in 370 healthy subjects as a template in the analysis of the PD data. Clinical assessment comprised motor features (Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; MDS-UPDRS motor scale) and predominantly non-dopaminergic features (SEverity of Non-dopaminergic Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease; SENS-PD scale: postural instability and gait difficulty, psychotic symptoms, excessive daytime sleepiness, autonomic dysfunction, cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms). Voxel-based analyses were performed within networks significantly associated with PD. The anterior and posterior cingulate network showed decreased integrity, associated with the SENS-PD score, p = 0.001 (β = - 0.265, ηp2 = 0.070) and p = 0.001 (β = - 0.264, ηp2 = 0.074), respectively. Of the components of the SENS-PD score, cognitive impairment and excessive daytime sleepiness were associated with atrophy within both networks. We identified loss of integrity and atrophy in the anterior and posterior cingulate networks in PD patients. Abnormalities of both networks were associated with predominantly non-dopaminergic features, specifically cognition and excessive daytime sleepiness. Our findings suggest that (components of) the cingulate networks display a specific vulnerability to the pathobiology of PD and may operate as interfaces between networks involved in cognition and alertness.

  7. The Danish ventral hernia database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Frederik; Jorgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The Danish Ventral Hernia Database (DVHD) provides national surveillance of current surgical practice and clinical postoperative outcomes. The intention is to reduce postoperative morbidity and hernia recurrence, evaluate new treatment strategies, and facilitate nationwide implementation...... of operations and is an excellent tool for observing changes over time, including adjustment of several confounders. This national database registry has impacted on clinical practice in Denmark and led to a high number of scientific publications in recent years....

  8. Ventral pallidum roles in reward and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S; Tindell, Amy J; Aldridge, J Wayne; Berridge, Kent C

    2009-01-23

    In recent years the ventral pallidum has become a focus of great research interest as a mechanism of reward and incentive motivation. As a major output for limbic signals, the ventral pallidum was once associated primarily with motor functions rather than regarded as a reward structure in its own right. However, ample evidence now suggests that ventral pallidum function is a major mechanism of reward in the brain. We review data indicating that (1) an intact ventral pallidum is necessary for normal reward and motivation, (2) stimulated activation of ventral pallidum is sufficient to cause reward and motivation enhancements, and (3) activation patterns in ventral pallidum neurons specifically encode reward and motivation signals via phasic bursts of excitation to incentive and hedonic stimuli. We conclude that the ventral pallidum may serve as an important 'limbic final common pathway' for mesocorticolimbic processing of many rewards.

  9. Decision salience signals in posterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eHeilbronner

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite its phylogenetic antiquity and clinical importance, the posterior cingulate cortex (CGp remains an enigmatic nexus of attention, memory, motivation, and decision making. Here we show that CGp neurons track decision salience—the degree to which an option differs from a standard—but not the subjective value of a decision. To do this, we recorded the spiking activity of CGp neurons in monkeys choosing between options varying in reward-related risk, delay to reward, and social outcomes, each of which varied in level of decision salience. Firing rates were higher when monkeys chose the risky option, consistent with their risk-seeking preferences, but were also higher when monkeys chose the delayed and social options, contradicting their preferences. Thus, across decision contexts, neuronal activity was uncorrelated with how much monkeys valued a given option, as inferred from choice. Instead, neuronal activity signaled the deviation of the chosen option from the standard, independently of how it differed. The observed decision salience signals suggest a role for CGp in the flexible allocation of neural resources to motivationally significant information, akin to the role of attention in selective processing of sensory inputs.

  10. Cognitive Control Signals in Posterior Cingulate Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eHayden

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficiently shifting between tasks is a central function of cognitive control. The role of the default network—a constellation of areas with high baseline activity that declines during task performance—in cognitive control remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that task switching demands cognitive control to shift the balance of processing towards the external world, and therefore predicted that switching between the two tasks would require suppression of activity of neurons within the CGp. To test this idea, we recorded the activity of single neurons in posterior cingulate cortex (CGp, a central node in the default network, in monkeys performing two interleaved tasks. As predicted, we found that basal levels of neuronal activity were reduced following a switch from one task to another and gradually returned to pre-switch baseline on subsequent trials. We failed to observe these effects in lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP, part of the dorsal fronto-parietal cortical attention network directly connected to CGp. These findings indicate that suppression of neuronal activity in CGp facilitates cognitive control, and suggest that activity in the default network reflects processes that directly compete with control processes elsewhere in the brain..

  11. A fate map of the murine pancreas buds reveals a multipotent ventral foregut organ progenitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse R Angelo

    Full Text Available The definitive endoderm is the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the budding endodermal organs including the thyroid, lung, liver and pancreas as well as the remainder of the gut tube. DiI fate mapping and whole embryo culture were used to determine the endodermal origin of the 9.5 days post coitum (dpc dorsal and ventral pancreas buds. Our results demonstrate that the progenitors of each bud occupy distinct endodermal territories. Dorsal bud progenitors are located in the medial endoderm overlying somites 2-4 between the 2 and 11 somite stage (SS. The endoderm forming the ventral pancreas bud is found in 2 distinct regions. One territory originates from the left and right lateral endoderm caudal to the anterior intestinal portal by the 6 SS and the second domain is derived from the ventral midline of the endoderm lip (VMEL. Unlike the laterally located ventral foregut progenitors, the VMEL population harbors a multipotent progenitor that contributes to the thyroid bud, the rostral cap of the liver bud, ventral midline of the liver bud and the midline of the ventral pancreas bud in a temporally restricted manner. This data suggests that the midline of the 9.5 dpc thyroid, liver and ventral pancreas buds originates from the same progenitor population, demonstrating a developmental link between all three ventral foregut buds. Taken together, these data define the location of the dorsal and ventral pancreas progenitors in the prespecified endodermal sheet and should lead to insights into the inductive events required for pancreas specification.

  12. A Fate Map of the Murine Pancreas Buds Reveals a Multipotent Ventral Foregut Organ Progenitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Jesse R.; Guerrero-Zayas, Mara-Isel; Tremblay, Kimberly D.

    2012-01-01

    The definitive endoderm is the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the budding endodermal organs including the thyroid, lung, liver and pancreas as well as the remainder of the gut tube. DiI fate mapping and whole embryo culture were used to determine the endodermal origin of the 9.5 days post coitum (dpc) dorsal and ventral pancreas buds. Our results demonstrate that the progenitors of each bud occupy distinct endodermal territories. Dorsal bud progenitors are located in the medial endoderm overlying somites 2–4 between the 2 and 11 somite stage (SS). The endoderm forming the ventral pancreas bud is found in 2 distinct regions. One territory originates from the left and right lateral endoderm caudal to the anterior intestinal portal by the 6 SS and the second domain is derived from the ventral midline of the endoderm lip (VMEL). Unlike the laterally located ventral foregut progenitors, the VMEL population harbors a multipotent progenitor that contributes to the thyroid bud, the rostral cap of the liver bud, ventral midline of the liver bud and the midline of the ventral pancreas bud in a temporally restricted manner. This data suggests that the midline of the 9.5 dpc thyroid, liver and ventral pancreas buds originates from the same progenitor population, demonstrating a developmental link between all three ventral foregut buds. Taken together, these data define the location of the dorsal and ventral pancreas progenitors in the prespecified endodermal sheet and should lead to insights into the inductive events required for pancreas specification. PMID:22815796

  13. Ventral and dorsal streams processing visual motion perception (FDG-PET study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker-Bense Sandra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Earlier functional imaging studies on visually induced self-motion perception (vection disclosed a bilateral network of activations within primary and secondary visual cortex areas which was combined with signal decreases, i.e., deactivations, in multisensory vestibular cortex areas. This finding led to the concept of a reciprocal inhibitory interaction between the visual and vestibular systems. In order to define areas involved in special aspects of self-motion perception such as intensity and duration of the perceived circular vection (CV or the amount of head tilt, correlation analyses of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism, rCGM (measured by fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography, FDG-PET and these perceptual covariates were performed in 14 healthy volunteers. For analyses of the visual-vestibular interaction, the CV data were compared to a random dot motion stimulation condition (not inducing vection and a control group at rest (no stimulation at all. Results Group subtraction analyses showed that the visual-vestibular interaction was modified during CV, i.e., the activations within the cerebellar vermis and parieto-occipital areas were enhanced. The correlation analysis between the rCGM and the intensity of visually induced vection, experienced as body tilt, showed a relationship for areas of the multisensory vestibular cortical network (inferior parietal lobule bilaterally, anterior cingulate gyrus, the medial parieto-occipital cortex, the frontal eye fields and the cerebellar vermis. The “earlier” multisensory vestibular areas like the parieto-insular vestibular cortex and the superior temporal gyrus did not appear in the latter analysis. The duration of perceived vection after stimulus stop was positively correlated with rCGM in medial temporal lobe areas bilaterally, which included the (para-hippocampus, known to be involved in various aspects of memory processing. The amount of head tilt was found

  14. Causal Interactions Within a Frontal-Cingulate-Parietal Network During Cognitive Control: Convergent Evidence from a Multisite-Multitask Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weidong; Chen, Tianwen; Ryali, Srikanth; Kochalka, John; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Menon, Vinod

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive control plays an important role in goal-directed behavior, but dynamic brain mechanisms underlying it are poorly understood. Here, using multisite fMRI data from over 100 participants, we investigate causal interactions in three cognitive control tasks within a core Frontal-Cingulate-Parietal network. We found significant causal influences from anterior insula (AI) to dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in all three tasks. The AI exhibited greater net causal outflow than any other node in the network. Importantly, a similar pattern of causal interactions was uncovered by two different computational methods for causal analysis. Furthermore, the strength of causal interaction from AI to dACC was greater on high, compared with low, cognitive control trials and was significantly correlated with individual differences in cognitive control abilities. These results emphasize the importance of the AI in cognitive control and highlight its role as a causal hub in the Frontal-Cingulate-Parietal network. Our results further suggest that causal signaling between the AI and dACC plays a fundamental role in implementing cognitive control and are consistent with a two-stage cognitive control model in which the AI first detects events requiring greater access to cognitive control resources and then signals the dACC to execute load-specific cognitive control processes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Role of Cingulate Cortex in Vicarious Pain

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    Esther H. Yesudas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vicarious pain is defined as the observation of individuals in pain. There is growing neuroimaging evidence suggesting that the cingulate cortex plays a significant role in self-experienced pain processing. Yet, very few studies have directly tested the distinct functions of the cingulate cortex for vicarious pain. In this review, one EEG and eighteen neuroimaging studies reporting cingulate cortex activity during pain observation were discussed. The data indicate that there is overlapping neural activity in the cingulate cortex during self- and vicarious pain. Such activity may contribute to shared neural pain representations that permit inference of the affective state of individuals in pain, facilitating empathy. However, the exact location of neuronal populations in which activity overlaps or differs for self- and observed pain processing requires further confirmation. This review also discusses evidence suggesting differential functions of the cingulate cortex in cognitive, affective, and motor processing during empathy induction. While affective processing in the cingulate cortex during pain observation has been explored relatively more often, its attention and motor roles remain underresearched. Shedding light on the neural correlates of vicarious pain and corresponding empathy in healthy populations can provide neurobiological markers and intervention targets for empathic deficits found in various clinical disorders.

  16. Functional Circuitry Effect of Ventral Tegmental Area Deep Brain Stimulation: Imaging and Neurochemical Evidence of Mesocortical and Mesolimbic Pathway Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settell, Megan L; Testini, Paola; Cho, Shinho; Lee, Jannifer H; Blaha, Charles D; Jo, Hang J; Lee, Kendall H; Min, Hoon-Ki

    2017-01-01

    Background: The ventral tegmental area (VTA), containing mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic neurons, is implicated in processes involving reward, addiction, reinforcement, and learning, which are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. Electrical stimulation of the VTA or the medial forebrain bundle and its projection target the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is reported to improve depressive symptoms in patients affected by severe, treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive-like symptoms in animal models of depression. Here we sought to determine the neuromodulatory effects of VTA deep brain stimulation (DBS) in a normal large animal model (swine) by combining neurochemical measurements with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Animals (n = 8 swine) were implanted with a unilateral DBS electrode targeting the VTA. During stimulation (130 Hz frequency, 0.25 ms pulse width, and 3 V amplitude), fMRI was performed. Following fMRI, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in combination with carbon fiber microelectrodes was performed to quantify VTA-DBS-evoked dopamine release in the ipsilateral NAc. In a subset of swine, the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) percent change evoked by stimulation was performed at increasing voltages (1, 2, and 3 V). Results: A significant increase in VTA-DBS-evoked BOLD signal was found in the following regions: the ipsilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior and posterior cingulate, insula, premotor cortex, primary somatosensory cortex, and striatum. A decrease in the BOLD signal was also observed in the contralateral parahippocampal cortex, dorsolateral and anterior prefrontal cortex, insula, inferior temporal gyrus, and primary somatosensory cortex (Bonferroni-corrected modulation of the neural circuitry associated with VTA-DBS was characterized in a large animal. Our findings suggest that VTA-DBS could affect the activity of neural systems and brain regions implicated in

  17. Cingulate cortex functional connectivity predicts future relapse in alcohol dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiniaeiz, Yasmin; Scheinost, Dustin; Seo, Dongju; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a chronic relapsing illness. Alcohol and stress cues have consistently been shown to increase craving and relapse risk in recovering alcohol dependent (AUD) patients. However, differences in functional connectivity in response to these cues have not been studied using data-driven approaches. Here, voxel-wise connectivity is used in a whole-brain investigation of functional connectivity differences associated with alcohol and stress cues and to examine whether these differences are related to subsequent relapse. In Study 1, 45, 4- to 8-week abstinent, recovering AUD patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during individualized imagery of alcohol, stress, and neutral cues. Relapse measures were collected prospectively for 90 days post-discharge from inpatient treatment. AUD patients showed blunted anterior (ACC), mid (MCC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), voxel-wise connectivity responses to stress compared to neutral cues and blunted PCC response to alcohol compared to neutral cues. Using Cox proportional hazard regression, weaker connectivity in ACC and MCC during neutral exposure was associated with longer time to relapse (better recovery outcome). Similarly, greater connectivity in PCC during alcohol-cue compared to stress cue was associated with longer time to relapse. In Study 2, a sub-group of 30 AUD patients were demographically-matched to 30 healthy control (HC) participants for group comparisons. AUD compared to HC participants showed reduced cingulate connectivity during alcohol and stress cues. Using novel data-driven approaches, the cingulate cortex emerged as a key region in the disruption of functional connectivity during alcohol and stress-cue processing in AUD patients and as a marker of subsequent alcohol relapse.

  18. Cingulate cortex functional connectivity predicts future relapse in alcohol dependent individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Zakiniaeiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a chronic relapsing illness. Alcohol and stress cues have consistently been shown to increase craving and relapse risk in recovering alcohol dependent (AUD patients. However, differences in functional connectivity in response to these cues have not been studied using data-driven approaches. Here, voxel-wise connectivity is used in a whole-brain investigation of functional connectivity differences associated with alcohol and stress cues and to examine whether these differences are related to subsequent relapse. In Study 1, 45, 4- to 8-week abstinent, recovering AUD patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during individualized imagery of alcohol, stress, and neutral cues. Relapse measures were collected prospectively for 90 days post-discharge from inpatient treatment. AUD patients showed blunted anterior (ACC, mid (MCC and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, voxel-wise connectivity responses to stress compared to neutral cues and blunted PCC response to alcohol compared to neutral cues. Using Cox proportional hazard regression, weaker connectivity in ACC and MCC during neutral exposure was associated with longer time to relapse (better recovery outcome. Similarly, greater connectivity in PCC during alcohol-cue compared to stress cue was associated with longer time to relapse. In Study 2, a sub-group of 30 AUD patients were demographically-matched to 30 healthy control (HC participants for group comparisons. AUD compared to HC participants showed reduced cingulate connectivity during alcohol and stress cues. Using novel data-driven approaches, the cingulate cortex emerged as a key region in the disruption of functional connectivity during alcohol and stress-cue processing in AUD patients and as a marker of subsequent alcohol relapse.

  19. Deficits in visual cognition and attention following bilateral anterior cingulotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, K N; Kosslyn, S M; Cosgrove, G R; Cassem, E H; Price, B H; Nierenberg, A A; Rauch, S L

    2001-01-01

    A series of eight tests of visual cognitive abilities was used to examine pre- to post-operative performance changes in a patient receiving bilateral anterior cingulotomy. Compared with a set of eight matched control participants, post-operatively, the patient exhibited deficits in (a) the ability to sequence novel cognitive operations required to generate multipart images or rotate perceptual stimuli; (b) the ability to search for, select, and compare images of objects when the instructions did not specify precisely which objects should be visualized; and, (c) the ability to select a controlled and unpracticed response over an automatic one. Other imagery and cognitive tasks were not affected. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that anterior cingulate cortex is a component of an executive control system. One of the anterior cingulate's roles may be to monitor on-line processing and signal the motivational significance of current actions or cognitions.

  20. Laparoscopic Ventral and Incisional Hernia Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ventral and incisional hernia repair is one of the most frequently performed operations in daily surgical practice. Laparoscopic ventral and incisional hernia repair (LVIHR) is gaining increasing adoption in surgical practice. It has theoretical advantages but improvements in technique can still be

  1. Ketamine modulates subgenual cingulate connectivity with the memory-related neural circuit—a mechanism of relevance to resistant depression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing J. Wong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ketamine has been reported to have efficacy as an antidepressant in several studies of treatment-resistant depression. In this study, we investigate whether an acute administration of ketamine leads to reductions in the functional connectivity of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC with other brain regions. Methods. Thirteen right-handed healthy male subjects underwent a 15 min resting state fMRI with an infusion of intravenous ketamine (target blood level = 150 ng/ml starting at 5 min. We used a seed region centred on the sgACC and assessed functional connectivity before and during ketamine administration. Results. Before ketamine administration, positive coupling with the sgACC seed region was observed in a large cluster encompassing the anterior cingulate and negative coupling was observed with the anterior cerebellum. Following ketamine administration, sgACC activity became negatively correlated with the brainstem, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, retrosplenial cortex, and thalamus. Discussion. Ketamine reduced functional connectivity of the sgACC with brain regions implicated in emotion, memory and mind wandering. It is possible the therapeutic effects of ketamine may be mediated via this mechanism, although further work is required to test this hypothesis.

  2. Anterior tarsaltunnelsyndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miliam, Palle B; Basse, Peter N

    2009-01-01

    Anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome is a rare entrapment neuropathy of the deep peroneal nerve beneath the extensor retinaculum of the ankle. It may be rare because it is underrecognized clinically.We present a case regarding a 29-year-old man, drummer, who for one and a half year experienced clinical...

  3. Concurrent TMS-fMRI Reveals Interactions between Dorsal and Ventral Attentional Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitao, Joana; Thielscher, Axel; Tuennerhoff, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    detected weak visual targets that were presented in the lower-left visual field on 50% of the trials. Further, we manipulated the presence/absence of task-irrelevant auditory signals. Critically, on each trial we applied 10 Hz bursts of four TMS (or Sham) pulses to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). IPS......-TMS relative to Sham-TMS increased activation in the parietal cortex regardless of sensory stimulation, confirming the neural effectiveness of TMS stimulation. Visual targets increased activations in the anterior insula, a component of the ventral attentional system responsible for salience detection....... Conversely, they decreased activations in the ventral visual areas. Importantly, IPS-TMS abolished target-evoked activation increases in the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) of the ventral attentional system, whereas it eliminated target-evoked activation decreases in the right fusiform. Our results...

  4. Anterior cingulate serotonin 1B receptor binding is associated with emotional response inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Hjordt, Liv Vadskjær; Dam, Vibeke Høyrup

    2017-01-01

    -offender controls, completed an emotional Go/NoGo task requiring inhibition of prepotent motor responses to emotional facial expressions. We also measured cerebral serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR) binding with [11C]AZ10419369 positron emission tomography within regions of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that 5......Serotonin has a well-established role in emotional processing and is a key neurotransmitter in impulsive aggression, presumably by facilitating response inhibition and regulating subcortical reactivity to aversive stimuli. In this study 44 men, of whom 19 were violent offenders and 25 were non......-HT1BR would be positively associated with false alarms (failures to inhibit nogo responses) in the context of aversive (angry and fearful) facial expressions. Across groups, we found that frontal cortex 5-HT1BR binding was positively correlated with false alarms when angry faces were go stimuli...

  5. Metabolite Concentrations in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predict High Neuropathic Pain Impact After Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    1Present address: Department of Community Dentistry and Behavioral Science, College of Dentistry , University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. None...Dysfunctional, which shows more neuropathic pain symptoms , including frequent exacerbation of pain, electric quality of the pain, and continuous pain, than the...of the pain experience, and to activation within areas of the ACC [39]. (2) Beck Depression Inventory (BDI): The BDI [7] assesses symptoms associated

  6. Transient inactivation of the anterior cingulate cortex in rats disrupts avoidance of a dynamic object

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jan; Lobellová, Veronika; Popelíková, Anna; Ahuja, Nikhil; Kelemen, Eduard; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 139, Mar 2017 (2017), s. 144-148 ISSN 1074-7427 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03627S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14053 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : enemy avoidance * moving goal * navigation * avoidance * rat * robot Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.543, year: 2016

  7. Anterior cingulate activation during cognitive control relates to academic perfomance in medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veroude, K.; Jolles, J.; Knežević, M.; Vos, C.M.; Croiset, G.; Krabbendam, L.

    2013-01-01

    It is believed that academic performance is in part determined by cognitive control, the skill of flexibly guiding behavior. Although previous neuroimaging research has demonstrated that lateral and medial prefrontal cortex, including ACC, are involved during tasks of cognitive control, little is

  8. Empathic Responsiveness in Amygdala and Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Youths with Psychopathic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Abigail A.; Finger, Elizabeth C.; Fowler, Katherine A.; Adalio, Christopher J.; Jurkowitz, Ilana T. N.; Schechter, Julia C.; Pine, Daniel S.; Decety, Jean; Blair, R. J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychopathic traits are associated with increases in antisocial behaviors such as aggression and are characterized by reduced empathy for others' distress. This suggests that psychopathic traits may also impair empathic pain sensitivity. However, whether psychopathic traits affect responses to the pain of others versus the self…

  9. Anterior cingulate cortex and response conflict: effects of response modality and processing domain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barch, D M; Braver, T S; Akbudak, E; Conturo, T; Ollinger, J; Snyder, A

    2001-01-01

    ...) and/or all processing domains (e.g. verbal and spatial). To explore this question, we used rapid event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and a spatial Stroop task with conditions tapping both verbal and spatial processing...

  10. Nociception coma scale-revised scores correlate with metabolism in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    OpenAIRE

    Chatelle, Camille; Thibaut, Aurore; Bruno, Marie-Aurelie; Boly, Melanie; Bernard, Claire; Hustinx, Roland; Schnakers, Caroline; Laureys, Steven

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: . The Nociception Coma Scale-Revised (NCS-R) was recently validated to assess possible pain perception in patients with disorders of consciousness. OBJECTIVE: . To identify correlations between cerebral glucose metabolism and NCS-R total scores. METHODS: . [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, NCS-R, and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised assessments were performed in 49 patients with disorders of consciousness. RESULTS: . We identified a significant positive correlation...

  11. Attention for speaking: domain-general control from the anterior cingulate cortex in spoken word production

    OpenAIRE

    Vitoria ePiai; Ardi eRoelofs; Daniel J. eAcheson; Atsuko eTakashima

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that some degree of attentional control is required to regulate and monitor processes underlying speaking. Although progress has been made in delineating the neural substrates of the core language processes involved in speaking, substrates associated with regulatory and monitoring processes have remained relatively underspecified. We report the results of an fMRI study examining the neural substrates related to performance in three attention-demanding tasks vary...

  12. Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activation Is Related to Learning Potential on the WCST in Schizophrenia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Anya; Wilmsmeier, Andreas; Wiedl, Karl H.; Bauer, Jochen; Kueppers, Kerstin; Koelkebeck, Katja; Kohl, Waldemar; Kugel, Harald; Arolt, Volker; Ohrmann, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The remediation of executive function in patients with schizophrenia is important in rehabilitation because these skills affect the patient's capacity to function in the community. There is evidence that instructional techniques can improve deficits in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in some schizophrenia patients. We used a standard…

  13. Early adverse events, HPA activity and rostral anterior cingulate volume in MDD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Treadway

    Full Text Available Prior studies have independently reported associations between major depressive disorder (MDD, elevated cortisol concentrations, early adverse events and region-specific decreases in grey matter volume, but the relationships among these variables are unclear. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the relationships between grey matter volume, early adverse events and cortisol levels in MDD.Grey matter volume was compared between 19 controls and 19 individuals with MDD using voxel-based morphometry. A history of early adverse events was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Subjects also provided salivary cortisol samples. Depressed patients showed decreased grey matter volume in the rostral ACC as compared to controls. Rostral ACC volume was inversely correlated with both cortisol and early adverse events.These findings suggest a key relationship between ACC morphology, a history of early adverse events and circulating cortisol in the pathophysiology of MDD.

  14. Immunometabolic dysregulation is associated with reduced cortical thickness of the anterior cingulate cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, Laura S.; Schmaal, Lianne; Milaneschi, Yuri; van Tol, Marie-Jose; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick. J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Immunometabolic dysregulation (low-grade inflammation and metabolic dysregulation) has been associated with the onset and more severe course of multiple psychiatric disorders, partly due to neuroanatomical changes and impaired neuroplasticity. We examined the effect of multiple markers

  15. Attention for speaking: domain-general control from the anterior cingulate cortex in spoken word production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Acheson, D.J.; Takashima, A.

    2013-01-01

    ulating evidence suggests that some degree of attentional control is required to regulate and monitor processes underlying speaking. Although progress has been made in delineating the neural substrates of the core language processes involved in speaking, substrates associated with regulatory and

  16. Synthetic Versus Biological Mesh-Related Erosion After Laparoscopic Ventral Mesh Rectopexy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Andrea; Quaresima, Silvia; Smolarek, Sebastian; Shalaby, Mostafa; Missori, Giulia; Sileri, Pierpaolo

    2017-04-01

    This review reports the incidence of mesh-related erosion after ventral mesh rectopexy to determine whether any difference exists in the erosion rate between synthetic and biological mesh. A systematic search of the MEDLINE and the Ovid databases was conducted to identify suitable articles published between 2004 and 2015. The search strategy capture terms were laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy, laparoscopic anterior rectopexy, robotic ventral rectopexy, and robotic anterior rectopexy. Eight studies (3,956 patients) were included in this review. Of those patients, 3,517 patients underwent laparoscopic ventral rectopexy (LVR) using synthetic mesh and 439 using biological mesh. Sixty-six erosions were observed with synthetic mesh (26 rectal, 32 vaginal, 8 recto-vaginal fistulae) and one (perineal erosion) with biological mesh. The synthetic and the biological mesh-related erosion rates were 1.87% and 0.22%, respectively. The time between rectopexy and diagnosis of mesh erosion ranged from 1.7 to 124 months. No mesh-related mortalities were reported. The incidence of mesh-related erosion after LVR is low and is more common after the placement of synthetic mesh. The use of biological mesh for LVR seems to be a safer option; however, large, multicenter, randomized, control trials with long follow-ups are required if a definitive answer is to be obtained.

  17. Ventralization of an indirect developing hemichordate by NiCl₂ suggests a conserved mechanism of dorso-ventral (D/V) patterning in Ambulacraria (hemichordates and echinoderms).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttinger, E; Martindale, M Q

    2011-06-01

    One of the earliest steps in embryonic development is the establishment of the future body axes. Morphological and molecular data place the Ambulacraria (echinoderms and hemichordates) within the Deuterostomia and as the sister taxon to chordates. Extensive work over the last decades in echinoid (sea urchins) echinoderms has led to the characterization of gene regulatory networks underlying germ layer specification and axis formation during embryogenesis. However, with the exception of recent studies from a direct developing hemichordate (Saccoglossus kowalevskii), very little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying early hemichordate development. Unlike echinoids, indirect developing hemichordates retain the larval body axes and major larval tissues after metamorphosis into the adult worm. In order to gain insight into dorso-ventral (D/V) patterning, we used nickel chloride (NiCl₂), a potent ventralizing agent on echinoderm embryos, on the indirect developing enteropneust hemichordate, Ptychodera flava. Our present study shows that NiCl₂ disrupts the D/V axis and induces formation of a circumferential mouth when treated before the onset of gastrulation. Molecular analysis, using newly isolated tissue-specific markers, shows that the ventral ectoderm is expanded at expense of dorsal ectoderm in treated embryos, but has little effect on germ layer or anterior-posterior markers. The resulting ventralized phenotype, the effective dose, and the NiCl₂ sensitive response period of Ptychodera flava, is very similar to the effects of nickel on embryonic development described in larval echinoderms. These strong similarities allow one to speculate that a NiCl₂ sensitive pathway involved in dorso-ventral patterning may be shared between echinoderms, hemichordates and a putative ambulacrarian ancestor. Furthermore, nickel treatments ventralize the direct developing hemichordate, S. kowalevskii indicating that a common pathway patterns both larval and adult

  18. Asymmetric development of dorsal and ventral attention networks in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrant, Kristafor; Uddin, Lucina Q

    2015-04-01

    Two neural systems for goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention have been described in the adult human brain; the dorsal attention network (DAN) centered in the frontal eye fields (FEF) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the ventral attention network (VAN) anchored in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and ventral frontal cortex (VFC). Little is known regarding the processes governing typical development of these attention networks in the brain. Here we use resting state functional MRI data collected from thirty 7 to 12 year-old children and thirty 18 to 31 year-old adults to examine two key regions of interest from the dorsal and ventral attention networks. We found that for the DAN nodes (IPS and FEF), children showed greater functional connectivity with regions within the network compared with adults, whereas adults showed greater functional connectivity between the FEF and extra-network regions including the posterior cingulate cortex. For the VAN nodes (TPJ and VFC), adults showed greater functional connectivity with regions within the network compared with children. Children showed greater functional connectivity between VFC and nodes of the salience network. This asymmetric pattern of development of attention networks may be a neural signature of the shift from over-representation of bottom-up attention mechanisms to greater top-down attentional capacities with development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Asymmetric development of dorsal and ventral attention networks in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristafor Farrant

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two neural systems for goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention have been described in the adult human brain; the dorsal attention network (DAN centered in the frontal eye fields (FEF and intraparietal sulcus (IPS, and the ventral attention network (VAN anchored in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ and ventral frontal cortex (VFC. Little is known regarding the processes governing typical development of these attention networks in the brain. Here we use resting state functional MRI data collected from thirty 7 to 12 year-old children and thirty 18 to 31 year-old adults to examine two key regions of interest from the dorsal and ventral attention networks. We found that for the DAN nodes (IPS and FEF, children showed greater functional connectivity with regions within the network compared with adults, whereas adults showed greater functional connectivity between the FEF and extra-network regions including the posterior cingulate cortex. For the VAN nodes (TPJ and VFC, adults showed greater functional connectivity with regions within the network compared with children. Children showed greater functional connectivity between VFC and nodes of the salience network. This asymmetric pattern of development of attention networks may be a neural signature of the shift from over-representation of bottom-up attention mechanisms to greater top-down attentional capacities with development.

  20. Imaging findings in patients with ventral dural defects and herniation of neural tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, A.; Staebler, A.; Reiser, M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Marchioninistrasse 15, D-81 377 Munich (Germany); Psenner, K. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Allgemeines Regionalkrankenhaus Bozen (Italy); Hamburger, C. [Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Marchioninistrasse 15, D-81 377 Munich (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe clinical and imaging findings in three patients with ventral dural defects and herniation of the spinal cord or cauda equina. The literature is reviewed and the clinical, radiological and operative findings are compared. Three patients with ventral dural defects of different etiologies are presented. One patient gave a longstanding history of ankylosing spondylitis, the second patient presents 37 years after spinal trauma, and the third patient presents with spontaneous spinal cord herniation. All patients had typically slowly progressive neurological symptoms with multiple hospitalizations until diagnosis was made. Characteristic findings in postmyelographic CT included a ventral or ventrolateral displacement with deformation of the spinal cord or the cauda equina. Sagittal MRI showed this abrupt and localized anterior deviation of the spinal cord or the cauda equina to the posterior portions of a vertebral body with or without a bony vertebral defect optimally. Additionally, due to the ventral displacement of the spinal cord, the dorsal subarachnoid space was relatively enlarged without evidence of an arachnoid cyst, in all patients. Magnetic resonance imaging and postmyelographic CT can diagnose ventral dural defects with spinal cord herniation or nerve root entrapment. Dural defects must be considered in the presence of neurological symptoms in cases of longstanding ankylosing spondylitis, late sequelae of fractures of vertebral bodies, and without history of spinal trauma or surgery. (orig.). With 3 figs.

  1. Specificity of intraabdominal endoprosthesis of umbilical and postoperative ventral hernias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriev S.G.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The research work objective was to examine the results of intraperitoneal plastics in the hernias of anterior abdominal wall. The experience of treatment of 89 patients with uncomplicated umbilical and postoperative ventral hernias was analized. The surgical treatment included an open intraperitoneal prosthetic hernioplasty. The hernial sac was not removed during the operation. The original techniques of treatment of hernia sac were used. Anatomical and morphological features in the structure of middle ventral hernias and their pathophysiological assessment were revealed. Practical recommendations for technology of intraperitoneal prosthesis were given. The early postoperative complications occurred: seroma (n=2, the outflow of serous fluid drainage for 5 days (n=1, infiltration of the umbilical area (n=3, suppuration of wounds (n=1. Vacuum drainage was performed in 24 patients after removal of large hernial defects. During the period from 6 months to 4 years recurrences were not revealed. The intraperitoneal surgery using a complex of musculo-aponeurotic tissues provided hernial implant fixation. Operation without the removal of the hernial sac reduced the trauma intervention. Method of suturing the surgical wound reduced the time of drainage and reduced the number of wound complications

  2. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    Severe pain is usual after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR). Mesh fixation with titanium tacks may play a key role in the development of acute and chronic pain and alternative fixation methods should therefore be investigated. This PhD thesis was based on three studies and aimed too: 1......) assess the intensity and impact of postoperative pain by detailed patient-reported description of pain and convalescence after LVHR (Study I), 2) evaluate the feasibility of fibrin sealant (FS) for mesh fixation in an experimental pig model (Study II), and 3) investigate FS vs. tacks for mesh fixation...... at POD 14. In Study II - a randomised experimental study in pigs - nine pigs were operated laparoscopically with insertion of two different meshes fixed with either FS or tacks. All pigs were euthanized on POD 30. The primary outcome parameter was strength of ingrowth between the mesh and the anterior...

  3. Anterior Urethral Advancement in Repair of Hypospadias: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xp

    Background/Purpose: Anterior Urethral advancement as one stage technique for hypospadias repair was first described by. Ti – Shang Cheng in 1984. It was used for repair of distal and midpenile hypospadias. It was also used for treating secondary cases and urethral fistulae. Stricture, fistulae and ventral curvature were ...

  4. Anterior Urethral Advancement in Repair of Hypospadias: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Purpose: Anterior Urethral advancement as one stage technique for hypospadias repair was first described by Ti – Shang Cheng in 1984. It was used for repair of distal and midpenile hypospadias. It was also used for treating secondary cases and urethral fistulae. Stricture, fistulae and ventral curvature were ...

  5. Mining the posterior cingulate: Segregation between memory and pain components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Balslev, Daniela; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2005-01-01

    We present a general method for automatic meta-analyses in neuroscience and apply it on text data from published functional imaging studies to extract main functions associated with a brain area --- the posterior cingulate cortex. Abstracts from PubMed are downloaded, words extracted and converted...

  6. Primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oma, Erling; Bay-Nielsen, M; Jensen, K K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence, management, and risk of emergency operation for primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy are unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalences of primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy and the potential risks for elective and emergency repair...... was conducted to identify patients registered with a primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy. Follow-up was conducted by review of medical record notes within the Capital Region of Denmark supplemented with structured telephone interviews on indication. RESULTS: In total, 20,714 pregnant women were...... included in the study cohort. Seventeen (0.08%) and 25 (0.12%) women were registered with a primary ventral and groin hernia, respectively. None underwent elective or emergency repair in pregnancy, and all had uncomplicated childbirth. In 10 women, the groin bulge disappeared spontaneously after delivery...

  7. Concurrent TMS-fMRI Reveals Interactions between Dorsal and Ventral Attentional Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Joana; Thielscher, Axel; Tünnerhoff, Johannes; Noppeney, Uta

    2015-08-12

    Adaptive behavior relies on combining bottom-up sensory inputs with top-down control signals to guide responses in line with current goals and task demands. Over the past decade, accumulating evidence has suggested that the dorsal and ventral frontoparietal attentional systems are recruited interactively in this process. This fMRI study used concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a causal perturbation approach to investigate the interactions between dorsal and ventral attentional systems and sensory processing areas. In a sustained spatial attention paradigm, human participants detected weak visual targets that were presented in the lower-left visual field on 50% of the trials. Further, we manipulated the presence/absence of task-irrelevant auditory signals. Critically, on each trial we applied 10 Hz bursts of four TMS (or Sham) pulses to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). IPS-TMS relative to Sham-TMS increased activation in the parietal cortex regardless of sensory stimulation, confirming the neural effectiveness of TMS stimulation. Visual targets increased activations in the anterior insula, a component of the ventral attentional system responsible for salience detection. Conversely, they decreased activations in the ventral visual areas. Importantly, IPS-TMS abolished target-evoked activation increases in the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) of the ventral attentional system, whereas it eliminated target-evoked activation decreases in the right fusiform. Our results demonstrate that IPS-TMS exerts profound directional causal influences not only on visual areas but also on the TPJ as a critical component of the ventral attentional system. They reveal a complex interplay between dorsal and ventral attentional systems during target detection under sustained spatial attention. Adaptive behavior relies on combining bottom-up sensory inputs with top-down attentional control. Although the dorsal and ventral frontoparietal systems are key players in

  8. Epilepsy surgery of the cingulate gyrus and the frontomesial cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lehe, Marec; Wagner, Jan; Wellmer, Joerg; Clusmann, Hans; Kral, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Epilepsy surgery involving the cingulate gyrus has been mostly presented as case reports, and larger series with long-term follow-up are not published yet. To report our experience with focal epilepsy arising from the cingulate gyrus and surrounding structures and its surgical treatment. Twenty-two patients (mean age, 36; range, 12-63) with a mean seizure history of 23 years (range, 2-52) were retrospectively analyzed. We report presurgical diagnostics, surgical strategy, and postoperative follow-up concerning functional morbidity and seizures (mean follow-up, 86 months; range, 25-174). Nineteen patients showed potential epileptogenic lesions on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All patients had noninvasive presurgical workup; 15 (68%) underwent invasive Video-electroencephalogram (EEG)-Monitoring. In 12 patients we performed extended lesionectomy according to MRI; an extension with regard to EEG results was done in 6 patients. In 4 patients, the resection was incomplete because of the involvement of eloquent areas according to functional mapping results. Eight pure cingulate resections (36%, 3 in the posterior cingulate gyrus) and 14 extended supracingular frontal resections were performed. Nine patients experienced temporary postoperative supplementary motor area syndrome after resection in the superior frontal gyrus. Two patients retained a persistent mild hand or leg paresis, respectively. Postoperatively, 62% of patients were seizure-free (International League Against Epilepsy [ILAE] 1), and 76% had a satisfactory seizure outcome (ILAE 1-3). Epilepsy surgery for lesions involving the cingulate gyrus represents a small fraction of all epilepsy surgery cases, with good seizure outcome and low rates of postoperative permanent deficits. In case of extended supracingular resection, supplementary motor area syndrome should be considered.

  9. Increased ventral-striatal activity during monetary decision making is a marker of problem poker gambling severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevers, Damien; Noël, Xavier; He, Qinghua; Melrose, James A; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of different neural systems on monetary decision making in frequent poker gamblers, who vary in their degree of problem gambling. Fifteen frequent poker players, ranging from non-problem to high-problem gambling, and 15 non-gambler controls were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). During IGT deck selection, between-group fMRI analyses showed that frequent poker gamblers exhibited higher ventral-striatal but lower dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal activations as compared with controls. Moreover, using functional connectivity analyses, we observed higher ventral-striatal connectivity in poker players, and in regions involved in attentional/motor control (posterior cingulate), visual (occipital gyrus) and auditory (temporal gyrus) processing. In poker gamblers, scores of problem gambling severity were positively associated with ventral-striatal activations and with the connectivity between the ventral-striatum seed and the occipital fusiform gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus. Present results are consistent with findings from recent brain imaging studies showing that gambling disorder is associated with heightened motivational-reward processes during monetary decision making, which may hamper one's ability to moderate his level of monetary risk taking. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Cholinergic enhancement increases regional cerebral blood flow to the posterior cingulate cortex in mild Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Tomomichi; Kameyama, Masashi

    2017-06-01

    The brain region that shows reductions in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) earliest is the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), which is thought to have a relationship with cognitive function. We made a hypothesis that the PCC hypoperfusion is a result of cholinergic dysfunction and can be restored by cholinergic enhancement. This present longitudinal study aimed to detect the restoration of PCC rCBF in response to donepezil, an acetylcholine esterase inhibitor. We evaluated rCBF changes in the PCC, precuneus and anterior cingulate cortex using perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), statistical analysis and region of interest analysis, prospectively. We allocated 36 patients with mild AD to either the responder or non-responder groups based on changes in Mini-Mental State Examination scores. The patients were followed up for 18 months. The PCC rCBF significantly increased in responders after 6 months of donepezil therapy. Statistical maps at baseline showed a typical decreased pattern of mild AD and obvious rCBF restoration in the bilateral PCC at 6 months in responders. Changes in Mini-Mental State Examination scores and the AD assessment scale cognitive scores significantly correlated with rCBF changes in the PCC of responders. Cholinergic enhancement restored PCC rCBF under the three conditions of mild AD, responders and short follow-up interval, and that increase correlated with improved cognitive function. These findings support our hypothesis that PCC rCBF reflects cholinergic function in AD patients. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 951-958. © 2016 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Altered SPECT 123I iomazenil Binding in the Cingulate Cortex of Children with Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro eNagamitsu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence suggest that anxiety plays a key role in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN in children. The purpose of this study was to examine cortical GABA(A-benzodiazepine receptor binding before and after treatment in children beginning intensive AN treatment. Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT measurements using 123I iomazenil, which binds to GABA(A-benzodiazepine receptors, was performed in 26 participants with AN who were enrolled in a multimodal treatment program. Sixteen of the 26 participants underwent a repeat SPECT scan immediately before discharge at conclusion of the intensive treatment program. Eating behavior and mood disturbances were assessed using Eating Attitudes Test with 26 items (EAT-26 and the short form of the Profile of Mood States (POMS. Clinical outcome scores were evaluated after a 1-year period. We examined association between relative iomazenil binding activity in cortical regions of interest (ROIs and psychometric profiles, and determined which psychometric profiles show interaction effects with brain regions. Further, we determined if binding activity could predict clinical outcome and treatment changes. Higher EAT-26 scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil binding activity in the anterior posterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Higher POMS subscale scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil binding activity in the left frontal, parietal cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. Depression-Dejection, and Confusion POMS subscale scores, and total POMS score, showed interaction effects with brain regions in iomazenil binding activity. Decreased binding in the ACC and left parietal cortex was associated with poor clinical outcomes. Relative binding increases throughout the PCC and occipital gyrus were observed after weight gain in children with AN. These findings suggest that cortical GABAergic receptor binding is altered in children

  12. Cingulate cortex hypoperfusion predicts Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svensson Leif

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI was recently described as a heterogeneous group with a variety of clinical outcomes and high risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF as measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was used to study the heterogeneity of MCI and to look for predictors of future development of AD. Methods rCBF was investigated in 54 MCI subjects using Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO. An automated analysis software (BRASS was applied to analyze the relative blood flow (cerebellar ratios of 24 cortical regions. After the baseline examination, the subjects were followed clinically for an average of two years. 17 subjects progressed to Alzheimer's disease (PMCI and 37 subjects remained stable (SMCI. The baseline SPECT ratio values were compared between PMCI and SMCI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was applied for the discrimination of the two subgroups at baseline. Results The conversion rate of MCI to AD was 13.7% per year. PMCI had a significantly decreased rCBF in the left posterior cingulate cortex, as compared to SMCI. Left posterior cingulate rCBF ratios were entered into a logistic regression model for ROC curve calculation. The area under the ROC curve was 74%–76%, which indicates an acceptable discrimination between PMCI and SMCI at baseline. Conclusion A reduced relative blood flow of the posterior cingulate gyrus could be found at least two years before the patients met the clinical diagnostic criteria of AD.

  13. Laceration of the muscle ventral serrato

    OpenAIRE

    Dragonetti, Ana María; Boccia, Francisco Osvaldo; Luna, M. M.; Leone, F.

    2005-01-01

    La presentación es informar al profesional veterinario sobre el desgarro bilateral del músculo serrato ventral, una afección de escasa incidencia en la clínica de pequeños animales, a través de la descripción detallada de un caso clínico y su resolución quirúrgica exitosa. The presentation of the work has as objective to inform the veterinary professional on an affection of scarce incidence in the clinic of the small animals, like is the bilateral laceration of the muscle ventral serrato, ...

  14. Visually guided grasping produces fMRI activation in dorsal but not ventral stream brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culham, Jody C; Danckert, Stacey L; DeSouza, Joseph F X; Gati, Joseph S; Menon, Ravi S; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2003-11-01

    Although both reaching and grasping require transporting the hand to the object location, only grasping also requires processing of object shape, size and orientation to preshape the hand. Behavioural and neuropsychological evidence suggests that the object processing required for grasping relies on different neural substrates from those mediating object recognition. Specifically, whereas object recognition is believed to rely on structures in the ventral (occipitotemporal) stream, object grasping appears to rely on structures in the dorsal (occipitoparietal) stream. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether grasping (compared to reaching) produced activation in dorsal areas, ventral areas, or both. We found greater activity for grasping than reaching in several regions, including anterior intraparietal (AIP) cortex. We also performed a standard object perception localizer (comparing intact vs. scrambled 2D object images) in the same subjects to identify the lateral occipital complex (LOC), a ventral stream area believed to play a critical role in object recognition. Although LOC was activated by the objects presented on both grasping and reaching trials, there was no greater activity for grasping compared to reaching. These results suggest that dorsal areas, including AIP, but not ventral areas such as LOC, play a fundamental role in computing object properties during grasping.

  15. Oral, intestinal, and skin bacteria in ventral hernia mesh implants

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    Odd Langbach

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In ventral hernia surgery, mesh implants are used to reduce recurrence. Infection after mesh implantation can be a problem and rates around 6–10% have been reported. Bacterial colonization of mesh implants in patients without clinical signs of infection has not been thoroughly investigated. Molecular techniques have proven effective in demonstrating bacterial diversity in various environments and are able to identify bacteria on a gene-specific level. Objective: The purpose of this study was to detect bacterial biofilm in mesh implants, analyze its bacterial diversity, and look for possible resemblance with bacterial biofilm from the periodontal pocket. Methods: Thirty patients referred to our hospital for recurrence after former ventral hernia mesh repair, were examined for periodontitis in advance of new surgical hernia repair. Oral examination included periapical radiographs, periodontal probing, and subgingival plaque collection. A piece of mesh (1×1 cm from the abdominal wall was harvested during the new surgical hernia repair and analyzed for bacteria by PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. From patients with positive PCR mesh samples, subgingival plaque samples were analyzed with the same techniques. Results: A great variety of taxa were detected in 20 (66.7% mesh samples, including typical oral commensals and periodontopathogens, enterics, and skin bacteria. Mesh and periodontal bacteria were further analyzed for similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequences. In 17 sequences, the level of resemblance between mesh and subgingival bacterial colonization was 98–100% suggesting, but not proving, a transfer of oral bacteria to the mesh. Conclusion: The results show great bacterial diversity on mesh implants from the anterior abdominal wall including oral commensals and periodontopathogens. Mesh can be reached by bacteria in several ways including hematogenous spread from an oral site. However, other sites such as gut and skin may also

  16. Dorsal and Ventral Pathways for Prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammler, Daniela; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Anwander, Alfred; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Belin, Pascal

    2015-12-07

    Our vocal tone--the prosody--contributes a lot to the meaning of speech beyond the actual words. Indeed, the hesitant tone of a "yes" may be more telling than its affirmative lexical meaning. The human brain contains dorsal and ventral processing streams in the left hemisphere that underlie core linguistic abilities such as phonology, syntax, and semantics. Whether or not prosody--a reportedly right-hemispheric faculty--involves analogous processing streams is a matter of debate. Functional connectivity studies on prosody leave no doubt about the existence of such streams, but opinions diverge on whether information travels along dorsal or ventral pathways. Here we show, with a novel paradigm using audio morphing combined with multimodal neuroimaging and brain stimulation, that prosody perception takes dual routes along dorsal and ventral pathways in the right hemisphere. In experiment 1, categorization of speech stimuli that gradually varied in their prosodic pitch contour (between statement and question) involved (1) an auditory ventral pathway along the superior temporal lobe and (2) auditory-motor dorsal pathways connecting posterior temporal and inferior frontal/premotor areas. In experiment 2, inhibitory stimulation of right premotor cortex as a key node of the dorsal stream decreased participants' performance in prosody categorization, arguing for a motor involvement in prosody perception. These data draw a dual-stream picture of prosodic processing that parallels the established left-hemispheric multi-stream architecture of language, but with relative rightward asymmetry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ventral-clap modes of hovering passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hung; Ting, Shang-Chieh; Su, Jian-Yuan; Soong, Chyi-Yeou; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2013-02-01

    Some small birds typically clap their wings ventrally, particularly during hovering. To investigate this phenomenon, we analyzed the kinematic motion and wake flow field of two passerine species that hover with the same flapping frequency. For these two birds, the ventral clap is classified as direct and cupping. Japanese White-eyes undertake a direct clap via their hand wings, whereas Gouldian Finches undertake a cupping clap with one wing overlaying the other. As a result of their morphological limitation, birds of both greater size and wing span cup their wings to increase the wing speed during a ventral clap because of the larger wing loading. This morphological limitation leads also to a structural discrepancy of the wake flow fields between these two passerine species. At the instant of clapping, the direct clap induces a downward air velocity 1.68 times and generates a weight-normalized lift force 1.14 times that for the cupping clap. The direct clap produces a small upward jet and a pair of counter-rotating vortices, both of which abate the transient lift at the instant of clapping, but they are not engendered by the cupping clap. The aerodynamic mechanisms generated with a ventral clap help the small birds to avoid abrupt body swinging at the instant of clapping so as to maintain their visual stability during hovering.

  18. Connectivity-based parcellation increases network detection sensitivity in resting state fMRI: An investigation into the cingulate cortex in autism

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    Joshua H. Balsters

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI is increasingly used to generate biomarkers of psychiatric illnesses, analytical choices such as seed size and placement can lead to variable findings. Seed placement especially impacts on RS-fMRI studies of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, because individuals with ASD are known to possess more variable network topographies. Here, we present a novel pipeline for analysing RS-fMRI in ASD using the cingulate cortex as an exemplar anatomical region of interest. Rather than using seeds based on previous literature, or gross morphology, we used a combination of structural information, task-independent (RS-fMRI and task-dependent functional connectivity (Meta-Analytic Connectivity Modeling to partition the cingulate cortex into six subregions with unique connectivity fingerprints and diverse behavioural profiles. This parcellation was consistent between groups and highly replicable across individuals (up to 93% detection suggesting that the organisation of cortico-cingulo connections is highly similar between groups. However, our results showed an age-related increase in connectivity between the anterior middle cingulate cortex and right lateral prefrontal cortex in ASD, whilst this connectivity decreased in controls. There was also a Group × Grey Matter (GM interaction, showing increased connectivity between the anterior cingulate cortex and the rectal gyrus in concert with increasing rectal gyrus GM in controls. By comparing our approach to previously established methods we revealed that our approach improves network detection in both groups, and that the ability to detect group differences using 4 mm radius spheres varies greatly with seed placement. Using our multi-modal approach we find disrupted cortico-cingulo circuits that, based on task-dependent information, may contribute to ASD deficits in attention and social interaction. Moreover, we highlight how more sensitive approaches to RS-fMRI are crucial for

  19. Fiction feelings in Harry Potter: haemodynamic response in the mid-cingulate cortex correlates with immersive reading experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Ting; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2014-12-03

    Immersion in reading, described as a feeling of 'getting lost in a book', is a ubiquitous phenomenon widely appreciated by readers. However, it has been largely ignored in cognitive neuroscience. According to the fiction feeling hypothesis, narratives with emotional contents invite readers more to be empathic with the protagonists and thus engage the affective empathy network of the brain, the anterior insula and mid-cingulate cortex, than do stories with neutral contents. To test the hypothesis, we presented participants with text passages from the Harry Potter series in a functional MRI experiment and collected post-hoc immersion ratings, comparing the neural correlates of passage mean immersion ratings when reading fear-inducing versus neutral contents. Results for the conjunction contrast of baseline brain activity of reading irrespective of emotional content against baseline were in line with previous studies on text comprehension. In line with the fiction feeling hypothesis, immersion ratings were significantly higher for fear-inducing than for neutral passages, and activity in the mid-cingulate cortex correlated more strongly with immersion ratings of fear-inducing than of neutral passages. Descriptions of protagonists' pain or personal distress featured in the fear-inducing passages apparently caused increasing involvement of the core structure of pain and affective empathy the more readers immersed in the text. The predominant locus of effects in the mid-cingulate cortex seems to reflect that the immersive experience was particularly facilitated by the motor component of affective empathy for our stimuli from the Harry Potter series featuring particularly vivid descriptions of the behavioural aspects of emotion.

  20. Oral methylphenidate normalizes cingulate activity in cocaine addiction during a salient cognitive task

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    Goldstein, R.Z.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Woicik, P.A.; Maloney, T.; Tomasi, D.; Alia-Klein, N.; Shan, J.; Honorario, J.; Samaras, d.; Wang, R.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-09-21

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) hypoactivations during cognitive demand are a hallmark deficit in drug addiction. Methylphenidate (MPH) normalizes cortical function, enhancing task salience and improving associated cognitive abilities, in other frontal lobe pathologies; however, in clinical trials, MPH did not improve treatment outcome in cocaine addiction. We hypothesized that oral MPH will attenuate ACC hypoactivations and improve associated performance during a salient cognitive task in individuals with cocaine-use disorders (CUD). In the current functional MRI study, we used a rewarded drug cue-reactivity task previously shown to be associated with hypoactivations in both major ACC subdivisions (implicated in default brain function) in CUD compared with healthy controls. The task was performed by 13 CUD and 14 matched healthy controls on 2 d: after ingesting a single dose of oral MPH (20 mg) or placebo (lactose) in a counterbalanced fashion. Results show that oral MPH increased responses to this salient cognitive task in both major ACC subdivisions (including the caudal-dorsal ACC and rostroventromedial ACC extending to the medial orbitofrontal cortex) in the CUD. These functional MRI results were associated with reduced errors of commission (a common impulsivity measure) and improved task accuracy, especially during the drug (vs. neutral) cue-reactivity condition in all subjects. The clinical application of such MPH-induced brain-behavior enhancements remains to be tested.

  1. A role for primate subgenual cingulate cortex in sustaining autonomic arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudebeck, Peter H; Putnam, Philip T; Daniels, Teresa E; Yang, Tianming; Mitz, Andrew R; Rhodes, Sarah E V; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2014-04-08

    The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (subgenual ACC) plays an important role in regulating emotion, and degeneration in this area correlates with depressed mood and anhedonia. Despite this understanding, it remains unknown how this part of the prefrontal cortex causally contributes to emotion, especially positive emotions. Using Pavlovian conditioning procedures in macaque monkeys, we examined the contribution of the subgenual ACC to autonomic arousal associated with positive emotional events. After such conditioning, autonomic arousal increases in response to cues that predict rewards, and monkeys maintain this heightened state of arousal during an interval before reward delivery. Here we show that although monkeys with lesions of the subgenual ACC show the initial, cue-evoked arousal, they fail to sustain a high level of arousal until the anticipated reward is delivered. Control procedures showed that this impairment did not result from differences in autonomic responses to reward delivery alone, an inability to learn the association between cues and rewards, or to alterations in the light reflex. Our data indicate that the subgenual ACC may contribute to positive affect by sustaining arousal in anticipation of positive emotional events. A failure to maintain positive affect for expected pleasurable events could provide insight into the pathophysiology of psychological disorders in which negative emotions dominate a patient's affective experience.

  2. Fear avoidance beliefs in back pain-free subjects are reflected by amygdala-cingulate responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Michael L; Stämpfli, Phillipp; Vrana, Andrea; Humphreys, Barry K; Seifritz, Erich; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    In most individuals suffering from chronic low back pain, psychosocial factors, specifically fear avoidance beliefs (FABs), play central roles in the absence of identifiable organic pathology. On a neurobiological level, encouraging research has shown brain system correlates of somatic and psychological factors during the transition from (sub) acute to chronic low back pain. The characterization of brain imaging signatures in pain-free individuals before any injury will be of high importance regarding the identification of relevant networks for low back pain (LBP) vulnerability. Fear-avoidance beliefs serve as strong predictors of disability and chronification in LBP and current research indicates that back pain related FABs already exist in the general and pain-free population. Therefore, we aimed at investigating possible differential neural functioning between high- and low fear-avoidant individuals in the general population using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results revealed that pain-free individuals without a history of chronic pain episodes could be differentiated in amygdala activity and connectivity to the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex by their level of back pain related FABs. These results shed new light on brain networks underlying psychological factors that may become relevant for enhanced disability in a future LBP episode.

  3. Long-term outcomes of sandwich ventral hernia repair paired with hybrid vacuum-assisted closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Caitlin W; Poruk, Katherine E; Baltodano, Pablo A; Soares, Kevin C; Azoury, Said C; Cooney, Carisa M; Cornell, Peter; Eckhauser, Frederic E

    2016-08-01

    Sandwich ventral hernia repair (SVHR) may reduce ventral hernia recurrence rates, although with an increased risk of surgical site occurrences (SSOs) and surgical site infections (SSIs). Previously, we found that a modified negative pressure wound therapy (hybrid vacuum-assisted closure [HVAC]) system reduced SSOs and SSIs after ventral hernia repair. We aimed to describe our outcomes after SVHR paired with HVAC closure. We conducted a 4-y retrospective review of all complex SVHRs (biologic mesh underlay and synthetic mesh overlay) with HVAC closure performed at our institution by a single surgeon. All patients had fascial defects that could not be reapproximated primarily using anterior component separation. Descriptive statistics were used to report the incidence of postoperative complications and hernia recurrence. A total of 60 patients (59.3 ± 11.4 y, 58.3% male, 75% American Society of Anesthesiologists class ≥3) with complex ventral hernias being underwent sandwich repair with HVAC closure. Major postoperative morbidity (Dindo-Clavien class ≥3) occurred in 14 (23.3%) patients, but incidence of SSO (n = 13, 21.7%) and SSI (n = 4, 6.7%) was low compared with historical reports. Median follow-up time for all patients was 12 mo (interquartile range 5.8-26.5 mo). Hernia recurrence occurred in eight patients (13.3%) after a median time of 20.6 months (interquartile range 16.4- 25.4 months). Use of a dual layer sandwich repair for complex abdominal wall reconstruction is associated with low rates of hernia recurrence at 1 year postoperatively. The addition of the HVAC closure system may reduce the risk of SSOs and SSIs previously reported with this technique and deserves consideration in future prospective studies assessing optimization of ventral hernia repair approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anterior Horn Cell Diseases

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    Merve Firinciogullari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The anterior horn cells control all voluntary movement. Motor activity, respiratory, speech, and swallowing functions are dependent upon signals from the anterior horn cells. Diseases that damage the anterior horn cells, therefore, have a profound impact. Symptoms of anterior horn cell loss (weakness, falling, choking lead patients to seek medical attention. In this article, anterior horn diseases were reviewed, diagnostic criteria and management were discussed in detail. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(3.000: 269-303

  5. Endoscopic transcervical anterior release and posterior fixation in the treatment of irreducible vertical atlantoaxial dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong; Lv, Guohua; Wang, Bing; Kuang, Lei; Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-08-01

    Vertical atlantoaxial dislocation is a type of atlantoaxial instability with upper cervical spinal cord compression. The transoral ondontoid resection with posterior fixation is the gold standard for ventral decompression. Results are satisfying though surgery can be challenging due to its invasiveness. The endoscopic transcervical anterior release could provide sufficient ventral decompression with less collateral damage. In the illustrative case, anatomic reduction was achieved with significant improvement in neurological function and radiographic parameters. Endoscopic transcervical anterior release and posterior fixation appears to be a viable and interesting alternative for the treatment of vertical atlantoaxial dislocation in properly selected individuals, and its implementation could significantly reduce the post-surgical complications.

  6. Precuneus and Cingulate Cortex Atrophy and Hypometabolism in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment: MRI and 18F-FDG PET Quantitative Analysis Using FreeSurfer

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    Matthieu Bailly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study was to compare glucose metabolism and atrophy, in the precuneus and cingulate cortex, in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI, using FreeSurfer. Methods. 47 individuals (17 patients with AD, 17 patients with amnestic MCI, and 13 healthy controls (HC were included. MRI and PET images using 18F-FDG (mean injected dose of 185 MBq were acquired and analyzed using FreeSurfer to define regions of interest in the hippocampus, amygdala, precuneus, and anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Regional volumes were generated. PET images were registered to the T1-weighted MRI images and regional uptake normalized by cerebellum uptake (SUVr was measured. Results. Mean posterior cingulate volume was reduced in MCI and AD. SUVr were different between the three groups: mean precuneus SUVr was 1.02 for AD, 1.09 for MCI, and 1.26 for controls (p<0.05; mean posterior cingulate SUVr was 0.96, 1.06, and 1.22 for AD, MCI, and controls, respectively (p<0.05. Conclusion. We found graduated hypometabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus in prodromal AD (MCI and AD, whereas atrophy was not significant. This suggests that the use of 18F-FDG in these two regions could be a neurodegenerative biomarker.

  7. Neuromuscular blockade during laparoscopic ventral herniotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medici, Roar; Madsen, Matias V; Asadzadeh, Sami

    2015-01-01

    's rating of surgical conditions during suturing, duration of surgery and duration of the suturing of the hernia. CONCLUSION: This randomised cross-over study investigated a potential effect on the surgical workspace in laparoscopic ventral herniotomy using deep NMB compared with no NMB. The study may......INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic herniotomy is the preferred technique for some ventral hernias. Several factors may influence the surgical conditions, one being the depth of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) applied. We hypothesised that deep neuromuscular blockade defined as a post-tetanic count below eight...... would provide a better surgical workspace. METHODS: This was an investigator-initiated, assessor- and patient-blinded randomised cross-over study. A total of 34 patients with planned laparoscopic umbilical, incisional and linea alba herniotomy were studied. Patients would be randomised to receive deep...

  8. Enhanced recovery after giant ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K K; Brøndum, T L; Harling, H.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Giant ventral hernia repair is associated with a high risk of postoperative morbidity and prolonged length of stay (LOS). Enhanced recovery (ERAS) measures have proved to lead to decreased morbidity and LOS after various surgical procedures, but never after giant hernia repair. The current...... study prospectively examined the results of implementation of an ERAS pathway including high-dose preoperative glucocorticoid, and compared the outcome with patients previously treated according to standard care (SC). METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent giant ventral hernia repair were included...... was 0.92. There were no differences when comparing readmission (5 vs. 2, P = 0.394), postoperative complications (7 vs. 4, P = 0. 458), or reoperation (5 vs. 1, P = 0.172) in ERAS versus controls. CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggests that an ERAS pathway including preoperative high...

  9. Neuromuscular blockade during laparoscopic ventral herniotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medici, Roar; Madsen, Matias V; Asadzadeh, Sami

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic herniotomy is the preferred technique for some ventral hernias. Several factors may influence the surgical conditions, one being the depth of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) applied. We hypothesised that deep neuromuscular blockade defined as a post-tetanic count below eight......'s rating of surgical conditions during suturing, duration of surgery and duration of the suturing of the hernia. CONCLUSION: This randomised cross-over study investigated a potential effect on the surgical workspace in laparoscopic ventral herniotomy using deep NMB compared with no NMB. The study may...... provide knowledge relevant to other laparoscopic techniques. FUNDING: The study is funded by a research grant from the Investigator Initiated Studies Program of Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02247466....

  10. Attentional functions in dorsal and ventral simultanagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, John; Bundesen, Claus; Olson, Andrew; Humphreys, Glyn; Ward, Robert; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; van Raamsdonk, Monique; Rorden, Chris; Chavda, Swarup

    2003-12-01

    Whole report of brief letter arrays is used to analyse basic attentional deficits in dorsal and ventral variants of simultanagnosia. Using Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), a number of previous theoretical suggestions are formalised and tested, including primary deficit in processing more than one display element, attentional stickiness, foveal bias, and global weakness of the visual representation. Interestingly, data from two cases, one dorsal and one ventral, show little true deficit in simultaneous perception, or selective deficit in those TVA parameters (short-term memory capacity, attentional weighting) specifically associated with multi-element displays. Instead there is a general reduction in speed of visual processing (processing rate in TVA), effective even for a single display element but compounded when two or more elements compete.

  11. Transcolonic ventral wall hernia mesh fixation in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, D G; Ryou, M; Pai, R D; Tavakkolizadeh, A; Rattner, D W; Thompson, C C

    2007-10-01

    A natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) approach to ventral wall hernia repair may represent a potentially less invasive alternative to current transabdominal surgical techniques. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of using transcolonic NOTES to deliver hernia repair mesh into the peritoneal cavity, as well as the ability to manipulate composite mesh and secure it to the abdominal wall. Five pigs weighing 20 to 25 kg were used in this feasibility study involving two acute and three survival experiments. A prototype mesh delivery system was used to transfer 1.5 - 2-cm x 2.5 - 3-cm pieces of composite hernia mesh into the peritoneal cavity. Neodymium magnets on a prototype control arm were used to help position the mesh by magnetically engaging previously placed endoscopic clips. Transfascial fixation of the mesh with 3-0 monofilament sutures was achieved using a 19-gauge hollow needle, pusher wire, and a suture tag system. Composite hernia mesh was successfully transferred and secured in 5/5 attempts. All three survival animals thrived for 14 days prior to elective sacrifice. At necropsy, the mesh sites were found to be well peritonealized without adhesions. Suture placement through the posterior fascia was confirmed in 10/12 sutures. Of these, four sutures were within the abdominal musculature, and two sutures were through the anterior fascia (transfascial). Transcolonic delivery, transcutaneous magnetic manipulation, and fixation of composite hernia mesh are technically feasible in a porcine model with animal survival. An effective suturing method that allows consistent anchoring through the anterior fascia would be preferred and may require the development of novel devices.

  12. Ambulatory groin and ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, P; Pélissier, E; Levard, H; Perniceni, T; Denet, C; Gayet, B

    2010-10-01

    Ambulatory surgery is not commonly practiced in France today. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the feasibility of ambulatory hernia repair in a consecutive series of unselected patients. From June 2008 to October 2009, 257 patients (238 men and 19 women, median age 65 years) were treated in a same-day surgery unit for 270 hernias (244 groin hernias, 25 ventral hernias and one Spiegelian hernia). For groin hernia, the techniques included the totally extraperitoneal repair (TEP) in 108 cases, the transinguinal preperitoneal (TIPP) approach in 106 cases and other alternative techniques in 30 cases; for ventral hernias, the technique was an open suture in 20 cases, an open prosthetic repair in four cases and laparoscopic repair in one case. Anesthesia was general in 145 cases, local in 121 cases and spinal in four cases. Repair was completed in a same-day surgery setting in 242 (89.6%) cases; hospital stay greater than 23 hours was planned for 21 (7.8%) patients while non-programmed hospitalizations were necessary for seven (2.6%) patients. There were two (0.7%) readmissions and nine (3.3%) benign postoperative complications. These results suggest that groin and ventral hernia repair can be performed in an outpatient setting in nearly 90% of unselected patients. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Ventral hernia repair with simultaneous panniculectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K C; Weider, L; Fischer, J; Hopkins, J; Antonetti, A; Manders, E K; Dunn, E

    1996-08-01

    The repair of a ventral hernia in an obese patient presents an interesting clinical challenge. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 55 patients who, over a 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, concomitantly underwent both ventral herniorrhaphy and panniculectomy or abdominoplasty. In six of 55 patients, the hernia was recurrent. Forty-six patients had primary abdominal wall hernias or diastasis recti. Nineteen of 55 patients had weight greater than 200 lbs. This last subset of patients had a significantly higher incidence of complications, such as seroma, cellulitis, and persistent wound drainage. In our 55 patients, we experienced only two hernia recurrences (3.6%) during an average patient follow-up of 53 weeks. From this experience, we believe that simultaneous ventral hernia repair and panniculectomy is a safe and efficacious approach to these two problems so commonly found in the obese patient. Patients with a preoperative weight greater than 200 lbs can be expected to have a greater risk of wound complications. In all cases, the wounds eventually healed with no long-term sequelae.

  14. Laryngeal dislocation after ventral fusion of the cervical spine

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    Jenny Krauel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 70-year-old patient who underwent ventral fusion of the cervical spine (C3/4 and C4/5 for spinal canal stenosis performed by the neurosurgery department. The patient suffered an exceedingly rare complication of the surgery - laryngeal dislocation. Had the deformed laryngeal structures been overlooked and the patient extubated as usual after surgery, reintubation would have been impossible due to the associated swelling, which might have had disastrous consequences. Leftward dislocation of the larynx became apparent post-operatively, but prior to extubation. Extubation was therefore postponed and a subsequent computed tomography (CT scan revealed entrapment of laryngeal structures within the osteosynthesis. A trial of repositioning using microlaryngoscopy performed by otolaryngology (ears, nose and throat specialists failed, making open surgical revision necessary. At surgery, the entrapped laryngeal tissue was successfully mobilised. Laryngeal oedema developed despite prompt repositioning; thus, necessitating tracheotomy and long-term ventilation. Laryngeal dislocation may be an unusual cause of post-operative neck swelling after anterior cervical spine surgery and should be considered in the differential diagnosis if surgical site haematoma and other causes have been ruled out. Imaging studies including CT of the neck may be needed before extubation to confirm the suspicion and should be promptly obtained to facilitate specific treatment.

  15. Posterior Cingulate Neurons Dynamically Signal Decisions to Disengage during Foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barack, David L; Chang, Steve W C; Platt, Michael L

    2017-10-11

    Foraging for resources is a fundamental behavior balancing systematic search and strategic disengagement. The foraging behavior of primates is especially complex and requires long-term memory, value comparison, strategic planning, and decision-making. Here we provide evidence from two different foraging tasks that neurons in primate posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) signal decision salience during foraging to motivate disengagement from the current strategy. In our foraging tasks, salience refers to the difference between decision thresholds and the net harvested reward. Salience signals were stronger in poor foraging contexts than rich ones, suggesting low harvest rates recruit mechanisms in PCC that regulate strategic disengagement and exploration during foraging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Peroral transgastric endoscopic primary repair of a ventral hernia in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, B; Kalloo, A N; Chung, S S C; Cotton, P B; Gostout, C J; Hawes, R H; Pasricha, P J; Isakovich, N V; Nakajima, Y; Kawashima, K; Kantsevoy, S V

    2007-05-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated the feasibility of peroral transgastric endoscopic procedures in animal models. The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of a peroral transgastric endoscopic approach to repair abdominal wall hernias. We performed acute experiments under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation using 50-kg pigs. Following peroral intubation an incision of the gastric wall was made and the endoscope was advanced into the peritoneal cavity. An internal anterior abdominal wall incision was performed with a needle knife to create an animal model of a ventral hernia. After hernia creation an endoscopic suturing device was used for primary repair of the hernia. After completion of the hernia repair the endoscope was withdrawn into the stomach and the gastric wall incision was closed with endoscopic clips. Then the animals were killed for necropsy. Two acute experiments were performed. Incision of the gastric wall was easily achieved with a needle knife and a pull-type sphincterotome. A large (3 x 2 cm) defect of the abdominal wall (ventral hernia model) was closed with five or six sutures using the endoscopic suturing device. Postmortem examination revealed complete closure of the hernia without any complications. Transgastric endoscopic primary repair of ventral hernias in a porcine model is feasible and may be technically simpler than laparoscopic surgery.

  17. Ventral Prostate Fibrosis in the Akita Mouse Is Associated with Macrophage and Fibrocyte Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghee Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A higher incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS among diabetic men is unexplained. Recently, prostate inflammation and fibrosis have been implicated as major contributing factors to bladder outlet obstruction and LUTS. We characterized the inflammatory cell infiltrate and collagen content of the anterior, dorsal, and ventral lobes of 18-week-old DBA2J.Ins2-Akita mice (Akita and age-matched control mice. We performed hematoxylin and eosin staining to score tissue injury and inflammation, picrosirius red staining to quantitate collagen content, and immunostaining to identify monocytes/macrophages and infiltrating fibrocytes. We observed significantly greater numbers of monocytes/macrophages and fibrocytes specifically in the ventral prostate of the Akita mice and found that this was associated with significant greater collagen content specifically in the ventral prostate of the Akita mice. These observations support the inference that diabetes elicits monocyte/macrophage infiltration and collagen accumulation in the prostate and suggest that further study of Akita mice may inform translational studies of diabetes in the genesis prostatic inflammation, prostatic fibrosis, and LUTS.

  18. Laparoscopic management of nonmidline ventral hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Romesh; Sharma, Deborshi; Hazrah, Priya; Kumar, Pawan; Borgharia, Saurabh; Agarwal, Abhinav

    2014-07-01

    Ventral hernias may be primary or incisional and classified as midline ventral hernias (MVHs) or non-MVHs (NMVHs). NMVHs are rarer, and their laparoscopic management is technically challenging because of varied anatomic locations, differences in patient positioning at time of surgery, and lack of adequate lateral space for mesh fixation, compounded by the proximity of major organs and bony landmarks. A retrospective review of all the NMVHs operated on in a clinical unit is presented. One hundred eighty-three cases met the criteria of ventral hernia, with 25 cases (13.66%) as NMVH. These NMVHs included lumbar (n=5), suprapubic (n=7), iliac (n=10), and subcostal (n=3). Univariate and multivariate analyses were done using SPSS version 19 software (IBM, Armonk, NY). Continuous data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test/t test, and categorical data were analyzed using the chi-squared test. A P value of ≤.05 was considered significant. Demographic profile and presentation were similar in all groups. One case each had seromuscular intestinal injury in the iliac group (P=.668), splenic injury in the lumbar group, and liver injury in the subcostal group (P=.167). In the iliac group there was 1 patient with hematoma (P=.668), whereas seroma was seen in 1 lumbar group patient and 2 iliac group patients (P=.518). Persistent cough impulse was seen in 1 case each in the iliac and lumbar groups (P=.593). One case in the iliac group recurred after primary surgery (P=.668). NMVHs have a similar spectrum of difficulty and complication profile as those of laparoscopic MVH repairs. Laparoscopic repair of a non-midline hernia is technically challenging but definitely feasible. The incidence of complications and recurrence rate might be more than those for MVHs, but its actual validation needs a much larger comparative study having a longer follow-up.

  19. Wdr68 Mediates Dorsal and Ventral Patterning Events for Craniofacial Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estibaliz Alvarado

    Full Text Available Birth defects are among the leading causes of infant mortality and contribute substantially to illness and long-term disability. Defects in Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP signaling are associated with cleft lip/palate. Many craniofacial syndromes are caused by defects in signaling pathways that pattern the cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs along the dorsal-ventral axis. For example, auriculocondylar syndrome is caused by impaired Endothelin-1 (Edn1 signaling, and Alagille syndrome is caused by defects in Jagged-Notch signaling. The BMP, Edn1, and Jag1b pathways intersect because BMP signaling is required for ventral edn1 expression that, in turn, restricts jag1b to dorsal CNCC territory. In zebrafish, the scaffolding protein Wdr68 is required for edn1 expression and subsequent formation of the ventral Meckel's cartilage as well as the dorsal Palatoquadrate. Here we report that wdr68 activity is required between the 17-somites and prim-5 stages, that edn1 functions downstream of wdr68, and that wdr68 activity restricts jag1b, hey1, and grem2 expression from ventral CNCC territory. Expression of dlx1a and dlx2a was also severely reduced in anterior dorsal and ventral 1st arch CNCC territory in wdr68 mutants. We also found that the BMP agonist isoliquiritigenin (ISL can partially rescue lower jaw formation and edn1 expression in wdr68 mutants. However, we found no significant defects in BMP reporter induction or pSmad1/5 accumulation in wdr68 mutant cells or zebrafish. The Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β signaling pathway is also known to be important for craniofacial development and can interfere with BMP signaling. Here we further report that TGF-β interference with BMP signaling was greater in wdr68 mutant cells relative to control cells. To determine whether interference might also act in vivo, we treated wdr68 mutant zebrafish embryos with the TGF-β signaling inhibitor SB431542 and found partial rescue of edn1 expression and

  20. MIECTOMÍA SACROCOCCIGEA VENTRAL EN EQUINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastoby Martínez M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una técnica quirúrgica basada en una incisión pequeña del músculo sacrococcigeo ventral,con el fin de realzar la elegancia del caballo al andar teniendo presente los aspectos bioéticos dela medicina veterinaria. En los animales intervenidos no se presento complicación y se logró elobjetivo, por lo que se propone esta técnica quirúrgica para que sea practicada por los veterianriosdurante su ejercicio profesional.

  1. Complex Ventral Hernias: A Review of Past to Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Charles N; Fowler, Aaron; Al-Temimi, Mohammed H; Ali, Aamna; Johna, Samir; Tessier, Deron

    2018-01-01

    With the incidence of ventral hernias increasing, surgeons are faced with greater complexity in dealing with these conditions. Proper knowledge of the history and the advancements made in managing complex ventral hernias will enhance surgical results. This review article highlights the literature regarding complex ventral hernias, including a shift from a focus that stressed surgical technique toward a multimodal approach, which involves optimization and identification of suboptimal characteristics.

  2. Conceptual size representation in ventral visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Shai; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Henik, Avishai; Gronau, Nurit

    2016-01-29

    Recent findings suggest that visual objects may be mapped along the ventral occipitotemporal cortex according to their real-world size (Konkle and Oliva, 2012). It has been argued that such mapping does not reflect an abstract, conceptual size representation, but rather the visual or functional properties associated with small versus big real-world objects. To determine whether a more abstract conceptual size representation may affect visual cortical activation we used meaningless geometrical shapes, devoid of semantic or functional associations, which were associated with specific size representations by virtue of extensive training. Following training, participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while performing a conceptual size comparison task on the geometrical shapes. In addition, a size comparison task was conducted for numeral digits denoting small and big numbers. A region-of-interest analysis revealed larger blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses for conceptually 'big' than for conceptually 'small' shapes, as well as for big versus small numbers, within medial (parahippocampal place area, PPA) and lateral (occipital place area, OPA) place-selective regions. Processing of the 'big' visual shapes further elicited enhanced activation in early visual cortex, possibly reflecting top-down projections from PPA. By using arbitrary shapes and numbers we minimized visual, categorical, or functional influences on fMRI measurement, providing evidence for a possible neural mechanism underlying the representation of abstract conceptual size within the ventral visual stream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dorsal buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for anterior urethral stricture by Asopa technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisapati, V L N Murthy; Paturi, Srimannarayana; Bethu, Suresh; Jada, Srikanth; Chilumu, Ramreddy; Devraj, Rahul; Reddy, Bhargava; Sriramoju, Vidyasagar

    2009-07-01

    Buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty has become popular in the management of intractable anterior urethral strictures with good results. Excellent long-term results have been reported by both dorsal and ventral onlay techniques. Asopa reported a successful technique for dorsal placement of BMG in long anterior urethral strictures through a ventral sagittal approach. To evaluate prospectively the results and advantages of dorsal BMG urethroplasty for recurrent anterior urethral strictures by a ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach (Asopa technique). From December 2002 to December 2007, a total of 58 men underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by a ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach for recurrent urethral strictures. Forty-five of these patients with a follow-up period of 12-60 mo were prospectively evaluated, and the results were analysed. The urethra was split twice at the site of the stricture both ventrally and dorsally without mobilising it from its bed, and the buccal mucosal graft was secured in the dorsal urethral defect. The urethra was then retubularised in one stage. The overall results were good (87%), with a mean follow-up period of 42 mo. Seven patients developed minor wound infection, and five patients developed fistulae. There were six recurrences (6:45, 13%) during the follow-up period of 12-60 mo. Two patients with a panurethral stricture and four with bulbar or penobulbar strictures developed recurrences and were managed by optical urethrotomy and self-dilatation. The medium-term results were as good as those reported with the dorsal urethrotomy approach. Long-term results from this and other series are awaited. More randomised trials and meta-analyses are needed to establish this technique as a procedure of choice in future. The ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach is easier to perform than the dorsal urethrotomy approach, has good results, and is especially useful in long anterior urethral strictures.

  4. A vertex model of Drosophila ventral furrow formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Spahn

    Full Text Available Ventral furrow formation in Drosophila is an outstanding model system to study the mechanisms involved in large-scale tissue rearrangements. Ventral cells accumulate myosin at their apical sides and, while being tightly coupled to each other via apical adherens junctions, execute actomyosin contractions that lead to reduction of their apical cell surface. Thereby, a band of constricted cells along the ventral epithelium emerges which will form a tissue indentation along the ventral midline (the ventral furrow. Here we adopt a 2D vertex model to simulate ventral furrow formation in a surface view allowing easy comparison with confocal live-recordings. We show that in order to reproduce furrow morphology seen in vivo, a gradient of contractility must be assumed in the ventral epithelium which renders cells more contractile the closer they lie to the ventral midline. The model predicts previous experimental findings, such as the gain of eccentric morphology of constricting cells and an incremental fashion of apical cell area reduction. Analysis of the model suggests that this incremental area reduction is caused by the dynamical interplay of cell elasticity and stochastic contractility as well as by the opposing forces from contracting neighbour cells. We underpin results from the model through in vivo analysis of ventral furrow formation in wildtype and twi mutant embryos. Our results show that ventral furrow formation can be accomplished as a "tug-of-war" between stochastically contracting, mechanically coupled cells and may require less rigorous regulation than previously thought.For the developmental biologist it is a fascinating question how cells can coordinate major tissue movements during embryonic development. The so-called ventral furrow of the Drosophila embryo is a well-studied example of such a process when cells from a ventral band, spanning nearly the entire length of the embryo, undergo dramatic shape change by contracting their

  5. The structural involvement of the cingulate cortex in premanifest and early Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Nicola Z; Pedrick, Amy V; Say, Miranda J; Frost, Chris; Dar Santos, Rachelle; Coleman, Allison; Sturrock, Aaron; Craufurd, David; Stout, Julie C; Leavitt, Blair R; Barnes, Josephine; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Scahill, Rachael I

    2011-08-01

    The impact of Huntington's disease neuropathology on the structure of the cingulate is uncertain, with evidence of both cortical enlargement and atrophy in this structure in early clinical disease. We sought to determine differences in cingulate volume between premanifest Huntington's disease and early Huntington's disease groups compared with controls using detailed manual measurements. Thirty controls, 30 subjects with premanifest Huntington's disease, and 30 subjects with early Huntington's disease were selected from the Vancouver site of the TRACK-HD study. Subjects underwent 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and motor, cognitive, and neuropsychiatric assessment. The cingulate was manually delineated and subdivided into rostral, caudal, and posterior segments. Group differences in volume and associations with performance on 4 tasks thought to utilize cingulate function were examined, with adjustment for appropriate covariates. Cingulate volumes were, on average, 1.7 mL smaller in early Huntington's disease (P=.001) and 0.9 mL smaller in premanifest Huntington's disease (P=.1) compared with controls. Smaller volumes in subsections of the cingulate were associated with impaired recognition of negative emotions (P=.04), heightened depression (P=.009), and worse visual working memory performance (P=.01). There was no evidence of associations between volume and ability on a performance-monitoring task. This study disputes previous findings of enlargement of the cingulate cortex in Huntington's disease and instead suggests that the cingulate undergoes structural degeneration during early Huntington's disease with directionally consistent, nonsignificant differences seen in premanifest Huntington's disease. Cingulate atrophy may contribute to deficits in mood, emotional processing, and visual working memory in Huntington's disease. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  6. Adolescent maturation of inhibitory inputs onto cingulate cortex neurons is cell-type specific and TrkB dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eVandenberg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The maturation of inhibitory circuits during adolescence may be tied to the onset of mental health disorders such as schizophrenia. Neurotrophin signaling likely plays a critical role in supporting inhibitory circuit development and is also implicated in psychiatric disease. Within the neocortex, subcircuits may mature at different times and show differential sensitivity to neurotrophin signaling. We measured miniature inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC and mEPSCs in Layer 5 cell-types in the mouse anterior cingulate across the periadolescent period. We differentiated cell-types mainly by Thy1 YFP transgene expression and also retrobead injection labeling in the contralateral cingulate and ipsilateral pons. We found that YFP- neurons and commissural projecting neurons had lower frequency of mIPSCs than neighboring YFP+ neurons or pons projecting neurons in juvenile mice (P21-25. YFP- neurons and to a lesser extent commissural projecting neurons also showed a significant increase in mIPSC amplitude during the periadolescent period (P21-25 vs. P40-50, which was not seen in YFP+ neurons or pons projecting neurons. Systemic disruption of tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB signaling during P23-50 in TrkBF616A mice blocked developmental changes in mIPSC amplitude, without affecting miniature excitatory post synaptic currents (mEPSCs. Our data suggest that the maturation of inhibitory inputs onto layer 5 pyramidal neurons is cell-type specific. These data may inform our understanding of adolescent brain development across species and aid in identifying candidate subcircuits that may show greater vulnerability in mental illness.

  7. Lithium pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in postnatal day 20 rats results in greater neuronal injury in ventral versus dorsal hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Jeffrey J.; Pouliot, Wendy; Scheerlinck, Peter; Dudek, F. Edward

    2011-01-01

    Many quantitative animal studies examining the possible relationship between hippocampal neuronal loss and the development of epilepsy have examined only the dorsal hippocampus. The ventral hippocampus, however, represents the more homologous structure to the anterior hippocampus in humans which is the area associated with the maximal damage in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. This study tested the hypothesis that the ventral hippocampus has greater neuronal injury than the dorsal hippocampus in an animal model of chemoconvulsant-status epilepticus at postnatal day 20. Status epilepticus was induced in postnatal day 20 Sprague Dawley rat pups with the chemoconvulsant lithium-pilocarpine and brain tissue was examined with Fluoro-Jade B. Horizontal sections (n=7) favoring a visualization of the ventral hippocampus showed marked Fluoro-Jade B staining in CA1, CA3, and hilar region. Coronal sections favoring a visualization of the dorsal hippocampus did not consistently show as robust a staining pattern in these regions. In coronal sections where both the dorsal and ventral hippocampus could be viewed, greater staining was always seen in ventral versus dorsal hippocampus. Quantitative analysis of cell counts demonstrated a significant difference between ventral and dorsal hippocampus in CA1and CA3, but not hilus. These results demonstrate that in ventral hippocampus, lithium pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus consistently results in hippocampal neuronal injury in postnatal day 20 rats. This study shows the importance of including the ventral hippocampus in any analysis of seizure-induced hippocampal neuronal injury, and raises concerns about the accuracy of studies quantifying hippocampal neuronal loss when only the dorsal hippocampus is examined. PMID:21669257

  8. [Infarct in the area of the left anterior cerebral artery. II. Language disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogousslavsky, J; Assal, G; Regli, F

    1987-01-01

    Language disturbances and other neuropsychological dysfunctions were evaluated in 10 right-handed patients with left anterior cerebral artery (ACA) infarcts with CT correlation. Transcortical motor aphasia was present in 4 cases, related to involvement of the supplementary motor area (SMA) or the underlying and immediately anterior white matter. In 4 patients with sparing of the SMA but with involvement of the cingulate region, only alterations of verbal memory were found. Sensory or mixed transcortical aphasia was not observed, in any of the patients, including those in whom the supplementary sensory area (SSA) or the underlying white matter were involved, casting doubt upon the presumed receptive role in language function attributed to the SSA by some authors. Buccolingual-facial apraxia was related to subcortical lesions. A callosal disconnection syndrome was uncommon (2 patients) and no hemi-neglect was encountered, even in those cases with cingulate involvement.

  9. "Limulus" Psychophysics: Spectral Sensitivity of the Ventral Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Gerald S.

    1976-01-01

    The ventral eye of "Limulus" (horseshoe crab) contains only one type of photoreceptor. Behaviors mediated by the ventral eye provide an unambiguous representation of the function of that single-receptor type. Compares such behaviors with results of acute, single-cell investigations to assay for the contributions of candidate neural codes in the…

  10. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ~ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos

  11. Ventral onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the ongoing role of ventral onlay oral mucosa free graft in the treatment of bulbar urethral stricture. Methods: Detailed review of technical consideration and outcomes from the author's institution along with review of other peer reviewed literature. Results: Of 62 patients undergoing ventral onlay buccal ...

  12. The issue of ventral versus dorsal approach in bulbar urethral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. Palminteri

    increased over time the use of Ventral Graft and decreased the use of dorsal graft [7]. From surgical point of view, the Barbagli Dorsal Grafting by Dor- sal approach ... seems reduce the risk of fistula; in reality there is a similar rate of fistula with both ventral and dorsal grafting. The disadvantage of the dorsal approach is that it ...

  13. THE POSSIBILITY OF APPLICATION OF ALLOPLASTICS OF ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL IN CANCER PATIENTS: CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Sidorov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of large defects of the anterior abdominal wall in patients operated for cancer diseases is mainly performed in the presence of concomitant ventral hernia or by direct ingrowth of the tumor in the tissue of the anterior abdominal wall. Currently in the treatment of this category of patients, the method of choice is the use of alloplastics with reticular endoprosthesis, performed in a variety of ways. In this article, we present clinical cases that perform the alloplastics of extensive defects of the anterior abdominal wall in two cancer patients with extensive defects of the abdominal wall.

  14. Surprise signals in anterior cingulate cortex: Neuronal encoding of unsigned reward prediction errors driving adjustment in behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hayden, Benjamin Y.; Heilbronner, Sarah R.; Pearson, John M.; Platt, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    In attentional models of learning, associations between actions and subsequent rewards are stronger when outcomes are surprising, regardless of their valence. Despite the behavioral evidence that surprising outcomes drive learning, neural correlates of unsigned reward prediction errors remain elusive. Here we show that in a probabilistic choice task, trial-to-trial variations in preference track outcome surprisingness. Concordant with this behavioral pattern, responses of neurons in macaque (...

  15. Predicting cognitive behavioral therapy response in social anxiety disorder with anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala during emotion regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heide Klumpp

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Across forms of regulation, rACC activity predicted responder status whereas amygdala as a neuromarker was limited to implicit regulation. While the direction of effects (enhanced vs. reduced in rACC activity was task-dependent, results suggest SAD patients with deficient regulation benefited more from CBT. Findings support previous studies involving patients with depression and suggest the rACC may be a viable marker of clinical improvement in SAD.

  16. SNAP-25a/b Isoform Levels in Human Brain Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Peter M; Cruz, Dianne A; Fucich, Elizabeth A; Olukotun, Dianna Y; Takahashi, Masami; Itakura, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    SNAP-25 is a neurotransmitter vesicular docking protein which has been associated with brain disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. In this project, we were interested if clinical factors are associated with differential SNAP-25 expression. We examined the SNAP-25 isoform mRNA and protein levels in postmortem cortex Brodmann's area 9 (BA9) and BA24 (n = 29). Subjects were divided by psychiatric diagnosis, clinical variables including mood state in the last week of life and lifetime impulsiveness. We found affected subjects with a diagnosis of alcohol use disorder (AUD) had a lower level of SNAP-25b BA24 protein compared to those without AUD. Hispanic subjects had lower levels of SNAP-25a, b and BA9 mRNA than Anglo-American subjects. Subjects who smoked had a total pan (total) SNAP-25 BA9/BA24 ratio. Subjects in the group with a low level of anxious-psychotic symptoms had higher SNAP-25a BA24 mRNA compared to normal controls, and both the high and low symptoms groups had higher pan (total) SNAP-25 BA9/BA24 ratios than normal controls. These data expand our understanding of clinical factors associated with SNAP-25. They suggest that SNAP-25 total and isoform levels may be useful biomarkers beyond limited neurological and psychiatric diagnostic categories.

  17. Structural connectivity of the anterior cingulate in children with unilateral cerebral palsy due to white matter lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M. Scheck

    2015-01-01

    Reduced structural integrity of ACC tracts appears to be important in UCP, in particular the connection to the superior frontal gyrus. Although damage to this area is heterogeneous it may be important in early identification of children with impaired executive function.

  18. Combat Veterans with Comorbid PTSD and Mild TBI Exhibit a Greater Inhibitory Processing ERP from the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-08

    bipolar disorder , attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , or psychotic disorders ; or (4) acute medical problems. Included subjects returned for Session...stress disorder . Psychological Medicine, 1–13. Vanderhasselt, M.A., De Raedt, R., 2009. Impairments in cognitive control persist during remission from...August 2014 Keywords: N200 P300 Conflict monitoring Response inhibition Biomarker a b s t r a c t Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among

  19. GABA Concentrations in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Are Associated with Fear Network Function and Fear Recovery in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levar, Nina; van Leeuwen, Judith M C; Puts, Nicolaas A J; Denys, Damiaan; Van Wingen, G.

    2017-01-01

    Relapse of fear after successful treatment is a common phenomenon in patients with anxiety disorders. Animal research suggests that the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a key role in the maintenance of extinguished fear. Here, we combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy

  20. GABA Concentrations in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Are Associated with Fear Network Function and Fear Recovery in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levar, Nina; van Leeuwen, Judith M. C.; Puts, Nicolaas A. J.; Denys, Damiaan; van Wingen, Guido A.

    2017-01-01

    Relapse of fear after successful treatment is a common phenomenon in patients with anxiety disorders. Animal research suggests that the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a key role in the maintenance of extinguished fear. Here, we combined magnetic resonance

  1. Anterior ankle impingement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Johannes L.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2006-01-01

    The anterior ankle impingement syndrome is a clinical pain syndrome that is characterized by anterior ankle pain on (hyper) dorsiflexion. The plain radiographs often are negative in patients who have anteromedial impingement. An oblique view is recommended in these patients. Arthroscopic excision of

  2. The dietary charred meat carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine acts as both a tumor initiator and promoter in the rat ventral prostate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakai, Yasutomo; Nelson, William G; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2007-01-01

    Exposure of Fisher344 rats to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a heterocyclic amine in cooked meat, causes cancer in the rat ventral prostate, while sparing the dorsolateral and anterior lobes...

  3. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciate ligament injury - anterior; ACL injury; Knee injury - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... knee. It prevents the knee from bending out. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is in the middle of the knee. ...

  4. Anterior sacral meningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yousuf Aziz; Batool, Tayyaba; Rasool, Naima; Jahan, Yaqoot; Habib, Quresha; Saddal, Nasir Saleem

    2010-05-01

    Anterior sacral meningocele is a rare condition presenting as a lower abdominal mass. One such case was seen in a baby girl aged 2 months, who was admitted with abdominal distension and urinary difficulty for one week. She had a lower abdominal mass which investigated by MRI, turned out to be an anterior sacral meningocele causing her symptoms. The meningocele was excised successfully via an open abdominal approach. Postoperative recovery and follow-ups remained uneventful. Presentation, various diagnostic modalities and treatment options for an anterior sacral meningocele are briefly discussed.

  5. [Occult anterior sacral meningocele].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antuña-Ramos, A; García-Fructuoso, G; Alamar-Abril, M; Guillén-Quesada, A; Costa-Clara, J M

    2011-08-01

    The anterior sacral meningocele is a rare form of spinal dysraphism located in the presacral extraperitoneal space. It is generally asymptomatic and appears as a small pelvic mass. We present a case of a 10 year-old male that develops a bacteria meningitis because of a pararectal abscess that is connected with an anterior sacral meningocele. We successfully treated it using a posterior approach. The aim of the surgery is to repair the dural defect and to obliterate the communication between the thecal sac and the herniation defect. The posterior approach is the simplest and most effective surgical technique because the lower risk of neurological injury than the anterior approach.

  6. Anterior glenohumeral joint dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Christopher C; Cordasco, Frank A

    2008-10-01

    The glenohumeral joint is the most mobile articulation in the body and the most commonly dislocated diarthroidal joint. Anterior dislocation is by far the most common direction and can lead to instability of the glenohumeral joint, which ranges from subtle increased laxity to recurrent dislocation. Overtime, understanding of anterior shoulder dislocations and the resulting instability has improved. Likewise, significant advances in arthroscopic equipment have allowed use of the arthroscope to address anatomically the various lesions that cause instability. This article reviews the anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical evaluation, and treatment of anterior shoulder instability.

  7. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Sanjay; Saini, Pramod; Singh, Vivek; Kumar, Ramakant; Trikha, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Shoulder dislocations are the most common major joint dislocations encountered in the emergency departments. Bilateral shoulder dislocations are rare and of these, bilateral posterior shoulder dislocations are more prevalent than bilateral anterior shoulder dislocations. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is very rare. We present a case of 24-year-old male who sustained bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following minor trauma, with associated greater tuberosity fracture on one side. Prompt closed reduction followed by immobilization in arm sling and subsequent rehabilitation ensured a good outcome. PMID:24082765

  8. Cell death atlas of the postnatal mouse ventral forebrain and hypothalamus: effects of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Todd H; Krug, Stefanie; Carr, Audrey V; Murray, Elaine K; Fitzpatrick, Emmett; Bengston, Lynn; McCutcheon, Jill; De Vries, Geert J; Forger, Nancy G

    2013-08-01

    Naturally occurring cell death is essential to the development of the mammalian nervous system. Although the importance of developmental cell death has been appreciated for decades, there is no comprehensive account of cell death across brain areas in the mouse. Moreover, several regional sex differences in cell death have been described for the ventral forebrain and hypothalamus, but it is not known how widespread the phenomenon is. We used immunohistochemical detection of activated caspase-3 to identify dying cells in the brains of male and female mice from postnatal day (P) 1 to P11. Cell death density, total number of dying cells, and regional volume were determined in 16 regions of the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain (the anterior hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, anteroventral periventricular nucleus, medial preoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus; the basolateral, central, and medial amygdala; the lateral and principal nuclei of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis; the caudate-putamen; the globus pallidus; the lateral septum; and the islands of Calleja). All regions showed a significant effect of age on cell death. The timing of peak cell death varied between P1 to P7, and the average rate of cell death varied tenfold among regions. Several significant sex differences in cell death and/or regional volume were detected. These data address large gaps in the developmental literature and suggest interesting region-specific differences in the prevalence and timing of cell death in the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Differential contributions of dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal prefrontal white matter tracts to cognitive control in healthy older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Strenziok

    Full Text Available Prefrontal cortex mediates cognitive control by means of circuitry organized along dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal axes. Along the dorso-ventral axis, ventrolateral PFC controls semantic information, whereas dorsolateral PFC encodes task rules. Along the rostro-caudal axis, anterior prefrontal cortex encodes complex rules and relationships between stimuli, whereas posterior prefrontal cortex encodes simple relationships between stimuli and behavior. Evidence of these gradients of prefrontal cortex organization has been well documented in fMRI studies, but their functional correlates have not been examined with regard to integrity of underlying white matter tracts. We hypothesized that (a the integrity of specific white matter tracts is related to cognitive functioning in a manner consistent with the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal organization of the prefrontal cortex, and (b this would be particularly evident in healthy older adults. We assessed three cognitive processes that recruit the prefrontal cortex and can distinguish white matter tracts along the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal dimensions -episodic memory, working memory, and reasoning. Correlations between cognition and fractional anisotropy as well as fiber tractography revealed: (a Episodic memory was related to ventral prefrontal cortex-thalamo-hippocampal fiber integrity; (b Working memory was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; and (c Reasoning was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving rostral and caudal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings confirm the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex's role in semantic control and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex's role in rule-based processing, in accordance with the dorso-ventral prefrontal cortex gradient. Reasoning-related rostral and caudal superior frontal white matter may facilitate different levels of task rule complexity. This study is the

  10. Neural responses associated with cue-reactivity in frequent cannabis users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cousijn, J.; Goudriaan, A.E.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.; Wiers, R.W.

    2013-01-01

    Cue-reactivity reflects enhanced motivational processing underlying continued substance use and relapse in substance use disorders. Substance use disorders are associated with greater cue-reactivity in orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, ventral tegmental area and amygdala.

  11. Inhibitory synaptic transmission from the substantia nigra pars reticulata to the ventral medial thalamus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Daisuke; Uta, Daisuke; Ishihara, Hiromi; Imoto, Keiji

    2015-08-01

    The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop circuit is involved in variety of motor, association and limbic functions. The basal ganglia receive neural information from various areas of the cerebral cortex and transfer them back to the frontal and motor cortex via the ventral medial (VM), and the anterior-ventral lateral thalamic complex. The projection from the basal ganglia to the thalamus is GABAergic, and, therefore, the output from the basal ganglia cannot directly evoke excitation in the thalamic nuclei. The mechanism underlying the information transfer via the inhibitory projection remains unclear. To address this issue, we recorded electrophysiological properties of nigro-thalamic synapses from the VM neuron. We developed a nigro-thalamic slice preparation, in which the projection from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) to VM nucleus is stored, to enable the selective activation of the projection from the SNr. We characterized synaptic properties and membrane properties of the VM neuron, and developed a VM neuron model to simulate the impacts of SNr inputs on VM neuron activity. Neural simulation suggested that the inhibitory projection from SNr can control neural activity in two ways: a disinhibition from the spontaneous nigral inhibition and a β-band synchronization evoked by combination of excitation and inhibition of SNr activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Organization and morphology of thalamocortical neurons of mouse ventral lateral thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlamsa, Aileen P; Brumberg, Joshua C

    2010-01-01

    The ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus (VL) serves as a central integrative center for motor control, receiving inputs from the cerebellum, striatum, and cortex and projecting to the primary motor cortex. We aimed to determine the somatotopy and morphological features of the thalamocortical neurons within mouse VL. Retrograde tracing studies revealed that whisker-related VL neurons were found relatively anterior and medial to those labeled following injection of retrograde tracer into hindpaw motor areas. Simultaneous injections of fluorescent microspheres in both cortical regions did not result in double-labeled neurons in VL. Quantitative analysis of dendritic and somatic morphologies did not reveal any differences between hindpaw and whisker thalamocortical neurons within VL. The morphology of the thalamocortical neurons within mouse VL is similar to those in other mammals and suggests that mouse can be used as a model system for studying thalamocortical transformations within the motor system as well as plasticity following sensory deprivation or enrichment.

  13. Subcallosal Cingulate Connectivity in Anorexia Nervosa Patients Differs From Healthy Controls: A Multi-tensor Tractography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dave J; Lipsman, Nir; Chen, David Q; Woodside, D Blake; Davis, Karen D; Lozano, Andres M; Hodaie, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is characterized by extreme low body weight and alterations in affective processing. The subcallosal cingulate regulates affect through wide-spread white matter connections and is implicated in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa. We examined whether those with treatment refractory anorexia nervosa undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal white matter (SCC) show: (1) altered anatomical SCC connectivity compared to healthy controls, (2) white matter microstructural changes, and (3) microstructural changes associated with clinically-measured affect. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) and deterministic multi-tensor tractography were used to compare anatomical connectivity and microstructure in SCC-associated white matter tracts. Eight women with treatment-refractory anorexia nervosa were compared to 8 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Anorexia nervosa patients also completed affect-related clinical assessments presurgically and 12 months post-surgery. (1) Higher (e.g., left parieto-occipital cortices) and lower (e.g., thalamus) connectivity in those with anorexia nervosa compared to controls. (2) Decreases in fractional anisotropy, and alterations in axial and radial diffusivities, in the left fornix crus, anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), right anterior cingulum and left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. (3) Correlations between dMRI metrics and clinical assessments, such as low pre-surgical left fornix and right ALIC fractional anisotropy being related to post-DBS improvements in quality-of-life and depressive symptoms, respectively. We identified widely-distributed differences in SCC connectivity in anorexia nervosa patients consistent with heterogenous clinical disruptions, although these results should be considered with caution given the low number of subjects. Future studies should further explore the use of affect-related connectivity and behavioral assessments to assist with DBS target

  14. Anteriore craniofaciale reseksjoner

    OpenAIRE

    Kragerud, Beate

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT ANTERIOR CRANIOFACIAL RESECTIONS Tumors involving the anterior skullbase are not easily accessible to surgical therapy, but it is no longer an impossible task due to constant improvements in diagnostic methods, surgical techniques and cooperation between the different specialists. While this type of surgery earlier had a very low successrate or at the best resulted in massive facial deformities, we see today that tumors often are possible to resect completely and that the p...

  15. Roles of CREB in the regulation of FMRP by group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hansen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragile X syndrome is caused by lack of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP due to silencing of the FMR1 gene. The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs in the central nervous system contribute to higher brain functions including learning/memory, mental disorders and persistent pain. The transcription factor cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB is involved in important neuronal functions, such as synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival. Our recent study has shown that stimulation of Group I mGluRs upregulated FMRP and activated CREB in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a key region for brain cognitive and executive functions, suggesting that activation of Group I mGluRs may upregulate FMRP through CREB signaling pathway. Results In this study, we demonstrate that CREB contributes to the regulation of FMRP by Group I mGluRs. In ACC neurons of adult mice overexpressing dominant active CREB mutant, the upregulation of FMRP by stimulating Group I mGluR is enhanced compared to wild-type mice. However, the regulation of FMRP by Group I mGluRs is not altered by overexpression of Ca2+-insensitive mutant form of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM, a transcriptional repressor involved in synaptic transmission and plasticity. Conclusion Our study has provided further evidence for CREB involvement in regulation of FMRP by Group I mGluRs in ACC neurons, and may help to elucidate the pathogenesis of fragile X syndrome.

  16. Congenital anterior urethrocutaneous fistula: Report of two rare cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayalaxmi Shripati Aihole

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Isolated congenital anterior urethrocutaneous fistiula (CAUF is a rare anomaly. CAUF can be defined as a fistula of the penile urethra associated with a normal foreskin, in which urethral meatus and prepuce are intact. Additionally, it may be associated with other anomalies such as congenital hernias and anorectal malformations. Treatment of CAUF is individualized according to site of fistula, associated anomalies and condition of the distal urethra. We are reporting our experience of two cases that had abnormal openings on the ventral aspect of distal penis with normal foreskin without hypospadias and chordee.

  17. Cingulate neglect in humans: disruption of contralesional reward learning in right brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecce, Francesca; Rotondaro, Francesca; Bonnì, Sonia; Carlesimo, Augusto; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Doricchi, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Motivational valence plays a key role in orienting spatial attention. Nonetheless, clinical documentation and understanding of motivationally based deficits of spatial orienting in the human is limited. Here in a series of one group-study and two single-case studies, we have examined right brain damaged patients (RBD) with and without left spatial neglect in a spatial reward-learning task, in which the motivational valence of the left contralesional and the right ipsilesional space was contrasted. In each trial two visual boxes were presented, one to the left and one to the right of central fixation. In one session monetary rewards were released more frequently in the box on the left side (75% of trials) whereas in another session they were released more frequently on the right side. In each trial patients were required to: 1) point to each one of the two boxes; 2) choose one of the boxes for obtaining monetary reward; 3) report explicitly the position of reward and whether this position matched or not the original choice. Despite defective spontaneous allocation of attention toward the contralesional space, RBD patients with left spatial neglect showed preserved contralesional reward learning, i.e., comparable to ipsilesional learning and to reward learning displayed by patients without neglect. A notable exception in the group of neglect patients was L.R., who showed no sign of contralesional reward learning in a series of 120 consecutive trials despite being able of reaching learning criterion in only 20 trials in the ipsilesional space. L.R. suffered a cortical-subcortical brain damage affecting the anterior components of the parietal-frontal attentional network and, compared with all other neglect and non-neglect patients, had additional lesion involvement of the medial anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and of the adjacent sectors of the corpus callosum. In contrast to his lateralized motivational learning deficit, L.R. had no lateral bias in the early phases of

  18. Bilateral dorsal and ventral fiber pathways for the processing of affective prosody identified by probabilistic fiber tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühholz, Sascha; Gschwind, Markus; Grandjean, Didier

    2015-04-01

    Dorsal and ventral pathways for syntacto-semantic speech processing in the left hemisphere are represented in the dual-stream model of auditory processing. Here we report new findings for the right dorsal and ventral temporo-frontal pathway during processing of affectively intonated speech (i.e. affective prosody) in humans, together with several left hemispheric structural connections, partly resembling those for syntacto-semantic speech processing. We investigated white matter fiber connectivity between regions responding to affective prosody in several subregions of the bilateral superior temporal cortex (secondary and higher-level auditory cortex) and of the inferior frontal cortex (anterior and posterior inferior frontal gyrus). The fiber connectivity was investigated by using probabilistic diffusion tensor based tractography. The results underscore several so far underestimated auditory pathway connections, especially for the processing of affective prosody, such as a right ventral auditory pathway. The results also suggest the existence of a dual-stream processing in the right hemisphere, and a general predominance of the dorsal pathways in both hemispheres underlying the neural processing of affective prosody in an extended temporo-frontal network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Recovering stimulus locations using populations of eye-position modulated neurons in dorsal and ventral visual streams of nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne B Sereno

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We recorded visual responses while monkeys fixated the same target at different gaze angles, both dorsally (lateral intraparietal cortex, LIP and ventrally (anterior inferotemporal cortex, AIT. While eye-position modulations occurred in both areas, they were both more frequent and stronger in LIP neurons. We used an intrinsic population decoding technique, multidimensional scaling, to recover eye positions, equivalent to recovering fixated target locations. We report that eye-position based visual space in LIP was more accurate (i.e., metric. Nevertheless, the AIT spatial representation remained largely topologically correct, perhaps indicative of a categorical spatial representation (i.e., a qualitative description such as left of or above as opposed to a quantitative, metrically precise description. Additionally, we developed a simple neural model of eye position signals and illustrate that differences in single cell characteristics can influence the ability to recover target position in a population of cells. We demonstrate for the first time that the ventral stream contains sufficient information for constructing an eye-position based spatial representation. Furthermore we demonstrate, in dorsal and ventral streams as well as modeling, that target locations can be extracted directly from eye position signals in cortical visual responses without computing coordinate transforms of visual space.

  20. Analysis of the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual and subcallosal cingulate cortices using voxel-based morphometry on MRI is useful to select prescriptions for patients with depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niida A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Akira Niida,1 Richi Niida,2 Hiroshi Matsuda,3 Makoto Motomura,4 Akihiko Uechi5 1Department of Radiology, Nanbu Hospital, Itoman City, Okinawa, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Nanto Clinic, Urasoe City, Okinawa, Japan; 3Integrative Brain Imaging Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira City, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Human Sciences, University of the Ryukyus, Nakagami County, Okinawa, Japan; 5Cognitive Neuroscience Research Project, Kansai Gaidai University, Hirakata City, Osaka, Japan Objective: We objectively evaluated the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC and the subcallosal anterior cingulate cortex (scACC, using new voxel-based morphometry (VBM software employing Statistical Parametric Mapping software v8 and diffeomorphic anatomic registration through an exponentiated lie algebra. We prepared a database covering young-mature adulthood and investigated the clinical usefulness of the evaluation. Subjects and methods: One hundred seven patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, 74 patients with bipolar disorder (BD, and 240 healthy control subjects underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Using new VBM software and databases covering young-mature adults and the elderly, target volumes of interest were set in the sgACC and scACC, four indicators (severity, extent, ratio, and whole-brain extent were determined, and the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC was evaluated on the basis of the indicators. In addition, the relationships between the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC and performance of diagnosing MDD and BD and therapeutic drugs were investigated. Results: It was clarified that the disease is likely to be MDD when atrophy is detected in the sgACC, and likely to be BD when no atrophy is detected in the sgACC but is detected in the scACC. Regarding the relationship with therapeutic drugs, it was clarified that, when

  1. Financial implications of ventral hernia repair: a hospital cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Drew; Davenport, Daniel L; Korosec, Ryan L; Roth, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    Complicated ventral hernias are often referred to tertiary care centers. Hospital costs associated with these repairs include direct costs (mesh materials, supplies, and nonsurgeon labor costs) and indirect costs (facility fees, equipment depreciation, and unallocated labor). Operative supplies represent a significant component of direct costs, especially in an era of proprietary synthetic meshes and biologic grafts. We aim to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of complex abdominal wall hernia repair at a tertiary care referral facility. Cost data on all consecutive open ventral hernia repairs (CPT codes 49560, 49561, 49565, and 49566) performed between 1 July 2008 and 31 May 2011 were analyzed. Cases were analyzed based upon hospital status (inpatient vs. outpatient) and whether the hernia repair was a primary or secondary procedure. We examined median net revenue, direct costs, contribution margin, indirect costs, and net profit/loss. Among primary hernia repairs, cost data were further analyzed based upon mesh utilization (no mesh, synthetic, or biologic). Four-hundred and fifteen patients underwent ventral hernia repair (353 inpatients and 62 outpatients); 173 inpatients underwent ventral hernia repair as the primary procedure; 180 inpatients underwent hernia repair as a secondary procedure. Median net revenue ($17,310 vs. 10,360, p financial loss was $8,370. Outpatient ventral hernia repairs, with and without synthetic mesh, resulted in median net losses of $1,560 and 230, respectively. Ventral hernia repair is associated with overall financial losses. Inpatient synthetic mesh repairs are essentially budget neutral. Outpatient and inpatient repairs without mesh result in net financial losses. Inpatient biologic mesh repairs result in a negative contribution margin and striking net financial losses. Cost-effective strategies for managing ventral hernias in a tertiary care environment need to be developed in light of the financial implications of this patient

  2. Functional specialization of the left ventral parietal cortex in working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lou Langel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The function of the ventral parietal cortex (VPC is subject to much debate. Many studies suggest a lateralization of function in the VPC, with the left hemisphere facilitating verbal working memory and the right subserving stimulus-driven attention. However, many attentional tasks elicit activity in the VPC bilaterally. To elucidate the potential divides across the VPC in function, we assessed the pattern of activity in the VPC bilaterally across two tasks that require different demands, an oddball attentional task with low working memory demands and a working memory task. An anterior region of the VPC was bilaterally active during novel targets in the oddball task and during retrieval in WM, while more posterior regions of the VPC displayed dissociable functions in the left and right hemisphere, with the left being active during the encoding and retrieval of WM, but not during the oddball task and the right showing the reverse pattern. These results suggest that bilateral regions of the anterior VPC subserve non-mnemonic processes, such as stimulus-driven attention during WM retrieval and oddball detection. The left posterior VPC may be important for speech-related processing important for both working memory and perception, while the right hemisphere is more lateralized for attention.

  3. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Hikspoors, Jill P J M; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-11-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ~ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos between 4 and 10 weeks of development were studied, using amira reconstruction and cinema 4D remodeling software for visualization. Initially, vertebrae and ribs had formed medially, and primordia of sternum and hypaxial flank muscle primordium laterally in the body wall at Carnegie Stage (CS)15 (5.5 weeks). The next week, ribs and muscle primordium expanded in ventrolateral direction only. At CS18 (6.5 weeks), separate intercostal and abdominal wall muscles differentiated, and ribs, sterna, and muscles began to expand ventromedially and caudally, with the bilateral sternal bars fusing in the midline after CS20 (7 weeks) and the rectus muscles reaching the umbilicus at CS23 (8 weeks). The near-constant absolute distance between both rectus muscles and approximately fivefold decline of this distance relative to body circumference between 6 and 10 weeks identified dorsoventral growth in the dorsal body wall as determinant of the 'closure' of the ventral body wall. Concomitant with the straightening of the embryonic body axis after the 6th week, the abdominal muscles expanded ventrally and caudally to form the infraumbilical body wall. Our data, therefore, show that the ventral body wall is formed by differential dorsoventral growth in the dorsal part of the body. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  4. The role of human ventral visual cortex in motion perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Ayse P.; Lorenzi, Lauren J.; Egan, Ryan; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Visual motion perception is fundamental to many aspects of visual perception. Visual motion perception has long been associated with the dorsal (parietal) pathway and the involvement of the ventral ‘form’ (temporal) visual pathway has not been considered critical for normal motion perception. Here, we evaluated this view by examining whether circumscribed damage to ventral visual cortex impaired motion perception. The perception of motion in basic, non-form tasks (motion coherence and motion detection) and complex structure-from-motion, for a wide range of motion speeds, all centrally displayed, was assessed in five patients with a circumscribed lesion to either the right or left ventral visual pathway. Patients with a right, but not with a left, ventral visual lesion displayed widespread impairments in central motion perception even for non-form motion, for both slow and for fast speeds, and this held true independent of the integrity of areas MT/V5, V3A or parietal regions. In contrast with the traditional view in which only the dorsal visual stream is critical for motion perception, these novel findings implicate a more distributed circuit in which the integrity of the right ventral visual pathway is also necessary even for the perception of non-form motion. PMID:23983030

  5. [Collagen types ratio in prediction of postoperative ventral hernias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarenko, V A; Ivanov, S V; Ivanov, I S; Rosberg, E P; Tsukanov, A V; Popova, L P; Tarabrin, D V; Obyedkov, E G

    To analyze collagen types ratio in skin and aponeurosis in order to predict postoperative ventral hernias. The trial included 141 patients for the period 2012-2015. Group I (n=65) of patients without ventral hernias was divided into subgroup AI (primary operation, n=41) and BI (re-operation, n=24). Group II consisted of 76 patients with ventral hernias. We performed histological examination of skin and aponeurosis to define the collagen structure of connective tissue. There were significant differences between collagen type I/III ratio in skin (2.81±0.52 in group I vs. 1.13±0.48 in group II) and aponeurosis (2.69±0.41 vs. 1.09±0.21, respectively, p≤0.05). We revealed strong direct correlation (r=+0.92) between aponeurosis and skin specimens in one group. Collagen type I level was 73.81±2.74% in subgroup AI and 72.03±2.47% in subgroup BI. Collagen type I was predominant (p≤0.05). In patients with ventral hernias collagen type I/III ratio in skin is 2.54 times lower than in patients without hernias. Significant correlation of collagen types in skin and aponeurosis (r= +0.92) allows to predict the risk of postoperative ventral hernias on basis of skin fragment.

  6. Anterior vaginal compartment surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    To review the safety and efficacy of anterior vaginal compartment pelvic organ prolapse surgery. Every 4 years and as part of the Fifth International Collaboration on Incontinence we reviewed the English-language scientific literature after searching PubMed, Medline, Cochrane library and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, published up to January 2012. Publications were classified as level 1 evidence (randomised controlled trials [RCT] or systematic reviews), level 2 (poor quality RCT, prospective cohort studies), level 3 (case series or retrospective studies) and level 4 case reports. The highest level of evidence was utilised by the committee to make evidence-based recommendations based upon the Oxford grading system. A grade A recommendation usually depends on consistent level 1 evidence. A grade B recommendation usually depends on consistent level 2 and/or 3 studies, or "majority evidence" from RCTs. A grade C recommendation usually depends on level studies or "majority evidence" from level 2/3 studies or Delphi processed expert opinion. A grade D "no recommendation possible" would be used where the evidence is inadequate or conflicting and when expert opinion is delivered without a formal analytical process, such as by Delphi. Absorbable mesh augmentation of anterior compartment native tissue repair improves the anatomical outcome compared with native tissue repair alone with no increased complication rate in meta-analysis of 2 RCTS (grade B). Biological grafts in meta-analysis have improved anatomical outcomes with no change in subjective outcomes compared with native tissue repairs (grade B). There is conflicting level 1 evidence to support porcine dermis and a single RCT to support small intestine submucosa as graft agents in anterior compartment prolapse surgery (grade B). Consistent level 1 data support a superior anatomical outcome for polypropylene mesh compared with a biological graft in the anterior compartment. Mesh exposure rate was

  7. Visual deprivation selectively reshapes the intrinsic functional architecture of the anterior insula subregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Yuan, Congcong; Ding, Hao; Xu, Yongjie; Long, Miaomiao; Li, YanJun; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Tianzi; Qin, Wen; Shen, Wen; Yu, Chunshui

    2017-03-30

    The anterior insula (AI) is the core hub of salience network that serves to identify the most relevant stimuli among vast sensory inputs and forward them to higher cognitive regions to guide behaviour. As blind subjects were usually reported with changed perceptive abilities for salient non-visual stimuli, we hypothesized that the resting-state functional network of the AI is selectively reorganized after visual deprivation. The resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of the bilateral dorsal and ventral AI was calculated for twenty congenitally blind (CB), 27 early blind (EB), 44 late blind (LB) individuals and 50 sighted controls (SCs). The FCs of the dorsal AI were strengthened with the dorsal visual stream, while weakened with the ventral visual stream in the blind than the SCs; in contrast, the FCs of the ventral AI of the blind was strengthened with the ventral visual stream. Furthermore, these strengthened FCs of both the dorsal and ventral AI were partially negatively associated with the onset age of blindness. Our result indicates two parallel pathways that selectively transfer non-visual salient information between the deprived "visual" cortex and salience network in blind subjects.

  8. CORNEA AND ANTERIOR SEGMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... 24. Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology / Supplement 1 - 2014 - Volume 22. S24. CORNEA AND ANTERIOR SEGMENT. A Comparison of Visual Outcomes after Extracapsular Cataract. Surgery and Phacoemulsification in Eye Foundation Hospital. Lagos Nigeria. Oderinlo O. O., Hassan A. O., Oluyadi F. O., ...

  9. Human V4 and ventral occipital retinotopic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winawer, Jonathan; Witthoft, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    The ventral surface of the human occipital lobe contains multiple retinotopic maps. The most posterior of these maps is considered a potential homolog of macaque V4, and referred to as human V4 (‘hV4’). The location of the hV4 map, its retinotopic organization, its role in visual encoding, and the cortical areas it borders have been the subject of considerable investigation and debate over the last 25 years. We review the history of this map and adjacent maps in ventral occipital cortex, and consider the different hypotheses for how these ventral occipital maps are organized. Advances in neuroimaging, computational modeling, and characterization of the nearby anatomical landmarks and functional brain areas have improved our understanding of where human V4 is and what kind of visual representations it contains. PMID:26241699

  10. Generation of theta activity (RSA) in the cingulate cortex of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holsheimer, J.

    1982-01-01

    Unit activity recorded from the cingulate cortex during theta rhythm shows periodic trains of spikes which are phase-locked to the local theta field potential waves. These cortical theta units were also shown to be correlated with hippocampal theta units. These findings, along with the fact that

  11. Normative development of ventral striatal resting state connectivity in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareri, Dominic S.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Gee, Dylan G.; Lumian, Daniel S.; Caldera, Christina; Tottenham, Nim

    2017-01-01

    Incentives play a crucial role in guiding behavior throughout our lives, but perhaps no more so than during the early years of life. The ventral striatum is a critical piece of an incentive-based learning circuit, sharing robust anatomical connections with subcortical (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus) and cortical structures (e.g., medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), insula) that collectively support incentive valuation and learning. Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is a powerful method that provides insight into the development of the functional architecture of these connections involved in incentive-based learning. We employed a seed-based correlation approach to investigate ventral striatal rsFC in a cross-sectional sample of typically developing individuals between the ages of 4.5 and 23-years old (n=66). Ventral striatal rsFC with the mPFC showed regionally specific linear age-related changes in connectivity that were associated with age-related increases in circulating testosterone levels. Further, ventral striatal connectivity with the posterior hippocampus and posterior insula demonstrated quadratic age-related changes characterized by negative connectivity in adolescence. Finally, across this age range, the ventral striatum demonstrated positive coupling with the amygdala beginning during childhood and remaining consistently positive across age. In sum, our findings suggest normative ventral striatal rsFC development is dynamic and characterized by early establishment of connectivity with medial prefrontal and limbic structures supporting incentive-based learning, as well as substantial functional reorganization with later developing regions during transitions into and out of adolescence. PMID:26087377

  12. [Gene expression profile of spinal ventral horn in ALS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Sobue, Gen

    2007-10-01

    The causative pathomechanism of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not clearly understood. Using microarray technology combined with laser-captured microdissection, gene expression profiles of degenerating spinal motor neurons as well as spinal ventral horn from autopsied patients with sporadic ALS were examined. Spinal motor neurons showed a distinct gene expression profile from the whole spinal ventral horn. Three percent of genes examined were significantly downregulated, and 1% were upregulated in motor neurons. In contrast with motor neurons, the total spinal ventral horn homogenates demonstrated 0.7% and 0.2% significant upregulation and downregulation of gene expression, respectively. Downregulated genes in motor neurons included those associated with cytoskeleton/axonal transport, transcription and cell surface antigens/receptors, such as dynactin 1 (DCTN1) and early growth response 3 (EGR3). In particular, DCTN1 was markedly downregulated in most residual motor neurons prior to the accumulation of pNF-H and ubiquitylated protein. Promoters for cell death pathway, death receptor 5 (DR5), cyclins C (CCNC) and A1 (CCNA), and caspases were upregulated, whereas cell death inhibitors, acetyl-CoA transporter (ACATN) and NF-kappaB (NFKB) were also upregulated. In terms of spinal ventral horn, the expression of genes related to cell surface antigens/receptors, transcription and cell adhesion/ECM were increased. The gene expression resulting in neurodegenerative and neuroprotective changes were both present in spinal motor neurons and ventral horn. Moreover, Inflammation-related genes, such as belonging to the cytokine family were not, however, significantly upregulated in either motor neurons or ventral horn. The sequence of motor neuron-specific gene expression changes from early DCTN1 downregulation to late CCNC upregulation in sporadic ALS can provide direct information on the genes leading to neurodegeneration and neuronal death, and are helpful

  13. Activation of anterior insula during self-reflection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Modinos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Functional neuroimaging studies have suggested activation of midline frontoparietal brain regions to be at the core of self-related processes. However, although some studies reported involvement of the insula, little attention has been paid to this region as forming part of the "self"-network. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we aimed at replicating and extending previous studies by scanning subjects whilst reflecting upon their own personal qualities as compared to those of an acquaintance. A third condition with statements about general knowledge was used to control for attention, semantic processing and decision making processes. The results showed a significant effect of task in brain activity, consistent with previous findings, by which both person conditions recruited a common set of medial prefrontal and posterior regions, yet significant differences between self and other were found in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Notably, significant neural activation in the left anterior insula was observed as uniquely associated with self-reflection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results provide further evidence for the specific recruitment of anterior MPFC and ACC regions for self-related processing, and highlight a role for the insula in self-reflection. As the insula is closely connected with ascending internal body signals, this may indicate that the accumulation of changes in affective states that might be implied in self-processing may contribute to our sense of self.

  14. Crossmodal recruitment of the ventral visual stream in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptito, Maurice; Matteau, Isabelle; Zhi Wang, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform......, inferotemporal (IT), cortex, lateral occipital tactile vision area (LOtv), and fusiform gyrus. Control subjects activated area LOtv and precuneus but not cuneus, IT and fusiform gyrus. These results indicate that congenitally blind subjects recruit key regions in the ventral visual pathway during nonhaptic...

  15. Ventral Striatum Connectivity During Reward Anticipation in Adolescent Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollans, Lee; Zhipeng, Cao; Icke, Ilknur; Greene, Ciara; Kelly, Clare; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J.; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Paus, Tomáš; Smolka, Michael N.; Walter, Henrik; Schumann, Gunter; Whelan, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Substance misusers, including adolescent smokers, often have reduced reward system activity during processing of non-drug rewards. Using a psychophysiological interaction approach, we examined functional connectivity with the ventral striatum during reward anticipation in a large (n=206) sample of adolescent smokers. Increased smoking frequency was associated with 1) increased connectivity with regions involved in saliency and valuation, including the orbitofrontal cortex; 2) reduced connectivity between the ventral striatum and regions associated with inhibition and risk aversion, including the right inferior frontal gyrus. These results demonstrate that functional connectivity during reward processing is relevant to adolescent addiction. PMID:27074029

  16. Neuropsychological outcome after deep brain stimulation in the ventral capsule/ventral striatum for highly refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder or major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubu, Cynthia S; Malone, Donald A; Chelune, Gordon; Malloy, Paul; Rezai, Ali R; Frazier, Tom; Machado, Andre; Rasmussen, Steven; Friehs, Gerhard; Greenberg, Benjamin D

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has shown promise as a treatment for severe, highly treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or major depressive disorder (MDD). We describe the neuropsychological outcome in 21 patients (10 OCD and 11 MDD) who received DBS in the anterior limb of the internal capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS). All patients completed a preoperative and postoperative neuropsychological battery. Average duration of DBS stimulation was 8.91 months (SD = 4.63) at the time of follow-up testing. Data were analyzed using practice-effect-corrected change scores. No significant cognitive declines were seen. There were significant improvements in prose passage recall after chronic DBS. The cognitive improvements were not related to change in severity of OCD, depression or global impairment. This preliminary study suggests that VC/VS DBS does not result in cognitive declines. The observations that verbal memory improved are consistent with current theories on the role of the VS in the memory, but require replication in larger studies.

  17. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    2011-12-01

    Severe pain is usual after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR). Mesh fixation with titanium tacks may play a key role in the development of acute and chronic pain and alternative fixation methods should therefore be investigated. This PhD thesis was based on three studies and aimed too: 1) assess the intensity and impact of postoperative pain by detailed patient-reported description of pain and convalescence after LVHR (Study I), 2) evaluate the feasibility of fibrin sealant (FS) for mesh fixation in an experimental pig model (Study II), and 3) investigate FS vs. tacks for mesh fixation in LVHR in a randomised, double-blinded, clinical controlled study with acute postoperative pain as the primary outcome (Study III). In Study I - a prospective descriptive study - 35 patients were prospectively included and underwent LVHR. Scores of pain, quality of life, convalescence, fatigue, and general well-being were obtained from each patient. Follow-up was six months. Average pain from postoperative day (POD) 0-2 and POD 0-6 measured on a 0-100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) was 61 and 48, respectively. Pain scores reached preoperative values at POD 30. The incidence of severe chronic pain was 7%. No parameter predicted postoperative pain significantly. Significant correlations were found between pain, and general well-being (rS= -0.8, p pigs - nine pigs were operated laparoscopically with insertion of two different meshes fixed with either FS or tacks. All pigs were euthanized on POD 30. The primary outcome parameter was strength of ingrowth between the mesh and the anterior abdominal wall. A mechanical peel test was performed for each tissue sample. The secondary outcome parameters were grade and strength of adhesions to the mesh, shrinkage and displacement/folding of the mesh and histological parameters. All nine pigs survived without complications until sacrifice. No meshes were displaced from their initial position at autopsy, but in two cases mesh folding was

  18. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries What's in this article? What Are ...

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100230.htm Anterior cruciate ligament repair - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a ligament in the center of ...

  20. Multidisciplinary management of anterior diastemata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Herkrath, Fernando José; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino

    2007-01-01

    Anterior diastemata may compromise the harmony of a patient's smile. Consideration of etiologic factors, previous gingival conditioning, and individual treatment planning are essential in the proper management of anterior diastemata. An integrated orthodontic-restorative approach may enhance the ...

  1. Early Experience of Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interest in less morbid herniorrhaphies and the appeal of minimally invasive surgery encouraged development of laparoscopic methods for repairing ventral hernias. The technique is based on the same physical and surgical Pascal's principle as the open underlay procedure (7,8,9). Since the first report of laparoscopic ...

  2. Opposing Amygdala and Ventral Striatum Connectivity during Emotion Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Wolf, Daniel H.; Pinkham, Amy E.; Ruparel, Kosha; Elliott, Mark A.; Valdez, Jeffrey N.; Overton, Eve; Seubert, Janina; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Loughead, James

    2011-01-01

    Lesion and electrophysiological studies in animals provide evidence of opposing functions for subcortical nuclei such as the amygdala and ventral striatum, but the implications of these findings for emotion identification in humans remain poorly described. Here we report a high-resolution fMRI study in a sample of 39 healthy subjects who performed…

  3. Task constraints modulate activation in right ventral lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Goel, Vinod

    2005-10-01

    Lesion data suggest that right prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in open-ended problem solving. To test this hypothesis, we scanned fifteen normal subjects with fMRI as they completed three types of anagram problems varying in the level of constraints placed on the search space. On unconstrained trials, they rearranged letters to generate solutions (e.g., Can you make a "Word with ZJAZ?"). On semantically constrained trials, they rearranged letters to generate solutions within particular semantic categories (e.g., Can you make a type of "Music with ZJAZ?"). On baseline trials, they rearranged letters to make specific words (e.g., Can you make the word "JAZZ with ZJAZ?"). As predicted, the critical comparison of unconstrained vs. semantically constrained trials revealed significant activation in right ventral lateral PFC, as well as left superior frontal gyrus, frontopolar cortex, right superior parietal lobe, right post central gyrus, and the occipital-parietal sulcus. Furthermore, activation in right ventral lateral PFC (BA 47) increased as the constraints placed on the anagram search space were reduced. We argue that the activation in right ventral lateral PFC is related to hypothesis generation in unconstrained settings, whereas activation in other structures is related to additional processes linked to anagram problems such as semantic retrieval, semantic categorization, and cognitive monitoring. These results extend the lesion data and imaging studies by demonstrating that a relative absence of constraints on the solution space is sufficient to engage right ventral lateral PFC in hypothesis generation tasks.

  4. Ventral onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Wessells

    2016-01-21

    Jan 21, 2016 ... web page of the journal www.ees.elsevier.com/afju · www.sciencedirect.com. Review. Ventral onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using ..... use and increase probability of long term success in patients with compromised urethras. Conflict of interest. No conflict of interest. References. [1] Santucci RA, Joyce GF, ...

  5. Establishment and initial experiences from the Danish Ventral Hernia Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, F; Rosenberg, J; Bay-Nielsen, M

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Outcome after ventral hernia repair is not optimal. The surgical technique relies on personal preferences or evidence from small-scale studies, rather than large-scale prospective data with high external validity. The purpose of this paper was to describe the establishment and potential...

  6. [Indication and results of ventral approach spinal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, O

    1984-01-01

    It is reported on 168 cases with pathologic alterations on the columna vertebralis that were operated from the ventral approach. After listing the indications of various operations (lumbarscoliosis, spondylolisthesis, tumorosteolysis, spondylitis, traumatic alterations, kyphosis, degenerative changes, spondyloepiphyseodesis) it is reported on the results.

  7. Crossmodal Recruitment of the Ventral Visual Stream in Congenital Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Ptito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We used functional MRI (fMRI to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform a tactile-form recognition task with the tongue display unit (TDU. Both groups learned the task at the same rate. In line with our hypothesis, the fMRI data showed that during nonhaptic shape recognition, blind subjects activated large portions of the ventral visual stream, including the cuneus, precuneus, inferotemporal (IT, cortex, lateral occipital tactile vision area (LOtv, and fusiform gyrus. Control subjects activated area LOtv and precuneus but not cuneus, IT and fusiform gyrus. These results indicate that congenitally blind subjects recruit key regions in the ventral visual pathway during nonhaptic tactile shape discrimination. The activation of LOtv by nonhaptic tactile shape processing in blind and sighted subjects adds further support to the notion that this area subserves an abstract or supramodal representation of shape. Together with our previous findings, our data suggest that the segregation of the efferent projections of the primary visual cortex into a dorsal and ventral visual stream is preserved in individuals blind from birth.

  8. Control of REM sleep by ventral medulla GABAergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Franz; Chung, Shinjae; Beier, Kevin T; Xu, Min; Luo, Liqun; Dan, Yang

    2015-10-15

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a distinct brain state characterized by activated electroencephalogram and complete skeletal muscle paralysis, and is associated with vivid dreams. Transection studies by Jouvet first demonstrated that the brainstem is both necessary and sufficient for REM sleep generation, and the neural circuits in the pons have since been studied extensively. The medulla also contains neurons that are active during REM sleep, but whether they play a causal role in REM sleep generation remains unclear. Here we show that a GABAergic (γ-aminobutyric-acid-releasing) pathway originating from the ventral medulla powerfully promotes REM sleep in mice. Optogenetic activation of ventral medulla GABAergic neurons rapidly and reliably initiated REM sleep episodes and prolonged their durations, whereas inactivating these neurons had the opposite effects. Optrode recordings from channelrhodopsin-2-tagged ventral medulla GABAergic neurons showed that they were most active during REM sleep (REMmax), and during wakefulness they were preferentially active during eating and grooming. Furthermore, dual retrograde tracing showed that the rostral projections to the pons and midbrain and caudal projections to the spinal cord originate from separate ventral medulla neuron populations. Activating the rostral GABAergic projections was sufficient for both the induction and maintenance of REM sleep, which are probably mediated in part by inhibition of REM-suppressing GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey. These results identify a key component of the pontomedullary network controlling REM sleep. The capability to induce REM sleep on command may offer a powerful tool for investigating its functions.

  9. Experience With Ventral Penile Skin Island Flap urethroplasty | Ntia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Island flap techniques currently used in urethroplasty utilize the prepuce and the dorsal penile skin. Our experience with a one-stage island flap urethroplasty for urethral strictures utilizing the ventral penile skin is described. Patients and Method: This is a longitudinal study of seventy six consecutive patients ...

  10. Early Experience of Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) is gaining popularity amongst minimal access surgeons with numerous advantages over conventional open repair. We present the first local series of LVHR and analyse morbidity profile of the patients. Methods: Records of all patients who had LVHR were analysed in ...

  11. Brimonidine Induced Anterior Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, Jacqueline; Zamir, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    To present the largest series reported so far of brimonidine induced granulomatous anterior uveitis. Retrospective chart review of patients with chronic glaucoma on treatment with brimonidine presenting with anterior uveitis. 19 eyes of 12 patients with chronic glaucoma developed anterior uveitis with granulomatous keratic precipitates after being treated with brimonidine for periods of 7 days to 5 years (mean 19.7 months, +18.6 months). One patient had a gap of 1 year between onset in one eye and onset in the other. Ten eyes (52.6%) had concurrent granulomatous conjunctivitis; 16 eyes were pseudophakic. Stopping brimonidine led to complete, rapid resolution of uveitis in all patients, in most cases (11 eyes, 58%) without topical corticosteroids. No recurrences have occurred after withdrawal of brimonidine, over a follow-up period of 12-52 months (mean 27.9 months, +13.8 months). Ophthalmologists should be aware of this easily reversible uveitis syndrome that is induced by a common glaucoma medication. Familiarity with this entity is essential in making the correct diagnosis and avoiding unnecessary investigations and interventions.

  12. Anterior Urethral Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar P. Mali

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied the clinical presentation and management of four patients with anterior urethral valves; a rare cause of urethral obstruction in male children. One patient presented antenatally with oligohydramnios, bilateral hydronephrosis and bladder thickening suggestive of an infravesical obstruction. Two other patients presented postnatally at 1 and 2 years of age, respectively, with poor stream of urine since birth. The fourth patient presented at 9 years with frequency and dysuria. Diagnosis was established on either micturating cystourethrogram (MCU (in 2 or on cystoscopy (in 2. All patients had cystoscopic ablation of the valves. One patient developed a postablation stricture that was resected with an end-to-end urethroplasty. He had an associated bilateral vesicoureteric junction (VUJ obstruction for which a bilateral ureteric reimplantation was done at the same time. On long-term follow-up, all patients demonstrated a good stream of urine. The renal function is normal. Patients are continent and free of urinary infections. Anterior urethral valves are rare obstructive lesions in male children. The degree of obstruction is variable, and so they may present with mild micturition difficulty or severe obstruction with hydroureteronephrosis and renal impairment. Hence, it is important to evaluate the anterior urethra in any male child with suspected infravesical obstruction. The diagnosis is established by MCU or cystoscopy and the treatment is always surgical, either a transurethral ablation or an open resection. The long-term prognosis is good.

  13. Dynamic intermittent strain can rapidly impair ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallinowski, Friedrich; Baumann, Elena; Harder, Felix; Siassi, Michael; Mahn, Axel; Vollmer, Matthias; Morlock, Michael M

    2015-11-26

    Ventral hernia repair fails frequently despite advanced mesh inserting surgery. A model for dynamic intermittent straining (DIS) of ventral hernia repairs was developed. The influence of phospholipids, position, overlap, fixation and tissue quality of various meshes on the durability of hernia repair was studied. DIS comprises the repetition of submaximal impacts delivered via a hydraulically driven plastic containment. Pig tissues simulate a ventral hernia with a standardized 5cm defect. Commercially available meshes strengthened with tacks, glue and sutures were used to bridge this defect in an underlay (IPOM) or sublay (retromuscular) position starting with a 5cm overlap in all directions. We tested 35 different ways of ventral hernia repair with up to 425 submaximal intermittent dynamic impacts until mesh dislocation occurred 10 times or a maximum of 4000 impacts each were withstood. The likelihood of a failing repair was related to the mesh, the lubricants, the position, the overlap, the fixation and the tissue quality. Most meshes dislocated easily and required fixation. One of the meshes tested was stable without fixation with a 5cm overlap and failed after reducing the overlap. Phospholipids exerted a strong influence on the biomaterial tested. The sublay position was about 10% more durable in comparison to the IPOM position. DIS revealed distinct degrees of stability with primarily stable, intermediate and primarily unstable repairs. Based on the DIS results available, the currently used ventral hernia repair options can be classified. In the future, DIS investigations can improve the durability of hernia repair. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Hikspoors, Jill P J M; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-01-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ∼ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos between 4 and 10 weeks of development were studied, using amira® reconstruction and cinema 4D® remodeling software for visualization. Initially, vertebrae and ribs had formed medially, and primordia of sternum and hypaxial flank muscle primordium laterally in the body wall at Carnegie Stage (CS)15 (5.5 weeks). The next week, ribs and muscle primordium expanded in ventrolateral direction only. At CS18 (6.5 weeks), separate intercostal and abdominal wall muscles differentiated, and ribs, sterna, and muscles began to expand ventromedially and caudally, with the bilateral sternal bars fusing in the midline after CS20 (7 weeks) and the rectus muscles reaching the umbilicus at CS23 (8 weeks). The near-constant absolute distance between both rectus muscles and approximately fivefold decline of this distance relative to body circumference between 6 and 10 weeks identified dorsoventral growth in the dorsal body wall as determinant of the ‘closure’ of the ventral body wall. Concomitant with the straightening of the embryonic body axis after the 6th week, the abdominal muscles expanded ventrally and caudally to form the infraumbilical body wall. Our data, therefore, show that the ventral body wall is formed by differential dorsoventral growth in the dorsal part of the body. PMID:26467243

  15. PARCELLATION OF THE CINGULATE CORTEX AT REST AND DURING TASKS: A META-ANALYTIC CLUSTERING AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M.E. Torta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical, morphological and histological data have consistently shown that the cingulate cortex can be divided into four main regions. However, less is known about parcellations of the cingulate cortex when involved in active tasks. Here, we aimed at comparing how the pattern of clusterization of the cingulate cortex changes across different levels of task complexity. We parcellated the cingulate cortex using the results of a meta-analytic study and of three experimental studies. The experimental studies, which included two active tasks and a resting state protocol, were used to control the results obtained with the meta-analytic parcellation. We explored the meta-analytic parcellation by applying a meta-analytic clustering (MaC to papers retrieved from the BrainMap database. The MaC is a meta-analytic connectivity driven parcellation technique recently developed by our group which allowed us to parcellate the cingulate cortex on the basis of its pattern of co-activations during active tasks. The MaC results indicated that the cingulate cortex can be parcellated into three clusters. These clusters covered different percentages of the cingulate parenchyma and had a different density of foci, with the first cluster being more densely connected. The control experiments showed different clusterization results, suggesting that the co-activations of the cingulate cortex are highly dependent on the task that is tested. Our results highlight the importance of the cingulate cortex as a hub, which modifies its pattern of co-activations depending on the task requests and on the level of task complexity. The neurobiological meaning of these results is discussed.

  16. Increase of posterior connectivity in aging within the Ventral Attention Network: A functional connectivity analysis using independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, Johnathan; Ansado, Jennyfer; Marrelec, Guillaume; Provost, Jean-Sébastien; Joanette, Yves

    2017-02-15

    Multiple studies have found neurofunctional changes in normal aging in a context of selective attention. Furthermore, many articles report intrahemispheric alteration in functional networks. However, little is known about age-related changes within the Ventral Attention Network (VAN), which underlies selective attention. The aim of this study is to examine age-related changes within the VAN, focusing on connectivity between its regions. Here we report our findings on the analysis of 27 participants' (13 younger and 14 older healthy adults) BOLD signals as well as their performance on a letter-matching task. We identified the VAN independently for both groups using spatial independent component analysis. Three main findings emerged: First, younger adults were faster and more accurate on the task. Second, older adults had greater connectivity among posterior regions (right temporoparietal junction, right superior parietal lobule, right middle temporal gyrus and left cerebellum crus I) than younger adults but lower connectivity among anterior regions (right anterior insula, right medial superior frontal gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus). Older adults also had more connectivity between anterior and posterior regions than younger adults. Finally, correlations between connectivity and response time on the task showed a trend toward connectivity in posterior regions for the older group and in anterior regions for the younger group. Thus, this study shows that intrahemispheric neurofunctional changes in aging also affect the VAN. The results suggest that, in contexts of selective attention, posterior regions increased in importance for older adults, while anterior regions had reduced centrality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigitan Terbuka Anterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniar Zen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior telah lama dianggap sebagai tantangan bagi ortodontis. Prevalensi gigitan terbuka anterior antara 3,5% hingga 11% terdapat pada berbagai usia dan kelompok etnis, serta ada sekitar 17% pasien ortodonti memiliki gigitan terbuka. Stabilitas hasil perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior sangat sulit, karena adanya kombinasi diskrepansi anteroposterior dengan gigitan terbuka skeletal sehingga dibutuhkan tingkat keterampilan diagnosis dan klinis yang tinggi. Etiologi gigitan terbuka anterior sangat kompleks karena dapat melibatkan skeletal, dental, dan faktor-faktor habitual. Eliminasi faktor etiologi merupakan hal yang penting dalam perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior. Berbagai cara perawatan untuk koreksi gigitan terbuka anterior diantaranya bedah ortognatik dan perawatan ortodontik kamuflase, seperti high-pull headgear, chincup, bite blocks, alatfungsional, pencabutan gigi, multi-loop edgewise archwires dan mini implan. Stabilitas hasil perawatan adalah kriteria yang paling penting dalam menentukan cara perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior. Orthodontic Treatment of Anterior Open Bite. An anterior open bite therapy has long been considered a challenge to orthodontist. The prevalence of anterior openbite range from 3,5 % to 11% among various age and ethnic groups and it has been shown that approximately 17% of orthodontic patients have open bite. Stability of treatment result of anterior open bite with well-maintained results is difficult, because the combination of anteroposteriorly discrepancy with skeletal open bite requires the highest degree of diagnostic and clinical skill. The etiology is complex, potentially involving skeletal, dental and habitual factors. The importance of an anterior open bite therapy is to eliminate the cause of the open bite. Various treatment modalities for the correction of an anterior open bite have been proposed, orthognatic surgery and orthodontic camouflage treatment such as high

  18. Lower Activation in Frontal Cortex and Posterior Cingulate Cortex Observed during Sex Determination Test in Early-Stage Dementia of the Alzheimer Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Rajmohan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Face-labeling refers to the ability to classify faces into social categories. This plays a critical role in human interaction as it serves to define concepts of socially acceptable interpersonal behavior. The purpose of the current study was to characterize, what, if any, impairments in face-labeling are detectable in participants with early-stage clinically diagnosed dementia of the Alzheimer type (CDDAT through the use of the sex determination test (SDT. In the current study, four (1 female, 3 males CDDAT and nine (4 females, 5 males age-matched neurotypicals (NT completed the SDT using chimeric faces while undergoing BOLD fMRI. It was expected that CDDAT participants would have poor verbal fluency, which would correspond to poor performance on the SDT. This could be explained by decreased activation and connectivity patterns within the fusiform face area (FFA and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. DTI was also performed to test the association of pathological deterioration of connectivity in the uncinate fasciculus (UF and verbally-mediated performance. CDDAT showed lower verbal fluency test (VFT performance, but VFT was not significantly correlated to SDT and no significant difference was seen between CDDAT and NT for SDT performance as half of the CDDAT performed substantially worse than NT while the other half performed similarly. BOLD fMRI of SDT displayed differences in the left superior frontal gyrus and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, but not the FFA or ACC. Furthermore, although DTI showed deterioration of the right inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculi, as well as the PCC, it did not demonstrate significant deterioration of UF tracts. Taken together, early-stage CDDAT may represent a common emerging point for the loss of face labeling ability.

  19. Anterior knee pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LLopis, Eva; Padrón, Mario

    2007-04-01

    Anterior knee pain is a common complain in all ages athletes. It may be caused by a large variety of injuries. There is a continuum of diagnoses and most of the disorders are closely related. Repeated minor trauma and overuse play an important role for the development of lesions in Hoffa's pad, extensor mechanism, lateral and medial restrain structures or cartilage surface, however usually an increase or change of activity is referred. Although the direct relation of cartilage lesions, especially chondral, and pain is a subject of debate these lesions may be responsible of early osteoarthrosis and can determine athlete's prognosis. The anatomy and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is complex and symptoms are often unspecific. Transient patellar dislocation has MR distinct features that provide evidence of prior dislocation and rules our complication. However, anterior knee pain more often is related to overuse and repeated minor trauma. Patella and quadriceps tendon have been also implicated in anterior knee pain, as well as lateral or medial restraint structures and Hoffa's pad. US and MR are excellent tools for the diagnosis of superficial tendons, the advantage of MR is that permits to rule out other sources of intraarticular derangements. Due to the complex anatomy and biomechanic of patellofemoral joint maltracking is not fully understood; plain films and CT allow the study of malalignment, new CT and MR kinematic studies have promising results but further studies are needed. Our purpose here is to describe how imaging techniques can be helpful in precisely defining the origin of the patient's complaint and thus improve understanding and management of these injuries.

  20. Anterior knee pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LLopis, Eva [Hospital de la Ribera, Alzira, Valencia (Spain) and Carretera de Corbera km 1, 46600 Alzira Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: ellopis@hospital-ribera.com; Padron, Mario [Clinica Cemtro, Ventisquero de la Condesa no. 42, 28035 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: mario.padron@clinicacemtro.com

    2007-04-15

    Anterior knee pain is a common complain in all ages athletes. It may be caused by a large variety of injuries. There is a continuum of diagnoses and most of the disorders are closely related. Repeated minor trauma and overuse play an important role for the development of lesions in Hoffa's pad, extensor mechanism, lateral and medial restrain structures or cartilage surface, however usually an increase or change of activity is referred. Although the direct relation of cartilage lesions, especially chondral, and pain is a subject of debate these lesions may be responsible of early osteoarthrosis and can determine athlete's prognosis. The anatomy and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is complex and symptoms are often unspecific. Transient patellar dislocation has MR distinct features that provide evidence of prior dislocation and rules our complication. However, anterior knee pain more often is related to overuse and repeated minor trauma. Patella and quadriceps tendon have been also implicated in anterior knee pain, as well as lateral or medial restraint structures and Hoffa's pad. US and MR are excellent tools for the diagnosis of superficial tendons, the advantage of MR is that permits to rule out other sources of intraarticular derangements. Due to the complex anatomy and biomechanic of patellofemoral joint maltracking is not fully understood; plain films and CT allow the study of malalignment, new CT and MR kinematic studies have promising results but further studies are needed. Our purpose here is to describe how imaging techniques can be helpful in precisely defining the origin of the patient's complaint and thus improve understanding and management of these injuries.

  1. An unusual case of anterior and posterior laryngeal cleft together: combined cleft of larynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkent, Hakan; Durmaz, Abdullah; Karakoc, Omer; Ilica, Turan; Gerek, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Congenital clefts of the larynx are rare and usually found dorsally. An anterior or ventral cleft of the larynx is extremely rare. Only a few patients with this defect have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to present a patient having an anterior and posterior laryngeal cleft together. A 20-year-old man presented with a history of dysphonia since childhood. He did not report symptoms of swallowing or respiration, and had no history of neck trauma. Findings of videolaryngoscopy showed a grossly abnormal larynx. The anterior commissure was wider than normal, and the vocal folds did not show a fusion anteriorly. There was an interarytenoid cleft posteriorly. A neck CT with 3D reconstruction demonstrated a ventral cleft or nonfusion of the thyroid cartilage with a posterior cricoid cleft. Barium swallow study was in normal limits. Since the patient did not have any problem with swallowing or respiration, no surgical intervention was planned, and the patient was put on speech therapy, which revealed improvement in voice. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a combined laryngeal cleft. The diagnosis is established by the clinical symptoms, endoscopic evaluation, and radiographic examinations including 3D and barium studies.

  2. Preferential reactivation of motivationally relevant information in the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansink, Carien S; Goltstein, Pieter M; Lankelma, Jan V; Joosten, Ruud N J M A; McNaughton, Bruce L; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2008-06-18

    Spontaneous "off-line" reactivation of neuronal activity patterns may contribute to the consolidation of memory traces. The ventral striatum exhibits reactivation and has been implicated in the processing of motivational information. It is unknown, however, whether reactivating neuronal ensembles specifically recapitulate information relating to rewards that were encountered during wakefulness. We demonstrate a prolonged reactivation in rat ventral striatum during quiet wakefulness and slow-wave but not rapid eye movement sleep. Reactivation of reward-related information processed in this structure was particularly prominent, and this was primarily attributable to spike trains temporally linked to reward sites. It was accounted for by small, strongly correlated subgroups in recorded cell assemblies and can thus be characterized as a sparse phenomenon. Our results indicate that reactivated memory traces may not only comprise feature- and context-specific information but also contain a value component.

  3. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, J; Peterson, E; Doudet, D J

    2010-01-01

    suggest a dopaminergic basis of monetary losses in pathological gambling, which might explain loss-chasing behavior. The findings may have implications for the understanding of dopamine dysfunctions and impaired decision-making in pathological gambling and substance-related addictions.......Linnet J, Peterson E, Doudet DJ, Gjedde A, Møller A. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money. Objective: To investigate dopaminergic neurotransmission in relation to monetary reward and punishment in pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (PG) often continue...... gambling despite losses, known as 'chasing one's losses'. We therefore hypothesized that losing money would be associated with increased dopamine release in the ventral striatum of PG compared with healthy controls (HC). Method: We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [(11)C]raclopride to measure...

  4. Ventral extradural spinal meningeal cyst causing cord compression: neurosurgical treatment Cisto meníngeo extradural ventral do canal espinhal causando compressão medular: tratamento neurocirúrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Monte-Serrat Prevedello

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Spinal extradural meningeal cysts are typically formed by a thin fibrotic membranous capsule, macroscopically similar that of an arachnoid membrane, filled by cerebro spinal fluid and related to a nerve root or to the posterior midline. Ventral location is extremely rare and when it occurs they usually cause spinal cord herniation through the ventral dural gap. A 61 year-old man who began with a two years long history of insidious tetraparesis, spasticity and hyperreflexia in lower extremities, and flaccid atrophy of upper limbs, without sensory manifestations, is presented. Investigation through magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an extensive spinal ventral extradural cystic collection from C6 to T11. The lesion was approached through a laminectomy and a cyst-peritoneal shunt was introduced. The cyst reduced in size significantly and the patient is asymptomatic over a 48 months follow-up. This is the first reported case of a spontaneous ventral extradural spinal meningeal cyst causing cord compression. Cyst-peritoneal shunt was effective in the treatment of the case and it should be considered in cases in which complete resection of the cyst is made more difficult or risky by the need of more aggressive surgical maneuvers.Cistos meníngeos extradurais espinhais são formados tipicamente por estreita cápsula membranosa fibrótica, macroscopicamente semelhante a uma membrana de aracnóide, repleta de líquor e relacionada com uma raiz nervosa ou com a linha média posterior. Eles são extremamente raros em posição anterior e, quando ocorrem, habitualmente causam herniação da medula espinhal pela falha dural ventral. O caso de um homem de 61 anos de idade que iniciou com tetraparesia, espasticidade e hiperreflexia em membros inferiores, e flacidez com hipotrofia nos membros superiores, sem manifestação sensitiva, é apresentado. A investigação com ressonância magnética demonstrou extensa coleção cística extradural ventral

  5. Resting-state functional connectivity of ventral parietal regions associated with attention reorienting and episodic recollection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander M Daselaar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In functional neuroimaging studies, ventral parietal cortex (VPC is recruited by very different cognitive tasks. Explaining the contributions VPC to these tasks has become a topic of intense study and lively debate. Perception studies frequently find VPC activations during tasks involving attention-reorienting, and memory studies frequently find them during tasks involving episodic recollection. According to the Attention to Memory (AtoM model, both phenomena can be explained by the same VPC function: bottom-up attention. Yet, a recent functional MRI (fMRI meta-analysis suggested that attention-reorienting activations are more frequent in anterior VPC, whereas recollection activations are more frequent in posterior VPC. Also, there is evidence that anterior and posterior VPC regions have different functional connectivity patterns. To investigate these issues, we conducted a resting-state functional connectivity analysis using as seeds the center-of-mass of attention-reorienting and recollection activations in the meta-analysis, which were located in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG, around the temporo-parietal junction—TPJ and in the angular gyrus (AG, respectively. The SMG seed showed stronger connectivity with ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC and occipito-temporal cortex, whereas the AG seed showed stronger connectivity with the hippocampus and default network regions. To investigate whether these connectivity differences were graded or sharp, VLPFC and hippocampal connectivity was measured in VPC regions traversing through the SMG and AG seeds. The results showed a graded pattern: VLPFC connectivity gradually decreases from SMG to AG, whereas hippocampal connectivity gradually increases from SMG to AG. Importantly, both gradients showed an abrupt break when extended beyond VPC borders. This finding suggests that functional differences between SMG and AG are more subtle than previously thought. These connectivity differences can be

  6. Evaluation of Composite Mesh for Ventral Hernia Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, Jim F.; Agee, Neal; Nguyen, Phuong H.; Heath, Jessica J.; Lau, Kwan N.; Mckillop, Iain H.; Sindram, David; Martinie, John B.; Iannitti, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Composite mesh prostheses incorporate the properties of multiple materials for ventral hernia repair. This study evaluated a polypropylene/ePTFE composite mesh with a novel internal polydioxanone (PDO) absorbable ring. Methods: Composite mesh was placed intraperitoneally in 16 pigs through an open laparotomy and explanted at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Intraabdominal adhesions were measured laparoscopically. Host tissue in-growth was assessed histologically and tensiometrically. Degr...

  7. Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair using only 5-mm ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Allen, Nicholas; O'Rourke, Harriet; Hong, Lisa; O'Rourke, Nicholas

    2017-10-12

    The technique of laparoscopic ventral hernia repair has been evolving since it was first described over 20 years ago. We report a new technique where polyester mesh was back loaded through a 5-mm port site, coming into contact with the skin. This avoids the need for any 10-12-mm ports. A prospective database of laparoscopic ventral hernia repairs was examined. A single surgeon performed 344 laparoscopic ventral hernia repairs using this technique over 60 months. Follow-up was conducted by both clinical and independent phone review. Laparoscopic access was achieved via a 5-mm optical port, adding two, or occasionally three, 5-mm extra ports. Hernia contents were reduced and the extra-peritoneal fat excised; 5-mm tooth graspers were placed through the lateral port and then in a retrograde fashion through the uppermost port. The port was removed, and the mesh pulled back into the abdominal cavity and positioned with a minimum of 3-cm overlap. The mesh was fixed using absorbable tacks and sutures. Most patients had primary umbilical hernias. There was one case of mesh infection due to enteric organisms. This occurred in a patient undergoing repair of a stoma site hernia, resulting from a Hartmann's procedure for perforated diverticulitis. There was no other evidence of acute or chronic mesh infection despite cutaneous contact with the mesh. In this series, there was an overall hernia recurrence rate of 2.4%. Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair using only 5-mm ports is a safe, effective technique with no extra risk of infection. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  8. Ventral Tegmental Area Afferents and Drug-Dependent Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Idaira eOliva; Matthew eWanat

    2016-01-01

    Drug-related behaviors in both humans and rodents are commonly thought to arise from aberrant learning processes. Preclinical studies demonstrate that the acquisition and expression of many drug-dependent behaviors involves the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a midbrain structure comprised of dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neurons. Drug experience alters the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic input onto VTA dopamine neurons, suggesting a critical role for VTA afferents in mediating the effects o...

  9. Das Einwachsverhalten von trikortikalen Beckenkammspänen und lösungsmittelkonservierter, boviner Spongiosa bei ventraler Spondylodese der Lendenwirbelsäule im Schafsmodell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strohm, P C; Kubosch, D C; Sprecher, C M

    2010-01-01

    study was to evaluate graft integration in the lumbar spine of bovine cancellous bone compared to autologous iliac crest material. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two groups of eight female adult sheep (median age 3 years, range 2.4-3.8 years) received surgical treatment in the form of anterior monosegmental......BACKGROUND: Spinal injuries are common and a standard procedure for the stabilisation of spinal injuries is ventral spondylodesis with an autograft from the iliac crest. Because of the high incidence of harvesting complications there is a need to search for alternative materials. The aim of our...

  10. Dorsal and ventral language pathways in persistent developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld-Duenias, Vered; Amir, Ofer; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Civier, Oren; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2016-08-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering is a speech disorder that affects an individual's ability to fluently produce speech. While the disorder mainly manifests in situations that require language production, it is still unclear whether persistent developmental stuttering is indeed a language impairment, and if so, which language stream is implicated in people who stutter. In this study, we take a neuroanatomical approach to this question by examining the structural properties of the dorsal and ventral language pathways in adults who stutter (AWS) and fluent controls. We use diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and individualized tract identification to extract white matter volumes and diffusion properties of these tracts in samples of adults who do and do not stutter. We further quantify diffusion properties at multiple points along the tract and examine group differences within these diffusivity profiles. Our results show differences in the dorsal, but not in the ventral, language-related tracts. Specifically, AWS show reduced volume of the left dorsal stream, as well as lower anisotropy in the right dorsal stream. These data provide neuroanatomical support for the view that stuttering involves an impairment in the bidirectional mapping between auditory and articulatory cortices supported by the dorsal pathways, not in lexical access and semantic aspects of language processing which are thought to rely more heavily on the left ventral pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioengineered anterior cruciate ligament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Gregory (Inventor); Kaplan, David (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor); Martin, Ivan (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament ex vivo. The method comprises seeding pluripotent stem cells in a three dimensional matrix, anchoring the seeded matrix by attachment to two anchors, and culturing the cells within the matrix under conditions appropriate for cell growth and regeneration, while subjecting the matrix to one or more mechanical forces via movement of one or both of the attached anchors. Bone marrow stromal cells are preferably used as the pluripotent cells in the method. Suitable matrix materials are materials to which cells can adhere, such as a gel made from collagen type I. Suitable anchor materials are materials to which the matrix can attach, such as Goinopra coral and also demineralized bone. Optimally, the mechanical forces to which the matrix is subjected mimic mechanical stimuli experienced by an anterior cruciate ligament in vivo. This is accomplished by delivering the appropriate combination of tension, compression, torsion, and shear, to the matrix. The bioengineered ligament which is produced by this method is characterized by a cellular orientation and/or matrix crimp pattern in the direction of the applied mechanical forces, and also by the production of collagen type I, collagen type III, and fibronectin proteins along the axis of mechanical load produced by the mechanical forces. Optimally, the ligament produced has fiber bundles which are arranged into a helical organization. The method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament can be adapted to produce a wide range of tissue types ex vivo by adapting the anchor size and attachment sites to reflect the size of the specific type of tissue to be produced, and also adapting the specific combination of forces applied, to mimic the mechanical stimuli experienced in vivo by the specific type of tissue to be produced. The methods of the present invention can be further modified to incorporate other stimuli experienced in vivo by the

  12. FGF signaling is required for anterior but not posterior specification of the murine liver bud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jikui; Rhee, Siyeon; Palaria, Amrita; Tremblay, Kimberly D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The definitive endoderm arises as a naive epithelial sheet that produces the entire gut tube and associated organs including the liver, pancreas and lungs. Murine explant studies demonstrate that Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling from adjacent tissues is required to induce hepatic gene expression from isolated foregut endoderm. The requirement of FGF signaling during liver development is examined via small molecule inhibition during whole embryo culture. Results Loss of FGF signaling prior to hepatic induction results in morphological defects and gene expression changes that are confined to the anterior liver bud. In contrast the posterior portion of the liver bud remains relatively unaffected. Because FGF is thought to act as a morphogen during endoderm organogenesis, the ventral pancreas was also examined after FGF inhibition. Although the size of the ventral pancreas is not affected, loss of FGF signaling results in a significantly higher density of ventral pancreas cells. Conclusions The requirement for FGF-mediated induction of hepatic gene expression differs across the anterior-posterior axis of the developing liver bud. These results underscore the importance of studying tissue differentiation in the context of the whole embryo. PMID:25302779

  13. FGF signaling is required for anterior but not posterior specification of the murine liver bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jikui; Rhee, Siyeon; Palaria, Amrita; Tremblay, Kimberly D

    2015-03-01

    The definitive endoderm arises as a naive epithelial sheet that produces the entire gut tube and associated organs including the liver, pancreas and lungs. Murine explant studies demonstrate that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling from adjacent tissues is required to induce hepatic gene expression from isolated foregut endoderm. The requirement of FGF signaling during liver development is examined by means of small molecule inhibition during whole embryo culture. Loss of FGF signaling before hepatic induction results in morphological defects and gene expression changes that are confined to the anterior liver bud. In contrast the posterior portion of the liver bud remains relatively unaffected. Because FGF is thought to act as a morphogen during endoderm organogenesis, the ventral pancreas was also examined after FGF inhibition. Although the size of the ventral pancreas is not affected, loss of FGF signaling results in a significantly higher density of ventral pancreas cells. The requirement for FGF-mediated induction of hepatic gene expression differs across the anterior/posterior axis of the developing liver bud. These results underscore the importance of studying tissue differentiation in the context of the whole embryo. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Specialized core stability exercise: a neglected component of anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dong-liang; Li, Jing-long; Zhai, Hua; Wang, Hui-fang; Meng, Han; Wang, Yu-bin

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury has continued to increase over the last two decades. This injury is associated with abnormal gait patterns and osteoarthritis of the knee. In order to accelerate recovery, the introduction of core stability exercises into the rehabilitation program is proposed. The theory underlying the use of core stability exercise relates to the neuroplasticity that follows anterior cruciate ligament injury. Neuroplasticity in lumbar, thoracic, cervical and brain regions diminish activation in the contralateral thalamus, postparietal cortex, SM1, basal ganglia-external globus pallidus, SII, cingulated motor area, premotor cortex, and in the ipsilateral cerebellum and SM1 and increase activation in pre-SMA, SIIp, and pITG, indicating modifications of the CNS. In addition, the neuroplasticity can regulate the movement of trunk muscles, for example, sternocleidomastoid and lower trapezius muscles. Core stability also demonstrates a negative correlation with the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Therefore, we propose that core stability exercises may improve the rehabilitation of anterior cruciate ligament injuries by increasing core motor control. Specialized core stability exercises aimed at rectifying biomechanical problems associated with gait and core stability may play a key role in the management of anterior cruciate ligament injury.

  15. Adolescent risky decision-making: neurocognitive development of reward and control regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leijenhorst, L.; Gunther Moor, B.; op de Macks, Z.A.; Rombouts, S.A.; Westenberg, P.M.; Crone, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent models hypothesize that adolescents' risky behavior is the consequence of increased sensitivity to rewards in the ventral medial (VM) prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the ventral striatum (VS), paired with immature cognitive control abilities due to slow maturation of the dorsal anterior cingulate

  16. A multicenter prospective study of patients undergoing open ventral hernia repair with intraperitoneal positioning using the monofilament polyester composite ventral patch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berrevoet, Frederik; Doerhoff, Carl; Muysoms, Filip

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed the recurrence rate and other safety and efficacy parameters following ventral hernia repair with a polyester composite prosthesis (Parietex™ Composite Ventral Patch [PCO-VP]). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single-arm, multicenter prospective study of 126 patients undergoing...

  17. Anterior and posterior ankle impingement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, C. Niek

    2006-01-01

    Anterior ankle impingement is characterized by anterior ankle pain on activity. Recurrent (hyper) dorsiflexion is often the cause. Typically, there is pain on palpation at the anteromedial or anterolateral joint line. Some swelling or limitation in dorsiflexion are present. Plain radiographs can

  18. Mapping the "Depression Switch" During Intraoperative Testing of Subcallosal Cingulate Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Sueng; Riva-Posse, Patricio; Gross, Robert E; Mayberg, Helen S

    2015-11-01

    The clinical utility of monitoring behavioral changes during intraoperative testing of subcallosal cingulate deep brain stimulation is unknown. To characterize the structural connectivity correlates of deep brain stimulation-evoked behavioral effects using probabilistic tractography in depression. Categorization of acute behavioral effects was conducted in 9 adults undergoing deep brain stimulation implantation surgery for chronic treatment-resistant depression in a randomized and blinded testing session at Emory University. Patients were studied from September 1, 2011, through June 30, 2013. Post hoc analyses of the structural tractography patterns mediating distinct categories of evoked behavioral effects were defined, including the best response overall. Data analyses were performed from May 1 through July 1, 2015. Categorization of stimulation-induced transient behavioral effects and delineation of the shared white matter tracts mediating response subtypes. Among the 9 patients, 72 active and 36 sham trials were recorded. The following stereotypical behavior patterns were identified: changes in interoceptive (noted changes in body state in 30 of 72 active and 4 of 36 sham trials) and in exteroceptive (shift in attention from patient to others in 9 of 72 active and 0 sham trials) awareness. The best response was a combination of exteroceptive and interoceptive changes at a single left contact for all 9 patients. Structural connectivity showed that the best response contacts had a pattern of connections to the bilateral ventromedial frontal cortex (via forceps minor and left uncinate fasciculus) and to the cingulate cortex (via left cingulum bundle), whereas behaviorally salient but nonbest contacts had only cingulate involvement. The involvement of the 3 white matter bundles during stimulation of the best contacts suggests a mechanism for the observed transient "depression switch." This analysis of transient behavior changes during intraoperative deep brain

  19. Dorsolateral onlay urethroplasty for anterior urethral strictures by a unilateral urethral mobilization approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupendra P Singh

    2009-01-01

    Settings and Design: A prospective study from September 2005 to March 2008 in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Seventeen patients with long or multiple strictures of the anterior urethra were treated by a dorsolateral free buccal mucosa graft. The pendulous urethra was accessed by penile eversion through the perineal wound. The urethra was not separated from the corporal bodies on one side and was only mobilized from the midline on the ventral aspect to beyond the midline on the dorsal aspect. The urethra was opened in the dorsal midline over the stricture. The buccal mucosa graft was secured on the ventral tunica of the corporal bodies. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean and median. Results: After a follow-up of 12-30 months, one recurrence developed and 1 patient needed an internal urethrotomy. Conclusions: A unilateral urethral mobilization approach for dorsolateral free graft urethroplasty is feasible for panurethral strictures of any length with good short-term success.

  20. Deep brain stimulation versus anterior capsulotomy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Joshua; Hariz, Marwan; Zrinzo, Ludvic

    2015-05-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric condition. Traditionally, anterior capsulotomy (AC) was an established procedure for treatment of patients with refractory OCD. Over recent decades, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has gained popularity. In this paper the authors review the published literature and compare the outcome of AC and DBS targeting of the area of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Patients in published cases were grouped according to whether they received AC or DBS and according to their preoperative scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), and then separated according to outcome measures: remission (YBOCS score OCD. Deep brain stimulation in the VC/VS and NAcc area is an emerging and promising therapy. The current popularity of DBS over ablative surgery for OCD is not due to nonefficacy of AC, but possibly because DBS is perceived as more acceptable by clinicians and patients.

  1. Inestabilidad Anterior de Hombro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo David Flint Kuran

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ción La luxación recidivante de hombro es una patología frecuente en pacientes jóvenes, laboralmente activos. Existen numerosas técnicas quirúrgicas para la inestabilidad glenohumeral. La técnica de Bristow, discutida por no ser anatómica y por sus complicaciones, continúa vigente debido al bajo índice de reluxaciones. Los objetivos fueron determinar el índice de recidiva, alteraciones funcionales e índice de consolidación del injerto. Materiales­ y­ Métodos Se evaluaron 24 pacientes del sexo masculino, de entre 19 y 40 años, operados por luxación anterior recidivante de hombro según la técnica de Bristow, entre enero de 2003 y agosto de 2011. Se evaluó la tasa de reluxación, la función articular según el puntaje de Constant y el posicionamiento del injerto con respecto a la superficie articular con tomografía y radiografías para evaluar la consolidación del injerto. Se registraron las complicaciones quirúrgicas. Resultados ­Todos los pacientes eran hombres, con rango de edad de 19 a 40 años. La causa fue traumática en 24 pacientes. Dieciséis pacientes presentaron más de 3 episodios de luxación prequirúrgicos. Según la escala de Constant, 21 obtuvieron entre 96 y 100 puntos, y los restantes, entre 90 y 95 puntos. No hubo nuevos episodios de luxaciones. La tomografía mostró la consolidación en todos los casos. Un paciente tuvo una imagen osteolítica alrededor del tornillo, sin compromiso funcional del hombro. Conclusión La técnica de Bristow para tratar la luxación anterior recidivante de hombro provocó un bajo índice de complicaciones, con resultados funcionales entre excelentes y buenos. No hubo episodios de reluxación y se logró la consolidación del injerto óseo en todos los casos.

  2. Whole-organism cellular gene-expression atlas reveals conserved cell types in the ventral nerve cord ofPlatynereis dumerilii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Hernando Martínez; Bertucci, Paola Yanina; Hantz, Peter; Tosches, Maria Antonietta; Achim, Kaia; Vopalensky, Pavel; Arendt, Detlev

    2017-06-06

    The comparative study of cell types is a powerful approach toward deciphering animal evolution. To avoid selection biases, however, comparisons ideally involve all cell types present in a multicellular organism. Here, we use image registration and a newly developed "Profiling by Signal Probability Mapping" algorithm to generate a cellular resolution 3D expression atlas for an entire animal. We investigate three-segmented young worms of the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii , with a rich diversity of differentiated cells present in relatively low number. Starting from whole-mount expression images for close to 100 neural specification and differentiation genes, our atlas identifies and molecularly characterizes 605 bilateral pairs of neurons at specific locations in the ventral nerve cord. Among these pairs, we identify sets of neurons expressing similar combinations of transcription factors, located at spatially coherent anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral, and medial-lateral coordinates that we interpret as cell types. Comparison with motor and interneuron types in the vertebrate neural tube indicates conserved combinations, for example, of cell types cospecified by Gata1/2/3 and Tal transcription factors. These include V2b interneurons and the central spinal fluid-contacting Kolmer-Agduhr cells in the vertebrates, and several neuron types in the intermediate ventral ganglionic mass in the annelid. We propose that Kolmer-Agduhr cell-like mechanosensory neurons formed part of the mucociliary sole in protostome-deuterostome ancestors and diversified independently into several neuron types in annelid and vertebrate descendants.

  3. Familial motor neuron disease with prominent onion-bulb-like structures and axonal swelling restricted to the spinal ventral root: autopsy findings in two siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuyama, Wataru; Yagishita, Saburo; Ryo, Masafuchi; Kusunoki, Junichi; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Yoshida, Tsutomu; Mikami, Tetuo; Okayasu, Isao

    2010-02-01

    We report autopsy cases of two siblings who developed muscular atrophy and dementia, clinically considered to be familial motor neuron disease (MND). They presented with motor neuron signs predominantly in the distal limbs without sensory impairment. At autopsy, severe neuronal loss in the anterior horn consistent with MND was found, but histopathological hallmarks like Bunina bodies and skein-like inclusions were absent. Surprisingly, numerous huge axonal swellings (about 30 microm in diameter) and onion-bulb-like structures were found in the spinal ventral roots. These changes were not observed in spinal dorsal roots or peripheral nerves. However, obvious segmental demyelination of the ventral root was not found. In addition, neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and neuritic plaques were present in the frontal cortex, temporal cortex and hippocampus, and to a lesser degree, in the amygdala, substantia nigra and thalamus. Our two cases are a hitherto unreported type of MND, which shows focal giant axonopathy and prominent formation of onion-bulb-like structures due to Schwann cell proliferation restricted to the spinal ventral roots.

  4. [Anterior cruciate ligament injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haim, Amir; Pritsch, Tamir; Yosepov, Lior; Arbel, Ron

    2006-03-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common, especially in young individuals who participate in sports activities associated with pivoting, decelerating and jumping. About 70% of ACL injuries do not result from direct contact. Establishing risk factors is important for prevention strategies. Risk factors for ACL injuries include environmental factors (e.g. high level of friction between shoes and the playing surface) and anatomical factors (e.g. narrow femoral intercondylar notch and increased joint laxity). History taking and physical examination provide the basis for diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly sensitive and specific and provides information about associated injuries such as meniscal tears. ACL-injury leads to knee instability which is associated with both acute dysfunction and long-term degenerative changes, such as osteoarthritis and meniscal damage. Surgical treatment of ACL-tears is effective in regard to short term rehabilitation but does not necessarily alter the natural course of this injury and its long-term complications. Therefore, surgical treatment should be reserved primarily for young individuals and for those who are high risk for ACL injury. ACL reconstruction is the standard surgery; however, a wide variety of reconstruction procedures is available and a gold standard procedure has not been defined. Nevertheless, arthroscopic reconstruction with either bone-patellar tendon-bone or a hamstring tendon graft is the most widely used method. Surgical timing is important. Early surgical intervention (i.e. within 4 weeks of injury) might increase complications.

  5. Posterolateral approach for spinal intradural meningioma with ventral attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Takami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal meningioma with ventral attachment is a challenging pathology. Several technical modifications have been proposed to secure safe and precise resection of these tumors. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study focused on the precise and safe surgery of spinal meningiomas with strictly ventral attachment of cervical or thoracic spine. The surgical technique included a lateral oblique position for the patient, laminectomy with unilateral medial facetectomy on the tumor side, and spinal cord rotation with the dentate ligament. The neurological status of patients was assessed using the modified McCormick functional schema (mMFS and sensory pain scale (SPS before and at least 3 months after surgery. Patients were followed-up for a mean of 23.7 months. Tumor removal was graded using the Simpson grade for removal of meningiomas, and the extent of excision was confirmed using early postoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Simpson grade 1 or 2 resections were achieved in all cases. No major surgery-related complications were encountered, postoperatively. The mean mMFS score before surgery was 3.1, improving significantly to 1.7 after surgery (P < 0.05. The mean SPS score before surgery was 2.4, improving significantly to 1.6 after surgery (P < 0.05. Conclusions: This surgical technique offers a posterolateral surgical corridor to the ventral canal of both cervical and thoracic spine. The present preliminary analysis suggests that functional outcomes were satisfactory with minimal surgery-related complications, although considerable surgical experience is needed to achieve a high level of surgical confidence.

  6. Integrated cross-network connectivity of amygdala, insula, and subgenual cingulate associated with facial emotion perception in healthy controls and remitted major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lisanne M; Stange, Jonathan P; Barba, Alyssa; DelDonno, Sophie R; Kling, Leah R; Briceño, Emily M; Weisenbach, Sara L; Phan, K Luan; Shankman, Stewart A; Welsh, Robert C; Langenecker, Scott A

    2017-11-06

    Emotion perception deficits could be due to disrupted connectivity of key nodes in the salience and emotion network (SEN), including the amygdala, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), and insula. We examined SEN resting-state (rs-)fMRI connectivity in rMDD in relation to Facial Emotion Perception Test (FEPT) performance. Fifty-two medication-free people ages 18 to 23 years participated. Twenty-seven had major depressive disorder (MDD) in remission (rMDD, 10 males), as MDD is associated with emotion perception deficits and alterations in rsfMRI. Twenty-five healthy controls (10 males) also participated. Participants completed the FEPT during fMRI, in addition to an 8-minute eyes-open resting-state scan. Seed regions of interest were defined in the amygdala, anterior insula and sgACC. Multiple regression analyses co-varied diagnostic group, sex and movement parameters. Emotion perception accuracy was positively associated with connectivity between amygdala seeds and regions primarily in the SEN and cognitive control network (CCN), and also the default mode network (DMN). Accuracy was also positively associated with connectivity between the sgACC seeds and other SEN regions, and the DMN, particularly for the right sgACC. Connectivity negatively associated with emotion perception was mostly with regions outside of these three networks, other than the left insula and part of the DMN. This study is the first to our knowledge to demonstrate relationships between facial emotion processing and resting-state connectivity with SEN nodes and between SEN nodes and regions located within other neural networks.

  7. Two-criteria optimisation problem for ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Czesław; Lubowiecka, Izabela; Szepietowska, Katarzyna; Tomaszewska, Agnieszka

    2017-05-01

    Two-criteria optimisation problem related to laparoscopic ventral hernia repair is formulated in this paper. An optimal implant from a given set and its orientation is sought. The implant is subjected to kinematic extortions due to a patient's body movement and intra-abdominal pressure. The first criterion of the optimisation problem deals with the reaction force in the implant fastener, while the deflection of the implant constitutes the second criterion. A two-stage optimization procedure is proposed and the optimal solution is determined with the aid of minimization of an additional objective function. Numerical examples for typical locations of hernia are provided.

  8. [Alloplastics of median ventral hernias with polypropylene gauze].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkova, T A

    2008-01-01

    The article summarizes an experience with 83 alloplastics with polypropylene gauze performed in 75 patients with median ventral hernias. An original method is described of confrontation and retention of the rectal abdominal muscles in the middle position with the help of prosthesis. The proposed method of operation improves its results: postoperative complications developed two times rarer, less amount of the implanted synthetic material used, the patients were at the hospital for a shorter time. In these patients there were no recurrent hernias and diastasis recti abdominis.

  9. Fatal attraction: ventral striatum predicts costly choice errors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumbley, J R; Tobler, P N; Fehr, E

    2014-04-01

    Animals approach rewards and cues associated with reward, even when this behavior is irrelevant or detrimental to the attainment of these rewards. Motivated by these findings we study the biology of financially-costly approach behavior in humans. Our subjects passively learned to predict the occurrence of erotic rewards. We show that neuronal responses in ventral striatum during this Pavlovian learning task stably predict an individual's general tendency towards financially-costly approach behavior in an active choice task several months later. Our data suggest that approach behavior may prevent some individuals from acting in their own interests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of deep brain stimulation of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule on cognition in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergfeld, Isidoor O.; Mantione, Mariska; Hoogendoorn, M L C; Ruhe, H. G.; Horst, Ferdinand; Notten, P; van Laarhoven, J; van den Munckhof, M. P.; Beute, G. N.; Schuurman, P R; Denys, D

    Background. Preliminary studies report no negative and a possible positive impact of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on cognition of patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, these studies neither controlled for practice effects nor compared active with sham stimulation. Method. To

  11. Impact of deep brain stimulation of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule on cognition in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergfeld, I O; Mantione, M; Hoogendoorn, M L C; Ruhé, H G; Horst, F; Notten, P; van Laarhoven, J; van den Munckhof, P; Beute, G; Schuurman, P R; Denys, D

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies report no negative and a possible positive impact of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on cognition of patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, these studies neither controlled for practice effects nor compared active with sham stimulation. METHOD: To

  12. Episodic memory following deep brain stimulation of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule and electroconvulsive therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergfeld, Isidoor O; Mantione, Mariska; Hoogendoorn, Mechteld L C; Horst, Ferdinand; Notten, Peter; Schuurman, P Richard; Denys, D.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) and Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) are effective treatments for patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, a common side effect of ECT is autobiographical memory loss (e.g., personal experiences), whereas the impact of DBS on

  13. Deep Brain Stimulation of Medial Dorsal and Ventral Anterior Nucleus of the Thalamus in OCD: A Retrospective Case Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maarouf, Mohammad; Neudorfer, Clemens; El Majdoub, Faycal; Lenartz, Doris; Kuhn, Jens; Sturm, Volker

    2016-01-01

    ...) has instigated the search for the most suitable target for deep brain stimulation (DBS). However, despite extensive research, uncertainty about the ideal target remains with many structures being underexplored...

  14. Visual motion responses in the posterior cingulate sulcus: a comparison to V5/MT and MST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Elvira; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Logothetis, Nikos K; Bartels, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Motion processing regions apart from V5+/MT+ are still relatively poorly understood. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to perform a detailed functional analysis of the recently described cingulate sulcus visual area (CSv) in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex. We used distinct types of visual motion stimuli to compare CSv with V5/MT and MST, including a visual pursuit paradigm. Both V5/MT and MST preferred 3D flow over 2D planar motion, responded less yet substantially to random motion, had a strong preference for contralateral versus ipsilateral stimulation, and responded nearly equally to contralateral and to full-field stimuli. In contrast, CSv had a pronounced preference to 2D planar motion over 3D flow, did not respond to random motion, had a weak and nonsignificant lateralization that was significantly smaller than that of MST, and strongly preferred full-field over contralateral stimuli. In addition, CSv had a better capability to integrate eye movements with retinal motion compared with V5/MT and MST. CSv thus differs from V5+/MT+ by its unique preference to full-field, coherent, and planar motion cues. These results place CSv in a good position to process visual cues related to self-induced motion, in particular those associated to eye or lateral head movements.

  15. Active stimulation site of nucleus accumbens deep brain stimulation in obsessive-compulsive disorder is localized in the ventral internal capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Bosch, D Andries; Mantione, Mariska H M; Figee, Martijn; Denys, Damiaan A J P; Schuurman, P Richard

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent thoughts and repetitive ritualistic behaviours. Despite optimal cognitive-behavioral and pharmacological therapy, approximately 10 % of patients remain treatment-resistant. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is being investigated as experimental therapy for treatment-refractory OCD. In the current study, we determined the relationship between anatomical location of active electrode contacts and clinical outcome in 16 OCD patients undergoing bilateral nucleus accumbens (NAc) DBS. We found that most patients actually do not receive active stimulation in the NAc but in the more laterally, anteriorly and dorsally located ventral part of the anterior limb of the internal capsule, ventral ALIC (vALIC). Our nine patients receiving bilateral vALIC DBS improved on average 73 % on their Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores, whereas the six patients with their centers of stimulation located otherwise improved on average only 42 %. We therefore propose bilateral vALIC as a promising new DBS target for patients with treatment-refractory OCD. Future studies employing a direct vALIC targeting approach in larger patient numbers are needed to test whether this proposal holds true.

  16. Evaluation of composite mesh for ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Jim F; Agee, Neal; Nguyen, Phuong H; Heath, Jessica J; Lau, Kwan N; McKillop, Iain H; Sindram, David; Martinie, John B; Iannitti, David A

    2011-01-01

    Composite mesh prostheses incorporate the properties of multiple materials for ventral hernia repair. This study evaluated a polypropylene/ePTFE composite mesh with a novel internal polydioxanone (PDO) absorbable ring. Composite mesh was placed intraperitoneally in 16 pigs through an open laparotomy and explanted at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Intraabdominal adhesions were measured laparoscopically. Host tissue in-growth was assessed histologically and tensiometrically. Degradation of the internal PDO ring component was also measured tensiometrically. Appropriate statistical tests were used, and P ≤.05 indicated significance. No adhesions were formed in 50% of the grafts explanted at 8 weeks and 25% of grafts explanted at 12 weeks. There were significantly more vascular structures at 8 weeks, 73.5 ± 28, compared with 2 weeks, 6.75 ± 2 (P ≤.01). The T-peel force at the mesh-host tissue interface was not significantly different among time points. The absorbable PDO ring underwent complete degradation by 12 weeks. This composite mesh was associated with minimal intraabdominal adhesions, progressive in-growth of host tissues, and complete degradation of a novel internal PDO ring that aided mesh positioning. This composite hernia mesh showed a favorable performance in a porcine model of open ventral hernia repair.

  17. Expectancies in decision making, reinforcement learning, and ventral striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs A A Van Der Meer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Decisions can arise in different ways, such as a gut feeling, doing what worked last time, or planful deliberation. Different decision-making systems are dissociable behaviorally, map onto distinct brain systems, and require different computational demands. For instance, ’model-free’ decision strategies use prediction errors to estimate scalar action values from previous experience, while ’model-based’ strategies leverage internal forward models to generate and evaluate potentially rich outcome expectancies. Animal learning studies indicate that expectancies may arise from different sources, including not only forward models but also Pavlovian associations, and the flexibility with which such representations impact behavior may depend on how they are generated. In the light of these considerations, we review the results of van der Meer and Redish (2009a, who found that ventral striatal neurons that respond to reward delivery can also be activated at other points, notably at a decision point where hippocampal forward representations were also observed. These data suggest the possibility that ventral striatal reward representations contribute to model-based expectancies used in deliberative decision-making.

  18. Effective Connectivity between Ventral Occipito-Temporal and Ventral Inferior Frontal Cortex during Lexico-Semantic Processing. A Dynamic Causal Modeling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that dorsal and ventral pathways support distinct aspects of language processing. Yet, the full extent of their involvement and their inter-regional connectivity in visual word recognition is still unknown. Studies suggest that they might reflect the dual-route model of reading, with the dorsal pathway more involved in grapho-phonological conversion during phonological tasks, and the ventral pathway performing lexico-semantic access during semantic tasks. Furthermore, this subdivision is also suggested at the level of the inferior frontal cortex, involving ventral and dorsal parts for lexico-semantic and phonological processing, respectively. In the present study, we assessed inter-regional brain connectivity and task-induced modulations of brain activity during a phoneme detection and semantic categorization tasks, using fMRI in healthy subject. We used a dynamic causal modeling approach to assess inter-regional connectivity and task demand modulation within the dorsal and ventral pathways, including the following network components: the ventral occipito-temporal cortex (vOTC; dorsal and ventral, the superior temporal gyrus (STG; dorsal, the dorsal inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG; dorsal, and the ventral IFG (vIFG; ventral. We report three distinct inter-regional interactions supporting orthographic information transfer from vOTC to other language regions (vOTC -> STG, vOTC -> vIFG and vOTC -> dIFG regardless of task demands. Moreover, we found that (a during semantic processing (direct ventral pathway the vOTC -> vIFG connection strength specifically increased and (b a lack of modulation of the vOTC -> dIFG connection strength by the task that could suggest a more general involvement of the dorsal pathway during visual word recognition. Results are discussed in terms of anatomo-functional connectivity of visual word recognition network.

  19. Analysis of the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual and subcallosal cingulate cortices using voxel-based morphometry on MRI is useful to select prescriptions for patients with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niida, Akira; Niida, Richi; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Motomura, Makoto; Uechi, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    We objectively evaluated the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and the subcallosal anterior cingulate cortex (scACC), using new voxel-based morphometry (VBM) software employing Statistical Parametric Mapping software v8 and diffeomorphic anatomic registration through an exponentiated lie algebra. We prepared a database covering young-mature adulthood and investigated the clinical usefulness of the evaluation. One hundred seven patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), 74 patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and 240 healthy control subjects underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Using new VBM software and databases covering young-mature adults and the elderly, target volumes of interest were set in the sgACC and scACC, four indicators (severity, extent, ratio, and whole-brain extent) were determined, and the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC was evaluated on the basis of the indicators. In addition, the relationships between the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC and performance of diagnosing MDD and BD and therapeutic drugs were investigated. It was clarified that the disease is likely to be MDD when atrophy is detected in the sgACC, and likely to be BD when no atrophy is detected in the sgACC but is detected in the scACC. Regarding the relationship with therapeutic drugs, it was clarified that, when atrophy is detected in both the sgACC and the scACC, concomitant administration of mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics acting as dopamine-system stabilizers is necessary in many cases. VBM on magnetic resonance imaging enabled automatic analysis of atrophy in the sgACC and scACC, and findings obtained by this procedure are useful not only for differentiation of MDD and BD patients but also for selection of prescriptions.

  20. Anterior chamber depth during hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracitelli CPB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Pelegrini Barbosa Gracitelli,1 Francisco Rosa Stefanini,1 Fernando Penha,1 Miguel Ângelo Góes,2 Sérgio Antonio Draibe,2 Maria Eugênia Canziani,2 Augusto Paranhos Junior1 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Division of Nephrology, Federal University of São Paulo – UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Exacerbation of chronic glaucoma or acute glaucoma is occasionally observed in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD because of anterior chamber depth changes during this therapy. Purpose: To evaluate anterior chamber depth and axial length in patients during HD sessions. Methods: A total of 67 eyes of 35 patients were prospectively enrolled. Axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured using ultrasonic biometry, and these measures were evaluated at three different times during HD sessions. Body weight and blood pressure pre- and post-HD were also measured. Results: There was no difference in the axial length between the three measurements (P = 0.241. We observed a significantly decreased anterior chamber depth (P = 0.002 during HD sessions. Conclusion: Our results support the idea that there is a change in anterior chamber depth in HD sessions. Keywords: anterior chamber, hemodialysis, axial length, acute angle-closure glaucoma

  1. Single centre observational study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Proceed™ Ventral Patch to repair small ventral hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontinck, J; Kyle-Leinhase, I; Pletinckx, P; Vergucht, V; Beckers, R; Muysoms, F

    2014-10-01

    There is evidence that mesh repair for primary umbilical hernias results in less recurrences and similar wound complication rates compared to tissue repair. In recent years, several mesh devices for the repair of small ventral hernias have been developed, but some reports have been published on serious complications and adverse effects encountered with those mesh devices. The Proceed™ Ventral Patch (PVP™) is a partially absorbable lightweight polypropylene mesh. We introduced PVP™ in our department in April 2009 and collected patient data and outcome in an observational study of 101 consecutive patients until December 2011 (Clinical.Trials.gov: NCT01307696). In addition to the routine control 3 weeks postoperative, prospective follow-up included a questionnaire, clinical investigation and ultrasound after 12 months. The study included 91 primary (76 umbilical/15 epigastric) and 10 incisional ventral hernias (including 6 trocar hernias). In all patients a PVP™ with a diameter of 6.4 cm was used. Wound problems were the most frequent complication (n = 18). Follow-up of at least 12 months was achieved in 98 patients (97 %) and the mean follow-up time was 15.9 months. Follow-up by clinical examination diagnosed a recurrence in 11/92 patients (12.0 %). Only four patients were aware of their recurrent hernia, the seven others reported no problems in the questionnaire. The additional ultrasound performed did not reveal recurrences that were not already diagnosed by clinical examination. In five patients a reoperation for repair of the recurrence was performed (reoperation rate 5/98 = 5.1 %). Hernia defect size (p = 0.032) and type of hernia (p = 0.029) were found to be a significant risk factors for development of a recurrent hernia (Fisher's exact test). Hernia size was a significant risk factor both in a univariate (p = 0.005) and in a multivariate Cox model (p = 0.017). Incisional hernia was of borderline significance in a univariate (p

  2. VENTRAL PRE-PUBIC HERNIATION OF THE BLADDER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anatomical defect in the anterior abdominal wall was always more extensive than anticipated and closure incorporating Prolene mesh and sutures was performed. Co-morbid vaginal ... Car ces patients ont eu des symptômes insurmontables, la réparation chirurgicale a été indiquée. Le défaut anatomique dans le mur ...

  3. Altered posterior cingulate cortical cyctoarchitecture, but normal density of neurons and interneurons in the posterior cingulate cortex and fusiform gyrus in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblak, Adrian L; Rosene, Douglas L; Kemper, Thomas L; Bauman, Margaret L; Blatt, Gene J

    2011-06-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder with prenatal origins, currently estimated to affect 1 in 91 children in the United States. Social-emotional deficits are a hallmark of autism and early neuropathology studies have indicated involvement of the limbic system. Imaging studies demonstrate abnormal activation of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a component of the limbic system. Abnormal activation has also been noted in the fusiform gyrus (FFG), a region important for facial recognition and a key element in social interaction. A potential imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory interneurons in the cortex may contribute to altered information processing in autism. Furthermore, reduced numbers of GABA receptors have previously been reported in the autistic brain. Thionin-stained sections were used to qualitatively assess cytoarchitectonic patterning and quantitatively determine the density of neurons and immunohistochemistry was used to determine the densities of a subset of GABAergic interneurons utilizing parvalbumin-and calbindin-immunoreactivity. In autism, the PCC displayed altered cytoarchitecture with irregularly distributed neurons, poorly demarcated layers IV and V, and increased presence of white matter neurons. In contrast, no neuropathology was observed in the FFG. There was no significant difference in the density of thionin, parvalbumin, or calbindin interneurons in either region and there was a trend towards a reduced density of calbindin neurons in the PCC. This study highlights the presence of abnormal findings in the PCC, which appear to be developmental in nature and could affect the local processing of social-emotional behaviors as well as functioning of interrelated areas. Copyright © 2011, International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A forkhead Transcription Factor Is Wound-Induced at the Planarian Midline and Required for Anterior Pole Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimone, M. Lucila; Lapan, Sylvain W.; Reddien, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Planarian regeneration requires positional information to specify the identity of tissues to be replaced as well as pluripotent neoblasts capable of differentiating into new cell types. We found that wounding elicits rapid expression of a gene encoding a Forkhead-family transcription factor, FoxD. Wound-induced FoxD expression is specific to the ventral midline, is regulated by Hedgehog signaling, and is neoblast-independent. FoxD is subsequently expressed within a medial subpopulation of neoblasts at wounds involving head regeneration. Ultimately, FoxD is co-expressed with multiple anterior markers at the anterior pole. Inhibition of FoxD with RNA interference (RNAi) results in the failure to specify neoblasts expressing anterior markers (notum and prep) and in anterior pole formation defects. FoxD(RNAi) animals fail to regenerate a new midline and to properly pattern the anterior blastema, consistent with a role for the anterior pole in organizing pattern of the regenerating head. Our results suggest that wound signaling activates a forkhead transcription factor at the midline and, if the head is absent, FoxD promotes specification of neoblasts at the prior midline for anterior pole regeneration. PMID:24415944

  5. A forkhead transcription factor is wound-induced at the planarian midline and required for anterior pole regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lucila Scimone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Planarian regeneration requires positional information to specify the identity of tissues to be replaced as well as pluripotent neoblasts capable of differentiating into new cell types. We found that wounding elicits rapid expression of a gene encoding a Forkhead-family transcription factor, FoxD. Wound-induced FoxD expression is specific to the ventral midline, is regulated by Hedgehog signaling, and is neoblast-independent. FoxD is subsequently expressed within a medial subpopulation of neoblasts at wounds involving head regeneration. Ultimately, FoxD is co-expressed with multiple anterior markers at the anterior pole. Inhibition of FoxD with RNA interference (RNAi results in the failure to specify neoblasts expressing anterior markers (notum and prep and in anterior pole formation defects. FoxD(RNAi animals fail to regenerate a new midline and to properly pattern the anterior blastema, consistent with a role for the anterior pole in organizing pattern of the regenerating head. Our results suggest that wound signaling activates a forkhead transcription factor at the midline and, if the head is absent, FoxD promotes specification of neoblasts at the prior midline for anterior pole regeneration.

  6. Ventral free oral mucous membrane graft for bulbar urethral stricture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M E; Rahman, M A; Islam, M F; Siddique, F H; Uddin, M M; Khondoker, M I; Kaiser, I; Siddiqui, O; Karim, M M; Saha, P; Salam, M A

    2012-10-01

    The use of oral mucous membrane graft onlay urethroplasty represents the most widespread method of bulbar urethral stricture repair. We investigated the short term result of oral mucous membrane graft placed on the ventral surface for management of bulbar urethral stricture. Patients with Bulbar urethral stricture of any length, infection free urinary tract and informed consent for oral mucosa harvesting and urethroplasty were selected for study. We enrolled 108 cases of bulbar urethral stricture patients from January 2004 to July 2009. The mean ± SD preoperative maximum flow rate of 5.2 ± 2.6 ml/sec and mean ± SD PVR 87 ± 58.3 ml were treated by substitution urethroplasty with oral mucous membrane by a single surgical team in a private hospital. Causes of stricture were trauma 26(24.1%), infection 58(53.7%), catheter induced 8(7.4%), post TURP 11(10.2%) and unknown 5(4.6%). Oral mucous membrane was harvested from the cheek or from the inner side of lower lip. Defect of the urethra displayed by longitudinal ventral urethrotomy and the graft was sutured over the edges of the incised urethral mucosa over a 14 Fr latex Foley's catheter. Spongiosum tissue was closed over the graft. Pericatheter urethrogram was performed in all cases to check for the anastomotic leakage and the Catheter was removed after 2 weeks of the procedure. After removal of catheter uroflowmetry & ultrasound scan of bladder were performed to estimate the maximum flow rate and post voidal residue. The patient was followed-up every 3 months with uroflowmetry & ultrasonography. The median (range) age of the patients was 32(21-72) years. Mean follow up period was 36 months (range 12-54). Mean ± SD stricture length was 3.7 ± 2.6 cm. The overall success rate was 91.7%. Mean ± SD flow rate was 23 ± 4.2 ml/sec, mean ± SD post void residue was 25 ± 15.5 ml and patient quality of life (QOL) was excellent in almost all patients. Overall complications were seen in 9(8.3%) cases. Of which

  7. Differential dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal representations of the implicit self modulated by individualism and collectivism: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tokiko; Li, Zhang; Chiao, Joan Y

    2010-01-01

    Individualism and collectivism, or self-construal style, refer to cultural values that influence how people think about themselves and their relation to the social and physical environment. Recent neuroimaging evidence suggests that cultural values of individualism and collectivism dynamically modulate neural response within cortical midline structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), during explicit self-evaluation. However, it remains unknown whether cultural priming modulates neural response during self-evaluation due to explicit task demands. Here we investigated how cultural priming of self-construal style affects neural activity within cortical midline structures during implicit self-evaluation in bicultural individuals. Results indicate that ventral MPFC showed relatively less deactivation during implicit evaluation of both self- and father-relevant information as compared to control condition (e.g., information of an unfamiliar person), irrespective of cultural priming. By contrast, dorsal MPFC showed relatively less deactivation during implicit evaluation of father-relevant information, but not self-relevant information, as compared to control condition, only when they were primed with individualism. Furthermore, dorsal MPFC showed relatively less deactivation during implicit evaluation of father-relevant information as compared to self-relevant condition only when they were primed with individualism. Hence, our results indicate that cultural priming modulates neural response within dorsal, but not ventral, portions of MPFC in a stimulus-driven rather than task-driven manner. More broadly, these findings suggest that cultural values dynamically shape neural representations during the evaluation, rather than the detection, of self-relevant information.

  8. Activation of midbrain and ventral striatal regions implicates salience processing during a modified beads task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Esslinger

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metacognition, i.e. critically reflecting on and monitoring one's own reasoning, has been linked behaviorally to the emergence of delusions and is a focus of cognitive therapy in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the neural processing underlying metacognitive function. To address this issue, we studied brain activity during a modified beads task which has been used to measure a "Jumping to Conclusions" (JTC bias in schizophrenia patients. METHODS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify neural systems active in twenty-five healthy subjects when solving a modified version of the "beads task", which requires a probabilistic decision after a variable amount of data has been requested by the participants. We assessed brain activation over the duration of a trial and at the time point of decision making. RESULTS: Analysis of activation during the whole process of probabilistic reasoning showed an extended network including the prefronto-parietal executive functioning network as well as medial parieto-occipital regions. During the decision process alone, activity in midbrain and ventral striatum was detected, as well as in thalamus, medial occipital cortex and anterior insula. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that probabilistic reasoning shares neural substrates with executive functions. In addition, our finding that brain regions commonly associated with salience processing are active during probabilistic reasoning identifies a candidate mechanism that could underlie the behavioral link between dopamine-dependent aberrant salience and JTC in schizophrenia. Further studies with delusional schizophrenia patients will have to be performed to substantiate this link.

  9. Human left ventral premotor cortex mediates matching of hand posture to object use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Vingerhoets

    Full Text Available Visuomotor transformations for grasping have been associated with a fronto-parietal network in the monkey brain. The human homologue of the parietal monkey region (AIP has been identified as the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus (aIPS, whereas the putative human equivalent of the monkey frontal region (F5 is located in the ventral part of the premotor cortex (vPMC. Results from animal studies suggest that monkey F5 is involved in the selection of appropriate hand postures relative to the constraints of the task. In humans, the functional roles of aIPS and vPMC appear to be more complex and the relative contribution of each region to grasp selection remains uncertain. The present study aimed to identify modulation in brain areas sensitive to the difficulty level of tool object - hand posture matching. Seventeen healthy right handed participants underwent fMRI while observing pictures of familiar tool objects followed by pictures of hand postures. The task was to decide whether the hand posture matched the functional use of the previously shown object. Conditions were manipulated for level of difficulty. Compared to a picture matching control task, the tool object - hand posture matching conditions conjointly showed increased modulation in several left hemispheric regions of the superior and inferior parietal lobules (including aIPS, the middle occipital gyrus, and the inferior temporal gyrus. Comparison of hard versus easy conditions selectively modulated the left inferior frontal gyrus with peak activity located in its opercular part (Brodmann area (BA 44. We suggest that in the human brain, vPMC/BA44 is involved in the matching of hand posture configurations in accordance with visual and functional demands.

  10. Temporal lobe epilepsy and surgery selectively alter the dorsal, not the ventral, default-mode network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelle Eve Doucet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The default-mode network (DMN is a major resting-state network. It can be divided in 2 distinct networks: one is composed of dorsal and anterior regions (referred to as the dorsal DMN, dDMN, while the other involves the more posterior regions (referred to as the ventral DMN, vDMN. To date, no studies have investigated the potentially distinct impact of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE on these networks. In this context, we explored the effect of TLE and anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL on the dDMN and vDMN. We utilized 2 resting-state fMRI sessions from left, right TLE patients (pre-/post-surgery and normal controls (NCs, sessions 1/2. Using independent component analysis, we identified the 2 networks. We then evaluated for differences in spatial extent for each network between the groups, and across the scanning sessions. The results revealed that, pre-surgery, the dDMN showed larger differences between the three groups than the vDMN, and more particularly between right and left TLE than between the TLE patients and controls. In terms of change post-surgery, in both TLE groups, the dDMN also demonstrated larger changes than the vDMN. For the vDMN, the only changes involved the resected temporal lobe for each ATL group. For the dDMN, the left ATL group showed post-surgical increases in several regions outside the ictal temporal lobe. In contrast, the right ATL group displayed a large reduction in the frontal cortex. The results highlight that the 2 DMNs are not impacted by TLE and ATL in an equivalent fashion. Importantly, the dDMN was the more affected, with right ATL having a more deleterious effects on the dDMN than left ATL. We are the first to highlight that the dDMN more strongly bears the negative impact of TLE than the vDMN, suggesting there is an interaction between the side of pathology and DM subnetwork activity. Our findings have implications for understanding the impact TLE and subsequent ATL on the functions implemented by the distinct

  11. Disconnectivity between Dorsal Raphe Nucleus and Posterior Cingulate Cortex in Later Life Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikazu Ikuta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN has been repeatedly implicated as having a significant relationship with depression, along with its serotoninergic innervation. However, functional connectivity of the DRN in depression is not well understood. The current study aimed to isolate functional connectivity of the DRN distinct in later life depression (LLD compared to a healthy age-matched population. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI data from 95 participants (33 LLD and 62 healthy were collected to examine functional connectivity from the DRN to the whole brain in voxel-wise fashion. The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC bilaterally showed significantly smaller connectivity in the LLD group than the control group. The DRN to PCC connectivity did not show any association with the depressive status. The findings implicate that the LLD involves disruption of serotoninergic input to the PCC, which has been suggested to be a part of the reduced default mode network in depression.

  12. Diffusion tensor imaging reveals thalamus and posterior cingulate cortex abnormalities in internet gaming addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; DeVito, Elise; Huang, Jie; Du, Xiaoxia

    2012-09-01

    Internet gaming addiction (IGA) is increasingly recognized as a widespread disorder with serious psychological and health consequences. Diminished white matter integrity has been demonstrated in a wide range of other addictive disorders which share clinical characteristics with IGA. Abnormal white matter integrity in addictive populations has been associated with addiction severity, treatment response and cognitive impairments. This study assessed white matter integrity in individuals with internet gaming addiction (IGA) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). IGA subjects (N = 16) showed higher fractional anisotropy (FA), indicating greater white matter integrity, in the thalamus and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) relative to healthy controls (N = 15). Higher FA in the thalamus was associated with greater severity of internet addiction. Increased regional FA in individuals with internet gaming addiction may be a pre-existing vulnerability factor for IGA, or may arise secondary to IGA, perhaps as a direct result of excessive internet game playing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biochemistry of the cingulate cortex in autism: An MR spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libero, Lauren E; Reid, Meredith A; White, David M; Salibi, Nouha; Lahti, Adrienne C; Kana, Rajesh K

    2016-06-01

    Neuroimaging studies have uncovered structural and functional alterations in the cingulate cortex in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Such abnormalities may underlie neurochemical imbalance. In order to characterize the neurochemical profile, the current study examined the concentration of brain metabolites in dorsal ACC (dACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in high-functioning adults with ASD. Twenty high-functioning adults with ASD and 20 age-and-IQ-matched typically developing (TD) peers participated in this Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) study. LCModel was used in analyzing the spectra to measure the levels of N-Acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and glutamate/glutamine (Glx) in dACC and PCC. Groups were compared using means for the ratio of each metabolite to their respective Cr levels as well as on absolute internal-water-referenced measures of each metabolite. There was a significant increase in Cho in PCC for ASD adults, with a marginal increase in dACC. A reduction in NAA/Cr in dACC was found in ASD participants, compared to their TD peers. No significant differences in Glx/Cr or Cho/Cr were found in dACC. There were no statistically significant group differences in the absolute concentration of NAA, Cr, Glx, or NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and Glx/Cr in the PCC. Differences in the metabolic properties of dACC compared to PCC were also found. Results of this study provide evidence for possible cellular and metabolic differences in the dACC and PCC in adults with ASD. This may suggest neuronal dysfunction in these regions and may contribute to the neuropathology of ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 643-657. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Anterior ankle arthroscopy, distraction or dorsiflexion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, P.A.J.; Golanó, P.; Clavero, J.A.; van Dijk, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior ankle arthroscopy can basically be performed by two different methods; the dorsiflexion- or distraction method. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the anterior working area for both the dorsiflexion and distraction method. The anterior working area is anteriorly

  15. Amygdala and Ventral Striatum Make Distinct Contributions to Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vincent D; Dal Monte, Olga; Lucas, Daniel R; Murray, Elisabeth A; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2016-10-19

    Reinforcement learning (RL) theories posit that dopaminergic signals are integrated within the striatum to associate choices with outcomes. Often overlooked is that the amygdala also receives dopaminergic input and is involved in Pavlovian processes that influence choice behavior. To determine the relative contributions of the ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala to appetitive RL, we tested rhesus macaques with VS or amygdala lesions on deterministic and stochastic versions of a two-arm bandit reversal learning task. When learning was characterized with an RL model relative to controls, amygdala lesions caused general decreases in learning from positive feedback and choice consistency. By comparison, VS lesions only affected learning in the stochastic task. Moreover, the VS lesions hastened the monkeys' choice reaction times, which emphasized a speed-accuracy trade-off that accounted for errors in deterministic learning. These results update standard accounts of RL by emphasizing distinct contributions of the amygdala and VS to RL. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Cognitive Neurostimulation: Learning to Volitionally Sustain Ventral Tegmental Area Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnes, Jeff J.; Dickerson, Kathryn C.; Chen, Nan-kuei; Adcock, R. Alison

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and mesolimbic networks is essential to motivation, performance, and learning. Humans routinely attempt to motivate themselves, with unclear efficacy or impact on VTA networks. Using fMRI, we found untrained participants’ motivational strategies failed to consistently activate VTA. After real-time VTA neurofeedback training, however, participants volitionally induced VTA activation without external aids, relative to baseline, Pre-Test, and control groups. VTA self-activation was accompanied by increased mesolimbic network connectivity. Among two comparison groups (no neurofeedback, false neurofeedback) and an alternate neurofeedback group (nucleus accumbens), none sustained activation in target regions of interest nor increased VTA functional connectivity. The results comprise two novel demonstrations: learning and generalization after VTA neurofeedback training and the ability to sustain VTA activation without external reward or reward cues. These findings suggest theoretical alignment of ideas about motivation and midbrain physiology and the potential for generalizable interventions to improve performance and learning. PMID:26948894

  17. Ventral striatal activity links adversity and reward processing in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki H. Kamkar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adversity impacts many aspects of psychological and physical development including reward-based learning and decision-making. Mechanisms relating adversity and reward processing in children, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that adversity is associated with potentiated learning from positive outcomes and impulsive decision-making, but unrelated to learning from negative outcomes. We then show via functional magnetic resonance imaging that the link between adversity and reward processing is partially mediated by differences in ventral striatal response to rewards. The findings suggest that early-life adversity is associated with alterations in the brain’s sensitivity to rewards accounting, in part, for the link between adversity and altered reward processing in children.

  18. Neurons controlling voluntary vocalization in the macaque ventral premotor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Coudé

    Full Text Available The voluntary control of phonation is a crucial achievement in the evolution of speech. In humans, ventral premotor cortex (PMv and Broca's area are known to be involved in voluntary phonation. In contrast, no neurophysiological data are available about the role of the oro-facial sector of nonhuman primates PMv in this function. In order to address this issue, we recorded PMv neurons from two monkeys trained to emit coo-calls. Results showed that a population of motor neurons specifically fire during vocalization. About two thirds of them discharged before sound onset, while the remaining were time-locked with it. The response of vocalization-selective neurons was present only during conditioned (voluntary but not spontaneous (emotional sound emission. These data suggest that the control of vocal production exerted by PMv neurons constitutes a newly emerging property in the monkey lineage, shedding light on the evolution of phonation-based communication from a nonhuman primate species.

  19. Functional specialization in dorsal and ventral premotor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Eiji; Tanji, Jun

    2004-01-01

    The premotor cortex (PM) in the bilateral lateral hemisphere of nonhuman primates and the human has been implicated in the sensorial guidance of movements. This is in contrast to more medial motor areas that are involved more in the temporal structuring of movements based on memorized information. The PM is further subdivided into dorsal (PMd) and ventral (PMv) parts. In this chapter, we describe our attempts to find differences in the use of these two areas in a nonhuman primate for programming future motor actions based on visual signals. We show that neurons in the PMv are involved primarily in receiving visuospatial signals and in specifying the spatial location of the target to be reached. In contrast, neurons in the PMd are involved more in integrating information about which arm to use and the target to be reached. Thus, PMd neurons are more implicated than those of the PMv in the preparation for a future motor action.

  20. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    , and general well-being were obtained from each patient. Follow-up was six months. Average pain from postoperative day (POD) 0-2 and POD 0-6 measured on a 0-100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) was 61 and 48, respectively. Pain scores reached preoperative values at POD 30. The incidence of severe chronic pain...... to group assignment. The primary outcome was average pain from POD 0-2 (VAS score). Secondary outcome parameters were fatigue, general well-being and time to resume normal daily activity. Follow-up was one month for all. Patients in the FS group reported significantly less pain at POD 0-2 (median VAS 38...... satisfaction. This issue must have first priority in future ventral hernia repair research. It is now documented, that the simple application of fibrin glue instead of titanium tacks for mesh fixation in LVHR of defects period of convalescence. Long...

  1. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    2011-01-01

    , and general well-being were obtained from each patient. Follow-up was six months. Average pain from postoperative day (POD) 0-2 and POD 0-6 measured on a 0-100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) was 61 and 48, respectively. Pain scores reached preoperative values at POD 30. The incidence of severe chronic pain...... to group assignment. The primary outcome was average pain from POD 0-2 (VAS score). Secondary outcome parameters were fatigue, general well-being and time to resume normal daily activity. Follow-up was one month for all. Patients in the FS group reported significantly less pain at POD 0-2 (median VAS 38...... satisfaction. This issue must have first priority in future ventral hernia repair research. It is now documented, that the simple application of fibrin glue instead of titanium tacks for mesh fixation in LVHR of defects period of convalescence. Long...

  2. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    Severe pain is usual after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR). Mesh fixation with titanium tacks may play a key role in the development of acute and chronic pain and alternative fixation methods should therefore be investigated. This PhD thesis was based on three studies and aimed too: 1...... histological parameters. In Study III - a randomised, controlled, double-blinded, multicenter trial - 40 patients with umbilical hernia defects between 1.5-5 cm, were randomly assigned to receive FS or titanium tacks for mesh fixation in LVHR. Patients, care givers and those assessing the outcomes were blinded...... difference was found in fatigue score between groups. No significant difference in hospital stay, hernia diameter, or morphine consumption in the post anesthesia care unit was found between groups. Patients in the FS group resumed normal daily activity at POD 7 (1-66) versus POD 18 (1-95) in the tack group...

  3. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    2011-01-01

    Severe pain is usual after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR). Mesh fixation with titanium tacks may play a key role in the development of acute and chronic pain and alternative fixation methods should therefore be investigated. This PhD thesis was based on three studies and aimed too: 1...... histological parameters. In Study III - a randomised, controlled, double-blinded, multicenter trial - 40 patients with umbilical hernia defects between 1.5-5 cm, were randomly assigned to receive FS or titanium tacks for mesh fixation in LVHR. Patients, care givers and those assessing the outcomes were blinded...... difference was found in fatigue score between groups. No significant difference in hospital stay, hernia diameter, or morphine consumption in the post anesthesia care unit was found between groups. Patients in the FS group resumed normal daily activity at POD 7 (1-66) versus POD 18 (1-95) in the tack group...

  4. Dorsal and ventral striatal protein synthesis inhibition affect reinforcer valuation but not the consolidation of instrumental learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, Sietse; Everitt, Barry J

    2011-10-01

    The evidence for a role of the striatum in the acquisition of uncued instrumental responding is ambiguous. It has been shown that post-session infusions of anisomycin into the core of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) impaired instrumental acquisition, but pre-training lesions of the NAcc suggest that it is not necessary. Recently, we demonstrated that the infusion of anisomycin into the anterior cingulate cortex impaired instrumental acquisition indirectly through a taste aversion. Thus, we hypothesized that post-session anisomycin infusions into the NAcc affected instrumental acquisition through an effect on reinforcer valuation. For the dorsal striatum, both post-session infusions of anisomycin and pre-training lesion studies suggest that neither the dorsolateral nor the dorsomedial striatum is necessary for the acquisition of instrumental responding. However, it has not been attempted to block plasticity in both regions concurrently, and we hypothesized that both regions independently contribute to acquisition through goal-directed and habitual learning. In the current experiments, we first replicated the effect of unprotected post-session anisomycin infusions into the NAcc on instrumental acquisition. Subsequently, we investigated the effect of protein synthesis inhibition in the NAcc and dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum concurrently on instrumental acquisition, critically controlling for effects on reinforcer valuation. The anisomycin infusions induced an aversive state, but did not affect instrumental acquisition.

  5. The increased cost of ventral hernia recurrence: a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, D G; Parikh, N; Frelich, M J; Goldblatt, M I

    2016-12-01

    Over 300,000 ventral hernia repairs (VHRs) are performed each year in the US. We sought to assess the economic burden related to ventral hernia recurrences with a focused comparison of those with the initial open versus laparoscopic surgery. The Premier Alliance database from 2009 to 2014 was utilized to obtain patient demographics and comorbid indices, including the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Total hospital cost and resource expenses during index laparoscopic and open VHRs and subsequent recurrent repairs were also obtained. The sample was separated into laparoscopic and open repair groups from the initial operation. Adjusted and propensity score matched cost outcome data were then compared amongst groups. One thousand and seventy-seven patients were used for the analysis with a recurrence rate of 3.78 %. For the combined sample, costs were significantly higher during recurrent hernia repair hospitalization ($21,726 versus $19,484, p cost and department level costs were similar during the index and the recurrent visit. The costs and resource utilization did not go up due to recurrence, even though these patients had greater severity during the recurrent visit (CCI score 0.92 versus 1.06; p = 0.0092). Using a matched sample, the total hospital recurrence cost was higher for the initial open group compared to laparoscopic group ($14,520 versus $12,649; p = 0.0454). Based on our analysis, need for recurrent VHR adds substantially to total hospital costs and resource utilization. Following initial laparoscopic repair, however, the total cost of recurrent repair is not significantly increased, as it is following initial open repair. When comparing the initial laparoscopic repair versus open, the cost of recurrence was higher for the prior open repair group.

  6. Art for reward's sake: visual art recruits the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Simon; Hagtvedt, Henrik; Patrick, Vanessa M; Anderson, Amy; Stilla, Randall; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Hu, Xiaoping; Sato, João R; Reddy, Srinivas; Sathian, K

    2011-03-01

    A recent study showed that people evaluate products more positively when they are physically associated with art images than similar non-art images. Neuroimaging studies of visual art have investigated artistic style and esthetic preference but not brain responses attributable specifically to the artistic status of images. Here we tested the hypothesis that the artistic status of images engages reward circuitry, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during viewing of art and non-art images matched for content. Subjects made animacy judgments in response to each image. Relative to non-art images, art images activated, on both subject- and item-wise analyses, reward-related regions: the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and orbitofrontal cortex. Neither response times nor ratings of familiarity or esthetic preference for art images correlated significantly with activity that was selective for art images, suggesting that these variables were not responsible for the art-selective activations. Investigation of effective connectivity, using time-varying, wavelet-based, correlation-purged Granger causality analyses, further showed that the ventral striatum was driven by visual cortical regions when viewing art images but not non-art images, and was not driven by regions that correlated with esthetic preference for either art or non-art images. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis, leading us to propose that the appeal of visual art involves activation of reward circuitry based on artistic status alone and independently of its hedonic value. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Suture, synthetic, or biologic in contaminated ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondre, Ioana L; Holihan, Julie L; Askenasy, Erik P; Greenberg, Jacob A; Keith, Jerrod N; Martindale, Robert G; Roth, J Scott; Liang, Mike K

    2016-02-01

    Data are lacking to support the choice between suture, synthetic mesh, or biologic matrix in contaminated ventral hernia repair (VHR). We hypothesize that in contaminated VHR, suture repair is associated with the lowest rate of surgical site infection (SSI). A multicenter database of all open VHR performed at from 2010-2011 was reviewed. All patients with follow-up of 1 mo and longer were included. The primary outcome was SSI as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The secondary outcome was hernia recurrence (assessed clinically or radiographically). Multivariate analysis (stepwise regression for SSI and Cox proportional hazard model for recurrence) was performed. A total of 761 VHR were reviewed for a median (range) follow-up of 15 (1-50) mo: there were 291(38%) suture, 303 (40%) low-density and/or mid-density synthetic mesh, and 167(22%) biologic matrix repair. On univariate analysis, there were differences in the three groups including ethnicity, ASA, body mass index, institution, diabetes, primary versus incisional hernia, wound class, hernia size, prior VHR, fascial release, skin flaps, and acute repair. The unadjusted outcomes for SSI (15.1%; 17.8%; 21.0%; P = 0.280) and recurrence (17.8%; 13.5%; 21.5%; P = 0.074) were not statistically different between groups. On multivariate analysis, biologic matrix was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in both SSI and recurrences, whereas synthetic mesh associated with fewer recurrences compared to suture (hazard ratio = 0.60; P = 0.015) and nonsignificant increase in SSI. Interval estimates favored biologic matrix repair in contaminated VHR; however, these results were not statistically significant. In the absence of higher level evidence, surgeons should carefully balance risk, cost, and benefits in managing contaminated ventral hernia repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prey selection of a captive Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus hammering Mussels Mytilus edulis from the ventral side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ens, Bruno J.; Alting, D

    1996-01-01

    We studied prey choice of a captive Oystercatcher:hat hammered Mussels from the ventral side. The results replicate previous findings that ventral hammerers select Mussels of intermediate size, select against thick-shelled Mussels, abandon an increasing proportion of Mussels with increasing size and

  9. The Role of the Ventral and Dorsal Pathways in Reading Chinese Characters and English Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yafeng; Yang, Yanhui; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Li; Peng, Danling

    2011-01-01

    Previous literature in alphabetic languages suggests that the occipital-temporal region (the ventral pathway) is specialized for automatic parallel word recognition, whereas the parietal region (the dorsal pathway) is specialized for serial letter-by-letter reading (and). However, few studies have directly examined the role of the ventral and…

  10. Deep neural networks reveal a gradient in the complexity of neural representations across the ventral stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güçlü, U.; Gerven, M.A.J. van

    2015-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that the primate ventral visual pathway encodes increasingly complex stimulus features in downstream areas. We quantitatively show that there indeed exists an explicit gradient for feature complexity in the ventral pathway of the human brain. This was achieved by mapping

  11. Methylphenidate-induced activation of the anterior cingulate but not the striatum : A [O-15] H2OPET study in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haes, Joanna I. Udo; Maguire, R. Paul; Jager, Piet L.; Paans, Anne M. J.; den Boer, Johan A.

    The dopaminergic system has been implicated in the pathogenesis and treatment of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, and addiction. (Dys)function of the dopaminergic system may be studied by combining [O-15]H2O PET with a dopaminergic drug challenge. In this

  12. Low docosahexaenoic acid status is associated with reduced indices in cortical integrity in the anterior cingulate of healthy male children: A 1H MRS Study

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Robert K.; Jandacek, Ronald; Tso, Patrick; Weber, Wade; Chu, Wen-Jang; Strakowski, Stephen M.; Adler, Caleb M.; DelBello, Melissa P.

    2013-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is the principal omega-3 fatty acid in mammalian brain gray matter, and emerging preclinical evidence suggests that DHA has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties. This study investigated relationships among DHA status, neurocognitive performance, and cortical metabolism measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in healthy developing male children (aged 8–10 years, n = 38). Subjects were segregated into low-DHA (n = 19) and high-DHA...

  13. Negative BOLD response and serotonin concentration within rostral subgenual portion of the anterior cingulate cortex for long-allele carriers during perceptual processing of emotional tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Shamil M.; Siadat, Mohamad R.; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the effect of synaptic serotonin concentration on