Ferrer Martí, Ivet; Gamiz, M; De Almeida, M; A. Ruiz
Parque Porcino de Ventanilla has an extension of 840 ha with 2200 farmers dedicated to pig production. There is a lack of services in the area (i.e., water supply, electricity, or waste collection). Anaerobic treatment of pig manure would replace current dumping and incineration, reducing environmental pollution and hazards to public health, as well as providing an organic fertilizer and biogas. The objective of the present work was to study the viability of ambient temperature anaerobic dige...
Ferrer, I; Gamiz, M; Almeida, M; Ruiz, A
Parque Porcino de Ventanilla has an extension of 840ha with 2200 farmers dedicated to pig production. There is a lack of services in the area (i.e., water supply, electricity, or waste collection). Anaerobic treatment of pig manure would replace current dumping and incineration, reducing environmental pollution and hazards to public health, as well as providing an organic fertilizer and biogas. The objective of the present work was to study the viability of ambient temperature anaerobic digestion of pig manure diluted in urine, by means of on-site pilot scale reactors. The final goal was to establish design parameters for anaerobic digesters to be implemented; since it was part of a project to improve life conditions for the farmers through the incorporation of better management techniques. Experiments were carried out in a low-cost pilot plant, which consists of three anaerobic digesters (225L total volume), without heating or agitation, placed in a greenhouse. The start-up of the digestion process was performed with a mixture of temperature adapted pig manure-sludge and fresh rumen, and showed a good performance regardless of the dilution of pig manure with water or urine, which is a key parameter due to the scarcity of water in the area under study.
Maroye, Stephane; Aerssens, Andre [Tractebel Engineering, Lima (Peru)
In May 2002, Suez-Tractebel was awarded by the government of Peru a 30-year concession for the construction and operation of the gas distribution network in Lima, Peru. On 10 July, 2004, first gas was delivered to Lima, 1 month ahead of the official date. This gas distribution network, operated by GNLC (Gas Natural de Lima y Callao), delivers gas to some of the largest industries and power generators in and around Lima and the harbour area of Callao. Gas delivered in Lima comes through a 700 km HP gas pipeline from Camisea fields. This pipeline is operated by TGP (Transportadora de Gas del Peru). A City Gate is located at Lurin, on the southern side of the city. The gas distribution network is made of a 62 km main pipeline (20') with 25 km laterals. The main pipeline is operated at 50 bar, as the main customer, the Etevensa power plant, is located on the northern side of the city. Due to this high operating pressure combined to the surroundings, specific design philosophies were adopted to meet the extreme safety requirements. This paper highlights the specific measures taken during construction phase and the experience of the first months of operation of this challenging project. (author)
José Pérez Z.
Full Text Available We report four species of terrestrial reptiles, a geckonid (Phyllodactlus cf. microphyllus, two lizards (Microlophus peruvianus and M. tigris and one snake (Pseudalsophis elegans from San Lorenzo island, Departament of Lima, Peru. Herein, we report the first record of “Loma’s lizard” M. tigris and the snake P. elegans in Peruvian islands. The presence of Lomas herbaceous and the considerable extent of San Lorenzo island can explain the relatively high species richness of terrestrial reptiles on the island.
Zevallos, Samanta; Elías, Roberto K; Berenguel, Raúl A; Weaver, Thomas J; Reading, Richard P
The Peruvian Andes are the home of 27 species of frogs of the genus Telmatobius, many of which are critically endangered. Illegal trade of adult frogs for purported medical properties likely represents the major threat facing these species. This activity, besides reducing their populations, may contribute to the dissemination of the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes chytridiomycosis, a disease posing a threat to many populations of amphibians. We screened frogs confiscated by the Administration of Forestry and Wildlife in Lima, Peru, for Bd. We used real-time PCR to diagnose Bd at the Laboratory of Wildlife, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnics, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, in Lima and Pisces Molecular Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado, US. Of 62 samples collected during this study, 60% (37) were PCR positive for Bd, confirming that illegal trade of amphibians can pose a risk for disseminating Bd.
Wynn, Adriane; Cabeza, Jeanne; Adachi, Kristina; Needleman, Jack; Garcia, Patricia J; Klausner, Jeffrey D
This study describes the pregnancy and birth outcomes at two hospitals in Lima, Peru. The data collection and analysis is intended to inform patients, providers, and policy makers on Peru's progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals and to help set priorities for action and further research. Data were collected retrospectively from a sample of 237 women who delivered between December 2012 and September 2013 at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal or the Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza. The outcomes were recorded by a trained mid-wife through telephone interviews with patients and by review of hospital records. Associations between participant demographic characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were tested with Chi-squared, Fisher's exact, or Student's t-test. Over 37% of women experienced at least one maternal or perinatal complication, and the most frequent were hypertension/preeclampsia and macrosomia. The women in our sample had a cesarean section rate of 50.2%. Maternal and perinatal complications are not uncommon among women in the lower socioeconomic strata of Lima. Also, the high cesarean rate underpins the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the indications for cesarean section deliveries, which could help reduce the number of unnecessary procedures and preventable complications.
Full Text Available This study describes the pregnancy and birth outcomes at two hospitals in Lima, Peru. The data collection and analysis is intended to inform patients, providers, and policy makers on Peru's progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals and to help set priorities for action and further research.Data were collected retrospectively from a sample of 237 women who delivered between December 2012 and September 2013 at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal or the Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza. The outcomes were recorded by a trained mid-wife through telephone interviews with patients and by review of hospital records. Associations between participant demographic characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were tested with Chi-squared, Fisher's exact, or Student's t-test.Over 37% of women experienced at least one maternal or perinatal complication, and the most frequent were hypertension/preeclampsia and macrosomia. The women in our sample had a cesarean section rate of 50.2%.Maternal and perinatal complications are not uncommon among women in the lower socioeconomic strata of Lima. Also, the high cesarean rate underpins the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the indications for cesarean section deliveries, which could help reduce the number of unnecessary procedures and preventable complications.
... International Trade Administration Automotive Trade Mission to Bogota, Colombia and Lima, Peru, April 26-30... (USCS) posts in Bogota, Colombia and Lima, Peru will organize a Business Development Mission April 26-30... will be on hand to discuss market trends and opportunities in Colombia and Peru. Commercial Setting The...
Pantenburg, Birte; Ochoa, Theresa J; Ecker, Lucie; Ruiz, Joaquim
Caregivers' practices concerning oral rehydration of young children during diarrheal illness were investigated in a periurban community of low socioeconomic level in Lima, Peru. Data of 330 caregivers of children aged 6-36 months were analyzed; 72.7% of all caregivers would give commercially available oral rehydration solutions (ORSs). However, only 58.6% of those caregivers with children that had experienced diarrhea during the previous week stated that they had used commercially available ORSs, a significantly lower percentage. The main reason for not using commercially available ORSs was that caregivers did not know about them. Of all recipes caregivers provided for homemade ORS, none contained the recommended concentrations of sugar and salt. Educating caregivers about availability, benefits, and use of commercially available ORSs as well as correct preparation of homemade ORS is urgently needed.
Montes, M; Duran, R
Among lower-class youth in Lima, Peru, sexual activity is frequently initiated at 12 or 13 years of age, with little knowledge about pregnancy prevention or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Parents may send young boys to brothels, and sexual activity is often associated with alcohol drinking. Few young people receive guidance about sex from their parents, and most cases of sexual abuse are not disclosed. Young women who become pregnant often leave school, and many are banished from their parents' homes. Recommended, to address these issues, are formally scheduled times in the school schedule for students to discuss their sexual and emotional problems; school-based audiovisual presentations by neighborhood youth programs; opportunities, through neighborhood centers, health centers, and schools, for parents and children to talk to each other; and peer counseling in the schools on topics such as equality in relationships, pregnancy prevention, and sexuality.
Contreras-Pulache, Hans; Mori-Quispe, Elizabeth; Hinostroza-Camposano, Willy D; Yancachajlla-Apaza, Maribel; Lam-Figueroa, Nelly; Chacón-Torrico, Horacio
To determine the characteristics of violence seen in pregnant teenagers who were treated at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal (INMP) in Lima, Peru. A cross-sectional study was carried out by INMP between January and March, 2010 using a probabilistic and systematic sampling. The study unit comprises every hospitalized teenager who had just given birth and who lived in Lima. A semi-structured interview was conducted. History of violence was operationalized into: verbal violence (insults, ridicule, and humiliation), physical violence (arm pulling, hair pulling, pushes), direct aggression (slaps, kicking, burns) and sexual violence (sexual intercourse without consent). 292 teenage mothers aged 16,5 ± 1 in average took part in the study. 47.9% lived with their partners and 51.4% were single. In 97.3% of the cases, they got pregnant as a result of a conserted sexual relationship, while 2.7% got pregnant as a result of rape. 90.1% of teenage mothers reported not having planned the pregnancy. Conserning history of violence: 48.1% had had verbal violence, 17.1% physical violence, 8.2% direct aggression and 6.8% sexual violence. Violence during teenage pregnancy is not an isolated event; actually, it is rather common in any of its forms.
Lachos, A. [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Departamento de Radioterapia, Av. Angamos Este 2520, Surquillo, Lima (Peru); Marquez, J. F., E-mail: email@example.com [Univesidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, C. German Amezaga 375, Ciudad Univesitaria, Lima (Peru)
The radiological accident happened in the Chilca District, the Canete County at 60 km to the south of Lima-Peru, during the night of January 11 to 12, 2012. The physical reconstruction of the accident was carried out in January 21, 2012, by means of the information gathering administrative and technical of the radioactive source as well as of the installation, the personnel and the involved procedures in the accidental event, information of the space geometry where the event took place. The preliminary information indicates that the source could have been locked in the guide tube of the equipment, next to the collimator in the first takes radiographic. The radiation monitors were not activated on the procedure, impeding this way, not to realize the flaw and causing that the personnel were exposed to the radiation during the whole work period. Their hands and especially their fingers would have been only to some millimeters of the source. With the obtained information and the measurements of the exposure rates of the radioactive source, was carried out the dose calculation to total body, the dose received in the hands and the dose received in the index finger of the left hand. The accident happened by operative procedure breach, by lack of training of the operators. The physical reconstruction of the accident contributes fundamental information for the decisions taking in the medical management of the accidents by radiation. (author)
Revilla, Luis; Dirección General de Epidemiología, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico epidemiólogo; López, Tania; Dirección General de Epidemiología, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico epidemiólogo, magíster en Gerencia y Gobierno, doctor en Salud Pública; Sánchez, Sixto; Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo. Lima, Perú. médico ginecólogo obstetra, magíster en Epidemiología, doctor en Salud Pública; Yasuda, Myriam; Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico patólogo clínico; Sanjinés, Giovanna; Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. licenciada en Tecnología Médica
Objectives. To determine the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes in residents of districts in metropolitan Lima and Callao, Peru. Materials and methods. This was a cross-sectional study conducted during September 2006 in people aged 15 years and older, residing in metropolitan Lima and Callao. Participants were selected using a sample of “conglomerados” (neighborhoods) in three stages. Standardized procedures were used to measure weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure and blo...
Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Ramos, Mariana; Samalvides, Frine; Vega-Dienstmaier, Johann; Kruger, Hever
Traffic related injuries are leading contributors to burden of disease worldwide. In developing countries a high proportion of them can be attributed to public transportation vehicles. Several mental disorders including alcohol and drug abuse, psychotic disorders, mental stress, productivity pressure, and low monetary income were found predictors of high rates of traffic related injuries in public transportation drivers. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders in the population of public transportation drivers of buses and rickshaws in Lima, Peru. Cross sectional study. A sample of bus and rickshaw drivers was systematically selected from formal public transportation companies using a snowball approach. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires for assessing major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms, alcohol abuse, and burnout syndrome. Socio demographic information was also collected. The analyses consisted of descriptive measurement of outcomes taking into account both between and within cluster standard deviation (BCSD and WCSD). A total of 278 bus and 227 rickshaw drivers out of 25 companies agreed to participate in the study. BCSD for major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome was not found significant (p>0.05). The estimated prevalence of each variable was 13.7% (IC95%: 10.7-16.6%), 24.1% (IC95%: 19.4-28.8%) and 14.1% (IC95%: 10.8-17.4%) respectively. The estimated prevalence of alcohol abuse was 75.4% (IC95%: 69-81.7%, BCSD = 12.2%, WCSD = 41.9%, intra class correlation (ICC): 7.8%). Common mental disorders such as alcohol abuse, major depressive episode, anxiety symptoms and burnout syndrome presented higher rates in public transportation drivers than general population.
Morales, S.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van
This study investigates socio-cultural cognitive literacy predictors for reading literacy (RL), tested in 314 fourth graders from two different levels of social economic status in Lima, Peru. The following variables were tested as predictors: word decoding, vocabulary, motivation to read, reading
This article discusses youth engagement in local environmental action in a peripheral settlement in Lima, Peru. Urban local environmental action is analysed in terms of the so-called "brown agenda", covering issues as the provision of drinking water and sanitation, waste collection, the paving of
Lopez Lamerain, Constanza
El III Concilio de Lima (1582-1583) fue una asamblea provincial decisiva para America del sur, ya que produjo una importante normativa evangelizadora para la Provincia eclesiastica del Peru, destinada a subsanar las falencias...
Ochoa, Theresa J.; Bautista, Rossana; Dávila, Carmen; Salazar, José Antonio; Bazán, Carlos; Guerra, Oscar; Llanos, Jean Pierre; López, Luis; Zea-Vera, Alonso; Ecker, Lucie
We conducted a prospective cohort study in four hospitals in Lima, Peru in infants with a birth weight ≤ 1,500 g followed from birth hospital discharge up to 1 year of age to determine the incidence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalizations. We enrolled 222 infants from March of 2009 to March of 2010: 48 infants with a birth weight hospitalizations was 116.2 per 1,000 child-years (244.9 in infants with a birth weight hospitalization is high among pre-mature infants in Lima. PMID:25294617
Kalra, N.; Groves, D.; Bonzanigo, L.; Molina-Perez, E.
Lima, the capital of Peru, faces significant water stress. It is the fifth largest metropolitan area in Latin America, and the second largest desert city in the world. The city has developed a Master Plan of major investment projects to improve water reliability until 2040. Yet key questions remain. Is the Master Plan sufficient for ensuring reliability in the face of deeply uncertain future climate change and demand? How do uncertain budget and project feasibility conditions shape Lima's options? How should the investments in the plan be prioritized, and can some be delayed? Lima is not alone in facing these planning challenges. Governments invest billions of dollars annually in long-term projects. Yet deep uncertainties pose formidable challenges to making near-term decisions that make long-term sense. The World Bank has spearheaded a community of practice on methods for Decision Making Under Deep Uncertainty (DMU). This pilot project in Peru is the first in-depth application of DMU techniques to water supply planning in a developing country. It builds on prior analysis done in New York, California, and for the Colorado River, yet shows how these methods can be applied in regions which do not have as advanced data or tools available. The project combines three methods in particular -- Robust Decision Making, Decision Scaling, and Adaptive Pathways -- to help Lima implement its Master Plan in a way that is robust, no-regret, and adaptive. It was done in close partnership with SEDAPAL, the water utility company in Lima, and in coordination with other national WRM and meteorological agencies. This talk will: Present the planning challenges Lima and other cities face, including climate change Describe DMU methodologies and how they were applied in collaboration with SEDAPAL Summarize recommendations for achieving long-term water reliability in Lima Suggest how these methodologies can benefit other investment projects in developing countries.
Bayer, Angela M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsui, Amy O.; Hindin, Michelle J.
This study explores the lives of Peruvian adolescents in a low-income human settlement outside of Lima. Twenty 12-17 year olds were asked to narrate their own life stories using the life history narrative research method. Holistic content analysis was coupled with a grounded-theory approach to explore these data. Intergenerational responsibility,…
Pollock, Lealah; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Sevelius, Jae; Salazar, Ximena
Transgender women in Lima, Peru have, until recently, been grouped together with gay and bisexual men in the category MSM, or men who have sex with men, with little consideration of their unique situation and needs. Transgender women, self-identified in Peru as travesti, are a socially vulnerable population with many unmet health needs, including an HIV prevalence of 30%. Understanding specific transgender identities and their contexts will contribute to the improvement and development of HIV prevention programs. Through qualitative open-ended interviews with trans-identified women in Lima, Peru, this study found that the non-normative travesti identity is constructed within a conservative homophobic and heteronormative social context. Participants strive towards appearances and relationships perceived as feminine, seeking out silicone injections and abusive men as social markers of this femininity. Sex work is the primary economic activity available and travestis are often alienated from their families and communities. Work is needed to increase self-esteem and decrease violence, stigma, and discrimination. There is a need for multilevel HIV prevention campaigns prioritising travesti in Lima, utilising a human rights framework.
Bayer, Angela M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsui, Amy O.; Hindin, Michelle J.
This study explores the lives of Peruvian adolescents in a low-income human settlement outside of Lima. Twenty 12–17 year olds were asked to narrate their own life stories using the life history narrative research method. Holistic content analysis was coupled with a grounded theory approach to explore these data. Intergenerational responsibility, family tensions, economic pressures, racism and violence emerged without prompting and dominated the narrators’ life stories, underscoring the degre...
Pérez Z., José; 1 Laboratorio de Estudios en Biodiversidad, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Perú. 2 Departamento de Herpetología, Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional de San Marcos, Perú.; Lleellish, Miguel; Dirección General de Gestión Sostenible del Patrimonio Forestal y de Fauna Silvestre. Servicio Nacional Forestal y Fauna Silvestre, Ministerio de Agricultura y Riego, Perú.
Se reportan cuatro especies de reptiles terrestres, un gecónido (Phyllodactlus cf. microphyllus), dos lagartijas (Microlophus peruvianus y M. tigris) y una culebra (Pseudalsophis elegans) para la isla San Lorenzo, departamento de Lima, Perú. La lagartija de las Lomas M. tigris y la culebra P. elegans son reportadas por primera vez para las islas del mar peruano. La presencia de lomas de herbáceas y la considerable extensión de la Isla San Lorenzo explicarían la considerablemente alta riqueza ...
Lazo Montoya, Yessenia; Quenaya, Alejandra; Mayta-Tristán, Percy
Eating disorders (EDs) are a public health problem, and their relationship to mass media is still controversial. To assess whether there is an association between models of body image shown in mass media and the risk of developing EDs among female adolescent students from Lima, Peru. Cross-sectional study conducted in three schools located in the district of La Victoria, Lima, Peru. The risk of developing EDs was measured using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), while mass media influence was measured using the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3), which was categorized into tertiles both in the overall score and its subscales (information, pressure, general internalization, and athletic internalization). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) for EDs were estimated. Four hundred and eighty-three students were included, their median age was 14 ? 3 years old. A risk of developing an ED was observed in 13.9% of them. Students who are more influenced by mass media (upper tertile of the SATAQ-3) have a higher probability of having a risk of developing an ED (aPR: 4.24; 95% confidence interval |-CI-|: 2.10-8.56), as well as those who have a greater access to information (PR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.09-3.25), suffer more pressure (PR: 4.97; 95% CI: 2.31-10.69), show a greater general internalization (PR: 5.00; 95% CI: 2.39-10.43), and show a greater level of athletic internalization (PR: 4.35; 95% CI: 2.19-8-66). The greater the influence of mass media, the greater the probability of having a risk of developing an ED among female students from Lima, Peru.
Full Text Available According to the literature, In the context of changes at a global level the formation of new businesses drives the economy, being important start-ups, which are linked to a community of entrepreneurs, mentors, incubators, accelerators, providers of common services, angel investors, venture capitalists, universities and public support entities, which together configure an ecosystem that is linked to other ecosystems. In this way, this work focuses on the Lima, Peru ecosystem with the aim of providing an understanding of the interorganizational networks that are established based on the analysis of the interactions that occur in the LinkedIn social network. Definitions, methodology, results and conclusions are presented.
Gomes M., Angel; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Rivera G., Hermelinda; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima Perú.; Ramírez V., Mercy; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Cardozo Z., Imelda; Servicio Nacional de Sanidad Animal (SENASA), Lima; Manchego S., Alberto; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima
The seroprevalence of caprine artritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in four provinces of Lima Region, Peru was determined in 381 goat serum samples (325 females and 56 males) older than 12 months from 89 flocks reared under intensive (n=3), semiextensive (n=49) and transhumant (n=46) production systems. The detection of antibodies against CAEV was done by a competitive-inhibition ELISA test. The overall seroprevalence of CAEV was 0.26 ± 0.09% (1/381). The seropositive goat belonged to one flock ...
Ruiz Ríos, Albina
El present treball constitueix el producte de la recerca d'una solució integral al greu problema social, econòmic i ambiental en què viuen dia a dia centenars de famílies assentades al Parc Porcí de Ventanilla, a Lima-Perú.S'analitza, s'adapta i fa viable l'aplicació de les tecnologies existents a la utilització de les excretes i orins dels porcs i de les aigües residuals dels habitatges com a matèria primera per a la producció de biogàs i altres subproductes, que serveixin com a: font d'ener...
Rosen, Brian J; Walter, Leora; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrerra, Lilia; Gravitt, Patti E; Marks, Morgan A
The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated head and neck cancers (HNCs) have been increasing in Peru. However, the burden of oral HPV infection in Peru has not been assessed. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of oral HPV infection in a population-based sample from males and females from Lima, Peru. Between January 2010 and June 2011, a population-based sample of 1099 individuals between the ages of 10 and 85 from a low-income neighbourhood in Lima, Peru was identified through random household sampling. Information on demographic, sexual behaviours, reproductive factors and oral hygiene were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Oral rinse specimens were collected from each participant, and these specimens were genotyped using the Roche Linear Array assay. ORs were used to assess differences in the prevalence of any oral HPV and any high-risk oral HPV infection by demographic factors, sexual practices and oral hygiene among individuals 15+ years of age. The prevalence of any HPV and any high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.8% and 2.0%, respectively. The three most common types were HPV 55 (3.4%), HPV 6 (1.5%) and HPV 16 (1.1%). Male sex (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI 1.22 to 4.03) was associated with any HPV infection after adjustment. The prevalence of oral HPV in this study was similar to estimates observed in the USA. Higher prevalence of oral infections in males was consistent with a male predominance of HPV-associated HNCs and may signal a sex-specific aetiology in the natural history of infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Clark, Jesse L; Segura, Eddy R; Montano, Silvia M; Leon, Segundo R; Kochel, Tadeusz; Salvatierra, Hector J; Alcantara, Jorge; Cáceres, Carlos F; Coates, Thomas J; Klausner, Jeffrey D
Before implementing screening programmes for acute HIV infection in developing countries, key issues, including cost, feasibility and public health impact, must be determined. Fourth-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was compared with HIV-1 RNA PCR for the detection of acute and early HIV infection in counselling and testing populations in Lima, Peru. Adults presenting for HIV testing at designated clinics in Lima-Callao, Peru were offered additional screening for acute HIV infection. All serum samples were tested with fourth-generation Ag/Ab EIA and confirmed by line immunoassay. Negative specimens were combined into 50-sample pools for HIV-1 RNA screening by PCR analysis in standard pooling algorithms. RNA-positive samples were retested with a third-generation EIA to evaluate the relative sensitivity of standard testing procedures. Between 2007 and 2008 1191 participants were recruited. The prevalence of HIV infection was 3.2% (38/1191; 95% CI 2.2% to 4.2%) overall and 10.5% (25/237; 95% CI 6.6% to 14.5%) among men who reported sex with men (MSM). The prevalence of acute or recent HIV infection was 0.2% (95% CI 0% to 0.4%) overall and 0.8% (95% CI 0% to 2.0%) among MSM. Compared with third-generation EIA testing, both fourth-generation EIA and RNA PCR increased the rate of HIV case identification by 5.3% overall and by 8.0% within the subpopulation of MSM. Screening for acute HIV infection within Peru's resource-limited public health system was acceptable and detected a high prevalence of acute and recent HIV infection among MSM. Additional efforts are needed to screen for, and prevent, transmission of HIV among MSM in Peru during the acute seroconversion stage.
Ochoa, Theresa J; Zea-Vera, Alonso; Bautista, Rossana; Davila, Carmen; Salazar, José Antonio; Bazán, Carlos; López, Luis; Ecker, Lucie
There is little information about vaccine schedule compliance in very-low-birth-weight infants in developing countries. The aim of the study was to describe the compliance with the vaccine schedule among this population in Lima, Peru. We conducted a prospective cohort study in four hospitals in Lima in infants with a birth-weight of less than 1500 g, followed from birth up to 12 months of age every 2 weeks. The date and age at administration of each vaccine was recorded 222 infants were enrolled. The median birth-weight was 1250 g (range 550-1499 g) and the median gestational age was 30.0 weeks (range 23-37 weeks). The mean age for the first pentavalent (DPT, Hib, HepB) and oral polio vaccine administration was 4.3 ± 1.4 months in infants with a birth-weight of vaccine. Only 35% had received the three doses of oral polio and pentavalent vaccine by seven months, although by nine months 81% had received these vaccines. Vaccination of very-low-birth-weight infants in Peru is significantly delayed, especially in infants with a birth-weight of vaccination rates and timing in these high risk populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Luna Matos, Matilde Lena; Salinas Piélago, Joel; Luna Figueroa, Antonio
To determine the prevalence of major depression during pregnancy and to define the sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics of pregnant women with major depression treated by the outpatient clinic at a hospital in Lima, Peru. A descriptive, cross-sectional study with simple association. The analysis consisted of 222 pregnant women 16-42 years of age with low obstetric risk who had visited the outpatient services of the Obstetrics Department at the National Materno-Perinatal Institute in Lima, Peru, from 2 June-28 November 2006. Each pregnant woman was given the Edinburgh Depression Scale and a questionnaire on sociodemographic and obstetric data. The relationship between the study variables was determined by the presence of major depression revealed through either chi2 or Z tests, depending on variable type. Of the 222 pregnant women studied, 89 (40.1%) had major depression. Fewer married women tended to be depressed; those with unplanned pregnancies and pregnancy complications were more often depressed than their peers. Age, number of children, gestational stage, educational level, history of abortion/miscarriage, consumption of alcohol or other drugs, lack of family support, and perceived marital, family, or financial problems were not found to influence depression frequency. The prevalence of major depression among pregnant women was very high. Special attention should be given to women with unplanned pregnancies and those experiencing complications during pregnancy, so that an early diagnosis can be made and appropriate treatment offered.
Quistberg, D Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D; Miranda, J Jaime; Ng Boyle, Linda; Johnston, Brian D; Ebel, Beth E
Pedestrians comprise 78% of the road fatalities in Peru. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the walking environment and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. A matched case-control study was used to detect the odds of a pedestrian-motor vehicle collision at a pedestrian crossing location. Data were collected from 11 sampled police commissaries in Lima, Peru. In a multivariable model adjusting for vehicle and pedestrian flow, pedestrian collisions were less likely in the presence of a curb and sidewalk on both roadway sides (odds ratio [OR] = 0.19, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.33) or a pedestrian barricade (OR = 0.11, 95% CI, 0.01-0.81). There was a greater risk of collisions for each street vendor present (OR = 2.82, 95% CI, 1.59-5.00) or whether any parked vehicles (OR = 3.67, 95% CI, 1.18-11.4) were present. Improving or addressing these potentially modifiable features of the walking environment could improve pedestrian safety in Lima and in similar urban settings in low- and middle-income countries.
Bustamante, B; Martins, M A; Bonfietti, L X; Szeszs, M W; Jacobs, J; Garcia, C; Melhem, M S C
Yeast identification and in vitro susceptibility testing provide helpful information for appropriate administration of antifungal treatments; however, few reports from the Latin American region have been published. The aim of this study was to identify the species present in isolates from bloodstream infections diagnosed in nine hospitals in Lima, Peru and to determine their in vitro susceptibility to four antifungal drugs. We tested and identified 153 isolates collected between October 2009 and August 2011 using standard methods. PCR and PCR-RFLP assays were performed to distinguish Candida albicans from Candida dubliniensis and to identify species of the Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata complexes. Antifungal susceptibility testing for fluconazole, anidulafungin and voriconazole was performed using the CSLI M27-A3 method, and amphotericin B susceptibility was determined using the Etest method. The most frequently isolated species were: C. albicans (61; 39.9 %), C. parapsilosis (43; 28.1 %), C. tropicalis (36; 23.5%) and C. glabrata (8; 5.2 %). The overall susceptibility rates were 98.0 %, 98.7 %, 98.0 % and 97.4 % for amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and anidulafungin, respectively. No isolate was resistant to more than one drug. These results showed that the rate of resistance to four antifungal drugs was low among Candida bloodstream isolates in Lima, Peru. © 2014 The Authors.
Espinoza, Iván O; Ochoa, Theresa J; Mosquito, Susan; Barletta, Francesca; Hernández, Roger; Medina, María del Pilar; Stiglich, María Luisa; Ugarte, Claudia; Guillén, Daniel
To determine the frequency and clinical features of central nervous system infections caused by enterovirus in children treated at the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru. A prospective, descriptive study was performed from April 2008 to March 2010. Patients aged 1 month - 14 years with clinical diagnosis of encephalitis or aseptic meningitis were included. We investigated the presence of enterovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 97 patients were included, out of which 69 % had acute encephalitis and 31 % acute meningitis. Enteroviruses were identified in 52,6% of all acute non-bacterial central nervous system infections; corresponding to 83,3 % of meningitis and 38,8 % of encephalitis. There were no cases of infection due to HSV-1, HSV-2 or VZV. Enterovirus infections reached 82,9 % in the warm months (November-January) and 28,6 % in the colder months (May-July). Enteroviruses are the principal etiologic agents in acute aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in pediatric patients in Lima, Peru. Enteroviruses have a seasonal epidemiological pattern with a clear increase in the number of cases during the summer months. It is useful to have this rapid diagnostic method available as an aid in the management of acute central nervous system infections.
Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Vinuesa, Pablo; Zúñiga-Dávila, Doris; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza
The diversity of a collection of 21 bradyrhizobial isolates from Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) was assayed by molecular methods. Moderately high to high genetic diversity was revealed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) analysis of seven enzyme loci and genomic fingerprints with ERIC and BOX primers. Two groups with differences in growth rate were found among the isolates and their differentiation as two divergent bradyrhizobial lineages was supported by PCR-RFLP of the rpoB gene and sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA and dnaK genes. Isolates with slow growth (SG) were identified as Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense, while extra-slow growing isolates (ESG) constitute a new lineage different from all described Bradyrhizobium species. Three distinct symbiotic genotypes were detected among Lima bean bradyrhizobia by PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of the nifH and nodB genes. One genotype was found in the ESG lineage and two in B. yuanmingense. Another symbiotic genotype was detected in B. yuamingense isolated from Lespedeza plants. The identified bradyrhizobial lineages constitute sympatric species effectively nodulating Lima bean on the coast of Peru.
Reyes, Maria M; Taramona, Claudia P; Saire-Mendoza, Mardeli; Gavidia, Cesar M; Barron, Eduardo; Boufana, Belgees; Craig, Philip S; Tello, Luis; Garcia, Hector H; Santivañez, Saul J
Echinococcus granulosus infections are a major public health problem in livestock-raising regions around the world. The life cycle of this tapeworm is sustained between dogs (definitive host, canine echinococcosis), and herbivores (intermediary host, cystic hydatid disease). Humans may also develop cystic hydatid disease. Echinococcosis is endemic in rural areas of Peru; nevertheless, its presence or the extension of the problem in urban areas is basically unknown. Migration into Lima, an 8-million habitant's metropolis, creates peripheral areas where animals brought from endemic areas are slaughtered without veterinary supervision. We identified eight informal, unlicensed abattoirs in a peripheral district of Lima and performed a cross-sectional study in to assess the prevalence of canine echinococcosis, evaluated by coproELISA followed by PCR evaluation and arecoline purge. Eight of 22 dogs (36%) were positive to coproELISA, and four (18%) were confirmed to be infected with E. granulosus tapeworms either by PCR or direct observation (purge). Later evaluation of the human population living in these abattoirs using abdominal ultrasound, chest X-rays and serology, found 3 out of 32 (9.3%) subjects with echinococcal cysts in the liver (two viable, one calcified), one of whom had also lung involvement and a strongly positive antibody response. Autochthonous transmission of E. granulosus is present in Lima. Informal, unlicensed abattoirs may be sources of infection to neighbouring people in this urban environment.
Maria M Reyes
Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus infections are a major public health problem in livestock-raising regions around the world. The life cycle of this tapeworm is sustained between dogs (definitive host, canine echinococcosis, and herbivores (intermediary host, cystic hydatid disease. Humans may also develop cystic hydatid disease. Echinococcosis is endemic in rural areas of Peru; nevertheless, its presence or the extension of the problem in urban areas is basically unknown. Migration into Lima, an 8-million habitant's metropolis, creates peripheral areas where animals brought from endemic areas are slaughtered without veterinary supervision. We identified eight informal, unlicensed abattoirs in a peripheral district of Lima and performed a cross-sectional study in to assess the prevalence of canine echinococcosis, evaluated by coproELISA followed by PCR evaluation and arecoline purge. Eight of 22 dogs (36% were positive to coproELISA, and four (18% were confirmed to be infected with E. granulosus tapeworms either by PCR or direct observation (purge. Later evaluation of the human population living in these abattoirs using abdominal ultrasound, chest X-rays and serology, found 3 out of 32 (9.3% subjects with echinococcal cysts in the liver (two viable, one calcified, one of whom had also lung involvement and a strongly positive antibody response. Autochthonous transmission of E. granulosus is present in Lima. Informal, unlicensed abattoirs may be sources of infection to neighbouring people in this urban environment.
Lukac, Danitza; Garaycochea, Octavio; Taype-Rondan, Alvaro; Luque Bustamante, Laura; Mujica-Vasquez, André; Zamora, Dario
To describe the level of knowledge and perception of tuberculosis among public transport workers attending Road Safety Education courses in Lima, Peru. An observational, cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted between July and August 2014 in public transport workers attending the courses of Road Safety education. In Lima, such courses are mandatory for workers in the public transport area. An anonymous and voluntary survey was applied to obtain the following variables: sociodemographic characteristics, history of tuberculosis, tuberculosis knowledge and attitudes towards the disease. The factors associated to the risk perception of Tuberculosis infection were analysed using Poisson regression. From 309 attendees, 216 surveys were analysed (69.9%). Of these, 88.4% were males, 3.2% had a history of tuberculosis. The most widely known symptom was cough with phlegm (44.4%), the most popular source of information was television (39.8%), and only 9.7% had any training about tuberculosis. A 41.2% of respondents believed that working in the public transport sector was an occupation with a high risk of tuberculosis infection. No significant association between risk perception of tuberculosis and sociodemographic characteristics was found. A considerable lack of knowledge about tuberculosis symptoms and a low perception of risk for tuberculosis exists among public transport workers in Lima. Education strategies directed to this population need to be implemented.
Rojas, Ruben; Mamani, Enoc; Maguina, Jose; Montoya, Eduardo; Baltuano, Oscar; Bedregal, Patricia; Coria, Lucy; Guerra, Alcides; Justo, Santiago; Churasacari, Tania
This paper tries to determine the origin of springs on the Costa Verde beach, located in the district of Barranco, Miraflores and Magdalena, province of Lima, Peru. These springs emerge near the shoreline, from the lower layers of a 80 meter high cliff. They have survived the process of urbanization of agricultural land, started in the early 70, which decreased the water table aquifer of Lima, and wiped the water leaks from the cliffs. To identify the source of the springs, isotopic, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis was carried out for samples from five springs. The isotopic concentrations in waters from Costa Verde springs are depleted compared to those obtained for Lima aquifer waters, which is recharged by infiltration of the Rimac River. The measured values of those concentrations suggest that water from the Costa Verde springs should come from a direct recharge in the upper and middle basin, due to infiltration of rainfall or the river at an altitude of about 3600 m. Conductivity and tempe...
Ahmed, Niyaz; Caviedes, Luz; Alam, Mahfooz; Rao, K. Rajender; Sangal, Vartul; Sheen, Patricia; Gilman, Robert H.; Hasnain, Seyed E.
Genotypic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates obtained from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive (n = 80) and -seronegative (n = 25) patients from Lima, Peru, revealed two distinct genotypes correlating with the host immune status. While the level of intrastrain diversity of DNA fingerprints of HIV-seropositive isolates was less pronounced, these isolates showed many clonal groupings. PMID:12682166
Velásquez, Gustavo E; Cegielski, J Peter; Murray, Megan B; Yagui, Martin J A; Asencios, Luis L; Bayona, Jaime N; Bonilla, César A; Jave, Hector O; Yale, Gloria; Suárez, Carmen Z; Sanchez, Eduardo; Rojas, Christian; Atwood, Sidney S; Contreras, Carmen C; Santa Cruz, Janeth; Shin, Sonya S
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis deaths have decreased worldwide over the past decade. We sought to evaluate the effect of HIV status on tuberculosis mortality among patients undergoing treatment for tuberculosis in Lima, Peru, a low HIV prevalence setting. We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients treated for tuberculosis between 2005 and 2008 in two adjacent health regions in Lima, Peru (Lima Ciudad and Lima Este). We constructed a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the effect of HIV status on mortality during tuberculosis treatment. Of 1701 participants treated for tuberculosis, 136 (8.0%) died during tuberculosis treatment. HIV-positive patients constituted 11.0% of the cohort and contributed to 34.6% of all deaths. HIV-positive patients were significantly more likely to die (25.1 vs. 5.9%, P Peru started providing free antiretroviral therapy. As HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy provision are more widely implemented for tuberculosis patients in Peru, future operational research should document the changing profile of HIV-associated tuberculosis mortality.
Mayorga, Magaly Noblega
This article shows risk and protective factors for both physical and emotional intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. The study was carried out in a shanty town of Lima, Peru, which has a strong community organization. One hundred ninety-two women between 25 and 59 years old (M = 34.09, SD = 6.5) were interviewed; 44.3% had secondary…
Dave, Hreem B; Gordillo, Luz; Yang, Zhou; Zhang, Monica S; Hubbard, G Baker; Olsen, Timothy W
To determine the cost-effectiveness of laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Lima, Peru. A cost-of-illness study (in US dollars) to determine the direct cost of treatment, the indirect lifetime cost of blindness, and the quality-adjusted life years. The direct cost of ROP-related treatment was determined by reviewing data retrospectively from a social security sector hospital. The indirect cost was determined using national economic data of Peru published by the Central Information Agency (CIA), including the per capita gross domestic product, the sex-adjusted income distribution, and years spent in the work force. Indirect costs per child that were avoided by treatment were calculated using the known natural history of ROP vs evidence-based treatment. For ROP-related neonatal blindness in Peru, we estimate the total indirect cost saving at $197,753 per child and the direct cost of laser treatment at $2496 per child. The societal lifetime cost saving per child is estimated at $195,257. The mean annual income per educated adult in Peru is $8000 and treating 1 child is equivalent to employing 24 educated Peruvians per year. The generational cost savings for society is approximately $516 million, or the equivalent of 64,500 educated Peruvian work years. The societal burden of blindness far exceeds the costs of treatment per child. Proper screening and treatment of ROP prevents blindness and leads to substantial cost savings for society. Public health policy in Peru and other middle-income countries should consider financial impact when allocating healthcare resources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jesús L. Chirinos
Full Text Available To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was limited. Males tended to mainly discuss sexuality with their male peers (49.8%. Attitudes towards sexual activity and condom use were largely positive, although some males expressed ambivalent feelings towards the latter. Of the sample, 43% had ever had sex; age at first sexual intercourse was 13 years. While 88% of the sample would use condoms, 74% also gave reasons for not using them. Sexual activity was related to age, ever having repeated a grade, living with only one parent or in a mixed family, activities such as going to parties, use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs, and viewing pornographic videos or magazines. Many male adolescents were at risk of causing an unintended pregnancy or acquiring an STD.Con el objetivo de documentar el nivel de conocimiento y las actitudes con respecto a sexualidad y las prácticas sexuales de los adolescentes varones de colegios secundarios en Lima, Peru, 991 estudiantes varones, entre los 12-19 años, completaron una encuesta autoaplicable y anónima dentro de un Programa de Prevención de Comportamientos Sexuales de Riesgo. Datos de la encuesta: sociodemográficos de la familia; de actividades personales; de conocimiento y actitudes con respecto a la sexualidad; de experiencia sexual y uso de anticonceptivos. El conocimiento sobre sexualidad es limitado. Los varones discuten principalmente sobre sexualidad con sus pares varones (49,8%. Las actitudes hacia la actividad sexual y el uso de condones fueron positivas, pero
Boehnke, Kevin F; Brewster, Rebecca K; Sánchez, Brisa N; Valdivieso, Manuel; Bussalleu, Alejandro; Guevara, Magaly; Saenz, Claudia Gonzales; Alva, Soledad Osorio; Gil, Elena; Xi, Chuanwu
Helicobacter pylori is a gut bacterium that is the primary cause of gastric cancer. H. pylori infection has been consistently associated with lack of access to sanitation and clean drinking water. In this study, we conducted time-series sampling of drinking water in Lima, Peru, to examine trends of H. pylori contamination and other water characteristics. Drinking water samples were collected from a single faucet in Lima's Lince district 5 days per week from June 2015 to May 2016, and pH, temperature, free available chlorine, and conductivity were measured. Quantities of H. pylori in all water samples were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Relationships between the presence/absence and quantity of H. pylori and water characteristics in the 2015-2016 period were examined using regression methods accounting for the time-series design. Forty-nine of 241 (20.3%) of drinking water samples were contaminated with H. pylori. Statistical analyses identified no associations between sampling date and the likelihood of contamination with H. pylori. Statistically significant relationships were found between lower temperatures and a lower likelihood of the presence of H. pylori (P water of a single drinking water faucet in the Lince district of Lima. However, no seasonal trends were observed. Further studies are needed to determine the presence of H. pylori in other drinking water sources in other districts in Lima, as well as to determine the viability of H. pylori in these water sources. Such studies would potentially allow for better understanding and estimates of the risk of infection due to exposure to H. pylori in drinking water. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Bennett, Ian M; Miranda, J Jaime
In low- and middle-income countries, migration to urban settings has reshaped the sprawl and socio demographic profiles of major cities. Depressive episodes make up a large portion of the burden of disease worldwide and are related to socio-demographic disruptions. As a result of terrorism, political upheaval, followed by economic development, Peru has undergone major demographic transitions over the previous three decades including large migrations within the country. We aimed to determine the prevalence of current depressive mood and its relationship with parameters of internal migration, i.e. region of origin, age at migration, and years since migration. A community-wide census was carried out between January and June 2010 within a shantytown immigrant receiving community in Lima, Peru. One male or female adult per household completed a survey. Depressive mood was assessed with a 2-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale. Migration-related variables included place of birth, duration of residence in Lima, and age at migration. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. A total of 8,551 out of 9,561 participants, response rate 89%, participated in the census. Of these, 8,091 records were analyzed: 71.8% were women [average age 39.4 (SD 13.9 years)] and 59.3% were immigrants. The overall prevalence of individuals with current depressive mood was 17.1% (95% CI 16.2-17.9%) and varied significantly by all socio-demographic and migration variables assessed. On unadjusted analyses, immigrants to Lima had higher prevalence of depressive mood if they originated in other costal or Andean areas, had lived in Lima for more than 20 years, or were <30 years of age when they out-migrated. When controlling for age, gender and socio-demographic variables the association was no longer significant, the only exception being a 20% lower prevalence of current depressive mood among those who out-migrated aged ≥30 years old (PR
Loayza, Eduardo A
The Symposium on Fishery Resources Management held in Lima, Peru, in June 1992 addressed several aspects of fishery management theory and practice, the experience of different countries, and current...
Munayco, César V; Grijalva, Carlos G; Culqui, Dante R; Bolarte, José L; Suárez-Ognio, Luis A; Quispe, Neyda; Calderon, Roger; Ascencios, Luis; Del Solar, Manuel; Salomón, Martín; Bravo, Francisco; Gotuzzo, Eduardo
Outbreaks of rapidly growing mycobacteria have been occasionally described. The article reports an outbreak of cutaneous abscesses due to Mycobacterium chelonae following mesotherapy in Lima, Peru. From December 2004 through January 2005, 35 subjects who had participated in mesotherapy training sessions presented with persistent cutaneous abscesses. Thirteen (37%) of these suspected cases consented to undergo clinical examination. Skin punch-biopsies were collected from suspicious lesions and substances injected during mesotherapy were analyzed. Suspected cases were mainly young women and lesions included subcutaneous nodules, abscesses and ulcers. Mycobacterium chelonae was isolated from four patients and from a procaine vial. In conclusion, it is important to consider mesotherapy as a potential source of rapidly growing mycobacteria infections.
Gonzales-Escalante, Edgar; Vicente-Taboada, William; Champi-Merino, Roky; Soto-Pastrana, Javier; Flores-Paredes, Wilfredo; Lovera-García, Margarita; Chuquiray-Valverde, Nancy; Bejarano-Cristobal, Carlos; Puray-Chávez, Maritza; León-Sandoval, Segundo
The aim of this study was to detect and characterize molecularly metallo-ß-lactamase (MßL) in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We carry out a cross sectional study in six publics hospital in Lima on August 2011. 51 isolates of P. aeruginosa resistant to ceftazidime and reduced susceptibility to carbapenemes were evaluated.The phenotypic assay was performed using the approximation method with substrate disks (ceftazidime, imipenem and meropenem) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). MßL gene detection was performed using the technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) multiplex. Through MßL detected phenotypic method in 15.7% of isolates. Detection of genes revealed the presence of the gene in the 8 isolates blaIMP. The first report of MßL in P. aeruginosa in Peru was described, this should alert the monitoring equipment in the institutions to promote control their spread.
Hayden, Melanie G; Hughes, Samuel; Hahn, Edward J; Aryan, Henry E; Levy, Michael L; Jandial, Rahul
A myriad of geopolitical and financial obstacles have kept modern neurosurgery from effectively reaching the citizens of the developing world. Targeted neurosurgical outreach by academic neurosurgeons to equip neurosurgical operating theaters and train local neurosurgeons is one method to efficiently and cost effectively improve sustainable care provided by international charity hospitals. The International Neurosurgical Children's Association (INCA) effectively improved the available neurosurgical care in the Maria Auxiliadora Hospital of Lima, Peru through the advancement of local specialist education and training. Neurosurgical equipment and training were provided for the local neurosurgeons by a mission team from the University of California at San Diego. At the end of 3 years, with one intensive week trip per year, the host neurosurgeons were proficiently and independently applying microsurgical techniques to previously performed operations, and performing newly learned operations such as neuroendoscopy and minimally invasive neurosurgery. Our experiences may serve as a successful template for the execution of other small scale, sustainable neurosurgery missions worldwide.
Lesshafft, Hannah; Baier, Andreas; Guerra, Humberto; Terashima, Angelica; Feldmeier, Hermann
Pediculosis capitis is a ubiquitous parasitic skin disease associated with intense pruritus of the scalp. In developing countries it frequently affects children and adults, but epidemiological data at the community level are rare. To assess prevalence and risk factors associated with pediculosis capitis in a resource-poor community in Lima, Peru. In total, 736 persons living in 199 households in a circumscribed neighbourhood were examined for head lice and nits by visual inspection. At the same time, socio-demographic data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Variables associated with pediculosis were identified by performing a bivariate analysis, followed by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Prevalence of pediculosis capitis was 9.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.0-11.2 %) in the general population and 19.9% (CI: 15.4-24.4%) in children ≤15 years of age. Multivariate analysis showed that pediculosis capitis was significantly associated with age ≤ 15 years (OR: 16.85; CI:7.42-38.24), female sex (OR: 2.84; CI: 1.58-5.12), household size of >4 persons (OR: 1.98; CI: 1.11-3.55), low quality of house construction material (OR:2.22; CI: 1.20-4.12), and presence of animals in the household (OR: 1.94; CI: 1.11-3.39). Pediculosis capitis was a very common disease in the studied community in Lima, Peru. Our logistic regression analysis affirms that young age is the most important risk factor for pediculosis capitis. Moreover, female sex, large household size, living in wooden houses and the presence of animals were identified as being significantly associated with head lice infestation.
Navarro-Sandoval, Cleyber; Arones-Guevara, Shermany; Carrera-Palao, Rosa; Casana-Jara, Kelly; Colque-Jaliri, Tomasa
To determine the characteristics of the criminal complaints claining medical professional liability, based on the expert reports issued by the Forensic Examination Division of Lima, Peru. A cross-sectional study was carried out, which included all the expert reports issued between 2005 and 2010 at the Forensic Examination Division of Lima, Peru. A descriptive analysis of each of the variables was performed. 60.3% (495/821) of the criminal complaints for medical professional liability were valued as being in accordance with the lex artis while 16.8% (138/821) were not in accordance with the lex artis. In 13% (107/821) of the cases, conclusions could not be drawn;in 9.9% (81/821) of the cases, the conclusions in the expert report did not include an valuations of the medical act.The cases in which the injury was attributed to the process of the disease itself accounted for 80.9% (502/620), and those in which in the injury was considered a result of the health care received were 19.0% (118/620). The distribution of the cause of the injury based on accordance with the lex artis showed significant differences. In our country, the number of claims for claimed medical liability is increasing, predominantly in relation to surgical specialties, where a medical act is more likely to be considered not in accordance with the lex artis. In addition, in a significant percentage of cases, no conclusions are drawn about the medical act.
Full Text Available Background: Pediculosis capitis is a ubiquitous parasitic skin disease associated with intense pruritus of the scalp. In developing countries it frequently affects children and adults, but epidemiological data at the community level are rare. Objectives: To assess prevalence and risk factors associated with pediculosis capitis in a resource-poor community in Lima, Peru. Materials and Methods: In total, 736 persons living in 199 households in a circumscribed neighbourhood were examined for head lice and nits by visual inspection. At the same time, socio-demographic data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Variables associated with pediculosis were identified by performing a bivariate analysis, followed by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Prevalence of pediculosis capitis was 9.1% (95% confidence interval (CI: 7.0-11.2 % in the general population and 19.9% (CI: 15.4-24.4% in children ≤15 years of age. Multivariate analysis showed that pediculosis capitis was significantly associated with age ≤ 15 years (OR: 16.85; CI:7.42-38.24, female sex (OR: 2.84; CI: 1.58-5.12, household size of >4 persons (OR: 1.98; CI: 1.11-3.55, low quality of house construction material (OR:2.22; CI: 1.20-4.12, and presence of animals in the household (OR: 1.94; CI: 1.11-3.39. Conclusion: Pediculosis capitis was a very common disease in the studied community in Lima, Peru. Our logistic regression analysis affirms that young age is the most important risk factor for pediculosis capitis. Moreover, female sex, large household size, living in wooden houses and the presence of animals were identified as being significantly associated with head lice infestation.
Ochoa, Theresa J; Zea-Vera, Alonso; Bautista, Rossana; Davila, Carmen; Salazar, José Antonio; Bazán, Carlos; López, Luis; Ecker, Lucie
Objective There is little information about vaccine schedule compliance in very-low-birth-weight infants in developing countries. The aim of the study was to describe the compliance with the vaccine schedule among this population in Lima, Peru. Patients and Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study in four hospitals in Lima in infants with a birth-weight of less than 1500g, followed from birth up to 12 months of age every 2 weeks. The date and age at administration of each vacccine was recorded. Results 222 infants were enrolled. The median birth-weight was 1,250g (range 550-1,499g) and the median gestational age was 30.0 weeks (range 23-37 weeks). The mean age for the first pentavalent (DPT, Hib, HepB) and oral polio vaccine administration was 4.3 ± 1.4 months in infants with a birth-weight of <1000g vs. 3.1 ± 1.0 in infants with a birth-weight 1000- 1500g (p<0.001); 4.1 ± 0.9 vs. 3.3 ± 1.1 for rotavirus (p<0.05); and 5.1 ± 2.1 vs. 4.3 ± 1.8 for the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine. Only 35% had received the three doses of oral polio and pentavalent vaccine by seven months, although by nine months 81% had received these vaccines. Conclusions Vaccination of very-low-birth-weight infants in Peru is significantly delayed, especially in infants with a birth-weight of <1000g. Urgent educational interventions targeting physicians and nurses should be implemented in order to improve vaccination rates and timing in these high risk populations. PMID:25448091
Murray, Megan; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Zhang, Zibiao; Sloutsky, Alexander; Arteaga, Fernando; Chalco, Katiuska; Franke, Molly F.; Becerra, Mercedes C.
Two cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in a household are assumed to reflect within-household transmission. However, in high-incidence areas of MDR TB, secondary cases may arise through exposure to MDR TB in the community. To estimate the frequency of multiple introductions of MDR TB into households, we used spoligotyping and 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit–variable number tandem repeats to classify isolates from 101 households in Lima, Peru, in which >1 MDR TB patient received treatment during 1996–2004. We found different MDR TB strains in >10% of households. Alternate approaches for classifying matching strains produced estimates of multiple introductions in <38% of households. At least 4% of MDR TB patients were reinfected by a second strain of MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings suggest that community exposure to MDR TB in Lima occurs frequently. Rapid drug sensitivity testing of strains from household contacts of known MDR TB patients is needed to identify optimal treatment regimens. PMID:21749756
Silva, Jose; Rojas, Jhojan; Norabuena, Magdalena; Molina, Carolina; Toro, Richard A; Leiva-Guzmán, Manuel A
The temporal and spatial trends in the variability of PM10 and PM2.5 from 2010 to 2015 in the metropolitan area of Lima-Callao, Peru, are studied and interpreted in this work. The mean annual concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 have ranges (averages) of 133-45 μg m-3 (84 μg m-3) and 35-16 μg m-3 (26 μg m-3) for the monitoring sites under study. In general, the highest annual concentrations are observed in the eastern part of the city, which is a result of the pattern of persistent local winds entering from the coast in a south-southwest direction. Seasonal fluctuations in the particulate matter (PM) concentrations are observed; these can be explained by subsidence thermal inversion. There is also a daytime pattern that corresponds to the peak traffic of a total of 9 million trips a day. The PM2.5 value is approximately 40% of the PM10 value. This proportion can be explained by PM10 re-suspension due to weather conditions. The long-term trends based on the Theil-Sen estimator reveal decreasing PM10 concentrations on the order of -4.3 and -5.3% year-1 at two stations. For the other stations, no significant trend is observed. The metropolitan area of Lima-Callao is ranked 12th and 16th in terms of PM10 and PM2.5, respectively, out of 39 megacities. The annual World Health Organization thresholds and national air quality standards are exceeded. A large fraction of the Lima population is exposed to PM concentrations that exceed protection thresholds. Hence, the development of pollution control and reduction measures is paramount.
Mundaca, Carmen C; Torres-Slimming, Paola A; Araujo-Castillo, Roger V; Morán, Manuel; Bacon, David J; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H; Blazes, David L
Protozoal diseases are increasingly recognized as the cause of diarrhoeal outbreaks in both developed and developing countries. Cyclospora cayetanensis has been responsible for several epidemics in the last decade. In March 2005, an outbreak of diarrhoea was identified in recruits at the Ancon Naval Base in Lima, Peru. A case-control study was carried out. The overall diarrhoea attack rate was 53% (45/85). Complete data from 52 recruits were available for the analysis; 37 met the criteria for case and 15 for control. The epidemic curve indicated a point source transmission, with cases occurring over 9 days with a peak on the fifth day. Cyclospora cayetanensis was found in 7/37(18.9%) cases and 1/15 (6.7%) controls via standard microscopic techniques. PCR for C. cayetanensis detected 20/35 (57.1%) cases and 3/15 (20%) controls, demonstrating the improved diagnostic yield of this technique. This is the second report to characterize an outbreak of diarrhoea due to C. cayetanensis in Peru among a local population. The epidemiology and clinical course were similar to other reported outbreaks in developed regions. PCR greatly increased the number of C. cayetanensis cases detected during this outbreak, allowing the correct identification of its aetiology.
Drug consumption and violence in female work Zapallal - Lima/Peru Consumo de drogas y violencia en el trabajo femenino Zapallal - Lima/Perú Consumo de drogas e violência no trabalho feminino Zapallal - Lima/Perú
Yesenia Musayón; Catherine Caufield
The study design was descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional, and qualitative. The objective was to identify sociodemographic and labor risk factors for drug consumption and types of violence in the workplace related to drug consumption, as well as to understand the perception of female workers regarding the relationship between drug consumption and workplace violence. We surveyed 125 women workers of four slums in the area of Zapallal, Lima, Peru, interviewing 16 women who experienced wo...
del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Orellana-Peralta, Fiorella; Marcelo-Rodr?guez, Alvaro; Verne, Eduardo; Esquivel-Vizcarra, M?nica; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Weilg, Pablo; Casabona-Or?, Ver?nica; Ugarte, Claudia; del Valle, Luis J.
Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are atypical pathogens responsible for pneumonia and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low income countries. The study objective is to determine the prevalence of this pathogens in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections. Methods A consecutive cross-sectional study was conducted in Lima, Peru from May 2009 to September 2010. A total of 675 children admitted with clinical diagnoses of acute respiratory ...
Underhill, Lindsay J.; Sonali Bose; Williams, D’Ann L.; Romero, Karina M.; Gary Malpartida; Breysse, Patrick N.; Klasen, Elizabeth M; Combe, Juan M.; William Checkley; Hansel, Nadia N.
The influence of traffic-related air pollution on indoor residential exposure is not well characterized in homes with high natural ventilation in low-income countries. Additionally, domestic allergen exposure is unknown in such populations. We conducted a pilot study of 25 homes in peri-urban Lima, Peru to estimate the effects of roadway proximity and season on residential concentrations. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and black carbon...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is an important public health concern worldwide leading to both chronic disease and early death. In Latin America, smoking prevalence is estimated at approximately 30% and prior studies suggest that the prevalence in Peru is 22% to 38%. We sought to determine the prevalence of daily smoking in a poor peri-urban community in Lima, Peru. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a random sample of adults ≥40 years of age living in Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Peru. We asked participants to respond to a survey that included questions on sociodemographics, tobacco use and dependence. Results We enrolled 316 participants. Average monthly household income was ≤ 400 USD and nearly all homes had running water, sewage, and electricity. Most individuals had not completed high school. Smoking prevalence was 16% overall, yet daily smoking prevalence was 1.9%. Former daily smokers comprised 3.8% of current nonsmokers and 9.1% current occasional smokers. Average scores for the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence for daily smokers and occasional smokers were 1.5 and 0, respectively. Conclusions Daily use of tobacco is uncommon among adults in peri-urban communities of Lima, Peru, unlike their counterparts in Lima and other Latin American capital cities. Tobacco dependence is also low. Hence, efforts aimed at primary prevention are of utmost importance in these communities. This study provides an accurate baseline using an internationally recognized assessment tool (Global Adult Tobacco Survey, allowing for accurate assessment of tobacco control interventions over time.
Miguel Lleellish Juscamayta
Full Text Available Chloraea undulata is an orchid endemic to Peru. Originally collected by Antonio Raimondi in XIX century, until first half of the last century it has been regarded as a species characteristic of the hills around Lima. The “Lima orchid” Chloraea undulata is considered to be in decline in the hills of Lima province, especially in the type localities of Cerro Amancaes and Cerro El Agustino where urban growth and expansion has been significant. In this paper its presence in the hills of Asia District, 100 km south of Lima, is documented, and we also analyzed the implications of this finding for the species conservation and their habitat.
Chamorro Chavez, A.; Bardossy, A.
Water supply is one of the mayor problems that face the city of Lima in Peru. This problem is critic in periods of drought and extreme drought. Moreover, the hydrological cycle vulnerability to climate change, especially the impact on the availability of water resources requires the study and prediction of the consequences in water resources, among others. The project Liwa is a large-scale project that involves several disciplines addressing the problem of water supply in different perspectives in order to know the different parameters involved their interactions, their present and future implications, and at the end try to give an assessment and proposal for development and the optimal use of the water resource. By using hydrological models, the first part of the project addresses the water supply problem in Lima by considering the use of three basins that feed the city. Secondly, through numerical simulations it is determined the future potential of the system by taking account the potential impact of climate change on the hydrological cycle. A statistical downscaling scheme (Bárdossy 2002) will be used to generate time series of local climate scenarios. These results will be input to the hydrological models. In order to simulate discharges and storage volume in glaciers, reservoirs and water balance groundwater the conceptual model HBV (Bergström, 1995) will be used. The most important variables considered in the system are the rivers, melting glaciers, precipitation, groundwater availability and other elements of the hydrological cycle. Results show that climate change implies, as well known, mean temperature will rise gradually in the coming years. As a consequence of this phenomenon precipitation pattern in this area will decline in rainy years and will increase slightly in the drought years.
Vilma Pérez Saavedra
Full Text Available Las enfermeras poseen oportunidades únicas para ayudar a sus pacientes a dejar de fumar. El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar el consumo, las actitudes y los conocimientos recibidos sobre el tabaco por las enfermeras de un hospital en Lima. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo realizado en 204 (48% enfermeras asistenciales de un Hospital Nacional en Lima, Perú, utilizando la Encuesta Mundial de Profesionales de la Salud (GHPS. Se identificó que la prevalencia de vida de uso de tabaco fue 67,1% y el último mes fue de 3%; la mayoría de las enfermeras presentó actitudes positivas para el aspecto - dejar de fumar - y reconocieron la importancia y la responsabilidad de aconsejar a los pacientes a dejar ese hábito; las enfermeras recibieron conocimientos generales sobre el tema, pero la mitad no recibió conocimientos específicos sobre el tratamiento. Se concluye que frente a la importancia del tema se identificó que existe la necesidad de realizar más estudios de esta naturaleza, así como revisar los contenidos curriculares abordados acerca del tema tabaquismo.Os enfermeiros possuem oportunidades únicas para ajudar seus pacientes a deixarem de fumar. Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar o consumo, as atitudes e os conhecimentos recebidos sobre o tabaco entre enfermeiras de um hospital. É um estudo descritivo, e foi realizado entre 204(48% enfermeiras do Hospital Arzobispo Loayza, em Lima, Peru, utilizando la Encuesta Mundial de Profesionales de la Salud (GHPS. Pelos resultados, pôde-se identifcar prevalência do uso na vida de tabaco, entre 67,1% da amostra, e no último mês 3%. A maioria dos enfermeiros apresentou atitudes positivas e conhecem a importância e a responsabilidade de aconselhar os pacientes a parar de fumar. A maioria recebeu conhecimentos gerais sobre o tema, porém, a metade não recebeu conhecimentos específicos sobre o tratamento. Conclui-se, frente à importância do tema, que a presente
Flavia A. Díaz-Garcés
Full Text Available Community Kitchens (CKs are one of the main food providers to low-income families in Peru and may encourage healthier diets. We aimed to determine the prevalence of fruit and vegetable consumption and associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors among CKs customers. A cross-sectional study enrolling customers of 48 CKs in two areas of Lima, Peru, was performed. The self-reported amount of fruits and vegetables consumed (<5 vs. ≥5 servings/day was the outcome. The exposures were grouped in sociodemographic variables (i.e. age, gender, education level, etc., and self-reported intention to change eating- and exercise-related habits in the last four weeks just prior to the interview. Prevalence ratios (PR were estimated using Poisson regression. Data from 422 subjects were analyzed, 328 females (77.9%, mean age 43.7 (±14.5 years. Only 36 (8.5%; 95% CI 5.9%–11.2% customers reported consuming ≥5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily. This pattern was 4-fold more likely among those with higher levels of education (≥12 vs. <7 years, and 64% less common for migrants relative to non-migrants. In terms of intentions to change habits, those who reported having tried to reduce sugar consumption or to eat more fruits were up to 90% more likely to meet the ≥5 servings/day target. A substantial gap in the consumption of ≥5 servings of fruits and vegetables/day was found among CKs customers that does not appear to be dependent on familial income. The profiles reported in this study can inform appropriate strategies to increase healthier eating in this population.
Espinoza, Yrma A; Huapaya, Pedro E; Roldán, William H; Jiménez, Susana; Abanto, Enma P; Rojas, Carlos A; Cavero, Yuri A; Gutiérrez, César A
The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of human toxocariasis in three Andean communities from the Northeast of Lima, Peru. A total of 303 subjects including children and adults were studied and blood samples were collected to detect anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA-IgG test and by hematological examination; stool samples were collected also for parasitological examination. The overall seroprevalence of toxocariasis observed in the total population was 20.46%, with a significant high proportion in children from one to 10 years old (p = 0.034). Among the subjects with positive serology, 32.26% of them had respiratory disturbances, 22.58% hepatomegaly, 17.74% ocular signs or symptoms, 14.51% abdominal pain, 9.68% neurological involvement, and 4.84% cutaneous signs, but none of these clinical features were associated to a positive serology by multivariate analysis. Furthermore, 79.03% of seropositive subjects also harbored at least one intestinal parasite, which was associated to a positive serology (p < 0.05). The presence of pets within the houses, a previous history of pica or geophagia and the use of public places were also present in this population, but only the latter was associated to the serology (p < 0.05). In conclusion, clinical, serological, and epidemiological evidences for larval Toxocara infection were found in the studied population.
Chirinos Jesús L.
Full Text Available To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was limited. Males tended to mainly discuss sexuality with their male peers (49.8%. Attitudes towards sexual activity and condom use were largely positive, although some males expressed ambivalent feelings towards the latter. Of the sample, 43% had ever had sex; age at first sexual intercourse was 13 years. While 88% of the sample would use condoms, 74% also gave reasons for not using them. Sexual activity was related to age, ever having repeated a grade, living with only one parent or in a mixed family, activities such as going to parties, use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs, and viewing pornographic videos or magazines. Many male adolescents were at risk of causing an unintended pregnancy or acquiring an STD.
Palomino, Nancy; Padilla, Miguel Ramos; Talledo, Brigitte Davey; Mazuelos, Christian Guzmán; Carda, Jessica; Bayer, Angela M
Although modern contraceptive use in Peru has increased, many women still face unwanted or unplanned pregnancies and abortions remain high despite the illegality of elective pregnancy termination. To improve understanding of how men and women make reproductive decisions, we conducted this study in Lima. Fifty-two 18-37 year old low- and middle-income women and men participated in in-depth interviews and focus groups. Reproductive planning constitutes a worry among participants. The paradigm of contraception, pregnancy, childbearing and pregnancy termination is complex and contained within a context of contradictory pressures toward women: while women feel the need to be autonomous in all realms of their lives, they also need to meet the traditional roles associated with sexuality and childbearing and rearing. The woman, her partner and family members take part in reproductive decisions. However, participants expressed difficulties preventing unwanted pregnancies and social stigma if they resorted to abortion or, interestingly, if they continued a pregnancy when involved in a socially undesirable personal situation. Abortion-related stigma generated fear and guilt in addition to safety concerns given the unsafe, clandestine contexts in which pregnancy termination takes place. Despite these concerns, interviewees often opted for abortion for personal reasons, which were primarily economic.
Zelada, Henry; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Manrique, Helard
Objective. To estimate cause of death and to identify factors associated with risk of inhospital mortality among patients with T2D. Methods. Prospective cohort study performed in a referral public hospital in Lima, Peru. The outcome was time until event, elapsed from hospital admission to discharge or death, and the exposure was the cause of hospital admission. Cox regression was used to evaluate associations of interest reporting Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals. Results. 499 patients were enrolled. Main causes of death were exacerbation of chronic renal failure (38.1%), respiratory infections (35.7%), and stroke (16.7%). During hospital stay, 42 (8.4%) patients died. In multivariable models, respiratory infections (HR = 6.55, p < 0.001), stroke (HR = 7.05, p = 0.003), and acute renal failure (HR = 16.9, p = 0.001) increased the risk of death. In addition, having 2+ (HR = 7.75, p < 0.001) and 3+ (HR = 21.1, p < 0.001) conditions increased the risk of dying. Conclusion. Respiratory infections, stroke, and acute renal disease increased the risk of inhospital mortality among hospitalized patients with T2D. Infections are not the only cause of inhospital mortality. Certain causes of hospitalization require standardized and aggressive management to decrease mortality.
O'Sheaa, Michele S; Girónb, J Maziel; Cabrerac, Lilia; Lescanod, Andrés G; Tarene, Douglas L
Disability is the result of interactions between biological and environmental factors including the physical, economic, and social barriers imposed on an individual by society. In low and middle-income countries, limited attention has been given to the situation of individuals with intellectual disabilities, who remain seriously neglected. Given the lack of resources available to address mental disorders, it is essential to examine the role of socioeconomic and socio-cultural factors in the lives of these individuals. We conducted interviews of key informants and community members in a shantytown community in Lima, Peru, to explore public knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes regarding intellectual disability. Findings indicated that the most important concern for community members was the longstanding issues associated with poverty. There was a profound lack of awareness of intellectual disability among the general population and an absence of social integration for these individuals. However, interviewees also recognized the productive potential of persons with intellectual disabilities provided they received currently inaccessible support services. The results suggest that educational efforts and intervention strategies must be mindful of the challenges of chronic poverty in order to successfully facilitate the social integration of individuals with intellectual disabilities into the community.
Grothen, David C; Zach, Sydney J; Davis, Paul H
Water quality management is an ongoing struggle for many locations worldwide. Current testing of water supplies can be time-consuming, expensive, and lack sensitivity. This study describes an alternative, easy-to-use, and inexpensive method to water sampling and testing at remote locations. This method was employed to detect a number of intestinal pathogens in various locations of Lima, Peru. A total of 34 PCR primer pairs were tested for specificity and high-yield amplification for 12 different pathogens using known DNA templates. Select primers for each pathogen were then tested for minimum detection limits of DNA. Water samples were collected from 22 locations. PCR was used to detect the presence of a pathogen, virulence factors, or differentiate between pathogenic species. In 22 water samples, cholera toxin gene was detected in 4.5% of samples, C. perfringens DNA was detected in 50% of samples, E. histolytica DNA was detected in 54.5% of samples, Giardia intestinalis DNA was detected in 4.5% of samples, Leptospira spp. DNA was detected in 29% of samples, and T. gondii DNA was detected in 31.8% of samples. DNA from three pathogens, C. perfringens, E. histolytica, and T. gondii, were found in residential samples, which accounted for 10 out of 22 samples.
Bazán, Magdalena; Villacorta, Erika; Barbagelatta, Gisella; Jimenez, M Michelle; Goya, Cecilia; Bartolini, Rosario M; Penny, Mary E
Vaccination against seasonal influenza in health workers is recommended but coverage is variable. This study aimed to determine coverage of influenza vaccination among health workers in Lima, Peru in 2010; explore barriers and enabling elements for vaccination; and suggest strategies to improve coverage. Qualitative interviews informed the development of a survey instrument that consisted of open and close-ended questions. Sub-analyses were done by occupational group and results were calculated as percentages for each possible response with confidence intervals of 95%. Coverage of the influenza vaccination was 77.2%. Vaccinated staff were less likely to have permanent contracts (p=0.0150) and vaccination coverage was lower in physicians (p=0.0001). Over 90% cited protection of themselves, families and patients as reasons for vaccination and 48% mentioned peer encouragement. Fear of adverse events (47%) and organizational barriers (>30%) were reasons for non-vaccination. To improve coverage, highest priority was given to strategies providing more information. Key factors in driving health worker vaccination include desire for protection and peer encouragement. Perceptual barriers based on a misunderstanding of the epidemiology of influenza and vaccination could be overcome by targeted education and information. Organizational barriers require attention to how vaccination is implemented within health facilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective. To estimate cause of death and to identify factors associated with risk of inhospital mortality among patients with T2D. Methods. Prospective cohort study performed in a referral public hospital in Lima, Peru. The outcome was time until event, elapsed from hospital admission to discharge or death, and the exposure was the cause of hospital admission. Cox regression was used to evaluate associations of interest reporting Hazard Ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals. Results. 499 patients were enrolled. Main causes of death were exacerbation of chronic renal failure (38.1%, respiratory infections (35.7%, and stroke (16.7%. During hospital stay, 42 (8.4% patients died. In multivariable models, respiratory infections (HR = 6.55, p<0.001, stroke (HR = 7.05, p=0.003, and acute renal failure (HR = 16.9, p=0.001 increased the risk of death. In addition, having 2+ (HR = 7.75, p<0.001 and 3+ (HR = 21.1, p<0.001 conditions increased the risk of dying. Conclusion. Respiratory infections, stroke, and acute renal disease increased the risk of inhospital mortality among hospitalized patients with T2D. Infections are not the only cause of inhospital mortality. Certain causes of hospitalization require standardized and aggressive management to decrease mortality.
Full Text Available Cat-Scratch Disease (CSD is a benign lymphadenitis that may progress to severe or recurrent forms, and it is occasionally associated with morbidity. Between January of 1998 and March of 1999, forty-three suspected CSD patients were assessed in the Hospital Cayetano Heredia and the Instituto de Salud del Niño, in Lima, Peru. Twelve patients had a confirmed diagnosis, 8 of whom were women, and the mean age was 10 years old. The majority (53% of the cases were encountered in the summer. All patients reported having had contact with cats. Fever, malaise, lymphadenopathy and skin lesions were the most frequent clinical features. Twelve patients had indirect immunofluorescence antibody test titers of between 1/50 and 1/800 for Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae. Two lymph node biopsies were histologically compatible with CSD. No positive blood cultures could be obtained. This is the first Peruvian prospective study able to identify B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae in pediatric patients.
Bailey, Chris; Lopez, Sonia; Camero, Anahí; Taiquiri, Carmen; Arhuay, Yanina; Moore, David A J
Infection caused by intestinal parasites has significant public health consequences amongst children in the developing world. Street children are an under-studied group of society subjected to increased health risks when compared to their peers. To estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and ascertain risk factors for parasitosis amongst this population, stool samples were collected from 258 children across four orphanages in three districts of Lima, Peru. Surveys were used to determine associations between risk factors and infection status. The prevalence of parasitic infection within the study sample was 66.3%, with 30.6% testing positive for pathogenic species. Entamoeba coli was the most commonly detected parasite (41.9%) and Giardia lamblia was the most commonly detected pathogenic parasite (17.1%). Of the group 15.1% had helminth infection. When testing for association, age and BMI were risk factors for infection. A notable difference in prevalence (P < 0.00001) based on orphanage was observed, but the duration of residence in an orphanage was not a predictor for infection. A sub-analysis conducted amongst children who were given anti-parasitic treatment 5 months beforehand found no significant difference in parasitosis between those who had been given treatment and those who had not (P = 0.218). It is suggested that a single dose of albendazole alone may not be effective in combating long-term infection rates. PMID:23683330
Fernandez-Prada, C M; Venkatesan, M M; Franco, A A; Lanata, C F; Sack, R B; Hartman, A B; Spira, W
A year-long community-based study of diarrhoeal diseases was conducted in Canto Grande, a periurban community in Lima, Peru. In 109 (34%) houses out of 323 that were visited, at least one individual was detected with shigellosis. The frequency of the 161 shigella isolates obtained was as follows: 117 S. flexneri (73%), 21 S. boydii (13%), 15 S. dysenteriae (9%), and 8 S. sonnei (5%). Using a non-radioactive ipaH gene probe as a molecular epidemiological tool, a total of 41 S. flexneri strains were shown to be distributed in 25 intra-family comparisons by pairs (icp). Further subdivision, based on a comparison of the serotype, plasmid profile, antibiotic resistances and ipaH hybridization patterns indicated that Group I, with 11 icp (44%), had strains that were identical. Group II with 8 icp (32%), had strains that were different and Group III with 6 icp (24%), had strains with the same serotype and identical ipaH profiles but with differences in other markers. This data indicates that a diversity of shigella clones circulated in this community resulting from both clonal spread and horizontal transfer of genetic elements. Furthermore, ipaH profiling of isolates can be used not only to differentiate between closely related shigella strains but also with other parameters, help to understand the dynamics of the generation of new clones of pathogenic bacteria.
Nelson, Adrianne K; Caldas, Adolfo; Sebastian, Jose Luis; Muñoz, Maribel; Bonilla, Cesear; Yamanija, Jose; Jave, Oswaldo; Magan, Christina; Saldivar, Judith; Espiritu, Betty; Rosell, Gustavo; Bayona, Jaime; Shin, Sonya
Among tuberculosis patients, timely diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and early antiretroviral treatment are crucial, but are hampered by a myriad of individual and structural barriers. Community-based models to provide counseling and rapid HIV testing are few but offer promise. During November 2009-April 2010, community health workers offered and performed HIV counseling and testing by using the OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test to new tuberculosis cases in 22 Ministry of Health establishments and their household contacts (n = 130) in Lima, Peru. Refusal of HIV testing or study participation was low (4.7%). Intervention strengths included community-based approach with participant preference for testing site, use of a rapid, non-invasive test, and accompaniment to facilitate HIV care and family disclosure. We will expand the intervention under programmatic auspices for rapid community-based testing for new tuberculosis cases in high incidence establishments. Other potential target populations include contacts of HIV-positive persons and pregnant women.
Parra Pérez, V; Monge Salgado, E; Vildósola Gonzales, H
The biomedical investigation in Peru is limited; among the implicated factors we have the reduced per-capita expense in investigation, the disperse efforts and the low communication between the investigations and the social productive activities. To determinate the personal, professional and academic factors related with the scientific production of the medical gastroenterologists that work in province Lima. Co-relational, observational, comparative, transversal and retrospective studies that had happened in between march 2007 and april 2008. Was elaborated a survey containing the variables of the investigation which was applied autoadministered to the gastroenterologists. Using bivaried and multivaried, were identified factors related with the scientific production of the gastroenterologist. The bivaried analysis has found, as related factors with the scientific production: Teaching, type of bibliographic research, degree of comprehension of the scientific article, facilities for the investigation at the job, subscription at the scientific magazine, to belong to the scientific society and the number of employments. The multivaried analysis found the previous factors but teaching and subscription to the scientific magazine, related with the scientific production. Those gastroenterologists that, despite being in contact with factors that impede the development of the investigation, had overcome the local negative influence and emerge, deserve consideration, because is on them were we can recognize factors that favor the investigation labor.
Melgarejo, T A; Lehtonen, M T; Fribourg, C E; Rännäli, M; Valkonen, J P T
Viruses of the species Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) were simultaneously detected by the different size of PCR amplicons in lima bean plants (Phaseolus lunatus) displaying deforming mosaic symptoms in Peru. Phylogenetic analysis of partial deduced CP amino acid sequences indicated that the Peruvian BCMV isolates belong to new strains. One isolate differed from the other Peruvian isolates, and also from the ten previously described BCMV strains recognized by responses on differential bean varieties. The sequence of the 3'-proximal part (2547 nucleotides) of the genome confirmed that this isolate also belongs to BCMV.
Full Text Available Bradyrhizobium paxllaeri is a prevalent species in root nodules of the Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus in Peru. LMTR 21T is the type strain of the species and was isolated from a root nodule collected in an agricultural field in the Peruvian central coast. Its 8.29 Mbp genome encoded 7635 CDS, 71 tRNAs and 3 rRNAs genes. All genes required to stablish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with its host were present. The draft genome sequence and annotation have been deposited at GenBank under the accession number MAXB00000000.
Full Text Available Introduction: The aims of this study were to determine the proportion of patients who meet international recommendations for bariatric surgery and to assess the association between weight loss and dropout rate during diet therapy. Methods: Retrospective cohort study performed using data from clinical records of patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy in a private clinic of Lima, Peru. Two outcomes were evaluated, eligibility for bariatric surgery according to international recommendations (BMI ≥40 kg/m2 or ≥35 kg/m2 with comorbidities and abandonment before and after starting nutritional management (no nutritional assessment after 60 days from the previous visit without achieving ideal BMI. The exposure was the percentage of weight lost in the first five weeks after surgery split into <10% and ≥10%. Poisson regression was used and relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were calculated. Results: Data from 423 medical records of bariatric patients, mean age 39.2 years (±12.3, 294 (69.5% women, were analyzed. Only 117 (27.7% patients met international recommendations for bariatric surgery. Before starting nutritional management, 48/117 (41% abandoned treatment, whereas an additional 29/69 (42.0% abandoned before six months of nutritional management. Patient losing ≥10% of weight in the first month had 90% lower risk (RR = 0.10, 95% CI 0.01-0.68 of nutritional therapy dropout compared to those who lost <10% of weight, controlling for sex and age. Conclusions: A great proportion of patients undergoing bariatric surgery did not meet the international criteria. A greater loss of weight during the first month was associated a lower dropout rate during nutritional therapy.
Bristow, Claire C; Leon, Segundo R; Huang, Emily; Brown, Brandon J; Ramos, Lourdes B; Vargas, Silver K; Flores, Juan A; Caceres, Carlos F; Klausner, Jeffrey D
Screening for HIV and syphilis in key populations is recommended by the WHO to reduce the morbidity, mortality and transmission associated with undiagnosed and untreated infections. Rapid point-of-care tests that can detect multiple infections with a single fingerprick whole blood specimen using a single device are gaining popularity. We evaluated the field performance of a rapid dual HIV and syphilis test in people at high risk of HIV and syphilis infections. Participants included men who have sex with men and transgender women recruited in Lima, Peru. Reference standard testing for detection of HIV and syphilis infections, conducted using blood samples from venipuncture, included Treponema pallidum particle agglutination and fourth-generation HIV enzyme immunoassay for which positive results had a confirmation HIV Western blot test. For the evaluation test, SD BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo test (Standard Diagnostics, Korea), a fingerprick blood specimen was used. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and the exact binomial method was used to determine 95% CIs. A total of 415 participants were recruited for the study. The dual test sensitivity for detection of T. pallidum infection was 89.2% (95% CI 83.5% to 93.5%) and specificity 98.8% (95% CI 96.5% to 99.8%). For detection of HIV infection, the sensitivity of the dual test was 99.1% (95% CI 94.8% to 100%) and specificity 99.4% (95% CI 97.7% to 99.9%). This high performing dual test should be considered for the use in clinical settings to increase uptake of simultaneous testing of HIV and syphilis and accelerate time to treatment for those who need it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
García, P J; Cárcamo, C P; Chiappe, M; Holmes, K K
To determine prevalences and predictors of sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections among men and women seeking care at pharmacies. Men and women with urethral discharge or dysuria and vaginal discharge were enrolled at 12 central and 52 smaller pharmacies in Lima, Peru. All participants answered a questionnaire. Men provided urine for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, and for leucocyte esterase testing. Women provided self-obtained vaginal swabs for PCR testing for N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis culture and bacterial vaginosis and Candida. Among 106 symptomatic men, N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis were detected in 34% and were associated with urethral discharge compared with dysuria only (odds ratio (OR) 4.3, p = 0.003), positive urine leucocyte esterase testing (OR 7.4, p = 0.009), less education (OR 5.5, p = 0.03), and with symptoms for <5 days (OR 2.5, p = 0.03). Among 121 symptomatic women, 39% had bacterial vaginosis or T vaginalis, and 7.7% had candidiasis. N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis were detected in 12.4% of the women. Overall, 48.8% had one or more of these infections. No factors were associated with vaginal infection, and only symptoms of vaginal discharge for <5 days were associated with N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis (OR 4.0, p = 0.02). The main reason reported for seeking advice at pharmacies by both men and women was trust in pharmacy workers. Among men and women presenting to pharmacies with urethral and vaginal symptoms, rates of urethral and vaginal infections were comparable to those found in other clinical settings. Pharmacies can contribute to the care and prevention of sexually transmitted infection in developing countries.
Saavedra-Garcia, Lorena; Sosa-Zevallos, Vanessa; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio
To explore salt content in bread and to evaluate the feasibility of reducing salt contained in 'pan francés' bread. The study had two phases. Phase 1, an exploratory phase, involved the estimation of salt contained in bread as well as a triangle taste test to establish the amount of salt to be reduced in 'pan francés' bread without detection by consumers. In Phase 2, a quasi-experimental, pre-post intervention study assessed the effects of the introduction of low-salt bread on bakery sales. A municipal bakery in Miraflores, Lima, Peru. Sixty-five clients of the bakery in Phase 1 of the study; sales to usual costumers in Phase 2. On average, there was 1·25 g of salt per 100 g of bread. Sixty-five consumers were enrolled in the triangle taste test: fifty-four (83·1 %) females, mean age 58·9 (sd 13·7) years. Based on taste, bread samples prepared with salt reductions of 10 % (P=0·82) and 20 % (P=0·37) were not discernible from regular bread. The introduction of bread with 20 % of salt reduction, which contained 1 g of salt per 100 g of bread, did not change sales of 'pan francés' (P=0·70) or other types of bread (P=0·36). Results were consistent when using different statistical techniques. The introduction of bread with a 20 % reduction in salt is feasible without affecting taste or bakery sales. Results suggest that these interventions are easily implementable, with the potential to contribute to larger sodium reduction strategies impacting the population's cardiovascular health.
Friedman, Lauren E.; Gelaye, Bizu; Rondon, Marta B.; Sánchez, Sixto E.; Peterlin, B. Lee; Williams, Michelle A.
Background Suicide is a leading cause of maternal death globally, and suicide prevalence rates have been shown to be increased in those with migraine. No previous study has examined the association between migraine and suicidal ideation during pregnancy. Objective To examine the association between migraine and suicidal ideation among a cohort of pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 3,372 pregnant women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru. Suicidal ideation and depression were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale during early pregnancy. Migraine classification (including migraine and probable migraine) was based on International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-III beta criteria. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results Suicidal ideation was more common among those with migraine (25.6%) as compared to those with probable migraine (22.1%, p<0.001) or non-migraineurs (12.3%, p<0.001). After adjusting for confounders, including depression, those with migraine or probable migraine had a 78% increased odds of suicidal ideation (OR=1.78; 95%CI: 1.46–2.17), as compared with non-migraineurs. Women with both migraine and depression had a 4.14-fold increased odds of suicidal ideation (OR=4.14; 95%CI: 3.17–5.42) compared to those with neither condition. Conclusion Migraine is associated with increased odds of suicidal ideation in pregnant women even when controlling for depression. These findings support the consideration of screening women with comorbid migraine and depression for suicidal behavior during pregnancy. PMID:27016264
Mejia, Christian R; Gutiérrez-González, Mario J; Romero, Brian M; Valladares-Garrido, Danai; Linares-Reyes, Edgardo; Red Gis Perú, Rgp
Employee retention is an important issue, because professionals are required in primary care services (PCS). The objective was to determine whether accidents were associated with the discouragement of physicians to work in PCS in Lima, Peru. Analytical cross-sectional study of secondary data from a database generated from a survey of physicians who performed his Rural and Urban Health Care Service (Servicio Rural y Urbano-Marginal en Salud: SERUMS). We only included physicians who said at the beginning of their SERUMS that they could work in PCS in Lima. Those who completed their service and reported that they no longer wished to work in Lima were defined as change of intention to work in PCS. This was associated with having a work accident and was adjusted with other variables. Out of 124 physicians, 63% (78) were men. Median age was 26 years (interquartile range: 25-27 years). After they completed their SERUMS, 12% (15) said they changed their mind and that they wished to work in Lima. In the multivariate analysis, having had an accident diminished the frequency of changing their mind of working in the PCS (aPR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.14-0.54, p < 0.001), adjusted for eight variables. A previous study found that work accidents decreased the frequency outside Lima, but our study states the opposite, probably because of the perception that a job in the capital would allow them to be closer to services; to be cared for in case of any emergency.
Cárdenas, María Kathia; Benziger, Catherine P; Pillay, Timesh D; Miranda, J Jaime
Objective To determine the effect of increasing fruit visibility, adding information and lowering price on fruit purchasing at a university cafeteria in Lima, Peru. Design Quasi-experimental pilot study of a three-phase stepped intervention. In Phase 1, fruit was displayed >3 m from the point of purchase with no additional information. Phase 2 consisted in displaying the fruit near the point of purchase with added health and price information. Phase 3 added a 33 % price reduction. The duration of each phase was 3 weeks and phases were separated by 2-week breaks. Primary outcomes were total pieces of fruit and number of meals sold daily. Setting A university cafeteria in Lima, Peru. Subjects Approximately 150 people, students and non-student adults, who purchased food daily. Twelve students participated in post-intervention interviews. Results Fruit purchasing doubled from Phase 1 to Phase 3 (P price reduction had a positive effect on fruit purchasing in a university cafeteria, especially in males and non-student adults. PMID:25434293
Bambarén, Celso; Uyen, Angela; Rodriguez, Miguel
Introduction A model prepared by National Civil Defense (INDECI; Lima, Peru) estimated that an earthquake with an intensity of 8.0 Mw in front of the central coast of Peru would result in 51,019 deaths and 686,105 injured in districts of Metropolitan Lima and Callao. Using this information as a base, a study was designed to determine the characteristics of the demand for treatment in public hospitals and to estimate gaps in care in the hours immediately after such an event. A probabilistic model was designed that included the following variables: demand for hospital care; time of arrival at the hospitals; type of medical treatment; reason for hospital admission; and the need for specialized care like hemodialysis, blood transfusions, and surgical procedures. The values for these variables were obtained through a literature search of the databases of the MEDLINE medical bibliography, the Cochrane and SciELO libraries, and Google Scholar for information on earthquakes over the last 30 years of over magnitude 6.0 on the moment magnitude scale. If a high-magnitude earthquake were to occur in Lima, it was estimated that between 23,328 and 178,387 injured would go to hospitals, of which between 4,666 and 121,303 would require inpatient care, while between 18,662 and 57,084 could be treated as outpatients. It was estimated that there would be an average of 8,768 cases of crush syndrome and 54,217 cases of other health problems. Enough blood would be required for 8,761 wounded in the first 24 hours. Furthermore, it was expected that there would be a deficit of hospital beds and operating theaters due to the high demand. Sudden and violent disasters, such as earthquakes, represent significant challenges for health systems and services. This study shows the deficit of preparation and capacity to respond to a possible high-magnitude earthquake. The study also showed there are not enough resources to face mega-disasters, especially in large cities. Bambarén C , Uyen A
Theresa J. Ochoa
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD and the antibiotic susceptibility and serotype distribution of S. pneumoniae in pediatric patients in Lima, Peru. METHODS: A 2-year, multicenter, passive surveillance study conducted from May 2006- April 2008 in 11 public hospitals and five private laboratories in Lima, Peru, in patients less than 16 years of age with sterile site cultures yielding S. pneumoniae. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by Etest® (AB Biodisk, Solna, Switzerland. Strains were serotyped by the Quellung reaction. RESULTS: In all, 101 IPD episodes were studied, 68.3% of which were among children less than 24 months of age. Diagnoses were: pneumonia (47.5%, meningitis (38.6%, and sepsis (7.9%. The overall case fatality rate was 22.0%; case fatality rate in meningitis was 32.4%. While 80.0% of fatal cases were in those less than 24 months of age, only 50.7% of non-fatal cases (P OBJETIVO: Determinar la epidemiología de la enfermedad neumocócica invasora y la sensibilidad a los antibióticos y la distribución de los serotipos de S. pneumoniae en pacientes pediátricos en Lima, Perú. MÉTODOS: Estudio multicéntrico de vigilancia pasiva durante dos años, entre mayo del 2006 y abril del 2008, en 11 hospitales públicos y 5 consultorios privados de Lima, en pacientes menores de 16 años con cultivos de sitios estériles positivos para S. pneumoniae. Se determinó la sensibilidad a los antibióticos mediante Etest® (AB Biodisk, Solna, Suiza. Se serotipificaron las cepas mediante la reacción de Quellung. RESULTADOS: En total, se estudiaron 101 episodios de enfermedad neumocócica invasora, 68,3% de ellos en niños menores de 24 meses, con los siguientes diagnósticos: neumonía (47,5%, meningitis (38,6% y septicemia (7,9%. La tasa de letalidad general fue de 22,0% y la tasa de letalidad por meningitis de 32,4%. Si bien 80,0% de los casos mortales ocurrió en menores de 24 meses, solo 50
Quistberg, D Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D; Johnston, Brian D; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J Jaime; Ebel, Beth E
To evaluate the relationship between bus stop characteristics and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. This was a matched case-control study where the units of study were pedestrian crossings in Lima, Peru. We performed a random sample of 11 police commissaries in Lima, Peru. Data collection occurred from February 2011 to September 2011. A total of 97 intersection cases representing 1134 collisions and 40 mid-block cases representing 469 collisions that occurred between October 2010 and January 2011, and their matched controls, were included. The main exposures assessed were presence of a bus stop and specific bus stop characteristics. The main outcome measure was occurrence of a pedestrian-motor vehicle collision. Intersections with bus stops were three times more likely to have a pedestrian-vehicle collision (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.53 to 7.03), relative to intersections without bus stops. Formal and informal bus stops were associated with higher odds of a collision at intersections (OR 6.23, 95% CI 1.76 to 22.0 and OR 2.98, 1.37 to 6.49). At mid-block sites, bus stops on a bus-dedicated transit lane were also associated with collision risk (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.02 to 5.42). All bus stops were located prior to the intersection, contrary to practices in most high-income countries. In urban Lima, the presence of a bus stop was associated with a threefold increase in risk of a pedestrian collision. The highly competitive environment among bus companies may provide an economic incentive for risky practices, such as dropping off passengers in the middle of traffic and jockeying for position with other buses. Bus stop placement should be considered to improve pedestrian safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Tatard, Lucile; Villacorta, Sandra; Metzger, Pascale
85% of people exposed to earthquakes, hurricanes, floods and drought live in developing countries (IPU, 2010). This population is also exposed to the landslide risk as this phenomenon is mainly triggered by earthquakes and rainfall. There is an urgent need to propose methods to evaluate and mitigate the landslide risk for developing countries, where few studies were undergone and data, and information on data, are scarce. In this study, we characterize a landslide inventory set up for the megalopolis of Lima, Peru, by the local geological bureau (INGEMMET). This inventory was set up using satellite images and includes landslides of all ages. It is composed of two landslide types: rockfalls and debris flows (huaycos) that we investigate together and separately. First, we describe qualitatively the landslide occurrences in terms of geology, slope steepness, altitude, etc. We notably find that debris flows occur at altitudes larger than the ones of the rockfalls, probably due to the climatic conditions. Then we find that the rockfalls and debris flows area distributions follow a power law when investigated separately whereas it does not follow a power law when investigated together. This highlights a logical difference of mechanics between the two landslide types. Then, using the dimension of correlation D (Grassberger and Procaccia, 1983) we show that the event spatial occurrences are not uniformly distributed but clustered. It supports the existence of controlling parameters on the spatial occurrence of landslides and the research to identify them. Last, we investigate the relationships between different landslide parameters (geology, altitude, slope steepness, ...) using the linear correlation coefficient r, and we find that all these parameters are independent to each other. This allows us to investigate each parameter separately in terms of landslide susceptibility and to define values for which the landslide susceptibility is low, medium or high for each
Banna, Jinan C; Buchthal, Opal Vanessa; Delormier, Treena; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Penny, Mary E
Peruvian adolescents are at high nutritional risk, facing issues such as overweight and obesity, anemia, and pregnancy during a period of development. Research seeking to understand contextual factors that influence eating habits to inform the development of public health interventions is lacking in this population. This study aimed to understand socio-cultural influences on eating among adolescents in periurban Lima, Peru using qualitative methods. Semi-structured interviews and pile sort activities were conducted with 14 adolescents 15-17 years. The interview was designed to elicit information on influences on eating habits at four levels: individual (intrapersonal), social environmental (interpersonal), physical environmental (community settings), and macrosystem (societal). The pile sort activity required adolescents to place cards with food images into groups and then to describe the characteristics of the foods placed in each group. Content analysis was used to identify predominant themes of influencing factors in interviews. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering analysis was completed with pile sort data. Individual influences on behavior included lack of financial resources to purchase food and concerns about body image. Nutrition-related knowledge also played a role; participants noted the importance of foods such as beans for anemia prevention. At the social environmental level, parents promoted healthy eating by providing advice on food selection and home-cooked meals. The physical environment also influenced intake, with foods available in schools being predominantly low-nutrient energy-dense. Macrosystem influences were evident, as adolescents used the Internet for nutrition information, which they viewed as credible. To address nutrition-related issues such as obesity and iron-deficiency anemia in Peruvian adolescents, further research is warranted to elucidate the roles of certain factors shaping behavior, particularly that of family
Lucas L., Juan; Vilca L., Miguel; Ramos D., Daphne
El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Campylobacter spp en canales y ciegos de pollos de engorde comercializados en Lima Metropolitana a traves de tres centros de beneficio clandestino...
Pacsi, S.; Rappenglueck, B.
This research was carried out to show a general analysis of the monthly and yearly variation (1996-2002) and the tendency of the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) for the 5 stations of the air quality network of Lima. The SO2 and NO2 concentrations were measured by the Dirección General de Salud Ambiental (DIGESA), using the active sampling method and the chemical analysis has been determined by Turbidimetry and Colorimetry for the SO2 and NO2 respectively. The monthly average variation (1996-2001) of SO2 in the Lima Center station has a small annual range (32,4 mikrograms/m3) with maximum values in autumn (April) and minimum in winter (June). The NO2 presents a higher annual range (128,2 mikrograms/m3) and its minimum values occur in the summer and the maximum in spring. The annual averages analysis (2000-2002) of the air quality monitoring network of Lima shows that the SO2 and NO2 values are maximum in the Lima Center station and exceed the Peruvian air quality standard (ECAs) in 30% and 75% respectively. The yearly variation (1996-2001) in the Lima Center station show an increasing tendency in the SO2 (significant) and NO2 (not significant) values, which indicates the critical level of the air quality in Lima, therefore the implementation of the air pollution control programs is urgent.
Outbreak of persistent cutaneous abscesses due to Mycobacterium chelonae after mesotherapy sessions, Lima, Peru Surto de abscessos cutâneos persistentes por Mycobacterium chelonae pós-mesoterapia, Lima, Peru
César V Munayco
Full Text Available Outbreaks of rapidly growing mycobacteria have been occasionally described. The article reports an outbreak of cutaneous abscesses due to Mycobacterium chelonae following mesotherapy in Lima, Peru. From December 2004 through January 2005, 35 subjects who had participated in mesotherapy training sessions presented with persistent cutaneous abscesses. Thirteen (37% of these suspected cases consented to underwent clinical examination. Skin punch-biopsies were collected from suspicious lesions and substances injected during mesotherapy were analyzed. Suspected cases were mainly young women and lesions included subcutaneous nodules, abscesses and ulcers. Mycobacterium chelonae was isolated from four patients and from a procaine vial. In conclusion, it is important to consider mesotherapy as a potential source of rapidly growing mycobacteria infections.Surtos de micobactérias de crescimento rápido têm sido relatados ocasionalmente. O estudo relata um surto de abscessos cutâneos por Mycobacterium chelonae após sessões de mesoterapia em Lima, Peru. De dezembro de 2004 a janeiro de 2005, 35 pessoas que haviam passado por sessões de mesoterapia apresentaram esses abscessos cutâneos. Treze (37% desses casos suspeitos concordaram em realizar exames clínicos. Foram realizadas biópsias de punção de pele de lesões suspeitas e examinadas substâncias injetadas durante a mesoterapia. Os casos suspeitos eram predominantemente mulheres jovens e as lesões incluíram nódulos subcutâneos, abscessos e úlceras. Mycobacterium chelonae foi isolada de quatro pacientes e de um frasco de procaína. Em conclusão, é importante considerar a mesoterapia como fonte potencial de infecções de micobactérias de crescimento rápido.
Lozano-Vargas, Antonio; Vega-Dienstmaier, Johann
To assess psychometric properties and to develop a shorter version of a new anxiety scale. The 130-item new anxiety scale (NAS-130) was administered to 254 psychiatric outpatients of a general hospital in Lima, Peru. A categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was performed with the 130 items and based on these results and the relation of each item with a Clinical Global Impressions Severity Scale for anxiety (CGI-S) the scale was simplified. In addition, the CGI-S was used to assess the concurrent validity of the scale. The NAS-130 had a Cronbach's alpha of 0.97 and a Spearman correlation coefficient (Rho) with CGI-S of 0.44 (panxiety in our population; however, the scores should be interpreted differently in men and women.
Garcia, Coralith; Chincha, Omayra; Leon, Mey; Iglesias, David; Barletta, Francesca; Mercado, Erik; Ochoa, Theresa
Diarrhea is still a prevalent health issue in HIV patients. Our objective was to characterize the different diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) groups in stools from adult HIV patients. Cross sectional study: We enrolled HIV-positive and -negative patients with and without diarrhea from a tertiary-care center of Lima, Peru. Clinical data was recorded and a stool sample per patient was cultured. Multiplex PCR was used to detect different DECs. One hundred eighty-four participants were enrolled. The frequency of having at least one DEC was more common in HIV-positive than HIV-negative patients with diarrhea (42% versus 20%, P < 0.05). The enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) was the most common DEC in patients with diarrhea, 13% in HIV patients. The diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) was only present in HIV positive patients with diarrhea (10.1%). Different types of DEC are frequent in stools from HIV-positive patients.
Mendo-Lopez, Rafael; Jasso, Luis; Guevara, Ximena; Astocondor, Aurora Lizeth; Alejos, Saul; Bardossy, Ana C; Prentiss, Tyler; Zervos, Marcus J; Jacobs, Jan; García, Coralith
Multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infections cause high morbidity and mortality, and high costs to patients and hospitals. The study aims were to determine the frequency of MDRO colonization and associated factors in patients with lower-extremity wounds with colonization. A cross-sectional study was designed during November 2015 to July 2016 in a tertiary care hospital in Lima, Peru. A wound swab was obtained for culture and susceptibility testing. MDRO colonization was defined if the culture grew with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and/or extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) microorganisms. The frequency of MDRO wound colonization was 26.8% among the 97 patients enrolled. The most frequent MDRO obtained was ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, which was significantly more frequent in chronic wounds versus acute wounds (17.2% versus 0%, P wounds are admitted.
Bejar, Vilma; Tello, Mercedes; García, Ruth; Guevara, José M; Gonzales, Sofia; Vergaray, German; Valencia, Esther; Abanto, Enma; Ortega-Loayza, Alex G; Hagen, Ferry; Gutierrez, Ericson L
Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection with a worldwide distribution, mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. To molecularly characterize the mating-types, serotypes, genotypes and antifungal susceptibility profiles of a set of retrospectively isolated C. neoformans strains from Lima, Peru. A set of 32 Cryptococcus spp. strains from the Institute of Tropical Medicine of the National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru, were included in this retrospective study. Twenty-four strains were isolated from patients, while the remaining 8 were isolated from the environment. Using conventional PCR, 27 (84.4%) of the isolates were identified as C. neoformans var. grubii mating-type alpha and serotype A. Using the AFLP fingerprinting, it was shown that 16 (50%) of the C. neoformans strains were genotype AFLP1, 13 (40.6%) were genotype AFLP1B, 2 (6.3%) were genotype AFLP2, and 1 (3.1%) was found to be a hybrid between both C. neoformans varieties (genotype AFLP3). The antifungal susceptibility profiles for amphotericin B, fluconazole and voriconazole showed that all the 32 C. neoformans are sensitive to these antifungal compounds. In this study we observed that C. neoformans var. grubii (AFLP1 and AFLP1B) and C. neoformans var. neoformans (AFLP2) were the only cryptococcal varieties involved. All strains were found to be sensitive to the antifungals tested, results that are consistent with those found in the international literature. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Most studies reporting ethnic disparities in the quality of healthcare come from developed countries and rely on observational methods. We conducted the first experimental study to evaluate whether health providers in Peru provide differential quality of care for family planning services, based on the indigenous or mestizo (mixed ethnoracial ancestry profile of the patient. In a crossover randomized controlled trial conducted in 2012, a sample of 351 out of the 408 public health establishments in Metropolitan Lima, Peru were randomly assigned to receive unannounced simulated patients enacting indigenous and mestizo profiles (sequence-1 or mestizo and then indigenous profiles (sequence-2, with a five week wash-out period. Both ethnic profiles used the same scripted scenario for seeking contraceptive advice but had distinctive cultural attributes such as clothing, styling of hair, make-up, accessories, posture and patterns of movement and speech. Our primary outcome measure of quality of care is the proportion of technical tasks performed by providers, as established by Peruvian family planning clinical guidelines. Providers and data analysts were kept blinded to the allocation. We found a non-significant mean difference of -0.7% (p = 0.23 between ethnic profiles in the percentage of technical tasks performed by providers. However we report large deficiencies in the compliance with quality standards of care for both profiles. Differential provider behaviour based on the patient's ethnic profiles compared in the study did not contribute to deficiencies in family planning outcomes observed. The study highlights the need to explore other determinants for poor compliance with quality standards, including demand and supply side factors, and calls for interventions to improve the quality of care for family planning services in Metropolitan Lima.
Cárdenas, María Kathia; Benziger, Catherine P; Pillay, Timesh D; Miranda, J Jaime
To determine the effect of increasing fruit visibility, adding information and lowering price on fruit purchasing at a university cafeteria in Lima, Peru. Quasi-experimental pilot study of a three-phase stepped intervention. In Phase 1, fruit was displayed >3 m from the point of purchase with no additional information. Phase 2 consisted in displaying the fruit near the point of purchase with added health and price information. Phase 3 added a 33% price reduction. The duration of each phase was 3 weeks and phases were separated by 2-week breaks. Primary outcomes were total pieces of fruit and number of meals sold daily. A university cafeteria in Lima, Peru. Approximately 150 people, students and non-student adults, who purchased food daily. Twelve students participated in post-intervention interviews. Fruit purchasing doubled from Phase 1 to Phase 3 (P<0·01) and remained significant after adjusting for the number of meals sold daily (P<0·05). There was no evidence of a difference in fruit sold between the other phases. Females purchased 100% of the fruit in Phase 1, 82% in Phase 2 and 67% in Phase 3 (P<0·01). Males increased their purchasing significantly between Phase 1 and 3 (P<0·01). Non-student adults purchased more fruit with each phase (P<0·05) whereas students did not. Qualitatively, the most common reason for not purchasing fruit was a marked preference to buy unhealthy snack foods. Promoting fruit consumption by product placement close to the point of purchase, adding health information and price reduction had a positive effect on fruit purchasing in a university cafeteria, especially in males and non-student adults.
Paul, Kathleen J; Garcia, Pedro J; Giesel, Ann E; Holmes, King K; Hitti, Jane E
Adolescent and young adult women in urban, socioeconomically disadvantaged areas are at high risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed associations of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection with both traditional STI risk factors, and partner and partnership-related factors among low-income women in Lima, Peru, by age group. In a cross-sectional analysis of CT infection among 1290 postpartum women, cervical swabs were collected for CT polymerase chain reaction (PCR) within 48 h after delivery, and a structured interview was completed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate risk factors for CT, with separate models stratified by age: adolescents (12-19 years), young women (20-24 years), and older women (>or=25 years). CT was detected in 9.6% of adolescents, 9.0% of young women, and 5.4% of older women (p = 0.03). Among adolescents, history of drug use (odds ratio [OR] = 5.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-30.6) and short duration of current partnership (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.14-5.93) were the strongest predictors of CT infection. Among young women, younger age at coitarche (OR = 0.74 for each year older, 95% CI 0.60-0.91) and low income (OR = 2.40, 95% CI 1.04-5.55) were associated with CT, while self-report of ever using condoms was protective (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.61). Among older women, only younger age at coitarche was related to CT (OR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.75-0.97). Risk factors for CT among women in Lima, Peru, differed for adolescents, young women, and older women, which may reflect differences in biology and/or immunology of CT as well as variability in the occurrence of specific risk behaviors by age group.
Varela-Pinedo, Luis; Chávez-Jimeno, Helver; Tello-Rodríguez, Tania; Ortiz-Saavedra, Pedro; Gálvez-Cano, Miguel; Casas-Vasquez, Paola; Aliaga-Díaz, Elizabeth; Ciudad-Fernandez, Luis
To determine the clinical, functional and socio-familiar profile of seniors from a community in a district of Lima, Peru. Descriptive cross-sectional study of a sample of 501 people aged 60 and over living in the San Martin de Porres district. We used a structured questionnaire in which clinical, functional and socio-familiar variables were recorded. A physical evaluation was carried out to assess performance based measures and serum samples were taken for hematological and biochemical examination. The data were presented with descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages for categorical variables and means and standard deviations for the numeric variables. A total of 501 older adults were evaluated. The mean age was 71.5 years (±8.9 years). The most common chronic disease was arterial hypertension at 40.9%, followed by rheumatic diseases with 36.9%. 27.7% had some degree of partial or total dependence in activities of daily living, 16.2% had cognitive impairment, 8% lived alone, 58.5% had or were at risk of having a social problem.61% self-rated their health as normal, while 16% rated it as bad or very bad. Seniors in the community of San Martin de Porres in Lima have frequent problems of functional dependence, have or are at risk of social problems, chronic illness and a high frequency of geriatric syndromes and problems.
Pereyra, P.; Lopez, M. E.; Perez, B., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Seccion Fisica, Av. Universitaria 1801, Lima (Peru)
The measurement of the Radon-222 levels was realized in the first semester of 2013 in residences corresponding to 16 districts of the metropolitan area of Lima, including to the zones North, Center and South of the city, during one period of 3 to 6 months in continuous form, with measurement periods of 1 to 2 months. The houses where the measurements were made were selected considering diverse variables as antiquity, construction materials, coatings, soil type, occupational use of the monitored rooms, etc. The measurements were realized in basements, first and second floor of the residences. For the Radon-222 measurements passive detectors of cellulose nitrate (Lr-115) were used. The procedure of data collection, dosimeters reading and the measurement results are shown in this work; this monitoring is the first one that is carried out in this city. The results are only indicators of the present radon rate, by the detectors type not is possible to discriminate the presence of the Radon-222 descendants. (Author)
Reyes, Jhoe; Brusa, Francisco
Species of Macrostomum are present in almost all regions of the world. These flatworms occur in different kinds of environments, from freshwater to marine ecosystems. Although Peru is considered one of the megadiverse countries in South America, little is known about freshwater microturbellarians in this country. Here we report the presence of M. rostratum Papi, 1951 for the first time in Peru, in a coastal brackish water wetland, and that of M. quiritium Beklemischev, 1951 and M. tuba Graff, 1882 in an inland portion of a river near the city of Lima. All the species were studied alive. Comments on the habitat and associated fauna are given. Detailed information on the copulatory system is provided for M. rostratum; the male system has a bilobed seminal vesicle with thick walls and full of spindle-shaped sperm cells, and a stylet in the form of a solid curved inverted cone with a subterminal opening located on the concave side of the stylet. These findings led us to suggest that M. rostratum may exhibit a hypodermic mating syndrome. The three species of Macrostomum reported here are widespread and, although the diagnostic characters of the species are present, some morphological differences in the copulatory stylet suggest they are cryptic species.
Del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Orellana-Peralta, Fiorella; Marcelo-Rodríguez, Alvaro; Verne, Eduardo; Esquivel-Vizcarra, Mónica; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Weilg, Pablo; Casabona-Oré, Verónica; Ugarte, Claudia; Del Valle, Luis J
Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are atypical pathogens responsible for pneumonia and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low income countries. The study objective is to determine the prevalence of this pathogens in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections. A consecutive cross-sectional study was conducted in Lima, Peru from May 2009 to September 2010. A total of 675 children admitted with clinical diagnoses of acute respiratory infections were tested for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and clinical symptoms were registered by the attending physician. Mycoplasma pneumonia was detected in 25.19% (170/675) of nasopharyngeal samples and Chlamydia pneumonia in 10.52% (71/675). The most common symptoms in patients with these atypical pathogens were rhinorrhea, cough and fever. A higher prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae cases were registered in summer, between December 2009 and March 2010. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumonia are a significant cause of morbidity in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections (ARI). Further studies should evaluate the use of reliable techniques such as PCR in Peru in order to avoid underdiagnoses of these atypical pathogens.
Pavic-Espinoza, Ivana; Bendezú-Medina, Sandy; Herrera-Alzamora, Angella; Weilg, Pablo; Pons, María J; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Petrozzi-Helasvuo, Verónica; del Valle Mendoza, Juana
Pertussis diagnosis may go unrecognized when other pathogens, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) circulate. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Lima, Peru from January 2009 to September 2010. A total of 596 children under 5 years old admitted with clinical diagnoses of acute respiratory infections were test for B. pertussis and RSV detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The pertussis toxin and IS481 genes were detected in 19.12% (114/596) of the cases and the respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV-A and RSV-B) were identified in 17.28% (103/596) of patients. Infants under 3 months old were the most frequently affected by this pathogens in 43% (49/114) and 35.9% (37/103) respectively. An increase of B. pertussis was observed from February to March and from October to November with a Seasonal index between 1.32 and 1.51 and 1.24-3.5 respectively. Epidemiologic surveillance for B. pertussis is essential in Peru, especially in children that could most benefit from the vaccine. B. pertussis should be suspected in infants hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms for early treatment and prevent complications.
Juana Del Valle-Mendoza
Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are atypical pathogens responsible for pneumonia and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low income countries. The study objective is to determine the prevalence of this pathogens in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections.A consecutive cross-sectional study was conducted in Lima, Peru from May 2009 to September 2010. A total of 675 children admitted with clinical diagnoses of acute respiratory infections were tested for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and clinical symptoms were registered by the attending physician.Mycoplasma pneumonia was detected in 25.19% (170/675 of nasopharyngeal samples and Chlamydia pneumonia in 10.52% (71/675. The most common symptoms in patients with these atypical pathogens were rhinorrhea, cough and fever. A higher prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae cases were registered in summer, between December 2009 and March 2010.Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumonia are a significant cause of morbidity in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections (ARI. Further studies should evaluate the use of reliable techniques such as PCR in Peru in order to avoid underdiagnoses of these atypical pathogens.
Heraud, J. A.; Lira, J. A.
The first photographs of Co-seismic Luminescence, commonly known as Earthquake lights (EQLs), were reported in 1968 in Japan. However, there have been documented reports of luminescence associated with earthquakes since ancient times in different parts of the world. Besides this, there is modern scientific work dealing with evidence of and models for the production of such lights. During the Peru 15 August 2007 Mw=8.0 earthquake which occurred at 06:40 p.m. LT, hence dark in the southern wintertime, several EQLs were observed along the Peruvian coast and extensively reported in the capital city of Lima, about 150 km northwest of the epicenter. These lights were video-recorded by a security camera installed at the Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru (PUCP) campus and time-correlated with seismic ground accelerations registered at the seismological station on campus, analyzed and related to highly qualified eyewitness observations of the phenomena from other parts of the city and to other video recordings. We believe the evidence presented here contributes significantly to sustain the hypothesis that electromagnetic phenomena related to seismic activity can occur, at least during an earthquake. It is highly probable that continued research in luminescence and the use of magnetometers in studying electromagnetic activity and radon gas emanation detectors will contribute even more towards determining their occurrence during and probably prior to seismic activity.
Rivera, F P; Sotelo, E; Morales, I; Menacho, F; Medina, A M; Evaristo, R; Valencia, R; Carbajal, L; Ruiz, J; Ochoa, T J
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in cattle and pigs as a possible STEC reservoir in Lima, Peru. One hundred and fourteen cattle and 112 pigs from 10 and 4 farms, respectively, were studied. Five E. coli colonies per culture were studied by a multiplex real-time PCR to identify Shiga toxin-producing (stx1, stx2, eaeA), enterotoxigenic (lt, st), enteropathogenic (eaeA), enteroinvasive (ipaH), enteroaggregative (aggR), and diffusely adherent E. coli (daaD). Shiga toxin-producing E. coli were isolated from 16 cattle (14%) but none from pigs. stx1 was found in all bovine isolates, 11 of which also carried eaeA genes (69%); only 1 sample had both stx1 and stx2. Thirteen stx-positive strains were classified as Shiga-toxigenic (81%) using an enzymatic immunoassay, 2 STEC strains were from serogroup O157 (13%), and 7 were sorbitol negative (44%). Enteropathogenic E. coli were detected more frequently in cattle (18%, 20/114) than in pigs (5%, 6/112). To our knowledge, this is the first study on the prevalence of STEC in farms animals in Peru using molecular methods. Further studies are needed in a large number of farms to determine the relevance of these findings and its consequences for public health. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
J. Calderon (Julio); L. Marulanda (Liliana)
textabstractEl presente informe contiene un estudio de caso sobre “Evaluación del Proceso Consultivo Ciudadano en Villa el Salvador, Lima, Perú” realizado para el Instituto de Estudios de Vivienda y Desarrollo Urbano - IHS (Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies) y el Programa SINPA
Full Text Available SUMMARY Feral pigeons (Columbia livia live in close contact with humans and other animals. They can transmit potentially pathogenic and zoonotic agents. The objective of this study was to isolate and detect strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuniof urban feral pigeons from an area of Lima, Peru. Fresh dropping samples from urban parks were collected for microbiological isolation of E. coli strains in selective agar, and Campylobacterby filtration method. Molecular identification of diarrheagenic pathotypes of E.coliand Campylobacter jejuni was performed by PCR. Twenty-two parks were sampled and 16 colonies of Campylobacter spp. were isolated. The 100% of isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Furthermore, 102 colonies of E. coli were isolated and the 5.88% resulted as Enteropathogenic (EPEC type and 0.98% as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC. The urban feral pigeons of Lima in Peru can act as a reservoir or carriers of zoonotic potentially pathogenic enteric agents.
Caballero, Moisés; Rivera, Isabel; Jara, Luis M; Ulloa-Stanojlovic, Francisco M; Shiva, Carlos
Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) live in close contact with humans and other animals. They can transmit potentially pathogenic and zoonotic agents. The objective of this study was to isolate and detect strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni of urban feral pigeons from an area of Lima, Peru. Fresh dropping samples from urban parks were collected for microbiological isolation of E. coli strains in selective agar, and Campylobacter by filtration method. Molecular identification of diarrheagenic pathotypes of E.coli and Campylobacter jejuni was performed by PCR. Twenty-two parks were sampled and 16 colonies of Campylobacter spp. were isolated. The 100% of isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Furthermore, 102 colonies of E. coli were isolated and the 5.88% resulted as Enteropathogenic (EPEC) type and 0.98% as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The urban feral pigeons of Lima in Peru can act as a reservoir or carriers of zoonotic potentially pathogenic enteric agents.
Allan-Blitz, Lao-Tzu; Leon, Segundo R; Bristow, Claire C; Konda, Kelika A; Vargas, Silver K; Flores, Juan A; Brown, Brandon J; Caceres, Carlos F; Klausner, Jeffrey D
Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are among the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infections in the world. Data are limited, however, on the burden of extra-genital chlamydial and gonococcal infections among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru. Data were gathered from self-collected anal or pharyngeal swabs from participants in Lima, Peru, and analyzed via cross-sectional methods. Prevalence ratios for the association between extra-genital infection with socio-demographic and sexual behaviors were determined. Overall, 127 (32.8%) participants had anal or pharyngeal infections. On multivariate modeling, anal infection was positively associated with practicing both receptive and insertive anal sex, when compared to insertive alone (PR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.32-4.71), and negatively associated with any antibiotic use in the prior three months (PR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.39-0.91). Pharyngeal infection was negatively associated with age greater than 30 years compared to 18-30 years (PR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.30-0.96), and positively associated with gender identity of transgender women (PR = 2.12; 95% CI = 1.20-3.73). This study demonstrates considerable burden of extra-genital chlamydial and gonococcal infections among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru.
Full Text Available A quantitative research of parasites of 67 endemic frog Telmatobius jelskii (Peters, 1863 collected from Laguna Tucto (76°46'11"W, 10°39'11"S where Pativilca River is originated was conducted, and was located in the Province of Oyon, high Andean area from the Department of Lima, Peru during September-October 2000. Of the frogs collected, 23 were females and 44 males. Male showed a length between 5.2 ± 0.5 cm (range = 4.0-6.4 cm and female between 5.5 ± 1 cm (range = 3.9-7.6 cm and were not found differences between both sexes. 86 specimens of parasite and three species in total during all the survey were collected. 28 hosts were infected (41.8%. twenty-five hosts (37.3% showed infection with one parasite species, and three (4.5% had two parasite species. Three parasite species were found: Gorgoderina parvicava Travassos, 1922 (Digenea: Gorgoderidae (Prevalence = 40.3%; mean Intensity = 3.1; mean abundance = 1.2, Cylindrotaenia americana Jewell, 1916 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae (Prevalence = 3%; mean Intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02 and Aplectana hylambatis (Baylis, 1927 (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae (Prevalence = 3%; mean Intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02. G. parvicava had an overdispersed distribution and was the dominant species. An effect of sex and length with prevalence and mean abundance of infection of G. parvicava was not found. The relationship of helminthes parasites with T. jelskii is discussed. G. parvicava and C. americana are new records for T. jelskii.
Lam-Figueroa, Nelly; Contreras-Pulache, Hans; Mori-Quispe, Elizabeth; Nizama-Valladolid, Martín; Gutiérrez, César; Hinostroza-Camposano, Williams; Reyes, Erasmo Torrejón; Hinostroza-Camposano, Richard; Coaquira-Condori, Elizabeth; Hinostroza-Camposano, Willy David
To develop and validate an instrument to assess Internet Addiction (IA) phenomenon in adolescents of Metropolitan Lima. We performed an observational analytical study, including a sample of 248 high school adolescent students. In order to evaluate the IA, we constructed the questionnaire: "Scale for Internet Addiction of Lima" (SIAL), which assesses symptoms and dysfunctional characteristics. The resulting items were submitted to experts' judgment, finally obtaining a 11-item scale. The mean age was 14 years old. The psychometric analysis of the instrument showed a Cronbach' Alpha Coefficient of 0.84, with values of item-total correlation ranging from 0.45 to 0.59. The dimensional analysis yielded a two-dimensional structure that explained up to 50.7% of the total variance. The bi-dimensional data analysis revealed a significant association (paddiction has a dynamic role, which evidences a problem generated in family patterns and inadequate social networks.
Llanos-Chea, Fiorella; Martínez, Dalila; Rosas, Angel; Samalvides, Frine; Vinetz, Joseph M; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro
Severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria is uncommon in South America. Lima, Peru, while not endemic for malaria, is home to specialized centers for infectious diseases that admit and manage patients with severe malaria (SM), all of whom contracted infection during travel. This retrospective study describes severe travel-related malaria in individuals admitted to one tertiary care referral hospital in Lima, Peru; severity was classified based on criteria published by the World Health Organization in 2000. Data were abstracted from medical records of patients with SM admitted to Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia from 2006 to 2011. Of 33 SM cases with complete clinical data, the mean age was 39 years and the male/female ratio was 2.8. Most cases were contracted in known endemic regions within Peru: Amazonia (47%), the central jungle (18%), and the northern coast (12%); cases were also found in five (15%) travelers returning from Africa. Plasmodium vivax was most commonly identified (71%) among the severe infections, followed by P. falciparum (18%); mixed infections composed 11% of the group. Among the criteria of severity, jaundice was most common (58%), followed by severe thrombocytopenia (47%), hyperpyrexia (32%), and shock (15%). Plasmodium vivax mono-infection predominated as the etiology of SM in cases acquired in Peru. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Baumann, Lauren M; Robinson, Colin L; Combe, Juan M; Gomez, Alfonso; Romero, Karina; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Hansel, Nadia N; Wise, Robert A; Breysse, Patrick N; Barnes, Kathleen; Hernandez, Juan E; Checkley, William
Proximity to roadways increases the risk of asthma in developed countries; however, relatively little is known about this relationship in developing countries, where rapid and uncontrolled growth of cities has resulted in urban sprawl and heavy traffic volumes. We sought to determine the effect of distance from a heavily transited avenue on asthma symptoms and quantitative respiratory outcome measures in a periurban shantytown in Lima, Peru. We enrolled 725 adolescents aged 13 to 15 years who were administered a survey on asthma symptoms and measured spirometry, response to allergy skin testing, and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). We calculated distances from the main avenue for all households and measured indoor particulate matter in 100 households. We used multivariable regression to model the risk of asthma symptoms, risk of atopy, eNO levels, and FEV(1)/forced vital capacity ratio as a function of distance. Compared against 384 meters, the odds of current asthma symptoms in households living within 100 meters increased by a factor of 2 (P atopy increased by a factor of 1.07 for every 100-meter difference in the distance from the avenue (P = .03). We found an inverse relationship in prebronchodilator FEV(1)/forced vital capacity and distance to the avenue in female subjects (P = .01) but not in male subjects. We did not find an association between eNO or household particulate matter levels and distance. Living in close proximity to a high-traffic-density avenue in a periurban community in Peru was associated with a greater risk of asthma symptoms and atopy. Regulation of mobile-source pollutants in periurban areas of developing countries might help reduce the burden of asthma symptoms and atopy. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ventura, K.; Huaman, L.
The external morphology of pollen is described of 26 species of the Fabaceae family which have been collected in the low part of Pativilca and Fortaleza Valleys, Peru. Palinologics samples were processed following the method of Erdtman (1966). Some species made the difference between the characteristics which have being in optical microscope and descriptions found in literature were observed. The pollen of this family appeared in monades with the exception of Inga and Acacia (p...
Underhill, Lindsay J; Bose, Sonali; Williams, D'Ann L; Romero, Karina M; Malpartida, Gary; Breysse, Patrick N; Klasen, Elizabeth M; Combe, Juan M; Checkley, William; Hansel, Nadia N
The influence of traffic-related air pollution on indoor residential exposure is not well characterized in homes with high natural ventilation in low-income countries. Additionally, domestic allergen exposure is unknown in such populations. We conducted a pilot study of 25 homes in peri-urban Lima, Peru to estimate the effects of roadway proximity and season on residential concentrations. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM₂.₅), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and black carbon (BC) were measured during two seasons, and allergens were measured in bedroom dust. Allergen levels were highest for dust mite and mouse allergens, with concentrations above clinically relevant thresholds in over a quarter and half of all homes, respectively. Mean indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations were similar (PM₂.₅: 20.0 vs. 16.9 μg/m³, BC: 7.6 vs. 8.1 μg/m³, NO₂: 7.3 vs. 7.5 ppb), and tended to be higher in the summer compared to the winter. Road proximity was significantly correlated with overall concentrations of outdoor PM₂.₅ (rs = -0.42, p = 0.01) and NO₂ (rs = -0.36, p = 0.03), and outdoor BC concentrations in the winter (rs = -0.51, p = 0.03). Our results suggest that outdoor-sourced pollutants significantly influence indoor air quality in peri-urban Peruvian communities, and homes closer to roadways are particularly vulnerable.
Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Walker, Blake Byron; Carrasco-Escobar, Gabriel; Varela-Gaona, Marco; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Huicho, Luis; Checkley, William; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio
To map the geographical distribution and spatial clustering of depressive symptoms cases in an area of Lima, Peru. Presence of depressive symptoms suggesting a major depressive episode was assessed using a short version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Data were obtained from a census conducted in 2010. One participant per selected household (aged 18 years and above, living more than 6 months in the area) was included. Residence latitude, longitude, and elevation were captured using a GPS device. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated, and relative risks (RRs) were calculated to identify areas of significantly higher and lower geographical concentrations of depressive symptoms. Data from 7946 participants, 28.3% male, mean age 39.4 (SD, 13.9) years, were analyzed. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 17.0% (95% confidence interval = 16.2%-17.8%). Three clusters with high prevalence of depressive symptoms (primary cluster: RR = 1.82; P = .003 and secondary: RR = 2.83; P = .004 and RR = 5.92; P = .01), and two clusters with significantly low prevalence (primary: RR = 0.23; P = .016 and secondary: RR = 0; P = .035), were identified. Further adjustment by potential confounders confirmed the high prevalence clusters but also identified newer ones. Screening strategies for depression, in combination with mapping techniques, may be useful tools to target interventions in resource-limited areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ulloa-Stanojlović, Francisco Miroslav; Aguiar, Bruna; Jara, Luis M; Sato, Maria Inês Zanoli; Guerrero, Juana Arzola; Hachich, Elayse; Matté, Glavur Rogério; Dropa, Milena; Matté, Maria Helena; de Araújo, Ronalda Silva
The objectives of the study were to detect and genotype Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in wastewater samples obtained from five cities with high transit of people in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and at the entrance of a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Lima, Peru. Samples were collected and concentrated by centrifugation. The genomic DNA was extracted for molecular characterization by nested PCR for Cryptosporidium and double nested PCR for Giardia, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. G. intestinalis was found in 63.6 % of the samples, and the human assemblages A and B were identified. Cryptosporidium sp. was found in 36.4 % of the samples, and the species were corresponding to Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium cuniculus, and Cryptosporidium muris. Results revealed the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium species and G. intestinalis human pathogenic assemblages. Molecular tools highlight the importance to map the genetic diversity of these parasites, as well as to detect their epidemiological circulation pathway in the environment.
García, Félix; Cieza, Javier; Flores, Jorge; Huapaya, Julio; Obregón, Ana
Our aim is to describe the financial implications of no effective in patient discharges from 2001-2010 from a general hospital in lima city. For this purpose we analyzed the total amounts, cancellations and exonarations from the patient accounts with a non effective medical discharge because of hospital "debts". We found that the number of patients with a non effective medical discharge decreased 70% from 2001 to 2010, the number of days between the medical discharge until the day the patient left the hospital decreased 80%. The total amounts, cancellations and exonarations decreased 63%, 53% and 68%, respectively. The average amount of exoneration was 61,7%. In conclusion, the non effective medical discharges increase patient debts, which are partially exonerated and assumed by the hospital. Even though it has decreased in the last decade, this could be explained by the implementation of the new health insurance policies.
Bambarén-Alatrista, Celso; Alatrista-Gutiérrez de Bambarén, María del Socorro
The operation of hospitals produces negative effects on the environment which contributes to air pollution and climate change. The institution in this study is a category III health care facility located in the city of Lima. It generates 4.89 kg/bed/day of solid waste, and consumes 1.36 m3/bed/day of water; 25.22 kWh/bed/day of electricity, and 2.76 liters/bed/day of fuel. The level of PM10 and measured parameters of disposal to the public network are within legal limits, while mobile source noise exceeds the maximum allowable limit. The institution releases into the atmosphere 2,291 tons of CO2 equivalents per year. In conclusion, the institution studied generates a negative impact on the environment.
Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Mejia, Christian R; Riega-Lopez, Pedro; Rojas-Mezarina, Leonardo; Posso, Margarita; Mezones-Holguín, Edward
To estimate the prevalence and associated factors with the labor porjection in the countryside of physicians from Lima. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 782 physicians who were surveyed during their affiliation at Peruvian Medical College during March and April 2010. Labor projection in the countryside was defined such as if they responded "inside the country" to the question "Where do you plan to be working in the next five years?" We used a multiple logistic regression model to find the associated factors. The average age of the participants was 25 years, 54% were female and 73% graduated in private universities. Only 7.0% reported plans to work in the countryside and 0,5% in rural areas. No association with gender, place of birth, having physicians in their family, university type, the english efficiency, having resided for more than a one year in the provinces and the year of completion of internship was found. In the multivariate analysis, we found association with having made the internship inside the country (OR: 3.1, 95%CI :1.5-6.3), communicate in Quechua (OR: 2.9, CI 1.4- 6.1), both parents born in the countryside (OR: 2.8, CI :1.4-5.6), while a monthly salary projection of more than $ 1780 dollars (OR: 0.4 CI :0.2-0,8) and living with their nuclear family or partner (OR: 0.3, CI :0.1-0.5) were negatively associated. Labor projection of work in the countryside of recently collegiated physicians from Lima is low. Some of the factors found can help to design strategies to reverse this situation.
Full Text Available Resumen OBJETIVO Describir los conocimientos y percepciones sobre tuberculosis en asistentes a los cursos de educación vial para operarios del transporte público en Lima, Perú. MÉTODOS Estudio transversal realizado entre junio y agosto del año 2014, en asistentes al Curso de Educación Vial en Lima (Perú, que son obligatorios para laborar como trabajador del transporte público en dicha ciudad. Se aplicó una encuesta anónima y voluntaria para recolectar datos incluyendo características sociodemográficas, antecedente de tuberculosis, conocimientos y actitudes sobre tuberculosis. Se evaluaron los factores asociados a la percepción de riesgo de contagio mediante la regresión de Poisson. RESULTADOS De un total de 309 asistentes, se analizaron 216 encuestas (69,9%. El 88,4% fue de sexo masculino, 3,2% había tenido antecedente de tuberculosis, el síntoma más reconocido fue la tos con flema (44,4%, la fuente de información más popular fue la televisión (39,8%, en tanto que sólo 9,7% recibió alguna capacitación sobre tuberculosis. El 41,2% percibió que ser conductor o cobrador de bus es de alto riesgo para contraer tuberculosis, lo cual no estuvo significativamente asociado a otras variables del estudio. CONCLUSIÓN En la población encuestada se observó escaso conocimiento sobre la sintomatología de la tuberculosis, escasa capacitación recibida sobre el tema y baja percepción de riesgo para contraer esta enfermedad. Urge implementar estrategias de educación dirigidas a dicha población.
Yrma A. Espinoza
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of human toxocariasis in three Andean communities from the Northeast of Lima, Peru. A total of 303 subjects including children and adults were studied and blood samples were collected to detect anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA-IgG test and by hematological examination; stool samples were collected also for parasitological examination. The overall seroprevalence of toxocariasis observed in the total population was 20.46%, with a significant high proportion in children from one to 10 years old (p = 0.034. Among the subjects with positive serology, 32.26% of them had respiratory disturbances, 22.58% hepatomegaly, 17.74% ocular signs or symptoms, 14.51% abdominal pain, 9.68% neurological involvement, and 4.84% cutaneous signs, but none of these clinical features were associated to a positive serology by multivariate analysis. Furthermore, 79.03% of seropositive subjects also harbored at least one intestinal parasite, which was associated to a positive serology (p O propósito do presente trabalho foi estimar a soroprevalência da toxocaríase humana em três comunidades andinas do Nordeste de Lima, Peru. Foi estudado um total de 303 pessoas, entre crianças e adultos. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue para a detecção de anticorpos anti-Toxocara e para a análise hematológica, além de amostras fecais para o exame parasitológico. A soroprevalência geral da população foi de 20,46% com proporção significativamente maior de positividade em crianças de um a 10 anos (p = 0,034. Das pessoas com sorologia positiva, 32,26% apresentavam sintomas respiratórios, 22,58% moléstias hepáticas, 17,74% manifestações oculares, 14,51% dor abdominal, e 4,84% sinais cutâneos. Além disso, 79,03% das pessoas com sorologia positiva tinham pelo menos algum parasito intestinal com associação significativa (p < 0.05. A presença de cachorros dentro das casas, história de pica ou geofagia e o uso dos
Lilyan Consuelo Charca-Benavente
Full Text Available Resumen OBJETIVO Determinar la frecuencia y características de los accidentes biológicos en estudiantes del último año de medicina de tres hospitales de Lima. MÉTODOS Estudio transversal, realizado en tres hospitales del Seguro Social de Salud de Lima, en diciembre de 2014. La población de estudio la constituyen los internos de medicina. Los accidentes biológicos se registraron aplicando un cuestionario sobre exposición a sangre y fluidos corporales, elaborado sobre la base de los formatos utilizados por el sistema Exposure Prevention Information Network y Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Se interrogó sobre la ocurrencia y número de accidentes biológicos presentados, además de las características del último accidente. Los datos categóricos se presentan como frecuencias absolutas y porcentuales, en tanto los datos numéricos se muestran como mediana y rango intercuartílico. RESULTADOS En total fueron 100 encuestados. El 85% de ellos presentó algún accidente biológico durante el año, con una mediana de 2 y un rango intercuartílico de 3. El tipo de exposición más frecuente fue el percutáneo (71,8%, siendo el dispositivo más común la guja hueca (54,1%. El lugar y las actividades más frecuentes al momento de la exposición fueron la sala de partos (44,7%, atención de parto (24,7% y sutura (24,7%. Tres accidentes ocurrieron con pacientes de alto riesgo, pero sólo uno recibió profilaxis antiviral. El 49,4% consideró como causa el cansancio o fatiga. El 75,3% de los accidentes no se reportaron. Los guantes son la medida de protección más utilizada (95%. CONCLUSIÓN La frecuencia de accidentes biológicos presentados es alta. El escaso reporte y uso inadecuado de barreras de protección, son eventos que elevan el riesgo de los estudiantes de medicina.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis, reported as the second most common infectious cause of death worldwide, is a key mortality contributor in developing countries and globally. The disease is endemic in Peru and while relative success was achieved during the 1990s in its control, this slowed as new complications, such as multi drug resistant TB arose. Health centre workers participating in the national DOTS program, create the front-line TB work-force in Peru meaning their knowledge and attitudes about the disease are key in its control. METHODS: A Spanish language, multiple choice knowledge and attitudes survey was designed based on previous successful studies and the national Peruvian TB control guidelines. It was applied to two health networks in Lima, Peru amongst 301 health workers participating in the national TB control program from 66 different health centres. The study results were analysed to test mean knowledge scores amongst different groups, overall gaps in key areas of TB treatment and control knowledge, and attitudes towards the disease and the national TB control program. RESULTS: A mean knowledge score of 10.1 (+/- 1.7 out of 15 or 67.3% correct was shown. Demographics shown to have an effect on knowledge score were age and level of education. Major knowledge gaps were noted primarily in themes relating to treatment and diagnostics. Greater community involvement including better patient education about TB was seen as important in implementing the national TB control program. Participants were in disagreement about the current distribution of health resources throughout the study area. Discussion Serious knowledge gaps were identified from the survey; these reflect findings from a previous study in Lima and other studies from TB endemic areas throughout the world. Understanding these gaps and observations made by front-line TB workers in Lima may help to improve the national TB control program and other control efforts globally.
Drug consumption and violence in female work Zapallal - Lima/Peru Consumo de drogas y violencia en el trabajo femenino Zapallal - Lima/Perú Consumo de drogas e violência no trabalho feminino Zapallal - Lima/Perú
Full Text Available The study design was descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional, and qualitative. The objective was to identify sociodemographic and labor risk factors for drug consumption and types of violence in the workplace related to drug consumption, as well as to understand the perception of female workers regarding the relationship between drug consumption and workplace violence. We surveyed 125 women workers of four slums in the area of Zapallal, Lima, Peru, interviewing 16 women who experienced workplace violence. Among the participants, 52.8% consumed alcohol and 6.4% illegal drugs. Catholic women were at risk for consuming alcohol, while participants under 20 years of age were at risk for consuming illicit drugs. In this group, 17.6% of the women experienced verbal violence, 9.6% physical violence and 1.6% were sexually harassed in the workplace. Women victims of verbal violence have a risk for consuming illicit drugs. These women perceived themselves as a vulnerable group for violence in the workplace and weak for defending themselves. They expressed fear or shame in reporting cases of violence.Este estudio descriptivo, correlacional, transversal y cualitativo tuvo como objetivos identificar factores de riesgo sociodemográficos y laborales del consumo de drogas y tipos de violencia en el trabajo relacionados al consumo de drogas, y también comprender la percepción de la mujer trabajadora sobre este fenómeno. Se encuestó a 125 mujeres trabajadoras de 4 AAHH de Zapallal-Lima, y se entrevistó a 16 que sufrieron violencia en ambientes laborales. El 52,8% de estas mujeres consumen alcohol y el 6,4% drogas ilegales. Las católicas están en riesgo de consumir alcohol y las menores de 20 años en riesgo de consumir drogas ilícitas. El 17,6% de mujeres sufrió violencia verbal, el 9,6% violencia física y el 1,6% hostigamiento sexual en el trabajo. Las victimas de violencia verbal tienen riesgo de consumir drogas ilícitas. La mujer se percibe como
Heredia N., Ronald; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Perales C., Rosa; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Chavera C., Alfonso; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Tabacchi N., Luis; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. Perú; Santillán A., Gilberto; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima
The aim of this retrospective study was to classify mastocytomas according to histologic grade from samples of canine necropsies and biopsies diagnosed by histopathology in the Pathology Laboratory of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru in the period 2000-2006. A total of 40 cases of mastocytomas were found (4.5%) in 881 neoplasms. The classification of the mastocytomas based on the histologic grade indicated that el 42.5% were of grade I (w...
Otero, L; De Orbegoso, A; Navarro, A F; Ríos, J; Párraga, T; Gotuzzo, E; Seas, C; Van der Stuyft, P
To determine the time from diagnosis to start of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) treatment in Lima, Peru. We studied new smear-positive TB adults that were started on MDR TB treatment or that were switched to it between June 2008 and December 2011. Time from the first positive smear to MDR-TB treatment was >30 days in 35% (13/37) of patients. Among the 27% (24/88) of patients that switched to MDR-TB treatment, time from the last dose of a drug-susceptible regimen was >30 days. Start of and switching to MDR TB treatment is still delayed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Isoniazid and rifampicin are the two most efficacious first-line agents for tuberculosis (TB treatment. We assessed the prevalence of isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance, associated risk factors, and the association of mono-resistance on treatment outcomes.A prospective, observational cohort study enrolled adults with a first episode of smear-positive pulmonary TB from 34 health facilities in a northern district of Lima, Peru, from March 2010 through December 2011. Participants were interviewed and a sputum sample was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ media. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using the proportion method. Medication regimens were documented for each patient. Our primary outcomes were treatment outcome at the end of treatment. The secondary outcome included recurrent episodes among cured patients within two years after completion of the treatment.Of 1292 patients enrolled, 1039 (80% were culture-positive. From this subpopulation, isoniazid mono-resistance was present in 85 (8% patients and rifampicin mono-resistance was present in 24 (2% patients. In the multivariate logistic regression model, isoniazid mono-resistance was associated with illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.1-4.1, and rifampicin mono-resistance was associated with HIV infection (aOR = 9.43; 95%CI: 1.9-47.8. Isoniazid mono-resistant patients had a higher risk of poor treatment outcomes including treatment failure (2/85, 2%, p-value<0.01 and death (4/85, 5%, p<0.02. Rifampicin mono-resistant patients had a higher risk of death (2/24, 8%, p<0.01.A high prevalence of isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance was found among TB patients in our low HIV burden setting which were similar to regions with high HIV burden. Patients with isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance had an increased risk of poor treatment outcomes.
Herrera, M C; Konda, K A; Leon, S R; Deiss, R; Brown, B; Calvo, G M; Salvatierra, H J; Caceres, C F; Klausner, J D
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) may enhance the likelihood of risky sexual behaviors and the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Associations between AUDs with condomless anal intercourse (CAI) and STI/HIV prevalence were assessed among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Lima, Peru. MSM and TW were eligible to participate based on a set of inclusion criteria which characterized them as high-risk. Participants completed a bio-behavioral survey. An AUDIT score ≥8 determined AUD presence. Recent STI diagnosis included rectal gonorrhea/chlamydia, syphilis, and/or new HIV infection within 6 months. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using Poisson regression. Among 312 MSM and 89 TW, 45% (181/401) had an AUD. Among those with an AUD, 164 (91%) were hazardous/harmful drinkers, and 17 (9%) had alcohol dependence. Higher CAI was reported by participants with an AUD vs. without, (82% vs. 72% albeit not significant). Reporting anal sex in two or more risky venues was associated with screening AUD positive vs. not (24% vs. 15%, p=0.001). There was no difference in recent STI/HIV prevalence by AUD status (32% overall). In multivariable analysis, screening AUD positive was not associated with CAI or recent STI/HIV infection. In our sample AUDs were not associated with CAI or new HIV infection/recent STI. However higher prevalence of CAI, alcohol use at last sex, and anal sex in risky venues among those with AUDs suggests that interventions to reduce the harms of alcohol should be aimed toward specific contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Although tuberculosis (TB is usually curable with antibiotics, poor adherence to medication can lead to increased transmission, drug resistance, and death. Prior research has shown several factors to be associated with poor adherence, but this problem remains a substantial barrier to global TB control. We studied patients in a high-incidence district of Lima, Peru to identify factors associated with premature termination of treatment (treatment default.We conducted a prospective cohort study of adult smear-positive TB patients enrolled between January 2010 and December 2011 with no history of TB disease. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine risk factors associated with treatment default.Of the 1233 patients studied, 127 (10% defaulted from treatment. Patients who defaulted were more likely to have used illegal drugs (OR = 4.78, 95% CI: 3.05-7.49, have multidrug-resistant TB (OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.58-5.85, not have been tested for HIV (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.50-3.54, drink alcohol at least weekly (OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.40-3.52, be underweight (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.21-3.56, or not have completed secondary education (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.03-2.33.Our study identified several factors associated with defaulting from treatment, suggesting a complex set of causes that might lead to default. Addressing these factors individually would be difficult, but they might help to identify certain high-risk patients for supplemental intervention prior to treatment interruption. Treatment adherence remains a barrier to successful TB care and reducing the frequency of default is important for both the patients' health and the health of the community.
De Ferrari, Aldo; Gentille, Cesar; Davalos, Long; Huayanay, Leandro; Malaga, German
The interaction between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry influences physicians' attitudes and prescribing behavior. Although largely studied in the US, this topic has not been well studied in resource-poor settings, where a close relationship between physicians and industry still exists. To describe physician interactions with and attitudes towards the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru. Descriptive, cross-sectional study through an anonymous, self-filled questionnaire distributed among faculty and trainee physicians of five different clinical departments working in a Peruvian public general hospital. A transcultural validation of an existing Spanish questionnaire was performed. Exposure to marketing activities, motivations to contact pharmaceutical representatives and attitudes towards industry were studied. Collected data was analyzed by degree of training, clinical department, gender and teaching status. Attitudes were measured on a four-point LIKERT scale. 155 physicians completed the survey, of which 148 were included in the study sample. 94.5% of attending physicians reported ongoing encounters with pharmaceutical representatives. The most common industry-related activities were receiving medical samples (91.2%), promotional material (87.8%) and attending meetings in restaurants (81.8%). Respondents considered medical samples and continuing medical education the most ethically acceptable benefits. We found significant differences between attendings and residents, and teaching and non-teaching attendings. An association between the amount of encounters with pharmaceutical representatives, and attitudes towards industry and acceptance of medical samples was found. A close physician-industry relationship exists in the population under study. The contact is established mainly through pharmaceutical representatives. Medical samples are the most received and ethically accepted benefit. The attitudes of physicians on the
Ana L Vasquez
Full Text Available Based on the hypothesis that HIV programs struggle to deliver health services that harmonize necessities of treatment and prevention, we described the outcomes of routinely provided HIV testing to partners of people living with HIV (PLWH through a secondary analysis of routine data collected at a public hospital in Lima, Peru.Among PLWH enrolled in the study center's HIV program between 2005 and 2014, we identified index cases (IC: PLWH who reported a unique partner not previously enrolled. We grouped partners according to their HIV status as reported by IC and collected data on HIV testing, clinical characteristics and admissions. The main outcome was the frequency of HIV testing among partners with reported unknown/seronegative HIV status.Out of 1586 PLWH who reported a unique partner at enrollment, 171 had a previously enrolled partner, leaving 1415 (89% IC. HIV status of the partner was reported as unknown in 571 (40%, seronegative in 325 (23% and seropositive in 519 (37%. Out of 896 partners in the unknown/seronegative group, 72 (8% had HIV testing, 42/72 (58% tested within three months of IC enrollment. Among the 49/72 (68% who tested positive for HIV, 33 (67% were enrolled in the HIV program. The proportion in WHO clinical stage IV was lower in enrolled partners compared to IC (37% vs 9%, p = 0.04. Non-tested partners (824 were likely reachable by the hospital, as 297/824 (36% of their IC were admitted in the study center at least once, 51/243 (21% female IC had received pregnancy care at the study center, and 401/692 (64% of IC on antiretroviral therapy had achieved viral suppression, implying frequent visits to the hospital for pill pick-up.In this setting, HIV testing of partners of PLWH was suboptimal, illustrating missed opportunities for HIV control. Integration of HIV strategies in primarily clinical-oriented services is a challenging need.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to anti-tuberculosis medication increases risk of adverse drug reactions and toxicity. The objective of this investigation was to determine factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions in Lima, Peru, with special emphasis on MDR-TB medication, HIV infection, diabetes, age and tobacco use. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: A case-control study was performed using information from Peruvian TB Programme. A case was defined as having reported an anti-TB adverse drug reaction during 2005-2010 with appropriate notification on clinical records. Controls were defined as not having reported a side effect, receiving anti-TB therapy during the same time that the case had appeared. Crude, and age- and sex-adjusted models were calculated using odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. A multivariable model was created to look for independent factors associated with side effect from anti-TB therapy. A total of 720 patients (144 cases and 576 controls were analyzed. In our multivariable model, age, especially those over 40 years (OR = 3.93; 95%CI: 1.65-9.35, overweight/obesity (OR = 2.13; 95%CI: 1.17-3.89, anemia (OR = 2.10; IC95%: 1.13-3.92, MDR-TB medication (OR = 11.1; 95%CI: 6.29-19.6, and smoking (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.03-3.87 were independently associated with adverse drug reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Old age, anemia, MDR-TB medication, overweight/obesity status, and smoking history are independent risk factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions. Patients with these risk factors should be monitored during the anti-TB therapy. A comprehensive clinical history and additional medical exams, including hematocrit and HIV-ELISA, might be useful to identify these patients.
Aldo De Ferrari
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The interaction between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry influences physicians' attitudes and prescribing behavior. Although largely studied in the US, this topic has not been well studied in resource-poor settings, where a close relationship between physicians and industry still exists. OBJECTIVE: To describe physician interactions with and attitudes towards the pharmaceutical industry in a public general hospital in Lima, Peru. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study through an anonymous, self-filled questionnaire distributed among faculty and trainee physicians of five different clinical departments working in a Peruvian public general hospital. A transcultural validation of an existing Spanish questionnaire was performed. Exposure to marketing activities, motivations to contact pharmaceutical representatives and attitudes towards industry were studied. Collected data was analyzed by degree of training, clinical department, gender and teaching status. Attitudes were measured on a four-point LIKERT scale. RESULTS: 155 physicians completed the survey, of which 148 were included in the study sample. 94.5% of attending physicians reported ongoing encounters with pharmaceutical representatives. The most common industry-related activities were receiving medical samples (91.2%, promotional material (87.8% and attending meetings in restaurants (81.8%. Respondents considered medical samples and continuing medical education the most ethically acceptable benefits. We found significant differences between attendings and residents, and teaching and non-teaching attendings. An association between the amount of encounters with pharmaceutical representatives, and attitudes towards industry and acceptance of medical samples was found. CONCLUSIONS: A close physician-industry relationship exists in the population under study. The contact is established mainly through pharmaceutical representatives. Medical samples are the most received
Lindsay J. Underhill
Full Text Available The influence of traffic-related air pollution on indoor residential exposure is not well characterized in homes with high natural ventilation in low-income countries. Additionally, domestic allergen exposure is unknown in such populations. We conducted a pilot study of 25 homes in peri-urban Lima, Peru to estimate the effects of roadway proximity and season on residential concentrations. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, and black carbon (BC were measured OPEN ACCESS Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12 13467 during two seasons, and allergens were measured in bedroom dust. Allergen levels were highest for dust mite and mouse allergens, with concentrations above clinically relevant thresholds in over a quarter and half of all homes, respectively. Mean indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations were similar (PM2.5: 20.0 vs. 16.9 μg/m3, BC: 7.6 vs. 8.1 μg/m3, NO2: 7.3 vs. 7.5 ppb, and tended to be higher in the summer compared to the winter. Road proximity was significantly correlated with overall concentrations of outdoor PM2.5 (rs = −0.42, p = 0.01 and NO2 (rs = −0.36, p = 0.03, and outdoor BC concentrations in the winter (rs = −0.51, p = 0.03. Our results suggest that outdoor-sourced pollutants significantly influence indoor air quality in peri-urban Peruvian communities, and homes closer to roadways are particularly vulnerable.
Palacios-Chávez, Milenka; Dejo-Seminario, Christine; Mayta-Tristán, Percy
To assess the relationship between physical performance (PP) and muscle strength (MS) in elderly subjects with and without diabetes in a public hospital of Lima, Peru. A cross-sectional analysis of subjects aged 60 years or older with and without diabetes. MS was measured with a handheld dynamometer, and PP with the «timed get-up-and-go» test. Nutritional status was determined using body mass index, body fat percentage measured with a handheld fat loss monitor and protein intake based on the 24-hour recall. Age, sex, and history of hospitalization and supplementation were also recorded. The association was assessed using adjusted prevalence ratios. Overall, 139 patients with diabetes (26.6% with low PP and 13.7% with decreased MS) and 382 subjects without diabetes (36.6% with low PP and 23.0% with decreased MS) were evaluated. No association was found between T2DM and MS (aPR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.67-1.57) or PP (aPR: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.84-1.52). Protein and supplement consumption was also unrelated (P>.05); however, history of hospitalization, age, sex, nutritional status, and body fat percentage were related (P>.05). No association was found between T2DM, MS, and PP. However, low PP was associated to female sex and overweight/obesity, and decreased MS was associated to high body fat percentage and underweight. Moreover, MS and PP were related to older age and history of hospitalization. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Flores, Juan Medina; Castillo, Vilma Bejar; Franco, Florencio Cortez; Huata, Armando Betanzos
Since limited data on superficial fungal infections in teenagers exist in our setting, this study provides the first description of the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of these infections among teenagers in Lima and Callao, Peru. The study involved 1,387 adolescents in five public schools from June to November 2006. Participants were examined for superficial fungal lesions. Samples of skin scrapings for microbiological investigations were obtained from suspicious lesions. A total of 257 subjects were identified with suspected superficial fungal infections. Microbiological assessment was positive for 166 of 257 (64.59%). The average prevalence was 12.61% with variation between different districts. Males were more affected (64%) than females (36%) (p = 0.001). Pet ownership, use of public baths, and wearing sneakers were identified as important risk factors. The majority (61.5%) of the subjects presented with itching although 38.5% were asymptomatic. Tinea pedis was observed in 62.6%, onychomycosis in 24% and pityriasis versicolor in 10.8%. Dermatophytes were isolated in 105 cases with T. rubrum being identified in 86 cases (59.7%), T. mentagrophytes in 14 (9.7%) and yeast in 39 (23.4%). Malassezia spp. was found by direct examination in 18 cases (12.5%), C. kruseii in 8 cases (5.6%), and C. albicans in 2 cases (1.4%). Mixed infections were found in 22 cases. Superficial fungal infection manifesting as tinea pedis, onychomycosysis and tinea versicolor is prevalent in our setting. As many infections remain asymptomatic, regular examination of this population is advocated. The associated risk factors for these infections also need to be addressed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic differences in oral health have been reported in many countries. Poverty and social exclusion are two commonly used indicators of socioeconomic position in Latin America. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of poverty and social exclusion with dental caries experience in 12-year-old children. Methods Ninety families, with a child aged 12 years, were selected from 11 underserved communities in Lima (Peru, using a two-stage cluster sampling. Head of households were interviewed with regard to indicators of poverty and social exclusion and their children were clinically examined for dental caries. The associations of poverty and social exclusion with dental caries prevalence were tested in binary logistic regression models. Results Among children in the sample, 84.5% lived in poor households and 30.0% in socially excluded families. Out of all the children, 83.3% had dental caries. Poverty and social exclusion were significantly associated with dental caries in the unadjusted models (p = 0.013 and 0.047 respectively. In the adjusted model, poverty remained significantly related to dental caries (p = 0.008, but the association between social exclusion and dental caries was no longer significant (p = 0.077. Children living in poor households were 2.25 times more likely to have dental caries (95% confidence interval: 1.24; 4.09, compared to those living in non-poor households. Conclusion There was support for an association between poverty and dental caries, but not for an association between social exclusion and dental caries in these children. Some potential explanations for these findings are discussed.
Matos Caparó, Félix Martín
The descriptive research consisted of measuring the multiple intelligences, defined by Gardner (2001), of one hundred and thirty-three students from third grade secondary a school of Ventanilla - Callao in 2010. The instrument applied is The Minds Multiple Intelligences Scale validated in Peru by Ruiz (2004). The result indicates high levels in the kinesthetic, interpersonal and naturalist intelligences as well as low levels of the mathematical and linguistic intelligences. The application of...
Turín More, Christie Gloria; Robles Bardales, Christian Jorge; Villar Salas, Alicia Paola; Osada Liy, Jorge Enrique; Huerta-Mercado Tenorio, Jorge Luis
To assess the frequency of functional gastrointestinal disorders and gastroesophageal reflux disease in adults with uninvestigated dyspepsia in a general teaching hospital in Lima, Peru. Cross-sectional descriptive study performed at Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia Lima, Peru. Data was collected from questionnaires for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGID) based on Rome III criteria and from surveys for diagnosis of GERD applied to eligible patients who visited the gastroenterology unit from July to December 2011. Also, we collected the endoscopy's reports. Among 110 patients who participated in the study, 70.9% were female and the mean age was 49.4 years (range 20-77, SD: ± 13.1). FGID was found in 82 subjects (74.6%) based on Rome III criteria. The most common FGID was functional dyspepsia (71.8%), followed by belching disorder (57.3%), nausea and vomiting disorder (27.3%) and irritable bowel syndrome (18.2%). Ninety-one patients (82.7%) were diagnosed of GERD, being the most common symptom regurgitation (80.0%). Structural abnormalities were found by upper endoscopy in 25 patients (22.7%). We found a high frequency of GERD, belching disorder, nausea and vomiting disorder and irritable bowel syndrome among adult patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia. In addition, we found a high frequency of overlapping disorders in the same patient. Our results suggest the necessity to recognize the different types of FGID in order to avoid the under diagnosis of common conditions in the outpatient setting.
Villegas, Leonela; Huaman, Moises A.; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Seas, Carlos
Background Isoniazid and rifampicin are the two most efficacious first-line agents for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. We assessed the prevalence of isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance, associated risk factors, and the association of mono-resistance on treatment outcomes. Methods A prospective, observational cohort study enrolled adults with a first episode of smear-positive pulmonary TB from 34 health facilities in a northern district of Lima, Peru, from March 2010 through December 2011. Participants were interviewed and a sputum sample was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) media. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using the proportion method. Medication regimens were documented for each patient. Our primary outcomes were treatment outcome at the end of treatment. The secondary outcome included recurrent episodes among cured patients within two years after completion of the treatment. Results Of 1292 patients enrolled, 1039 (80%) were culture-positive. From this subpopulation, isoniazid mono-resistance was present in 85 (8%) patients and rifampicin mono-resistance was present in 24 (2%) patients. In the multivariate logistic regression model, isoniazid mono-resistance was associated with illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1–4.1), and rifampicin mono-resistance was associated with HIV infection (aOR = 9.43; 95%CI: 1.9–47.8). Isoniazid mono-resistant patients had a higher risk of poor treatment outcomes including treatment failure (2/85, 2%, p-value<0.01) and death (4/85, 5%, p<0.02). Rifampicin mono-resistant patients had a higher risk of death (2/24, 8%, p<0.01). Conclusion A high prevalence of isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance was found among TB patients in our low HIV burden setting which were similar to regions with high HIV burden. Patients with isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance had an increased risk of poor treatment outcomes. PMID:27045684
This document examines the current difficult situation in Peru in light of its historical past. It gives students the opportunity to relate to the problems that the majority of Peruvians are facing and to see how Peru's people are working together for solutions. The text deals with contemporary issues such as the greenhouse effect, the loss of the…
Oyarce, James A; García, Coralith; Alave, Jorge; Bustamante, Beatriz
Sporothricosis is endemic in numerous Latin American countries and the rest of the world. In Peru is concentrated in regions with warm and humid climate being little known in the rest of the country. To describe the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients diagnosed of sporotrichosis in a tertiary-care level hospital in Lima, Peru from 1991 to 2014. This was a retrospective, case series. Ninety four patients were involved; most of them were male adults. This condition was acquired more frequently in Cajamarca, Apurímac, and Amazonas. Fixed and lymphocutaneous form were the most frequent forms of presentation in adults and were mostly distributed in upper limbs. Lesions located in head and neck were most frequent in children. Comorbidities were present in 15% of patients and were more frequent in those who presented disseminated cutaneous form. Seventy eight percent of cultures from skin lesions were positive within 7 days. The time to positivity of cultures was longer if the sample came from skin biopsies than skin scraping or skin aspiration. Most cases of sporotrichosis were acquired in areas of extreme poverty in Peru. The clinical, epidemiological and laboratory findings were similar to those reported elsewhere. The time to positivity of cultures varies based on the type of skin sample. This finding needs to be further evaluated in studies with an increased number of cases.
Otto, Marco; Seidel, Jochen; Trachte, Katja
The main moisture source for precipitation on the western slopes of the Central Andes is located east of the mountain range known as the Amazon basin. However, the Andean mountains, which reach up to 6000 m a.s.l., strongly influence climatic conditions along the Pacific coastline of South America as a climatic barrier for the low-level tropospheric flow and associated moisture transport from the Amazon basin. Additional, large scale subsidence caused by the South Pacific High inhabits convective rainfall at the Pacific coast where large metropolitan areas such as the Peruvian capital Lima are located. Two contrasts in precipitation can be found while crossing the Andean mountains from West to East. On the Pacific coast, at the location of the metropolitan area of Lima, no more than 10 mm mean annual rainfall occurs. In contrast, up to 1000 mm mean annual rainfall occur only 100 km east of Lima within the upper region (4000 m .a.s.l.) of the Western Cordillera. The transition takes place along the western slopes of the Western Cordillera and is characterised by a strong precipitation gradient. Here, catchment areas are located that provide most of the water resources needed to sustain an urban area of approximately 10 million people. This study investigates the interannual variability of the precipitation gradient between 1998 and 2012. The analysis is based on daily precipitation data of 22 rain gauge station, daily rainfall data of the Tropical Rainfall Mission (TRMM 3B42) at 0.25 degrees and reanalysis data at 36 km spatial resolution at the mesoscale. The reanalysis data was produced using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. Station data was provided by the Peruvian weather service during the project "Sustainable Water and Wastewater Management in Urban Growth Centres Coping with Climate Change - Concepts for Lima Metropolitana (Peru) (LiWa)", which is financed by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). We are interested in the
Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar los niveles de estrés general y laboral, depresión y ansiedad en magistrados (jueces y fiscales del Distrito Judicial de Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal y descriptivo. De una población de 1137 magistrados del Poder Judicial y del Ministerio Público del Distrito Jurisdiccional de Lima se tomó una muestra aleatoria estratificada donde cada institución constituyó un estrato. La muestra estuvo conformada por 287 magistrados: 138 fiscales y 149 jueces. Se aplicó un cuestionario compuesto por cuatro instrumentos para determinar los niveles de estrés general y laboral, ansiedad y depresión, previo consentimiento informado. Resultados. El estrés general estuvo presente en el 18,5 % de los magistrados, el estrés laboral en 33,7 %, ansiedad en 12,5 % y depresión en 15,0 %. Estas tres condiciones estuvieron presentes en el 6,6 % de los magistrados, y al menos una estuvo presente en el 25,9 %. El estrés general estaba asociado con la depresión (OR: 4,9; IC95 % 1,6-15,1 y ansiedad (OR: 8,5; IC95 % 2,5-28,6 en el modelo de regresión logística. Conclusiones. Un porcentaje significativo de magistrados del Distrito Judicial de Lima presentan altos niveles de estrés, ansiedad y depresión; un cuarto de los encuestados presentan, al menos, una de estas condiciones. Se recomienda que los programas de intervención y prevención se dirijan al manejo del estrés, ansiedad y depresión en conjunto, dada su alta asociación.Objective. To measure the general and work related stress, depression and anxiety in Magistrates (Judges and District Attorneys of Lima Judicial District. Material and methods. We carried out a transversal and descriptive study. A population of 1137 magistrates from the Lima Jurisdictional District of the Judicial System, was randomly sampled by a strata representing every agency of the Judicial System. The final sample included 287 magistrates: 138 District Attorneys and 149 Judges
Rivas-Nieto, Andrea C; Málaga, Germán; Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Huayanay-Espinoza, Carlos A; Curioso, Walter H
This study aimed to determine the use and perceptions towards information and communication technologies (ICT) in 206 patients with arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes, recruited from the outpatient clinic in a national hospital in Lima, Peru. 54.4% were older adults and 70.4% were women. The use of daily phone calls was 44.7%. Most had never used a computer (78.2%), email (84%) or the Internet (84%). Many have never sent (80.6%) or received (69.9%) a text message. 70% had at some time forgotten to take their medicine. 72.8% would like to be reminded to take their medication and 67.9% had a family member who could help them with access to ICT. Despite the low use of ICT in this population, there is willingness and expectation from the patients to participate in programs that implement them.
Medina Gironzini, E., E-mail: email@example.com [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN), Lima (Peru)
One of the functions of the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN), Lima, Peru is the control of sources of ionizing radiation. For this, they have the Oficina Tecnica de la Autoridad Nacional (OTAN) which has the necessary infrastructure to issue technical standards, conducting inspections, issuing authorizations and punish according to the existing legislation. OTAN has decided to address this issue and is taking into account the IAEA recommendations, especially the Safety Requirements GS-R-3: Management System facilities and activities and offering advice on the establishment and improvement of integrated management systems, including safety requirements that are not in the ISO 9001 standard and are also considered the requirements of technological safety, security, quality, economic, environmental and health. The working plan is detailed and the activities that are carried out after the scientific visit to a regulator organ, which has experience in the execution of a Quality Management System, consequence of a work initiated for more than four decades ago.
Saldarriaga, Enrique; Lawler, Joshua; Zunt, Joseph; Garcia, Patricia; Cárcamo, César
Climate change poses multiple risks to the population of Lima, the largest city and capital of Peru, located on the Pacific coast in a desert ecosystem. These risks include increased water scarcity, increased heat, and the introduction and emergence of vector-borne and other climate sensitive diseases. To respond to these threats, it is necessary for the government, at every level, to adopt more mitigation and adaptation strategies. Here, focus groups were conducted with representatives from five Lima municipalities to determine priorities, perception of climate change, and decision-making processes for implementing projects within each municipality. These factors can affect the ability and desire of a community to implement climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. The results show that climate change and other environmental factors are of relatively low priority, whereas public safety and water and sanitation services are of highest concern. Perhaps most importantly, climate change is not well understood among the municipalities. Participants had trouble distinguishing climate change from other environmental issues and did not fully understand its causes and effects. Greater understanding of what climate change is and why it is important is necessary for it to become a priority for the municipalities. Different aspects of increased climate change awareness seem to be connected to having experienced extreme weather events, whether related or not to climate change, and to higher socioeconomic status. PMID:26808087
Full Text Available Climate change poses multiple risks to the population of Lima, the largest city and capital of Peru, located on the Pacific coast in a desert ecosystem. These risks include increased water scarcity, increased heat, and the introduction and emergence of vector-borne and other climate sensitive diseases. To respond to these threats, it is necessary for the government, at every level, to adopt more mitigation and adaptation strategies. Here, focus groups were conducted with representatives from five Lima municipalities to determine priorities, perception of climate change, and decision-making processes for implementing projects within each municipality. These factors can affect the ability and desire of a community to implement climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. The results show that climate change and other environmental factors are of relatively low priority, whereas public safety and water and sanitation services are of highest concern. Perhaps most importantly, climate change is not well understood among the municipalities. Participants had trouble distinguishing climate change from other environmental issues and did not fully understand its causes and effects. Greater understanding of what climate change is and why it is important is necessary for it to become a priority for the municipalities. Different aspects of increased climate change awareness seem to be connected to having experienced extreme weather events, whether related or not to climate change, and to higher socioeconomic status.
Normas percibidas por los estudiantes universitarios de enfermería acerca de sus pares y el uso de drogas en Lima, Perú Normas percebidas por estudantes universitários de enfermagem sobre seus pares e o uso de drogas, em Lima, Peru Perceived norms among nursing students about their peers and drug use in Lima, Peru
Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estimar la diferencia entre las normas percibidas sobre el uso de drogas por los pares y el uso real de drogas entre estudiantes universitarios se efectuó un estudio cuantitativo transversal, basado en una encuesta de 196 estudiantes de enfermería de Lima. Se utilizó un cuestionario que midió la percepción del uso de drogas y el propio uso. La información fue analizada con estadística descriptiva; fue considerando un valor mayor, menor o igual a 10% para establecer la diferencia. Las normas percibidas para alcohol y tabaco fueron mayores de 50%, mientras que para marihuana y cocaína fue de 6%. El 57,7% informó haber usado tabaco, 84,7% alcohol, 2,6% marihuana y 1% cocaína; se encontró que existe sobreestimación sobre el uso de marihuana y cocaína, subestimación para el alcohol, y percepción exacta para el uso de tabaco. Los resultados serán de utilidad para sensibilizar a las autoridades universitarias e para implementar políticas o programas de prevención.Com o objetivo de estimar a diferença entre as normas percebidas sobre o uso de drogas por estudantes universitários, foi realizado estudo quantitativo transversal, baseado em censo com 196 estudantes de enfermagem de Lima, Peru. Utilizou-se questionário com a finalidade de medir a percepção do uso de drogas e do próprio uso, analisando-se a informação com estatística descritiva, considerando valor maior, menor ou igual a 10 pontos para estabelecer a diferença. As normas percebidas para o álcool e tabaco foram maiores que 50%, enquanto que para maconha e cocaína foi de 6%; 57,7% referiram ter usado tabaco, 84,7% álcool, 2,6% maconha e 1% cocaína. Existe superestimação do uso de maconha e cocaína, subestimação para o uso de álcool e percepção exata para o uso de tabaco. Os resultados são úteis para sensibilizar as autoridades universitárias e implementar políticas de prevenção.This quantitative, cross-sectional study was performed
Delgado, Jeanne R; Segura, Eddy R; Lake, Jordan E; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R; Clark, Jesse L
We explored the association between alcohol use and condomless receptive (CRAI) and insertive (CIAI) anal intercourse within partnership contexts of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) in Lima, Peru. From 2012-2014, we surveyed men and TGW (n=1607) who reported anal intercourse with ≥1 male or TGW. Alcohol use with up to 3 sexual partners during the prior 90days was evaluated. Bivariate and multivariate analyses used generalized estimating equations to assess event-level associations between alcohol use, CRAI, CIAI, and partnership characteristics while adjusting for participant clustering from multiple partners. Of 4774 sexual partnerships reported, 48% were casual, 34% primary, 10% anonymous, and 8% commercial. Alcohol use preceding sex was significantly (psex work (PR=2.21) and trended (psex were less likely to know their partner's HIV serostatus. Alcohol use prior to intercourse was associated with CRAI and CIAI, varied by partnership type, and may impair knowledge of partner HIV serostatus. Detailed knowledge of alcohol use within partner-specific contexts is essential for informing condom-based and alternative HIV prevention strategies for MSM and TGW in Peru. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walter, Leora; Vidaurre, Tatiana; Gilman, Robert H; Poquioma, Ebert; Olaechea, Carlos; Gravitt, Patti E; Marks, Morgan A
Few studies have evaluated the trends in head and neck cancer in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in incidence of human papillomavirus-related (HPV-R) and HPV-unrelated (HPV-U) head and neck cancer in Lima, Peru, from 1987 to 2008. Registry data from a single public cancer hospital were used to estimate age and sex-specific incidence rates. Annualized percent change was estimated using Poisson regression. The rate of total head and neck cancers, HPV-U, and HPV-R was 11.9, 10.9, and 0.8, respectively, per 100,000 person-years. Significant increases in HPV-U head and neck cancer were observed in men aged 30 to 44 (2.5%/year) and women 15 to 29 (4.2%/year), 30 to 44 (3.4%/year), and 60 to 74 (2.0%/year). Significant increases in HPV-R head and neck cancer were observed only among men aged 45 to 59 (9.6%/year). Although increased exposure to tobacco, occupational carcinogens, and changing sexual behaviors could be influencing these trends, additional analyses to assess generalizability of these findings to other regions of Peru are needed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Salvatierra, Javier; Segura, Eddy; Salazar, Ximena; Konda, Kelika; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Hall, Eric; Klausner, Jeffrey; Caceres, Carlos; Coates, Thomas
Role-based sexual identities structure male same-sex partnerships and influence HIV/STI epidemiology among MSM in Latin America. We explored shifting relationships between sexual roles, identities and practices among MSM in Lima, Peru, and implications for HIV/STI prevention. Patterns of HIV/STI epidemiology reflected differential risks for transmission within role-based partnerships with relatively low prevalences of HIV, syphilis, and HSV-2 but higher prevalences of urethral gonorrhea/chlamydia among activo MSM compared with moderno and pasivo participants. Qualitative analysis of how MSM in Peru integrate sexual identities, roles, and practices identified four key themes: pasivo role as a gay approximation of cultural femininity; activo role as a heterosexual consolidation of masculinity; moderno role as a masculine reconceptualization of gay identity; and role-based identities as social determinants of partnership, network, and community formation. The concept of role-based sexual identities provides a framework for HIV prevention for Latin American MSM that integrates sexual identities, practices, partnerships, and networks. PMID:22614747
Clark, Jesse; Salvatierra, Javier; Segura, Eddy; Salazar, Ximena; Konda, Kelika; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Hall, Eric; Klausner, Jeffrey; Caceres, Carlos; Coates, Thomas
Role-based sexual identities structure male same-sex partnerships and influence HIV/STI epidemiology among MSM in Latin America. We explored shifting relationships between sexual roles, identities and practices among MSM in Lima, Peru, and implications for HIV/STI prevention. Patterns of HIV/STI epidemiology reflected differential risks for transmission within role-based partnerships with relatively low prevalences of HIV, syphilis, and HSV-2 but higher prevalences of urethral gonorrhea/chlamydia among activo MSM compared with moderno and pasivo participants. Qualitative analysis of how MSM in Peru integrate sexual identities, roles, and practices identified four key themes: pasivo role as a gay approximation of cultural femininity; activo role as a heterosexual consolidation of masculinity; moderno role as a masculine reconceptualization of gay identity; and role-based identities as social determinants of partnership, network, and community formation. The concept of role-based sexual identities provides a framework for HIV prevention for Latin American MSM that integrates sexual identities, practices, partnerships, and networks.
Baumann, Lauren M; Robinson, Colin L; Combe, Juan M; Gomez, Alfonso; Romero, Karina; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Hansel, Nadia N; Wise, Robert A; Breysse, Patrick N; Barnes, Kathleen; Hernandez, Juan E; Checkley, William
Background Proximity to roadways increases the risk of asthma in developed countries; however, relatively little is known about this relationship in developing countries, where rapid and uncontrolled growth of cities has resulted in urban sprawl and heavy traffic volumes. Objective Determine the effect of distance from a heavily transited avenue on asthma symptoms and quantitative respiratory outcome measures in a peri-urban shanty town in Lima, Peru. Methods We enrolled 725 adolescents aged 13–15 years, administered a survey on asthma symptoms and measured spirometry, response to allergy skin testing and eNO. We calculated distances from the main avenue for all households and measured indoor PM in 100 households. We used multivariable regression to model the risk of asthma symptoms, risk of atopy, eNO and FEV1/FVC as a function of distance. Results Compared against 384 meters, the odds of current asthma symptoms in households living within 100 meters increased by a factor of 2 (pPeru was associated with a greater risk of asthma symptoms and atopy. Regulation of mobile source pollutants in peri-urban areas of developing countries may help reduce the burden of asthma symptoms and atopy. PMID:21237505
Iván O Espinoza
Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar la frecuencia y las características clínicas de las infecciones del sistema nervioso central por enterovirus en niños atendidos en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia de Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo y descriptivo desde abril 2008 hasta marzo 2010. Se enrolaron pacientes de un mes a 14 años con diagnóstico clínico de encefalitis o meningitis asépticas. Se investigó la presencia de enterovirus, virus herpes simple 1 (VHS-1, virus herpes simple 2 (VHS-2 y virus varicela-zoster (VZV mediante reacción en cadena de polimerasa (PCR. Resultados. Se enrolaron 97 pacientes de los cuales 69 % presentaron encefalitis aguda y 31 % meningitis aguda. Se identificó enterovirus en 52,6 % del total de infecciones agudas no bacterianas del sistema nervioso central; encontrándose en 83,3 % de las meningitis y en 38,8 % de las encefalitis. No hubo casos de infección por VHS-1, VHS-2 ni VZV. Las infecciones por enterovirus alcanzaron el 82,9 % en los meses cálidos de noviembre a enero y el 28,6 % en los meses fríos de mayo a julio. Conclusiones. Los enterovirus fueron los principales agentes etiológicos en las encefalitis y meningitis asépticas agudas en pacientes pediátricos de Lima, Perú. Los enterovirus tienen un comportamiento epidemiológico estacional con un claro aumento del número de casos en los meses de verano. Resulta útil tener disponible un método de diagnóstico rápido, como una ayuda para el manejo de las infecciones agudas del sistema nervioso.Objectives. To determine the frequency and clinical features of central nervous system infections caused by enterovirus in children treated at the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods. A prospective, descriptive study was performed from April 2008 to March 2010. Patients aged 1 month - 14 years with clinical diagnosis of encephalitis or aseptic meningitis were included. We investigated the
Matilde Lena Luna Matos
outpatient clinic at a hospital in Lima, Peru. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study with simple association. The analysis consisted of 222 pregnant women 16-42 years of age with low obstetric risk who had visited the outpatient services of the Obstetrics Department at the National Materno-Perinatal Institute in Lima, Peru, from 2 June-28 November 2006. Each pregnant woman was given the Edinburgh Depression Scale and a questionnaire on sociodemographic and obstetric data. The relationship between the study variables was determined by the presence of major depression revealed through either χ2 or Z tests, depending on variable type. RESULTS: Of the 222 pregnant women studied, 89 (40.1% had major depression. Fewer married women tended to be depressed; those with unplanned pregnancies and pregnancy complications were more often depressed than their peers. Age, number of children, gestational stage, educational level, history of abortion/miscarriage, consumption of alcohol or other drugs, lack of family support, and perceived marital, family, or financial problems were not found to influence depression frequency. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of major depression among pregnant women was very high. Special attention should be given to women with unplanned pregnancies and those experiencing complications during pregnancy, so that an early diagnosis can be made and appropriate treatment offered.
LaGrone, Lacey N; Isquith-Dicker, Leah N; Huaman Egoavil, Eduardo; Rodriguez Castro, Manuel J A; Allagual, Alfredo; Revoredo, Fernando; Mock, Charles N
The globalization of medical education-the process by which trainees in any region gain access to international training (electronic or in-person)-is a growing trend. More data are needed to inform next steps in the responsible stewardship of this process, from the perspective of trainees and institutions at all income levels, and for use by national and international policymakers. To describe the impact of the globalization of medical education on surgical care in Peru from the perspective of Peruvian surgeons who received international training. Observational study of qualitative interviews conducted from September 2015 to January 2016 using grounded theory qualitative research methods. The study was conducted at 10 large public institutions that provide most of the trauma care in Lima, Peru, and included urban resident and faculty surgery and trauma care physicians. Access to international surgical rotations and medical information. Outcome measures defining the impact of globalization on surgical care were developed as part of simultaneous data collection and analysis during qualitative research as part of a larger project on trauma quality improvement practices in Peru. Fifty qualitative interviews of surgeons and emergency medicine physicians were conducted at 10 hospitals, including multiple from the public and social security systems. A median of 4 interviews were conducted at each hospital, and fewer than 3 interviews were conducted at only 1 hospital. From the broader theme of globalization emerged subthemes of an eroded sense of agency and a perception of inadequate training on the adaptation of international standards as negative effects of globalization on surgical care in Peru. Access to research funds, provision of incentives for acquisition of advanced clinical training, increased expectations for patient outcomes, and education in quality improvement skills are ways in which globalization positively affected surgeons and their patients in Peru
Full Text Available In order to determine the role of rat fleas in the life cycle of Hymenolepis diminuta, between November 2009 and March 2010, 27 rats were captured in Cercado de Lima and their ectoparasites were examinated, using standard parasitological procedures. In examined rats, 22 (81.5% were infected with the parasite H. diminuta, 85,2% were infested with siphonapters of the species Xenopsylla cheopis. Of the 158 fleas that were found, 12% housed cysticercoids in its hemocoel, which were inoculated into albino rats of Holtzman strain, and then developed to adult stage of Hymenolepis diminuta. The results of this study are conclusive and constitute the first record of the role of X. cheopis as natural intermediate host in Peru, making it necessary to reconsider the risk factors and preventive measures.Con el objetivo de determinar el rol de las pulgas de las ratas en el ciclo biológico de Hymenolepis diminuta, entre noviembre del 2009 y marzo del 2010, se capturaron 27 ratas del Cercado de Lima y examinaron sus ectoparásitos, empleando los procedimientos parasitológicos estándares. De las ratas examinadas, 22 (81,5% de las ratas examinadas estuvieron infectadas con el parásito H. diminuta, el 85,2% de ratas estuvo infestado por sifonápteros de la especie Xenopsylla cheopis. De las 158 pulgas encontradas, el 12% albergaba cisticercoides en su hemocele, los que al ser inoculados en ratas albinas de la cepa Holtzman, desarrollaron hasta el estadio de adultos de la especie Hymenolepis diminuta. Los resultados del presente trabajo son concluyentes y constituyen el primer registro del rol de X. cheopis como hospedero intermediario natural en Perú, por lo que es necesario reconsiderar los factores de riesgo y las medidas de prevención.
Clark, JL; Konda, KA; Segura, ER; Salvatierra, HJ; Leon, SR; Hall, ER; Caceres, CF; Klausner, JD; Coates, TJ
Objectives To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), frequency of sexual risk behaviors, and relationship between knowledge of HIV infection status and sexual risk behavior among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) attending an STI clinic in Peru. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of 559 MSM from a municipal STI clinic in Lima, Peru. Participants completed a survey and provided blood for HIV, Syphilis, and HSV-2 antibody testing, and urine for gonorrhea and chlamydia nucleic acid testing. Results Among 124 HIV-infected MSM, 72.6% were aware of their HIV-infected status. Active syphilis (RPR≥1:8) was diagnosed in 21.0% of HIV-infected participants, HSV-2 in 79.8%, urethral gonorrhea in 1.6%, and chlamydia in 1.6%. Among 41 participants reporting insertive anal intercourse with their last sex partner, 34.2% did not use a condom. Of 86 participants reporting receptive anal intercourse, 25.6% did not use a condom. At least one episode of insertive unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with an HIV-uninfected partner during the previous six months was reported by 33.6% (35/104) of participants, and receptive UAI with an HIV-uninfected partner by 44.6% (45/101). No difference in frequency of UAI, with HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected partners, was observed between men who knew their serostatus compared with those who were previously undiagnosed (all p-values >0.05). Conclusions HIV-infected MSM in Peru engaged in high-risk behaviors for spreading HIV and STIs. Knowledge of HIV-infected status was not associated with a decreased frequency of unprotected anal intercourse. Additional efforts to reduce risk behavior after the diagnosis of HIV infection are necessary. PMID:19028945
High prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in anal and pharyngeal sites among a community-based sample of men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru.
Leon, Segundo R; Segura, Eddy R; Konda, Kelika A; Flores, Juan A; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Galea, Jerome T; Coates, Thomas J; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Caceres, Carlos F
This study aimed to characterise the epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Lima, Peru. Cross-sectional study in Lima, Peru. We recruited a group of 510 MSM and 208 TW for a subsequent community-based randomised controlled trial. The presence of CT and NG were evaluated using Aptima Combo2 in pharyngeal and anal swabs. We also explored correlates of these infections. Study end points included overall prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in anal and pharyngeal sites. Overall prevalence of CT was 19% (95% CI 16.1% to 22.1%) and 4.8% (95% CI 3.3% to 6.6%) in anal and pharyngeal sites, respectively, while prevalence of NG was 9.6% (95% CI 7.5% to 12.0%) and 6.5% (95% CI 4.8% to 8.5%) in anal and pharyngeal sites, respectively. The prevalence of each infection declined significantly among participants older than 34 years (p<0.05). Efforts towards prevention and treatment of extraurogenital chlamydial and gonococcal infections in high-risk populations like MSM and TW in Lima, Peru, are warranted. NCT00670163; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
José O. Iannacone
Full Text Available The effectiveness of a waste stabilization pond, to remove intestinal helminth eggs and protozoan cysts was studied in San Martin de Porres, Lima, Peru. From September to October 2000 four collections of samples were performed from raw domestic wastewater and from contends of primary, secondary and tertiary ponds. A comparative study of performance of the concentrations methods of Ritchie and Faust was also done. The overall average removal of parasitic forms was as follow: 69.37% from raw water and primary pond; 48.34% from primary to secondary pond; 85.45% from secondary to tertiary pond and 97.69% from raw water to tertiary pond. There was no significant difference in the quantitative performance of Ritchic and Faust methods. Giardia duodenalis (Lambl, 1859 Alexeieff, 1914, Entamoeba coli (Gras, 1879 Casagrandi & Barbagallo, 1895 and Ascaris lumbricoides (Linnaeus, 1758 were detected with both methods. Three other parasites were detected only by Ritchie method: Taenia sp., Rodentolepis nana (von Siebold, 1852 Spasskii, 1954 and Trichuris trichiura (Linnaeus, 1771 Stiles, 1901 and only Faust detected Isospora belli Wenyon, 1923. Overall number of protozoa cysts was higher than the number of helminth eggs. At the end, wastewater had a concentration of 1.5 parasitic forms L¹ what is considered inappropríate for ultimate use in agriculture by current standards.
José O. Iannacone
Full Text Available Thirty stray dogs Canis familiaris Linnaeus, 1758 were collected in San Juan de Lurigancho, Lima, Peru, between January and March 1997 and necropsied for helminths. Three species were collected: the cestodes Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus, 1758 Railliet, 1892 and Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780 and the nematode Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782 Stiles, 1905. Fifty per cent of the examined dogs showed one or two parasites. A total of 303 (0-116 helminths were recovered and the intensity of infection was 30,3. The Simpson index (C for all parasite species was 0,414, indicating a dominance by one species in the parasite community. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of C. familiaris was H' = 0,038 and uniformity index of Pielou J = 0,207. Dipylidium caninum, T. pisiformis, and T. canis presented a prevalence of infection of 33,30%, 10% and 16,6% respectively. Dipylidium caninum presented the highest frequency and mean intensity of infection. Dipylidium caninum was the helminth with the highest dominance (94% whereas the lowest was due to T. pisiformis (4% and T. canis (2%. Helminths were not related to the age of the hosts, prevalence and mean intensity of infection. Out of the 10 equally divided segments of the intestinal gut, D. caninum was found from the 6th to the 9th segment. T canis preferred almost exclusively the 1st segment while T. pisiformis was randomly distributed.
Lee, Sky W; Deiss, Robert G; Segura, Eddy R; Clark, Jesse L; Lake, Jordan E; Konda, Kelika A; Coates, Thomas J; Caceres, Carlos F
Increased HIV testing frequency among high-risk populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender women (TW) can lead to earlier treatment and potentially reduce HIV transmission. We analyzed baseline survey data from 718 high-risk, young (median age 29 [interquartile range 23-35]) MSM/TW enrolled in a community-based HIV prevention trial between 2008-2009. Participants were recruited from 24 neighborhoods in and around Lima, Peru. We assessed HIV testing frequency, testing behaviour, and motivations and barriers to testing. Multivariate analysis identified correlates to prior HIV testing. Overall, 79.6% reported HIV testing within their lifetimes, however, only 6.2% reported an average of two tests per year, as per Peruvian Ministry of Health guidelines. The most commonly reported motivators for testing were to check one's health (23.3%), lack of condom use (19.7%), and availability of free testing (14.0%), while low self-perceived risk for HIV (46.9%), fear of a positive result (42.0%), and lack of access to testing services (35.7%) were the most frequently reported barriers. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with HIV testing included age [adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) 1.00, 95% CI (1.00-1.01)], transgender-identification vs. gay-identification [APR 1.11, 95% CI (1.03-1.20)], history of transactional sex [APR 1.16, 95% CI (1.07-1.27)], and prior sexually transmitted infection diagnosis [APR 1.15, 95% CI (1.07-1.24)]. An overwhelming majority of participants did not meet the standard-of-care for testing frequency. The reported motivations and barriers to testing highlight issues of risk perception and accessibility. Our findings suggest utilizing non-traditional outreach methods and promoting HIV testing as a routine part of healthcare in Peru to encourage testing and knowledge of HIV serostatus.
Denney, Joshua A; Capanni, Francesca; Herrera, Phabiola; Dulanto, Augusto; Roldan, Rollin; Paz, Enrique; Jaymez, Amador A; Chirinos, Eduardo E; Portugal, Jose; Quispe, Rocio; Brower, Roy G; Checkley, William
Introduction Mechanical ventilation is a cornerstone in the management of critically ill patients worldwide; however, less is known about the clinical management of mechanically ventilated patients in low and middle income countries where limitation of resources including equipment, staff and access to medical information may play an important role in defining patient-centred outcomes. We present the design of a prospective, longitudinal study of mechanically ventilated patients in Peru that aims to describe a large cohort of mechanically ventilated patients and identify practices that, if modified, could result in improved patient-centred outcomes and lower costs. Methods and analysis Five Peruvian intensive care units (ICUs) and the Medical ICU at the Johns Hopkins Hospital were selected for this study. Eligible patients were those who underwent at least 24 h of invasive mechanical ventilation within the first 48 h of admission into the ICU. Information on ventilator settings, clinical management and treatment were collected daily for up to 28 days or until the patient was discharged from the unit. Vital status was assessed at 90 days post enrolment. A subset of participants who survived until hospital discharge were asked to participate in an ancillary study to assess vital status, and physical and mental health at 6, 12, 24 and 60 months after hospitalisation, Primary outcomes include 90-day mortality, time on mechanical ventilation, hospital and ICU lengths of stay, and prevalence of acute respiratory distress syndrome. In subsequent analyses, we aim to identify interventions and standardised care strategies that can be tailored to resource-limited settings and that result in improved patient-centred outcomes and lower costs. Ethics and dissemination We obtained ethics approval from each of the four participating hospitals in Lima, Peru, and at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA. Results will be disseminated as several separate
Cabeza, J; García, PJ; Segura, ER; García, P; Escudero, F; La Rosa, S; León, S; Klausner, JD
Objectives Chlamydia trachomatis, which is asymptomatic in most women, causes significant adverse effects for pregnant women and neonates. No programmes conduct antenatal screening in Latin America. We determined chlamydia prevalence, the feasibility and acceptability of chlamydia screening, and adherence to treatment in pregnant women in two urban public hospitals in Lima, Peru. Methods We offered chlamydia screening using self-collected vaginal swabs to pregnant women ≥ 16 years during their first antenatal visit. Chlamydia-infected women were contacted within 14 days and asked to bring partners for counselling and directly observed therapy with oral azithromycin. Unaccompanied women received counselling, directly observed therapy, and azithromycin to take to partners. Test of cure was performed ≥ 3 weeks after treatment. Results We approached 640 women for the study and enrolled 600 (93.7%). Median age was 27.3 years (range 16–47), median lifetime partners 2.3 (range 1–50), and median gestational age 26.1 weeks (range 4–41). Chlamydia prevalence was 10% (95% CI: 7.7% – 12.7%). Of 60 infected patients, 59 (98%) were treated with one dose of azithromycin. Fifty-two of 59 (88%) returned for test of cure, all of whom were treated successfully, with 46 (86%) achieving negative test of cure with one dose of azithromycin and 6 (12%) after retreatment with a second dose. Conclusions C. trachomatis screening and treatment in pregnancy was feasible and highly acceptable in two urban hospitals in Peru. Chlamydia prevalence was high. Clinical trials to evaluate efficacy and cost-effectiveness of chlamydia screening and treatment of pregnant women to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes in low-resource settings are warranted. PMID:25107711
Cabeza, Jeanne; García, Patricia J; Segura, Eddy; García, Pedro; Escudero, Francisco; La Rosa, Sayda; León, Segundo; Klausner, Jeffrey D
Chlamydia trachomatis, which is asymptomatic in most women, causes significant adverse effects for pregnant women and neonates. No programmes conduct antenatal screening in Latin America. We determined chlamydia prevalence, feasibility and acceptability of chlamydia screening, and adherence to treatment in pregnant women in two urban public hospitals in Lima, Peru. We offered chlamydia screening using self-collected vaginal swabs to pregnant women ≥ 16 years of age during their first antenatal visit. Chlamydia-infected women were contacted within 14 days and asked to bring partners for counselling and directly observed therapy with oral azithromycin. Unaccompanied women received counselling, directly observed therapy, and azithromycin to take to partners. Test of cure was performed ≥ 3 weeks after treatment. We approached 640 women for the study and enrolled 600 (93.8%). Median age was 27.3 years (range 16-47), median lifetime partners 2.3 (range 1-50), and median gestational age 26.1 weeks (range 4-41). Chlamydia prevalence was 10% (95% CI 7.7% to 12.7%). Of 60 infected patients, 59 (98%) were treated with one dose of azithromycin. Fifty-two of 59 (88%) returned for test of cure, all of whom were treated successfully, with 46 (86%) achieving negative test of cure with one dose of azithromycin, and 6 (12%) after retreatment with a second dose. C. trachomatis screening and treatment in pregnancy was feasible and highly acceptable in two urban hospitals in Peru. Chlamydia prevalence was high. Clinical trials to evaluate efficacy and cost-effectiveness of chlamydia screening, and treatment of pregnant women to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes in low-resource settings, are warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Amaya G. Perez-Brumer
Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of TW communities as support structures that create and deploy social resiliency-based strategies aimed at deterring and mitigating the impact of social vulnerabilities to discrimination, marginalization and HIV risk for individual TW in Peru. Public health strategies seeking to provide HIV prevention, treatment and care for this population will benefit from recognizing existing social capital within TW communities and incorporating its strengths within HIV prevention interventions. At the intersection of HIV vulnerabilities and collective agency, dimensions of bridging and bonding social capital emerged as resiliency strategies used by TW to access needed healthcare services in Peru. Fostering TW solidarity and peer support are key components to ensure acceptability and sustainability of HIV prevention and promotion efforts.
Lanata, C F; Midthun, K; Black, R E; Butron, B; Huapaya, A; Penny, M E; Ventura, G; Gil, A; Jett-Goheen, M; Davidson, B L
An oral rhesus-human rotavirus tetravalent (RRV-TV) vaccine (10(4) pfu of rhesus rotavirus [type G3] and of 3 human-rhesus reassortants [G1, G2, and G4]) was evaluated in a field trial in Lima, Peru. At 2, 3, and 4 months of age, infants received either a dose of RRV-TV, an initial dose of vaccine followed by a dose of placebo at 3 and 4 months, or a dose of placebo. Rotavirus-specific IgA responses were detected by ELISA in 75% of the three-dose vaccine group, 59% of the one-dose vaccine group (P = .05), and 24% of the placebo group (P < .001): 64%, 48%, and 12% of each group, respectively, had a neutralizing antibody response to at least 1 serotype. Both one and three doses of vaccine failed to induce a significant level of protection against rotavirus diarrhea; however, they did provide some protection (range, 35%-66%) against more severe rotavirus diarrhea, especially for episodes caused by type G1.
Shimabuku, Roberto; Huicho, Luis; Fernández, Danitza; Nakachi, Graciela; Maldonado, Ruth; Barrientos, Armando
To determine the changes in the levels of dissatisfaction of the external users of the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño, in Lima, Peru. Observational study based on a software to evaluate surveys completed by health care users (Software de Evaluación de Encuestas de Usuarios en Salud - SEEUS). The population consisted of every person accompanying external users to outpatient visits, inpatient visits or emergency treatment in the years 2008, 2009 and 2010. To calculate the sample size, last year's proportion of users dissatisfied with each service was used, with an estimated error of 5% at a 95% confidence level. A sample of 2051 people was obtained, which revealed a decreasing trend in the levels of dissatisfaction with outpatient visits, and an increased dissatisfaction in the medical capabilities dimension for hospitalization and emergency services. In addition, a dissatisfaction index lower than 0.20 was registered in the medical capabilities dimension for outpatient visits. In contrast, the highest dissatisfaction indexes were registered in the hygiene dimension for 2009 (0.25) and 2010 (0.25), and in the others dimension for emergency services in 2009 (0.25). The dimensions showing an increase in the dissatisfaction index were tangible aspects, hygiene and others for hospitalization and emergency services. On the other hand, the medical capabilities dimension for outpatient visits showed a decrease in the level of dissatisfaction over the evaluated period.
Paredes Méndez, Juan; Lazo Molina, Luis; Molina Martos, Bruno
Evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic utility, safeness, efficacy and complications of double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE). This prospective, descriptive study of DBE took place between July 2010 and June 2015 at the service of Gastroenterology of Hospital Nacional Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen- Lima Peru. 129 DBE were performed in 121 patients with the Fujinon EN-450T5 double balloon enteroscope, with conscious sedation and with previous bowel preparation. All of them signed an informed consent. The mean age was 56.6 years. Capsule endoscopy intestinal study was performed previously in 77 patients (63.6%). The most frequent indication for DBE was bleeding of middle intestine (61.2%). The approach used was more antegrade (69%). The maximum distance reached was 570 cm in antegrade method. The average duration for both routes is 117.45 minutes. Vascular ecstasies (56.1%) were the most frequent causes of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. The diagnostic yield was 83.7%, higher than other series. The most widely used therapeutic procedure was argón plasma thermo coagulation. Like other studies, patients had good tolerance to the procedure and no major complications. In our patients studied the EDB has proven to be a secure, useful and efficient technique for the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases of the small intestine, especially in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding.
Flores, Elaine C; Lluque, Maria E; Chiappe, Marina; Lino, Rosabel; Bayer, Angela M
In Peru, a significant proportion of people tested for HIV and syphilis do not receive timely results. Our objective was to assess the institutional feasibility of implementing simultaneous HIV/syphilis point-of-care tests and client perceptions regarding these point-of-care tests. Point-of-care tests were implemented in a hospital consultation room in a marginalised zone of Lima. A time-series design was used to compare the proportion of tested clients who received timely results, with and without the point-of-care test intervention. Experience and satisfaction with point-of-care tests was evaluated with 149 people. In the 6 months without intervention, 69% and 61% of clients tested for HIV and syphilis, respectively, received their results within the required 45-minute window. During the 2-month point-of-care test intervention, all clients tested for HIV (n = 387) and syphilis (n = 398) received their results within 45 minutes. All clients surveyed were completely satisfied (52%) or satisfied (48%) with the simultaneous HIV/syphilis point-of-care test screening process. Additionally, 73% strongly agreed with the statement 'I feel satisfied with the rapid testing process.' Screening using point-of-care tests represents an important opportunity to reduce the time, resource and cost burden for users and institutions and increase the proportion of users receiving their test results in a timely manner. © The Author(s) 2014.
Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Rondon, Marta B; Sánchez, Sixto E; Simon, Gregory E; Henderson, David C; Barrios, Yasmin V; Sánchez, Pedro Mascaro; Williams, Michelle A
We sought to examine the concordance of two suicidal ideation items from the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), to evaluate the prevalence of suicidal ideation among pregnant women, and to assess the co-occurrence of suicidal ideation with antepartum depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,517 pregnant women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru. Item 9 of the PHQ-9 assesses suicidal ideation over the last 14 days while item 10 of the EPDS assesses suicidal ideation in the past 7 days. The two suicidal ideation items have a high concordance rate (84.2 %) but a moderate agreement (the Cohen's kappa = 0.42). Based on the PHQ-9 and the EPDS, 15.8 and 8.8 % of participants screened positive for suicidal ideation, respectively. Assessed by the PHQ-9, 51 % of participants with suicidal ideation had probable depression. In prenatal care clinics, screening for suicidal ideation is needed for women with and without depressive symptoms. Future studies are needed to identify additional predictors of antepartum suicidality, determine the appropriate duration of reporting period for suicidal ideation screening, and assess the percentage of individuals with positive responses to the two suicidal ideation items at high risk of planning and attempting suicide.
Calderón-Espinoza, Róger I; Asencios-Solís, Luis; Quispe-Torres, Neyda; Yale-Cajahuanca, Gloria; Suárez-Nole, Carmen; Lecca-García, Leonid; Llanos-Zavalaga, Luis F
To validate the polymerase chain reaction-based universal heteroduplex generator (PCR UHG-Rif) assay for identifying rifampin-resistant and multidrug-resistant (MDR, resistant to isoniazid and rifampin) Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis from communities in Lima (Peru) with a high incidence of resistant tuberculosis. To compare the results of antituberculosis drug susceptibility testing in clinical samples performed by the proportion method with those obtained by the PCR UHG-Rif assay, with the aim of analyzing the diagnostic capability of PCR UHG-Rif. Concordance for the identification of antituberculosis drug susceptibility was 0.95 (kappa = 0.899; P PCR UHG-Rif allows the detection of mixed populations; discordant results can be explained by the presence of point mutations, missense mutations and mutations outside the rpoB "hot" region associated with rifampin-resistance. The PCR UHG-Rif assay detects mutations in the rpoB gene with excellent sensitivity and specificity, and suitable predictive values when compared with the standard method for determining susceptibility to antituberculosis drugs. This test can be considered an excellent tool that can contribute to tuberculosis control by correctly identifying patients infected with resistant and MDR bacilli, leading to a reduction in the cases of tuberculosis and resistant tuberculosis.
Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Reisner, Sari L; McLean, Sarah A; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Huerta, Leyla; Mayer, Kenneth H; Sanchez, Jorge; Clark, Jesse L; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Lama, Javier R
In Peru, transgender women (TW) experience unique vulnerabilities for HIV infection due to factors that limit access to, and quality of, HIV prevention, treatment and care services. Yet, despite recent advances in understanding factors associated with HIV vulnerability among TW globally, limited scholarship has examined how Peruvian TW cope with this reality and how existing community-level resilience strategies are enacted despite pervasive social and economic exclusion facing the community. Addressing this need, our study applies the understanding of social capital as a social determinant of health and examines its relationship to HIV vulnerabilities to TW in Peru. Using qualitative methodology to provide an in-depth portrait, we assessed (1) intersections between social marginalization, social capital and HIV vulnerabilities; and (2) community-level resilience strategies employed by TW to buffer against social marginalization and to link to needed HIV-related services in Peru. Between January and February 2015, 48 TW participated (mean age = 29, range = 18-44) in this study that included focus group discussions and demographic surveys. Analyses were guided by an immersion crystallization approach and all coding was conducted using Dedoose Version 6.1.18. Themes associated with HIV vulnerability included experiences of multilevel stigma and limited occupational opportunities that placed TW at risk for, and limited their engagement with, existing HIV services. Emergent resiliency-based strategies included peer-to-peer and intergenerational knowledge sharing, supportive clinical services (e.g. group-based clinic attendance) and emotional support through social cohesion (i.e. feeling part of a community). This study highlights the importance of TW communities as support structures that create and deploy social resiliency-based strategies aimed at deterring and mitigating the impact of social vulnerabilities to discrimination, marginalization and HIV risk for
Jesús Claudio Pérez Gálvez
Full Text Available In recent years, gastronomy has become one of the main sources of attraction in the tourist destinations. The objective of this study is to present the results of a research conducted on the foreign tourists in the city of Lima, a World Heritage Site, which is considered as one of the main gastronomic leaders of the world.. The principal results indicate that foreign tourists have different attitudes toward the local gastronomy. Therefore, the foreign tourists were arranged, following the model developed by Björk and Kauppinen-Räisänen (2016, in three different groups: survivors, enjoyers, and experiencers. Furthermore, it shows that the foreign tourists have different motivations regarding gastronomy, which we have grouped into three dimensions: new food experience, culture, and socialization. The results show that the dimensions new food experience and socialization contribute to a greater degree to gastronomic satisfaction.
Medina, Anicia M; Rivera, Fulton P; Pons, Maria J; Riveros, Maribel; Gomes, Cláudia; Bernal, María; Meza, Rina; Maves, Ryan C; Huicho, Luis; Chea-Woo, Elsa; Lanata, Claudio F; Gil, Ana I; Ochoa, Theresa J; Ruiz, Joaquim
Antibiotic resistance is increasing worldwide, being of special concern in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of resistance in 205 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates from two cohort studies in children Peru. ETEC were identified by an in-house multiplex real-time PCR. Susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents was tested by disk diffusion; mechanisms of resistance were evaluated by PCR. ETEC isolates were resistant to ampicillin (64%), cotrimoxazole (52%), tetracycline (37%); 39% of the isolates were multidrug-resistant. Heat-stable toxin producing (ETEC-st) (48%) and heat-labile toxin producing ETEC (ETEC-lt) (40%) had higher rates of multidrug resistance than isolates producing both toxins (ETEC-lt-st) (21%), pPeru. However, further development of resistance should be closely monitored. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Enrique Saravia Vergara
Full Text Available The paper analyzes, exploratory level, validation of questionnaire to measure attitudes toward organizational change proposed by the Rabelo, Ros and Torres. The study led to 23 executives in Lima, obtained high levels of reliability and validity for each of the three-dimensional model of attitudes toward organizational change proposed by the authors: "attitudes of cynicism", "attitudes of fear" and "attitudes acceptance" to organizational change. However, factor analysis of each of the three dimensions of the model identified three sub-dimensions, identifying three different groups in each dimension. Results also show that attitudes of acceptance prevail and very closely, attitudes of fear to organizational change. On a lesser extent occurs cynicism reactions. On the other hand, the cluster analysis was able to identify four executive profiles according to their behavior or attitude in organizational change: On the other hand, the cluster analysis was able to identify four executive profiles according to their behavior or attitude in organizational change: a group of executives having a harmonic pattern of cognitions and affections, with high rates of acceptance and few negative attitudes of cynicism and fears; another group of executives who have clarity and coherence of attitudes, with low levels of acceptance and many negative attitudes of fear and cynicism; and a third group of executives having a divergent pattern of attitudes.
Bayer, Angela M.; Cabrera, Lilia Z.; Gilman, Robert H.; Hindin, Michelle J.; Tsui, Amy O.
The primary objective of this study was to identify and describe individual- and environmental-level factors that Peruvian adolescents perceive to be related to adolescent sexuality. A series of concept mapping sessions were carried out from January-March 2006 with 63 15–17 year olds from a low-income community near Lima in order for adolescents to (1) brainstorm items that they thought were related to sexuality (2) sort, group and rate items to score their importance for sexuality-related outcomes, and (3) create pathways from the groups of items to engaging in sex. Brainstorming resulted in 61 items, which participants grouped into 11 clusters. The highest rated clusters were personal values, respect and confidence in relationships, future achievements and parent-child communication. The pathway of decision-making about having sex primarily contained items rated as only moderately important. This study identified important understudied factors, new perspectives on previously-recognized factors, and possible pathways to sexual behavior. These interesting, provocative findings underscore the importance of directly integrating adolescent voices into future sexual and reproductive health research, policies and programs that target this population. PMID:20382462
Carriquiry, Gabriela; Otero, Larissa; González-Lagos, Elsa; Zamudio, Carlos; Sánchez, Eduardo; Nabeta, Pamela; Campos, Miguel; Echevarría, Juan; Seas, Carlos; Gotuzzo, Eduardo
Background Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients remains complex and demands easy to perform and accurate tests. Xpert®MTB/RIF (MTB/RIF) is a molecular TB diagnostic test which is rapid and convenient; the test requires minimal human resources and reports results within two hours. The majority of performance studies of MTB/RIF have been performed in high HIV burden settings, thus TB diagnostic studies among HIV patients in low HIV prevalence settings such as Peru are still needed. Methodology/Principal Findings From April 2010 to May 2011, HIV-positive patients with high clinical suspicion of TB were enrolled from two tertiary hospitals in Lima, Peru. Detection of TB by MTB/RIF was compared to a composite reference standard Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) and liquid culture. Detection of rifampicin resistance was compared to the LJ proportion method. We included 131 patients, the median CD4 cell count was 154.5 cells/mm3 and 45 (34.4%) had TB. For TB detection among HIV patients, sensitivity of MTB/RIF was 97.8% (95% CI 88.4–99.6) (44/45); specificity was 97.7% (95% CI 91.9–99.4) (84/86); the positive predictive value was 95.7% (95% CI 85.5–98.8) (44/46); and the negative predictive value, 98.8% (95% CI 93.6–99.8) (84/85). MTB/RIF detected 13/14 smear-negative TB cases, outperforming smear microscopy [97.8% (44/45) vs. 68.9% (31/45); p = 0.0002]. For rifampicin resistance detection, sensitivity of MTB/RIF was 100% (95% CI 61.0–100.0) (6/6); specificity was 91.0% (95% CI 76.4–96.9) (30/33); the positive predictive value was 66.7% (95% CI 35.4–87.9) (6/9); and the negative predictive value was 100% (95% CI 88.7 –100.0) (30/30). Conclusions/Significance In HIV patients in our population with a high clinical suspicion of TB, MTB/RIF performed well for TB diagnosis and outperformed smear microscopy. PMID:22970271
Pesantes, M Amalia; Brandt, Lena R; Ipince, Alessandra; Miranda, J Jaime; Diez-Canseco, Francisco
Understanding local complexities and challenges of stroke-related caregiving are essential to develop appropriate interventions. Our study aimed to characterize the impact of post-stroke care among caregivers in a setting of transitioning economy. Qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with primary caregivers of stroke survivors in Lima, Peru. Transcribed data was organized into the emotional impact of caregiving, main stress factors and coping mechanisms to deal with the caregiving role, as well as the unmet needs of caregivers. We interviewed twelve caregivers, mean age 52.5 years, 8/12 were females, who were either the spouse or child of the stroke survivor. Stroke patients had a median age of 70 years, range 53-85 years. All participants reported having experienced emotional stress and depressive symptoms as a result of caregiving. Although most had family support, reduced social activities and added unanticipated financial burdens increased caregiver's stress. None of the caregivers had received training in post-stroke care tasks after the patient's discharge and only a few had received some psychological support, yet almost all expressed the need to see a professional to improve their mental health. Keeping a positive attitude towards their relative's physical post-stroke condition was a key coping mechanism. In the absence of structured institutional responses, family members endure with the provision of care for stroke survivors, a task escorted by major emotional, financial, and social strains. This burden could be prevented or curtailed if caregivers were to be targeted by interventions providing psychological and financial support, together with basic training on post-stroke care.
Pareja, Rossina G; Marquis, Grace S; Penny, Mary E; Dixon, Philip M
Excessive demands on maternal nutritional status may be a risk factor for poor birth outcomes. This study examined the association between breastfeeding during late pregnancy (≥ 28 weeks) and the risk of having a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborn, using a matched case-control design (78 SGA cases: birthweight percentile for gestational age; 150 non-SGA controls: 50th percentile percentile for gestational age). Between March 2006 and April 2007, project midwives visited daily three government hospitals in Lima, Peru and identified cases and matched controls based on hospital, gestational age, and inter-gestational period. Mothers were interviewed and clinical chart extractions were completed. Factors associated with risk of SGA were assessed by their adjusted odds ratios (aOR) from conditional logistic regression. Exposure to an overlap of breastfeeding during late pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of having a SGA newborn [aOR=0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10-3.30]. However, increased risk was associated with having a previous low-birthweight birth (aOR=6.53; 95% CI: 1.43-29.70) and a low intake of animal source foods (percentile; aOR=2.26; 95% CI: 1.01-5.04), and tended to be associated with being short (study found no evidence to support the hypothesis that breastfeeding during late pregnancy increases the risk for SGA; however, studies with greater statistical power are needed to definitively examine this possible association and clarify whether there are other risks to the new baby, the toddler and the pregnant woman. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Castañeda-Amado, Zaira; Calixto-Aguilar, Lesly; Loza Munarriz, César; Medina Palomino, Félix A
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. When an acute myocardial infarction occurs, it is necessary to establish secondary prevention measures, which can reduce mortality by 50%. Clinical guidelines state that the optimal medical treatment is based upon four groups of drugs: antiplatelet drugs, statins, beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor antagonist. To determine physician compliance to evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Retrospective, observational study in Hospital Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru. The study included patients with confirmed acute coronary syndrome from February 2011 to February 2013. Medical records, laboratory results and medical therapy at discharge were collected and were compared to the American Heart Association type I, evidence level A recommendations. In addition, patient follow-up visits to the outpatient cardiology clinic at 1, 3 and 6 months after discharge were analyzed. The study population included 143 patients. Eighty-nine (89) patients were admitted with the diagnosis of unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation (62.2%) and 54 had ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (37.8%). Forty patients (28%) received all four recommended medications at discharge, which decreased at 1, 3 and 6 months after discharge to 12.6%, 7% and 3.5% respectively. The results showed a significant reduction in patient compliance to follow-up visits with a 48% reduction at the first visit to 10% on the last visit. Medical compliance to guidelines recommendations in secondary cardiovascular prevention is suboptimal with a compliance score under 50%.
Bayer, Angela M; Alburqueque, Mónica
Peru's approach to its 5.7 million 10- to 19-year-olds has shifted toward positive youth development. Following that trend, our objective was to facilitate Peruvian adolescents' use of photovoice to better understand the factors affecting their health, well-being, and sexuality and to work with adolescents to present policy and programmatic recommendations. Photovoice sessions were carried out with low-income 12- to 16-year-olds (n = 13) from Lima. Sessions included basic photography and ethics, photo taking, and descriptions and discussions using the SHOWeD (What do you See here? What is really Happening? How does this relate to Our lives? Why does this problem or strength exist? What can we Do about it?) method. Participants grouped their photos into a "photo story." Each section of the story consisted of a message and 4 to 10 photos. Each photo had a caption that answered the SHOWeD questions. Messages were (a) "health and well-being in danger of extinction," (b) "with some signs of hope," (c) "innocence in spite of everything," (d) "what we as adolescents have," and (e) "but we lack opportunities to live a better life and a responsible sexuality." Participants presented the photo story to program planners, policy makers, and community members. Results underscore the value of including adolescents in program and policy planning and affirm that photovoice can achieve such inclusion. Photovoice provides a concrete method for adolescents to speak their mind through image and word. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Full Text Available On August 14, 1985, during the long internal armed conflict between the Maoist guerrilla group Sendero Luminoso and the Peruvian state, an army patrol entered the Andean town Accomarca, located in the Ayacucho region, and killed 69 indigenous people, including children and elderly, alleged supporters of the insurgent group. The majority of survivors and relatives of victims were displaced to Lima and integrated into the victims’ organization and the Asociación Hijos del Distrito de Accomarca - AHIDA. Since 2011, on the occasion of the extradition from the United States of Lieutenant Telmo Hurtado, main person responsible of the massacre, the AHIDA has recreated the painful experience of the massacre through an annual Ayacuchan Carnival performance incor- porating choreography and testimonial songs to demand justice for the victims of the massacre. In addition, this carnivalesque performance involves children and young people who did not lived the massacre, but imagine, interpret and create their own memory by communicating with the survivors and participating in the cultural production of the event. In this article, I expose how survivors and relatives of victims remember the massacre and transmit their memories to their children through a carnivalesque performance. I describe the production of an intergenerational memory through the intergenerational transmission, which is constructed in the domestic space (family, the communal/institutional space (AHIDA, and the public space (Carnival. Surely, the occasion of the Carnival is a powerful spacefor the production of other forms of memory, and for the demand for justice through participatory choreographic and musical performance.
Satcher, Milan F; Segura, Eddy R; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R; Clark, Jesse L
Condomless anal intercourse among transgender women (TW) in Peru has been shown to vary by the type of partner involved (e.g. primary vs. casual vs. transactional sex partner), but no previous studies have explored variations in partner-level patterns of condom use according to type of anal intercourse. We evaluated the relationship between partnership characteristics and condom use during insertive (IAI) versus receptive anal intercourse (RAI) among TW with recent, non-female partners. Condomless IAI was more common with transactional and casual sex partners and by TW who self-reported HIV-uninfected serostatus (p sex. Condomless RAI was more common with primary partners and by TW who described their HIV serostatus as unknown (p < 0.05). Examining partner-level differences between condomless IAI and RAI reveals distinct patterns of HIV/STI risk among TW, suggesting a need for HIV prevention strategies tailored to the specific contexts of partners, practices, and networks.
Influence of climatic factors on the medical attentions of dermatologic diseases in a hospital of Lima, Peru Influência de fatores climáticos no tratamento médico de doenças dermatológicas em um hospital em Lima, Peru
Ericson L. Gutierrez
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Significant associations have been described between climatic factors and human health, which can occur in dermatologic diseases too. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of the climatic factors on the medical attentions of dermatologic diseases in a general hospital in Lima (Peru. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Observational study which was carried out in a national hospital between January 2004 and December 2007. The diagnoses were classified according to the ICD-10 system. The climate information was provided by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration from USA(NOAA. RESULTS: 3 294 patients were included in the study, the average age was 35.4 ± 20.7 years old, and 53.2% were females. The "El Niño" phenomenon was associated with an increase in the prevalence of actinic keratosis (p=0.002, viral warts (p=0.001 and rosacea (p=0.014. The "La Niña" phenomenon was associated with a reduction in viral warts (p=0.026. Spring was associated with an increase of dermatitis (p=0.003, and summer was associated with an increase of benign neoplasms (p=0.049. CONCLUSION: The climatic variations influenced the occurrence of certain dermatologic diseases. The present study may represent an orientation guide to specialists and general practitioners identifying the most common dermatologic diagnoses and thus enabling better preparation to treat these cases in determined seasons of the year.FUNDAMENTO: Associações significativas entre fatores climáticos e saúde humana têm sido descritas, inclusive na área de Dermatologia. OBJETIVO: Determinar a influência de fatores climáticos no tratamento de doenças dermatológicas em um hospital em Lima (Peru. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional realizado em um hospital em Lima entre janeiro de 2004 e dezembro de 2007. Os diagnósticos foram classificados de acordo com o sistema ICD-10. Informações climáticas foram fornecidas pela "National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration
Perceptions of adolescents students on the consumption of drugs: a case study in Lima, Peru Opiniones de los adolescentes escolares sobre consumo de drogas: un estudio de caso en Lima, Perú Opiniões de adolescentes estudantes sobre consumo de drogas: um estudo de caso em Lima, Perú
Hilda Luz Bolaños Gil
Full Text Available The consumption of drugs has increased worldwide and has become a public health problem, affecting particularly adolescents. This study aimed to identify the opinions of adolescent students on the use of drugs and drug users, in a school in Lima, Peru. It is a descriptive and cross-sectional study with a questionnaire self-applied to 386 students. Data collected comprised students' personal data, their perception on the risk of drugs consumption, motivations, information on preventive interventions, drugs availability, opinion regarding drug users and their family, and social acceptance. Male gender was predominant. Most of the participants were unfavorable regarding risk perception and consumption motives, though, they were favorable towards information. We have a relevant role in explaining behaviors and also in implementing appropriate and efficient preventive and treatment programs.El consumo de drogas ha aumentado en todas las regiones del mundo, volviéndose un problema de salud pública, afectando especialmente a los adolescentes. Este estudio tiene como objetivos identificar las opiniones de los adolescentes escolares sobre el uso de drogas e identificar la opinión sobre el consumidor de drogas, en un colegio de Lima-Perú. Estudio descriptivo y transversal, se usó un cuestionario autoaplicado a 386 estudiantes. Se obtuvo datos personales del escolar, la percepción de riesgo del consumo de drogas, motivaciones, información acerca de medidas preventivas, disponibilidad de la droga, la opinión sobre el consumidor de drogas e la aceptación social y familiar al consumidor de drogas. Predomina el sexo masculino en las características personales. Al opinar sobre la percepción de riesgo la mayoría tiene opinión desfavorable de los motivos de consumo y esta a favor de la información. Tenemos un relevante papel tanto para explicar las conductas como para la puesta en práctica de programas adecuados y eficaces de prevención y
Caceres, Carlos F.; Segura, Eddy R.; Grant, Robert M.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Hallett, Timothy B.
Background HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), the use of antiretroviral drugs by uninfected individuals to prevent HIV infection, has demonstrated effectiveness in preventing acquisition in a high-risk population of men who have sex with men (MSM). Consequently, there is a need to understand if and how PrEP can be used cost-effectively to prevent HIV infection in such populations. Methods and Findings We developed a mathematical model representing the HIV epidemic among MSM and transwomen (male-to-female transgender individuals) in Lima, Peru, as a test case. PrEP effectiveness in the model is assumed to result from the combination of a “conditional efficacy” parameter and an adherence parameter. Annual operating costs from a health provider perspective were based on the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention interim guidelines for PrEP use. The model was used to investigate the population-level impact, cost, and cost-effectiveness of PrEP under a range of implementation scenarios. The epidemiological impact of PrEP is largely driven by programme characteristics. For a modest PrEP coverage of 5%, over 8% of infections could be averted in a programme prioritising those at higher risk and attaining the adherence levels of the Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Initiative study. Across all scenarios, the highest estimated cost per disability-adjusted life year averted (uniform strategy for a coverage level of 20%, US$1,036–US$4,254) is below the World Health Organization recommended threshold for cost-effective interventions, while only certain optimistic scenarios (low coverage of 5% and some or high prioritisation) are likely to be cost-effective using the World Bank threshold. The impact of PrEP is reduced if those on PrEP decrease condom use, but only extreme behaviour changes among non-adherers (over 80% reduction in condom use) and a low PrEP conditional efficacy (40%) would adversely impact the epidemic. However, PrEP will not arrest HIV transmission in
Gabriela B Gomez
Full Text Available HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, the use of antiretroviral drugs by uninfected individuals to prevent HIV infection, has demonstrated effectiveness in preventing acquisition in a high-risk population of men who have sex with men (MSM. Consequently, there is a need to understand if and how PrEP can be used cost-effectively to prevent HIV infection in such populations.We developed a mathematical model representing the HIV epidemic among MSM and transwomen (male-to-female transgender individuals in Lima, Peru, as a test case. PrEP effectiveness in the model is assumed to result from the combination of a "conditional efficacy" parameter and an adherence parameter. Annual operating costs from a health provider perspective were based on the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention interim guidelines for PrEP use. The model was used to investigate the population-level impact, cost, and cost-effectiveness of PrEP under a range of implementation scenarios. The epidemiological impact of PrEP is largely driven by programme characteristics. For a modest PrEP coverage of 5%, over 8% of infections could be averted in a programme prioritising those at higher risk and attaining the adherence levels of the Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Initiative study. Across all scenarios, the highest estimated cost per disability-adjusted life year averted (uniform strategy for a coverage level of 20%, US$1,036-US$4,254 is below the World Health Organization recommended threshold for cost-effective interventions, while only certain optimistic scenarios (low coverage of 5% and some or high prioritisation are likely to be cost-effective using the World Bank threshold. The impact of PrEP is reduced if those on PrEP decrease condom use, but only extreme behaviour changes among non-adherers (over 80% reduction in condom use and a low PrEP conditional efficacy (40% would adversely impact the epidemic. However, PrEP will not arrest HIV transmission in isolation because of its
Implementation of a stepped-wedge cluster randomized design in routine public health practice: design and application for a tuberculosis (TB) household contact study in a high burden area of Lima, Peru.
Shah, Lena; Rojas, Marlene; Mori, Oscar; Zamudio, Carlos; Kaufman, Jay S; Otero, Larissa; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Seas, Carlos; Brewer, Timothy F
We designed a pragmatic stepped-wedge cluster randomized controlled trial in order to evaluate provider-initiated evaluation of household contacts (HCs) of smear positive tuberculosis (TB) cases within a routine TB program in Lima, Peru. National TB program (NTP) officers of San Juan de Lurigancho District (Lima, Peru) and university-based researchers jointly designed a pragmatic stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial design in order to evaluate a planned active case finding (ACF) program for all HCs of smear-positive TB cases in 34 district healthcare centres. Randomization of time to intervention initiation was stratified by health centre TB case rate. The ACF intervention included provider-initiated home visits of all new sputum smear positive TB patients in order to evaluate household contacts for active TB. Active TB was diagnosed using symptom screening, sputum screening, chest x-ray and clinical evaluation. Once initiated, ACF was provided by NTP staff and integrated into the routine DOTS TB program activities. This study protocol describes the pragmatic stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial of active household contact evaluations within an NTP. The stepped-wedge design met overlapping needs of local TB programmers and researchers to adequately evaluate the large-scale roll out of a new control program in a TB endemic setting. Multiple planning meetings were required to develop the necessary networks and in order to understand the operations, needs and goals of the NTP staff and researchers collaborating on this project. The advantages and challenges of using this study design in practice and within existing routine TB programs in a middle-income country context are discussed. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02174380. Registered 24 Jun 2014.
Jesús L. Chirinos
Full Text Available To identify the differences and similarities in sexual and contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among Latino male adolescent students living in California and Lima. Self-administered, anonymous surveys were completed by Latino male students aged 12-19 participating in California, and by male adolescent students in four high schools in Lima. Both surveys contained similar questions allowing for comparisons regarding sexual activity and contraceptive behavior. The mean age of male students were 16 and 15 years, respectively. More California males reported having engaged in sexual intercourse (69% vs 43%. The sexual debut was 13 years in both samples. More students in California were aware of their risk of pregnancy at first sexual intercourse than in Lima (82% vs 50%. One-third of the California males reported communicating with their partner about sex and contraception to be "easy" as compared to 53% of males in Lima. More students in California reported knowing a place to obtain contraceptives if they need them (85% vs 63%, having ever gotten someone pregnant (29% vs 7%, and having fathered a child (67% vs 16%.
Chirinos Jesús L.
Full Text Available To identify the differences and similarities in sexual and contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among Latino male adolescent students living in California and Lima. Self-administered, anonymous surveys were completed by Latino male students aged 12-19 participating in California, and by male adolescent students in four high schools in Lima. Both surveys contained similar questions allowing for comparisons regarding sexual activity and contraceptive behavior. The mean age of male students were 16 and 15 years, respectively. More California males reported having engaged in sexual intercourse (69% vs 43%. The sexual debut was 13 years in both samples. More students in California were aware of their risk of pregnancy at first sexual intercourse than in Lima (82% vs 50%. One-third of the California males reported communicating with their partner about sex and contraception to be "easy" as compared to 53% of males in Lima. More students in California reported knowing a place to obtain contraceptives if they need them (85% vs 63%, having ever gotten someone pregnant (29% vs 7%, and having fathered a child (67% vs 16%.
Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Konda, Kelika A; Salvatierra, H Javier; Segura, Eddy R; Hall, Eric R; Montano, Silvia M; Coates, Thomas J; Klausner, Jeff D; Caceres, Carlos F; Clark, Jesse L
Further research is necessary to understand the factors contributing to the high prevalence of HIV/STIs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru. We compared HIV/STI prevalence and risk factors between two non-probability samples of MSM, one passively enrolled from an STI clinic and the other actively enrolled from community venues surrounding the clinic in Lima, Peru. A total of 560 self-identified MSM were enrolled between May-December, 2007. 438 subjects enrolled from a municipal STI clinic and 122 subjects enrolled during community outreach visits. All participants underwent screening for HIV, syphilis, HSV-2, gonorrhoea, and chlamydia and completed a survey assessing their history of HIV/STIs, prior HIV testing, and sexual behavior. HIV prevalence was significantly higher among MSM enrolled from the clinic, with previously undiagnosed HIV identified in 9.1% compared with 2.6% of community participants. 15.4 % of all MSM screened were infected with ≥ 1 curable STI, 7.4% with early syphilis (RPR ≥ 1:16) and 5.5% with urethral gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia. No significant differences between populations were reported in prevalence of STIs, number of male sex partners, history of unprotected anal intercourse, or alcohol and/or drug use prior to sex. Exchange of sex for money or goods was reported by 33.5% of MSM enrolled from the clinic and 21.2% of MSM from the community (p = 0.01). Our data demonstrate that the prevalence of HIV and STIs, including syphilis, gonorrhoea, and chlamydia are extremely high among MSM enrolled from both clinic and community venues in urban Peru. New strategies are needed to address differences in HIV/STI epidemiology between clinic- and community-enrolled samples of MSM.
Iván O Espinoza; Theresa J Ochoa; Susan Mosquito; Francesca Barletta; Roger Hernández; María del Pilar Medina; María Luisa Stiglich; Claudia Ugarte; Daniel Guillén
Objetivos. Determinar la frecuencia y las características clínicas de las infecciones del sistema nervioso central por enterovirus en niños atendidos en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia de Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo y descriptivo desde abril 2008 hasta marzo 2010. Se enrolaron pacientes de un mes a 14 años con diagnóstico clínico de encefalitis o meningitis asépticas. Se investigó la presencia de enterovirus, virus herpes simple 1 (VHS-1), virus h...
Clark, Jesse L; Segura, Eddy R; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Reisner, Sari L; Peinado, Jesus; Salvatierra, Hector J; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R
We assessed the potential impact of Internet partner notification among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Peru recently diagnosed as having sexually transmitted disease. Use of Internet partner notification was anticipated for 55.9% of recent partners, including 43.0% of partners not currently expected to be notified, a 20.6% increase in anticipated notification outcomes.
Full Text Available Background/Aims: Dementia and depression are different clinical conditions, but share common features, and can be indistinguishable in the initial disease stages. We aimed to establish whether the Peruvian version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-Peru can distinguish between the cognitive profile in patients with incipient dementia and that in patients with depression. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study to assess the performance on the ACE-Peru of 193 elderly subjects (102 with dementia, 21 with depression, and 70 healthy controls. Depending on the diagnosis, there were two groups of cognitive impairment (CI - the primary neurodegenerative (PN-CI subtype and the secondary to depression (SD-CI subtype - as well as a non-CI group. The area under the curve (AUC of the receiver-operating characteristic curve was determined to compare the diagnostic performance, using the diagnosis of CI as the gold standard. Results: In our sample of elderly subjects aged 59-82 years with at least 7 years of education, the ACE-Peru showed a significantly better performance than the MMSE (AUC = 0.997 vs. AUC = 0.887; p Conclusions: The ACE-Peru is able to distinguish between the cognitive profile in patients with incipient dementia and that in patients with depression.
Clark, Jesse L; Segura, Eddy R; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Reisner, Sari L; Peinado, Jesus; Salvatierra, Hector J; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R
We assessed the potential impact of internet partner notification (PN) among MSM and transgender women in Peru recently diagnosed with STD. Use of internet PN was anticipated for 55.9% of recent partners, including 43.0% of partners not currently expected to be notified, a 20.6% increase in anticipated notification outcomes. PMID:24326581
The risk of stable partnerships: associations between partnership characteristics and unprotected anal intercourse among men who have sex with men and transgender women recently diagnosed with HIV and/or STI in Lima, Peru.
Mary C Cambou
Full Text Available Partnership type is an important factor associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI and subsequent risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI. We examined the association of partnership type with UAI among men who have sex with men (MSM and male-to-female transgender women (TGW in Lima, Peru, recently diagnosed with HIV and/or STI.We report data from a cross-sectional analysis of MSM and TGW recently diagnosed with HIV and/or STI in Lima, Peru between 2011 and 2012. We surveyed participants regarding UAI with up to their three most recent sexual partners according to partner type. Multivariable Generalized Estimate Equating (GEE models with Poisson distribution were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR for UAI according to partner type.Among 339 MSM and TGW recently diagnosed with HIV and/or STI (mean age: 30.6 years, SD 9.0, 65.5% self-identified as homosexual/gay, 16.0% as bisexual, 15.2% as male-to-female transgender, and 3.3% as heterosexual. Participants provided information on 893 recent male or TGW partners with whom they had engaged in insertive or receptive anal intercourse: 28.9% stable partners, 56.4% non-stable/non-transactional partners (i.e. casual or anonymous, and 14.7% transactional partners (i.e. transactional sex client or sex worker. Unprotected anal intercourse was reported with 41.3% of all partners. In multivariable analysis, factors associated with UAI included partnership type (non-stable/non-transactional partner APR 0.73, [95% CI 0.59-0.91], transactional partner APR 0.53 [0.36-0.78], p10 encounters APR 1.43 [1.06-1.92], p10 sexual encounters, suggesting UAI is more prevalent in partnerships with a greater degree of interpersonal commitment. Further research assessing partner-level factors and behavior is critical for improving HIV and/or STI prevention efforts among Peruvian MSM and TGW.
The risk of stable partnerships: associations between partnership characteristics and unprotected anal intercourse among men who have sex with men and transgender women recently diagnosed with HIV and/or STI in Lima, Peru.
Cambou, Mary C; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Segura, Eddy R; Salvatierra, H Javier; Lama, Javier R; Sanchez, Jorge; Clark, Jesse L
Partnership type is an important factor associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and subsequent risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI). We examined the association of partnership type with UAI among men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender women (TGW) in Lima, Peru, recently diagnosed with HIV and/or STI. We report data from a cross-sectional analysis of MSM and TGW recently diagnosed with HIV and/or STI in Lima, Peru between 2011 and 2012. We surveyed participants regarding UAI with up to their three most recent sexual partners according to partner type. Multivariable Generalized Estimate Equating (GEE) models with Poisson distribution were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for UAI according to partner type. Among 339 MSM and TGW recently diagnosed with HIV and/or STI (mean age: 30.6 years, SD 9.0), 65.5% self-identified as homosexual/gay, 16.0% as bisexual, 15.2% as male-to-female transgender, and 3.3% as heterosexual. Participants provided information on 893 recent male or TGW partners with whom they had engaged in insertive or receptive anal intercourse: 28.9% stable partners, 56.4% non-stable/non-transactional partners (i.e. casual or anonymous), and 14.7% transactional partners (i.e. transactional sex client or sex worker). Unprotected anal intercourse was reported with 41.3% of all partners. In multivariable analysis, factors associated with UAI included partnership type (non-stable/non-transactional partner APR 0.73, [95% CI 0.59-0.91], transactional partner APR 0.53 [0.36-0.78], p10 encounters APR 1.43 [1.06-1.92], p10 sexual encounters, suggesting UAI is more prevalent in partnerships with a greater degree of interpersonal commitment. Further research assessing partner-level factors and behavior is critical for improving HIV and/or STI prevention efforts among Peruvian MSM and TGW.
The Risk of Stable Partnerships: Associations between Partnership Characteristics and Unprotected Anal Intercourse among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women Recently Diagnosed with HIV and/or STI in Lima, Peru
Cambou, Mary C.; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G.; Segura, Eddy R.; Salvatierra, H. Javier; Lama, Javier R.; Sanchez, Jorge; Clark, Jesse L.
Background Partnership type is an important factor associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and subsequent risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI). We examined the association of partnership type with UAI among men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender women (TGW) in Lima, Peru, recently diagnosed with HIV and/or STI. Methods We report data from a cross-sectional analysis of MSM and TGW recently diagnosed with HIV and/or STI in Lima, Peru between 2011 and 2012. We surveyed participants regarding UAI with up to their three most recent sexual partners according to partner type. Multivariable Generalized Estimate Equating (GEE) models with Poisson distribution were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for UAI according to partner type. Results Among 339 MSM and TGW recently diagnosed with HIV and/or STI (mean age: 30.6 years, SD 9.0), 65.5% self-identified as homosexual/gay, 16.0% as bisexual, 15.2% as male-to-female transgender, and 3.3% as heterosexual. Participants provided information on 893 recent male or TGW partners with whom they had engaged in insertive or receptive anal intercourse: 28.9% stable partners, 56.4% non-stable/non-transactional partners (i.e. casual or anonymous), and 14.7% transactional partners (i.e. transactional sex client or sex worker). Unprotected anal intercourse was reported with 41.3% of all partners. In multivariable analysis, factors associated with UAI included partnership type (non-stable/non-transactional partner APR 0.73, [95% CI 0.59–0.91], transactional partner APR 0.53 [0.36–0.78], psexual encounters with the partner (>10 encounters APR 1.43 [1.06–1.92], p10 sexual encounters, suggesting UAI is more prevalent in partnerships with a greater degree of interpersonal commitment. Further research assessing partner-level factors and behavior is critical for improving HIV and/or STI prevention efforts among Peruvian MSM and TGW. PMID:25029514
Chow, Jeremy Y; Konda, Kelika A; Calvo, Gino M; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Cáceres, Carlos F
Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Peru bear a disproportionate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In a context of quickly expanding communication technology, increasing numbers of MSM and TW are using social media applications to seek sex partners. Understanding social media users and their sex partnering practices is needed to update HIV and STI prevention programming. In Lima, Peru, 312 MSM and 89 TW from 2 STI clinics underwent HIV and STI testing and participated in a survey of demographics, behaviors, sexual health, and social media practices. χ, t tests, and Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare those with and without recent social media sex partners. Men who have sex with men with social media sex partners were younger, more educated, and more likely to identify as gay. They were significantly more likely to report greater numbers of sex partners, including anonymous sex partners; sex in higher-risk venues, orgies, and have rectal Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Transgender women with social media sex partners were also younger, more likely to participate in sex work, and have a lower rate of rapid plasma reagin positivity or history of syphilis. Participants reported using several social media sites including sexual hook-up applications, websites for gay men, pornographic websites, and chat sites, but the most common was Facebook. Prevention strategies targeting Peruvian MSM and TW who use social media are needed to address higher-risk sexual behavior and the high burden of STIs.
Velásquez Rodríguez, Norma Constanza; Berloffa, Gabriella
En la presente investigación pretendemos analizar y estimar las principales determinantes del porque la fuerza de trabajo distrital busca insertarse al Mercado Laboral en otros distritos diferentes al lugar de residencia, indicando las decisiones, y los beneficios que esta decisión causa. Para este fin, se han usado como base los datos la Encuesta de Hogares Especializada en Niveles de Empleo-ENAHO, que para el caso de los distritos la llamaremos Encuesta Local de Hogares Especializada en Niv...
Pons, María J.; Barcelona Centre fot International Health Researh (CRESIB, Hospital Clinic-Universitat de Barcelona). Barcelona, España. Bióloga, magister en biomedicina.; Mosquito, Susan; Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. bióloga, magister en Microbiología.; Ochoa, Theresa J.; Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. University of Texas School of Public Health. Houston, EE.UU. médico, pediatra infectólogo.; Vargas, Martha; Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic. Barcelona, España. biólogo, posdoctorado en biología.; Molina, Margarita; Instituto de Investigación Nutricional. Lima, Perú. microbióloga.; Lluque, Angela; Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. bióloga, magister en Microbiología.; Gil, Ana I.; Instituto de Investigación Nutricional. Lima, Perú. microbióloga.; Ecker, Lucie; Instituto de Investigación Nutricional. Lima, Perú. médico epidemiólogo.; Barletta, Francesca; Instituto de Medicina Tropical, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. bióloga molecular.; Lanata, Claudio F; Instituto de Investigación Nutricional. Lima, Perú. Escuela de Medicina, Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas. Lima, Perú. Médico epidemiólogo.; Del Valle, Luis J.; Departament d’Enginyeria Química, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Barcelona, España. biólogo, posdoctorado en biología.; Ruiz, Joaquim; Barcelona Centre fot International Health Researh (CRESIB, Hospital Clinic-Universitat de Barcelona). Barcelona, España. CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP). Barcelona, España biólogo, posdoctorado en biología.
The main aim of this study was to establish the resistance levels to antimicrobial agents, in 222 non-pathogenic E. Coli strains of fecal origin in Peru. The proportion of resistance found to the evaluated antimicrobials was ampicillin (62.6%), cotrimoxazole (48,6%), tetracycline (43,0%) and chloramphenicol (15,8%). We emphasize the high resistance levels found for quinolones: 32% for nalidixic acid (NAL) and 12% for ciprofloxacin (CIP). These high levels of quinoloneresistance in non-pathoge...
Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue describir los cambios financieros de los días de alta no efectiva desde el año 2001 al 2010, en un hospital general de Lima Metropolitana. Para ello, se obtuvieron los montos totales pagados y exonerados de las cuentas de los pacientes con alta médica no efectivizada, por falta de pago del hospital general. Encontramos que el número de pacientes con alta médica no efectivizada por falta de pago disminuyó del 2001 al 2010 en 77%, los días desde el alta médica hasta que el paciente abandonó el hospital disminuyeron en 80%; las cuentas totales, pagadas y exoneradas, se redujeron en 63, 53 y 68% respectivamente. Asimismo, el porcentaje promedio exonerado a cada paciente con alta médica no efectivizada por falta de pago, en la década estudiada, fue 61,7%. En conclusión, el alta no efectiva incrementa los costos al paciente, teniendo que ser asumido por el hospital al exonerar la cuenta, aunque este gasto disminuyó en el periodo estudiado, esto podría deberse a la implementación de políticas de aseguramiento en salud.Our aim is to describe the financial implications of no effective in patient discharges from 2001-2010 from a general hospital in lima city. For this purpose we analyzed the total amounts, cancellations and exonarations from the patient accounts with a non effective medical discharge because of hospital "debts". We found that the number of patients with a non effective medical discharge decreased 70% from 2001 to 2010, the number of days between the medical discharge until the day the patient left the hospital decreased 80%. The total amounts, cancellations and exonarations decreased 63%, 53% and 68%, respectively. The average amount of exoneration was 61,7%. In conclusion, the non effective medical discharges increase patient debts, which are partially exonerated and assumed by the hospital. Even though it has decreased in the last decade, this could be explained by the implementation of the
Full Text Available Describimos las características clínicas y demográficas en pacientes adultos con espondilitis tuberculosa así como un análisis exploratorio que buscó establecer características que contribuyeron al desarrollo de esta enfermedad, en un hospital de tercer nivel de Lima. Realizamos un estudio tipo serie de casos y describimos 33 casos recolectados entre 1999-2009. 18 pacientes (55% fueron varones, la media de edad fue 31 años (IQ 23 a 51 años y un tiempo de enfermedad de 3 meses (IQ 1 a 8 meses. El principal síntoma fue lumbalgia en 28 (85%. Los segmentos más comprometidos fueron el torácico en 28 (60% casos y lumbar en 13 (28%. Tuberculosis pulmonar se encontró en 14 (42% casos. Veinticuatro (73% recibieron esquema I. La duración de tratamiento fue 10,5 ± 4,2 meses . Las características clínicas, diagnósticas fueron similares a series nacionales previas e internacionales.We describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of adult patients with tuberculous spondylitis as well as an exploratory analysis that seeked to establish patient characteristics that contributed to the development of this disorder at a reference hospital in Lima. This is a case-series descriptive study where data collection from 33 medical records of patients from 1999 to 2009 was done. Eighteen (55% were male. Median age was 31 years (IQR 23 to 51 years. Median time of symptoms was 3 months (IQR 1 to 8 months. The most frequent symptom was back pain in 28 (85%. The most frequently affected areas were the thoracic spine involved in 28 (60% cases and lumbar spine in 13 (28%. Pulmonary tuberculosis was present in fourteen (42% cases. Twenty four (73% patients received first line treatment. Treatment duration was 10.5 ± 4.2 months. Clinical and diagnostic characteristics were similar to previous Peruvian case reports and current literature.
Luján Roca DA
Full Text Available INFECTION - LIMA, PERU Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common infections in clinical practice. Gram negative bacteria as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia spp. and Acinetobacter spp. can cause UTI. Objective: To study antibiotic resistance in K. pneumoniae, Serratia spp. and Acinetobacter spp. strains isolated from UTI Material and methods: Urine cultures were collected from January 2003 to December 2003. Identification of isolated bacteria included biochemical characteristics. Bauer-Kirby disc diffusion test was performed. Results: A total of 106 strains were evaluated (41 of K. pneumoniae, 28 of Serratia spp. and 37 of Acinetobacter spp.. Among K. pneumoniae isolates resistance to ampicillin (83% was remarkable. The Serratia spp. isolates displayed a high level of resistance to nalidixic acid (79% and gentamicin (75%. In Acinetobacter spp. isolates high resistance rates were observed against amikacin (81%, gentamicin (67% and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole(71%. Conclusions: In general, antibiotic resistance patterns were high. Acinetobacter spp. showed elevated resistance rates (>50% against antibiotics included.
Kojima, Noah; Park, Hayoung; Konda, Kelika A; Joseph Davey, Dvora L; Bristow, Claire C; Brown, Brandon; Leon, Segundo R; Vargas, Silver K; Calvo, Gino M; Caceres, Carlos F; Klausner, Jeffrey D
Men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender women (transwomen) are disproportionately at risk of syphilis infection in Peru. From 2013 to 2014, MSM and transwomen seeking human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and/or treatment were recruited into a 2-year observational cohort study to determine predictors of recently acquired syphilis infection (defined as a rapid plasma reagin [RPR] titer ≥1:16 and a reactive treponemal antibody test) in Lima, Peru. At baseline, interviewers collected sociodemographic, behavioral, and medical characteristics from participants. All cohort participants were tested for syphilis, HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infection. Using cross-sectional analyses, bivariate and multivariate models were used to determine factors associated with recently acquired syphilis infection and calculate adjusted prevalence ratios. We recruited 401 participants, 312 MSM and 89 transwomen, with median ages of 29.0 and 32.5 years old (interquartile ranges: 23.3, 37.4 and 27.2, 39.5, respectively). The prevalence of recently acquired syphilis infection at baseline was 16.8% for MSM and 6.7% for transwomen. Among MSM and transwomen, 30.1 and 33.7% were infected with HIV, 18.6 and 24.7% were infected with CT, and 14.2 and 19.1% were infected with NG, respectively. Co-infection rates among MSM with recently acquired syphilis infection included: 44.2% with HIV, 40.4% with CT (32.7% with anal CT and 7.7% with pharyngeal CT), and 19.2% with NG (11.5% with anal NG and 7.7% with pharyngeal NG). Co-infection rates among transwomen with recently acquired syphilis infection included: 66.7% with HIV, 0% with CT, and 16.7% with anal NG. In multivariate analysis among the entire cohort, recently acquired syphilis infection was independently associated with younger age (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93-0.99), receptive role
Juan Carlos Jordán Arizmendi
Full Text Available I studied activity patterns, microhabitat use and thermal ecology of a small-wild population of the Loma’s lizard, Microlophus tigris in Parque Las Leyendas Zoo, from April to October of 2006. Microlophus tigris individuals were active in a variety of microhabitats, from bushes and vegetation debris to prehispanic bricks (adobes and litter, during the hottest hour of the day. Mean body temperature (29,4 ºC was similar to body temperature observed in a natural population from Lomas de Lachay, although in Parque de Las Leyendas, substrate temperature was higher than air temperature, probably related to thermal properties of materials used as microhabitats and to seasonal differences. We encouraged the Zoo to takes conservation measures to protect this endangered wild population of lizard in Lima city.
Kegeles, Susan; Salazar, Ximena; Konda, Kelika; Silva-Santiesteban, Alfonso; Cáceres, Carlos
We used qualitative, quantitative and observational methods to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of Proyecto Orgullo (PO), a pilot community mobilisation intervention to decrease sexual risk, promote health-seeking behaviours, and facilitate personal and community empowerment among gay men (GM) and transgender women (TW) in Peru. PO was adapted from Mpowerment and Hermanos de Luna y Sol, two US interventions. PO included six interrelated core elements: 1) Self-reflection Small Group sessions; 2) Supporting peers in HIV prevention; 3) Mobilisation Activities addressing HIV, GM/TW issues, and community empowerment; 4) A Core Group (staff + GM/TW volunteers) designing/implementing those activities; 5) A Project Space; 6) Publicity. PO included specific components for TW, but promoted that GM/TW, who historically have not worked well together, collaborate for a common goal. We found that PO was embraced by GM/TW. PO positively influenced GM/TW's HIV prevention beliefs, self-efficacy, and behaviours; provided social support and created community; facilitated individual and community empowerment; achieved that GM/TW collaborate; and established a functional Community Centre for socializing/conducting mobilisation activities. Community mobilisation strategies, lacking from HIV prevention efforts in Peru but considered key to HIV prevention, can help improve health-seeking behaviours and consolidate social norms supporting preventive behaviours among GM/TW. PMID:27373578
Maiorana, Andres; Kegeles, Susan; Salazar, Ximena; Konda, Kelika; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Cáceres, Carlos
We used qualitative, quantitative, and observational methods to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of Proyecto Orgullo (PO), a pilot community mobilisation intervention to decrease sexual risk, promote health-seeking behaviours, and facilitate personal and community empowerment among gay men (GM) and transgender women (TW) in Peru. PO was adapted from Mpowerment and Hermanos de Luna y Sol, two US interventions. PO included six interrelated core elements: (1) Self-reflection Small Group sessions; (2) Supporting peers in HIV prevention; (3) Mobilisation Activities addressing HIV, GM/TW issues, and community empowerment; (4) A Core Group (staff + GM/TW volunteers) designing/implementing those activities; (5) A Project Space; (6) Publicity. PO included specific components for TW, but promoted that GM/TW, who historically have not worked well together, collaborate for a common goal. We found that PO was embraced by GM/TW. PO positively influenced GM/TW's HIV prevention beliefs, self-efficacy, and behaviours; provided social support and created community; facilitated individual and community empowerment; achieved that GM/TW collaborate; and established a functional Community Centre for socialising/conducting mobilisation activities. Community mobilisation strategies, lacking from HIV prevention efforts in Peru but considered key to HIV prevention, can help improve health-seeking behaviours and consolidate social norms supporting preventive behaviours among GM/TW.
Background Syphilis is an important sexually transmitted infection (STI) with serious public health consequences. Among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Lima, the prevalence and incidence are extraordinarily high. Current syndromic approaches, however, fail to identify asymptomatic cases, and in settings where large proportions of individuals test positive again after treatment, it is frequently difficult to distinguish treatment failure from re-infection. Thus, new approaches are needed to improve treatment strategies and public health control efforts. Methods/Design Study participants will undergo baseline testing for syphilis infection along with a behavioral survey covering demographics, sexual behavior, drug and alcohol abuse and health-care seeking behavior. The cohort will be followed for 18 months at three-month intervals. Blood and earlobe scrapings will also be collected for T. pallidum DNA testing, to create molecular markers for subtyping. We will also perform cytokine testing on collected samples in order to create host immunologic profiles associated with recurrence, re-infection, treatment failure and success. Discussion Advances in social epidemiology, molecular typing and characterization of host immune responses will offer promise in developing new understandings of syphilis management. We will share our findings with the Peruvian Ministry of Health and other public health organizations, to identify new approaches of case detection and successful treatment. PMID:24016185
Braun, Hannan M; Segura, Eddy R; Lake, Jordan E; Gandhi, Monica; Rios, Jessica; Villaran, Manuel V; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier R; Clark, Jesse L
A detailed understanding of intentions and practices related to partner notification (PN) following STI diagnosis can improve control strategies. We assessed participant-level and partner-level factors guiding notification behaviour among men who have sex with men and/or with transgender women (MSM-TW) in Lima, Peru, including discordances between anticipated and actual notification. Men newly diagnosed with gonorrhoea, chlamydia and/or syphilis between 2012 and 2014 reported recent partners' characteristics, anticipated PN practices, and actual PN outcomes following diagnosis. Generalised estimating equation Poisson regression analyses assessed factors guiding PN outcomes. Participants (n=150) predominantly identified as homosexual (70%) and moderno (versatile sexual role, 55%); 55% of partners (n=402) were casual. Among all sexual partners, 35% were notified of the STI diagnosis, though only 51% of predicted PN occurred and 26% of actual notifications were unanticipated. 47% of participants notified no partners, while 24% notified all partners. PN was more common with stable versus casual (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR), 95% CI: 0.53, 0.39 to 0.73) or commercial (aPR, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.12 to 1.21) partners, and among participants who perceived PN as normative among their peers (aPR, 95% CI: 1.96, 1.37 to 2.82). A trend towards greater notification following condom-protected intercourse was observed (aPR, 95% CI: 1.33, 0.98 to 1.81). PN frequency did not differ by type of STI diagnosed.Anticipated notification predicted actual notification (aPR, 95% CI: 1.67, 1.19 to 2.33) only imperfectly: 81 (54%) participants' PN practices did not match their anticipated behaviour. Successful notification despite anticipated silence (40 participants, 63 partners) was associated with stable partnerships and a normative perception of PN. Non-notification despite intention (43 participants, 73 partners) frequently occurred among participants reporting exclusively oral sex
Billings, Joshua D; Joseph Davey, Dvora L; Konda, Kelika A; Bristow, Claire C; Chow, Jeremy; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Cáceres, Carlos F
The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender women in Lima, Peru.We analyzed characteristics of 378 MSM and transgender women recruited from 2 sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Lima, Peru. Descriptive analyses compared: (A) HIV-uninfected, (B) previously undiagnosed HIV-infected, and (C) previously diagnosed HIV-infected participants. Multivariable logistic regression models identified: (1) correlates of previously undiagnosed HIV-infection among participants thought to be HIV-uninfected (B vs A); and (2) correlates of previously undiagnosed HIV-infection among HIV-infected participants (B vs C). Subanalysis identified correlates of frequent HIV testing among participants thought to be HIV-uninfected.Among participants, 31.0% were HIV-infected; of those, 35.0% were previously undiagnosed. Among participants thought to be HIV-uninfected (model 1), recent condomless receptive anal intercourse and last HIV test being over 1-year ago (compared to within the last 6-months) were associated with increased odds of being previously undiagnosed HIV-infected (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.43, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 1.10-5.36; aOR = 2.87, 95%CI = 1.10-7.53, respectively). Among HIV-infected participants (model 2), recent condomless receptive anal intercourse was again associated with previously undiagnosed HIV-infection (aOR = 2.54, 95%CI = 1.04-6.23). Achieving post-secondary education and prior syphilis infection were associated with lower odds of having previously undiagnosed HIV-infection (aOR = 0.35, 95%CI = 0.15-0.81; aOR = 0.32, 95%CI = 0.14-0.75, respectively).Reporting semiannual testing was associated with higher educational attainment, identifying as a transgender woman, or reporting a history of syphilis (aOR = 1.94, 95%CI = 1.11-3.37; aOR = 2.40, 95
[Prevalence of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in school students, university students, and women from community-based organizations in the districts of Lima, Callao, la Libertad and Arequipa, Peru 2011].
Núñez-Robles, Eloísa; Huapaya-Pizarro, Cleopatra; Torres-Lao, Rogger; Esquivel-León, Silvia; Suarez-Moreno, Víctor; Yasuda-Espinoza, Myriam; Sanjinés-López, Giovanna
To determine the prevalence of arterial hypertension, and cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in school students, college students and women from community-based organizations (CBO) in four districts in Peru. Cross-sectional study conducted in 2011 in the districts of Lima, Callao, La Libertad and Arequipa with school students, university students and women from CBOs. A survey, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure measurements and fasting blood sampling were conducted to determine glucose and lipid levels. Thus, prevalence of overweight, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, suspected diabetes, and other variables, were calculated. The main outcome variable was prevalence of overweight. 1,127 people were included: 283 (25.1%) school students, 431 (38.3%) university students, and 413 women (36.6%) from CBOs. Non-response rates were 3%, 0% and 8%, respectively. The average ages in the three groups were 14.3 ± 0.9; 19.6 ± 2.8; and 46.1 ± 15.3 years, respectively. Prevalence of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25) was 11.3%, 20.9%, and 73.4%; hypertension was 0.7%; 1.2%, and 12.8%; high cholesterol (≥ 200 mg/dL) was 5.2%, 11.5%, and 50.1%; and suspected diabetes was 1.4%; 1.0%, and 20.3% respectively in each group of school students, university students and women from CBOs. The prevalence of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors generally increased in older age groups. In school and university aged groups, the most frequent problems were overweight and obesity, particularly abdominal obesity.
Bayona, Erik; Menacho, Luis; Segura, Eddy R; Mburu, Gitau; Roman, Fernando; Tristan, Consuelo; Bromley, Elizabeth; Cabello, Robinson
Mobile phone technology (mHealth) is a promising tool that has been used to improve HIV care in high-risk populations worldwide. Understanding patient perspectives of newly diagnosed men who have sex with men (MSM) in Lima, Peru during linkage and engagement in the HIV care continuum can help close the gaps in care following initial HIV diagnosis and ensure retention in continuous care. From June 2015 to March 2016, as part of a randomized controlled trial, 40 MSM participants were linked to care with an mHealth intervention within 3 months of HIV diagnosis at Via Libre clinic. For 12 weeks, participants agreed to receive weekly predetermined, standardized short message service (SMS), WhatsApp©, and/or Facebook© messages from an assigned HIV counselor. Text messaging was bi-directional, meaning participants could also send messages to their counselor at any time. In this qualitative study, we coded and thematically analyzed 947 SMS, 918 WhatsApp, and 2,694 Facebook bi-directional messages. Mean age of participants was 29.8 years (20-50); with 70 percent reporting some post-high school education and 73 percent self-identifying as homosexual. We identified six recurring themes that emerged from the data: (a) mental health symptoms; (b) coping behaviors; (c) interpersonal support; (d) physical symptoms; (e) HIV knowledge; and (f) care coordination. Participants sent text messages describing depressive symptoms and seeking mental health services during this initial stage of HIV care. For newly diagnosed MSM entering the HIV care continuum, a bi-directional mHealth intervention provided support to facilitate care while eliciting deeply personal mental and emotional states. Future interventions could benefit from using mHealth interventions as ancillary support for clinicians.
Las relaciones coitales y la percepción de riesgo de adquirir ETS/SIDA en adultos jóvenes varones de Lima, Perú Sexual relations and the perception of risk of acquiring STD/AIDS among young adult men in Lima, Peru
Jesús L. Chirinos
Full Text Available Para identificar la corresponsabilidad de los varones en el proceso de negociación de protección dual, según género en la primera y última relación sexual, y su percepción de riesgo de ETS/SIDA, se encuestó a 750 varones de 19-29 años en 2.250 viviendas de Lima Metropolitana, Perú, 2001, seleccionados aleatoriamente. La mayoría señaló principalmente el condón como una forma para evitar el embarazo (95%. La primera relación coital fue con la amiga, su pareja estable o una conocida. Casi la mitad de ellos hizo algo para cuidarse, principalmente usó condón para evitar un embarazo, pero su uso consistente y correcto son bajos. El 39,5% tuvo su última relación coital con su pareja estable con quien no vive, con amiga o "conocida", la esposa o conviviente. El diálogo sobre protegerse se incrementa entre la primera y la última relación coital. Su percepción del riesgo de adquirir ETS/SIDA es baja y se protegen sólo con parejas "desconocidas".The purpose of this study was to identify men's co-responsibility in the negotiation process of dual protection, according gender, in their first and most recent sexual relationships, and their perception of the risk of STD/AIDS. We surveyed 750 males from 19 to 29 years of age in 2,250 randomly selected households in metropolitan Lima, Peru. The majority mentioned condoms as a contraceptive technique (95%. Their first sexual relationships occurred with a female friend, with a stable partner, or with a known woman. Almost half used some type of protection, principally condoms in order to avoid pregnancy, but their consistent and correct use was low. For 39.5%, the most recent sexual relationship was with a stable partner, a female friend or "known" woman, a wife, or a female co-resident. Dialogue about protection increased between the first and the most recent sexual relationships. The perception of risk of acquiring STD/AIDS was low, and they tended to use protection only with an "unknown
Rapid diagnosis and identification by PCR of Yersinia ruckeri isolated of Oncorhynchus mykiss from Canta, Lima, Peru Diagnóstico e identificación rápidos por PCR de Yersinia ruckeri aislada de Oncorhynchus mykiss procedentes de Canta, Lima, Perú
Full Text Available Twenty individuals of rainbow trout were sampled (fry and juveniles from Acochinchan Fishfarm (Canta, Lima - Peru, and analyzed with the Polimerase Chain Reaction test (PCR in order to achieve a rapid identification of Yersinia ruckeri, which is the pathogen agent that causes the enteric red mouth disease (ERM and produces high rates of mortality. Nine fish samples were asymptomatic, while 11 of them showed signs of ERM. In addition, 22 bacterial strains were isolated from the liver, spleen and kidney. PCR and specific primers (16S rRNA, were used to amplified a specific 575 bp DNA fragment of Yersinia ruckeri. Nineteen strains were identified as Yersinia ruckeri by PCR in symptomatic and asymptomatic fishes. It was established a diagnosis time of 26 hours, compared with the 2 or 3 days that would take the diagnosis using biochemical tests.Se muestrearon 20 ejemplares (alevines y juveniles de trucha arco iris cultivados en la piscifactoría Acochinchán (Canta, Lima, Perú, y se les aplico la técnica de la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR con la finalidad de obtener una identificación rápida del agente patógeno Yersinia ruckeri que produce la enfermedad entérica de la boca roja (ERM y genera elevadas tasas de mortalidad. Nueve ejemplares fueron asintomáticos mientras que 11 presentaron signos de ERM. Se aislaron 22 cepas bacterianas del hígado, bazo y riñón. Se empleó la técnica de la PCR para la amplificación y cebadores específicos (ARNr 16S, que permitieron amplificar un fragmento de ADN de 575 pb de Yersinia ruckeri. Diecinueve cepas fueron identificadas como Yersinia ruckeri mediante la PCR, tanto en peces sintomáticos como asintomáticos. Se estableció un tiempo de diagnóstico de 26 horas, en comparación con los 2 ó 3 días que duraría el diagnóstico empleando las pruebas bioquímicas.
The cholera epidemic in Peru brought to light the miserable state of local water and sanitation conditions. The author discusses the relationship between waterbone diseases and water and sewerage conditions in Peruvian peri-urban areas, or pueblos jovenes. These diseases are associated with poor living conditions. In 1989, only 52 percent of the population had access to piped water, and only 39 percent to sewerage. About 52 percent of schools lack light, water, and sewerage. In Lima, 2 millio...
Aleman, A.M. (Amoco Production Company, Houston, TX (United States))
An arc-trench system has been active in the Central Andes since at least since Late Triassic. This Mesozoic margin was characterized by subduction-erosion processes, PreMesozoic metamorphic outer basement high, pervasive extension, tectonic inversion, sporadic igneous activity and segmentation of the arc. Episodic variations in the tectonic evolution of the associated basins were controlled by the variable angle of subduction, age of the subducted plate, rate and angle of convergence, and the relative motion of the Farallon and South America Plates. The Canete Basin is an elongate frontal arc basin, subparallel to the arc, which documents the early evolution of the Andean Orogeny. In the Canete Basin, the oldest arc volcanism is documented by the interbedded tuffs, lava flows and tuffaceous marine shales of the Late Jurassic Puente Piedra Group which was deposited along a series of isolated and elongated troughs that formed adjacent to the arc. During Late Berriasian the arc subsided and the lithofacies changed from arc to continental derived lithologies. The shallow marine, quartz rich Morro Solar Group was derived from the uplifted metamorphic basement high in the west, as the result of ensialic extension. Locally, volcanic quiescence was interrupted by deposition of the volcaniclastic rich Pucusana Formation. The Late Hauterivian to Aptian Lima Group consists of lime mudstones, shales and subordinated gypsum and bioclastic limestones with volcaniclastic and lava flow facies of the Chilca Group. Stratigraphic relationship rapid changes in thickness and facies of this unit document the development of an incipient arc and the persistence of ensialic extension prior to the maximum paroxysm of volcanic activity of the overlying Albian to Cenomanian Chillon Group. Interbedded volcaniclastic sandstones, lava flows, hyaloclastic breccias and the tuffaceous shales of the Chillon Group were coeval with the early phases of emplacement of the Coastal Batholith (CB).
Casavilca, Sandro; Lama, Anny; Guerrero, Melvy; Essary, Lydia R; Mantilla, Raúl; Cano, Luis; Barrionuevo, Carlos
In order to describe the clinical-pathological characteristics of the cases of Eccrine Porocarcinoma (EP) found in the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas (INEN), a cross-sectional study was carried out, including all EP cases recorded between 1998 and 2009. A revision of the clinical-pathological records indentified and a new reading of the pathology slides of the cases found were performed. 19 EP cases were found, the median age of which was 64 years (range: 37-98). EP was primarily found on male patients (57.9%) and was most commonly located on the foot (21.1%), followed by the head, thorax and thigh (15.8%, respectively). In one case, EP was located on the gluteal region, and showed an unusually invasive behavior and rectal involvement. We conclude that EP is a rather uncommon entity in Peru. Its most common location is on the foot and it affects mostly male patients for the most part.
Cutaneous anthrax in Lima, Peru: retrospective analysis of 71 cases, including four with a meningoencephalic complication Ántrax cutáneo en Lima, Perú: análisis retrospectivo de 71 casos, incluyendo cuatro con complicación meningoencefálica
Full Text Available Anthrax is a zoonosis produced by Bacillus anthracis, and as an human infection is endemic in several areas in the world, including Peru. More than 95% of the reported naturally acquired infections are cutaneous, and approximately 5% of them can progress to meningoencephalitis. In this study we review the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the patients with diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax evaluated between 1969 and 2002 at the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia (HNCH and the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt in Lima, Peru. Seventy one patients were included [49/71 (69% of them men], with a mean age of 37 years. The diagnoses were classified as definitive (44% or probable (56%. The most common occupation of the patients was agriculture (39%. The source of infection was found in 63 (88.7% patients. All the patients had ulcerative lesions, with a central necrosis. Most of the patients (65% had several lesions, mainly located in the upper limbs (80%. Four patients (5.6% developed meningoencephalitis, and three of them eventually died. In conclusion, considering its clinical and epidemiological characteristics, cutaneous anthrax must be included in the differential diagnosis of skin ulcers. A patient with clinical suspicion of the disease should receive effective treatment soon, in order to avoid neurological complications which carry a high fatality rate.El ántrax es una zoonosis producida por el Bacillus anthracis y la infección humana es endémica en diversas partes del mundo, incluyendo el Perú. Más del 95% de las infecciones adquiridas naturalmente son cutáneas y aproximadamente 5% de ellas pueden evolucionar para meningoencefalitis. En este estudio revisamos las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de los pacientes con diagnóstico de ántrax cutáneo evaluados entre 1969 y 2002 en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia (HNCH y en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, en Lima, Per
Full Text Available Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN La enfermedad cardiovascular constituye la principal causa de mortalidad a nivel mundial. Cuando se presenta un infarto agudo de miocardio se deben instaurar medidas en prevención secundaria, las cuales pueden disminuir la mortalidad en 50%. Las guías de práctica clínica establecen que un tratamiento médico óptimo se basa en cuatro grupos de fármacos: antiagregantes plaquetarios, estatinas, β-bloqueadores e inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina o antagonistas de los receptores de la angiotensina II. OBJETIVO Determinar la adherencia a las recomendaciones de las guías de práctica clínica basadas en evidencia, sobre prevención secundaria en enfermedad coronaria establecida. MÉTODOS Se realizó un estudio observacional, tipo cohorte retrospectiva, en el Hospital Cayetano Heredia en Lima, Perú. Se incluyeron pacientes con diagnóstico confirmado de síndrome coronario agudo desde el 1 de febrero de 2011 hasta el 28 de febrero de 2013. Los datos que se recolectaron incluyeron anamnesis, examen físico, exámenes auxiliares y terapia médica al alta. Además, las prescripciones médicas fueron seguidas al primer, tercer y sexto mes posterior al alta. Se compararon las prescripciones médicas con las recomendaciones tipo I, nivel de evidencia A, de la guía de práctica clínica de la American Heart Association. RESULTADOS Se estudiaron 143 pacientes. De estos, 54 (37,8% tuvieron infarto de miocardio con ST elevado y 89 (62,2% pacientes tuvieron un infarto de miocardio con ST no elevado o angina inestable. Las cuatro estrategias terapéuticas seleccionadas para la prevención secundaria en enfermedad coronaria fueron indicadas en 40 (28% pacientes al alta y solo en 12,6%, 7% y 3,5% en el primer, tercer y sexto mes de seguimiento, respectivamente. Además, se describió la adherencia del paciente a asistir a la consulta en el servicio de cardiología al primer, tercer y sexto mes, observándose una
This article examines Peruvian-American Marie Arana's second novel "Lima Nights" (2008) in which she represents Amazonian indigenous migrations to Lima, Peru during and after the Shining Path civil war years (1986-2006). As part of a generation of transnational US Latina authors in the post-2000 period, Arana recovers the image of the…
Validación de la prueba de dibujo del reloj - versión de Manos - como prueba de cribado para detectar demencia en una población adulta mayor de Lima, Perú Validation of the clock drawing test - Manos´ version - as a screening test for detection of dementia in older persons of Lima, Peru
as well as computed tomography scanning. Sensitivity and specificity of the PDR-M were calculated as well as the area under the ROC curve. Results. We evaluated 210 individuals, 103 with confirmed diagnosis of dementia and 107 healthy controls with similar age and sex in both groups, but a higher educational level in the control group. Setting a cutoff point of 7, a sensitivity of 99.0% and a specificity of 83.5% were found. When comparing the areas under the ROC curves of the PDR-M and MMSE we found no statistically significant difference. Conclusions. The PDR-M is a brief and reliable instrument for the detection of dementia in the urban population of Lima, Peru.
Niveles de insatisfacción del usuario externo en el Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño de Lima, Perú Levels of dissatisfaction of external users of the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño (National Institute of Child Health in Lima, Peru
Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar los cambios de los niveles de insatisfacción del usuario externo del Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño, Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Estudio observacional basado en un programa para la evaluación de encuestas de usuarios en salud (SEEUS. La población estuvo conformada por todos los acompañantes del usuario externo en consulta ambulatoria, hospitalización y emergencia en los años 2008, 2009 y 2010. Para el cálculo del tamaño muestral se empleó la proporción de usuarios insatisfechos de cada servicio del año anterior, con un nivel de confianza del 95% y un error estimado del 5%. Resultados. Se obtuvo una muestra de 2051 acompañantes, en la cual se constató una tendencia decreciente de los niveles de insatisfacción en consulta ambulatoria, y un aumento de la insatisfacción en la dimensión capacidades médicas en hospitalización y emergencia. Se encontró además, índices de insatisfacción menores de 0,20 en las dimensiones capacidades médicas en consulta ambulatoria. En contraste, los mayores índices de insatisfacción se encontraron en las dimensiones de higiene durante los años 2009 (0,25 y 2010 (0,25, y otros en emergencia durante el 2009 (0,25. Conclusiones. Las dimensiones en las que hubo un incremento en el índice de insatisfacción fueron aspectos tangibles, higiene y otros en hospitalización y emergencia. Por otra parte, la dimensión capacidades médicas en consulta ambulatoria mostró una disminución de los niveles de insatisfacción durante el periodo evaluado.Objectives. To determine the changes in the levels of dissatisfaction of the external users of the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño, in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods. Observational study based on a software to evaluate surveys completed by health care users (Software de Evaluación de Encuestas de Usuarios en Salud - SEEUS. The population consisted of every person accompanying external users to outpatient visits
Prevalencia y factores asociados con síntomas depresivos en estudiantes de ciencias de la salud de una Universidad privada de Lima, Perú 2010 Prevalence and asociated factors WITH depresive symptoms in Health Sciences students from a private university in Lima, Peru 2010
Full Text Available Introducción. Los síntomas depresivos en estudiantes de ciencias de la salud son comunes y podrían ser potencialmente perjudiciales. Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia de síntomas depresivos y sus factores asociados en los estudiantes de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima (Perú, junio 2010. Materiales y métodos. Estudio analítico transversal; se realizó una encuesta previo consentimiento informado a 590/869 estudiantes. Para medir la variable de respuesta (síntomas depresivos se usó la escala de Zung abreviada. Se empleó la regresión logística múltiple para evaluar los factores asociados, considerando un nivel de significancia de p0,05. En el análisis multivariado, se encontró asociación con la inconformidad de su rendimiento académico (OR=2,13; IC95%:1,47-3,08, inconformidad con la situación económica actual (OR=1,93; IC95%:1,24-2,99 y vivir con un familiar externo a la familia nuclear (OR=1,62; IC95%:1,07-2,45. Conclusión. Existe una alta prevalencia de síntomas depresivos en la población estudiada, especialmente en los alumnos de la carrera de medicina, siendo la inconformidad con el rendimiento académico, con su economía y vivir con un familiar externo a la familia nuclear, factores asociados que podrían tomarse en cuenta para trabajar programas preventivos.Introduction. Depressive symptoms in health sciences students are common, these might be potentially detrimental. Objectives. To determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its associated factors in students from the Health Sciences Faculty of the Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas in Lima (Peru, June 2010. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional analytic study; a pre-consented survey was applied to the population 590/869 students. Zung’s abbreviated scale was used to measure depressive symptoms. To evaluate de associated factors, logistic regression was used, p0.05. In the multivariate
Calidad de las tesis de maestría en temas de salud pública: Estudio en una universidad pública de Lima, Perú Quality of Public Health Masters' theses subjects: A study in a public university in Lima, Peru
Hernán A. Sanabria-Rojas
Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad de las tesis de maestría en el campo de la salud pública sustentadas por maestrandos de la unidad de posgrado de una facultad de medicina de Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos: Se revisaron 47 tesis que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión provenientes de maestrías cuyos temas de tesis se relacionaban con la salud pública. Las tesis se obtuvieron de la biblioteca de la facultad de medicina en estudio. Para la evaluación de la calidad de las tesis se estructuró la siguiente escala: excelente, aceptable y no aceptable; para ver la relevancia social también se elaboró una escala según el número de beneficiarios. La investigación se realizó en el segundo semestre del año 2008 y se realizó por dos evaluadores. Resultados: Once (23% de las tesis fueron excelentes, cinco (11% fueron aceptables, y el resto, 31 (66%, no aceptables. Del total de 11 tesis excelentes, cuatro correspondieron a la maestría en epidemiología, y cuatro, a salud reproductiva. De las 31 tesis no aceptables, el mayor porcentaje (23% correspondió a la maestría en gerencia de servicios de salud. Conclusión: Poco más de un tercio de las tesis de maestría relativas a salud pública de la unidad de posgrado de la facultad de medicina en estudio son excelentes o aceptables en cuanto a su calidad metodológica, y sólo una minoría de dichas tesis de maestría son socialmente irrelevantes.Aim: To evaluate the quality of Public Health Masters' theses sustained by master candidates from a School of Medicine in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods: We reviewed 47 theses which met the inclusion criteria. Theses came from masters programs and focused on public health issues. All the theses were obtained from the medical school library. Scale categories for quality evaluation ranged from excellent to acceptable, and unacceptable. Additionally, we used another scale to evaluate social relevance was based on the number of beneficiaries. The
Full Text Available Maîtrisant les aspects techniques et discursifs en vogue dans la haute gastronomie contemporaine, les chefs cuisiniers sont actuellement des personnages centraux de la vie culturelle de la capitale péruvienne. La majorité de ces cuisiniers médiatiques provient de milieux sociaux privilégiés et a eu la possibilité d’effectuer des séjours de formation à l’étranger, en intégrant des écoles hôtelières européennes et nord-américaines. Le retour au Pérou de ces « migrants d’élite » a entraîné, au cours des dix dernières années, une importante transformation de l’offre proposée par certains des grands restaurants de Lima, à savoir la diffusion d’une « cuisine fusion » à base autochtone, fondée sur l’utilisation d’ingrédients identifiés comme « indiens » et valorisés comme illustration de la biodiversité locale. Sur la base d’entretiens avec certains de ces cuisiniers et d’observations répétées dans les restaurants qui proposent ce type de cuisine, l’auteur interroge la façon dont bon nombre d’aliments andins et amazoniens, auparavant écartés de l’alimentation des élites, trouvent un nouveau statut lorsqu’il sont utilisés par ces chefs.Mastering technical and discursive aspects in vogue in contemporary high gastronomy, cook chefs have become important personalities in Lima’s popular culture. The major part of celebrity chefs has privileged social origins, and had the opportunity to achieve training abroad as they integrated European and North-American culinary institutes. The return to Peru of these “elite migrants” has carried, in the last ten years, one of the most important transformations in Limenian gastronomic restaurants: the success of a Peruvian native–based “fusion food”, founded on the utilisation of ingredients identified as “native” and valorised as an illustration of Peruvian biodiversity. On the basis of interviews with some of these cooks and
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Peru AGENCY... Trade Policy Mission to Peru originally scheduled for November 12-13, 2014, in Lima, Peru, to revise the...
... International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Peru AGENCY... Efficiency (RE&EE) Trade Policy Mission to Lima, Peru for November 12- 13, 2014. The mission is designed to... environment conducive to growth in Peru's RE&EE market; (2) introducing U.S. RE&EE exporters to key Peruvian...
Espinoza Quiroz, John Omar
El estudio que presentamos tuvo como objetivo explorar cómo se promueve la participación estudiantil como derecho para el ejercicio de la ciudadanía desde el enfoque del Ministerio de Educación y compararla con la forma cómo se experimenta en una comunidad educativa del distrito de Ventanilla. Para ello revisamos y describimos los documentos oficiales como: lineamientos aplicados a la participación en el ámbito escolar (Plan Nacional de Acción por la Infancia y la Adolescencia ...
Bueno Castro, Leyla; Guerrero Vargas, Janeth; Javier Pedrajas, Rosa; Tam Phun, Elena
Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia del consumo de marihuana en los estudiantes de nivel secundaria de las I.E. estatales de Ventanilla 2014. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, la recolección de datos se llevó acabo en los meses de mayo a septiembre, en una muestra de 4095 estudiantes que se obtuvo mediante el cálculo muestral por afijación proporcional de una población de 13 232 estudiantes de 22 instituciones educativas estatales de los turnos mañan...
Blumen Cohen, S.
The identification of the highly able and the effects of an In-service teacher training workshop are studied with 231 public schools second graders of Lima-Peru. Parameters for the Observation Scale for Parents and the Portfolio Method were elaborated, and the characteristics of the CogAt, CPM, and
... small business development, to manage natural resources, and to keep citizens safe. The Consortium has grown from a handful of institutes in Lima to astrong national network of 48 members, including Peru's most prestigious universities. IDRC and Global Affairs Canada have supported many of their research activities.
Análisis prospectivo de la enseñanza de prevención de consumo de alcohol y salud reproductiva en facultades/escuelas de educación de Lima-Perú. 2003-2004 Análise prospectiva do ensino de prevenção do uso de álcool e saúde reprodutiva nas faculdades/escolas de educação em Pima-Peru. 2003-2004 Prospective analysis of teaching on alcohol use prevention and reproductive health at educational institutions in Lima-Peru. 2003-2004
Elvira Sánchez Díaz
Full Text Available El estudio trata de la enseñanza de contenidos de prevención al uso de alcohol y de salud reproductiva en cuatro facultades/escuelas de educación en Lima-Perú. Participaron 123 personas: autoridades docentes, profesores, alumnos y ex-alumnos. El instrumento de recolección de datos de análisis prospectivo, fue elaborado y validado por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, adaptado para el estudio, se seleccionaron 40 indicadores de Salud reproductiva y 32 para prevención de uso de alcohol, distribuidos en 4 elementos básicos: contexto, estructura, función e integralidad, cada uno de ellos sometidos a tres escenarios cuyas situaciones se definen en un continuo de estabilidad hasta transformación. Considerando esos escenarios, los resultados indican haber cambios moderados de diversos grados en los indicadores (consecuentemente en los dos temas presentes en los 4 elementos, aunque se identifique la tendencia de situación estable, representativa de manutención de perspectivas y acciones tradicionales.O estudo trata do ensino de conteúdos de prevenção ao uso de álcool e de Saúde Reprodutiva em 4 Faculdades/Escolas de Educação em Lima-Peru. Participaram 123 pessoas: autoridades docentes, professores, alunos e ex-alunos. O instrumento de coleta de dados, de análise prospectiva foi elaborado e validado pela Organização Pan-americana da Saúde, adaptado para o estudo, selecionaram-se 40 indicadores de Saúde Reprodutiva e 32 para prevenção de uso de álcool, distribuídos em 4 elementos básicos: contexto, estrutura, função e integralidade, cada um dos quais submetidos a três cenários cujas situações se definem num continuum de estabilidade até transformação. Considerando esses cenários, os resultados indicam haver mudanças moderadas em diversos graus nos indicadores (conseqüentemente nos dois temas presentes nos 4 elementos, embora se identifique a tendência de situação estável; representativa de manuten
de Relaciones Exteriores , Documentos Basicos Sobre el Protocolo de Rio de Janeiro de 1942 y Su Ejecucion, 3rd edition, Lima: Editora Peru, no date...Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores , The Peruvian-Ecuadorian Border Incident in the Cordillera del Condor, Lima: Imprenta FAP, 1981; Embassy of Peru...Agreement and Security," El Comercio (Lima), March 22, 1995, p. A2, as reported in FBIS-LA, April 3, 1995. 19. "Amnesty Law Criticized, Creation of Truth
Differences and similarities in sexual and contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among Latino male adolescent students in California, United States and Lima, Peru Diferencias y similitudes en el conocimiento, las actitudes y los comportamientos sexuales y de anticoncepción entre estudiantes adolescentes varones latinos en California, Estados Unidos, y en Lima, Perú
Jesús L. Chirinos
Full Text Available To identify the differences and similarities in sexual and contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among Latino male adolescent students living in California and Lima. Self-administered, anonymous surveys were completed by Latino male students aged 12-19 participating in California, and by male adolescent students in four high schools in Lima. Both surveys contained similar questions allowing for comparisons regarding sexual activity and contraceptive behavior. The mean age of male students were 16 and 15 years, respectively. More California males reported having engaged in sexual intercourse (69% vs 43%. The sexual debut was 13 years in both samples. More students in California were aware of their risk of pregnancy at first sexual intercourse than in Lima (82% vs 50%. One-third of the California males reported communicating with their partner about sex and contraception to be "easy" as compared to 53% of males in Lima. More students in California reported knowing a place to obtain contraceptives if they need them (85% vs 63%, having ever gotten someone pregnant (29% vs 7%, and having fathered a child (67% vs 16%.Identificar las diferencias y similitudes en cuanto a conocimiento, actitudes y comportamientos sexuales y de anticoncepción entre los estudiantes adolescentes latinos que viven en California y en Lima. Estudiantes adolescentes varones latinos de 12-19 años completaron las encuestas anónimas, autoaplicables tanto en California como en cuatro colegios secundarios en Lima. Ambas encuestas contenían preguntas similares con respecto a actividad sexual y comportamiento de anticoncepción. La media de edad fue de 16 y 15 años, respectivamente. Más varones adolescentes en California señalaron haber tenido relaciones coitales (69% vs 43%. Entre éstos, la media de edad de inicio sexual fue de 13 años en ambas muestras. Más estudiantes en California sabian del riesgo de embarazo en la primera relación sexual (82% vs 50%. Un
Rangel Gomez, Maria Gudelia; Tonda, Josana; Zapata, G Rogelio; Flynn, Michael; Gany, Francesca; Lara, Juanita; Shapiro, Ilan; Rosales, Cecilia Ballesteros
While individuals of Mexican origin are the largest immigrant group living in the U.S., this population is also the highest uninsured. Health disparities related to access to health care, among other social determinants, continue to be a challenge for this population. The government of Mexico, in an effort to address these disparities and improve the quality of life of citizens living abroad, has partnered with governmental and non-governmental health-care organizations in the U.S. by developing and implementing an initiative known as Ventanillas de Salud -Health Windows-(VDS). The VDS is located throughout the Mexican Consular network and aim to increase access to health care and health literacy, provide health screenings, and promote healthy lifestyle choices among low-income and immigrant Mexican populations in the U.S.
Full Text Available A partir de una investigación de campo en un barrio de vivienda social de la periferia parisina, el artículo explora los circuitos diarios de las mujeres por las oficinas del Estado. El análisis muestra el trabajo en la ventanilla como una movilización cotidiana, individual y colectiva, que liga sin cesar la esfera doméstica y la esfera pública, la práctica burocrática y la micro-política. Familiarizarse con las categorías administrativas y jurídicas, manipular diferentes regímenes de solicitación, juntar testigos y acumular pruebas escritas, todas estas actividades forman un trabajo invisible pero imprescindible para reclamar derechos y activar la economía de la familia.
In 1991-1992, Via Libre, a nongovernmental organization (NGO), developed an information program for the general public in Lima using a portable pavilion. The metallic structure is 32 square meters and houses 30 posters with prevention messages. Collaboration with another NGO, Instituto Generacion, resulted in the production of a 7 minute video of basic information that is shown continuously at the pavilion. Facilitators distribute printed materials. Occasionally, a third NGO, Asociacion Germinal, provides street clowns who carry prevention messages to accompany the exhibit. Due to positive public response, the exhibit became "The Information Traveling Pavilion" in 1993; the exhibit has traveled to more than seven cities throughout Peru. Via Libre staff provide local health workers with information update courses and counseling workshops in order to respond to increased public demands for information and support following the activities. 75 private enterprises have provided support for the program. Radio and television collaborate in publicizing the activities.
Bayer, Angela M.; Tsui, Amy O.; Hindin, Michelle J.
While numerous studies have explored adolescent sexual behavior in Peru, to date, none have explored how adolescents situate sexuality within the context of their broader lives. This information is needed to inform policies and programs. Life history interviews were conducted with 20 12–17 year-old females and males from a low-income settlement near Lima, Peru. Data were analyzed using holistic content analysis and grounded theory. Sexuality had a strong presence in adolescents’ lives. Howeve...
Yamamoto, J; Silva, J A; Sasao, T; Wang, C; Nguyen, L
Alcoholism is a problem of worldwide concern. Full appreciation of this international problem requires that adequate diagnostic measures be constructed and that comparable measures for different cultures be available so that valid differences in prevalence across cultures can be detected. A Spanish-language version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) has been used for epidemiologic studies of alcohol abuse and dependence in Los Angeles Mexican-Americans and mainland Puerto Ricans, and the authors used the same instrument to conduct a similar study in Peru. A population sample (N = 815) from the Independencia district of Lima, Peru, was chosen for interviews with a revised form of the Spanish translation of the DIS. Lifetime prevalence rates of alcoholism and other DSM-III diagnoses were determined. The prevalence of alcohol abuse or dependence was higher among the men (34.80%) than among the women (2.46%), but the onset for women was earlier. Alcoholism was strongly associated with antisocial personality disorder and with drug abuse or dependence. The prevalence of alcoholism for the Peruvian men is higher than prevalences for men in U.S. studies, but the prevalence among the Peruvian women is one of the lowest reported. The high prevalence among men is likely due to cultural mores but may also be linked to the stresses found in impoverished societies undergoing rapid social, cultural, and economic change.
Topic: SOUTH AMERICA, LATIN AMERICA, TRADITIONAL MEDICINE, INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE, PUBLIC HEALTH, INDIGENOUS POPULATION. Region: Peru. Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 535,500.00. Violence in three Latin American cities: A comparative study between Bogota, Lima, and ...
Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell
In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in
Valerie A Paz-Soldan
Full Text Available Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB remains a significant public health challenge worldwide, and particularly in Peru with one of the highest incidence rates in Latin America. TB patient behavior has a direct influence on whether a patient will receive timely diagnosis and successful treatment of their illness. Objectives: The objective was to understand the complex factors that can impact TB patient health seeking behavior. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with adult and parents of pediatric patients receiving TB treatment (n=43, within that group a sub-group was also co-infected with HIV (n=11. Results: Almost all of the study participants recognized delays in seeking either their child’s or their own diagnosis of their TB symptoms. The principal reasons for treatment-seeking delays were lack of knowledge and confusion of tuberculosis symptoms, fear and embarrassment of receiving a TB diagnosis, and a patient tendency to self-medicate prior to seeking formal medical attention.Conclusions: Health promotion activities that target patient delays have the potential to improve individual patient outcomes and mitigate the spread of TB at a community level.
Proyección de trabajo en el interior del país y factores asociados en médicos recién colegiados de Lima, Perú 2010 Labor projection in the countryside and associated factors in newly collegiated physicians in Lima, Peru 2010
Full Text Available Objetivos. Estimar la prevalencia y factores asociados con la proyección de trabajo en el interior del país de médicos de Lima. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal en 782 médicos quienes fueron encuestados durante su proceso de colegiatura entre los meses de marzo y abril del 2010. Se definió como proyección de trabajo en el interior del país si respondieron "interior del país" a la pregunta ¿dónde planea estar laborando en los próximos cinco años?. Se usó la regresión logística múltiple para encontrar los factores asociados. Resultados. La edad media de los participantes fue de 25 años, 54% fueron mujeres y 73% son de universidades privadas. Sólo 7,0% refirió proyectarse trabajar en el interior del país y el 0,5% en zonas rurales. No se encontró asociación con el género, lugar de nacimiento, tener familiares médicos, tipo de universidad, dominio del inglés, haber residido por más de un año en provincias y el año de realización del internado. En el análisis multivariado se encontró asociación con haber realizado el internado en un hospital del interior del país (OR:3,1; IC95%:1,5-6,3, comunicarse en quechua (OR: 2,9; IC:1,4-6,1, que ambos padres nacieran en el interior del país (OR:2,8; IC:1,4-5,6; mientras que la proyección de un sueldo mensual superior a 5000 nuevos soles (OR:0,4; IC:0,2-0,8 y vivir con su familia nuclear o pareja (OR:0,3; IC:0,1-0,5 se asociaron en forma negativa. Conclusiones. Es baja la proyección de trabajo en el interior del país en los médicos colegiados en Lima. Algunos de los factores encontrados pueden ayudar a diseñar estrategias para revertir esta situación.Objectives. To estimate the prevalence and associated factors with the labor porjection in the countryside of physicians from Lima. Materials and methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 782 physicians who were surveyed during their affiliation at Peruvian Medical College during March
Prevalencia del intento de interrumpir el embarazo y factores asociados en una comunidad urbano marginal de Lima-Perú, 2006 Prevalence of the attempts to stop pregnancy and associated factors in a marginal suburban comunnity in Lima-Peru, 2006
Full Text Available Objetivos. Estimar la prevalencia y determinar los factores asociados al intento de interrumpir el embarazo en mujeres con antecedente de embarazo. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal durante el año 2006. La muestra incluyó a 1057 mujeres con antecedente de embarazo que habitaban en Pamplona Alta, seleccionadas a través del muestreo probabilístico sistemático. Se realizó análisis estadístico descriptivo e inferencial, incluyendo un modelo de regresión logística. Resultados. La prevalencia de la intención de interrumpir su embarazo fue 13,9% (IC99%: 11,1- 16,7. Al efectuarse un análisis multivariado, se encontró que los factores asociados fueron: embarazo no deseado (OR=5,7; IC: 1,9-16,7, la falta de atención prenatal (OR=4,7; IC: 1,8-12,2, la prostitución (OR=11,4; IC: 1,5-87,9, tener menos de 20 años (OR=2,9; IC: 1,1-7,9 y tener más de dos parejas (OR=3,3; IC: 1,1-10,2. Conclusiones. La prevalencia estimada del intento de interrumpir el embarazo en mujeres con antecedente de embarazo en una zona urbano marginal de Lima es baja si se compara al estimado nacional de abortos. Los factores asociados al intento de interrumpir el embarazo son: el embarazo no deseado, prostitución, tener menos de 20 años, tener más de dos parejas y la falta de atención prenatal.Objectives. To estimate the prevalence for the attempts to stop pregnancy among women with history of previous pregnancies, and to determine the factors associated. Material and methods. A cross-sectional study was performed during 2006. Samples included 1057 women with background of pregnancy, living in Pamplona Alta, selected by a systematic random sampling. We applied descriptive and inferential statistics, including a logistic regression model. Results. The prevalence for the attempt to stop pregnancy was 13.9% (99% CI: 11.1-16.7. The factors associated identified by multivariate analysis were: Unwanted pregnancy (OR=5.7; CI: 1.9-16.7, lack of pre
Variación entre años de la fauna de parásitos metazoos de Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846 (Perciformes: Sciaenidae en Lima, Perú Between-year variation of metazoan parasite fauna on Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846 (Perciformes: Sciaenidae in Lima, Peru
Full Text Available Se evalúa la estructura comunitaria de los parásitos de Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846, y se analiza si la composición, riqueza, diversidad, prevalencia e intensidad media de sus comunidades parasitarias cambia entre muestras tomadas con 20 años de diferencia en Lima, Perú, entre agosto 1987 y julio 1988 y de agosto a septiembre del 2008 en peces de similar longitud corporal. Los parásitos metazoos fueron colectados y censados empleando las técnicas convencionales. La abundancia total fue de 1,7 (0 a 13 y la riqueza de especies de parásitos fue 0,7 (0 a 2 especies de parásitos por pez. Treinta hospederos mostraron infección con al menos un parásito (60%. Se encontraron siete taxa de parásitos: dos monogeneos Cynoscionicola sciaenae y Hargicotyle sciaenae; un digeneo Helicometra fasciata; un nemátodo Dycheline amaruincai, un acantocéfalo Tegorhynchus sp., y dos copépodos Caligus callaoensis y Lernanthropus huamani. Un análisis comparativo entre los parásitos de S. deliciosa entre 1987-1988 y 2008, muestran una disminución en la prevalencia de Tegorhynchus sp., D. amaruincai, Bomolochusperuensis y Neobrachiella oralis. La intensidad media aumentó para C. americana y Tegorhynchus sp. y disminuyó para C. callaoensis. Las diferencias entre años pudieran estar influenciadas por las variaciones en la temperatura del agua que afectaron los estados larvales y/o reproducción de los copépodos, en la amplitud del periodo de estudio y en el tamaño de la muestra.The community structure of parasites on Sciaena deliciosa (Tschudi, 1846, is evaluated and eventual changes are analyzed in the composition, richness, diversity, prevalence and mean intensity of parasite communities on fish specimens that were similar in body length but were sampled 20 years apart (August 1987 to July 1988 vs. August to September 2008 in Lima, Perú. Metazoan parasites were collected and counted employing conventional techniques. Total abundance was 1.7 (0
Experiencias para la capacitación de recursos humanos en salud para la atención integral de víctimas de violencia en una zona urbano marginal de Lima, Perú Experiences in the training of health human resources for the integral care of the victims of violence in a suburban area of Lima, Peru
Full Text Available En el año 2003, en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, se creó el Programa Permanente de Capacitación para la Atención Integral de las Víctimas de la Violencia, y viene realizando programas de capacitación de recursos humanos para la atención integral de las víctimas de violencia. En ese sentido, se consideró necesario desarrollar una metodología para profesionales de la salud, identificando sus necesidades de capacitación y sus condiciones de trabajo en lo relacionado a este tipo de atenciones. Es en ese contexto, que el año 2004, se delineó un estudio de línea de base en la Microrred de Salud Huaycán, al este de la ciudad de Lima; el cual comprendió diversas etapas con un enfoque multisectorial con el objetivo de identificar las necesidades de capacitación de los profesionales de salud, así como la evaluación del soporte logístico y administrativo para el desarrollo de actividades de capacitación a diversos niveles. En el presente artículo se expone, de modo sucinto, los procedimientos y principales resultados encontrados. Se evidenció que la población de Huaycán se encontraba afectada por las secuelas de la violencia política; no obstante, los servicios de salud tienen recursos limitados para realizar una adecuada atención de estas personas, emerge la necesidad de capacitación en varias esferas; existen condiciones administrativas y logísticas para efectuar estas actividades. Consideramos que esta metodología facilitará construir productos e instrumentos para una adecuada y específica capacitación para la atención integral en salud a las víctimas de la violencia.In the year 2003, in the Faculty of Medicine of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, the Permanent Program of Training for the Integral Attention of the Victims of Violence was created, has been training human resources for the comprehensive health care to victims of violence. In this sense, we was
Rath Barbara A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of extended use of ART in developing countries has been enormous. A thorough understanding of all factors contributing to the success of antiretroviral therapy is required. The current study aims to investigate the value of cross-sectional drug resistance monitoring using DNA and RNA oligonucleotide ligation assays (OLA in treatment cohorts in low-resource settings. The study was conducted in the first cohort of children gaining access to structured ART in Peru. Methods Between 2002–5, 46 eligible children started the standard regimen of AZT, 3TC and NFV Patients had a median age of 5.6 years (range: 0.7-14y, a median viral load of 1.7·105 RNA/ml (range: 2.1·103 – 1.2·106, and a median CD4-count of 232 cells/μL (range: 1–1591. Of these, 20 patients were classified as CDC clinical category C and 31/46 as CDC immune category 3. At the time of cross-sectional analysis in 2005, adherence questionnaires were administered. DNA OLAs and RNA OLAs were performed from frozen PBMC and plasma, RNA genotyping from dried blood spots. Results During the first year of ART, 44% of children experienced virologic failure, with an additional 9% failing by the end of the second year. Virologic failure was significantly associated with the number of resistance mutations detected by DNA-OLA (p Conclusions Advanced immunosuppression at baseline and previous exposures to unsupervised brief cycles of ART significantly impaired treatment outcomes at a time when structured ART was finally introduced in his cohort. Brief maternal exposures to with AZT +/− NVP for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission did not affect treatment outcomes in this group of children. DNA-OLA from frozen PBMC provided a highly specific tool to detect archived drug resistance. RNA consensus genotyping from dried blood spots and RNA-OLA from plasma consistently detected drug resistance mutations, but merely in association with virologic failure.
Niveles de resistencia a quinolonas y otros antimicrobianos en cepas de Escherichia coli comensales en niños de la zona periurbana de Lima, Perú Levels of quinolones resistance and other antimicrobial in non-pathogenic Escherichia coli strains in children from the periurban area of Lima, Peru
María J. Pons
Full Text Available El objetivo principal del estudio fue establecer el nivel de resistencia a antimicrobianos en un total de 222 cepas comensales de E. coli de origen fecal, en Perú. Las frecuencias de resistencia encontrados, frente los antimicrobianos evaluados, fueron: ampicilina (62,6%, cotrimoxazol (48,6%, tetraciclina (43,0% y cloranfenicol (15,8%. Destacan los elevados niveles de resistencia a quinolonas: 32% al ácido nalidíxico (NAL y 12% a ciprofloxacino (CIP. Estos elevados niveles hacia las quinolonas en cepas comensales aisladas en niños de esta franja de edad, realzan el uso extendido y el impacto de consumo de este tipo de antimicrobianos en la comunidad, mostrando el riesgo potencial de su pérdida de utilidad en el área.The main aim of this study was to establish the resistance levels to antimicrobial agents, in 222 non-pathogenic E. coli strains of fecal origin in Peru. The proportion of resistance found to the evaluated antimicrobials was ampicillin (62.6%, cotrimoxazole (48,6%, tetracycline (43,0% and chloramphenicol (15,8%. We emphasize the high resistance levels found for quinolones: 32% for nalidixic acid (NAL and 12% for ciprofloxacin (CIP. These high levels of quinoloneresistance in non-pathogenic strains isolated from children in this age group highlight the extensive use and the impact of the intake of this kind of antimicrobials in the community, showing the potential risk of the loss of their utility in the area.
A 1998 conference in Lima gave Latin American women their first opportunity to discuss codes of ethics and legislation relating to gender and communication. The discussion was timely because many Latin American governments have created new departments or ministries for women that have resulted in creation of new spaces for women's initiatives. The first speaker at the conference referred to a "generational change" occurring in the region because new feminist ideas are arising simultaneously with renewed debate on communication rights. The theme of the conference, "Gender, Communication, and Citizenship," reflected the desire of the Latin American women to emphasize their citizenship rights to communicate, to information, and to participate with true equality. Conference participants endorsed a Lima Declaration that asserts these rights. Copies of the Declaration have been sent to all relevant Latin American government ministries.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of antibiotics in Peruvian children under 1 year in a setting where they are available without a prescription. METHODS: Data were analyzed from a cohort study between September 2006 and December 2007 of 1 023 children OBJETIVO: Describir el uso de antibióticos en niños de 2 a 12 meses de edad en entornos donde estos medicamentos se pueden obtener sin prescripción. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron los datos de un estudio de cohorte efectuado entre septiembre del 2006 y diciembre del 2007 en 1 023 niños menores de 2 meses de la zona periurbana de Lima, Perú, cuyo seguimiento se realizó hasta el año de edad. RESULTADOS: De los 1 023 niños, 770 (75,3% tomaron 2 085 tandas de tratamiento antibiótico. Se registraron dos tandas por niño por año (rango 0-12. Las tasas más elevadas de uso de antibióticos se encontraron en los niños de 3 a 6 meses (37,2%. Los niños recibieron antibióticos para 8,2% de los resfriados comunes, 58,6% de las faringitis, 66,0% de las bronquitis, 40,7% de las diarreas, 22,8% de las dermatitis y 12,0% de las obstrucciones bronquiales. La prescripción de un médico fue la razón más frecuente para el uso de antibióticos (90,8%. Se comprobó el uso de medicamentos sin prescripción en 6,9% de los niños, y en 63,9% de ellos este fue precedido por una prescripción médica. CONCLUSIONES: En el entorno estudiado, los niños menores de 1 año a menudo están expuestos a los antibióticos. El abuso de los antibióticos es frecuente ante enfermedades como faringitis, bronquitis, obstrucción bronquial y diarrea, pero por lo general es inadecuado (83,1% de las tandas de tratamiento antibiótico según las etiologías más comunes en este grupo etario. Las intervenciones dirigidas a mejorar el uso de los antibióticos deben concentrarse en los médicos, ya que la prescripción médica fue la razón más común para el uso de antibióticos.
Pacora, Percy; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú
Fetal growth is both an index of fetal well-being and predictor of early development of chronic diseases during extrauterine life. Therefore, it is neccesary to establish fetal growth standard. Based on 18,615 single deliveries registered at San Bartolome's Hospital in Lima, Peru, between June 1990 and March 1995, only 5,399 (29%) healthy Peruvian pregnant women less than 35 years old with no obstetrical complications had a healthy baby. We did not consider healthy a baby born before 34 weeks...
Full Text Available El presente artículo establece la pertinencia de llamar a Lima ciudad renacentista, tanto por la época en la que fue fundada, el siglo XVI, como por la coincidencia en su trazado con los modelos de orden que proponen los teóricos renacentistas de la arquitectura y, como se demostraría más tarde, coincide también con los trazados romanos, desconocidos hasta el siglo XVIII.
about health in six Latin American countries, 1973- 1992. Rev Panam Salud Publica 1: 23–34. 3. Cowan G, 2000. Rickettsial diseases: the typhus group of...Leonardo Mendoza Instituto Nacional de Salud , Capac Yupanqui No. 1400, Jesús Maria, Lima 11, Peru, Telephone: 51-1-471-9920. Allen L. Richards, Viral and...Colli C, 1997. Leptospira interrogans in a canine population of greater Bue- nos Aires: variables associated with seropositivity. Rev Panam Salud
Guillén, Zoila; Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel Alcides Carrión", Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Romero, Giuliana; Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Pareja, Elizabeth; Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Valencia, Miguel; Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; López, Martha; Universidad Nacional del Cuzco "San Antonio Abad", Cuzco, Perú; Suárez, Roxana; Universidad Particular Ricardo Palma, Lima, Perú
This article present species of Astigmata and Prostigmata acari that produce human pathology in Peru. Patients who were seen at Instituto de Medicina Tropical Daniel A. Carrion, Huinco, and domestic dust of Lima, Lambayeque, Trujillo and Ucayali, were evaluated, as well as related articles published up to now. In this work, we found the follow Astigmata: Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro, Suidasia sp., Dermatophagoides pteromyssinus, Glycyphagus domesticus and Sarcoptes scabiei, and Prost...
ceruloplasmin, ferritin, iron, antinuclear anti- by one-third of subjects) in 48% of chronic liver bodies (ANA), and antimitochondrial antibodies to rule...Rebagliati (R.F.) and Naval Medical Research Institute Detachment (I.A.P.), Lima, Peru The prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus 19921. To...development of serologic assays for the abuse, defined as being repeatedly intoxicated at least detection of antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV
Sanabria R, Hernán; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico Infectólogo.; Riboty L, Alfredo; Hospital Nacional Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen, EsSalud. Lima, Perú. Psicólogo.; Villafuerte P, Andrés; Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Psicólogo.; Gonzáles G, Marita; Centro de Salud Materno Infantil de Supe Pueblo, Ministerio de Salud. Lima, Perú. Enfermera.
In Peru there are cattle zones that are endemic of anthrax; nevertheless, there are not studies about knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and practices that have the people about anthrax in relation to their mechanism of transmission, vaccination, and management of ill cattle. This information its needed to design promotional and preventive programs. After an anthrax outbreak in Supe Pueblo (cattle zone located to the north of Lima ), was carried a survey with 91 originating people, who lived a...
Van Bressem, Marie-Francoise; Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; Geysen, Karen; Onton, Karina; Vega, Diana; Chavez-Lisambart, Laura; Van Waerebeek, Koen
To complement legislative measures protecting cetaceans and other marine animals, the Peruvian Centre for Cetacean Research in the period 1993-2000 implemented an environmental education program at the kindergartens, primary and high schools of several fishing towns and in Lima, Peru. This program included environmental classes based on selected…
Silva, Silvia Morales; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan
In this study, the socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development was examined in 331 fifth graders from schools in Lima, Peru. Reading comprehension was measured using an adaptation of the PIRLS Reading Literacy test. The fifth graders' reading comprehension results, measured over the course of fifth grade, were related to the…
Morales Silva, S.L.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van
In this study, the socio-cultural variation in reading comprehension development was examined in 331 fifth graders from schools in Lima, Peru. Reading comprehension was measured using an adaptation of the PIRLS Reading Literacy test. The fifth graders' reading comprehension results, measured over
Lescano, J; Quevedo, M; Gonzales-Viera, O; Luna, L; Keel, M K; Gregori, F
A domestic ferret from Lima, Peru, died after ten days of non-specific clinical signs. Based on pathology, immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis, ferret systemic coronavirus (FRSCV)-associated disease was diagnosed for the first time in South America. This report highlights the potential spread of pathogens by the international pet trade. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
available soon. Interspecies interactions and potential Influenza A virus risk in small swine farms in Peru BMC Infectious Diseases 2012, 12:58 doi:10.1186...Virus Risk In Small Swine Farms In Peru 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Medical Research Unit - 6,Lima, Peru , , 8. PERFORMING
Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program. A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the... View moreCanada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus ...
Casado, Fanny L.; Manrique, Susan; Guerrero, Jorge; Pinto, Joseph; Ferrer, Jose; Castaneda, Benjamin
Data from GLOBOCAN show that around 4,000 Peruvian women are diagnosed with breast cancer every year. From these new cases, the clinical presentation of 36% corresponded to advanced stages (III and IV). Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen current screening and early detection strategies. The American College of Radiology (ACR) breast density classification is a risk assessment and quality assurance tool in mammography to standardize and facilitate report to non-radiologists. In our sample of Peruvian women, we found that 45.3% of women have a breast density classified as ACR II, 32.3% as ACR I, 19.7% as ACR III and only 2.7% as ACR IV. Also, premenopausal women are more likely to have breast density types ACR III and IV than postmenopausal women. These results show certain similarity to other populations showing that most breast densities are classified as ACR I and II, but shows a unique distribution when taking into account all four ACR types. Our results are consistent with epidemiological evidence suggesting that the Peruvian population may have a different stratification of risk based on its particular genetic and/or ethnic background. The present work will aid to develop novel strategies for screening and early detection of breast malignancies.
Baten, Joerg; Pelger, Ines; Twrdek, Linda
This anthropometric study focuses on the histories of three important Latin American countries - Brazil, Peru, and Argentina - during the 19th century, and tests hypotheses concerning their welfare trends. While non-farm Brazil and Lima, Peru, started at relatively low height levels, Brazil made substantial progress in nutritional levels from the 1860s to the 1880s. In contrast, Lima remained at low levels. Argentinean men were tall to begin with, but heights stagnated until 1910. The only exception were farmers and landowners, who benefited from the export boom.
Gámiz Aguilar, Manel
Uno de los principales problemas de la sociedad actual es la gestión de la multitud de residuos que se generan. La reducción de los mismos desde el origen resulta una vía ideal para intentar minimizarlos, pero en el caso de los residuos orgánicos prácticas como esta carecen de sentido, de manera que resulta esencial poner en funcionamiento tecnologías que ayuden a minimizar el impacto de estos en la zonas donde los excedentes dificultan notablemente su absorción en el suelo de ...
Chowell, G.; Viboud, C.; Simonsen, L.; Miller, M.A.; Hurtado, J.; Soto, G.; Vargas, R.; Guzman, M.A.; Ulloa, M.; Munayco, C.V.
Background Increasing our knowledge of past influenza pandemic patterns in different regions of the world is crucial to guide preparedness plans against future influenza pandemics. Here, we undertook extensive archival collection efforts from 3 representative cities of Peru (Lima in the central coast, Iquitos in the northeastern Amazon region, Ica in the southern coast) to characterize the age and geographic patterns of the 1918–1920 influenza pandemic in this country. Materials and Methods We analyzed historical documents describing the 1918–1920 influenza pandemic in Peru and retrieved individual mortality records from local provincial archives for quantitative analysis. We applied seasonal excess mortality models to daily and monthly respiratory mortality rates for 1917–1920 and quantified transmissibility estimates based on the daily growth rate in respiratory deaths. Results A total of 52,739 individual mortality records were inspected from local provincial archives. We found evidence for an initial mild pandemic wave during July-September 1918 in Lima, identified a synchronized severe pandemic wave of respiratory mortality in all three locations in Peru during November 1918-February 1919, and a severe pandemic wave during January 1920- March 1920 in Lima and July-October 1920 in Ica. There was no recrudescent pandemic wave in 1920 in Iquitos. Remarkably, Lima experienced the brunt of the 1918–20 excess mortality impact during the 1920 recrudescent wave, with all age groups experiencing an increase in all cause excess mortality from 1918–19 to 1920. Middle age groups experienced the highest excess mortality impact, relative to baseline levels, in the 1918–19 and 1920 pandemic waves. Cumulative excess mortality rates for the 1918–20 pandemic period were higher in Iquitos (2.9%) than Lima (1.6%). The mean reproduction number for Lima was estimated in the range 1.3–1.5. Conclusions We identified synchronized pandemic waves of intense excess
Guerrero Narbajo, Yuly Gianina
La presente investigación tiene como finalidad establecer la relación entre el clima social familiar, inteligencia emocional y el rendimiento académico en alumnos de quinto año de secundaria de Ventanilla. La muestra estuvo conformada por 600 estudiantes de quinto de secundaria de ambos sexos, a quienes se le aplicó la escala del clima social familiar de Moors y trickett, el inventario de la inteligencia emocional de Bar-On y el rendimiento académico se obtuvo de las notas del curso de comuni...
Saénz Luna, Jorge Luis
El presente estudio pretende determinar si existe relación entre la comprensión lectora y las actitudes hacia la lectura en escolares del quinto grado de primaria. Para tal efecto se ha utilizado el tipo de investigación no experimental y el diseño descriptivo correlacional. La población está conformada por estudiantes de ambos sexos entre los 10 y 13 años de edad del AA.HH. Angamos – Ventanilla. Se utilizó una muestra disponible de 183 alumnos. Se empleó la Prueba de Comprensión Lectora de C...
Bustamante Domínguez, Jorge Raúl
El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo determinar la relación entre las estrategias de aprendizaje y resolución de problemas matemáticos en una muestra de 180 estudiantes del quinto año de secundaria de una Institución Educativa del distrito de Ventanilla en la región Callao. Se administraron dos instrumentos: el primero, escala de estrategias de aprendizaje ACRA (Adquisición, Codificación, Recuperación y Apoyo), el segundo, una prueba escrita de aprovechamiento en matemática que mide la capa...
Colichon Yerosh, Alejandro; Figueroa, Rolando; Moreno, Armando; Zumaeta, Eduardo; Ferrandíz, Jorge; Busalleu, Alejandro; Prado, William; Candella, Ricardo; Colichón, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Wilson; Espinoza, Julio; Kianman, Wilfredo; Amaya, Nelly; García Pérez, Segundo A; Tello Rodriguez, José; Valdez, Jesús; Paucar Sotomayor, Héctor; Sanchez, César
In Peru, new cases of asymptomatic HCV infection are reported with certain frequency in patients with or without antecedents of blood transfusion. Although serologic screening has improved notoriously in the last years, there is still a population of polytransfused patients with high HCV risk (e.g. hemodialyzed patients), making up a major reservoir. Based on this premise, we decided to study the risk of the health worker population in Peru as another major HCV risk group. A total of 2,769 health workers from 7 Public Hospitals and 2 Private Hospitals in the City of Lima and from 7 Public Hospitals in 4 major/main cities of Peru (Chiclayo, Trujillo, Arequipa, and Cusco) were studied. All those workers, who due to their area of work had higher contact with blood and/or blood derivatives (Surgery, ICU, Traumatology, Gynecology, Gastroenterology, Hemodialysis and Laboratories-Blood Banks) were studied. The studied population accounts for 30% of the total health worker population in these services. All serums underwent the EIA-3 test (HCV-Cobas-Core, Lab. Roche, USA). The positive results were confirmed by RT-HCV (Ampiclor, Roche). The positive serums were confirmed by PCR and the positive results with high viral load underwent HCV genotyping (AMPICLOR-Roche Diagnostic, IGEN Diagnostic USA). Of the 2,769 health workers studied in Peru, 32 were positive for HCV antibodies (1.16% of the total number). Lima showed a prevalence slightly higher than the provinces: 26 out of 2,112 vs. 6 out of 657, or 1.23% vs. 0.91%, respectively. The higher risk is assumed by professional with higher level of contact with blood: 2 physicians (Hemodialysis), 5 nurses (HD) and Lab-Blood Bank technicians. The physicians and nurses share the same risk. If we segregate Lima from provinces, it can be seen that the highest risk is in Lima (1.34% compared to 1.07% in provinces). There is a major risk in health workers and the figures are slightly above those that were suspected for Peru (between 0
Fernandez Maldonado, A.M.
The barriadas of Lima have been the most thoroughly studied urban and social process in the field of housing and social sciences in Peru. The processes observed in them served as inspiration for two enthusiastic and influential proposals in the field of housing and urban economics, elaborated and
Mazzetti, Pilar; Inca-Martínez, Miguel; Tirado-Hurtado, Indira; Milla-Neyra, Karina; Silva-Paredes, Gustavo; Vishnevetsky, Anastasia; Cornejo-Olivas, Mario
Neurogenetics is an emerging discipline in Peru that links basic research with clinical practice. The Neurogenetics Research Center located in Lima, Peru is the only unit dedicated to the specialized care of neurogenetic diseases in the country. From the beginning, neurogenetics research has been closely linked to the study of Huntingtons Disease (HD), from the PCR genotyping of the HTT gene, to the current haplogroup studies in HD. Research in other monogenic diseases led to the implementation of alternative methodologies for the genotyping of Fragile X and Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1. Both, national and international collaborative efforts have facilitated the discovery of new genetic variants in complex multigenic diseases such as Parkinsons disease and Alzheimers disease. Additionally, multidisciplinary education and mentoring have allowed for the training of new neurogenetics specialists, supporting the sustained growth of the discipline in the country. The promotion of research in Peru has spurred the growth of neurogenetics research, although limitations in infrastructure, technology, and education remain a challenge for the further growth of research in this field.
David Vargas del Río
Full Text Available Mientras los apoyos financieros y logísticos para promover la conservación en comunidades campesinas e indígenas aumentan, la literatura sobre ecoturismo comunitario, que es una de sus estrategias más destacadas, está llena de contradicciones y suposiciones carentes de respaldo empírico. Particularmente, en lo que se refiere al cambio a largo plazo que esta modificación en las actividades productivas representa. Para analizar tales cuestiones se identificaron y evaluaron las profundas trasformaciones sociopolíticas impulsadas por esta actividad en La Ventanilla: un destino mexicano ubicado en la costa del estado de Oaxaca, y que frecuentemente se menciona como un caso ejemplar por su desarrollo social y ambientalmente equilibrado. En este artículo se presenta un estudio detallado de la ecología política a diferentes escalas geográficas y a lo largo del tiempo. Los resultados contrastan con otras versiones más optimistas que carecen de la visión diacrónica. Más bien, se ilustra un "choque de trenes institucional" que, paradójicamente, hace más vulnerable la ecología local: menor cohesión social, reciprocidad, sentido de comunidad y confianza mutua, mientras se detonan procesos como la especulación y la desigualdad. Consecuentemente, la intervención de actores externos, aunque bien intencionada, ha agudizado las desigualdades socioeconómicas y debilitado las instituciones locales.
Silvia Morales Silva
Full Text Available This study examined the effects of the reading comprehension program Lectura for fifth graders of middle-class and low-class social economic backgrounds in Lima (Peru on reading literacy and reading motivation. The intervention emphasized reading strategies and dimensions of reading motivation. ANOVA was used in order to calculate the effects of measurement point, group, social economic status and gender on reading comprehension and reading motivation. Results showed that reading literacy increased more in the intervention group than in the control group. Children from the low social economic background benefited more from the intervention than children with a middle social economic background. The program had also a significant impact on children’s reading motivation.
Full Text Available Cine Club de Lima was the most important cinematography culture spreading institution of the fifties. It was also the precursor of other movie clubs of following decades, which would bring together important Peruvian intellectuals from every art form, who would together promote cultural entertainment. This piece describes ”Cine Club Lima” origins and dissolution, while taking into account its programs.
J.M. Hartman (Joost)
textabstractCoronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a surgical procedure that has been in existence since 1967 . Over the years, the use of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA), has been shown to be the conduit of choice for single or sequential bypass grafting to the anterior wall of the
Guy, R.; Stubailo, I.; Skinner, S.; Phillips, K.; Foote, E.; Lukac, M.; Aguilar, V.; Tavera, H.; Audin, L.; Husker, A.; Clayton, R.; Davis, P. M.
This work describes preliminary results from a 50 station broadband seismic network recently installed from the coast to the high Andes in Peru. UCLA's Center for Embedded Network Sensing (CENS) and Caltech's Tectonic Observatory are collaborating with the IRD (French L'Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement) and the Institute of Geophysics, in Lima Peru in a broadband seismic experiment that will study the transition from steep to shallow slab subduction. The currently installed line has stations located above the steep subduction zone at a spacing of about 6 km. In 2009 we plan to install a line of 50 stations north from this line along the crest of the Andes, crossing the transition from steep to shallow subduction. A further line from the end of that line back to the coast, completing a U shaped array, is in the planning phase. The network is wirelessly linked using multi-hop network software designed by computer scientists in CENS in which data is transmitted from station to station, and collected at Internet drops, from where it is transmitted over the Internet to CENS each night. The instrument installation in Peru is almost finished and we have been receiving data daily from 10 stations (out of total 50) since June 2008. The rest are recording on-site while the RF network is being completed. The software system provides dynamic link quality based routing, reliable data delivery, and a disruption tolerant shell interface for managing the system from UCLA without the need to travel to Peru. The near real-time data delivery also allows immediate detection of any problems at the sites. We are building a seismic data and GPS quality control toolset that would greatly minimize the station's downtime by alerting the users of any possible problems.
Johnson, Michael A.S.; Smith, Hannah; Joseph, Priya; Gilman, Robert H.; Bautista, Christian T.; Campos, Kalina J.; Cespedes, Michelle; Klatsky, Peter; Vidal, Carlos; Terry, Hilja; Calderon, Maritza M.; Coral, Carlos; Cabrera, Lilia; Parmar, Paminder S.
Human infection by leptospires has highly variable clinical manifestations, which range from subclinical infection to fulminant disease. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional seroepidemiologic study in Peru to determine potential relationships of environmental context to human exposure to Leptospira and disease associated with seroconversion. Three areas were studied: a flooded, urban slum in the Peruvian Amazon city of Iquitos; rural, peri-Iquitos villages; and a desert shantytown near Lima. Seroprevalence in Belen was 28% (182/650); in rural areas, 17% (52/316); and in a desert shantytown, 0.7% (1/150). Leptospira-infected peridomestic rats were found in all locales. In Belen, 20 (12.4%) of 161 patients seroconverted between dry and wet seasons (an incidence rate of 288/1,000). Seroconversion was associated with history of febrile illness; severe leptospirosis was not seen. Human exposure to Leptospira in the Iquitos region is high, likely related both to the ubiquity of leptospires in the environment and human behavior conducive to transmission from infected zoonotic sources. PMID:15207052
A chunk of glacier was threatening to fall into an Andean lake and cause major flooding in a Peruvian city of 60,000. A fissure has appeared in the glacier that feeds the Lake Palcacocha near the city of Huaraz, 270 km north of Lima. If the piece breaks off, ensuing floods would take 15 minutes to reach the city. In 1941, the lake overflowed and caused massive destruction, killing 7,000 people. The city can be seen in the left-center part of the image. Lake Palcacocha is in the upper right corner of the image at the head of a valley, below the snow and glacier cap. The ASTER instrument is being tasked to obtain current images of the glacier to help monitor the situation. This image was acquired on November 5, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena
Full Text Available Bradyrhizobium sp. LMTR 3 is a representative strain of one of the geno(species of diazotrophic symbionts associated with Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus in Peru. Its 7.83 Mb genome was sequenced using the Illumina technology and found to encode a complete set of genes required for nodulation and nitrogen fixation, and additional genes putatively involved in root colonization. Its draft genome sequence and annotation have been deposited at GenBank under the accession number MAXC00000000.
Gutiérrez Cherres, José Antonio
This research is descriptive correlational. Aimed to determine the correlation between teaching strategies and solving mathematical problems as perceived by the fourth grade students of an educational institution of Ventanilla. The sample used was not random about availability, comprised of 120 children ranging in age from 8 to 10 years. The instruments used were the Questionnaire on the perception of teaching strategies in the curriculum area of mathematics and the Test of solving mathematic...
Bayer, Angela M; Tsui, Amy O; Hindin, Michelle J
While numerous studies have explored young people's sexual behaviour in Peru, to date few have explored how adolescents situate sexuality within the context of their broader lives. This information is needed to inform policies and programmes. Life history interviews were conducted with 20 12-17-year-old young women and men from a low-income settlement near Lima, Peru. Data were analysed using holistic content analysis and grounded theory. Sexuality had a strong presence in respondents' lives. However, interviewees viewed the full expression of their sexuality as a constrained choice. Particular constraints derive from the belief that sexual intercourse always results in pregnancy; the nature of sex education; the provision of proscriptive advice; and the family tensions, economic problems, racism and violence present in young people's lives. The results of this study can inform policies and programmes to support young people as they make sexuality-related decisions.
Manzaneda, Ana Josefina; Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Lazo-Porras, María; Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Málaga, Germán; Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.
In order to determine the level of physical activity performed by outpatients with type 2 diabetes seen at a NationalHospital in Lima, Peru, we surveyed 120 patients with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). 66% werewomen, the mean age was 61.6 years, and 70% had poor glycemic control. 20% of the patients qualified as inactive,68% as minimally active, and 12% had adequate physical activity. No relationship between physical activity, durationof disease, glycemic control, a...
Carcelén Reluz, Carlos Guillermo; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. IFEA/ Lima - Perú.
In order to use historical data for revealing temperature changes in Central Peru during the 18th century, it is necessary to recognize and interpret the cultural, economic and social responses when confronted with marked environmental fluctuations. These caused changes to the farming systems, such as reduced productivity and revenues in all social sectors, particularly among the indigenous communities. Faced with this situation, the urban and rural population of Lima responded in numerous wa...
Cobos Muñoz, Daniel; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Cianci, Fiona; Pérez-Lu, José Enrique; Lama, Aldo; García, Patricia J
Prepaid contributory systems are increasingly being recognized as key mechanisms in achieving universal health coverage in low and middle-income countries. Peru created the Seguro Integral de Salud (SIS) to increase health service use amongst the poor by removing financial barriers. The SIS transfers funds on a fee-for-service basis to the regional health offices to cover recurrent cost (excluding salaries) of pre-specified packages of interventions. We aim to estimate the full cost of antenatal care (ANC) provision in the Ventanilla District (Callao-Peru) and to compare the actual cost to the reimbursement rates provided by SIS. The economic costs of ANC provision in 2011 in 8 of the 15 health centres in Ventanilla District were estimated from a provider perspective and the actual costs of those services covered by the SIS fee of $3.8 for each ANC visit were calculated. A combination of step-down and bottom-up costing methodologies was used. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to test the uncertainty around estimated parameters and model assumptions. Results are reported in 2011 US$. The total economic cost of ANC provision in all 8 health centres was $569,933 with an average cost per ANC visit of $31.3 (95 % CI $29.7-$33.5). Salaries comprised 74.4 % of the total cost. The average cost of the services covered by the SIS fee was $3.4 (95 % CI $3.0-$3.8) per ANC visit. Sensitivity analysis showed that the probability of the cost of an ANC visit being above the SIS reimbursed fee is 1.4 %. Our analysis suggests that the fee reimbursed by the SIS will cover the cost that it supposed to cover. However, there are significant threats to medium and longer term sustainability of this system as fee transfers represent a small fraction of the total cost of providing ANC. Increasing ANC coverage requires the other funding sources of the Regional Health Office (DIRESA) to adapt to increasing demand.
Full Text Available Beijing family strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have attracted worldwide attention because of their wide geographical distribution and global emergence. Peru, which has a historical relationship with East Asia, is considered to be a hotspot for Beijing family strains in South America. We aimed to unveil the genetic diversity and transmission characteristics of the Beijing strains in Peru. A total of 200 Beijing family strains were identified from 2140 M. tuberculosis isolates obtained in Lima, Peru, between December 2008 and January 2010. Of them, 198 strains were classified into sublineages, on the basis of 10 sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. They were also subjected to variable number tandem-repeat (VNTR typing using an international standard set of 15 loci (15-MIRU-VNTR plus 9 additional loci optimized for Beijing strains. An additional 70 Beijing family strains, isolated between 1999 and 2006 in Lima, were also analyzed in order to make a longitudinal comparison. The Beijing family was the third largest spoligotyping clade in Peru. Its population structure, by SNP typing, was characterized by a high frequency of Sequence Type 10 (ST10, which belongs to a modern subfamily of Beijing strains (178/198, 89.9%. Twelve strains belonged to the ancient subfamily (ST3 [n=3], ST25 [n=1], ST19 [n=8]. Overall, the polymorphic information content for each of the 24 loci values was low. The 24 loci VNTR showed a high clustering rate (80.3% and a high recent transmission index (RTI(n-1=0.707. These strongly suggest the active and on-going transmission of Beijing family strains in the survey area. Notably, 1 VNTR genotype was found to account for 43.9% of the strains. Comparisons with data from East Asia suggested the genotype emerged as a uniquely endemic clone in Peru. A longitudinal comparison revealed the genotype was present in Lima by 1999.
Velarde Talleri, Andrés
The objective of this research is to propose a model of inclusion of people with disabilities (hereby known as PWD) in the labor market of Lima - Peru. Material and Methods: A baseline descriptive, cross-sectional study. Ofthe 10,000 top companies of Peru, 188 companies where chosen aleatory and classified in large 27.1% (51), medium 13.3% (25), Small 48.4% (9) and very small 11% (21). For the quantity information a validated survey was used and for the quality information a narrative matr...
Piñeros, Marion; Ramos, Willy; Antoni, Sébastien; Abriata, Graciela; Medina, Luis E; Miranda, J Jaime; Payet, Eduardo; Bray, Freddie
Peru, like several other South American countries, is experiencing remarkable population growth, ageing, and urbanisation, which has given rise to profound changes in its epidemiological profile. Prostate and breast cancer are the most frequent cancers in men and women, respectively, in Lima and Arequipa, the two areas with population-based cancer registries. However, infection-associated cancers (cervix and stomach) are also common, and rank highest in the national cancer mortality profile. Although a foundation of surveillance informs cancer-control initiatives in Peru, improvements in the vital statistics system, and the quality and use of incidence data for the planning and assessment of cancer prevention and control actions, are needed. Existing population-based cancer registries in Lima and Arequipa, and linkages to the established national mandatory cancer reporting system, are crucial for the collection of high-quality data on national cancer incidence. The delivery of effective cancer prevention and control measures requires sustained investment in the collection of high-quality data capable of informing policies and driving research programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
During the last decade, earthquake engineering research in Peru has been carried out at the Catholic University of Peru and at the Universidad Nacional de Ingeniera (UNI). The Geophysical Institute (IGP) under the auspices of the Organization of American States (OAS) has initiated in Peru other efforts in regional seismic hazard assessment programs with direct impact to the earthquake engineering program. Further details on these programs have been reported by L. Ocola in the Earthquake Information Bulletin, January-February 1982, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 33-38.
Espinoza, Iván O.; Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico neurólogo pediatra.; Ochoa, Theresa J.; Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú University of Texas School of Public Health. Texas, EE. UU.; Mosquito, Susan; Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Microbiólogo.; Barletta, Francesca; Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Biólogo molecular.; Hernández, Roger; Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Grupo Peruano de Investigación en Neumococo (GPIN). Lima, Perú. Médico infectólogo pediatra.; Medina, María del Pilar; Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal. Lima, Perú. Médico neurólogo pediatra.; Stiglich, María Luisa; Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Hospital Nacional Docente Madre Niño San Bartolomé. Lima, Perú. Médico neurólogo pediatra.; Ugarte, Claudia; Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico pediatra.; Guillén, Daniel; Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico neurólogo pediatra.
Objectives. To determine the frequency and clinical features of central nervous system infections caused by enterovirus in children treated at the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods. A prospective, descriptive study was performed from April 2008 to March 2010. Patients aged 1 month – 14 years with clinical diagnosis of encephalitis or aseptic meningitis were included. We investigated the presence of enterovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), herpes s...
Juan Luis Orrego
Full Text Available Durante los años del colapso de la monarquía española, el Virreinato del Perú estuvo gobernado por Fernando de Abascal, quien, en alianza con la élíte de Lima, aplicó una política de represión en términos ideológicos y militares ante cualquier intento separatista o revolucionario, tanto dentro de su jurisdicción virreinal como fuera de ella, entre cuyos territorios vecinos estaban Quito, Chile y Charcas. Asimismo, mediante esta estrategia, el Virreinato de Lima intentó recuperar parte de la influencia perdida en América del Sur como consecuencia de la aplicación de las reformas borbónicas, especialmente durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII. El presente artículo pone atención a la respuesta de Lima contra al movimiento insurgente desatado en Quito a partir de 1809.
Full Text Available Abstract Despite being an important source of protein, fish consumption in Peru is low compared with other coastal countries. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify the core determinants of such consumption. We based our analysis on the framework provided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB where attitudes, subjective norms, past experience and health involvement determine the intention and frequency of fish consumption. Primary data were gathered through 159 consumers of fish in modern Metropolitan Lima between August and October 2015. From a set of likert scale indicators a structural model was specified to evaluate the relationships given by the theoretical framework of the TPB. The results showed that the intention to eat fish is determined by personal attitudes, norms and past experience, and as expected, intention itself causes the frequency of fish consumption. Nonetheless, although consumers’ interest in healthy eating was shown to positively influence fish consumption behavior by theory, Metropolitan Lima fish consumers seem to be not concerned by positive health attributes related to fish consumption. These results may have important implications on production decisions, sales and marketing for the promotion of fish in Lima as a means of economic development.
Lozada Urbano, Michelle; Miranda, Doris; Requena-Marcos, Lucy Sonia; Caro Soto, Carina; Gallegos Vergara, Clara; Xirinachs Salazar, Yanira
Objective: To compare the knowledge of mothers on food contamination in the home between the towns of Peru and Costa Rica. Methods: It was conducted in a rural area of Peru (San Pablo and Huascar) in San Juan de Lurigancho in Lima, and Costa Rica (San Vicente of Three Rivers). The questions were part of a scale that was validated on an expert opinion. It was developed to measure three components or domains.After validation,the instrument was applied in Costa Rica with a group ...
Durand Cuba, Miguel Angel
The main objective of this work was to analyze the social discrimination in Peru from historical social perspective. The work is divided into two main parts: theoretical and practical. In the theoretical part we dealt with the analysis of various concepts that have been formulated by leading international organizations. In the practical part we analyze discrimination in the media such as television and in addition, we are also dedicated to social discrimination against residents of Lima is pe...
Isabella Wolniczak; José Alonso Cáceres-DelAguila; Gabriela Palma-Ardiles; Karen J. Arroyo; Rodrigo Solís-Visscher; Stephania Paredes-Yauri; Karina Mego-Aquije; Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz
OBJECTIVES: Internet can accelerate information exchange. Social networks are the most accessed especially Facebook. This kind of networks might create dependency with several negative consequences in people's life. The aim of this study was to assess potential association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional study was performed enrolling undergraduate students of the Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru. The In...
Isabella Wolniczak; Jose´ Alonso Ca´ ceres-DelAguila; Gabriela Palma-Ardiles; Karen J. Arroyo; Rodrigo Solı´s-Visscher; Stephania Paredes-Yauri; Karina Mego-Aquije; Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz
Objectives: Internet can accelerate information exchange. Social networks are the most accessed especially Facebook. This kind of networks might create dependency with several negative consequences in people’s life. The aim of this study was to assess potential association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality. Methodology/Principal Findings: A cross sectional study was performed enrolling undergraduate students of the Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru. ...
Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la prevalencia e intensidad media de infección por larvas del nemátode Anisakis physeteris y otros helmintos según talla y sexo. El estudio se realizó en 57 especímenes de Coryphaena hippurus seleccionados al azar en el Mercado Pesquero del distrito de Ventanilla, Callao, Perú, en mayo de 2002. La prevalencia e intensidad media para larvas de A. physeteris fueron de 33,33% y 1,37; para larvas y adultos de Hysterotylacium sp., fueron 100% y 88,93; para metacestodes Tentacularia coryphaenae fue 71,92% y 6,44; para Nybelinia sp. fueron 19,29% y 2,64; para los tremátodes Bathycotyle coryphaenae fueron 28,07% y 2,25 y para Dinurus spp., fueron 22,81% y 3,42, respectivamente. Los peces cuyo tamaño está entre 127-130 cm son los más parasitados por larvas de A. physeteris. Esta especie es prevalente en la población evaluada y a pesar de la baja intensidad media, existe riesgo de adquirir anisakidosis si se consume C. Hippurus insuficientemente cocido o crudo.
Huerta-Sáenz, Lina; Del Águila, Carlos; Espinoza, Oscar; Falen-Boggio, Juan; Mitre, Naim
Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most important cause of preventable mental retardation. The prevalence of CH varies by geographic region, race and ethnicity. In the countries of the Northern hemisphere, the prevalence has been reported as 1:4,000 live newborns. The prevalence is remarkably different among the countries of Latin America not only because of their different races and ethnicities but also because of the heterogeneous social-economic development. The prevalence of CH in 1984 in Peru was reported as 1:1250. In 2007, the reported incidence by the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal was 1:1638. A recent retrospective study performed by the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño in Lima, Peru described the average age of diagnosis of CH as 5,9 months +/- 5,28. This late age of CH diagnosis certainly suggests the poor efficiency of the current neonatal CH screening programs in Peru. Every Peruvian infant deserves a timely newborn screening and treatment for CH. The Peruvian government is responsible for ensuring this mandatory goal is achieved promptly.
Full Text Available The genus Solanum is among the most species-rich genera both of the Peruvian flora and of the tropical Andes in general. The present revised checklist treats 276 species of Solanum L., of which 253 are native, while 23 are introduced and/or cultivated. A total of 74 Solanum species (29% of native species are endemic to Peru. Additional 58 species occur only in small number of populations outside Peru, and these species are here labelled as near-endemics to highlight the role Peru playes in their future protection. Species diversity is observed to peak between 2500 – 3000 m elevation, but endemic species diversity is highest between 3000 – 3500 m elevation. Cajamarca has the highest number of endemic (29 spp. and total species (130 spp., even when considering the effect of area. Centers of endemic species diversity are observed in provinces of Cajamarca (Cajamarca, Huaraz and Carhuaz (Ancash, and Canta and Huarochirí (Lima. Secondary centres of endemism with high concentrations of both endemics and near-endemics are found in San Ignacio and Cutervo (Cajamarca, Santiago de Chuco (La Libertad, Oxapampa (Pasco, and Cusco (Cusco. Current diversity patterns are highly correlated with collection densities, and further collecting is needed across all areas, especially from Arequipa, Ayacucho, Puno, Ancash, Huánuco, Amazonas and Cajamarca, where high levels of species diversity and endemism are indicated but only a few collections of many species are known.
Estrategias metacognitivas autorreguladoras y su relación con el aprendizaje de producción de textos en los estudiantes de 1er grado de secundaria en la I.E. 5051 Virgen de Fatima de Ventanilla - 2013
Hernández Santa Cruz, Elvia.
Universidad Nacional de Educacion - UNE El presente estudio establece la relación entre estrategias metacognitivas autorreguladoras y el aprendizaje de la producción de textos de los estudiantes de primer grado de secundaria de la LE. 5051 "Virgen de Fatima"- Ventanilla y se justifica pedagógica y metodológicamente porque contribuye a la consideración de estrategias metacognitivas autorreguladoras en el proceso del aprendizaje. También tiene justificación práctica porque sus resultados apo...
Agape Pimentel, Maritza Agustina
El propósito del estudio fue determinar el nivel de eficacia de los procesos de gestión administrativa e institucional en una institución educativa Fe y Alegría de Ventanilla. La población de la investigación está conformada por 40 docentes, 200 estudiantes, 3 directivos y 10 administrativos. Se evaluó aplicando encuestas validadas mediante juicio de expertos y alfa de cronbach por la autora de las mismas. Se analizaron los procesos de gestión administrativa e institución en base a las siguie...
Alva, Javier; Verastegui, George; Velasquez, Edgar; Pastor, Reyna; Moscoso, Betsy
To describe the supply and demand of clinical fields for undergraduate students of Peru. A descriptive study was considering as supply of clinical fields the total number of existing hospital beds in Peru. The demand was calculated using the total number of alumni registered in health science carrers following the clinical years or the internship. We calculated the number of beds per student and the coverage of clinical fields nationally and in some selected regions (Lima, Arequipa, La Libertad and Lambayeque). In 2009, Peru had 34,539 hospital beds, 78.5% of which pertained to the public sector and 48.4% are from Lima. We estimated that in 2008 44,032 alumni needed clinical fields, 70% from private universities, which grew 65% since 2005. The coverage of clinical fields, considering only interns from four carreers (medicine, nursery, obstetrics and dentistry) was only 31.5% at the national level. The number of beds per student oscillated between 0.5 in La Libertad to 0.82 in Lima with a national mean of 0.45. The supply of clinical fields for teaching undergraduates is insufficient to satisfy the demand, which continues to grow because of private universities, and hence requires urgent regulation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are food-borne pathogens of great importance and feature prominently in the etiology of developing world enteritis and travellers’ diarrhoea. Increasing antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter prevalence has been described globally, yet data from Peru is limited. Our objective was to describe the prevalence trends of fluoroquinolone and macrolide-resistant C. jejuni and C. coli stool isolates from three regions in Peru over a ten-year period. Methods Surveillance for enteric pathogens was conducted in Lima, Iquitos and Cusco between 2001 and 2010. Campylobacter stool isolates were tested for susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin, azithromycin and erythromycin. Susceptibilities were reviewed for 4652 isolates from Lima ( n = 3419, Iquitos ( n = 625 and Cusco ( n = 608. Results Comparing the study periods of 2001-2005 and 2006-2010, prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni isolates rose in the study areas of Lima (73.1% to 89.8%, p p C. coli rates also increased in Lima (48.1% to 87.4%, p p = 0.005. Small but significant increases in azithromycin-resistant and erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni prevalence were noted in Iquitos (2.2% to 14.9%, p p = 0.002, and erythromycin-resistant C. coli rates increased in Lima (0.0% to 5.3%, p = 0.038. The prevalence of C. jejuni isolates resistant to both ciprofloxacin and azithromycin increased in Iquitos (0.3% to 14.9%, p C. jejuni isolates resistant to both ciprofloxacin and erythromycin rose in Iquitos (0.0% to 14.9%, p C. coli prevalence increased in Lima (0.0% to 5.3%, p = 0.034. Conclusions These results have implications for the empirical management of enterocolitis in Peru. Ongoing surveillance is essential to guide appropriate antimicrobial use in this setting. Local epidemiological studies to explore the relationship between increasing antimicrobial resistance and agricultural or human antibiotic
Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is global health concern and a leading infectious cause of mortality. Reversing TB incidence and disease-related mortality is a major global health priority. Infectious disease mortality is directly linked to failure to adhere to treatments. Using technology to send reminders by short message services have been shown to improve treatment adherence. However, few studies have examined tuberculosis patient perceptions and attitudes towards using SMS technology to increase treatment adherence. In this study, we sought to investigate perceptions related to feasibility and acceptability of using text messaging to improve treatment adherence among adults who were receiving treatment for TB in Callao, Peru.We conducted focus group qualitative interviews with current TB positive and non-contagious participants to understand the attitudes, perceptions, and feasibility of using short message service (SMS reminders to improve TB treatment adherence. Subjects receiving care through the National TB Program were recruited through public health centers in Ventanilla, Callao, Peru. In four focus groups, we interviewed 16 patients. All interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic network analysis and codebook techniques were used to analyze data.Three major themes emerged from the data: limits on health literacy and information posed challenges to successful TB treatment adherence, treatment motivation at times facilitated adherence to TB treatment, and acceptability of SMS including positive perceptions of SMS to improve TB treatment adherence. The majority of patients shared considerations about how to effectively and confidentially administer an SMS intervention with TB positive participants.The overall perceptions of the use of SMS were positive and indicated that SMS technology may be an efficient way to transmit motivational texts on treatment, health education information, and simple reminders to increase treatment adherence
Nelson, Martha I.; Kasper, Matthew; Tinoco, Yeny; Simons, Mark; Romero, Candice; Silva, Marita; Lin, Xudong; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Fedorova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Wentworth, David; Holmes, Edward C.; Bausch, Daniel G.
It remains unclear whether lineages of influenza A(H3N2) virus can persist in the tropics and seed temperate areas. We used viral gene sequence data sampled from Peru to test this source–sink model for a Latin American country. Viruses were obtained during 2010–2012 from influenza surveillance cohorts in Cusco, Tumbes, Puerto Maldonado, and Lima. Specimens positive for influenza A(H3N2) virus were randomly selected and underwent hemagglutinin sequencing and phylogeographic analyses. Analysis of 389 hemagglutinin sequences from Peru and 2,192 global sequences demonstrated interseasonal extinction of Peruvian lineages. Extensive mixing occurred with global clades, but some spatial structure was observed at all sites; this structure was weakest in Lima and Puerto Maldonado, indicating that these locations may experience greater viral traffic. The broad diversity and co-circulation of many simultaneous lineages of H3N2 virus in Peru suggests that this country should not be overlooked as a potential source for novel pandemic strains. PMID:26196599
Pollett, Simon; Nelson, Martha I; Kasper, Matthew; Tinoco, Yeny; Simons, Mark; Romero, Candice; Silva, Marita; Lin, Xudong; Halpin, Rebecca A; Fedorova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B; Wentworth, David; Holmes, Edward C; Bausch, Daniel G
It remains unclear whether lineages of influenza A(H3N2) virus can persist in the tropics and seed temperate areas. We used viral gene sequence data sampled from Peru to test this source-sink model for a Latin American country. Viruses were obtained during 2010-2012 from influenza surveillance cohorts in Cusco, Tumbes, Puerto Maldonado, and Lima. Specimens positive for influenza A(H3N2) virus were randomly selected and underwent hemagglutinin sequencing and phylogeographic analyses. Analysis of 389 hemagglutinin sequences from Peru and 2,192 global sequences demonstrated interseasonal extinction of Peruvian lineages. Extensive mixing occurred with global clades, but some spatial structure was observed at all sites; this structure was weakest in Lima and Puerto Maldonado, indicating that these locations may experience greater viral traffic. The broad diversity and co-circulation of many simultaneous lineages of H3N2 virus in Peru suggests that this country should not be overlooked as a potential source for novel pandemic strains.
IDRC-supported research showed how to reduce the number of malaria mosquitoes in Northern Peru by up to 93%. IDRCINTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE. IDRC in ... and obesity that can cause these diseases? Researchers are analyzing advertising con- tent, children's exposure to television, and.
This inquiry deals with religion and politics in Peru from the beginning of agrarisation, c. 8000 B.C. up until AD 1991. Of central importance for the analysis are state formation and development, the relations between church and state, the internal and external relations within and among the
Angela Huanca Barrantes, a highly respected teacher of English as a foreign language (EFL) in the city of Ilo, has a strong impact on the lives of students at the Admirante Miguel Grau secondary school and at Centro Cultural Peruano Norteamericano, which is one of four binational centers in southern Peru. Due to Ms. Huanca's lack of understanding…
The report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing practices within the corporate sector in Peru, using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks, drawing on international experience and best practices in that field. This Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) Accounting & ...
Sweeney, Thomas W.; Toledo, Alejandro
Alejandro Toledo, the first Native person to be elected president of Peru, talks about his Quechua roots; his proposed constitutional amendment to ensure equal rights for indigenous peoples; financial support for Native cultural preservation efforts; and his number one priority--to fight poverty through education, focusing on basic education,…
malaria-carrying mosquitoes. Not only did the number of mosquito larvae decrease by 80-85%, farmers also con- served water and increased rice yields by up to 35%. IDRC is now funding research on how to spread this safer and more profitable farming technique. In July 2014, the Government of Peru endorsed the.
Mispireta, Monica L
Obesity in children at school age is an increasing problem in Peru. It concentrates in urban areas, mainly in Lima where one out of three children is overweight. An initial study in 80 schools in Lima showed that the lack of physical activity would have a greater impact on overweight and obesity in school children than the amount of food intake. More detailed studies are required. In spite of the limited information available regarding its determining factors, it is necessary to implement culturally-sensitive measures to fight this problem as part of the current nutritional policies, and prevent the problem from spreading, making sure the sustainability of the health system is not affected.
Many gay men in the popular sectors of Lima, Peru participate in vóley callejero, or street volleyball. The ethnographic data presented in this article describes verbal and corporal mechanisms through which gay identity emerges within the particular context of the street volleyball game, ultimately highlighting the contextual nature of identity. The volleyball players are not just hitting a ball back and forth, they are engaging in a meaningful activity that illuminates intersections of language, sexuality, and identity. Through the manipulation of the street into a volleyball court, the volleyball players create a space conducive to the articulation of particular verbal and embodied practices that index gay identity. The challenge to the regulations of "proper" volleyball through the practice of ritual insulting and the cultivation of gay volleyball technique are playful reconfigurations of gendered practices prominent in the sites where fieldwork was carried out.
Mesones Málaga, Gustavo Omar
This thesis develops a model evaluation in class of the critical thinking competence in mathematics, which was applied in the association of private schools ADECOPA constituted by 24 institutions with a population of 20,000 students, located in Lima - Peru. The purpose is to evaluate the competence far students, between the first and fourth grade of secondary Education and the time window far such assessment was between 2011 and 2015. lt has been noted that students that study in a profession...
Knoff, Marcelo; Cohen, Simone Chinicz; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Cárdenas-Callirgos, Jorge M.; Gomes, Delir Corrêa
Pseudorhabdosynochus jeanloui n. sp. (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) is described from specimens collected from the gills of the Pacific creolefish, Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae) from a fish market in Chorrillos, Lima, Peru. The new species is differentiated from other members of the genus by the structure of its sclerotized vagina, which has two spherical chambers of similar diameter. This is the first Pseudorhabdosynochus species described from the Pacific coast of America, the third species of the genus reported from South America and the first described from a member of Paranthias. PMID:25754099
Full Text Available Pseudorhabdosynochus jeanloui n. sp. (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae is described from specimens collected from the gills of the Pacific creolefish, Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae from a fish market in Chorrillos, Lima, Peru. The new species is differentiated from other members of the genus by the structure of its sclerotized vagina, which has two spherical chambers of similar diameter. This is the first Pseudorhabdosynochus species described from the Pacific coast of America, the third species of the genus reported from South America and the first described from a member of Paranthias.
Talledo, Miguel; Rivera, Irma N G; Lipp, Erin K; Neale, Angela; Karaolis, David; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R
A Vibrio cholerae bacteriophage, family Myoviridae, was isolated from seawater collected from the coastal water of Lima, Peru. Genome size was estimated to be 29 kbp. The temperate phage was specific to V. cholerae and infected 12/13 V. cholerae O1 strains and half of the four non-O1/non-O139 strains tested in this study. Vibrio cholerae O139 strains were resistant to infection and highest infection rates were obtained in low nutrient media amended with NaCl or prepared using seawater as diluent.
Schenk C.; Staib E.
We are in the second year of fieldwork surveying for Giant Otters in the southeastern rainforest of Peru, in three areas with differing levels of legal protection. While there is some illegal hunting still happening outside the protected areas, the main threat to the otters is badly-conducted tourism. Well-organised tourism can be a promising argument for establishing protected areas like national parks.
This report is the outcome of very close cooperation with the authorities of the Government of Peru. The authorities have been involved in all stages of the process, going back to the first phase of this programmatic study. The authorities proved instrumental in helping design the focus of this report, including the scope of a survey of businesses conducted for this study, the survey quest...
Garmendia Lorena, Fausto; Médico-Cirujano, Doctor en Medicina; Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas “Fausto Garmendia Lorena”, Programa Permanente de Capacitación para la Atención Integral de las Víctimas de la Violencia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Académico Honorario, Academia Nacional de Medicina
The most frequent types of violence occurring currently in Peru, including the political, self-inflicted, interpersonal within the family, produced to women, adolescents and older adults are reviewed. A historical reference to Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy is made as to its contents on violence and its perspectives for today. It highlights emerging forms of economic, criminal, labor and ecological types of violence. A new classification of violence taking into account the new modalities is ...
de la Puente Brunke, José
Full Text Available The Administration agent was a complex figure in Colonial Peru. This article aims to discuss that complexity, focusing its analysis on the Ministers of Lima’s Audiencia during the Seventeenth century. The concepts of greed (codicia and public good (bien público will be considered in that context, posing some ideas concerning the peculiar way of «selling» judicial posts, known as beneficio. The activities of some of the Audiencia’s Ministers in Lima will be discussed, trying to offer more references on their role in the viceregal society, as well as on their contemporaries’ perception regarding them.
El presente artículo pretende ofrecer una visión de la complejidad de la figura del agente de la administración pública en el Perú virreinal, centrando su análisis en los ministros de la Audiencia de Lima en el siglo XVII. Como punto de partida, se presentan testimonios a través de los cuales se percibe la tensión entre la «codicia» y el «bien público», y en ese contexto se plantean algunas reflexiones sobre el beneficio de oficios de justicia. Luego se analizan las actividades de algunos de esos ministros en la Lima de entonces, y se busca ofrecer mayores referencias con respecto a su papel en la sociedad virreinal, y en cuanto a la visión que sobre ellos tenían sus contemporáneos.
The earthquake that struck the central coast of Peru on 15 August 2007 was a disaster that mobilized international humanitarian assistance to address the needs of the affected people in the regions of Huancavelica, Ica, and Lima. It also was an opportunity to prove the effectiveness of regulations and procedures to facilitate the entry and distribution of donations and medical goods during a major emergency. In the first month after the earthquake, the national government approved new regulations that aimed to reduce waiting time while reducing the number of requisites required by customs. More than 5,500 tons of international donations arrived in Peru in a short period of time. Many donated medicines arrived unsorted, without an international non-proprietary (generic) name on the label, and some medicines did not have any relationship with the diseases that would appear in the aftermath of the event.
Mendoza-Mujica, Giovanna; Flores-León, Diana
To evaluate in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility to chloramphenicol (CHL) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) in strains of Bartonella bacilliformis from areas that are endemic to Bartonellosis in Peru, through three laboratory methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility to CHL and CIP from 100 strains of Bartonella bacilliformis isolated in patients from the regions of Ancash, Cusco, Cajamarca, Lima and La Libertad were evaluated. Strains were evaluated by: disk diffusion, E-test and agar dilution. 26% of the strains of Bartonella bacilliformis evaluated were resistant to CIP and 1% to CHL. Similar patterns of antimicrobial sensitivity / resistance were obtained in all three methods. Bartonella bacilliformis strains circulating in Peru have high levels of in vitro resistance to CIP, so it is advisable to expand research on the use of drug treatment regimens of the Bartonellosis. The methods of E-test and disk diffusion were the most suitable for assessment in vitro of antimicrobial susceptibility of the microorganism.
Rizzo, M F; Billeter, S A; Osikowicz, L; Luna-Caipo, D V; Cáceres, A G; Kosoy, M
In the present study, we investigated 238 fleas collected from cats and dogs in three regions of Peru (Ancash, Cajamarca, and Lima) for the presence of Bartonella DNA. Bartonella spp. were detected by amplification of the citrate synthase gene (16.4%) and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (20.6%). Bartonella rochalimae was the most common species detected followed by Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae. Our results demonstrate that dogs and cats in Peru are infested with fleas harboring zoonotic Bartonella spp. and these infected fleas could pose a disease risk for humans. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Villena, Jaime E
Peru is an upper medium-income developing country with an increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, including diabetes. To review and describe the epidemiology, drivers, and diabetes care plan in Peru. The medical literature was reviewed based on systematic searching of PubMed, Scielo, and various gray literature from the International Diabetes Federation, World Health Organization, and local Peruvian agencies. In Peru, diabetes affects 7% of the population. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 96.8% of outpatients visits with this condition. Type 1 diabetes has an incidence of 0.4/100,000 per year, and gestational diabetes affects 16% of pregnancies. The prevalence of glucose intolerance is 8.11% and that of impaired fasting glucose 22.4%. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome in adults is 34.7%, 17.5%, and 25%, respectively. Metabolic syndrome prevalence is greater in women and the elderly and at urban and low-altitude locations. Diabetes is the eighth cause of death, the sixth cause of blindness, and the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease and nontraumatic lower limb amputation. In Peru, diabetes accounts for 31.5% of acute myocardial infarctions and 25% of strokes. Infections, diabetic emergencies, and cardiovascular disorders are the main causes for admissions, with a mortality rate < 10%, mainly as a result of infections, chronic kidney disease, and stroke. Sixty-two percent of the population has health insurance coverage, with inequities in the distribution of health care personnel across the country. Less than 30% of treated patients have a hemoglobin A1c < 7%. Diabetes is a major health care issue in Peru that exposes difficult challenges and shortcomings. The national strategy for tackling diabetes includes promotion of healthy lifestyles; training primary care physicians and providing them with evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, safe and effective medications, and tools for monitoring treatment; and, finally, construction
Fiestas, Fabián; Unidad de Análisis y Generación de Evidencias en Salud Pública (UNAGESP), Centro Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico epidemiólogo.; Rojas, Ruth; Laboratorio de Neurobiología Molecular, Laboratorios de Investigación y Desarrollo, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Bióloga.; Gushiken, Alfonso; Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. médico, magíster en salud pública, magíster en ciencias sociales.; Gozzer, Ernesto; Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. médico salubrista, especialista en salud internacional.
Objectives. To identify factors associated to the probability of being the aggressor or the victim in cases of intimate partner physical violence. Materials and methods. A secondary data analysis was performed to an epidemiological survey done in seven cities in Peru (Lima, Arequipa, Huamanga, Trujillo, Cuzco, Callao and Maynas). 6399 men and women participated, of whom 3909 participants declared living together with an intimate partner at the time of the interview. Univariate and multiva...
Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma
Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae).
Bayer, Angela M.; Tsui, Amy O.; Hindin, Michelle J.
While numerous studies have explored adolescent sexual behavior in Peru, to date, none have explored how adolescents situate sexuality within the context of their broader lives. This information is needed to inform policies and programs. Life history interviews were conducted with 20 12–17 year-old females and males from a low-income settlement near Lima, Peru. Data were analyzed using holistic content analysis and grounded theory. Sexuality had a strong presence in adolescents’ lives. However, adolescents viewed the complete expression of their sexuality as a constrained choice. Constraints are due to the belief that sexual intercourse always results in pregnancy; the nature of sex education; the provision of proscriptive advice; and the family tensions, economic problems, racism and violence present in adolescents’ lives. Social and cultural factors seem to surpass and often suppress the physical and psychological dimensions of adolescents’ sexuality. The results of this study can inform policies and programs to support adolescents as they construct their sexuality and make sexuality-related decisions. PMID:20526920
Full Text Available The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650-1100 AD represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region's demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500-700 AD, Wari (Middle Horizon, 800-1000 AD and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000-1450 AD. We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast.
Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Azañedo, Diego; Antiporta, Daniel A; Cortés, Sandra
To establish regional prevalences of anemia in pregnant women receiving care at public clinics in Peru in 2015 and identify high-prevalence district conglomerates. An ecological study was carried out on data from pregnant women with anemia registered on the Nutritional Status Information System (SIEN) who received care in 7703 public clinics in 2015. Regional and district prevalences of gestational anemia were calculated. District conglomerates with a high prevalence of gestational anemia were identified using the Moran Index. Information was gathered from 311,521 pregnant women distributed in 1638 districts in Peru. The national prevalence of anemia was 24.2% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 24.0-24.3%), the rural prevalence was 30.5%, and the urban prevalence was 22.0%. The regions of Huancavelica (45.5%; 95% CI: 44.2-46.7%), Puno (42.8%; 95% CI: 41.9-43.7%), Pasco (38.5%; 95% CI: 36.9-40.0%), Cusco (36.0%; 95% CI: 35.3-36.8%), and Apurímac (32.0%; 95% CI: 30.8-33.1%) had the highest prevalences of anemia. The local Moran Index identified 202 high-priority districts (hot spots) (12.3% of total; 44 urban and 158 rural) located in Ancash, Apurímac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huánuco, Junín, La Libertad, Lima, Pasco, and Puno containing high-prevalence district conglomerates. Gestational anemia in Peru has its highest prevalence rates in rural and southern mountainous areas. The district conglomerates with high prevalence rates of gestational anemia coincide with the areas of high regional prevalence.
Cabello-Vílchez, Alfonso Martín; Reyes-Batlle, María; Montalbán-Sandoval, Esmelda; Martín-Navarro, Carmen Ma; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Elias-Letts, Rafaela; Guerra, Humberto; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Maciver, Sutherland K; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob
Balamuthia mandrillaris is an opportunistic free-living amoeba that has been reported to cause skin lesions and the fatal Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis (BAE) in humans and other animals. Currently, around 200 human BAE cases have been reported worldwide, although this number is considered to be underestimated. The highest number of BAE cases has been reported in the American continent, mainly in the southwest of the USA. Peru seems to be another hotspot for BAE with around 55 human cases having been identified, usually involving cutaneous infection, especially lesions in the central face area. The isolation of Balamuthia from environmental sources has been reported on only three prior occasions, twice from Californian soils and once from dust in Iran and so it seems that this amoeba is relatively rarely encountered in samples from the environment. We investigated that possibility of finding the amoebae in soil samples from different regions where clinical cases have been reported in Peru. Twenty-one samples were cultured in non-nutrient agar plates and were checked for the presence of B. mandrillaris-like trophozoites and/or cysts. Those samples that were positive for these amoebae by microscopic criteria were then confirmed by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene of B. mandrillaris. We have detected the presence of B. mandrillaris in four samples collected in the regions of Piura (3) and Lima (1) where infection cases have been previously reported. We hypothesize that B. mandrillaris is present in Peru in soil and dust which therefore constitutes a source of the infection for the BAE cases previously reported in this country. Further studies should be carried out in the area to confirm the generality of this finding.
Climate negotiations under the UNFCCC head this year towards the Paris deadline to adopta new legally-binding and universal agreement. This article summarizes the outcomes from the Lima Conference (December 2014), which laid the grounds for negotiations this year, and identifies the most sensible political issues currently addressed by this complex process. It also highlights some objectives and priorities of the Peruvian Presidency of COP20. Las negociaciones climáticas bajo la CMNUCC se ...
Roberts, D D; Etzler, M E; Goldstein, I J
Three forms of lectin (components I, II, and III) from lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) have been purified on an affinity support containing the synthetic type A blood group trisaccharide alpha-D-GalNAc-(1 leads to 3)-[alpha-L-Fuc-(1 leads to 2)]-beta-D-Gal-(1 leads to). Conversion of components I and II to component III has been achieved by reduction in 10(-2) M dithiothreitol. Isoelectric focusing of lima bean lectin in the presence of 8 M urea and beta-mercaptoethanol revealed charge heterogeneity of the lectin subunits. Three major subunit classes of apparent pI 7.05, 6.65, and 6.45, designated alpha, beta, and alpha', respectively, were identified; they occur in a relative abundance of 2:5:3. Green lima beans harvested before maturity lacked the alpha' subunit (pI 6.45) which appears to accumulate during seed maturation. The three subunits are glycoproteins of identical size and immunochemical reactivity. Identical NH2-terminal sequences were found for the three subunits. Amino acid analysis and tryptic peptide mapping indicated that the observed charge heterogeneity is probably due to differences in the primary structure of the subunits. Studies of subunit composition of charge isolectins provided evidence of nonrandom subunit assembly. A model is proposed involving pairing of a pI 6.65 subunit with either a pI 7.06 or 6.45 subunit to form dimeric units. Possible roles for subunit heterogeneity and ordered subunit assembly in determining the metal and sugar binding properties of lima bean lectin are discussed.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine blood lead levels in urban populations of children (n=2 510 and women (n=874 in the early postpartum in certain districts of Lima and Callao, and to correlate those levels with particular exposures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between July 1998 and January 1999 cross sectional study was conducted. The study population was selected using three sampling strategies in the government operated school system and from public pediatric and maternity hospitals at Lima and Callao, Peru. Study personnel were trained to collect finger stick blood samples with a protocol that minimizes external lead contamination. Lead determinations in blood and environmental samples were performed at the study site using portable anodic striping voltamenters. To determine the simultaneous effects of different predictors on blood lead levels, multivariate regression models were used to estimate adjusted mean differences. RESULTS: The mean blood lead level in the children studied was 9.9 µg/dl ranging from I µg/dl to 64 µg/dl with 29% of the children displaying values greater than 10 µg/dl and 9.4% at levels greater than 20 µg/dl. Among the women, the mean was 3.5 µg/dl (SD=2.4 µg/dl, and 2.4% (n=21 displayed levels greater than 10 µg/dl. Important differences were observed between the sample locations, and the highest levels were documented in the port region near Callao. The mean level of blood lead in this group was 25.6 µg/dl (SD=4.6 µg/dl, while among the rest of the sample it was 7.1 µg/dl (SD=5.1 µg/dl. The presence of a mineral storage area signified a difference in exposure in excess of 13 µg/dl for children living near the port area in contrast to the other children who were not as close to such fixed sources of lead exposure. For the participants in Lima, the risk of showing levels above 10 µg/dl was associated with exposure to high vehicular traffic. CONCLUSIONS: In metropolitan Lima, we conclude that the mean blood lead levels of
Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Mauchle, Fabian; Diaz, Amelia; Seiz, Gabriela; Rubli, Alex; Rossa, Andrea; Rosas, Gabriela; Ita, Niceforo; Calle, Victoria; Villegas, Esequiel; Ambrosetti, Paolo; Brönnimann, Stefan; Hunziker, Stefan; Jacques, Martin; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Konzelmann, Thomas; Gubler, Stefanie; Rohrer, Mario
The climate variability and change will have increasing influence on the economic and social development of all countries and regions, such as the Andes in Latin America. The CLIMANDES project (Climate services to support decision-making in the Andean Region) will address these issues in Peru. CLIMANDES supports the WMO Regional Training Centre (RTC) in Lima, which is responsible for the training of specialized human resources in meteorology and climatology in the South American Andes (Module 1). Furthermore, CLIMANDES will provide high-quality climate services to inform policy makers in the Andean region (Module 2). It is coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and constitutes a pilot project under the umbrella of the WMO-led Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The project is funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and runs from August 2012 - July 2015. Module 1 focuses on restructuring the curricula of Meteorology at the La Molina Agraria University (UNALM) and applied training of meteorologists of the Peruvian National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology (SENAMHI). In Module 2, the skills will be shared and developed in the production and delivery of high-quality climate products and services tailored to the needs of the decision makers in the pilot regions Cusco and Junín. Such services will benefit numerous sectors including agriculture, education, health, tourism, energy, transport and others. The goals of the modules 1 and 2 will be achieved through the collaboration of the UNALM, SENAMHI and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss, with the support of the University of Bern (UNIBE), Meteodat and WMO.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1970, an earthquake-induced rock and snow avalanche on Mt. Huascaran, Peru, buried the towns of Yungay and Ranrahirca. The magnitude 7.8 earthquake killed 66,794...
Lerner, R; Ferrando, D
In Peru, the prevalence and consequences of inhalant abuse appear to be low in the general population and high among marginalized children. Inhalant use ranks third in lifetime prevalence after alcohol and tobacco. Most of the use appears to be infrequent. Among marginalized children, that is, children working in the streets but living at home or children living in the street, the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious problem. Among children working in the streets but living at home, the lifetime prevalence rate for inhalant abuse is high, ranging from 15 to 45 percent depending on the study being cited. For children living in the streets, the use of inhalant is even more severe. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, most of these street children use inhalants on a daily basis. The lack of research on the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious impediment to development of intervention programs and strategies to address this problem in Peru. Epidemiologic and ethnographic research on the nature and extent of inhalant abuse are obvious prerequisites to targeted treatment and preventive intervention programs. The urgent need for current and valid data is underscored by the unique vulnerability of the youthful population at risk and the undisputed harm that results from chronic abuse of inhalants. Nonetheless, it is important to mention several programs that work with street children. Some, such as the Information and Education Center for the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Generation, and Centro Integracion de Menores en Abandono have shelters where street children are offered transition to a less marginal lifestyle. Teams of street educators provide the children with practical solutions and gain their confidence, as well as offer them alternative socialization experiences to help them survive the streets and avoid the often repressive and counterproductive environments typical of many institutions. Most of the children who go through these programs tend to abandon
known risk factors for TB include overcrowding, low socioeconomic conditions, high prevalence of HIV and diabetes, high prevalence of homelessness ...large shelters and working toward non- congregated housing for the homeless ”(103; 114). Over time, these strategies reduced the numbers of new TB cases...148). Similar results regarding the use of cost-effectiveness in decision-making were supported by another study in Australia (142). If cost
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the Physician-patient relationship and to determine the factors associated with a good perception of it by the patients that attend ambulatory care in the Carlos Lanfranco La Hoz Hospital (CLLHH of the Health Ministry (MINSA, during May 2014. Material and Methods: Transversal-comparative study performed with patients that attend ambulatory care of medical specialties. In this study, a structured semi closed questionnaire called PREMEPA was used and statistical calculations were made with 95% confidence level. Results: A total of 179 patients completed the questionnaire. Of those, 64.8% (116 were women, the average age was 42,1 ± 11,9 years old. 23% (41 of the patients perceived a good physician-patient relationship, 52% (93 regular and 25% (45 a bad relationship. The variables finally associated with a good physician -patient relationship were having between 18-35 years old (OR = 8,1 [IC95%; 1,6-40,1, personally choosing their physicians (OR = 20,5 [IC95%; 5,1-82,5, and be attended by a female physician (OR = 3,1 [IC 95%; 1,01-9,3]. Conclusions: There is a low percentage (23% of patients that perceive a good physician -patient relationship. Choosing their physician, being a young patient and be attended by a female physician influenced in having a good physician-patient relationship.
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the Physician-patient relationship and to determine the factors associated with a good perception of it by the patients that attend ambulatory care in the Carlos Lanfranco La Hoz Hospital (CLLHH of the Health Ministry (MINSA, during May 2014. Material and Methods: Transversal-comparative study performed with patients that attend ambulatory care of medical specialties. In this study, a structured semi closed questionnaire called PREMEPA was used and statistical calculations were made with 95% confidence level. Results: A total of 179 patients completed the questionnaire. Of those, 64.8% (116 were women, the average age was 42,1 ± 11,9 years old. 23% (41 of the patients perceived a good physician-patient relationship, 52% (93 regular and 25% (45 a bad relationship. The variables finally associated with a good physician -patient relationship were having between 18-35 years old (OR = 8,1 [IC95%; 1,6-40,1, personally choosing their physicians (OR = 20,5 [IC95%; 5,1-82,5, and be attended by a female physician (OR = 3,1 [IC 95%; 1,01-9,3]. Conclusions: There is a low percentage (23% of patients that perceive a good physician -patient relationship. Choosing their physician, being a young patient and be attended by a female physician influenced in having a good physician-patient relationship. Keywords: Physician-Patient
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate caregiver burden based on Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI and depression in caregivers on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II. METHODS: Literate individuals, 18 years or older, who spoke Spanish as their native language were included. Demographic characteristics: Age, sex, education, relationship to person with dementia, length of time caregiving, other sources of help for caring, impact on the household economy, family support, and perception of impaired health; and Clinical data on care-recipients: type of dementia, time since diagnosis, treatment, and Global Deterioration Scale (GDS; the ZBI and BDI-II. Descriptive and analytical statistics were employed to assess caregiver burden and predictors of higher burden in caregivers. RESULTS: A total of 92 informal caregivers were evaluated. Regarding care-recipients, 75% were 69 years old or over, 75% had at least one year since diagnosis, 73.9% had Alzheimer's disease, 84.8% received treatment, 75% scored 5 or over on the GDS. For caregivers, 75% were 55.5 years old or over, predominantly female (81.5%, married (83.7%, the spouse of care-recipients (60.87%, had at least 10 years of education (75.0% and one year of caregiving (75%, reduced entertainment time (90.2% and self-perception of impaired health (83.7%. Median score on the ZBI was 37.5 (minimum value = 3; and maximum value = 74. The coefficient of BDI was 1.38 (p-value <0.001. CONCLUSION: This sample of Peruvian informal caregivers showed elevated ZBI values. Self-perception of worsened health, repercussion on the family economy and time caregiving were the main determinants of ZBI, although only BDI was a consistent predictor of ZBI.
Cotlear, Ian; Mental Health Working Group in Peru, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico, candidato a magíster en epidemiología clínica.; Osada, Jorge; Mental Health Working Group in Peru, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico, candidato a magíster en epidemiología clínica.; Ceccarelli, Miguel; Mental Health Working Group in Peru, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Sociedad Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Estudiante de medicina.; Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Mental Health Working Group in Peru, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico, candidato a magíster en epidemiología clínica.; Vega-Dienstmaier, Johan; Mental Health Working Group in Peru, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Departamento de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico psiquiatra.
We carry out a cross sectional study pretends to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and their relation with the quantity of Internet use in hours in Public Internet Cabins (PIC). A total of 96 users of PIC completed a survey that included data of quantity, frequency and type of use of Internet and the self-administered Zung Depression Scale (ZDS). The prevalence of depressive symptoms (DS) was 8.33% (CI 3.92 – 16.23). No statistical relationship was found between the number of ho...
Aguirre, Diego; Bustinza, Daisy; Garvich, Mijail
Many studies have shown that using music and songs while learning a new language can be of great benefit to students in aspects such as grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. However, the use of songs in class as motivation to learn English is a subject that has not been explored thoroughly. The purpose of this study is to explore how the use of…
Lazo Montoya, Yessenia; Quenaya, Alejandra; Mayta-Tristán, Percy
.... The risk of developing EDs was measured using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), while mass media influence was measured using the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3...
De Los Santos, Miguel Angel; Águila, Carlos Manuel Del; Rojas, Maria Isabel; Falen, Juan Manuel; Nuñez, Oswaldo; Chávez, Eliana Manuela; Espinoza, Oscar Antonio; Pinto, Paola Marianella; Calagua, Martha Rosario
Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a heterogeneous disease caused by arginine vasopressin deficiency; its management implies a profound understanding of the pathophysiology and the clinical spectrum. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical characteristics that indicate organicity in children and adolescents with central diabetes insipidus treated at the Department of Endocrinology from The Child Health's Institute during 2001 to 2013. Cross-sectional, retrospective study. 79 cases of patients diagnosed with CDI (51 males and 28 females) from 1 month to 16 years of age were reviewed. For the descriptive analysis, measures of central tendency and dispersion were used; groups of organic and idiopathic CDI were compared using χ2-test and t-test. A p-valuediabetes insipidus were headache and visual disturbances; furthermore, anterior pituitary hormonal abnormalities suggest an underlying organic etiology.
This article discusses a dimension of fieldwork methodology often overlooked. It concerns the act of feeling (inferences) and how this subjective ability contributes to understanding cultural meanings, which are unspoken or encoded in dialogue, but remain unarticulated. The discovery of this
O’Shea, Michele S.; Girón, J. Maziel; Cabrera, Lilia; Lescano, Andrés G.; Taren, Douglas L
Disability is the result of interactions between biological and environmental factors including the physical, economic, and social barriers imposed on an individual by society. In low and middle-income countries, limited attention has been given to the situation of individuals with intellectual disabilities, who remain seriously neglected. Given the lack of resources available to address mental disorders, it is essential to examine the role of socioeconomic and socio-cultural factors in the l...
Lluque, Angela; Mosquito, Susan; Gomes, Cláudia; Riveros, Maribel; Durand, David; Tilley, Drake H; Bernal, María; Prada, Ana; Ochoa, Theresa J; Ruiz, Joaquim
The study was aimed to describe the serotype, mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance, and virulence determinants in Shigella spp. isolated from Peruvian children. Eighty three Shigella spp. were serogrouped and serotyped being established the antibiotic susceptibility. The presence of 12 virulence factors (VF) and integrase 1 and 2, along with commonly found antibiotic resistance genes was established by PCR. S. flexneri was the most relevant serogroup (55 isolates, 66%), with serotype 2a most frequently detected (27 of 55, 49%), followed by S. boydii and S. sonnei at 12 isolates each (14%) and S. dysenteriae (four isolates, 5%). Fifty isolates (60%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR) including 100% of S. sonnei and 64% of S. flexneri. Resistance levels were high to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (86%), tetracycline (74%), ampicillin (67%), and chloramphenicol (65%). Six isolates showed decreased azithromycin susceptibility. No isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, or ceftriaxone. The most frequent resistance genes were sul2 (95%), tet(B) (92%), cat (80%), dfrA1 (47%), blaOXA-1like (40%), with intl1 and intl2 detected in 51 and 52% of the isolates, respectively. Thirty-one different VF profiles were observed, being the ipaH (100%), sen (77%), virA and icsA (75%) genes the most frequently found. Differences in the prevalence of VF were observed between species with S. flexneri isolates, particularly serotype 2a, possessing high numbers of VF. In conclusion, this study highlights the high heterogeneity of Shigella VF and resistance genes, and prevalence of MDR organisms within this geographic region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; del Prado, Liza Nuñez; Parodi, José; Guevara-Silva, Erik; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Mar, Marcela; Montesinos, Rosa; Cortijo, Patricia
Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate caregiver burden based on Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) and depression in caregivers on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Methods Literate individuals, 18 years or older, who spoke Spanish as their native language were included. Demographic characteristics: Age, sex, education, relationship to person with dementia, length of time caregiving, other sources of help for caring, impact on the household economy, family support, and perception of impaired health; and Clinical data on care-recipients: type of dementia, time since diagnosis, treatment, and Global Deterioration Scale (GDS); the ZBI and BDI-II. Descriptive and analytical statistics were employed to assess caregiver burden and predictors of higher burden in caregivers. Results A total of 92 informal caregivers were evaluated. Regarding care-recipients, 75% were 69 years old or over, 75% had at least one year since diagnosis, 73.9% had Alzheimer's disease, 84.8% received treatment, 75% scored 5 or over on the GDS. For caregivers, 75% were 55.5 years old or over, predominantly female (81.5%), married (83.7%), the spouse of care-recipients (60.87%), had at least 10 years of education (75.0%) and one year of caregiving (75%), reduced entertainment time (90.2%) and self-perception of impaired health (83.7%). Median score on the ZBI was 37.5 (minimum value = 3; and maximum value = 74). The coefficient of BDI was 1.38 (p-value <0.001). Conclusion This sample of Peruvian informal caregivers showed elevated ZBI values. Self-perception of worsened health, repercussion on the family economy and time caregiving were the main determinants of ZBI, although only BDI was a consistent predictor of ZBI. PMID:29213929
Castro-Mujica, María del Carmen; Sullcahuamán-Allende, Yasser; Barreda-Bolaños, Fernando; Taxa-Rojas, Luis
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cancer in the world and is classified according to their origin in sporadic CRC (~ 70%) and genetic CRC (~ 30%), this latter involves cases of familial aggregation and inherited síndromes that predispose to CRC. To describe inherited CRC predisposition syndromes, polyposic and non-polyposic, identified in the Oncogenetics Unit at National Institute of Cancer Disease (INEN). A descriptive observational record from the attentions of the Oncogenetics Unit at INEN during 2009 to 2013. We included patients with personal or familiar history of CRC and/or colonic polyposis who were referred for clinical assessment to the Oncogenetics Unitat INEN. 59.3 % were female, 40.7 % male, 69.8% under 50 years old, 60.5% had a single CRC, 23.2% had more than one CRC or CRC associated with other extracolonic neoplasia and 32.6% had a familiar history of cancer with autosomal dominant inheritance. According to the clinical genetic diagnosis, 93.1% of the included cases were inherited syndromes that predispose to CRC, with 33.8% of colonic polyposis syndromes, 23.3% of hereditary nonpolyposis CRC syndromes (HNPCC) and 36.0% of CCRHNP probable cases. Clinical genetic evaluation of patients with personal or familiar history of CRC and/or colonic polyposis can identify inherited colorectal cancer predisposition syndromes and provide an appropriategenetic counseling to patients and relatives at risk, establishing guidelines to follow-up and prevention strategies to prevent morbidity and mortality by cancer.
Román, Karina; Castillo, Rosa; Gilman, Robert H.; Calderón, Maritza; Vivar, Aldo; Céspedes, Manuel; Smits, Henk L.; Meléndez, Paolo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Guerra, Humberto; Maves, Ryan C.; Matthias, Michael A.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Saito, Mayuko
Brucella melitensis is highly infectious for humans and can be transmitted to humans in a number of epidemiological contexts. Within the context of an ongoing brucellosis surveillance project, an outbreak at a Peruvian police officer cafeteria was discovered, which led to active surveillance (serology, blood culture) for additional cases among 49 police officers who had also eaten there. The cohort was followed up to 18 months regardless of treatment or symptoms. Active surveillance estimated the attack rate at 26.5% (13 of 49). Blood cultures from four cases were positive; these isolates were indistinguishable using multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis. This investigation indicates the importance of case tracking and active surveillance for brucellosis in the context of potential common source exposure. These results provide rationale for public health investigations of brucellosis index cases including the bioterrorism-related dissemination of Brucella. PMID:23382164
Vargas, Daniel; García, Luis; Gilman, Robert H; Evans, Carlton; Ticona, Eduardo; Ñavincopa, Marcos; Luo, Robert F; Caviedes, Luz; Hong, Clemens; Escombe, Rod; Moore, David A J
Sputum induction, bronchoalveolar lavage, or gastric aspiration are often needed to produce adequate diagnostic respiratory samples from people with HIV in whom tuberculosis is suspected. Since these procedures are rarely appropriate in less-developed countries, we compared the performances of a simple string test and the gold-standard sputum induction. 160 HIV-positive adults under investigation for tuberculosis, and 52 asymptomatic HIV-positive control patients underwent the string test followed by sputum induction. The string test detected tuberculosis in 14 patients in whom this disease was suspected; sputum induction detected only eight of them (McNemar's test, p=0·03). These preliminary data suggest that the string test is safe and effective for retrieval of useful clinical specimens for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, and is at least as sensitive as sputum induction. PMID:15639297
Román, Karina; Castillo, Rosa; Gilman, Robert H.; Calderón, Maritza; Vivar, Aldo; Céspedes, Manuel; Smits, Henk L.; Meléndez, Paolo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Guerra, Humberto; Maves, Ryan C.; Matthias, Michael A.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Saito, Mayuko
Brucella melitensis is highly infectious for humans and can be transmitted to humans in a number of epidemiological contexts. Within the context of an ongoing brucellosis surveillance project, an outbreak at a Peruvian police officer cafeteria was discovered, which led to active surveillance
JULIO INGA ARANDA
Full Text Available associated to life satisfaction. For this, it was built a seven levels scale (resentment, satisfaction of life, older adultpunishment, dependence by disability, social support, prosocial friendly identity, antisocial friendly identity. Theresults pointed out that socio demographic features of sample was similar to the national and international olderadults population. By other hand, it was found that interviewed old people has a high life satisfaction; neverthelessthey point out to have a high level of dissatisfaction en aspects such as body weakness, feelings of been given up byrelatives and loneliness or been hopeless. In addition, it was found that resentment was the first factor associated tolife satisfaction, follow by level of instruction, received social support, psychoactive substances consumption, family illtreating and friendly amount.
Deustua, Susana; Ros, Rosa
Since 2009, the Network for Astronomy School Education (NASE) has held 55+ workshops in countries in Asia, Africa, Europe and Latin America, training more than 1200 teachers and potentially reaching one million or more students. Like modern professional development programs, NASE’s emphasis is on interactive, hands-on learning. However, our emphasis is on “low-tech” tools that are readily available, and, inexpensive. Teachers are led through a series of activities that cover a wide range of topics in astronomy, more or less equivalent to that covered in the typical 1st year astronomy course in US colleges.In 2014 we adopted the Astronomy Diagnostic Test as pre- and post- workshop tests to guage the change in teachers’ knowledge as a result of participation in this intervention. In this paper we discuss the first results using the Astronomy Diagnostic Test in astronomy workshops in Peru during March 2014 and February 2015. NASE workskhops were held at the facilities of the Observatorio de Radio de Sicaya of the Instituto Geofisico del Peru, in Chupaca, a farming community approximately 20 km from the Andean city, Huancayo. Sponsors of the Chupaca workshop were the IGP, NASE and the UGEL (regional school district). The second workshop was held at the University of Ica, in the coastal city of Ica, 250 km south of Lima, sponsored by the Instituto Geofisico del Peru and the University, and the 3rd workshop in Lima.We will discuss our results, which for the most part do indeed show a positive change in knowledge, but in a couple of areas the change is either null or negative.
Martínez Alcalde, Lidia
Full Text Available Analysis of the different institutions that were established in Peru during the Modem Age for attendance of women, with references to the qualities and evolution of each one of them.
Análisis de las diferentes instituciones que se crean en el Perú en la Edad Moderna para la asistencia de mujeres, especificando las características y evolución de cada una de ellas.
This article describes the operations of soup kitchens in Peru for low-income women and their families; it is based on interviews with leaders and members of 12 soup kitchens in Lima, 21 women who took part in a workshop, and interviews with leaders of the Federation of Organizations of Self-Managed Soup Kitchens of Lima and Callao. Soup kitchens may be self-managed or started by women's groups and later recognized and funded by government programs. Government programs usually include a range of support services, such as daycare. More recent changes in both types of programs include provision of income generation or social service activity to help families increase income and cut household expenses. Kitchens operate with a governing board and a decision-making assembly. Soup kitchens are located in rented, borrowed, or owned properties. Self-managed kitchens can have 35-100 members. Active members cook and receive a set amount in return. Kitchens prepare about 100-560 meals/day and charge less than 1 new sol. The law requires the state to cover 65% of food costs. Kitchens begin operations at 5:30 AM. Soup kitchens operate connected activities depending upon member's age, their children's ages, family size, and commitment. There are many benefits and sacrifices. Members gain confidence, self-assurance, knowledge, and self-esteem due to capacity building, skills acquired, and social recognition. Women's participation affects gender relations in their family, sometimes including domestic tension and conflict. Soup kitchens are valued for the improvement they foster in living standards of members and their families.
Alcas, Olenka; Salazar, Miguel A
To describe the frequency and characteristics of complications of cochlear implant (CI) surgery at Edgardo Rebagliati Martins Hospital of social security in Lima-Peru between 2006 and 2015. A retrospective descriptive study of patients that underwent CI surgery between August 2006 and December 2015. Among the 107 patients with CIs, the overall proportion of complications was 18.7% (20/107): 14.9% (16/107) of minor complications, and 3.7% (4/107) of major complications. Regarding the time of onset of complications, 2.8% (3/107) were intraoperative and 14% (15/107) postoperative. CI surgery in Peru is a safe procedure with a low frequency of major complications, representing an effective therapy for patients with sensorineural hearing loss who do not respond to hearing aids.
Manuel Fernández Arata
Full Text Available Abstract The perceived self-efficacy is considered as an important concept in many areas of the behavior, especially in teaching performance and stress. This research paper reports the preliminary psychometric findings based on the Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk, 2001 in 313 elementary teachers and 352 high school teachers in Lima, Peru. The results concerning item analysis, reliability and internal structure support the psychometric integrity of this instrument in both samples. These results also suggest cross-cultural comparability of the constructs assessed. Given the importance of perceived self-efficacy and stress intervention amongst teachers, this instrument provides a reliable and structurally valid system for measuring these factors. Resumen La autoeficacia percibida es un concepto importante en muchas áreas del comportamiento, y muy especialmente en el desempeño docente y en el estrés. Justamente, el presente artículo de investigación reporta los hallazgos psicométricos preliminares de la aplicación de la Escala de Autoeficacia Percibida (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk, 2001 en 313 maestros de enseñanza elemental y 352 de secundaria en Lima, Perú. Los resultados concernientes al análisis de ítems, confiabilidad y estructura interna respaldan la integridad psicométrica de este instrumento en ambos grupos de participantes. Estos resultados también sugieren la comparabilidad intercultural de los constructos evaluados. Dada la relevancia de la eficacia percibida en la investigación y la intervención sobre el estrés docente, el instrumento permite una vía métrica que puede dar información confiable y estructuralmente válida.
Cinthya Flores Jiménez
Full Text Available RESUMEN El entusiasmo por el trabajo (work engagement es un constructo que integra sentimientos de Vigor, Dedicación y Absorción (Schaufeli, Salanova, González-Romá y Bakker, 2002. El presente estudio tiene por objetivo investigar la validez factorial de la Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES en las versiones de 15 y 9 ítems en una muestra de 145 profesores de la ciudad de Lima, Perú. Se utilizaron análisis exploratorios y análisis factoriales confirmatorios. Los resultados mostraron que la UWES tiene adecuadas propiedades psicométricas, respetando su estructura tridimensional y, particularmente, la versión de 9 ítems evidenció los mejores índices de ajuste. Futuros estudios deberán confirmar estos hallazgos. ABSTRACT Work engagement is a construct that integrates feelings of vigor, dedication and absorption (Schaufeli, Salanova, Gonzalez-Roma and Bakker, 2002. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factorial validity of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES with versions of 15 and 9 items, in a sample by 145 teachers from Lima, Peru. We used exploratory analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The results show that the UWES has adequate psychometric properties, while respecting its three-dimensional structure, and particularly the 9 items version showed better indices of adjustment. Future studies will be required to confirm these findings.
Zegarra Zamalloa, Carlos Orlando; Cuba Fuentes, Maria Sofía
To determine the frequency of Internet addiction and its relationship with the development of social skills in adolescents in the town of Condevilla, district of San Martin de Porres, Lima - Peru. The degree of social skills and level of internet use was evaluated in adolescents from 10 to 19 years of 5th to 11th grades in two secondary schools in the town of Condevilla. Classrooms were randomly selected, and the questionnaires were applied to all adolescents. Two questionnaires were applied: Scale for Internet Addiction of Lima to determine the extent of Internet use, and the Social Skills Test from the Ministry of Health of Peru, which evaluates self-esteem, assertiveness, communication and decision-making. The analyses by Chi2 test and Fisher's exact test, as well as a generalized linear model (GLM) were performed using the binomial family. Both questionnaires were applied to 179 adolescents, of whom 49.2% were male. The main age was 13 years, 78.8% of which were in secondary school. Internet addiction was found in 12.9% of respondents, of whom the majority were male (78.3%, p = 0.003) and had a higher prevalence of low social skills (21.7%, p = 0.45). In multivariate analysis, the independent factors associated with Internet addiction were gender (p = 0.016) and to have low social skills compared to high social skills (p = 0.004). In adolescents, there is a relationship between internet addiction and low social skills, among which the area of communication is statistically significant.
One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Peru. The first of 13 brief subsections focuses on Peru's land and people. A presentation of a potter's history of Peru is followed by a discussion of the Chavin Cult (800…
May, Steven R.; Butler, Robert F.
Paleomagnetic samples were collected from 15 sites in the early Cretaceous Puente Piedra Formation near Lima, Peru. This formation consists of interbedded volcanic flows and marine sediments and represents the oldest known rocks of the Andean coastal province in this region. The Puente Piedra Formation is interpreted as a submarine volcanic arc assemblage which along with an overlying sequence of early Cretaceous clastic and carbonate rocks represents a terrane whose paleogeographic relationship with respect to the Peruvian miogeocline in pre-Albian time is unknown. Moderate to high coercivities, blocking temperatures below 320°C, and diagnostic strong-field thermomagnetic behavior indicate that pyrrhotite is the dominant magnetic phase in the Puente Piedra Formation. This pyrrhotite carries a stable CRM acquired during an event of copper mineralization associated with the intrusion of the Santa Rosa super-unit of the Coastal Batholith at about 90 ± 5 m.y. B.P. The tectonically uncorrected formation mean direction of: D = 343.2°, I = -28.6°, α 95 = 3.4° is statistically concordant in inclination but discordant in declination with respect to the expected direction calculated from the 90-m.y. reference pole for cratonic South America. The observed declination indicates approximately 20° of counterclockwise rotation of the Puente Piedra rocks since about 90 m.y. This is consistent with other paleomagnetic data from a larger crustal block which may indicate modest counterclockwise rotation during the Cenozoic associated with crustal shortening and thickening in the region of the Peru-Chile deflection.
Westfall, Andrew O.; Paz, Jorge; Moran, Fiorella; Carbajal-Gonzalez, Danny; Callacondo, David; Avalos, Odalie; Rodriguez, Martin; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Echevarria, Juan; Willig, James H.
Objectives In developing nations, the use of operational parameters (OPs) in the prediction of clinical care represents a missed opportunity to enhance the care process. We modeled the impact of multiple measurements of antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence on antiretroviral treatment outcomes in Peru. Design And Methods Retrospective cohort study including ART naïve, non-pregnant, adults initiating therapy at Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima-Peru (2006-2010). Three OPs were defined: 1) Medication possession ratio (MPR): days with antiretrovirals dispensed/days on first-line therapy; 2) Laboratory monitory constancy (LMC): proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 viral load or CD4 reported; 3) Clinic visit constancy (CVC): proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 clinic visit. Three multi-variable Cox proportional hazard (PH) models (one per OP) were fit for (1) time of first-line ART persistence and (2) time to second-line virologic failure. All models were adjusted for socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory variables. Results 856 patients were included in first-line persistence analyses, median age was 35.6 years [29.4-42.9] and most were male (624; 73%). In multivariable PH models, MPR (per 10% increase HR=0.66; 95%CI=0.61-0.71) and LMC (per 10% increase 0.83; 0.71-0.96) were associated with prolonged time on first-line therapies. Among 79 individuals included in time to second-line virologic failure analyses, MPR was the only OP independently associated with prolonged time to second-line virologic failure (per 10% increase 0.88; 0.77-0.99). Conclusions The capture and utilization of program level parameters such as MPR can provide valuable insight into patient-level treatment outcomes. PMID:24098475
Jorge L Salinas
Full Text Available In developing nations, the use of operational parameters (OPs in the prediction of clinical care represents a missed opportunity to enhance the care process. We modeled the impact of multiple measurements of antiretroviral treatment (ART adherence on antiretroviral treatment outcomes in Peru.Retrospective cohort study including ART naïve, non-pregnant, adults initiating therapy at Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima-Peru (2006-2010. Three OPs were defined: 1 Medication possession ratio (MPR: days with antiretrovirals dispensed/days on first-line therapy; 2 Laboratory monitory constancy (LMC: proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 viral load or CD4 reported; 3 Clinic visit constancy (CVC: proportion of 6 months intervals with ≥1 clinic visit. Three multi-variable Cox proportional hazard (PH models (one per OP were fit for (1 time of first-line ART persistence and (2 time to second-line virologic failure. All models were adjusted for socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory variables.856 patients were included in first-line persistence analyses, median age was 35.6 years [29.4-42.9] and most were male (624; 73%. In multivariable PH models, MPR (per 10% increase HR=0.66; 95%CI=0.61-0.71 and LMC (per 10% increase 0.83; 0.71-0.96 were associated with prolonged time on first-line therapies. Among 79 individuals included in time to second-line virologic failure analyses, MPR was the only OP independently associated with prolonged time to second-line virologic failure (per 10% increase 0.88; 0.77-0.99.The capture and utilization of program level parameters such as MPR can provide valuable insight into patient-level treatment outcomes.
.... Esta demostracion se apoya en un estudio que se hizo sobre los recursos para la atencion de desastre en Lima y Callao, en la hipotesis de ocurrencia de un sismo de gran magnitud acompanado de un tsunami...
Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.
Martha Barriga Tello
Full Text Available En cualquier sociedad, como en la Lima virreinal, las imágenes que se producen por razones artísticas o religiosas pueden ser interpretadas y consideradas de diversas maneras por los observadores y usuarios. Esto es posible por su carácter abierto, que permite su apropiación para diversos objetivos. Palabras claves: Arte virreinal, Lima, objeto de arte.
Cuba Fuentes, María Sofía; Zegarra Zamalloa, Carlos Orlando; Reichert, Sonja; Gill, Dawn
Quaternary Prevention is defined as the action taken to identify patients at risk of overtreatment, to protect them from additional medical treatments, and to suggest interventions that are ethically acceptable. Many countries and organizations have joined in the efforts to practice quaternary prevention. These countries started a campaign called Choosing Wisely that implements recommendations in order to avoid harming patients. To determine the attitudes, perceptions and awareness towards Quaternary Prevention and the practice of Choosing Wisely Canada Recommendations among family doctors working in the Social Security System in Peru. A questionnaire was developed after reviewing the literature and contacting experts in the field and was sent by email to all 64 family physicians in the Social Security System (Essalud) in Lima Peru. Responses were received from 40 participants. The response rate was 64%. Approximately 95% reported that they understand the concept of quaternary prevention. Agreement with all the recommendations was 90% or higher. In most of the recommendations the applicability was more than 80%. The most important barriers perceived for the practice of Quaternary Prevention were patients expectations (33%). There are positive perceptions towards Quaternary Preventions and Choosing Wisely recommendations in the family doctors of social security in Lima Peru.
Vera Aguilera, Alejandro
Full Text Available This article seeks to expand the current knowledge about the circulation of music in the Viceroyalty of Peru, through a comparative study between music scores from the colonial period that have been preserved in the cathedrals of Lima and Santiago de Chile. Contributing with new musical and calligraphic concordances, it shows that some of the works held in Santiago were copied in the viceregal capital. It also raises convincing hypotheses about the possible Spanish origin of certain musical sources, as well as methodological contributions for the study of music copyists, complementing the existing ones. Finally, it goes on to question important assumptions about the musical life of Lima cathedral that have been transmitted in previous works.El presente trabajo busca ampliar el conocimiento actual sobre la circulación musical en el virreinato del Perú por medio de un estudio comparado entre las partituras del período colonial que se han conservado en las catedrales de Lima y Santiago de Chile. De esta forma, se establecen nuevas correspondencias tanto musicales como caligráficas, demostrándose que algunas de las obras conservadas en Santiago fueron copiadas en la capital del virreinato; se formulan hipótesis convincentes acerca del posible origen español de ciertas fuentes musicales; y se realizan aportaciones metodológicas para el estudio de los copistas de música, que complementan las ya existentes. Finalmente, el trabajo permite cuestionar importantes premisas sobre la vida musical de la catedral de Lima que nos han sido transmitidas en trabajos previos.
Ayala, Elizabeth; Carnero, Andrés M
Evidence on the prevalence and determinants of burnout among military acute and critical care nursing personnel from developing countries is minimal, precluding the development of effective preventive measures for this high-risk occupational group. In this context, we aimed to examine the association between the dimensions of burnout and selected socio-demographic and occupational factors in military acute/critical care nursing personnel from Lima, Peru. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 93 nurses/nurse assistants from the acute and critical care departments of a large, national reference, military hospital in Lima, Peru, using a socio-demographic/occupational questionnaire and a validated Spanish translation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Total scores for each of the burnout dimensions were calculated for each participant. Higher emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation scores, and lower personal achievement scores, implied a higher degree of burnout. We used linear regression to evaluate the association between each of the burnout dimensions and selected socio-demographic and occupational characteristics, after adjusting for potential confounders. The associations of the burnout dimensions were heterogeneous for the different socio-demographic and occupational factors. Higher emotional exhaustion scores were independently associated with having children (pintensive care unit compared with the recovery room (pcare nursing personnel, potential screening and preventive interventions should focus on younger/less experienced nurses/nurse assistants, who are single, have children, or work in the most acute critical care areas (e.g. the emergency room/intensive care unit).
Exebio, Luis E Moreno; Rodríguez, Javier; Sayritupac, Freddy
To determine the quantity of counterfeit pharmaceutical drugs found by the National Quality Control Center (Centro Nacional de Control de Calidad (CNCC), Instituto Nacional de Salud, Peru) during the period from 2005&2008, and the types and properties of these drugs. A form was created to amass the relevant data collected directly from CNCC reports. The reports underwent a review and analysis process, and where counterfeiting was confirmed, it was categorized by type into one of four groups. The percentage of counterfeit drugs relative to the total drugs evaluated was: 3.0% in 2005, 5.0% in 2006, 7.3% in 2007, and 9.2% in 2008. The main groups of counterfeit drugs, classified according to the World Health Organization Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, were: alimentary tract and metabolism, 34.5% (29.1%-39.8%); antiinfectives for systemic use, 21.1% (16.5%-25.7%); nervous system, 17.1% (12.8%-21.3%); and musculo-skeletal system, 15.4% (11.3%-19.5%). The most common type of forgery occurred in cases where the drug contained the correct amount of active ingredients, but the manufacturer was one other than the one indicated (62.4% of the total counterfeit drugs); and medications that did not contain any active ingredient (22.4%). Of the counterfeit drugs, 61.0% (56.0%-67.0%) were national brands and 39.0%, (33.0%-44.0%) were imported. The pharmaceutical formulations with the highest rate of forgery were tablets, 66.0% (60.0%-71.0%); injectables, 19.0% (14.0%-23.0%); and capsules 7.0% (4.0%-10.0%). From 2005-2008, drug counterfeiting had an average annual variation of 45%. Drug counterfeiting was shown to be most prevalent among national brands - as opposed to imported medications - although the types and formulations of the fake drugs attest to a certain level of sophistication employed in the forgery process. The counterfeiting of life-saving drugs, such as antimicrobials, signifies a serious public health threat.
... No. FD 35885] Peru Land Acquisition 2, LLC--Acquisition Exemption--Rail Line of The City of Peru, Ill. Peru Land Acquisition 2, LLC (PLA2), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from the City of Peru, Ill. (Peru) ownership of approximately 3.5 miles of rail...
Duggan, Catherine; Dvaladze, Allison L; Tsu, Vivien; Jeronimo, Jose; Constant, Tara K Hayes; Romanoff, Anya; Scheel, John R; Patel, Shilpen; Gralow, Julie R; Anderson, Benjamin O
Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates continue to rise in Peru, with related deaths projected to increase from 1208 in 2012, to 2054 in 2030. Despite improvements in national cancer control plans, various barriers to positive breast cancer outcomes remain. Multiorganisational stakeholder collaboration is needed for the development of functional, sustainable early diagnosis, treatment and supportive care programmes with the potential to achieve measurable outcomes. In 2011, PATH, the Peruvian Ministry of Health, the National Cancer Institute in Lima, and the Regional Cancer Institute in Trujillo collaborated to establish the Community-based Program for Breast Health, the aim of which was to improve breast health-care delivery in Peru. A four-step, resource-stratified implementation strategy was used to establish an effective community-based triage programme and a practical early diagnosis scheme within existing multilevel health-care infrastructure. The phased implementation model was initially developed by the Breast Cancer Initiative 2·5: a group of health and non-governmental organisations who collaborate to improve breast cancer outcomes. To date, the Community-based Program for Breast Health has successfully implemented steps 1, 2, and 3 of the Breast Cancer Initiative 2·5 model in Peru, with reports of increased awareness of breast cancer among women, improved capacity for early diagnosis among health workers, and the creation of stronger and more functional linkages between the primary levels (ie, local or community) and higher levels (ie, district, region, and national) of health care. The Community-based Program for Breast Health is a successful example of stakeholder and collaborator involvement-both internal and external to Peru-in the design and implementation of resource-appropriate interventions to increase breast health-care capacity in a middle-income Latin American country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T.; Foeppl, H.; Valenzuela, A.
The Alfven critical velocity mechanism for ionization of a neutral gas streaming across the magnetic field has been demonstrated in laboratory experiments. In March 1983, two rocket-borne experiments with Ba and Sr tested the effect in the wall-less laboratory of space from Punto Lobos, Peru, near 430 km altitude. 'Star of Lima' used a conical Ba shaped charge aimed at an instrument payload about 2 km away. Because of rocket overperformance the detonation occurred in partial sunlight, so that less than 21.6 percent of the ionizing UV was present. Particle and field measurements indicate the production of hot electrons and waves in the energy and frequency range that are respectively predicted to produce a cascade of ionization by the Alfven mechanism. However, the ionization fluxes and wave energy density did not reach cascade levels, and optical observations indicate that only 2.5 to 5 x 10 to the 20th Ba ions were produced. A substantial portion and perhaps all of the ionization could have been produced by solar UV. The failure of the Alfven process in this experiment is not well understood.
Bayer, Angela M; Cabrera, Lilia Z; Gilman, Robert H; Hindin, Michelle J; Tsui, Amy O
We analyzed the association between sub-scales developed with adolescents and the outcomes of precoital behaviors and vaginal sex in Lima, Peru. Adolescent participants in key informant sessions operationalized concepts identified during qualitative concept mapping into several sub-scales. Face and content validity testing and pilot application with respondent debriefing were used to refine the sub-scales. Three hundred 15-17 year olds were surveyed about the sub-scales, socio-demographics and sexual behaviors. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed six sub-scales, self-image, goals and decision-making, family education, parental rules/control, school support and peer support, which we regressed on the outcomes. Twice as many males as females reported more than three precoital behaviors and vaginal sex. Higher peer support reduced the likelihood of vaginal sex and precoital behaviors and higher family education reduced precoital behaviors. Results affirm the importance of including adolescents in the entire research process and of sex education with family- and peer-based strategies. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reni Shinta Dewi, Dinalestari Purbawati
Full Text Available In 2010, one of the policies at Semarang Government is to the arrangement of the cadgers with the concept of the food court at Simpang Lima area. A number of shelter used as a culinary center grouped by type of business. This condition is apparently an impact on the development of the business has been run by cadgers. Therefore this study aimed to determine differences in business development both before and after the relocation of cadgers in the area of Simpang Lima Semarang. The study was conducted in the city of Semarang with a sample of 45 traders who occupy the shelter. The research method used was a comparative study. Further variables that all indicators have met the validity will be tested using different test Paired Sample T- Test. The results showed that there are differences in the development of business both before and after the relocation of cadgers in the area of Simpang Lima Semarang better on the indicators of turnover, profit/gain levels, the extent of effort, comfort, venture capital, number of employees and number of consumers. From the factors of business growth can be seen that the factor turnover, profit/gain levels, the extent of the business, venture capital, number of employees, the number of consumers and the number of productivity by traders felt better when compared before relocation than after relocation. Meanwhile as for the comfort factor by merchants considered to be in good condition at the time after relocation. Recommendations can be given the necessity of the payment made at one door/cashier using the concept that each customer can buy in any shop without fear that the buyer does not pay for the food they buy it’s . This concept can be done with the dealer manager agreement with the merchant so good between the consumer and the merchant is not harmed.
Bambarén-Alatrista, Celso; Alatrista-Gutiérrez, María Del Socorro
This study was performed to calculate the carbon footprint generated by third-level health care centers located in Lima, Peru, in 2013. Reports were obtained on the consumption of energy resources and water as well as on waste generation from the five centers, which contributed to climate change with an emission of 14,462 teq of CO2. A total of 46% of these emissions were associated with fuel consumption by the powerhouse, power generators, and transport vehicles; 44% was related to energy consumption; and the remaining 10% was related to the use of water and generation of solid hospital waste. CO2, N2O, and CH4 are the greenhouse gases included in the estimated carbon footprint. Our results show that hospitals have a negative environmental impact, mainly due to fossil fuel consumption.
Lie Goan Hong
Full Text Available Nilai gizi beras lima varitas padi unggul. (The nutritional value of rice of five high-yielding varieties. Presented at the First Asian Congress of Nutrition, Hyderabad, January 28 - February 2, 1971. The protein contents of IRRI rice varieties were: 7% in PB 5 (IRRI 5, 6.4% in PB 8 (IRRI 8 and 9% in C4-63. The Indonesian high-yielding rice varieties had protein contents of 6% in Shinta, and 7.3% in Dewi Ratih, compared to 6% in brown rice. The PER values of PB 5 and PB 8 were 2.3 and 2.5 while that of Shinta and brown rice were 2.2 and 2.1. The PER value of skimmed milk was 2.9. The NPU-op values of those four rice varieties ranged from 52 to 54, but was only 40 for C4-63. Fortification with L-lysine monohydrochloride increased the NPU. Varitas-varitas padi PB 5 dan PB 8 lebih disukai orang karena lebih enak rasanya, terutama jenis Shinta dan C4-63. Menjadi pertanyaan apakah jenis-jenis ini mempunyai kualitas protein yang lebih baik, disamping daya hasil tinggi dan ciri-ciri lain.Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mencari nilai gizi beras kelima varitas padi.
Mendoza, A.; Castillo, E.; Gamarra, N.; Huamán, T.; Perea, M.; Monroi, Y.; Salazar, R.; Coronel, J.; Acurio, M.; Obregón, G.; Roper, M.; Bonilla, C.; Asencios, L.; Moore, D. A. J.
OBJECTIVE To deliver rapid isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP) drug susceptibility testing (DST) close to the patient, we designed a decentralisation process for the microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay in Peru and evaluated its reliability. METHODS After 2 weeks of training, laboratory staff processed ≥120 consecutive sputum samples each in three regional laboratories. Samples were processed in parallel with MODS testing at an expert laboratory. Blinded paired results were independently analysed by the Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) according to predetermined criteria: concordance for culture, DST against INH and RMP and diagnosis of multidrug-resistant t uberculosis (MDR-TB) ≥ 95%, McNemar's P > 0.05, kappa index (κ) ≥ 0.75 and contamination 1–4%. Sensitivity and specificity for MDR-TB were calculated. RESULTS The accreditation process for Callao (126 samples, 79.4% smear-positive), Lima Sur (n = 130, 84%) and Arequipa (n = 126, 80%) took respectively 94, 97 and 173 days. Pre-determined criteria in all regional laboratories were above expected values. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting MDR-TB in regional laboratories were >95%, except for sensitivity in Lima Sur, which was 91.7%. Contamination was 1.0–2.3%. Mean delay to positive MODS results was 9.9–12.9 days. CONCLUSION Technology transfer of MODS was reliable, effective and fast, enabling the INS to accredit regional laboratories swiftly. PMID:21219684
del Mar, Juan Quintanilla; Sicardy, Bruno; Giraldo, Víctor Ayma; Callo, Víctor Raúl Aguilar
Peru and France are to conclude an agreement to provide Peru with an astronomical observatory equipped with a 60-cm diameter telescope. The principal aims of this project are to establish and develop research and teaching in astronomy. Since 2004, a team of researchers from Paris Observatory has been working with the University of Cusco (UNSAAC) on the educational, technical and financial aspects of implementing this venture. During an international astronomy conference in Cusco in July 2009, the foundation stone of the future Peruvian Observatory was laid at the top of Pachatusan Mountain. UNSAAC, represented by its Rector, together with the town of Oropesa and the Cusco regional authority, undertook to make the sum of 300,000€ available to the project. An agreement between Paris Observatory and UNSAAC now enables Peruvian students to study astronomy through online teaching.
Full Text Available Cet article montre que la dégradation du Centre de Lima (Lima Cuadrada s'aggrave sans cesse, en particulier en raison d'intérêts économiques qui jouent à la spéculation sur les sols elle deviendra irréversible si des mesures ne sont pas prises par les autorités municipales ou nationales. El artículo muestra que la degradación de Lima Cuadrada ha ido empeorando cada vez más, particularmente debido a intereses económicos que especulan sobre el valor del suelo. Pronto se volverá irreversible si las autoridades municipales o nacionales no intervienen. This article shows that Central Lima (Lima Cuadrada is in a continual state of degradation due, in great part, to the economic interests, which speculate with land values. It will soon be irreversible if the municipal or national authorities do not take swift action.
Elias Llanos, Carlos Fernando [UNESP
A partir da obra do violonista peruano Félix Casaverde, o presente trabalho disserta sobre as diversas tensões que perpassam o trabalho do referido músico e seu contexto político e cultural. Desde uma abordagem crítica das relações de poder na música, revisamos alguns aspectos da convivência social, atravessados pelas definições de racismo, discriminação e exclusão, que delimitaram a construção das alteridades na cidade de Lima, a capital do Peru, entre finais do século XIX e grande parte do ...
Sabogal Dunin Borkowski, Ana
The article looks over the situation and management of the environmental research in Peru, with regard to the national politic to increase the budget for research. Moreover, the characteristics and methodology of the environmental sciences research are addressed and its difficulties are discussed. The national efforts and strategy to improve the management of environmental research are analyzed, establishing the need to emphasize efforts in the promotion of applied environmental research. Fin...
Fitri Dwi Agus Maulidiyah
Full Text Available Permasalahan utama PKL di Kawasan Pasar Baru Gresik adalah banyaknya kegagalan relokasi yang disebabkan kurangnya keterlibatan PKL dalam menentukan lokasi berdagang PKL. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan faktor yang mempengaruhi kriteria lokasi pedagang kaki lima berdasarkan preferensi pedagang kaki lima itu sendiri di Kawasan Pasar Baru Gresik. Tahapan penelitian yang dilakukan adalah mengidentifikasi karakteristik pedagang kaki lima dengan menggunakan teknik analisa statistik desktiptif. Kemudian menentukan faktor yang mempengaruhi kriteria lokasi berdagang berdasarkan preferensi pedagang kaki lima dengan menggunakan content analysis. Maka dari itu hasil dari penelitian adalah faktor yang mempengaruhi kriteria lokasi berdagang pedagang kaki lima di Kawasan Pasar Baru Gresik yaitu sebagai berikut: (1 Lokasi berdagang yang strategis; (2 Harga sewa lahan/kios; (3 Dekat dengan kegiatan masyarakat; (4 Visibilitas; (5 Retribusi; (6 Dekat dengan permukiman penduduk; (7 Ketersediaan lahan parkir; (8 Dekat dengan terminal/stasiun; (9 Ketersediaan tempat pembuangan sampah; (10 Dekat dengan tempat tinggal; (11 Ketersediaan transportasi umum (12 Ketersdiaan jaringan air bersih; (13 Memiliki akses keluar dan masuk; (14 Penerimaan produk yang ditawarkan; (15 Ketersediaan drainase; (16 Ketersediaan pelayanan listrik; (17 Pengelompokkan jenis barang dagangan; (18 Luas tempat berdagang.
Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Munayco, Cesar V; Gómez, Jorge; Simonsen, Lone; Miller, Mark A; Tamerius, James; Fiestas, Victor; Halsey, Eric S; Laguna-Torres, Victor A
Highly refined surveillance data on the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic are crucial to quantify the spatial and temporal characteristics of the pandemic. There is little information about the spatial-temporal dynamics of pandemic influenza in South America. Here we provide a quantitative description of the age-specific morbidity pandemic patterns across administrative areas of Peru. We used daily cases of influenza-like-illness, tests for A/H1N1 influenza virus infections, and laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1 influenza cases reported to the epidemiological surveillance system of Peru's Ministry of Health from May 1 to December 31, 2009. We analyzed the geographic spread of the pandemic waves and their association with the winter school vacation period, demographic factors, and absolute humidity. We also estimated the reproduction number and quantified the association between the winter school vacation period and the age distribution of cases. The national pandemic curve revealed a bimodal winter pandemic wave, with the first peak limited to school age children in the Lima metropolitan area, and the second peak more geographically widespread. The reproduction number was estimated at 1.6-2.2 for the Lima metropolitan area and 1.3-1.5 in the rest of Peru. We found a significant association between the timing of the school vacation period and changes in the age distribution of cases, while earlier pandemic onset was correlated with large population size. By contrast there was no association between pandemic dynamics and absolute humidity. Our results indicate substantial spatial variation in pandemic patterns across Peru, with two pandemic waves of varying timing and impact by age and region. Moreover, the Peru data suggest a hierarchical transmission pattern of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 driven by large population centers. The higher reproduction number of the first pandemic wave could be explained by high contact rates among school-age children, the age group most affected
Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cécile; Munayco, Cesar V.; Gómez, Jorge; Simonsen, Lone; Miller, Mark A.; Tamerius, James; Fiestas, Victor; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, Victor A.
Background Highly refined surveillance data on the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic are crucial to quantify the spatial and temporal characteristics of the pandemic. There is little information about the spatial-temporal dynamics of pandemic influenza in South America. Here we provide a quantitative description of the age-specific morbidity pandemic patterns across administrative areas of Peru. Methods We used daily cases of influenza-like-illness, tests for A/H1N1 influenza virus infections, and laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1 influenza cases reported to the epidemiological surveillance system of Peru's Ministry of Health from May 1 to December 31, 2009. We analyzed the geographic spread of the pandemic waves and their association with the winter school vacation period, demographic factors, and absolute humidity. We also estimated the reproduction number and quantified the association between the winter school vacation period and the age distribution of cases. Results The national pandemic curve revealed a bimodal winter pandemic wave, with the first peak limited to school age children in the Lima metropolitan area, and the second peak more geographically widespread. The reproduction number was estimated at 1.6–2.2 for the Lima metropolitan area and 1.3–1.5 in the rest of Peru. We found a significant association between the timing of the school vacation period and changes in the age distribution of cases, while earlier pandemic onset was correlated with large population size. By contrast there was no association between pandemic dynamics and absolute humidity. Conclusions Our results indicate substantial spatial variation in pandemic patterns across Peru, with two pandemic waves of varying timing and impact by age and region. Moreover, the Peru data suggest a hierarchical transmission pattern of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 driven by large population centers. The higher reproduction number of the first pandemic wave could be explained by high contact rates among school
Raúl Verano M.
En el presente trabajo se describen 6 géneros y 7 especies de foraminíferos, provenientes de 80 muestras de areno o lo largo del litoral del Departamento de Lima. Todos ellos representan un nuevo registro para la costa peruana. This paper gives o descriptions of six genera and seven species of foraminifera, which were found in 80 samples of sand collected 010n9 the shore of Department of Lima. AII of them represent new records for the peruvion coast.
Manuel Enrique Saavedra Martinez
Full Text Available The following paper examines the part-time work in Metropolitan Lima in 2008. The overall objective is to identify the determinants of the incidence of part-time work in Lima. We worked with one Probit econometric model, measured by the National Survey of Households (NSH, which explores the job characteristics of people. This will determine the presence of part-time workers in the areas of trade, health, education and communication; also realized that this group has completed university studies and incomplete, and the woman has a probability of 83,11397% more than men of working part time.
White-on-Red chronology in the lower Chancay valley through stratigraphic information and to compare the resulting sequence with other chronological schemes from Peru's central coast. As a result of the research, we define a six phase architectural sequence which indicate functional changes at he site. The three first phases reflect domestic use of the site with a high volume of cultural remains. The following phases are caracterized by the building of large plataform walls made of plain-convex adobe. In terms of the pottery, we have developed a four phase sequence for the White-on-Red style, which correlates with the Mirimar phase proposed by Patterson (1961-1966, and is closely related to the architectural developments at he site. Finally, another interesting theme was the transicional period between the White-on-Red and Lima cultures. Considering that the slight evidence of Lima ocupation at Baños de Boza, we review the stratigraphic information from Cerro Trinidad and Playa Grande. By observing the obvious differences among White-on-Red and Lima styles, we presume that Lima doesnt derive stylistically from White-on-Red in the Chancay Valley but rather that it is a foreign element introduced from the outside. Moreover, the two styles coexist for a period of time.
Fiestas, Fabián; Piazza, Marina
To determine the lifetime prevalence of 18 mental disorders and to establish the pattern that those disorders have with the age of onset in five cities of Peru. As part of the World Mental Health Survey, the study in Peru followed a probabilistic multistage sample of people between 18 and 65 years old in Lima, Chiclayo, Arequipa, Huancayo and Iquitos. The desktop version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered. The lifetime prevalence of at least one mental disorder was 29% (SE 1.2), and the prevalence of at least two or three was 10.5% (SE 0.7) and 4% (SE 0.4), respectively. Anxiety disorders were more common with 14.9% (SE 0.9) prevalence, followed by mood disorders with 8.2% (SE 0.5), impulse control disorders with 8.1% (SE 0.8), and substance use disorders (5.8%; SE 0.3). The age of onset was earlier for anxiety disorders (15 years old) and for impulse control disorders (20 years old). Younger respondents were more likely to have a mental disorder. Almost a third of the adult population of five cities in Peru has had some psychiatric disorder at a given time in their lives, and comorbidity is common. Most disorders begin before age 30.
León, Segundo R; Konda, Kelika A; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Jones, Franca R; Cáceres, Carlos F; Coates, Thomas J
To estimate Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection prevalence and associated risk factors among a low-income marginalized urban population in Peru. Between April 2003 and April 2005, men and women at high-risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were recruited from low-income urban areas in three coastal cities in Peru (Chiclayo, Lima, and Trujillo). Consenting participants were studied using a sero-epidemiologic survey. Urine and vaginal swabs collected from men and women were evaluated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (COBAS AMPLICOR (CT/NG) Test, Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Branchburg, NJ, USA) for CT. Among the 2 440 participants recruited for the study (2 145 men and 295 women), overall prevalence of CT infection was 6.6% (95% CI, 5.6-7.6%): 5.5% (95% CI, 4.5-6.5%) in men and 14.9% (95% CI, 11.7-27.1%) in women. Chlamydial infection was inversely associated with age and positively associated with HIV infection and dysuria in men. Among women, chlamydial infection was inversely associated with age and positively associated with number of sex partners. CT infection was common among high-risk men and women in urban coastal Peru. Because chlamydial infection is associated with complications related to female reproduction, including infertility and ectopic pregnancy, interventions to prevent and treat infection and studies to determine the feasibility of population-based screening for CT should be conducted among the high-risk female population.
Dirk Gootjes Kasel
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study examined the professoriate view of spirituality at a private university in Lima, Peru. A two-phase, sequential mixed method was used. Two hundred forty professors completed Paloutzian and Ellison’s (1982 Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS for the quantitative phase. Five research questions exploring the professors’ gender, general area of teaching (humanities vs. sciences, highest university degree earned, age, and total years of university teaching experience were analyzed to determine if any significant differences existed within those variables. Two non-parametric tests were used: the Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis Test. It was discovered only gender showed a significant difference. Five surveyed professors participated in the focus group phase exploring significant gender difference on the spiritual well-being scores. Five questions explored this difference between males and females. Four themes emerged: gender role enculturation, biological motherhood, stress, and internal strength. RESUMEN Este estudio examinó la opinión del profesorado sobre la espiritualidad en una universidad privada en Lima, Perú. Se utilizó el enfoque mixto secuencial y abarcó dos etapas. Para la fase cuantitativa 240 profesores completaron la escala de Bienestar Espiritual (SWBS de Paloutzian y Ellison (1982. Se analizaron cinco preguntas de investigación que exploran 5 variables. Para conocer si existían diferencias significativas dentro de esas variables se utilizaron las pruebas no paramétricas U de Mann Whitney y Kruskal-Wallis. Sólo el género mostró una diferencia significativa en las puntuaciones de bienestar espiritual. La fase cualitativa se dio por medio de un grupo de enfoque y participaron cinco profesores para explorar la diferencia de género. La diferencia entre hombres y mujeres se exploraron mediante cinco preguntas y emergieron cuatro temas: enculturación de género, maternidad biológica, estrés y
A comprehensive portrait of the current status of gifted and talented concepts, identification of the gifted, and associated provisions within Peru is presented. The major purposes of this article are (a) to analyze the primary conception of giftedness in Peru; (b) to describe the beliefs that people have about gifted individuals; (c) to present…
The history of intellectual assessment with children and youth in Peru is presented from the foundation of scientific psychology in Peru until now. Current practices are affected by the multicultural ethnolinguistic diversity of the country, the quality of the different training programs, as well as by Peruvian regulations for becoming an academic…
Large and small earthquakes occur frequently in Peru. Official institutions in charge of the study of seismological and geophysical aspects of such large natural events have a responsibility to provide engineers, planners, and government officials with basic data to implement safety measures to minimize the destructive impact of great earthquakes. The Geophysical Institute of Peru (IGP) is one such institution.
Abugattas, Julio; Llacuachaqui, Marcia; Allende, Yasser Sullcahuaman; Velásquez, Abelardo Arias; Velarde, Raúl; Cotrina, José; Garcés, Milko; León, Mauricio; Calderón, Gabriela; de la Cruz, Miguel; Mora, Pamela; Royer, Robert; Herzog, Josef; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Narod, Steven A
The prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among breast cancer patients in Peru has not yet been explored. We enrolled 266 women with breast cancer from a National cancer hospital in Lima, Peru, unselected for age or family history. DNA was screened with a panel of 114 recurrent Hispanic BRCA mutations (HISPANEL). Among the 266 cases, thirteen deleterious mutations were identified (eleven in BRCA1 and two in BRCA2), representing 5% of the total. The average age of breast cancer in the mutation-positive cases was 44 years. BRCA1 185delAG represented seven of the eleven mutations in BRCA1. Other mutations detected in BRCA1 included: two 2080delA, one 943ins10, and one 3878delTA. The BRCA2 3036del4 mutation was seen in two patients. Given the relatively low cost of the HISPANEL test, one should consider offering this test to all Peruvian women with breast or ovarian cancer. PMID:25256238
Eza, Dominique; Cerrillo, Gustavo; Moore, David A.J.; Castro, Cecilia; Ticona, Eduardo; Morales, Domingo; Cabanillas, Jose; Barrantes, Fernando; Alfaro, Alejandro; Benavides, Alejandro; Rafael, Arturo; Valladares, Gilberto; Arevalo, Fernando; Evans, Carlton A.; Gilman, Robert H.
There is a paucity of HIV autopsy data from South America and none that document the postmortem findings in patients with HIV/AIDS in Peru. The purpose of this autopsy study was to determine the spectrum of opportunistic infections and the causes of mortality in HIV-positive patients at a public hospital in Lima. Clinico-epidemiological information regarding HIV infection in Peru is also reviewed. Sixteen HIV-related hospital postmortems, performed between 1999 and 2004, were included in this retrospective analysis. The primary cause of death was established in 12 patients: one died of neoplasia and 11 of infectious diseases, including 3 from pulmonary infection, 7 from disseminated infection, and 2 from central nervous system infection (one case had dual pathology). Opportunistic infections were identified in 14 cases, comprising cytomegalovirus, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, aspergillosis, tuberculosis, varicella zoster virus, and cryptosporidiosis. Fourteen patients had at least one AIDS-related disease that had been neither clinically suspected nor diagnosed premortem. Moreover, 82% of the diagnoses considered to be of important clinical significance had not been suspected antemortem. The spectrum and frequency of certain opportunistic infections differed from other South American autopsy studies, highlighting the importance of performing HIV/AIDS postmortems in resource-limited countries where locally specific disease patterns may be observed. PMID:16979302
Abugattas, J; Llacuachaqui, M; Allende, Y Sullcahuaman; Velásquez, A Arias; Velarde, R; Cotrina, J; Garcés, M; León, M; Calderón, G; de la Cruz, M; Mora, P; Royer, R; Herzog, J; Weitzel, J N; Narod, S A
The prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among breast cancer patients in Peru has not yet been explored. We enrolled 266 women with breast cancer from a National cancer hospital in Lima, Peru, unselected for age or family history. DNA was screened with a panel of 114 recurrent Hispanic BRCA mutations (HISPANEL). Among the 266 cases, 13 deleterious mutations were identified (11 in BRCA1 and 2 in BRCA2), representing 5% of the total. The average age of breast cancer in the mutation-positive cases was 44 years. BRCA1 185delAG represented 7 of 11 mutations in BRCA1. Other mutations detected in BRCA1 included: two 2080delA, one 943ins10, and one 3878delTA. The BRCA2 3036del4 mutation was seen in two patients. Given the relatively low cost of the HISPANEL test, one should consider offering this test to all Peruvian women with breast or ovarian cancer. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Valencia-Garcia, Dellanira; Starks, Helene; Strick, Lara; Simoni, Jane M
Despite increasing rates of HIV infection among heterosexual women in Peru, married women remain virtually invisible as a group at risk of HIV or requiring treatment. This study analyzed the intersections of HIV with machismo and marianismo, the dominant discourses in Latin America that prescribe gender roles for men and women. Data sources include recent literature on machismo and marianismo and interviews conducted with 14 HIV-positive women in Lima, Peru. Findings indicate how the stigma associated with HIV constructs a discourse that restricts the identities of HIV-positive women to those of 'fallen women' whether or not they adhere to social codes that shape and inform their identities as faithful wives and devoted mothers. Lack of public discourse concerning HIV-positive marianas silences women as wives and disenfranchises them as mothers, leaving them little room to negotiate identities that allow them to maintain their respected social positions. Efforts must be aimed at expanding the discourse of acceptable gender roles and behaviour for both men and women within the context of machismo and marianismo so that there can be better recognition of all persons at risk of, and living with, HIV infection.
... Service 7 CFR Part 319 [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0014] RIN 0579-AD68 Importation of Papayas From Peru AGENCY... from Peru into the continental United States. The conditions for the importation of papayas from Peru... action will allow for the importation of papayas from Peru while continuing to provide protection against...
Naomi Erika Peña Flores*
Resumen:El presente estudio tiene como objetivos generales identificar y comparar los niveles de Fuentes de Resiliencia que posee un grupo de estudiantes entre 9 y 11 años de edad de colegios nacionales de la ciudad de Lima y la ciudad de Arequipa. La muestra estuvo conformada por 652 estudiantes, 311 de la ciudad de Lima y 341 de la ciudad de Arequipa, de los cuales 332 eran varones y 320 mujeres; el muestreo utilizado fue intencional. Se utilizó el instrumento Inventario de Fuentes de Resil...
Abbs, Elizabeth S; Brown, Maebe; Lemke, Melissa; Bauer, Lauren; Ohly, Steve; Haq, Cynthia
Latina women living in low-income communities frequently report a high prevalence of feeling physically and/or emotionally "unwell." Formative focus groups were used to design a 3-session stress reduction curriculum called ¡Venga y Relájese! (Come and relax yourself!). Survey data from 5 Milwaukee cohorts and 1 Peruvian cohort revealed statistically significant improvements in general health status, perceived stress status, and confidence to manage future stress among women who completed all sessions (n=54). The pilot ¡Venga y Relájese! stress reduction curriculum yielded benefits for Latina women living in low-income neighborhoods in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and Lima, Peru. Copyright© Wisconsin Medical Society.
Jan Marc Rottenbacher de Rojas
Full Text Available Validity of the ideological left/right continuum during 2011 Presidential Elections in Lima-PeruThis study analyzes the relationship between political ideology, voting behavior and emotional responses after Peruvian presidential elections in 2011. Scales of intolerance for ambiguity, need for closure, right-wing authoritarianism (RWA and the right-wing political orientation were used to assess right-wing political conservatism. A structural equation model proposes that intolerance of ambiguity and need for closure exert a direct effect on RWA. Also, RWA influences directly the right-wing political orientation, which exerts a direct influence on negative emotional responses and an inverse effect on positive emotional responses after O. Humala’s victory. Final discussion focuses on the contemporary relevance of left/right ideological continuum.
Full Text Available El Inventario de Problemas Conductuales de Achenbach (confiabilidad tes/retest = 92 fue administrado a 908 adolescentes de Lima, cuyas edades estaban entre los 11 y 18 años. El grupo control (normal estuvo conformado por 621 adolescentes y el grupo experimental (muestra clínica con padres divorciados estuvo conformado por 287. Los resultados indican que el grupo experimental presentó puntajes significativamente superiores (T ≥ 70 frente al grupo control (T<60, presentando el primer grupo de indicadores de patología. Más aún, en las mujeres se observó una tendencia no significativa a obtener puntajes T superiores a los varones. Se concluye que el Inventario de Achenbach es un instrumento válido para la detecci6n rápida de niños que presentan problemas de conducta y que requieren de una intervención psicológica o psiquiátrica, en el Perú. The Achenbach Inventory of Behavioral Problems (test/retest reliability = 92 was administered to 908 adolescents in Lima, aged from 11 to 18 years, 621 coming from the control group (normal and 287 from the experimental group (clinical group with divorced parents. Results showed that the experimental group exhibited significantly higher scores (T ≥ 70 than the control group (T < 60, the former reaching pathology level indicators. Moreover, a non-significant tendency to obtain higher T scores is more observed in females than in males. From the study results we can state that the Achenbach Inventory is a valid instrument for a screening process of children exhibiting behavioral problems that require psychological or psychiactric intervention in Peru.
Ing. Lyudmyla Yezers´ka
Full Text Available The results of an investigation whose primary target is to analyze the panorama of media on the Internet in Peru in the last quarter of the 2004 are presented. The birth and the consolidation of the Peruvian media on the Internet have been influenced by the economic, political and social problems that this country has lived through throughout its history. In spite of the few users which the media still have on the Internet, however, Peruvian journalism is making an effort to experiment with new formats and is conscious that in the future these means of communication will become essential elements for publication on the Web.
In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. Facing this, the Ombudsman suggests that the State develops a rigorous statistical system, strengthens the National Council of Road Safety and that the different sectors of the government develop the mentioned National Plan.
LaGrone, Lacey N; Fuhs, Amy K; Egoavil, Eduardo Huaman; Rodriguez Castro, Manuel J A; Valderrama, Roberto; Isquith-Dicker, Leah N; Herrera-Matta, Jaime; Mock, Charles N
Evidence for the positive impact of quality improvement (QI) programs on morbidity, mortality, patient satisfaction, and cost is strong. Data regarding the status of QI programs in low- and middle-income countries, as well as in-depth examination of barriers and facilitators to their implementation, are limited. This cross-sectional, descriptive study employed a mixed-methods design, including distribution of an anonymous quantitative survey and individual interviews with healthcare providers who participate in the care of the injured at ten large hospitals in Lima, Peru. Key areas identified for improvement in morbidity and mortality (M&M) conferences were the standardization of case selection, incorporation of evidence from the medical literature into case presentation and discussion, case documentation, and the development of a clear plan for case follow-up. The key barriers to QI program implementation were a lack of prioritization of QI, lack of sufficient human and administrative resources, lack of political support, and lack of education on QI practices. A national program that makes QI a required part of all health providers' professional training and responsibilities would effectively address a majority of identified barriers to QI programs in Peru. Specifically, the presence of basic QI elements, such as M&M conferences, should be required at hospitals that train pre-graduate physicians. Alternatively, short of this national-level organization, efforts that capitalize on local examples through apprenticeships between institutions or integration of QI into continuing medical education would be expected to build on the facilitators for QI programs that exist in Peru.
Full Text Available This article is an analysis and transcription of an account book on the rebuilding of the Royal Palace of Lima, after the devastating earthquake of 1746. The document contains detailed information about the origin and costs of the work force and the products used in the rebuilding, information rarely found in documentation from the period. It thus offers a rich entryway into a number of important themes regarding eighteenth-century Peru. These include material culture, the life and death of slaves, and construction techniques. It contributes to the understanding of social and economic history of colonial Peru and more specifically to late colonial architecture and accounting, as well as the history of the Palace itself.
Este artículo es un análisis y transcripción de un libro de cuentas referente a la reconstrucción del Palacio Real en Lima, después del devastador terremoto de 1746. El documento contiene detallada información sobre la procedencia y el costo de la mano de obra y los productos utilizados en dicha obra, información poco común en la documentación de la época. Ofrece así una entrada a una serie de temas importantes para el Perú del XVIII. Estos incluyen la cultura material, la vida y muerte de los esclavos, y las formas de construcción. Contribuye al conocimiento de la historia social y económica del Perú colonial y más específicamente a la arquitectura y la contaduría de la colonia tardía, y a la historia del mismo Palacio.
Phenotypic and seed protein analyses were performed on 31 accessions of Lima bean assembled in Ghana. Data on 16 phenotypic characters consisting of eight quantitative and eight qualitative were analysed. There were significant differences among the accessions based on the eight quantitative characters. Seed ...
Mireia Solé A.
Full Text Available Diecinueve especies de Dinoflagelados marinos son registradas para Pucusana, Departamento de Lima, Perú. Estos pertenecen a los siguientes géneros: Prorocentrum (1 sp., Dinophysis (3 spp., Pyrocystis (1 sp., Gonyaulax (2 spp., Peridinium (8 spp. y Ceratium ( 5 spp,. Cinco de éstos no fueron registrados en trabajos publicados para el Perú.
Hydrogels were prepared by crosslinking native lima bean starch and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with glutaraldehyde (GA) at varying proportions in an acidic medium. The native starch (N-LBS) and hydrogels (L-GA (low glutaraldehyde) and H-GA (high glutaraldehyde)) were examined for their water absorption capacity (WAC) ...
Heraud, J. A.; Lira, J. A.
The Mw8.0 earthquake in Pisco, Peru of August 15, 2007, produced high damage with a toll of 513 people dead, 2,291 wounded, 76,000 houses and buildings seriously damaged and 431,000 people overall affected. Co-seismic luminescence was reported by thousands of people along the central coast of Peru and especially in Lima, 150 km from the epicenter, being this the first large nighttime earthquake in about 100 years in a highly populated area. Pictures and videos of the lights are available, however those obtained so far, had little information on the timing and direction of the reported lights. Two important videos are analyzed, the first one from a fixed security camera, in order to determine differential time correlation between the timing of the lights recorded with ground acceleration registered by a three-axis accelerometer 500m away and very good results have been observed. This evidence contains important color, shape and timing information which is shown to be highly differential time correlated with the arrival of the seismic waves. Furthermore, the origin of the lights is on the top of a hilly island about 6 km off the coast of Lima where lights were reported in a written chronicle, to have been seen exactly 21 days before the Mega earthquake of October 28, 1746. This was the largest ever to happen in Peru, and produced a Tsunami that washed the port of Callao and reached up to 5km inland. The second video, from another security camera, in a different location, has been further analyzed in order to determine more exactly the direction of the lights and this new evidence will be presented. The fact that a notoriously large and well documented co-seismic luminous phenomena was video recorded more than 150 km from the epicenter during a very large earthquake, is emphasized together with historical documented evidence of pre-seismic luminous activity on the same island, during a mega earthquake of enormous proportions in Lima. Both previously mentioned videos
Naomi Erika Peña Flores*
Full Text Available Resumen:El presente estudio tiene como objetivos generales identificar y comparar los niveles de Fuentes de Resiliencia que posee un grupo de estudiantes entre 9 y 11 años de edad de colegios nacionales de la ciudad de Lima y la ciudad de Arequipa. La muestra estuvo conformada por 652 estudiantes, 311 de la ciudad de Lima y 341 de la ciudad de Arequipa, de los cuales 332 eran varones y 320 mujeres; el muestreo utilizado fue intencional. Se utilizó el instrumento Inventario de Fuentes de Resiliencia construido y validado por Peña en el 2008. Los datos fueron analizados mediante la distribución de frecuencia, la media aritmética (x, la desviación estándar (DS y la prueba U Mann-Whitney. Entre los principales resultados no encontramos diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las fuentes de resiliencia entre los grupos de Lima y Arequipa; por otro lado, sí encontramos diferencias significativas en las fuentes de resiliencia entre los grupos de varones y mujeres. Finalmente las implicancias del estudio han sido discutidas.AbstractThe present study has as general aims identify and compare the levels of the Sources of Resilience of a group between 9 and 11 years old of public schools from Lima and Arequipa. The sample was intentional. The instrument used was The Inventory of Resilience's sources constructed and validated by Peña in 2008. the results were analyzed through the distribution of frecuency, the arithmetic mean (x, the standard deviation and theUMann-Whitney test.Amongthe principal results, we didn't find statistically significant differences in the levels of resilience's sources between groups from Lima and from Arequipa, and we found significant differences in levels of resilience's sources between the groups of males and women. The implications of the study have beendiscussed.
Ikoma, Toshikazu; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Asai, Takao; Okano, Kiyoshi; Ito, Naoko; Endoh, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu; Nakamura, Kazutoshi
Our previous study detected aflatoxins in red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia, and Peru, each of which have a high incidence of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Since the aflatoxin B1 concentration was not so high in these peppers, it is important to clarify the presence of other mycotoxins. Here we attempted to determine any associations between the concentrations of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA) in red chili peppers, and the corresponding GBC incidences. We collected red chili peppers from three areas in Peru: Trujillo (a high GBC incidence area), Cusco (an intermediate GBC incidence area), and Lima (a low GBC incidence rate), and from Chile and Bolivia. Aflatoxins and OTA were extracted with organic solvents. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, and OTA were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The values obtained were compared with the incidence of GBC in each area or country. All of the red chili peppers from the three areas showed contamination with aflatoxins below the Commission of the European Communities (EC) recommended limits (5 μg/kg), but the OTA contamination of two samples was above the EC recommended limit (15 μg/kg). The mean concentrations of OTA in the peppers from Chile (mean 355 μg/kg, range Bolivia (mean 207 μg/kg, range 0.8-628 μg/kg), which has a high incidence of GBC, were higher than that in Peru (14 μg/kg, range Bolivia, and Peru was stronger than that of aflatoxins. Our data suggest that OTA in red chili peppers may be associated with the development of GBC.
Full Text Available Una de las formas de sometimiento de las masas aborígenes a la dominación española fueron las reducciones de indios. El pueblo de Santiago del Cercado, reducción establecida en los arrabales orientales de la Ciudad de Lima, fundada para residencia de los indios que debían servir a la ciudad y a los encomenderos de Lima, tuvo características peculiares en cuanto a su trazo, a su composición poblacional, organización y servicios. La función de las autoridades españolas descansan en las autoridades nativas, que fueron auxiliares insustituibles para el ejercicio de la dominación y explotación. Los servicios y establecimientos del poblado estuvieron destinados a españolizar e impregnar con la ideología de la dominación: la parroquia, la cárcel, el colegio de caciques, el hospital, etc. La parroquia bajo la conducción de los jesuitas en la mayor parte de la historia del poblado, fue el principal instrumento de captación de la mente de los habitantes nativos sin embargo no fueron pasivos receptores, ni dominados resignados, mostraron su rechazo en forma permanente, ya sea mediante resistencia pasiva o con acciones violentas, y con casi todos los movimientos nativos de envergadura estuvieron conectados. Fue el foco de la resistencia y conspiración nativa en Lima. One of the forms of subjection to Spanish domination of the aboriginal masses were the Indians reductions. The town of Santiago del Cercado, one of the indians settlements established on the eastern outskirts of the city of Lima, founded as living quarters for the indians who were to serve the city and the knights commander of Lima, was endowed with peculiar characteristics with regard to its design, its population component, organization and service. The functions of the Spanish authorities, who in turn were irreplaceable subordinates to carry out the domination and exploitation. The service and establishments of the populated areas were destined to become impregnated with
Full Text Available During the last decade Peru has experienced a euphoric rediscovery –pseudo revaluation as a country– due to its booming gastronomy, tourism and economic growth.In this context, the presentresearch uses semio-psychoanalytic and postcolonial theories to explain Peru’s social outlook regarding the concept of nation, its reunion with a non-existent identity and the construction of the idea of nation based on the marketing campaign titled the Peru Brand. Thus, Peru Brand, far from uniting all Peruvians and bring them together into the wellknown “melting pot”, becomes the resemantization of the old colonial discourse longing for a republic without natives. Therefore, in the Peru Brand advertising discourse, the “primitive natives” are white people brought from Nebraska and speak English.
up innovation in farm production, natural resource management and off-farm income generation and develop policies and programs in consequence. The project will focus initially on Peru and be extended to other Andean countries, and ...
Ampuero, Julia S; Ocaña, Víctor; Gómez, Jorge; Gamero, María E; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto
... adults and children in Peru. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants visiting any of 38 participating health centers, and viral pathogens were identified by immunofluorescence assay in cell culture...
Favara, Marta; Sanchez, Alan
We use a unique longitudinal dataset from Peru to investigate the relationship between psychosocial competencies related to the concepts of self-esteem, self-efficacy, and aspirations, and a number...
Jaganath, Devan; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Wise, Robert A; Diette, Gregory B; Miele, Catherine H; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Checkley, William
It is unclear how geographic and social diversity affects the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to characterize the prevalence of COPD and identify risk factors across four settings in Peru with varying degrees of urbanization, altitude, and biomass fuel use. We collected sociodemographics, clinical history, and post-bronchodilator spirometry in a randomly selected, age-, sex- and site-stratified, population-based sample of 2,957 adults aged ≥35 years (median age was 54.8 years and 49.3% were men) from four resource-poor settings: Lima, Tumbes, urban and rural Puno. We defined COPD as a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC prevalence of COPD was 6.0% (95% CI 5.1%-6.8%) but with marked variation across sites: 3.6% in semi-urban Tumbes, 6.1% in urban Puno, 6.2% in Lima, and 9.9% in rural Puno (p COPD due to smoking ≥10 pack-years were less than 10% for all sites, consistent with a low prevalence of daily smoking (3.3%). Rather, we found that PARs of COPD varied by setting. In Lima, for example, the highest PARs were attributed to post-treatment tuberculosis (16% and 22% for men and women, respectively). In rural Puno, daily biomass fuel for cooking among women was associated with COPD (prevalence ratio 2.22, 95% CI 1.02-4.81) and the PAR of COPD due to daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke was 55%. The burden of COPD in Peru was not uniform and, unlike other settings, was not predominantly explained by tobacco smoking. This study emphasizes the role of biomass fuel use, and highlights pulmonary tuberculosis as an often neglected risk factor in endemic areas.
Ishitsuka, J.; Asai, A.; Morita, S.; Terrazas, R.; Cabezas, D.; Gutierrez, V.; Martinez, L.; Buleje, Y.; Loayza, R.; Nakamura, N.; Takasao, S.; Yoshinaga, Y.; Hillier, A.; Otsuji, K.; Shibata, K.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ueno, S.; Kitai, R.; Ishii, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Nagata, S.; Narukage, N.
In 2008 we inaugurated the new Solar Observatory in collaboration with Faculty of Sciences of San Luis Gonzaga de Ica National University, 300 km south of Lima. In March of 2010 a Flare Monitoring Telescope of Hida Observatory of Kyoto University arrived to Ica, part of CHAIN Project (Continuous H-alpha Imaging Network). In October of the same year we hosted the First FMT Workshop in Ica, then in July of 2011 the Second FMT Workshop was opened. Since that we are focused on two events registered by FMT in Peru to publish results. FMT is a good tool to introduce young people from universities into scientific knowledge; it is good also for education in Solar Physics and outreach. Details of this successful collaboration will be explained in this presentation.
Ayala, Elizabeth; Carnero, Andrés M.
Background Evidence on the prevalence and determinants of burnout among military acute and critical care nursing personnel from developing countries is minimal, precluding the development of effective preventive measures for this high-risk occupational group. In this context, we aimed to examine the association between the dimensions of burnout and selected socio-demographic and occupational factors in military acute/critical care nursing personnel from Lima, Peru. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional study in 93 nurses/nurse assistants from the acute and critical care departments of a large, national reference, military hospital in Lima, Peru, using a socio-demographic/occupational questionnaire and a validated Spanish translation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Total scores for each of the burnout dimensions were calculated for each participant. Higher emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation scores, and lower personal achievement scores, implied a higher degree of burnout. We used linear regression to evaluate the association between each of the burnout dimensions and selected socio-demographic and occupational characteristics, after adjusting for potential confounders. The associations of the burnout dimensions were heterogeneous for the different socio-demographic and occupational factors. Higher emotional exhaustion scores were independently associated with having children (pdepersonalization scores were independently associated with being single compared with being divorced, separated or widowed (p<0.01), working in the emergency room/intensive care unit compared with the recovery room (p<0.01), and inversely associated with age (p<0.05). Finally, higher personal achievement scores were independently associated with having children (p<0.05). Conclusion Among Peruvian military acute and critical care nursing personnel, potential screening and preventive interventions should focus on younger/less experienced nurses/nurse assistants, who are
Full Text Available The analogy between “O alienista”, by Machado de Assis, and Diário do hospício, by Lima Barreto, reveals similarities and differences in the authors’ perspectives towards a very important issue for both: madness. Machado has used a fictional support to build up the image of an alienist in the 19th century, Simão Bacamarte, the symbol of science as a supreme power. Lima wrote his diary in an emergency, while he was a psycriatric patient at Hospital Nacional dos Alienados (1919/20. Each one in his style and genre, both have inverted power’s perspective for they disqualified the alienist’s authority, either exaggerating his ridiculous image or criticizing his arbitrary positions and faults. Both authors point out another way of looking for a certain madness truth and criticize psychiatry’s despotic power in a period ruled by scientific truth.
Full Text Available 1 . Ha sido descubierto un foco del Triatoma infestans dentro de la zona urbana de la ciudad de Lima, verificándose su presencia en 10 viviendas de un modesto barrio. En tales casas fueron capturados un total de 99 especímenes del referido insecto, entre adultos y ninfas, así como 148 huevos sin eclosionar. 2. El examen del contenido intestinal y las heces en 68 de los triatomas capturados fue negativo para Trypanosoma cruzi. 3. Se supone que este nuevo foco se haya originado a partir de la región Sur del Perú, donde existen muchas localidades infestadas por el T. infestans. 4. Esta sería la primera vez que se verifica la presencia del T. infestans en la ciudad de Lima.
This report on a key to poverty reduction in Peru identifies a number of cost-effective policy interventions that could be adopted in the short and medium term to support sustainable development goals as the Government of Peru attempts to combat the problems of inadequate water supply, sanitation and hygiene; urban air pollution; natural disasters; lead exposure; indoor air pollution; land...
Ninoshka Fasce Cayo
This research studies the social support in a group of adult persons with HIV: 14 women and 41 men between 18 and 58 years of age, from medium- low social economic status that appeal to state health centers, non government entities and mutual support groups of Lima. The resultsof perceived social support, effective social support, social support satisfaction and social support need ha ve been correlated with variables age, sex, diagnostic time, presence of symptoms associated lo H!V, particip...
An examination of the energy sources of Peru was undertaken by the USA in collaboration with Peru. First, an introduction establishes the purpose and summarizes results, after which the status of energy supply is presented. The ensuing sections contain the contributions of the participating technical specialists, namely: Peru's hydrocarbon potential, estimated reserves, and projected production rates; coal deposits in Peru; geothermal energy; uranium; miscellaneous energy sources; energy-related minerals; water resources in Peru; and geologic hazards in Peru. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the sections. (MCW)
Nivel de influencia de la aplicación del programa de especialización en la enseñanza de comunicación y matemática - PRONAFCAP 2009 - 2010 en el desarrollo de las habilidades didácticas de las docentes de educación inicial de la DREC Callao y UGEL de Ventanilla
Vílchez Huerto, Ana María Isabel
El presente trabajo de investigación se realizó en la Universidad Nacional de San Marcos (UNMSM) durante el período 2009-2010 y en la misma participaron los docentes de educación inicial del II ciclo de Educación Básica Regular que laboran en las instituciones educativas públicas de la DRE del Callao y UGEL de Ventanilla, tomándose como parámetro de medición la aplicación del programa de especialización en la enseñanza de comunicación y matemática y el desarrollo de habilidades didácticas en ...
Young, Sean D; Cumberland, William G; Nianogo, Roch; Menacho, Luis A; Galea, Jerome T; Coates, Thomas
Social media technologies offer new approaches to HIV prevention and promotion of testing. We examined the efficacy of the Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE) social media intervention to increase HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru. In this cluster randomised controlled trial, Peruvian MSM from Greater Lima (including Callao) who had sex with a man in the past 12 months, were 18 years of age or older, were HIV negative or serostatus unknown, and had a Facebook account or were willing to create one (N=556) were randomly assigned (1:1) by concealed allocation to join intervention or control groups on Facebook for 12 weeks. For the intervention, Peruvian MSM were trained and assigned to be HIV prevention mentors (peer-leaders) to participants in Facebook groups. The interventions period lasted 12 weeks. Participants in control groups received an enhanced standard of care, including standard offline HIV prevention available in Peru and participation in Facebook groups (without peer leaders) that provided study updates and HIV testing information. After accepting a request to join the groups, continued participation was voluntary. Participants also completed questionnaires on HIV risk behaviours and social media use at baseline and 12 week follow-up. The primary outcome was the number of participants who received a free HIV test at a local community clinic. The facebook groups were analysed as clusters to account for intracluster correlations. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01701206. Of 49 peer-leaders recruited, 34 completed training and were assigned at random to the intervention Facebook groups. Between March 19, 2012, and June 11, 2012, and Sept 26, 2012, and Dec 19, 2012, 556 participants were randomly assigned to intervention groups (N=278) or control groups (N=278); we analyse data for 252 and 246. 43 participants (17%) in the intervention group and 16 (7%) in the control groups got tested for HIV (adjusted
Checkley, W; Robinson, C L; Baumann, L M; Hansel, N N; Romero, K M; Pollard, S L; Wise, R A; Gilman, R H; Mougey, E; Lima, J J
Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with an increased risk of asthma. We studied the association between 25-hydroxy (25-OH) vitamin D deficiency and asthma prevalence in two Peruvian populations close to the equator but with disparate degrees of urbanization. We conducted a population-based study in 1441 children in two communities in Peru, of which 1134 (79%) provided a blood sample for 25-OH vitamin D analysis. In these 1134 children, mean age was 14.8 years; 52% were boys; asthma and atopy prevalence was 12% in Lima vs. 3% in Tumbes (P , respectively; and, mean 25-OH vitamin D level was 20.8 ng/mL in Lima vs. 30.1 ng/mL in Tumbes (P asthma (OR = 1.7 per each 10 ng/mL decrease in 25-OH vitamin D levels, 95% CI 1.2-2.6; P asthma was limited to children with atopy (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.6) and not in those without atopy (OR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.5-2.0). We did not find associations between 25-OH vitamin D levels and other clinical biomarkers for asthma, including exhaled nitric oxide, total serum IgE and pulmonary function. Both asthma and 25-OH vitamin D deficiency were common among children living in Lima (latitude = 12.0 °S) but not among those in Tumbes (3.6 °S). The relationship between 25-OH vitamin D deficiency and asthma was similar in both sites and was limited among children with atopy. Future supplementation trials may need to consider stratification by atopy at the time of design. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Darwin Vizcarra Escobar
Full Text Available La Esclerosis Múltiple (EM es la principal enfermedad desmielinizante a nivel mundial. La epidemiología señala una mayor prevalencia de esta entidad en áreas alejadas de la línea ecuatorial. Existen algunos estudios de prevalencia en Latinoamérica, ninguno publicado en el Perú. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de Esclerosis Múltiple en Lima, Perú. Material y métodos: Se utilizó el método captura recaptura para estimar la prevalencia de EM en Lima en 4 centros de pacientes con Esclerosis Múltiple de la ciudad: Hypnos Instituto del Sueño en la Clínica San Felipe, el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, la Clínica El Golf y la Asociación "Esclerosis Múltiple Perú" (ESMUP. Resultados: Se calculó la prevalencia de EM en 7,69 x 100 000 habitantes (intervalo de confianza al 95 % 7,09 a 8,30. Conclusiones: La prevalencia estimada de EM, para la ciudad de Lima, se encuentra en rango medio bajo. (Rev Med Hered 2009;20:146-150.
Utari Sterla Tibuludji
Full Text Available The development of tourism sector in Kupang for the last 10 years is concentrated in coastal region of Kupang Bay. The life style of coastal communities in Kelapa Lima before tourism was traditional and rely on nature, is now begin to change as the impact of tourism development on their life environment. The aim of this article is to analyze the impact of tourism on the quality of life of coastal communities of Kelapa Lima. The method being used in this research was descriptive qualitative and quantitative method (mixed methods research. Theory being used was Tourist Area Life Cycle. Data analysis technique was using descriptive qualitative data analysis. Presentation of data analysis result was conducted formally and informally. The result of research outlined the quality of life of coastal communities at Kelapa Lima Kupang before and after tourism developed, corresponding to 7 indicators quality of life according to OECD namely income, residence, environment, social stability, health, education and job opportunity. The role of tourism related to improvement the quality of life of coastal communities by revamping and structuring coastal area, the opening of new job opportunities, and creativity development of industrial and household output.
, and citizenship education in six regions of Peru. End Date: August 9, 2017 ... This project seeks to empower women as social scientists to increase their visibility and participation in Peru's academic community. End Date: October 24, 2017.
Heraud, J. A.; Lira, J. A.; Montes, L.; Rosas, S.; Centa, V.; Bleier, T. E.
The Mw8.0 earthquake in Pisco, Peru of August 15, 2007 was reported previously and shown to have produced extensive co-seismic luminescence away from the epicenter. Continued research will be presented in which a high coincidence exists between the location of the areas where the luminescence was video recorded and reported by qualified witnesses and the geological formation in the bay in which Jurassic and Cretaceous lithologic igneous components are present, a condition that contributes to the displacement of electric charges in the rock. Additionally, the San Lorenzo Island has become the focus of a new research effort due to the past record of pre-seismic EQLs reported and published in relation with the mega-earthquake of 1746, the previously reported co-seismic EQLs in 2007 and new evidence of pre-seismic EQLs reported one and a half days before a ML4.6 earthquake on July 29, 2012. New experiments are hitherto being deployed in San Lorenzo Island to pursue the identification of favorable conditions for the propagation of electric charges in connection with pressure on rocks due to seismic activity. Thus, continuously recording video cameras, charge potential measuring plates, recording of HF and VHF noise and the installation of a new magnetometer to detect pulse activity in the local magnetic field and twin (+/-) air conductivity sensors are being installed on the island. Additionally, a new rock experiment to analyze the displacement of charges with local rocks is under way. The expectation of a Mega earthquake in the Lima area is building up as we approach the third century without mayor seismic activity in the area so the deployment of a new network of five magnetometers for the Lima area has started.
Chincha, Omayra; Oficina de Epidemiologia y Salud Ambiental. Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico cirujano.; Cornelio, Elia; Oficina de Epidemiologia y Salud Ambiental. Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. licenciada en Enfermería.; Valverde, Violeta; Oficina de Epidemiologia y Salud Ambiental. Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. licenciada en Enfermería.; Acevedo, Mónica; Oficina de Epidemiologia y Salud Ambiental. Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico cirujano.
In order to describe the incidence of nosocomial infections associated to invasive devices in intensive care units (UCI) of the National Hospital Cayetano Heredia, a retrospective observational study was conducted using the data from the Office of Epidemiology and Environmental Health from 2010 to 2012. A total number of 222 nosocomial infections were reported; the general medicine UCI reported the highest incidence of pneumonia cases associated to a mechanical ventilator in 1000 days of ...
George, Paul E; Bayer, Angela M; Garcia, Patricia J; Perez-Lu, Jose E; Burke, Jessica G; Coates, Thomas J; Gorbach, Pamina M
Violence experience can increase HIV risk behaviors; however, literature is scarce on violence among male sex workers (MSWs) globally. In 2014, 210 Peruvian MSWs (median age 24.9) were interviewed about their experience of physical, emotional, and sexual violence and condom use with non-paying intimate partners and clients and were tested for HIV. Multivariable models examined relationships between violence in the past 6 months, condomless anal intercourse (CLAI) in the past 3 months and HIV infection. HIV infection (24 %), CLAI (43 %), being a violence victim (42 %) and perpetrator (39 %) were common. In separate multivariable models, being a violence victim [adjusted prevalence ratio aPR = 1.49 (95 % CI 1.09-2.03)] and perpetrator [aPR = 1.39 (1.03-1.87)] were associated with CLAI. Further, being a victim [aPR = 1.65 (1.04-2.62)] was associated with HIV infection. Violence, which was significantly associated with CLAI and HIV infection, is common among Peruvian MSWs, reinforcing the importance of violence awareness and prevention as HIV risk-reduction strategies.
Chincha, Omayra; Cornelio, Elia; Valverde, Violeta; Acevedo, Mónica
In order to describe the incidence of nosocomial infections associated to invasive devices in intensive care units (UCI) of the National Hospital Cayetano Heredia, a retrospective observational study was conducted using the data from the Office of Epidemiology and Environmental Health from 2010 to 2012. A total number of 222 nosocomial infections were reported; the general medicine UCI reported the highest incidence of pneumonia cases associated to a mechanical ventilator in 1000 days of use of the device (28.6); infection of the blood stream associated to central venous catheter (11.9), and infection of the urinary tract associated to a catheter (8,1). The main infectious agents isolated were Pseudomona sp. (32.3%) in the emergency UCI, negative Staphylococcus coagulasa (36%) in the general medicine UCI and Candida sp (69.2%) in the Surgery UCI. The rates of infections associated to invasive devices were high as in other national hospitals with limited resources and infrastructure.
Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To determine the epidemiological features in patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP in an Internal Medicine Service. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective and descriptive study was carried out in Internal Medicine Service Nº5 from Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen National Hospital in 2015. Medical records of patients older than 15 years old were reviewed with the discharged diagnosis of HAP who meet the selection criteria. RESULTS: Twenty six medical records were evaluated. The incidence rate of HAP was 2.37% and the mortality rate was 73.03%. The average age was 58.69 ± 12.49 years old. Patients older than 80 years old meant 42.31% of all of them. HAP was more frequent in male patients (65.38%. The average hospital stay was 62.53 days and 12 patients (46.15% had more than sixty days of hospitalization. Among the intrinsic associated factors, the cerebrovascular disease was the most frequent illness, followed by the neoplastic disease with 23.07%. The most frequent extrinsic associated factors were the use of nasogastric tube and the stress ulcers prophylaxis with 84.61% each other, the endotracheal intubation with 53.84% and the mechanical ventilation with 50%. The isolated microorganisms were Acinetobacter baumannii (15.38%, Pseudomona aeruginosa (11.53% and Staphilococcus aureus (3.84%. CONCLUSIONS: A high mortality rate was found in patients with HAP. Advanced age, comorbidities like cerebrovascular and neoplastic disease and the use of nasogastric tube and gastric secretor inhibitors were factors mostly found in HAP.
Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To determine the epidemiological features in patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP in an Internal Medicine Service. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective and descriptive study was carried out in Internal Medicine Service Nº5 from Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen National Hospital in 2015. Medical records of patients older than 15 years old were reviewed with the discharged diagnosis of HAP who meet the selection criteria. RESULTS: Twenty six medical records were evaluated. The incidence rate of HAP was 2.37% and the mortality rate was 73.03%. The average age was 58.69 ± 12.49 years old. Patients older than 80 years old meant 42.31% of all of them. HAP was more frequent in male patients (65.38%. The average hospital stay was 62.53 days and 12 patients (46.15% had more than sixty days of hospitalization. Among the intrinsic associated factors, the cerebrovascular disease was the most frequent illness, followed by the neoplastic disease with 23.07%. The most frequent extrinsic associated factors were the use of nasogastric tube and the stress ulcers prophylaxis with 84.61% each other, the endotracheal intubation with 53.84% and the mechanical ventilation with 50%. The isolated microorganisms were Acinetobacter baumannii (15.38%, Pseudomona aeruginosa (11.53% and Staphilococcus aureus (3.84%. CONCLUSIONS: A high mortality rate was found in patients with HAP. Advanced age, comorbidities like cerebrovascular and neoplastic disease and the use of nasogastric tube and gastric secretor inhibitors were factors mostly found in HAP.
Zenaida Solís Chuquiyaur
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between organizational climate and Burnout Syndrome among nursing professionals of the Emergency Service in a Hospital Category III-2. Material and methods: quantitative, prospective, correlational cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 43 nurses, using a non-probability sampling for convenience. For analysis and study of the variables, Rensis Likert scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory were used. Results: The organizational climate was average level (81.4% followed by a high level (18.6% and the Burnout Syndrome corresponds to low level (86% and medium (14% level. The relationship between organizational climate and Burnout Syndrome was low (rho = -0.11. Conclusions: In the Emergency Service, the level of organizational climate was fairly favorable with absence of Burnout Syndrome among nursing professionals. There is not significant relationship between the two variables.
Pedro Javier Navarrete Mejía
Full Text Available Objective: To know the nutritional status of children from 3 to 5 years old living in the districts of Villa el Salvador, San Juan de Miraflores and San Juan de Lurigancho for the period from April to June 2016. Material and methods: Prospective, transversal, non-experimental study. The information includes 1,416 children from the districts of Villa El Salvador, Villa Maria del Triunfo and San Juan de Lurigancho (340, 322 and 754 respectively. The information collected included data on weight, height and age and based on this information, chronic malnutrition, acute malnutrition, overweight and obesity was determined according to the reference standard of the World Health Organization. S/Aand W/S indicators was calculated. Results: It was determined that the population of San Juan de Lurigancho had higher chronic malnutrition (8.6 % and higher overweight (11.0 % , the population of the district of Villa Maria del Triunfo had higher acute malnutrition (1.3 % and population of Villa El Salvador greater obesity (4.6 %. Conclusion: In recent years the nutritional issue has a major boost by the Peruvian government through social programs, focusing on the determinants level of causality. Today only food security, maternal and child care and environmental quality are observed, neglecting health approach causality, considered the most important approach to the problem. Large national guidelines on nutrition strategies should include not only reduction of nutritional problems but also preventing these
Full Text Available The rupture of a conjugal relationship has both a positive and negative impact on the lives of immediate family members. Although for many women terminating marriage may signal freedom from an oppressive, even violent conjugal relationship, it is undeniable that this separation also results in strong social pressure and discrimination in certain contexts, a situation which limits the woman’s freedom of action in and outside of the home. The purpose of this descriptive, phenomenological study is to explore the experiences of 15 Peruvian, urban-based mothers, all of whom made the decision to exchange marriage for single parenthood within the confines of a strong patriarchal system. The study follows the actions of the women as they seek to overcome obstacles related to parenting and the management of their respective households. Three emerging themes are identified in this study: (a the development of the woman’s relationship as wife and mother, (b impact of the separation/divorce on the maternal role, and (c experiences in the single parent household. Implications for social research studies and practice are discussed.
Duenas, Vincent J; Hahn, Edward J; Aryan, Henry E; Levy, Michael V; Jandial, Rahul
This study evaluates the efficacy of operative skill transfer in the context of targeted pediatric outreach missions. In addition, the ability to implement surgical care improvements that are sustainable is investigated. Three 1-week targeted neurosurgical missions were performed (2004-2006) to teach neuroendoscopy, which included donation of the necessary equipment so newly acquired surgical skills could be performed by local neurosurgeons in between and after the departure of the mission team. After the targeted missions were completed, 5 years of neuroendoscopy case follow-up data were obtained. After performing pediatric neurosurgery missions in 2004-2006, with a focus on teaching neuroendoscopy, the host team demonstrated the sustainability of our didactic efforts in the subsequent 5 years by performing cases independently for their citizens. To date, a total of 196 operations have been performed in the past 5 years independent of any visiting team. Effective operative skill transfer to host neurosurgeons can be accomplished with limited international team visits utilizing a targeted approach that minimizes expenditures on personnel and capital. With the priority being teaching of an operative technique, as opposed to perennially performing operations by the mission team, sustainable surgical care was achieved after missions officially concluded.
Cabello-Vílchez, Alfonso Martín; Mena, Rosmery; Zuñiga, Johanna; Cermeño, Pablo; Martín-Navarro, Carmen Ma; González, Ana C; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob
In March 2010, a 35 year-old HIV/AIDS female patient was admitted to hospital to start treatment with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) since during a routine control a dramatic decrease in the CD4(+) levels was detected. At this stage, a nasal swab from each nostril was collected from the patient to include it in the samples for the case study mentioned above. Moreover, it is important to mention that the patient was diagnosed in 2009 with invasive pneumococcal disease, acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis and pulmonary tuberculosis. The collected nasal swabs from both nostrils were positive for Vermamoeba vermiformis species which was identified using morphological and PCR/DNA sequencing approaches. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) homology and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the amoebic strain to belong to V.vermiformis species. Molecular identification of the Mycobacterium strain was carried out using a bacterial universal primer pair for the 16S rDNA gene at the genus level and the rpoB gene was amplified and sequenced as previously described to identify the Mycobacterium species (Shin et al., 2008; Sheen et al., 2013). Homology and phylogenetic analyses of the rpoB gene confirmed the species as Mycobacterium chelonae. In parallel, collected swabs were tested by PCR and were positive for the presence of V.vermiformis and M.chelonae. This work describes the identification of an emerging bacterial pathogen,M.chelonae from a Free-Living Amoebae (FLA) strain belonging to the species V.vermiformis that colonized the nasal cavities of an HIV/AIDS patient, previously diagnosed with TB. Awareness within clinicians and public health professionals should be raised, as pathogenic agents such as M.chelonae may be using FLA to propagate and survive in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mercado, Erik H; Piscoche, Cristian; Contreras, Carmen; Durand, David; Riveros, Maribel; Ruiz, Joaquim; Ochoa, Theresa J
EPEC is an attaching and effacing diarrheal pathogen that carries a large pathogenicity island, locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE). Recently, the pathogenicity island PAI O-122 was described among non-LEE effectors and found to be associated with diarrhea among atypical EPEC strains. It is unknown if incomplete PAI O-122 could be associated with diarrhea duration and severity. To identify these virulence determinants we analyzed 379 EPEC strains isolated from Peruvian children. EPEC was diagnosed by PCR(eae+, stx-) and classified as typical(t-EPEC) or atypical(a-EPEC). To characterize PAI O-122 we amplified three modules by PCR: Module 1(pagC), Module 2(senA, nleB and nleE) and Module 3(lifA/efa-1). To characterize the large ORF lifA/efa-1 we amplified the regions known as efa-N, efa-M and efa-C. Clinical information was obtained from the cohort study. A total of 379 EPEC strains were able to analyze PAI O-122 genes, 128 (10.4%) EPEC strains were isolated from 1235 diarrhea episodes and 251(9.2%) from 2734 healthy controls. t-EPEC strains were isolated from 14.8% (19/128) of children with diarrhea and 25/251(10.0%) from healthy controls. The most frequent PAI O-122 genes were nleE(37.7%), senA(34.6%) and nleB(37.5%), with similar prevalence among diarrhea and control samples. However, lifA/efa-1 was more common among diarrhea cases than healthy control cases (30.5% vs. 21.1%, p<0.05). The presence of complete PAI O-122 was associated with diarrhea episodes of higher severity among single pathogen infection (33.3% vs. 1.8%, p<0.05) mainly due to the presence of a complete lifA/efa-1 gene. In summary, the gene lifA/efa-1 is significantly associated with diarrheal episodes of higher severity, suggesting to be an important virulent factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
HIV Infections; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Lentivirus Infections; Retroviridae Infections; RNA Virus Infections; Virus Diseases; Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral; Sexually Transmitted Diseases; Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes; Immune System Diseases; Slow Virus Diseases
Díaz Pérez, Gilmer A; Pow-Sang Godoy, Mariela; Morante Deza, Carlos; Meza Montoya, Luis; Destefano Urrutia, Víctor
Testicular lymphoma is a rare illness with peculiar characteristics but with a poor prognosis. We evaluated 32 patients retrospectively studying their epidemiologic characteristics, hematologic values, histologic type, metastasis sites, the treatment given and the survival. We compared our results with international reports and we think that prospective studies are needed for better conclusions. The average of age was 45-years-old, with more than the half of patients with clinical stage IV at the moment of the diagnosis, the histiocitic pathology was the most frequent, and the time of survival was 39,543 +/- 14,451 months and the time in which the 50% of the patients die is 15 +/- 7,025 months. This is a rare disease, with a very poor prognosis, with a time of survival of 39,543 +/- 14,451 months and the time in which the 50% of the patients die is 15 +/- 7,025 months.
Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the isolation and biodegradation activity of microorganisms on low density polyethylene. The microorganisms were collected from plastic materials with evidence of deterioration from a landfill. The samples were filtered and selected in a mineral salts medium at pH 5.5 and 7 for bacteria and fungi respectively. Six strains were isolated, identified as Pseudomonas sp. Hyalodendron sp., Penicillium sp. and Rhodotorula sp. Microbial activity was evidenced by changes in the infrared spectrum of polyethylene with respect to the polymer without treatment. Reduction of carbonyl index (83.89% at pH 7 and 4.08% at pH 5.5 and double bonds index (19.77% at pH 7 and 6.47% at pH 5.5 were observed. Finally we determined the percentage of weight lost by the polyethylene subjected to activity of the strains, with a decrease of 5.4% at pH 7 and 4.8% at pH5, 5.
Espinoza Ríos, Jorge; Huerta-Mercado Tenorio, Jorge; Huerta-Mercado Tenorio, Jorge; Lindo Ricce, Mayra; García Encinas, Carlos; Rios Matteucci, Sathya; Vila Gutierrez, Sandro; Pinto Valdivia, José; De Los Rios Senmache, Raúl; Piscoya Rivera, Alejandro; Bussalleu Rivera, Alejandro
The present study intends to validate the Rockall Score in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) in our current medical setting and to find the value that best discriminates between patients with high or low risk of mortality, rebleeding and the need of more than two units of packed red blood cells (PRBC). A descriptive prospective study was made from patients who arrived to Cayetano Heredia Hospital's emergency department between February 2007 and January 2008 due to UGB symptoms (hematemesis, coffe ground remit melena or hematoquezia). The Rockall score was used to determine severity of UGB and to stratify patients with higher risk of mortality or rebleeding. All patients were interviewed and any additional information was gathered from medical history records and emergency and hospitalization endoscopic procedure reports. During the study all patients were evaluated for rebleeding, the number of units of PRBCs needed and mortality rate. 163 patients were included in our study, 107 (65.64%) were male and 56 (34.36%) female, 8 were excluded due to lack of an endoscopic procedure. The remaining 155 patients were studied to evaluate the discriminative ability of the scoring system, and to determine which value best distinguishes high and low severity patients using Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC) and calculated area under the curve. The data analysis showed patients with a Rockall Score e 5 had an increased mortality rate compared to lower score with an area under the curve of 0.807, meaning an accurate relationship between mortality and a score e 5. For rebleeding and the need of two packed red blood cells for transfusion, the area under the curve were 0.65 and 0.64 respectively showing a low predictive value. The Rockall scoring system is useful to identify patients with high mortality risk, but not to predict rebleeding or the need for blood transfusion in our hospital.
... 178 RIN 1515-AD79 United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Final rule effective November 19, 2012. FOR FURTHER... implement the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru...
... Trade and Investment Mission to Peru March 7-9, 2016. AGENCY: International Trade Administration... Administration, is organizing a healthcare trade and investment mission to Peru. The mission is designed to... mission also will assist U.S. companies already doing business in Peru to expand their footprint. This...
... Airspace; Peru, IN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This..., this action will add Peru, Grissom ARB, IN to the subtitle of the airspace designation. DATES... within the scope of that authority as it modifies Class D airspace at Grissom ARB, Peru, IN. History On...
Piazza, Marina; Fiestas, Fabián
To estimate the annual prevalence of eighteen mental disorders, their sociodemographic correlates and the frequency of use of mental health services by individuals aged 18 to 65 in five cities of Peru. The World Mental Health Survey in Peru used the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, which provides diagnoses according to DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. It was performed with a multistage probabilistic sample in Lima, Arequipa, Huancayo, Iquitos and Chiclayo between July 2004 and December 2005. The prevalence of mental disorders in the last twelve months was 13.5%, the most frequent being anxiety (7.9%), mood (3.5%), impulse control (3.5%) and substance misuse (1.7%). The widowed, separated and divorced showed a greater risk of disorders in the last year than those who were married or partners living together. Only 32.8% of those who had severe mental health disorders in the last twelve months received any kind of treatment. Among those with moderate or mild disorders, 18.1% and 15.4% received treatment, respectively. More than 13 out of 100 Peruvians reported having a mental health disorder in the last year. The magnitude of mental health disorders and the gap in those receiving care highlights the urgent need to direct care and resources towards the detection and timely treatment of mental diseases in Peru.
The daily commute of millions of people to their workplace is a major source of pollution in urban areas. Start Date: March 1, 2010. End Date: .... Project. In Cercado de Lima (centretown Lima), a population of 80 000 lives in closely constructed houses built right up to the edge of the Rimac River. Start Date: January 2, 2008.
Carly A. Rodriguez
Full Text Available Tools to assess intake among children in Latin America are limited. We developed and assessed the reproducibility and validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ administered to children, adolescents, and their caregivers in Lima, Peru. We conducted 24-h diet recalls (DRs and focus groups to develop a locally-tailored FFQ prototype for children aged 0–14 years. To validate the FFQ, we administered two FFQs and three DRs to children and/or their caregivers (N = 120 over six months. We examined FFQ reproducibility by quartile agreement and Pearson correlation coefficients, and validity by quartile agreement and correlation with DRs. For reproducibility, quartile agreement ranged from 60–77% with correlations highest for vitamins A and C (0.31. Age-adjusted correlations for the mean DR and the second-administered FFQ were highest in the 0–7 age group, in which the majority of caregivers completed the FFQ on behalf of the child (total fat; 0.67 and in the 8–14 age group, in which both the child and caregiver completed the FFQ together (calcium, niacin; 0.54; correlations were <0.10 for most nutrients in the 8–14 age group in which the caregiver completed the FFQ on the child’s behalf. The FFQ was reproducible and the first developed and validated to assess various nutrients in children and adolescents in Peru.
García, Coralith; Astocondor, Lizeth; Rojo-Bezares, Beatriz; Jacobs, Jan; Sáenz, Yolanda
Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the most common cause of neonatal sepsis in the low- and middle-income countries. Our objective was to describe the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producer KP in neonatal care centers from Peru. We collected 176 non-duplicate consecutive KP isolates from blood isolates of neonates from eight general public hospitals of Lima, Peru. The overall rate of ESBL production was 73.3% (N = 129). The resistance rates were higher among ESBL-producer isolates when compared with the nonproducers: 85.3% versus 12.8% for gentamicin (P < 0.01), 59.7% versus 8.5% for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (P < 0.01), 45.0% versus 8.5% for ciprofloxacin (P < 0.01), and 36.4% versus 12.8% for amikacin (P < 0.01). A total of 359 β-lactamase-encoding genes were detected among 129 ESBL-producer isolates; 109 isolates (84.5%) carried two or more genes. Among 37 ESBL-producer isolates randomly selected, CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-2 were the most common ESBLs detected. Most of the isolates (92%) belonged to the group KpI. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that multiple KP clones were circulating among the eight neonatal units included. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Takabayashi, J.; Dicke, M.; Posthumus, M.A.
Headspace analyses of uninfested Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) leaves show an absence of or only trace amounts of the terpenoids (E)--ocimene and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Upon infestation by two-spotted spider-mites (Tetranychus urticae), Lima bean leaves produce (E)--ocimene and
Southern root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita; RKN) significantly reduce lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) yields. Chemical control options for RKN are limited. We evaluated the efficacy of new nematicidal products on RKN in lima bean experiments conducted in greenhouse (GH) and microplot (MP) set...
Cruz, Ismael; Huerta-Mercado, Raul
Peru is a country located on the Pacific coast of South America with a population of more than 30 million inhabitants. In the past 10 years, Peru has had a steady economic growth. Peru is predominantly an extractive industry country, but the manufacturing and construction sectors are booming. It is in this context that regulations have been implemented to protect the safety and health of workers. One of the most important regulations is the Law on Safety and Health at Work, which has been recently promulgated. Regulations are complemented by training and education in occupational safety and health. The measures are yet to be fully implemented thus a positive effect in reducing accidents and occupational diseases at work has not yet been seen. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Northern Peru has an exceptionally rich archaeological heritage that includes metalwork, ceramics and textiles. The success of at least a half-dozen pre-Columbian societies dating back 3,000 years and subsequent Spanish colonization in the 1400s has rested on the effective use of northern Peru's abundant resources. In the summer of 2000, my son Matt and I learned about that connection firsthand by volunteering at the Santa Rita B archaeological site in the Chao Valley near Trujillo in northern Peru. Riding donkey-back through the Andes and talking with local people, we got our hands dirty in the rich archaeology and geology of the area. We were able to correlate mineral occurrences to their various roles in society - opening a window into the region's fascinating past. From construction to metallurgy, pre-Columbian societies flourished and advanced because of their understanding and use of the available mineral resources.
Mejia, C R; Vera, C A; Huiza-Espinoza, L
For the last 15 years, infection from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been recognized in gastritis pathogenesis, and is known to trigger an important inflammatory response in these patients. To determine the association between follicular gastritis and H. pylori infection in children seen at a public hospital in Peru. An analytic, cross-sectional study was conducted on all the children treated at the Hospital Nacional Docente Madre "Niño San Bartolomé" in Lima, Peru, within the time frame of 2011-2012. All the personal data from the patients' medical histories and endoscopic procedures were collected. The crude prevalence ratios (PR) were obtained and adjusted (aPR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), using generalized linear models with the binomial family and log link function. A total of 123 children met the study criteria. Forty-eight (39%) of the study sample were girls and the mean age of the children was 12 years. H. pylori was present in 44% of the sample and 9% presented with more than 100 bacteria per field (classified as +++). Thirty-five percent of the children had esophagitis due to concomitant reflux. The presence of H. pylori was associated with follicular gastritis (Pgastritis had a greater likelihood of having H. pylori than those that did not present with gastritis. These results can be extrapolated to other similar populations and should be evaluated in each setting so that this does not become a public health problem within the next few years. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando M; Urrunaga-Pastor, Diego; Aguirre, Luis G; Reategui-Rivera, C Mahony; Parodi, José F; Taype-Rondan, Alvaro
To assess the association between frailty/vulnerability and the development of radiotoxicity in older adults at a hospital in Peru. Cohort study that included patients with cancer with medical recommendation of radiotherapy, who attended the outpatient department of geriatrics at Naval Medical Center (Lima, Peru) between 2013 and 2015. Before receiving radiation therapy sessions, we measured frailty using Fried phenotype, and vulnerability using VES-13 and G-8 scales. During radiotherapy, we determined the development of radiotoxicity. ROC curves and crude/adjusted Cox regression models were prepared to evaluate the association between the frailty/vulnerability scales and the development of radiotoxicity respectively. From a total of 181 patients (mean age: 78.1 years, all males), 33 (18.2%) developed some type of radiotoxicity. The appearance of radiotoxicity was higher in patients with frailty or vulnerability compared with those without these conditions, according to the usual cutoff points of Fried phenotype (10.9% versus 41.9%), VES-13 (5.0% versus 63.4%) and G-8 (5.6% versus 67.6%). The area under the curve was 0.61 (0.55-0.65) for the Fried phenotype, 0.79 (0.69-0.86) for the VES-13, and 0.86 (0.58-0.89) for the G-8. We found an association between frailty/vulnerability and the development of radiotoxicity. The G-8 and the VES-13 scales had a better area under the curve than Fried phenotype, suggesting that those could be useful tools when deciding the dose of radiotherapy in geriatric patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
García, Patricia J; Cárcamo, César P; Chiappe, Marina; Valderrama, Maria; La Rosa, Sayda; Holmes, King K; Mabey, David C W; Peeling, Rosanna W
Untreated maternal syphilis leads to adverse pregnancy outcomes. The use of point of care tests (POCT) offers an opportunity to improve screening coverage for syphilis and other aspects of health systems. Our objective is to present the experience of the introduction of POCT for syphilis in Peru and describe how new technology can catalyze health system strengthening. The study was implemented from September 2009-November 2010 to assess the feasibility of the use of a POCT for syphilis for screening pregnant women in Lima, Peru. Outcomes measured included access to syphilis screening, treatment coverage, partner treatment, effect on patient flow and service efficiency, acceptability among providers and patients, and sustainability. Before the introduction of POCT, a pregnant woman needed 6 visits to the health center in 27 days before she received her syphilis result. We trained 604 health providers and implemented the POCT for syphilis as the "two for one strategy", offering with one finger stick both syphilis and HIV testing. Implementation of the POCT resulted in testing and treatment on the first visit. Screening and treatment coverages for syphilis improved significantly compared with the previous year. Implementation of POCT has been scaled up nationally since the study ended, and coverages for screening, treatment and partner treatment have remained over 92%. Implementation of POCT for syphilis proved feasible and acceptable, and led to improvement in several aspects of health services. For the process to be effective we highlight the importance of: (1) engaging the authorities; (2) dissipating tensions between providers and identifying champions; (3) training according to the needs; (4) providing monitoring, supervision, support and recognition; (5) sharing results and discussing actions together; (6) consulting and obtaining feedback from users; and (7) integrating with other services such as with rapid HIV testing.
Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E.; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G.; Sanchez, Juan F.; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M.
Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s–2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005–2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine–primaquine for P. vivax. Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax. Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination. PMID:27799639
Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G; Sanchez, Juan F; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M
Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s-2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005-2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine-primaquine for P. vivax Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Pulido, N.; Tavera, H.; Aguilar, Z.; Chlieh, M.; Calderon, D.; Sekiguchi, T.; Nakai, S.; Yamazaki, F.
We have developed a methodology for the estimation of slip scenarios for megathrust earthquakes based on a model of interseismic coupling (ISC) distribution in subduction margins obtained from geodetic data, as well as information of recurrence of historical earthquakes. This geodetic slip model (GSM) delineates the long wavelength asperities within the megathrust. For the simulation of strong ground motion it becomes necessary to introduce short wavelength heterogeneities to the source slip to be able to efficiently simulate high frequency ground motions. To achieve this purpose we elaborate "broadband" source models constructed by combining the GSM with several short wavelength slip distributions obtained from a Von Karman PSD function with random phases. Our application of the method to Central Andes in Peru, show that this region has presently the potential of generating an earthquake with moment magnitude of 8.9, with a peak slip of 17 m and a source area of approximately 500 km along strike and 165 km along dip. For the strong motion simulations we constructed 12 broadband slip models, and consider 9 possible hypocenter locations for each model. We performed strong motion simulations for the whole central Andes region (Peru), spanning an area from the Nazca ridge (16^o S) to the Mendana fracture (9^o S). For this purpose we use the hybrid strong motion simulation method of Pulido et al. (2004), improved to handle a general slip distribution. Our simulated PGA and PGV distributions indicate that a region of at least 500 km along the coast of central Andes is subjected to a MMI intensity of approximately 8, for the slip model that yielded the largest ground motions among the 12 slip models considered, averaged for all assumed hypocenter locations. This result is in agreement with the macroseismic intensity distribution estimated for the great 1746 earthquake (M~9) in central Andes (Dorbath et al. 1990). Our results indicate that the simulated PGA and PGV for
Lima Barreto and Roberto Arlt are accused, by the critics, of bad writing. Both of them were working as newspaper columnists to support their families. This double journey, the dedication to the arts, and at the same time, to the survival, raises the discussion about the relation between the ‘ordinary’ intrinsic of the work and the artistic ‘exceptionality’. We try to elaborate a discussion that approaches the bad writing as an important way to question the literary institution and the author...
Full Text Available Lima Barreto and Roberto Arlt are accused, by the critics, of bad writing. Both of them were working as newspaper columnists to support their families. This double journey, the dedication to the arts, and at the same time, to the survival, raises the discussion about the relation between the ‘ordinary’ intrinsic of the work and the artistic ‘exceptionality’. We try to elaborate a discussion that approaches the bad writing as an important way to question the literary institution and the author myth
Fasce Cayo, Ninoshka
The study investigates the depression in a group 55 adults (14 women and 41 men) who live with VJH, between 18 and 58 years, oflow and medium low socioeconomic leve! which attend public health centers, NGO and mutual support groups (MSG) of Lima. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to study the level of depression, as well as the five factors found in this population.The descriptive results were correlated with the following demographic variables: age,sex, time of diagnosis, the presence o...
Pablo D. Valencia
Full Text Available RESUMEN: La evitación experiencial (EE —o (inflexibilidad psicológica— es un concepto central en las terapias contextuales y ha sido propuesta como una dimensión transdiagnóstica de la psicopatología. En el presente estudio, se buscó probar si la EE y otras estrategias de afrontamiento predicen independientemente la ansiedad-estado y la ansiedad-rasgo. Se aplicó un conjunto de medidas (el AAQ-II, una versión modificada del COPE breve, y el IDARE a 284 estudiantes de pregrado de una universidad pública de Lima. De acuerdo con los resultados, la ansiedad (estado y rasgo mostró correlaciones significativas con la EE, la baja actitud de solución de problemas, la autoculpa y el uso de sustancias. Sin embargo, al someter estas variables a análisis de regresión múltiple, solo la EE, la baja actitud de solución de problemas y la autoculpa resultaron predictores significativos de la ansiedad-rasgo; de estos, solo la EE contribuyó de manera importante al modelo (ΔR² = .16. Por otra parte, ninguna de las variables estudiadas predijo de manera significativa la ansiedad-estado. Se concluye que el intento de evitar los pensamientos y emociones desagradables constituye un elemento fundamental de la ansiedad-rasgo. Se discute este hallazgo en relación con estudios previos y se brindan sugerencias para nuevas investigaciones. ABSTRACT: Experiential avoidance (EA—or psychological (inflexibility—is a central concept in contextual therapies, and it has been proposed as a transdiagnostic dimension of psychopathology. We intended to test whether EA and other coping strategies independently predict both state and trait-anxiety. We administered a set of measures (the AAQ-II, a modified version of the Brief COPE, and the STAI to 284 undergraduates from a public university in Lima, Peru. Results showed that EA, lack of problem solving, self-blame, and substance use were all significantly related to state and trait-anxiety. However, after
McDonald, Katharine; Shopinski, Samuel; Wilkinson, Ariana; Meza, Claudia; Cok, Jaime; Bussalleu, Alejandro; Valdivieso, Manuel
This study aims to investigate the relationship between functional gastrointestinal disorders and histopathology characteristics, including H. pylori infection, of gastric mucosa, at Cayetano Heredia National Hospital, Lima-Peru, in 2013. 112 patients were interviewed prospectively between June and July 2013 in the gastroenterology service. Dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, and postprandial distress syndrome were characterized using the Rome III Survey. Pathology results were determined by gastric biopsies obtained by endoscopy. Of the patients interviewed, biopsy results were obtained for 101. 22.8% had atrophy, 24.8% had intestinal metaplasia, 57.4% presented with H pylori. Using chi-square analysis, no statistically significant relationship could be identified between clinical presentation and biopsy results.
Full Text Available A checklist of the marine bivalve species from Peru is presented, this list has 401 species which are distributed in 65 families and 195 genera. The taxonomical classification and nomenclature is based on classical and current bibliography including Bernard (1983 and Coan & Valentich-Scott (2012. We give distribution and hábitat information about every species.
Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru recounts the hidden history of how local processes of citizen formation in an Andean town were persistently overruled from the nineteenth century on, thereby perpetuating antagonism toward the Peruvian state and political centralism. The analysis points...
Moro, Pedro L.; Budke, Christine M.; Schantz, Peter M.; Vasquez, Julio; Santivañez, Saul J.; Villavicencio, Jaime
Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) constitutes an important public health problem in Peru. However, no studies have attempted to estimate the monetary and non-monetary impact of CE in Peruvian society. Methods We used official and published sources of epidemiological and economic information to estimate direct and indirect costs associated with livestock production losses and human disease in addition to surgical CE-associated disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Findings The total estimated cost of human CE in Peru was U.S.$2,420,348 (95% CI:1,118,384–4,812,722) per year. Total estimated livestock-associated costs due to CE ranged from U.S.$196,681 (95% CI:141,641–251,629) if only direct losses (i.e., cattle and sheep liver destruction) were taken into consideration to U.S.$3,846,754 (95% CI:2,676,181–4,911,383) if additional production losses (liver condemnation, decreased carcass weight, wool losses, decreased milk production) were accounted for. An estimated 1,139 (95% CI: 861–1,489) DALYs were also lost due to surgical cases of CE. Conclusions This preliminary and conservative assessment of the socio-economic impact of CE on Peru, which is based largely on official sources of information, very likely underestimates the true extent of the problem. Nevertheless, these estimates illustrate the negative economic impact of CE in Peru. PMID:21629731
Moro, Pedro L; Budke, Christine M; Schantz, Peter M; Vasquez, Julio; Santivañez, Saul J; Villavicencio, Jaime
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) constitutes an important public health problem in Peru. However, no studies have attempted to estimate the monetary and non-monetary impact of CE in Peruvian society. We used official and published sources of epidemiological and economic information to estimate direct and indirect costs associated with livestock production losses and human disease in addition to surgical CE-associated disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. The total estimated cost of human CE in Peru was U.S.$2,420,348 (95% CI:1,118,384-4,812,722) per year. Total estimated livestock-associated costs due to CE ranged from U.S.$196,681 (95% CI:141,641-251,629) if only direct losses (i.e., cattle and sheep liver destruction) were taken into consideration to U.S.$3,846,754 (95% CI:2,676,181-4,911,383) if additional production losses (liver condemnation, decreased carcass weight, wool losses, decreased milk production) were accounted for. An estimated 1,139 (95% CI: 861-1,489) DALYs were also lost due to surgical cases of CE. This preliminary and conservative assessment of the socio-economic impact of CE on Peru, which is based largely on official sources of information, very likely underestimates the true extent of the problem. Nevertheless, these estimates illustrate the negative economic impact of CE in Peru.
Pedro L Moro
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE constitutes an important public health problem in Peru. However, no studies have attempted to estimate the monetary and non-monetary impact of CE in Peruvian society. METHODS: We used official and published sources of epidemiological and economic information to estimate direct and indirect costs associated with livestock production losses and human disease in addition to surgical CE-associated disability adjusted life years (DALYs lost. FINDINGS: The total estimated cost of human CE in Peru was U.S.$2,420,348 (95% CI:1,118,384-4,812,722 per year. Total estimated livestock-associated costs due to CE ranged from U.S.$196,681 (95% CI:141,641-251,629 if only direct losses (i.e., cattle and sheep liver destruction were taken into consideration to U.S.$3,846,754 (95% CI:2,676,181-4,911,383 if additional production losses (liver condemnation, decreased carcass weight, wool losses, decreased milk production were accounted for. An estimated 1,139 (95% CI: 861-1,489 DALYs were also lost due to surgical cases of CE. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary and conservative assessment of the socio-economic impact of CE on Peru, which is based largely on official sources of information, very likely underestimates the true extent of the problem. Nevertheless, these estimates illustrate the negative economic impact of CE in Peru.
Sep 7, 2016 ... When large-scale irrigation came to Peru's northern coast in the 1960s and 1970s, it brought with it an explosion in agriculture — and one of the world's deadliest diseases. An IDRC-funded project is changing irrigation practices to help turn the tide against malaria. This article is part of an ongoing series ...
The relationship between internal migration and employment problems in Peru is examined. The author argues that regional differences in income distribution are the primary causes of migration, particularly to urban areas. A model of the migration process is developed and tested using data from official sources, surveys, and the published literature.
Carnero, Andres M; Mayta-Tristan, Percy; Konda, Kelika A; Mezones-Holguin, Edward; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Alvarado, German F; Canelo-Aybar, Carlos; Maguiña, Jorge L; Segura, Eddy R; Quispe, Antonio M; Smith, Edward S; Bayer, Angela M; Lescano, Andres G
Plagiarism is a serious, yet widespread type of research misconduct, and is often neglected in developing countries. Despite its far-reaching implications, plagiarism is poorly acknowledged and discussed in the academic setting, and insufficient evidence exists in Latin America and developing countries to inform the development of preventive strategies. In this context, we present a longitudinal case study of seven instances of plagiarism and cheating arising in four consecutive classes (2011-2014) of an Epidemiology Masters program in Lima, Peru, and describes the implementation and outcomes of a multifaceted, "zero-tolerance" policy aimed at introducing research integrity. Two cases involved cheating in graded assignments, and five cases correspond to plagiarism in the thesis protocol. Cases revealed poor awareness of high tolerance to plagiarism, poor academic performance, and widespread writing deficiencies, compensated with patchwriting and copy-pasting. Depending on the events' severity, penalties included course failure (6/7) and separation from the program (3/7). Students at fault did not engage in further plagiarism. Between 2011 and 2013, the Masters program sequentially introduced a preventive policy consisting of: (i) intensified research integrity and scientific writing education, (ii) a stepwise, cumulative writing process; (iii) honor codes; (iv) active search for plagiarism in all academic products; and (v) a "zero-tolerance" policy in response to documented cases. No cases were detected in 2014. In conclusion, plagiarism seems to be widespread in resource-limited settings and a greater response with educational and zero-tolerance components is needed to prevent it.
Full Text Available The comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterial genotypes with phenotypic, demographic, geospatial and clinical data improves our understanding of how strain lineage influences the development of drug-resistance and the spread of tuberculosis.To investigate the association of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterial genotype with drug-resistance. Drug susceptibility testing together with genotyping using both 15-loci MIRU-typing and spoligotyping, was performed on 2,139 culture positive isolates, each from a different patient in Lima, Peru. Demographic, geospatial and socio-economic data were collected using questionnaires, global positioning equipment and the latest national census.The Latin American Mediterranean (LAM clade (OR 2.4, p<0.001 was significantly associated with drug-resistance and alone accounted for more than half of all drug resistance in the region. Previously treated patients, prisoners and genetically clustered cases were also significantly associated with drug-resistance (OR's 2.5, 2.4 and 1.8, p<0.001, p<0.05, p<0.001 respectively.Tuberculosis disease caused by the LAM clade was more likely to be drug resistant independent of important clinical, genetic and socio-economic confounding factors. Explanations for this include; the preferential co-evolution of LAM strains in a Latin American population, a LAM strain bacterial genetic background that favors drug-resistance or the "founder effect" from pre-existing LAM strains disproportionately exposed to drugs.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Patients with acute kidney injury (AKI in developing countries are described in a profile of young age, with less comorbidities, with unifactorial, and with a lower mortality compared to patients in developed countries. Objective: To assess mortality in patients with acute kidney injury undergoing hemodialysis (HD and its associated factors in a developing country setting. Methods: Retrospective study. Demographic, clinical, and mortality variables were collected from patients who presented AKI and underwent HD between January 2014 and December 2015 at a national reference hospital in Lima, Peru. Risk ratios (RR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were estimated through Poisson regressions. Results: Data from 72 patients with AKI that underwent HD were analyzed, 66.7% of them were 8.9 mg/dL. The adjusted analysis showed that having had a creatinine level of > 8.9 mg/dL, compared to a creatinine level of < 5.2 mg/dL at the time of initiating HD, was associated with 74% less probability of death. Conclusion: Four out of every ten AKI patients undergoing HD die. Higher levels of creatinine were associated with lower probability of mortality.
finales del XIX. THE PICTURE IN EL PERÚ ILUSTRADO (LIMA, 1887-1892. El Perú Ilustrado is the first magazine with illustrations published in Peru in the nineteenth century. Until now it had not been studied, but the illustrations and commentaries it contains are very interesting. This analysis first focuses on the cover of the magazine with its emblematic character that opposes the ideal of progress within a country through to be archaic. Afterwards the analysis focuses on the portraits of celebrities which give special importance to the model of the self made man . From north to south Peru is represented as a world on the way to modernity. The legends and commentaries that accompany the illustrations reveals the ideological proposal of the magazine editors that leave the representation of popular figures the end of the magazine. The Perú Ilustrado thus is revealed as a two-edged sword, expressing the ambiguities in the discourse of progress prevailing at the end of the 19th century.
Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa
.1007/978-90-481-8801-7_12 Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2012b. Investigating satellite Landsat TM and ASTER multitemporal data set to discover ancient canals and aqueduct systems, in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 7335, Issue 3, 2012, Pages 497-511, 12th International Conference on Computational Science and Its Applications, ICCSA 2012, doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-31137-6_38 Masini N., Rizzo E., Lasaponara R., and Orefici G. 2008, Integrated remote sensing techniques for the detection of buried archaeological adobe structures: preliminary results in Cahuachi (Peru), Advances in Geosciences, 19, 75-82 Masini N., Lasaponara N., Orefici G. 2009, Addressing the challenge of detecting archaeological adobe structures in Southern Peru using QuickBird imagery, Journal of Cultural Heritage, 10S, pp. e3-e9 [doi:10.1016/j.culher.2009.10.005] Masini N., Lasaponara R., Rizzo E., Orefici G. 2012. Integrated Remote Sensing Approach in Cahuachi (Peru): Studies and Results of the ITACA Mission (2007-2010), In: Lasaponara R., Masini N. (Eds) 2012, Satellite Remote Sensing: a new tool for Archaeology, Springer, Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, ISBN 978-90-481-8800-0, doi: 10.1007/978-90-481-8801-7_14; pp. 307-344 Orefici G (2009) Los geoglifos: espacios abiertos y ceremonias colectivas. In Nasca. El desierto de los Dioses de Cahuachi. Graph Ediciones, Lima, pp. 94-113 Orefici G. (2012), Cahuachi. Capital Teocratica Nasca. Lima: Universidad de San Martin de Porres Reinhard J. (1988) The Nazca Lines, Water and Mountains: An Ethno-archaeological Study. In recent studies in Pre-Columbian Archaeology, N. Saunders and O. de Montmollin (eds.), Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, pp. 363-414 Schreiber H, Lancho Rojas J (2009) El control del agua y los puquios de Nasca. In: Nasca. El desierto del los Dioses de Cahuachi, Graph, Lima : 132-151 Silverman H, Proulx D A (2002) The Nasca. Balckwell Publishing Ltd, Malden, USA Tapete D., Cigna F., Masini N., Lasaponara R. 2013. Prospection and monitoring of the archaeological heritage of
Full Text Available Wood ash generated from wood industries have enormous potential which can be utilized due to its properties which influences soil chemistry and fertility status of tropical acidic soils. Field experiments were conducted on an acidic sandy loam alfisol to investigate the effects of wood ash on the growth indices and chlorophyll content of maize and lima beans intercrop during the late and early seasons of 2014 and 2015 at Akure in the rainforest zone of southwestern Nigeria. The treatments were 100% sole maize with ash, 100% sole maize without ash, 75% maize + 25% lima beans with ash, 75% + 25% lima beans without ash, 50% maize + 50% lima beans with ash, 50% maize + 50% lima beans without ash, 25% maize + 75% lima beans with ash and 25% maize + 75% lima beans without ash. Wood ash was applied at 2.4kg/plot. Wood ash increased chlorophyll content in all amended treatments except in amended 25:75% maize-lima beans intercrop and 25:75% maize –lima beans intercrop without ash, however 75:25% maize-lima beans amended with wood ash significantly (P≥0.05 recorded the highest chlorophyll content. Growth parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index, leaf length, stem diameter, number of flowers, number of pods, weight of plant and total biomass of amended maize-lima beans intercrop were significantly (P≥0.05 increased by wood ash application. Based on experimental findings, 25:75% maize-lima beans intercrop and 75%:25% maize-lima beans intercrop amended with wood ash was concluded to be more recommendable in the study area.
Ninoshka Fasce Cayo
Full Text Available This research studies the social support in a group of adult persons with HIV: 14 women and 41 men between 18 and 58 years of age, from medium- low social economic status that appeal to state health centers, non government entities and mutual support groups of Lima. The resultsof perceived social support, effective social support, social support satisfaction and social support need ha ve been correlated with variables age, sex, diagnostic time, presence of symptoms associated lo H!V, participation in a mutual support group, sex and sexual orientation(heterosexual males, men that have sex with other men and heterosexual women.The results showed that the social support indexes behaved differently according to weather they participated in a mutual support group or not, according to sex, according to sex and sexual orientation. Also, the need for social support rate varies according to diagnostic time.
Fattori, Danusa da Matta Duarte
Este estudo estabelece uma comparação entre as obras de dois importantes escritores e intelectuais brasileiros do início do século XX, Lima Barreto e Oswald de Andrade, com o objetivo de verificar a forma como ambos enfrentaram as forças modernizadoras que se impuseram no nosso país no início do século XX. Com base, principalmente, nos textos Recordações do Escrivão Isaías Caminha, O Diário íntimo, Triste fim de Policarpo Quaresma, Impressões de Leitura e Os Bruzundangas do primeiro aut...
Ninoshka Fasce Cayo
Full Text Available The study investigates the depression in a group 55 adults (14 women and 41 men who live with VJH, between 18 and 58 years, oflow and medium low socioeconomic leve! which attend public health centers, NGO and mutual support groups (MSG of Lima. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to study the level of depression, as well as the five factors found in this population.The descriptive results were correlated with the following demographic variables: age,sex, time of diagnosis, the presence or absence of symptoms associated to VIH, the participationor not in a MSG, sexual orientation and sex. Results indicated that depression varies depending on whether the person belongs or not to a MSG, sex and sexual orientation.