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Sample records for ventanensis asteraceae una

  1. ESTUDIO DEMOGRÁFICO DE Emilia sonchifolia (ASTERACEAE EN UNA FINCA CAFETERA DE ARMENIA, QUINDÍO, COLOMBIA

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    Irene Duarte Gandica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio con el fin de determinar la estructura demográfica de Emilia sonchifolia (L. DC en una finca cafetera del Municipio de Armenia, Quindío, Colombia, donde se recolectaron datos durante 4 semanas, en tres sitios: exterior, borde e interior del cultivo. Usando parámetros calculados a partir de los datos de campo, se construyó un modelo logístico para describir el comportamiento poblacional en el tiempo. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en las variables: número de individuos por estado etario en el tiempo, porcentaje de mortalidad, tiempo de cambio del estado plántula a juvenil y de juvenil a adulto, número de hojas y de ramas; no se encontraron diferencias significativas en la densidad poblacional, número de inflorescencias e infrutescencias en los sitios de estudio. En general, se puede atribuir este comportamiento a la estrategia de reproducción r que sigue E. sonchifolia. Finalmente, las simulaciones hechas a partir del modelo logístico sugieren que la especie tiende a desaparecer si alguno de los estados etarios no está presente inicialmente; así, una alternativa plausible para el control sería su eliminación en el estado juvenil. Los resultados ofrecen alternativas con respecto al manejo de poblaciones de arvenses. ABSTRACT A research study was conducted to determine the demographic structure of Emilia sonchifolia L. in a coffee plantation in Armenia, Quindío, Colombia. Data were collected over a period of four weeks on three sites: inside, at the border and outside a coffee farm. A logistic population model was built to describe the population behavior of E. sonchifolia over time. Statiscally significant differences were found between: number of individuals per life stage in time, mortality rate, transition time from seedling to juvenile and from juvenile to adult; and number of leaves and branches. There was no evidence for statistically significant differences in population density or in number

  2. Notas taxonómicas en Asteraceae

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    Adriana Bartoli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva variedad para Grindelia anethifolia y se amplía el área de distribución de Bidens andicola, Grindelia coronensis y Proustia cuneifolia var. mendocina.Taxonomic notes on Asteraceae. A new variety for Grindelia anethifolia is described, and the known area of Bidens andicola, Grindelia coronensis and Proustia cuneifolia var. mendocina is extended.

  3. LAS PRÁCTICAS DE CAMPO UNA ESTRATEGIA DIDÁCTICA PARA CONSERVAR EL ECOSISTEMA DE PÁRAMO DESDE ELESTUDIO ECOFISIOLÓGICO DEL FRAILEJÓN (ASTERACEAE: ESPELETIA.

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    Maryury Fernanda Gómez Barrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación destaca la importancia del maestro de ciencias como promotor de actitudes, conocimientos y prácticas hacia la conservación del ecosistema páramo a través de las prácticas de campo, en estudiantes de secundaria del Colegio Siervas de San José, como un acercamiento a la conservación de los ecosistemas Colombianos. Recurriendo para ello al estudio ecofisiológico de una planta concreta, endémica y de gran significado ecológico y social para el ecosistema páramo, el  frailejón (Asteraceae: Espeletia. La investigación presenta un enfoque  mixto o multimodal, recurriendo a la IEP (Investigación como Estrategia Pedagógica como metodología  central y fundamental para el desarrollo de esta investigación, se logran describir las nociones de las estudiantes en cuanto a la conservación, la ecofisiología, el páramo y el frailejón; y se caracterizaron algunas  actitudes, prácticas y conocimientos conservacionistas de las estudiantes en cuanto al páramo evidenciando las transformaciones durante el proceso.

  4. Panorama de la familia Asteraceae (= Compositae en la Republica Argentina An overview of the plant family Asteraceae ( = Compositae in Argentina

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    Liliana Katinas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un panorama de la familia Asteraceae en la República Argentina , que incluye una breve historia taxonómica, datos numéricos de tribus, géneros y especies, ejemplos de endemismos y daptaciones ecológicas y una reseña sobre la hipótesis del origen de la familia en Patagonia. En la Argentina, las asteráceas representan la familia más numerosa con 227 géneros (cinco son endémicos y ca. 1400 especies (92 son adventicias y 382 son endémicas. En términos de taxones nativos, se hallan representadas en nuestro país todas las tribus de Asteraceae excepto Inuleae (sensu Bremer. Las tribus Arctoteae y Calenduleae están representadas por taxones adventicios exclusivamente y Cardueae posee sólo una especie nativa. Barnadesieae y Mutisieae son las únicas tribus con géneros endémicos de Argentina y también presentan el porcentaje más alto de géneros y especies en el país en comparación con el resto de las tribus. El mayor número de especies nativas, endémicas y no endémicas, se da en las provincias fitogeográficas Altoandina y Patagónica. La tribu más representada en número de géneros es Heliantheae, y en número de especies nativas es Senecioneae.An overview of the family Asteraceae in Argentina that includes a brief taxonomic history, numerical data of tribes, genera and species, examples of endemisms and ecological adaptations, and a discussion on the hypothesis on the origin of the family in Patagonia is given. Asteraceae is the most numerous family in Argentina , with 227 genera (five are endemic and ca. 1400 species (92 are adventitious and 382 are endemic. In relation to the native taxa, all tribes of Asteraceae occur in Argentina excepting Inuleae (sensu Bremer. Tribes Arctoteae and Calenduleae are represented exclusively by adventitious taxa, and Cardueae has only one native species. Barnadesieae and Mutisieae are the only tribes with endemic genera in Argentina and they also present the highest percentage of

  5. Atractylosides in Callilepis laureola (Asteraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, K.B.; Candy, H.A.; Pegel, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    In addition to the previously reported atractyloside, three more kaurenoid glucosides have been found in the root-stock of Callilepis laureola. These are carboxyatractyloside and the 6'-isovaleryl esters of atractyloside and carboxyatractyloside. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the two 6'-isovalerates. The #betta#-glucosidic nature of these poisonous Asteraceae atractylosides has been confirmed by 1 H and 13 C n.m.r. spectroscopic and molecular rotation evidence

  6. Warionia (Asteraceae: a relict genus of Cichorieae?

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    Katinas, Liliana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Warionia, with its only species W. saharae, is endemic to the northwestern edge of the African Sahara desert. This is a somewhat thistle-like aromatic plant, with white latex, and fleshy, pinnately- partite leaves. Warionia is in many respects so different from any other genus of Asteraceae, that it has been tentatively placed in the tribes Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae, and Mutisieae. Until now, a comprehensive study of Warionia to have a complete context for discussing its taxonomic position is lacking. The general morphology, anatomy, palynology and chromosome number of W. saharae are investigated here, and the species is described and illustrated. Laticifers in leaves and stems indicate a relationship with Cichorieae, and are associated with the phloem, in contact with it or with the surrounding sclerenchyma sheath. The pollen features indicate a strong relation with Cardueae, namely the structure with Anthemoid pattern where the columellae are joined to the foot layer, the ectosexine with thin columellae, the endosexine with stout and ramified columellae, the conspicuous spines with globose bases and conspicuous apical channels, and the tectum surface very perforate. Chromosomal counts resulted in 2n = 34. The morphological and palynological evidence positions Warionia between the tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae suggesting that it could be a remnant of the ancestral stock that gave rise to both tribes.El género Warionia, y su única especie, W. saharae, es endémico del noroeste del desierto africano del Sahara. Es una planta semejante a un cardo, aromática, con látex blanco y hojas carnosas, pinnatipartidas. Warionia es tan diferente de otros géneros de Asteraceae que fue ubicada en las tribus Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae y Mutisieae. Hasta ahora, no existía un estudio global de Warionia como contexto para discutir su posición taxonómica. Se ha investigado aquí su morfología, anatomía, palinología y n

  7. (asteraceae nativas no rio grande do sul.

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    Anabela Silveira de Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the wood anatomy of Heterothalamus alienus and Heterothalamus rupestris (Astereae - Asteraceae, as part of the secondary xylem study in the named genus. For the two species it was recorded some features usually mentioned in the literature for the Asteraceae, as typically small vessels, grouped in a dendritic pattern, the presence of only simple perforation plates and of paratracheal parenchyma. Heterothalamus alienus shows spiral thickenings in the wood vessels and storied vasicentric axial parenchyma. Heterothalamus rupestris differs itself by the absence of spiral thickenings in wood vessels and by no storied axial parenchyma, in paratracheal vasicentric to unilateral patterns. Photomicrographs, quantitative data of anatomical features and a comparison between the two species of wood are also provided.

  8. Phytotoxic Potential of Onopordum acanthium L. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Novaes, Paula; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Varela Montoya, Rosa; González Molinillo, José María; Macías Domínguez, Francisco Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Onopordum acanthium L. (Asteraceae) is a plant native to southern Europe and southwestern Asia, but it is invasive in disturbed areas and agricultural fields around the world, causing many agronomic problems by interfering with crops or preventing animals from grazing on pastures. Allelopathy could be one of the reasons that this plant has spread over different continents. The aim of the present study was to bioprospect O. acanthium leaf extracts through the isolation and purification of alle...

  9. Evolutionary origin of the Asteraceae capitulum: Insights from Calyceraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozner, Raúl; Zanotti, Christian; Johnson, Leigh A

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenies based on molecular data are revealing that generalizations about complex morphological structures often obscure variation and developmental patterns important for understanding the evolution of forms, as is the case for inflorescence morphology within the well-supported MGCA clade (Menyanthaceae + Goodeniaceae + Calyceraceae + Asteraceae). While the basal families share a basic thyrsic/thyrsoid structure of their inflorescences, Asteraceae possesses a capitulum that is widely interpreted as a racemose, condensed inflorescence. Elucidating the poorly known inflorescence structure of Calyceraceae, sister to Asteraceae, should help clarify how the Asteraceae capitulum evolved from thyrsic/thyrsoid inflorescences. The early development and structure of the inflorescence of eight species (five genera) of Calyceraceae were studied by SEM, and patterns of evolutionary change were interpreted via phylogenetic character mapping. The basic inflorescence structure of Calyceraceae is a cephalioid (a very condensed botryoid/thyrsoid). Optimization of inflorescence characters on a DNA sequence-derived tree suggests that the Asteraceae capitulum derives from a simple cephalioid through two morphological changes: loss of the terminal flower and suppression of the cymose branching pattern in the peripheral branches. Widely understood as a condensed raceme, the Asteraceae capitulum is the evolutionary result of a very reduced, condensed thyrsoid. Starting from that point, evolution worked separately only on the racemose developmental control/pattern within Asteraceae and mainly on the cymose developmental control/pattern within Calyceraceae, producing head-like inflorescences in both groups but with very different diversification potential. We also discuss possible remnants of the ancestral cephalioid structure in some Asteraceae.

  10. Nuevas citas de Asteraceae para la provincia de Catamarca (Argentina New records of Asteraceae for the province of Catamarca (Argentina

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    Susana E. Freire

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se mencionan los siguientes nuevos registros de Asteráceas para la provincia de Catamarca, Argentina: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribu Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribu Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribu Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribu Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribu Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribu Senecioneae. Se citan además el hábitat de los taxones y las provincias fitogeográficas que integran. Se propone una nueva combinación, Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.The following Asteraceae are mentioned for the province of Catamarca: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribe Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribe Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribe Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribe Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribe Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribe Senecioneae. The habitat and phytogeographic provinces of the taxa are mentioned. The following new combination is proposed: Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.

  11. COROTIPOS PRELIMINARES DE PERÚ BASADOS EN LA DISTRIBUCIÓN DE LA FAMILIA ASTERACEAE

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    Berni Britto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se basa en el concepto de categorías corológicas o corotipos para formular una nueva hipótesis de clasificación biogeográfica del Perú basado en la distribución de la familia Astera - ceae. La información recabada dio como resultado que existen 1669 especies de Asteraceae registradas en Perú (hasta el año 2008, distribuidas en 255 géneros. El territorio peruano se dividió en 218 Distritos de Reporte que representan a los 24 departamentos divididos en franjas de 500 m de altitud. La base de datos biogeográficos de Asteraceae se obtuvo cruzando los registros de distribución actualizados con los Distritos de Reporte, expresándose en una matriz de presencia-ausencia. El análisis de datos dio como resultado un total de 14 corotipos preliminares para el Perú: Abiseo, Amotape, Andino, Apurímac-Huan - cavelica, Chachapoyas-Huánuco, Huancabamba, Huascarán, Ica, Lima-Piura, Loreto-Ucayali, Manu, Pasco, Sandia y Tacna.

  12. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Aster spathulifolius (Asteraceae); genomic features and relationship with Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung Su; Park, SeonJoo

    2015-11-10

    Aster spathulifolius, a member of the Asteraceae family, is distributed along the coast of Japan and Korea. This plant is used for medicinal and ornamental purposes. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of A. sphathulifolius consists of 149,473 bp that include a pair of inverted repeats of 24,751 bp separated by a large single copy region of 81,998 bp and a small single copy region of 17,973 bp. The chloroplast genome contains 78 coding genes, four rRNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. When compared to other cpDNA sequences of Asteraceae, A. spathulifolius showed the closest relationship with Jacobaea vulgaris, and its atpB gene was found to be a pseudogene, unlike J. vulgaris. Furthermore, evaluation of the gene compositions of J. vulgaris, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and A. spathulifolius revealed that 13.6-kb showed inversion from ndhF to rps15, unlike Lactuca of Asteraceae. Comparison of the synonymous (Ks) and nonsynonymous (Ka) substitution rates with J. vulgaris revealed that synonymous genes related to a small subunit of the ribosome showed the highest value (0.1558), while nonsynonymous rates of genes related to ATP synthase genes were highest (0.0118). These findings revealed that substitution has occurred at similar rates in most genes, and the substitution rates suggested that most genes is a purified selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The origin of the bifurcating style in Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katinas, Liliana; Hernández, Marcelo P; Arambarri, Ana M; Funk, Vicki A

    2016-05-01

    The plant family Asteraceae (Compositae) exhibits remarkable morphological variation in the styles of its members. Lack of studies on the styles of the sister families to Asteraceae, Goodeniaceae and Calyceraceae, obscures our understanding of the origin and evolution of this reproductive feature in these groups. The aim of this work was to perform a comparative study of style morphology and to discuss the relevance of important features in the evolution of Asteraceae and its sister families. The histochemistry, venation and general morphology of the styles of members of Goodeniaceae, Calyceraceae and early branching lineages of Asteraceae were analysed and put in a phylogenetic framework to discuss the relevance of style features in the evolution of these families. The location of lipophilic substances allowed differentiation of receptive from non-receptive style papillae, and the style venation in Goodeniaceae and Calyceraceae proved to be distinctive. There were several stages of style evolution from Goodeniaceae to Asteraceae involving connation and elongation of veins, development of bilobation from an initially cup-shaped style, and a redistribution of the receptive and non-receptive papillae. These developments resulted in bifurcation in the styles of Asteraceae, with each branch face having a different function, and it is suggested here as a mechanism that promoted outcrossing, which in turn led to the great diversification in the family. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Specialist bees collect Asteraceae pollen by distinctive abdominal drumming (Osmia) or tapping (Melissodes, Svastra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four species of western US Osmia (Cephalosmia) bees that are Asteraceae specialists (oligoleges) were observed to employ a heretofore unappreciated, stereotypical means of collecting pollen, abdominal drumming, to gather pollen from 19 flowering species representing nine tribes of Asteraceae. Abdom...

  15. Asteraceae Pollen Provisions Protect Osmia Mason Bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from Brood Parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Dakota M; Silverman, Sarah; Forrest, Jessica R K

    2016-06-01

    Many specialist herbivores eat foods that are apparently low quality. The compensatory benefits of a poor diet may include protection from natural enemies. Several bee lineages specialize on pollen of the plant family Asteraceae, which is known to be a poor-quality food. Here we tested the hypothesis that specialization on Asteraceae pollen protects bees from parasitism. We compared rates of brood parasitism by Sapyga wasps on Asteraceae-specialist, Fabeae-specialist, and other species of Osmia bees in the field over several years and sites and found that Asteraceae-specialist species were parasitized significantly less frequently than other species. We then tested the effect of Asteraceae pollen on parasites by raising Sapyga larvae on three pollen mixtures: Asteraceae, Fabeae, and generalist (a mix of primarily non-Asteraceae pollens). Survival of parasite larvae was significantly reduced on Asteraceae provisions. Our results suggest that specialization on low-quality pollen may evolve because it helps protect bees from natural enemies.

  16. Phytotoxic potential of Onopordum acanthium L. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Novaes, Paula; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-08-01

    Onopordum acanthium L. (Asteraceae) is a plant native to southern Europe and southwestern Asia, but it is invasive in disturbed areas and agricultural fields around the world, causing many agronomic problems by interfering with crops or preventing animals from grazing on pastures. Allelopathy could be one of the reasons that this plant has spread over different continents. The aim of the present study was to bioprospect O. acanthium leaf extracts through the isolation and purification of allelopathic secondary metabolites with phytotoxicity to explain their invasive behavior. Phytotoxic activity was tested using etiolated wheat coleoptiles. The most active extract was selected to perform a bioassay-guided isolation of two flavonoids, pectolarigenin (1) and scutellarein 4'-methyl ether (2), and two sesquiterpene lactones, elemanolide 11(13)-dehydromelitensin β-hydroxyisobutyrate (3) and acanthiolide (4). All compounds were isolated for the first time from O. acanthium, and acanthiolide (4) is described for the first time. Compound 3 strongly inhibited the growth of wheat coleoptiles and 1 showed an intermediate effect. The results indicate that these compounds could contribute to the invasion of O. acanthium in ecological systems and agricultural fields. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Structural studies of chemical constituents of Thithonia Tagetiflora Desv (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngoc Huynh, Vinh; Nguyen Thi Hoai, Thu; Phi Phung Nguyen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Tithonia tagetiflora Desv. (Asteraceae) is a widespread plant in Vietnam, and the species of Tithonia are known as plants containing many biologically active compounds. However, T. tagetiflora's chemical composition remains mostly unknown. Therefore, we now report the structural elucidation of tw...

  18. Pharmacognostical study of achenes of some plants from Asteraceae family

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    Y.O. Bychkova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper are represented morphological studies on determination of weight of 1000 achenes, and sieve analysis of fruits of some plants from Asteraceae family (Arctium lappa L., Leuzea carthamoides (Willd. D.C, Inula helenium L., Echinacea purpurea Moench., Calendula officinalis L.. Lipid, alcohol-soluble and water-soluble complexes in fruits of C. officinalis were studied.

  19. Cytogeography and chromosome evolution of subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Stewart C. Sanderson

    1999-01-01

    The subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) is composed of 11 species of various taxonomic and geographic complexities. It is centered on Artemisia tridentata with its three widespread common subspecies and two more geographically confined ones. Meiotic chromosome counts on pollen mother cells...

  20. Hyurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Y.; Tan, K.; Yidirim, H.

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  1. The Anthelmintic Activity of Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal worms affect a host of individuals resulting in malnutrition, stunted growth, intellectual retardation and cognitive deficits. The aim of this study is to investigate the antihelminthic activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae) and Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae) using earth-worms (Lumbricus terretris).

  2. Taxonomic position and identity of Stenocephalum monticola (Vernonieae, Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dematteis, M.; Angulo, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Stenocephalum (Vernonieae, Asteraceae) includes six South American species that have cylindrical heads, 4–11 florets by capitula, cymose inflorescences and type ‘C’ pollen. Until now, Stenocephalum monticola has been considered as a synonym of S. apiculatum. However, the analysis of the

  3. Taxonomic novelties in Mikania (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) from Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borges, R.A.X.; Forzza, R.C.; Fraga, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    During studies of Brazilian Atlantic Forest Asteraceae, a new species and a replacement name were determined: Mikania amorimii from Bahia State and Mikania capixaba from Espírito Santo State. The former is a new species related to M. ternata but distinct by its leaves, involucral bracts and cypsela

  4. Biochemical Conservation and Evolution of Germacrene A Oxidase in Asteraceae*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Don Trinh; Göpfert, Jens Christian; Ikezawa, Nobuhiro; MacNevin, Gillian; Kathiresan, Meena; Conrad, Jürgen; Spring, Otmar; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2010-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic natural products in Asteraceae, which constitutes ∼8% of all plant species. Despite their physiological and pharmaceutical importance, the biochemistry and evolution of sesquiterpene lactones remain unexplored. Here we show that germacrene A oxidase (GAO), evolutionarily conserved in all major subfamilies of Asteraceae, catalyzes three consecutive oxidations of germacrene A to yield germacrene A acid. Furthermore, it is also capable of oxidizing non-natural substrate amorphadiene. Co-expression of lettuce GAO with germacrene synthase in engineered yeast synthesized aberrant products, costic acids and ilicic acid, in an acidic condition. However, cultivation in a neutral condition allowed the de novo synthesis of a single novel compound that was identified as germacrene A acid by gas and liquid chromatography and NMR analyses. To trace the evolutionary lineage of GAO in Asteraceae, homologous genes were further isolated from the representative species of three major subfamilies of Asteraceae (sunflower, chicory, and costus from Asteroideae, Cichorioideae, and Carduoideae, respectively) and also from the phylogenetically basal species, Barnadesia spinosa, from Barnadesioideae. The recombinant GAOs from these genes clearly showed germacrene A oxidase activities, suggesting that GAO activity is widely conserved in Asteraceae including the basal lineage. All GAOs could catalyze the three-step oxidation of non-natural substrate amorphadiene to artemisinic acid, whereas amorphadiene oxidase diverged from GAO displayed negligible activity for germacrene A oxidation. The observed amorphadiene oxidase activity in GAOs suggests that the catalytic plasticity is embedded in ancestral GAO enzymes that may contribute to the chemical and catalytic diversity in nature. PMID:20351109

  5. Macroevolutionary dynamics in the early diversification of Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panero, Jose L; Crozier, Bonnie S

    2016-06-01

    Spatial and temporal differences in ecological opportunity can result in disparity of net species diversification rates and consequently uneven distribution of taxon richness across the tree of life. The largest eudicotyledonous plant family Asteraceae has a global distribution and at least 460 times more species than its South American endemic sister family Calyceraceae. In this study, diversification rate dynamics across Asteraceae are examined in light of the several hypothesized causes for the family's evolutionary success that could be responsible for rate change. The innovations of racemose capitulum and pappus, and a whole genome duplication event occurred near the origin of the family, yet we found the basal lineages of Asteraceae that evolved in South America share background diversification rates with Calyceraceae and their Australasian sister Goodeniaceae. Instead we found diversification rates increased gradually from the origin of Asteraceae approximately 69.5Ma in the late Cretaceous through the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum at least. In contrast to earlier studies, significant rate shifts were not strongly correlated with intercontinental dispersals or polyploidization. The difference is due primarily to sampling more backbone nodes, as well as calibrations placed internally in Asteraceae that resulted in earlier divergence times than those found in most previous relaxed clock studies. Two clades identified as having transformed rate processes are the Vernonioid Clade and a clade within the Heliantheae alliance characterized by phytomelanic fruit (PF Clade) that represents an American radiation. In Africa, subfamilies Carduoideae, Pertyoideae, Gymnarrhenoideae, Cichorioideae, Corymbioideae, and Asteroideae diverged in a relatively short span of only 6.5millionyears during the Middle Eocene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cheirolophus intybaceus (Asteraceae, Centaureinae or the constancy of 2C value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Jiménez, I.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cheirolophus intybaceus (Asteraceae, Centaureinae or the constancy of 2C value.- Cheirolophus intybaceus is a heliophyte growing in thermal Mediterranean scrublands along a coastal belt of 50 km large, stretching from Toulon (France to the Southern part of the Iberian Peninsula, occurring also in the Balearic Islands (with the exception of Minorca. Moreover, this species is also growing in high and sunny lands in the Mediterranean river basins, constituting a complex of taxa closely related among them. The objectives of this work are: i to provide new genome size data for some Asteraceae species; ii to study the variation of DNA amount along a species distribution area; iii to evaluate the discrimination capability of this parameter at low taxonomic levels. A signicantly positive correlation between the DNA amount and the latitude has been found, that is, in drier and warmer habitats genome size tends to decrease in this species. The variation in the whole distribution area of Ch. intybaceus is 1.15-fold. This low variability supports the constancy of 2C-value.

    Cheirolophus intybaceus es una especie heliófila propia de los matorrales mediterráneos termófilos que crece en una franja litoral de unos 50 km de anchura que va desde Tolón (Var, Francia hasta el sur de la península Ibérica, estando también presente en las islas Baleares (excepto en Menorca. Se encuentra también en las zonas elevadas y soleadas de las cuencas fluviales mediterráneas, formando un complejo de táxones estrechamente relacionados entre sí. Los objetivos de este trabajo son: i contribuir a la aportación de datos de tamaño del genoma para diversas especies de Asteraceae; ii estudiar la variación de la cantidad de ADN a lo largo del área de distribución de una especie; iii evaluar la capacidad de discriminación de este parámetro a niveles taxonómicos bajos. Se ha encontrado una correlación positiva y significativa entre la

  7. NOTES FOR FLORA OF MATO GROSSO STATE: THE ASTERACEAE FAMILY

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    L. Cavalheiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The proposed work aimed to survey the Asteraceae species contained in the collection of the Herbarium UFMT for purposes of performing the preliminary version to compose the Flora of Mato Grosso State. Allied to this was held to update the number of species as well as the nomenclatural verification of all scientific names. Were found 150 species in 82 genera of which 33 are new records for the state and 16 are framed in IUCN categories. The species are distributed over all biomes: Cerrado, Pantanal and the Amazon forest, but the forest environment showed low number of samples, probably due to the difficulties of access by researchers. Finally, when we combine the analysis of the collection of UFMT to other herbaria that have herbarium collections in the state, we actually have a very real composition survey of Asteraceae for Mato Grosso State.

  8. New species of Ophryosporus (Eupatorieae Asteraceae from Peru

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    Abundio Sagástegui Alva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ophryosporus marchii Sagást. & E. Rodr. is described as a new species of Ophryosporus Meyen (Eupatorieae: Asteraceae from the Department of Cajamarca, Peru. This new species is apparently endemic to the province of Contumaza and closest relative to O. sagasteguii H. Rob. It is critically compared with this species and data on its geographical distribution, ecology and conservation status are provided.

  9. Molecular evolution across the Asteraceae: micro- and macroevolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Nolan C; Barker, Michael S; Zhan, Shing H; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2011-12-01

    The Asteraceae (Compositae) is a large family of over 20,000 wild, weedy, and domesticated species that comprise approximately 10% of all angiosperms, including annual and perennial herbs, shrubs and trees, and species on every continent except Antarctica. As a result, the Asteraceae provide a unique opportunity to understand the evolutionary genomics of lineage radiation and diversification at numerous phylogenetic scales. Using publicly available expressed sequence tags from 22 species representing four of the major Asteraceae lineages, we assessed neutral and nonneutral evolutionary processes across this diverse plant family. We used bioinformatic tools to identify candidate genes under selection in each species. Evolution at silent and coding sites were assessed for different Gene Ontology functional categories to compare rates of evolution over both short and long evolutionary timescales. Our results indicate that patterns of molecular change across the family are surprisingly consistent on a macroevolutionary timescale and much more so more than would be predicted from the analysis of one (or many) examples of microevolution. These analyses also point to particular classes of genes that may be crucial in shaping the radiation of this diverse plant family. Similar analyses of nuclear and chloroplast genes in six other plant families confirm that many of these patterns are common features of the plant kingdom.

  10. Novedades sobre el género Pilosella Hill.: (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) en España, II

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo Sanz, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Se comunica la presencia de diversas especies nuevas del género Pilosella Hill. (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) en España. Novelties on the genus Pilosella Hill (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) in Spain, II. Several species of Pilosella Hill (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) found in Spain.

  11. Primer reporte de empleo de marcadores AFLP en Asteraceae en Cuba

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    Grecia Montalvo Fernández

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: First report of the employment of AFLP markers in Asteraceae in Cuba. Resumen: Rhodogeron coronopifolius Griseb., es una especie vegetal de la familia Asteraceae, que se encuentra en peligro crítico de extinción. Es endémico de la provincia Villa Clara en la región central de Cuba. Habita en el matorral xeromorfo sub espinoso sobre serpentina. Existen solo cinco poblaciones naturales dentro de un área protegida, la principal causa de amenaza es la fragmentación de su hábitat por acciones antrópicas. Debido a su situación de conservación, se hace necesario realizar estudios de la diversidad genética de las poblaciones naturales para así generar información básica y diseñar una estrategia de conservación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar de manera preliminar la diversidad genética de cuatro poblaciones de esta especie utilizando marcadores AFLP (Polimorfismo de Longitud de Fragmentos Amplificados. Se emplearon dos combinaciones de iniciadores y se evaluó el porcentaje de polimorfismo así como la similitud entre los individuos.  Se obtuvieron 165 loci de los cuales el 78,7 % fueron polimórficos. La población de mayor polimorfismo fue Corojito con 85,2%, de manera general el polimorfismo fue alto con valores entre 75 y  87%. La similitud entre los individuos también fue alta con un promedio de 0,74. El agrupamiento genético fue independiente a la población de procedencia, lo que sugiere que existe intercambio genético entre las poblaciones y que estas comparten más del 80 % de los alelos que fueron analizados. Los resultados obtenidos son importantes para el mantenimiento in situ de la especie y para tomar decisiones en aras de su conservación. Palabras clave: Rhodogeron coronopifolius, peligro de extinción, polimorfismo, conservación. Abstract: Rhodogeron coronopifolius Griseb., is a specie of Asteraceae family, in critical danger of extinction. It is an endemic of Villa Clara city in the

  12. The genus cicerbita wallr. (cichorieae- asteraceae) in Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, R.; Qaiser, M.; Roohi, B.

    2010-01-01

    The genus Cicerbita Wallr. of the tribe Cichorieae-Asteraceae is revised for Pakistan and Kashmir. A broader generic concept of the genus is accepted and in all 11 species have been recognized including 3 new species viz. Cicerbita astorensis, Roohi Bano and Qaiser, C. alii, Roohi Bano and Qaiser and C. gilgitensis Roohi Bano and Qaiser. 5 new combinations, including 3 at species and 2 at varietal level have also been proposed. An artificial key to all the species is provided. Latin diagnosis, illustrations of newly described species, world wide and local distribution and ecological notes of all the species are also furnished. (author)

  13. Seed characters and their usefulness in the separation of Asteraceae species

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    Michelli Fernandes Batista

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on seed structure of Asteraceae have received little attention of botanists. Seed structure in Asteraceae is analyzed to evaluate the usefulness of characters in the separation of species through the analysis of nine weedy species. Seeds originate from anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate ovules. The partial collapse of the developing seed coat is a common characteristic in the Asteraceae species studied. The testa consists of crushed and thin-walled cells in almost all of the species studied herein, except for Elephantopus mollis and Parthenium hysterophorus, which showed exotesta cells with U-shaped thickening. The analysis revealed high uniformity in seed characters.

  14. A cryptic taxon rather than a hybrid species of Tragopogon (Asteraceae) from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mavrodiev, E. V.; Krahulec, František; Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2013), s. 133-141 ISSN 0075-5974 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : DNA-sequence polyformism * nuclear ribosomal DNA * miscellus Asteraceae * evolution * fertility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  15. Terpenoids, flavonoids and other constituents of Eupatorium betonicaeforme (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R.; Pires, Andreza Maria L.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica Organica]. E-mail: opessoa@ufc.br

    2006-01-15

    A new acylated kaurene diterpene, characterized as 15{alpha}-decanoyloxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, along with nine known compounds: pentacosanoic acid, 24{alpha}-ethyl-5{alpha}-cholesta-7,22E-dien-3{beta}-ol, 15{alpha}-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, 8{beta}-angeloyloxy-9{beta},10{beta}-dihydroxy-1-oxogermacra-4E,11(13)dien-12,6{alpha}-olide, 3{beta}-hydroxyeicosan-1,5{beta}-olide, taraxasteryl acetate, 7-Omethylkaempferol, kaempferol, and nepetin were isolated from the flowers of Eupatorium betonicaeforme (Asteraceae). In addition, from the aerial parts were isolated taraxasteryl acetate and {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrin, while the mixture of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol, and 6-acetyl-2,2-dimethylchroman-4-one were isolated from the roots. The structure elucidation of all compounds was performed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with published data from literature. (author)

  16. Terpenoids, flavonoids and other constituents of Eupatorium betonicaeforme (Asteraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R.; Pires, Andreza Maria L.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Silveira, Edilberto R.

    2006-01-01

    A new acylated kaurene diterpene, characterized as 15α-decanoyloxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, along with nine known compounds: pentacosanoic acid, 24α-ethyl-5α-cholesta-7,22E-dien-3β-ol, 15α-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, 8β-angeloyloxy-9β,10β-dihydroxy-1-oxogermacra-4E,11(13)dien-12,6α-olide, 3β-hydroxyeicosan-1,5β-olide, taraxasteryl acetate, 7-Omethylkaempferol, kaempferol, and nepetin were isolated from the flowers of Eupatorium betonicaeforme (Asteraceae). In addition, from the aerial parts were isolated taraxasteryl acetate and α- and β-amyrin, while the mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, and 6-acetyl-2,2-dimethylchroman-4-one were isolated from the roots. The structure elucidation of all compounds was performed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with published data from literature. (author)

  17. Die Plantfamilie Asteraceae: 4 Interessante groeivorme en ekonomies belangrike soorte

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    P. P.J. Herman

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Die plantfamilie Asteraceae bevat ’n ryke verskeidenheid en interessante groeivorme soos eenjarige en meerjarige kruide, dwergstruike, struike, bome, slingerplante, sukkulente, waterplante, rosetplante, kussingplante, heide-agtige plante, platgroeiend, grasagtig  en doringrig. Die blare vertoon ook baie variasie in vorm en ander kenmerke byvoorbeeld afwisselend, teenoorstaande, saamgepak, sittend, gesteeld, enkelvoudig, gaafrandig, getand, gelob of diep verdeeld, saamgesteld, met drie tot vyf hoofare, gereduseer of heeltemal afwesig, glad of baie harig op die boonste of onderste oppervlakke. Soms is melksap teenwoordig en sommiges is aromaties. Sommige verteenwoordigers van die familie is ekonomies belangrik; sommiges is eetbaar of word vir medisyne gebruik terwyl ander giftig is, sommiges word as veevoer benut maar ander is onkruide en die hout van sommiges is in die verlede gebruik.

  18. First report of fasciation in Pitcher's Thistle, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Korte, Megan K; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Grundel, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We document the first reported occurrence of fasciation in the federally threatened Pitcher’s thistle, Cirsium pitcheri (Asteraceae). In 2013, we discovered two adult plants of Pitcher’s thistle out of a total of 176 plants at West Beach, near Miller, Indiana, USA, that exhibited both normal and fasciated growth. Unlike plants with normal growth, a portion of the upper stems of these plants was flattened, and some flower heads were elongated into a fan-like shape. Each plant had one large fasciated terminal seed head and several less severely fasciated ancillary heads. The fasciated terminal head on one of the plants found produced an estimated 1153 seeds, whereas normal terminal heads typically produced 80 ± 9 viable seeds. The cause of this fasciation is unclear, but may be due to infection with phytoplasma

  19. Research of polysaccharide complexes from asteraceae family plants

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    Світлана Михайлівна Марчишин

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research. Depth study of polysaccharides in some little-known plant species of Asteraceae family is pressing question, considering that polysaccharides are important biologically active compounds widely used in pharmaceutical and medical practice as remedies and preventive medications. The aim of research was to determinate both quantitative content and monomeric composition of polysaccharide complexes from Asteraceae family plant species – Tagetes genus, Arnica genus, and Bellis genus.Materials and methods. Determination of polysaccharides was carried out by the precipitation reaction, using 96 % ethyl alcohol P and Fehling's solution after acid hydrolysis; quantitative content of this group of compounds was determined by gravimetric analysis. On purpose to identify the monomeric composition hydrolysis under sulfuric acid conditions was conducted. Qualitative monomeric composition of polysaccharides after hydrolysis was carried out by paper chromatography method in n-Butanol – Pyridine – Distilled water P (6:4:3 system along with saccharides reference samples.Results. Polysaccharide complexes from Tagetes erecta, Tagetes patula, Tagetes tenuifolia, Arnica montana, Arnica foliosa, wild and cultivated Bellis perennis herbs were studied. Water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin fractions were isolated from studied objects; their quantitative content and monomeric composition were determined.Conclusion. The highest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides was found in cultivated Bellis perennis herb (10,13 %, the highest amount of pectin compounds – in Tagetes tenuifolia herb (13,62 %; the lowest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin compounds was found in Arnica montana herb (4,61 % and Tagetes patula herb (3,62 %, respectively. It was found that polysaccharide complexes from all studied species include glucose and arabinose

  20. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae Actividad antibacteriana y antioxidante del aceite esencial extraído de Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae

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    A. Laciar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae is commonly known in Argentina as “ajenjo”. Many studies report high efficacy of essential oils against food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity and minimal inhibitory concentration of A. echegarayi essential oil were evaluated against seven bacterial species of significant importance in food hygiene, by using the disc diffusion assay and the micro-well dilution method, respectively. Volatile components of the extract were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and major components were determined. Furthermore, the essential oil was tested for its antioxidant activity. The essential oil inhibited the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative tested bacteria, with the exception of Proteus mirabilis. A. echegarayi essential oil presented the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus. Two terpenes, thujone and camphor, were identified from this essential oil as the principal constituents responsible for antibacterial activity. The oil showed a free radical scavenging activity equivalent to 50% of the reference compound. These preliminary studies showed promising results since this essential oil may provide an alternative to promote its use as a natural food additive.Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae, conocida como “ajenjo”, es una planta típica de la región de Cuyo (Argentina. En este trabajo se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro y la concentración inhibitoria mínima del aceite esencial extraído de sus partes aéreas frente a especies bacterianas que con frecuencia contaminan los alimentos. Se utilizaron las técnicas de difusión con discos en agar y microdilución en placa respectivamente. Además, se determinó la actividad antioxidante de este aceite esencial in vitro por espectrofotometría. En general, tanto las bacterias gram-positivas como las gram-negativas fueron inhibidas por este aceite, con

  1. An extinct Eocene taxon of the daisy family (Asteraceae): evolutionary, ecological and biogeographical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Viviana D; Palazzesi, Luis; Katinas, Liliana; Crisci, Jorge V; Tellería, María C; Bremer, Kåre; Passalia, Mauro G; Passala, Mauro G; Bechis, Florencia; Corsolini, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    Morphological, molecular and biogeographical information bearing on early evolution of the sunflower alliance of families suggests that the clade containing the extant daisy family (Asteraceae) differentiated in South America during the Eocene, although palaeontological studies on this continent failed to reveal conclusive support for this hypothesis. Here we describe in detail Raiguenrayun cura gen. & sp. nov., an exceptionally well preserved capitulescence of Asteraceae recovered from Eocene deposits of northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. The fossil was collected from the 47·5 million-year-old Huitrera Formation at the Estancia Don Hipólito locality, Río Negro Province, Argentina. The arrangement of the capitula in a cymose capitulescence, the many-flowered capitula with multiseriate-imbricate involucral bracts and the pappus-like structures indicate a close morphological relationship with Asteraceae. Raiguenrayun cura and the associated pollen Mutisiapollis telleriae do not match exactly any living member of the family, and clearly represent extinct taxa. They share a mosaic of morphological features today recognized in taxa phylogenetically close to the root of Asteraceae, such as Stifftieae, Wunderlichioideae and Gochnatieae (Mutisioideae sensu lato) and Dicomeae and Oldenburgieae (Carduoideae), today endemic to or mainly distributed in South America and Africa, respectively. This is the first fossil genus of Asteraceae based on an outstandingly preserved capitulescence that might represent the ancestor of Mutisioideae-Carduoideae. It might have evolved in southern South America some time during the early Palaeogene and subsequently entered Africa, before the biogeographical isolation of these continents became much more pronounced. The new fossil represents the first reliable point for calibration, favouring an earlier date to the split between Barnadesioideae and the rest of Asteraceae than previously thought, which can be traced back at least 47·5

  2. Antiparasitic activity in Asteraceae with special attention to ethnobotanical use by the tribes of Odisha, India

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    Panda Sujogya Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to survey the antiparasitic plants of the Asteraceae family and their applicability in the treatment of parasites. This review is divided into three major parts: (a literature on traditional uses of Asteraceae plants for the treatment of parasites; (b description of the major classes of chemical compounds from Asteraceae and their antiparasitic effects; and (c antiparasitic activity with special reference to flavonoids and terpenoids. This review provides detailed information on the reported Asteraceae plant extracts found throughout the world and on isolated secondary metabolites that can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and intestinal worms. Additionally, special attention is given to the Asteraceae plants of Odisha, used by the tribes of the area as antiparasitics. These plants are compared to the same plants used traditionally in other regions. Finally, we provide information on which plants identified in Odisha, India and related compounds show promise for the development of new drugs against parasitic diseases. For most of the plants discussed in this review, the active compounds still need to be isolated and tested further.

  3. Antiparasitic activity in Asteraceae with special attention to ethnobotanical use by the tribes of Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Luyten, Walter

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to survey the antiparasitic plants of the Asteraceae family and their applicability in the treatment of parasites. This review is divided into three major parts: (a) literature on traditional uses of Asteraceae plants for the treatment of parasites; (b) description of the major classes of chemical compounds from Asteraceae and their antiparasitic effects; and (c) antiparasitic activity with special reference to flavonoids and terpenoids. This review provides detailed information on the reported Asteraceae plant extracts found throughout the world and on isolated secondary metabolites that can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and intestinal worms. Additionally, special attention is given to the Asteraceae plants of Odisha, used by the tribes of the area as antiparasitics. These plants are compared to the same plants used traditionally in other regions. Finally, we provide information on which plants identified in Odisha, India and related compounds show promise for the development of new drugs against parasitic diseases. For most of the plants discussed in this review, the active compounds still need to be isolated and tested further. PMID:29528842

  4. Evaluating the feasibility of using candidate DNA barcodes in discriminating species of the large Asteraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ting; Yao, Hui; Song, Jingyuan; Zhu, Yingjie; Liu, Chang; Chen, Shilin

    2010-10-26

    Five DNA regions, namely, rbcL, matK, ITS, ITS2, and psbA-trnH, have been recommended as primary DNA barcodes for plants. Studies evaluating these regions for species identification in the large plant taxon, which includes a large number of closely related species, have rarely been reported. The feasibility of using the five proposed DNA regions was tested for discriminating plant species within Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants. Among these markers, ITS2 was the most useful in terms of universality, sequence variation, and identification capability in the Asteraceae family. The species discriminating power of ITS2 was also explored in a large pool of 3,490 Asteraceae sequences that represent 2,315 species belonging to 494 different genera. The result shows that ITS2 correctly identified 76.4% and 97.4% of plant samples at the species and genus levels, respectively. In addition, ITS2 displayed a variable ability to discriminate related species within different genera. ITS2 is the best DNA barcode for the Asteraceae family. This approach significantly broadens the application of DNA barcoding to resolve classification problems in the family Asteraceae at the genera and species levels.

  5. Evaluating the feasibility of using candidate DNA barcodes in discriminating species of the large Asteraceae family

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    Liu Chang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Five DNA regions, namely, rbcL, matK, ITS, ITS2, and psbA-trnH, have been recommended as primary DNA barcodes for plants. Studies evaluating these regions for species identification in the large plant taxon, which includes a large number of closely related species, have rarely been reported. Results The feasibility of using the five proposed DNA regions was tested for discriminating plant species within Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants. Among these markers, ITS2 was the most useful in terms of universality, sequence variation, and identification capability in the Asteraceae family. The species discriminating power of ITS2 was also explored in a large pool of 3,490 Asteraceae sequences that represent 2,315 species belonging to 494 different genera. The result shows that ITS2 correctly identified 76.4% and 97.4% of plant samples at the species and genus levels, respectively. In addition, ITS2 displayed a variable ability to discriminate related species within different genera. Conclusions ITS2 is the best DNA barcode for the Asteraceae family. This approach significantly broadens the application of DNA barcoding to resolve classification problems in the family Asteraceae at the genera and species levels.

  6. Fire tolerance of a resprouting Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S.L.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Goad, C.L.; Davis, C.A.; Hickman, K.R.; Leslie, David M.

    2011-01-01

    In North America, most Artemisia (Asteraceae) shrub species lack the ability to resprout after disturbances that remove aboveground biomass. We studied the response of one of the few resprouting Artemisia shrubs, Artemisia filifolia (sand sagebrush), to the effects of prescribed fires. We collected data on A. filifolia density and structural characteristics (height, canopy area, and canopy volume) in an A. filifolia shrubland in the southern Great Plains of North America. Our study sites included areas that had not been treated with prescribed fire, areas that had been treated with only one prescribed fire within the previous 5 years, and areas that had been treated with two prescribed fires within the previous 10 years. Our data were collected at time periods ranging from 1/2 to 5 years after the prescribed fires. Density of A. filifolia was not affected by one or two fires. Structural characteristics, although initially altered by prescribed fire, recovered to levels characteristic of unburned areas in 3-4 years after those fires. In contrast to most non-sprouting North American Artemisia shrub species, our research suggested that the resprouting A. filifolia is highly tolerant to the effects of fire. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  7. Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae): A Promising Source of Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jucélia Barbosa; Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; Gasparetto, Carolina Miranda; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Aragão, Danielle Maria de Oliveira; Pinto, Nícolas de Castro Campos; Ribeiro, Antônia; Scio, Elita; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae). Dried and powdered leaves were exhaustively extracted with ethanol by static maceration followed by partition to obtain the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. Total phenols and flavonoids contents were determined through spectrophotometry and flavonoids were identified by HPLC-DAD system. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, TLC-bioautography, reducing power of Fe+3, phosphomolybdenum, and TBA assays. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids ranged from 0.19 to 23.11 g/100 g and from 0.13 to 4.10 g/100 g, respectively. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. The IC50 of DPPH assay varied from 4.28 to 75.10 µg/mL and TLC-bioautography detected the antioxidant compounds. The reducing power of Fe+3 was 19.98 to 336.48 μg/mL, while the reaction with phosphomolybdenum ranged from 13.54% to 32.63% and 56.02% to 135.00% considering ascorbic acid and rutin as reference, respectively. At 30 mg/mL, the ethanolic extract and fractions revealed significant effect against lipid peroxidation. All these data sustain that V. condensata is an important and promising source of bioactive substances with antioxidant activity. PMID:24489987

  8. Larvicidal potential of Asteraceae family endophytic actinomycetes against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-01-01

    Pakistan is blessed with plants of Asteraceae family with known medicinal background used for centuries by Hakims (traditional physicians). Keeping in mind the background of their anti-larval potential, a total of 21 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from four Asteraceae plants and screened against the first and fourth instar stages of Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquito larvae. Of the 21 isolates, 6 of them gave strong larvicidal activity (80-100% mortality) in the screening results and 4 isolates gave a potent larvicidal activity (100% mortality) at the fourth instar stage. These isolates belonged to different species within the actinomycetes group, namely Streptomyces albovinaceus and Streptomyces badius. This communication reports the larvicidal potential of endophytic actinomycetes residing within the native Asteraceae plants in Pakistan. The study suggests further exploration through large-scale productions leading to the identification of the larvicidal compounds.

  9. Floral Visitors of Three Asteraceae Species in a Xeric Environment in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Castro, Dulce María; González-Tochihuitl, Guadalupe; Rivas-Arancibia, Sombra Patricia; Castaño-Meneses, Gabriela

    2016-12-01

    We describe the spatial variation in the structure and composition of the communities of insects visiting the inflorescences of Flaveria ramosissima Klatt, Florestina pedata (Cav.) Cass., and Parthenium bipinnatifidum (Ort.) Rollins (Asteraceae) in a xeric environment in Central Mexico. Inflorescences of the three Asteraceae were visited by a total of 96 species of Hymenoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Hemiptera. Total species richness of floral visitors to the three Asteraceae and total abundance of insects of Fl. pedata and P. bipinnatifidum did not differ between low and high vegetation cover sites. Total abundance of insects visiting the inflorescences of F. ramosissima and abundance of Hymenoptera in all three Asteraceae were higher at the low vegetation coverage (LVC) site than at the high vegetation coverage (HVC) one. Diversity of insects of Fl. pedata and P. bipinnatifidum was higher at the HVC site. However, in F. ramosissima diversity was higher at the LVC site. The communities of insects of each Asteraceae were dissimilar between sites. These differences can be attributed to variation in the abundance of Lepidophora (Diptera: Bombyliidae), Miridae (Hemiptera), Melyridae (Coleoptera), Tiphiidae (Hymenoptera), Myrmecocystus mexicanus Wesmael, and Dorymyrmex grandulus (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The first three insect groups were sensitive to LVC, high temperature, and low humidity, whereas the last three tolerated those same environmental conditions. Changes in temperature, humidity, and resources associated with vegetation coverage seem to differentially affect each species of floral visitors of the three Asteraceae species studied. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Phylogeny and biogeography of the genus Stevia (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae): an example of diversification in the Asteraceae in the new world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Akiko; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Takayama, Izumi; Kawahara, Takayuki; Watanabe, Kuniaki; Nakazawa, Miyuki; Mishima, Misako; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2017-11-01

    The genus Stevia comprises approximately 200 species, which are distributed in North and South America, and are representative of the species diversity of the Asteraceae in the New World. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships using sequences of ITS and cpDNA and estimated the divergence times of the major clade of this genus. Our results suggested that Stevia originated in Mexico 7.0-7.3 million years ago (Mya). Two large clades, one with shrub species and another with herb species, were separated at about 6.6 Mya. The phylogenetic reconstruction suggested that an ancestor of Stevia was a small shrub in temperate pine-oak forests and the evolutionary change from a shrub state to a herb state occurred only once. A Brazilian clade was nested in a Mexican herb clade, and its origin was estimated to be 5.2 Mya, suggesting that the migration from North America to South America occurred after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. The species diversity in Mexico appears to reflect the habitat diversity within the temperate pine-oak forest zone. The presence of many conspecific diploid-polyploid clades in the phylogenetic tree reflects the high frequency of polyploidization among the perennial Stevia species.

  11. Herbarium collection-based phylogenetics of the ragweeds (Ambrosia, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael D; Quiroz-Claros, Elva; Brush, Grace S; Zimmer, Elizabeth A

    2018-03-01

    Ambrosia (Asteraceae) is a taxonomically difficult genus of weedy, wind-pollinated plants with an apparent center of diversity in the Sonoran Desert of North America. Determining Ambrosia's evolutionary relationships has been the subject of much interest, with numerous studies using morphological characters, cytology, comparative phytochemistry, and chloroplast restriction site variation to produce conflicting accounts the relationships between Ambrosia species, as well as the classification of their close relatives in Franseria and Hymenoclea. To resolve undetermined intra-generic relationships within Ambrosia, we used DNA extracted from tissues obtained from seed banks and herbarium collections to generate multi-locus genetic data representing nearly all putative species, including four from South America. We performed Bayesian and Maximum-Likelihood phylogenetic analyses of six chloroplast-genome and two nuclear-genome markers, enabling us to infer monophyly for the genus, resolve major infra-generic species clusters, as well as to resolve open questions about the evolutionary relationships of several Ambrosia species and former members of Franseria. We also provide molecular data supporting the hypothesis that A. sandersonii formed through the hybridization of A. eriocentra and A. salsola. The topology of our chloroplast DNA phylogeny is almost entirely congruent with the most recent molecular work based on chloroplast restriction site variation of a much more limited sampling of 14 North American species of Ambrosia, although our improved sampling of global Ambrosia diversity enables us to draw additional conclusions. As our study is the first direct DNA sequence-based phylogenetic analyses of Ambrosia, we analyze the data in relation to previous taxonomic studies and discuss several instances of chloroplast/nuclear incongruence that leave the precise geographic center of origin of Ambrosia in question. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The explosive radiation of Cheirolophus (Asteraceae, Cardueae) in Macaronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitales, Daniel; Garnatje, Teresa; Pellicer, Jaume; Vallès, Joan; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Sanmartín, Isabel

    2014-06-02

    Considered a biodiversity hotspot, the Canary Islands have been the key subjects of numerous evolutionary studies concerning a large variety of organisms. The genus Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) represents one of the largest plant radiations in the Canarian archipelago. In contrast, only a few species occur in the Mediterranean region, the putative ancestral area of the genus. Here, our main aim was to reconstruct the phylogenetic and biogeographic history of Cheirolophus with special focus on explaining the origin of the large Canarian radiation. We found significant incongruence in phylogenetic relationships between nuclear and plastid markers. Each dataset provided resolution at different levels in Cheirolophus: the nuclear markers resolved the backbone of the phylogeny while the plastid data provided better resolution within the Canarian clade. The origin of Cheirolophus was dated in the Mid-Late Miocene, followed by rapid diversification into the three main Mediterranean lineages and the Macaronesian clade. A decrease in diversification rates was inferred at the end of the Miocene, with a new increase in the Late Pliocene concurrent with the onset of the Mediterranean climate. Diversification within the Macaronesian clade started in the Early-Mid Pleistocene, with unusually high speciation rates giving rise to the extant insular diversity. Climate-driven diversification likely explains the early evolutionary history of Cheirolophus in the Mediterranean region. It appears that the exceptionally high diversification rate in the Canarian clade was mainly driven by allopatric speciation (including intra- and interisland diversification). Several intrinsic (e.g. breeding system, polyploid origin, seed dispersal syndrome) and extrinsic (e.g. fragmented landscape, isolated habitats, climatic and geological changes) factors probably contributed to the progressive differentiation of populations resulting in numerous microendemisms. Finally, hybridization events and

  13. Variation in chromosome numbers and nuclear DNA contents in genetic resources of Lactuca L. species (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležalová, I.; Lebeda, A.; Janeček, J.; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Křístková, E.; Vránová, O.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2002), s. 385-397 ISSN 0925-9864 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038204; GA AV ČR IBS5038104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Asteraceae * Chromosome number * Flow cytometry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.579, year: 2002

  14. Offspring diversity in Hieracium subgen. Pilosella (Asteraceae): new cytotypes from hybridization experiments and from open pollination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Krahulec, František

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 45, 1-2 (2000), s. 239-255 ISSN 0015-931X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005803; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Asteraceae * Hieracium subgen. Pilosella * aneuploids Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  15. Helichrysum yurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  16. Studies of a new hybrid taxon in the Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather D. Garrison; Leila M. Shultz; E. Durant McArthur

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Artemisia tridentata complex (ASTERACEAE: Anthemideae: Artemisia subgen. Tridentatae) have adapted to changing environmental conditions through geographic migration, introgression, and hybridization. These processes have resulted in morphologic and genetic variation. A presumed hybrid ("Bonneville" big sagebrush) of the complex occurs in the...

  17. Host range of Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), and potential for biological control of Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Ramadan; K. T. Murai; T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Madagascar fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae), which has invaded over 400 000 acres of rangeland in the Hawaiian Islands and is toxic to cattle and horses. The moth was introduced from southeastern Madagascar...

  18. Evolutionary transitions in the Asteraceae coincide with marked shifts in transposable element abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, S Evan; Burke, John M

    2015-08-20

    The transposable element (TE) content of the genomes of plant species varies from near zero in the genome of Utricularia gibba to more than 80% in many species. It is not well understood whether this variation in genome composition results from common mechanisms or stochastic variation. The major obstacles to investigating mechanisms of TE evolution have been a lack of comparative genomic data sets and efficient computational methods for measuring differences in TE composition between species. In this study, we describe patterns of TE evolution in 14 species in the flowering plant family Asteraceae and 1 outgroup species in the Calyceraceae to investigate phylogenetic patterns of TE dynamics in this important group of plants. Our findings indicate that TE families in the Asteraceae exhibit distinct patterns of non-neutral evolution, and that there has been a directional increase in copy number of Gypsy retrotransposons since the origin of the Asteraceae. Specifically, there is marked increase in Gypsy abundance at the origin of the Asteraceae and at the base of the tribe Heliantheae. This latter shift in genome composition has had a significant impact on the diversity and abundance distribution of TEs in a lineage-specific manner. We show that the TE-driven expansion of plant genomes can be facilitated by just a few TE families, and is likely accompanied by the modification and/or replacement of the TE community. Importantly, large shifts in TE composition may be correlated with major of phylogenetic transitions.

  19. Jurinea micevskii (Asteraceae), a new species from the Republic of Macedonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Vladimir; Matevski, Vlado; Tan, Kit

    2010-01-01

    Jurinea micevskii (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated as a new species endemic to Mt Galicica in the southwestern Republic of Macedonia. It resembles J. taygetea, a narrow endemic of Mt Taigetos in the Peloponnese, southern Greece and J. bocconei from Mt Madoníe in north central Sicily...

  20. Cirsium nuttallii (Asteraceae: Cynareae) new to North Carolina and an illustrated key to southeastern congeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, A.; Westbrooks, R.; Lloyd, J.

    2002-01-01

    Cirsium nuttallii (Asteraceae) is documented for North Carolina. The species had previously been known from Florida to South Carolina and from disjunct populations in Virginia. An illustrated key is provided to aid others in the diagnosis of Cirsium in North Carolina and the southeast.

  1. Baselines to detect population stability of the threatened alpine plant Packera franciscana (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Fowler; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Shaula Hedwall

    2015-01-01

    Population size and density estimates have traditionally been acceptable ways to track species’ response to changing environments; however, species' population centroid elevation has recently been an equally important metric. Packera franciscana (Greene) W.A. Weber and A. Love (Asteraceae; San Francisco Peaks ragwort) is a single mountain endemic plant found only...

  2. On the distribution of Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) in the Balkan Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuka, Lulezim; Tan, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) are reported for the first () and () are reported for the first time in C and NE Albania. These two taxa were previously considered serpentine endemics restricted to a few localities in NW Greece and the extension...

  3. Comparative analysis of complete chloroplast genome sequence and inversion variation in Lasthenia burkei (Madieae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joseph F; Zanis, Michael J; Emery, Nancy C

    2014-04-01

    Complete chloroplast genome studies can help resolve relationships among large, complex plant lineages such as Asteraceae. We present the first whole plastome from the Madieae tribe and compare its sequence variation to other chloroplast genomes in Asteraceae. We used high throughput sequencing to obtain the Lasthenia burkei chloroplast genome. We compared sequence structure and rates of molecular evolution in the small single copy (SSC), large single copy (LSC), and inverted repeat (IR) regions to those for eight Asteraceae accessions and one Solanaceae accession. The chloroplast sequence of L. burkei is 150 746 bp and contains 81 unique protein coding genes and 4 coding ribosomal RNA sequences. We identified three major inversions in the L. burkei chloroplast, all of which have been found in other Asteraceae lineages, and a previously unreported inversion in Lactuca sativa. Regions flanking inversions contained tRNA sequences, but did not have particularly high G + C content. Substitution rates varied among the SSC, LSC, and IR regions, and rates of evolution within each region varied among species. Some observed differences in rates of molecular evolution may be explained by the relative proportion of coding to noncoding sequence within regions. Rates of molecular evolution vary substantially within and among chloroplast genomes, and major inversion events may be promoted by the presence of tRNAs. Collectively, these results provide insight into different mechanisms that may promote intramolecular recombination and the inversion of large genomic regions in the plastome.

  4. Composite aster Inula L. (Asteraceae: a new generic record for Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathinam Sathiyaseelan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new generic record for the flora of Nicobar Islands, Inula L. (Asteraceae represented by the species Inula cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don DC., collected from Chowra Island, Great Nicobar Islands.  

  5. Three new caespitose species of Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) from South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) belonging to S. ser. Suffruticosi subser. Caespitosi were discovered in the tributaries of the upper Tambo River, Moquegua Department, South Peru. Descriptions, diagnoses and discussions about their distribution, a table with the

  6. In vivo and in vitro effects of Bidens pilosa l. (asteraceae) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo and in vitro effects of Bidens pilosa l. (asteraceae) leaf aqueous and ethanol extracts on primed-oestrogenized rat uterine muscle. ... In vitro isometric contraction measurement of oestrogen-primed rat uterine strips showed a significant high aqueous extract-induced contractile effect from 0.03-1.97mg/ml: on the ...

  7. una comunidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Hernández García

    2006-01-01

    embargo, el desarrollo generó mayores desigualdades económicas entre las poblaciones urbanas y las rurales, así como efectos de contaminación del medio ambiente y escasez de los recursos naturales. En este trabajo se presentan los puntos de encuentros locales, la historia, identidad y simbolismos que mantienen una visión de la vida comunal; los desencuentros frente al desarrollo aplicado en la localidad; los cambios en los patrones de cultivo y de la pesca, así como la migración como uno de los principales efectos del cambio.

  8. Complete chloroplast genome of the multifunctional crop globe artichoke and comparison with other Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Pasquale L; De Paola, Domenico; Danzi, Donatella; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Sonnante, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    With over 20,000 species, Asteraceae is the second largest plant family. High-throughput sequencing of nuclear and chloroplast genomes has allowed for a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships within large plant families. Here, the globe artichoke chloroplast (cp) genome was obtained by a combination of whole-genome and BAC clone high-throughput sequencing. The artichoke cp genome is 152,529 bp in length, consisting of two single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,155 bp, representing the longest IRs found in the Asteraceae family so far. The large (LSC) and the small (SSC) single-copy regions span 83,578 bp and 18,641 bp, respectively. The artichoke cp sequence was compared to the other eight Asteraceae complete cp genomes available, revealing an IR expansion at the SSC/IR boundary. This expansion consists of 17 bp of the ndhF gene generating an overlap between the ndhF and ycf1 genes. A total of 127 cp simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) were identified in the artichoke cp genome, potentially suitable for future population studies in the Cynara genus. Parsimony-informative regions were evaluated and allowed to place a Cynara species within the Asteraceae family tree. The eight most informative coding regions were also considered and tested for "specific barcode" purpose in the Asteraceae family. Our results highlight the usefulness of cp genome sequencing in exploring plant genome diversity and retrieving reliable molecular resources for phylogenetic and evolutionary studies, as well as for specific barcodes in plants.

  9. Identification and validation of Asteraceae miRNAs by the expressed sequence tag analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monavar Feshani, Aboozar; Mohammadi, Saeed; Frazier, Taylor P; Abbasi, Abbas; Abedini, Raha; Karimi Farsad, Laleh; Ehya, Farveh; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Mardi, Mohsen

    2012-02-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that play a vital role in the regulation of gene expression. Despite their identification in hundreds of plant species, few miRNAs have been identified in the Asteraceae, a large family that comprises approximately one tenth of all flowering plants. In this study, we used the expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis to identify potential conserved miRNAs and their putative target genes in the Asteraceae. We applied quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) to confirm the expression of eight potential miRNAs in Carthamus tinctorius and Helianthus annuus. We also performed qRT-PCR analysis to investigate the differential expression pattern of five newly identified miRNAs during five different cotyledon growth stages in safflower. Using these methods, we successfully identified and characterized 151 potentially conserved miRNAs, belonging to 26 miRNA families, in 11 genus of Asteraceae. EST analysis predicted that the newly identified conserved Asteraceae miRNAs target 130 total protein-coding ESTs in sunflower and safflower, as well as 433 additional target genes in other plant species. We experimentally confirmed the existence of seven predicted miRNAs, (miR156, miR159, miR160, miR162, miR166, miR396, and miR398) in safflower and sunflower seedlings. We also observed that five out of eight miRNAs are differentially expressed during cotyledon development. Our results indicate that miRNAs may be involved in the regulation of gene expression during seed germination and the formation of the cotyledons in the Asteraceae. The findings of this study might ultimately help in the understanding of miRNA-mediated gene regulation in important crop species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of novel low-copy nuclear markers for Hieraciinae (Asteraceae) and their perspective for other tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krak, Karol; Alvarez, Inés; Caklová, Petra; Costa, Andrea; Chrtek, Jindrich; Fehrer, Judith

    2012-02-01

    The development of three low-copy nuclear markers for low taxonomic level phylogenies in Asteraceae with emphasis on the subtribe Hieraciinae is reported. Marker candidates were selected by comparing a Lactuca complementary DNA (cDNA) library with public DNA sequence databases. Interspecific variation and phylogenetic signal of the selected genes were investigated for diploid taxa from the subtribe Hieraciinae and compared to a reference phylogeny. Their ability to cross-amplify was assessed for other Asteraceae tribes. All three markers had higher variation (2.1-4.5 times) than the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) in Hieraciinae. Cross-amplification was successful in at least seven other tribes of the Asteraceae. Only three cases indicating the presence of paralogs or pseudogenes were detected. The results demonstrate the potential of these markers for phylogeny reconstruction in the Hieraciinae as well as in other Asteraceae tribes, especially for very closely related species.

  11. Asteraceae visited by honeybees in Argentina: a record from entomopalynological studies Asteraceae visitadas por abejas melíferas en Argentina: un registro a partir de estudios entomopalinológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Telleria

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Entomopalynological studies of Asteraceae in Argentina revealed that 64 taxa occurred in food stored by honeybees. The most visited plant tribes were classified according to both the type of reward provided by the different taxa and the intensity that such reward is collected by honeybees. Exotic plant taxa were intensely visited inside the disturbed areas (e.g. Cardueae and Cichorieae tribes, whereas native taxa (e.g. Barnadesioideae, Mutisieae, Astereae and Eupatorieae were intensely visited in less disturbed areas. A large number of identified taxa of Asteraceae and the evaluation of its importance to honeybee nutrition were presented. The present study contributes to the knowledge of relationship between Asteraceae and honeybees.A partir de estudios entomopalinológicos se encontró que 64 taxa pertenecientes a la familia Asteraceae están presentes en los alimentos almacenados por las abejas melíferas. Los representantes exóticos fueron intensamente visitados en las áreas más alteradas (e.g. Cardueae and Cichorieae, mientras que algunos representantes nativos (e.g. Barnadesioideae, Mutisieae, Astereae y Eupatorieae fueron intensamente visitados en áreas menos alteradas. Se presenta un importante número de taxa de Asteraceae relevantes para la nutrición de las abejas melíferas. El presente trabajo contribuye a conocer la relación entre Asteraceae y abejas melíferas.

  12. Resolution of deep nodes yields an improved backbone phylogeny and a new basal lineage to study early evolution of Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panero, Jose L; Freire, Susana E; Ariza Espinar, Luis; Crozier, Bonnie S; Barboza, Gloria E; Cantero, Juan J

    2014-11-01

    A backbone phylogeny that fully resolves all subfamily and deeper nodes of Asteraceae was constructed using 14 chloroplast DNA loci. The recently named genus Famatinanthus was found to be sister to the Mutisioideae-Asteroideae clade that represents more than 99% of Asteraceae and was found to have the two chloroplast inversions present in all Asteraceae except the nine genera of Barnadesioideae. A monotypic subfamily Famatinanthoideae and tribe Famatinantheae are named herein as new. Relationships among the basal lineages of the family were resolved with strong support in the Bayesian analysis as (Barnadesioideae (Famatinanthoideae (Mutisioideae (Stifftioideae (Wunderlichioideae-Asteroideae))))). Ancestral state reconstruction of ten morphological characters at the root node of the Asteraceae showed that the ancestral sunflower would have had a woody habit, alternate leaves, solitary capitulescences, epaleate receptacles, smooth styles, smooth to microechinate pollen surface sculpturing, white to yellow corollas, and insect-mediated pollination. Herbaceous habit, echinate pollen surface, pubescent styles, and cymose capitulescences were reconstructed for backbone nodes of the phylogeny corresponding to clades that evolved shortly after Asteraceae dispersed out of South America. No support was found for discoid capitula, multiseriate involucres or bird pollination as the ancestral character condition for any node. Using this more resolved phylogenetic tree, the recently described Raiguenrayun cura+Mutisiapollis telleriae fossil should be associated to a more derived node than previously suggested when time calibrating phylogenies of Asteraceae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential Asteraceae Invaders in Taiwan: Insights from the Flora and Herbarium Records of Casual and Naturalized Alien Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Huah Wu

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Naturalization has been shown to be one of the primary stages of plant invasions; therefore, studies on naturalized plant species may generate valuable insights of possible invaders and invasions. Background information of casual and naturalized Asteraceae species provided by a comprehensive list of casual and naturalized species in Taiwan was examined to estimate the basic biological traits and geological origins of potential invasive species in this study. Besides, herbarium records were collected and analyzed to predict the invasiveness of casual and naturalized Asteraceae species. Our results showed that 44.0% out of the 51 casual and naturalized Asteraceae species were classified as invasive in the field, and a notable portion of these species were probably introduced accidently. Tropical Americas were the most important origins of casual and naturalized Asteraceae species, followed by Europe and temperate Americas. Most of the casual and naturalized Asteraceae species were annual herbs, and a few perennial species categorized as invasive may cause profound environmental problems. The herbarium record showed that species possessed different numbers of localities within the same time frame. We suggested that casual and naturalized Asteraceae species collected in more localities are more invasive than those species found in fewer localities within the same period of time.

  14. Efectos embriotóxicos de Picrosia longifolia Don (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Benavides

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha evaluado los probables efectos tóxicos del extracto acuoso de Picrosia longifolia Don “Achicoria” sobre el desarrollo de embriones preimplantacionales de ratón. Extracto acuoso de P. longifolia al 20%, 10% y 0% fue suministrado a ratonas preñadas hasta las 86 horas postcópula (hpc. Al evaluar el estadio embrionario se encontró que el extracto acuoso de P. longifolia al 10% y 20% causó retraso en el desarrollo embrionario. También se observó una disminución en la viabilidad embrionaria en los grupos tratados. Tanto la disminución de viabilidad como el retraso en el desarrollo se produjo en una forma dosis dependiente.

  15. Not only size matters: achene morphology affects time of seedling emergence in three heterocarpic species of Anacyclus (Anthemideae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torices, Rubén

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of two or more distinct fruit types by an individual, i.e. heterocarpy, is considered as a mixed dispersal strategy in which a proportion of the offspring is able to colonize new sites, whilst others remain near the maternal location. Here, we aimed to explore the effects of achene morphology (winged vs. unwinged achenes and achene size –measured here as achene mass– on post-dispersal life-history traits (probability and time of seedling emergence in three heterocarpic Anacyclus species (Anthemideae, Asteraceae. Morphology, size and germination performance were studied in achenes from six populations of Anacyclus clavatus (Desf. Pers., A. homogamos (Maire Humphries, and A. valentinus L. Our results show that achene morphology and size were related to their position within the capitulum, such that outer, winged achenes were significantly heavier than the inner, unwinged ones. Additionally, winged achenes germinated faster than unwinged ones. This pattern may be related to the sequential achene time of release displayed by these species. Finally, our findings cast doubt on the role of wings as structures that favor dispersal by wind in these three species of Anacyclus.La producción de dos o más tipos de frutos diferentes por un mismo individuo, i.e. heterocarpia, es considerada como una estrategia mixta de dispersión en la que una parte de la descendencia es capaz de colonizar nuevos sitios, mientras que la otra permanece cerca de la planta madre. En este trabajo, nuestro objetivo fue explorar los efectos de la morfología del aquenio (aquenios alados vs. no alados y de su tamaño –medido aquí como masa del aquenio– en la etapa del ciclo de vida siguiente a la dispersión (probabilidad de germinación y tiempo de emergencia de las plántulas de tres especies heterocárpicas del género Anacyclus (Anthemideae, Asteraceae. Se estudió la morfología, el tamaño y la germinación en aquenios de seis poblaciones de Anacyclus

  16. Atlas palinológico de la Amazonia Colombiana II. Familia Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Bulla Luis Carlos

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe pollen from 26 genera of Asteraceae which belong to six tribes: Heliantheae (10, Eupatorieae (6, Vernonieae (6, Senecioneae (2, Mutisieae (1 and Inulineae (1. Tricolporate grains were dominant, but tetracolporate grains also appears. All grains are tectate and the most common sculpture type was echinate.Se describen 26 palinomorfos pertenecientes a los géneros más importantes en cuanto a número de especies de la familia Asteraceae y dentro de esta a las tribus Heliantheae (10, Eupatorieae (6, Vernonieae (6, Senecioneae (2, Mutisieae (1, Inulineae (1. Las aberturas son tricolporadas o tetracolporadas, los granos son tectados y el tipo de escultura que más se repite es la equinada.

  17. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Cury, Graziela

    2011-01-01

    In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna), the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. ...

  18. Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae by Hiroshi Nakano*a)b)c), Abbas...larvicides against Aedes aegypti. Structural differences among compounds 3, 5, and 8 consisted in differing AcO and OH groups attached to C(3’’) and C(4...serious human diseases including malaria, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue, and filariasis. The urban-adapted Aedes aegypti mosquito has become

  19. Herbivoria por insetos galhadores mediada pelo sexo em Baccharis concinna (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Marco Antonio A.; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson; Souza, Og F. F. de; Souza, Wyller Vicente M.

    2006-01-01

    The interaction patterns between the dioecious shrub Baccharis concinna Barroso (Asteraceae) and its speciose galling insect community were studied in southeastern Brazil. Two hypotheses were tested in this study: "the differential reproduction and growth hypothesis" that predicts that male plants present fewer reproductive structures and are larger than female plants; and the 'sex-biased herbivory hypothesis' that predicts that male plants support a larger abundance of insect galls than fema...

  20. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, AK; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC–MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepar...

  1. Two new herb gall wasps from Spain, including the description of a new species of Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, “Aylacini” inducing galls on Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves-Aldrey, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of herb gall wasps are recorded from Spain, which induce galls on flower heads of Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae. Isocolus serratulae (Mayr, 1882 is recorded for the first time in Spain, while a new species of Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897, Aulacidea pilarae sp. n., is described. This new species is similar to Aulacidea serratulae Diakontschuk, 1984, which is found throughout Oriental Europe. However, those two congeneric species may be distinguished by the morphology of the adults.Se citan dos nuevas especies de avispas de las agallas en plantas herbáceas para España. Las dos especies inducen agallas en cabezuelas florales de Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae y se han encontrado en el valle del Lozoya (Madrid, España Central. Isocolus serratulae (Mayr, 1882 se cita por primera vez para la Península Ibérica y se describe una especie nueva de Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897: A. pilarae sp. n. La nueva especie es similar a Aulacidea serratulae Diakontschuk, 1984 citada de Europa oriental, diferenciándose por la morfología de los adultos.

  2. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Cury, Graziela

    2011-09-01

    In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna), the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. This study aims to analyse the morpho-anatomy of underground systems of six species of Asteraceae (Mikania cordifolia L.f. Willd., Mikania sessilifolia DC, Trixis nobilis (Vell.) Katinas, Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lam.) DC., Vernonia elegans Gardner and Vernonia megapotamica Spreng.), to describe these structures and to verify the occurrence and origin of shoot buds, and to analyse the presence of reserve substances. Individuals sampled in Cerrado areas in São Paulo State showed thick underground bud-bearing organs, with adventitious or lateral roots and presence of fructans. Xylopodium was found in all studied species, except for Trixis nobilis, which had stem tuber. The presence of fructans as reserve, and the capacity of structures in the formation of buds indicate the potential of herbaceous species of Asteraceae in forming a viable bud bank for vegetation regeneration in the Brazilian Cerrado.

  3. Eupatorium capilifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae, REKAMAN BARU UNTUK FLORA JAWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifin Surya Dwipa Irsyam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Sebanyak 227 jenis tumbuhan Asteraceae terdapat di Pulau Jawa berdasarkan Flora of Java. Namun, suku Asteraceae di Pulau Jawa belum banyak ditinjau kembali sejak buku tersebut terbit 51 tahun yang lalu, sehingga memungkinkan adanya jenis-jenis tambahan yang belum terekam. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi adanya jenis tambahan yang terdapat di Pulau Jawa. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan metode jelajah di Labuan (Banten, Bogor (Jawa Barat, Malang, dan Situbondo (Jawa Timur. Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton merupakan rekaman baru yang dapat melengkapi flora Jawa. Jenis tersebut dikelompokkan ke dalam puak Eupatorieae. Abstract There are 227 species of Asteraceae in Java Island recorded in the Flora of Java. However, only few review of this family for Java since Flora of Java has published 51 years ago. Some possibilities of unrecorded species may occur after this Flora of Java published. This research was conducted to provide information on additional species in Java Island. This research was carried out using exploration method in Labuan (Banten, Bogor (West Java, Malang and Situbondo (East Java. Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton is a new record for completing the flora of Java Island. This species belongs to Eupatorieae tribe.   

  4. Etnobotánica de Heliopsis longipes (Asteraceae: Heliantheae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cilia-Lopez, V. Gabriela; Aguirre-Rivera, J. Rogelio; Reyes-Agüero, Juan Antonio; Juárez-Flores, Bertha I.

    2008-01-01

    Heliopsis longipes, conocido con el nombre común de chilcuague es una hierba perenne endémica de la sierra de Alvarez y sierra Gorda, región donde coinciden parte de los territorios de San Luis Potosí, Guanajuato y Querétaro, y de donde se conoce que su raíz tiene usos tradicionales. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron registrar las formas actuales de uso tradicional del chilcuague y estimar la demanda actual de su raíz. Se realizaron entrevistas a recolectores, comerciantes y consumidores e...

  5. Potencial antioxidante e antimicrobiano de espécies da família Asteraceae Antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Asteraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L Fabri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécies da família Asteraceae são amplamente utilizadas na medicina popular para diversos fins terapêuticos. Neste contexto, este estudo teve por objetivo averiguar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante in vitro de extratos metanólicos de plantas pertencentes a Asteraceae, a maioria comumente utilizada na medicina tradicional. A prospecção química dos extratos também foi realizada. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de susceptibilidade em microdiluição em caldo e a atividade antioxidante determinada pelo ensaio com o radical DPPH. O extrato da folha de Baccharis dracunculifolia apresentou significativa atividade antimicrobiana para Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Bacillus cereus e Cryptococcus neoformans (CIM = 0,005; 0,005 e 0,039 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Os extratos das folhas de Bidens segetum e Matricaria chamomilla foram seletivos para Shigella sonnei e P. aeruginosa (CIM = 0,005 e 0,078 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Já as folhas de Acanthospermun australe e Baccharis trimera apresentaram atividade significativa apenas para Candida albicans (CIM = 0,039 mg mL-1 enquanto as folhas de Taraxacum officinale foram ativos contra ambas leveduras com CIM 0,039 mg mL-1. Em relação à atividade antioxidante, os extratos das folhas de B. dracunculifolia, T. officinale e das inflorescências de B. segetum apresentaram significativa atividade com CI50 de 5, 5 e 4 µg mL-1, respectivamente. A prospecção química dos extratos identificou presença de compostos como flavonoides, terpenos e outros que podem ser responsáveis pelas atividades observadas.Asteraceae species have been largely used in folk medicine for several therapeutic purposes. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from plants belonging to the Asteraceae family, most of which are commonly used in traditional medicine. Chemical prospecting of extracts was also performed. The

  6. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna, the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. This study aims to analyse the morpho-anatomy of underground systems of six species of Asteraceae (Mikania cordifolia L.f. Willd., Mikania sessilifolia DC, Trixis nobilis (Vell. Katinas, Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lam. DC., Vernonia elegans Gardner and Vernonia megapotamica Spreng., to describe these structures and to verify the occurrence and origin of shoot buds, and to analyse the presence of reserve substances. Individuals sampled in Cerrado areas in São Paulo State showed thick underground bud-bearing organs, with adventitious or lateral roots and presence of fructans. Xylopodium was found in all studied species, except for Trixis nobilis, which had stem tuber. The presence of fructans as reserve, and the capacity of structures in the formation of buds indicate the potential of herbaceous species of Asteraceae in forming a viable bud bank for vegetation regeneration in the Brazilian Cerrado.No Cerrado brasileiro (savana neotropical, o desenvolvimento de sistemas subterrâneos que produzem gemas, como estruturas adaptativas contra o fogo e períodos de seca, pode compreender um importante suprimento de gemas para esse ecossistema, como já demonstrado nos campos brasileiros e nas pradarias norte-americanas. Espécies de Asteraceae tanto do estrato lenhoso, quanto do herbáceo têm órgãos que acumulam carboidratos, reforçando a estratégia adaptativa dessas plantas a diferentes condições ambientais. Este estudo tem o objetivo de analisar a morfo

  7. Insect herbivores associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae: responses of gall-forming and free-feeding insects to latitudinal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio Fagundes

    2011-09-01

    utilizado para explicar el aumento en la diversidad de especies desde los polos a los trópicos: los trópicos pueden ser más diversos ya que están conformados por una mayor cantidad de hábitats y micro-hábitats. En este estudio, la hipótesis de heterogeneidad espacial se puso a prueba evaluando la variación en la riqueza de dos gremios de insectos herbívoros (formadores de agallas y de alimentación libre asociados con B. dracunculifolia (Asteracea a lo largo de un gradiente latitudinal en Brasil. Las diecisiete poblaciones de B. dracunculifolia seleccionadas para el muestreo de insectos herbívoros estaban en hábitats con una estructura similar, a lo largo del límite Norte-Sur de distribución de la planta hospedera, cerca de la costa brasileña. De cada población de planta hospedera, se muestrearon treinta arbustos y se obtuvo un total de 8 201 agallas y 864 insectos de alimentación libre pertenecientes a 28 familias y 88 especies. La mayoría de los insectos que se encontraron en B. dracunculifolia estaban restringidos a un sitio específico en lugar de tener una distribución geográfica similar a la de la planta hospedera. La riqueza de especies de insectos de alimentación libre no se vió afectada por el gradiente latitudinal, por lo que se corroboró la hipótesis de heterogeneidad espacial. Mientras que la riqueza de especies de insectos formadores de agallas se correlacionó positivamente con la latitud, probablemente debido a que los insectos asociados al género Baccharis se extendieron hacia el sur de Brasil. Otros índices de diversidad y equidad estimados no variaron con la latitud para ninguno de los dos grupos de insectos herbívoros evaluados, lo que sugirie una estructura general para diferentes conjuntos de herbívoros asociados con la planta hospedera B. dracunculifolia. Por lo tanto, es probable que, la muestra de insectos en cada sitio sea resultado de eventos a gran escala, como la especiación, migración y coevolución; mientras que a

  8. Seasonal changes of fructans in dimorphic roots of Ichthyothere terminalis (Spreng.) Blake (Asteraceae) growing in Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Lorrayne Veloso; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; Seraphin, José Carlos; de Moraes, Moemy Gomes

    2017-11-15

    Cerrado is a floristically rich savanna in Brazil, whose vegetation consists of a physiognomic mosaic, influenced by rainfall seasonality. In the dry season rainfall is substantially lower and reduces soil water supply, mainly for herbs and subshrubs. Climatic seasonal variations may well define phenological shifts and induce fluctuations of plant reserve pools. Some Cerrado native species have thickened underground organs that bear buds and store reserves, as adaptive features to enable plant survival following environmental stresses. Asteraceae species accumulate fructans in storage organs, which are not only reserve, but also protecting compounds against the effects of cold and drought. Ichthyothere terminalis is one Asteraceae species abundant in cerrado rupestre, with underground organs consisting of thickened orthogravitropic and diagravitropic roots. The objectives of this study were to analyze how abiotic environmental factors and plant phenology influence fructan dynamics in field grown plants, and verify if fructan metabolism differs in both root types for one year. I. terminalis accumulates inulin-type fructans in 10-40% of the dry mass in both root types. Fructan dynamics have similar patterns described for other Asteraceae species, exhibiting a proportional increase of polysaccharides with the senescence of the aerial organs. Multivariate analyzes showed that, as rainfall decreased, environmental factors had a stronger influence on metabolite levels than phenological shifts in both root types. Only slight differences were found in fructan dynamics between orthogravitropic and diagravitropic roots, suggesting they may have similar fructan metabolism regulation. However, these small differences may reflect distinct microclimatic conditions in both root types and also represent the influence of sink strength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative genomics in the Asteraceae reveals little evidence for parallel evolutionary change in invasive taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Kathryn A; Bock, Dan G; Hahn, Min A; Heredia, Sylvia M; Turner, Kathryn G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-05-01

    Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants, has given rise to many notorious invasive species. Using publicly available transcriptome assemblies from 35 Asteraceae, including six major invasive species, we examined evidence for micro- and macro-evolutionary genomic changes associated with invasion. To detect episodes of positive selection repeated across multiple introductions, we conducted comparisons between native and introduced genotypes from six focal species and identified genes with elevated rates of amino acid change (dN/dS). We then looked for evidence of positive selection at a broader phylogenetic scale across all taxa. As invasive species may experience founder events during colonization and spread, we also looked for evidence of increased genetic load in introduced genotypes. We rarely found evidence for parallel changes in orthologous genes in the intraspecific comparisons, but in some cases we identified changes in members of the same gene family. Using among-species comparisons, we detected positive selection in 0.003-0.69% and 2.4-7.8% of the genes using site and stochastic branch-site models, respectively. These genes had diverse putative functions, including defence response, stress response and herbicide resistance, although there was no clear pattern in the GO terms. There was no indication that introduced genotypes have a higher proportion of deleterious alleles than native genotypes in the six focal species, suggesting multiple introductions and admixture mitigated the impact of drift. Our findings provide little evidence for common genomic responses in invasive taxa of the Asteraceae and hence suggest that multiple evolutionary pathways may lead to adaptation during introduction and spread in these species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Vinicia tomentosa, new genus and species of Lychnophorinae (Vernonieae, Asteraceae from Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Dematteis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of the tribe Vernonieae (Asteraceae from the cerrado and campo rupestre vegetation of Minas Gerais (Brazil is described and illustrated. The new taxon, Vinicia tomentosa Dematt. is closely related to Chronopappus DC. and Lychnophora Mart., but differs in having pedunculate glomerules and the narrowly cylindrical involucre. The other two genera always have sessile glomerules and the involucre is turbinate to cylindrical in Lychnophora and ovoid in Chronopappus.

  11. Complete chloroplast genomes from apomictic Taraxacum (Asteraceae): Identity and variation between three microspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeský, Ľuboš; Schwarzacher, Trude; Gornall, Richard; Heslop-Harrison, Pat

    2017-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA sequences show substantial variation between higher plant species, and less variation within species, so are typically excellent markers to investigate evolutionary, population and genetic relationships and phylogenies. We sequenced the plastomes of Taraxacum obtusifrons Markl. (O978); T. stridulum Trávniček ined. (S3); and T. amplum Markl. (A978), three apomictic triploid (2n = 3x = 24) dandelions from the T. officinale agg. We aimed to characterize the variation in plastomes, define relationships and correlations with the apomictic microspecies status, and refine placement of the microspecies in the evolutionary or phylogenetic context of the Asteraceae. The chloroplast genomes of accessions O978 and S3 were identical and 151,322 bp long (where the nuclear genes are known to show variation), while A978 was 151,349 bp long. All three genomes contained 135 unique genes, with an additional copy of the trnF-GGA gene in the LSC region and 20 duplicated genes in the IR region, along with short repeats, the typical major Inverted Repeats (IR1 and IR2, 24,431bp long), and Large and Small Single Copy regions (LSC 83,889bp and SSC 18,571bp in O978). Between the two Taraxacum plastomes types, we identified 28 SNPs. The distribution of polymorphisms suggests some parts of the Taraxacum plastome are evolving at a slower rate. There was a hemi-nested inversion in the LSC region that is common to Asteraceae, and an SSC inversion from ndhF to rps15 found only in some Asteraceae lineages. A comparative repeat analysis showed variation between Taraxacum and the phylogenetically close genus Lactuca, with many more direct repeats of 40bp or more in Lactuca (1% larger plastome than Taraxacum). When individual genes and non-coding regions were for Asteraceae phylogeny reconstruction, not all showed the same evolutionary scenario suggesting care is needed for interpretation of relationships if a limited number of markers are used. Studying genotypic diversity in

  12. A new polyacetylene from Vernonia scorpioides (Lam.) Pers. (Asteraceae) and its in vitro antitumoral activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buskuhl, Humberto; Freitas, Rilton A.; Biavatti, Maique W. [Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Itajai, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude], e-mail: maique@ccs.ufsc.br; Monache, Franco Delle [Universita ' La Sapienza' , Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Tecnologia delle Sostanze Biologicamente Attive; Barison, Andersson; Campos, Francinete R. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Dept. de Quimica; Corilo, Yuri E.; Eberlin, Marcos N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The dichloromethane fraction obtained from hydroalcoholic crude extract of leaves and flowers of Vernonia scorpioides (Asteraceae) was investigated, resulting in the isolation and structure elucidation of a new polyacetylene namely 5-octa-2,4,6-triynyl-furan-2(5H)-one. The structure of the isolated compound was determined based on IR, NMR (1D and 2D) and MS spectrometric data. The antitumor potential, including cytotoxicity to tumor cells and genotoxicity, was investigated. The results suggest that apoptotic cell death may have occurred, at least in part, via a caspase-dependent mechanism. (author)

  13. Taxonomical studies on endemic scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans stat. nov. (asteraceae) from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyuncu, O.; Kus, G.

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of Scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans belonging to the tribe. cichoreae (Asteraceae). S. pygmaea samples were collected from Arayit mountain. We suggest that these two subspecies should be classified as varietes because of their morphological and anatomical characteristics, ecological and geographical similarities. Moreover being together in the same localities of these under species taxa supports our opinion, i.e. S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. pygmaea stat. nov. and S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. nutans (Czeczott) O. Koyuncu and Yaylac, stat. nov. (author)

  14. Assemblages of endophagous insects on Asteraceae in São Paulo cerrados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Adriana M; Fonseca, Carlos R; Prado, Paulo I; Almeida-Neto, Mário; Diniz, Soraia; Kubota, Umberto; Braun, Marina R; Raimundo, Rafael L G; Anjos, Luciano A; Mendonça, Tehra G; Futada, Silvia M; Lewinsohn, Thomas M

    2006-01-01

    A survey of the endophagous insects fauna associated to Asteraceae capitula was carried out from 2000 to 2002 in eight cerrado sensu stricto sites located in the Brazilian state of Sdo Paulo. Sixty-four endophagous species of Diptera and Lepidoptera were recorded from 49 asteracean host plants. Approximately half of the species were obtained from a single locality, with a large proportion emerging from a single sample (unicates). Thirty percent of the species were singletons (i.e. only one individual was recorded). The large proportion of rare species suggests a high species turnover among localities. Lepidopteran species were recorded on more host species than dipterans, confirming their more polyphagous food habit, also observed in other Brazilian biomes and in Europe. We conclude that the studied cerrado localities, all within São Paulo State, are isolated with its invertebrate fauna composed of many rare and exclusive species. We suggest that the maintenance of Asteraceae biodiversity and their endophagous insects depend on the conservation of all cerrado remnants in the state.

  15. Species richness in natural and disturbed habitats: Asteraceae and Flower-head insects (Tephritidae: Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Soraia; Prado, Paulo I; Lewinsohn, Thomas M

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in the landscape result in an environmental mosaic with serious consequences for biodiversity. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the anthropogenic changes on Asteraceae richness and abundance, and to evaluate the consequences for the richness of Tephritidae assemblages in five sampling sites, with three sampled habitats in each: cerrado (Brazilian savanna), eucalyptus stands and pasture. Sampling was carried out in 15 random transects (cerrados and one pasture) and in 30 transects (eucalyptus stands and the remaining pastures). Composition, species richness and insect abundance in each habitat type was estimated by sampling the flower heads for each species of host plant, collected by four people for 1h. Differences in mean abundance of plant population between habitats and sites were tested by two-way ANOVA. Differences in plant species richness between habitats and sites and effects of habitat, site and host plant richness on insect richness were tested using a generalized linear model with Poisson errors. Within each sampling site, cerrados showed higher species richness of Asteraceae than pastures and eucalyptus stands. There were also significant differences in plant richness among sites. Mean population abundance values were significantly different among habitats, but not among sites. Increased host plant richness led to significant insect species richness. There were no additional significant effects of habitat on insect richness. Therefore, anthropogenic alterations in landscape determined the impoverishment of plant assemblages and therefore of insect assemblages, because of the positive relationship between host plant richness and insect richness.

  16. Surface microstructures of daisy florets (Asteraceae) and characterization of their anisotropic wetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kerstin; Bennemann, Michael; Bohn, Holger F; Albach, Dirk C; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2013-09-01

    The surface microstructures on ray florets of 62 species were characterized and compared with modern phylogenetic data of species affiliation in Asteraceae to determine sculptural patterns and their occurrence in the tribes of Asteraceae. Their wettability was studied to identify structural-induced droplet adhesion, which can be used for the development of artificial surfaces for water harvesting and passive surface water transport. The wettability was characterized by contact angle (CA) and tilt angle measurements, performed on fresh ray florets and their epoxy resin replica. The CAs on ray florets varied between 104° and 156°, but water droplets did not roll off when surface was tilted at 90°. Elongated cell structures and cuticle folding orientated in the same direction as the cell elongation caused capillary forces, leading to anisotropic wetting, with extension of water droplets along the length axis of epidermis cells. The strongest elongation of the droplets was also supported by a parallel, cell-overlapping cuticle striation. In artificial surfaces made of epoxy replica of ray florets, this effect was enhanced. The distribution of the identified four structural types exhibits a strong phylogenetic signal and allows the inference of an evolutionary trend in the modification of floret epidermal cells.

  17. Early evolution of the angiosperm clade Asteraceae in the Cretaceous of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Viviana D; Palazzesi, Luis; Tellería, Maria C; Olivero, Eduardo B; Raine, J Ian; Forest, Félix

    2015-09-01

    The Asteraceae (sunflowers and daisies) are the most diverse family of flowering plants. Despite their prominent role in extant terrestrial ecosystems, the early evolutionary history of this family remains poorly understood. Here we report the discovery of a number of fossil pollen grains preserved in dinosaur-bearing deposits from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica that drastically pushes back the timing of assumed origin of the family. Reliably dated to ∼76-66 Mya, these specimens are about 20 million years older than previously known records for the Asteraceae. Using a phylogenetic approach, we interpreted these fossil specimens as members of an extinct early diverging clade of the family, associated with subfamily Barnadesioideae. Based on a molecular phylogenetic tree calibrated using fossils, including the ones reported here, we estimated that the most recent common ancestor of the family lived at least 80 Mya in Gondwana, well before the thermal and biogeographical isolation of Antarctica. Most of the early diverging lineages of the family originated in a narrow time interval after the K/P boundary, 60-50 Mya, coinciding with a pronounced climatic warming during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene, and the scene of a dramatic rise in flowering plant diversity. Our age estimates reduce earlier discrepancies between the age of the fossil record and previous molecular estimates for the origin of the family, bearing important implications in the evolution of flowering plants in general.

  18. Investigation of plant latices of Asteraceae and Campanulaceae regarding proteolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytwala, Sonja; Domsalla, André; Melzig, Matthias F

    2015-12-01

    Occurrence of plant latices is widespread, there are more than 40 families of plants characterized to establish lactiferous structures. The appearance of hydrolytic active proteins, incorporated in latices is already characterized, and hydrolytic active proteins are considerable, and for several plant families, the occurrence of hydrolytic active proteins is already specified e.g. Apocynaceae Juss., Caricaceae Dumort, Euphorbiaceae Juss., Moraceae Gaudich and Papaveraceae Juss. In our investigation, focused on latex bearing plants of order Asterales, Asteraceae and Campanulaceae in particular. The present outcomes represent a comprehensive study, relating to the occurrence of proteolytic active enzymes of order Asterales for the first time. 131 different species of Asteraceae and Campanulaceae were tested, and the appearance of plant latex proteases were determined in different quantities. Proteolytic activity was investigated by inhibitory studies and determination of residual activity in the following, enable us to characterize the proteases. Most of the considered species exhibit a serine protease activity and a multiplicity of species exhibited two or more subclasses of proteases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Roles of mucilage in Emilia fosbergii, a myxocarpic Asteraceae: Efficient seed imbibition and diaspore adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Paula, Orlando C; Marzinek, Juliana; Oliveira, Denise M T; Paiva, Élder A S

    2015-09-01

    Several angiosperm families have myxodiaspory, such as the Asteraceae in which cypselae are frequently wind-dispersed. The roles of mucilage in cypselae remain misunderstood, and the route of water uptake from substrate to embryo remains unknown. In this work, we analyze the fruits of Emilia fosbergii aiming to clarify how the water is absorbed and how the structure of the pericarp can be related to the processes of diaspore adhesion and seed imbibition. The anatomy and ultrastructure of the cypselae of Emilia fosbergii were analyzed with histochemical tests and light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We assessed the roles of mucilage in seed imbibition using apoplasmic tracing with Lucifer yellow and epifluorescence microscopy and in adhesion with a sand assay. We describe structural and ultrastructural aspects of the exocarpic cells, especially the mucilaginous twin hairs. Lucifer yellow was absorbed only by the twin hairs, the cells where water primarily enters the seed during seed imbibition. In the sand assay, the mucilage was adhesive. The twin hairs on the surface of the cypselae can play a dual role in the establishment of new plants of this species. First, these trichomes constitute the main passage for water intake, which is essential for seed imbibition and germination, and after imbibition, they release mucilage that can adhere the diaspore. Therefore, the presence of myxocarpy in Asteraceae could be important in anemochoric species to avoid secondary dispersal. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  20. Surface microstructures of daisy florets (Asteraceae) and characterization of their anisotropic wetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Kerstin; Bennemann, Michael; Bohn, Holger F; Barthlott, Wilhelm; Albach, Dirk C

    2013-01-01

    The surface microstructures on ray florets of 62 species were characterized and compared with modern phylogenetic data of species affiliation in Asteraceae to determine sculptural patterns and their occurrence in the tribes of Asteraceae. Their wettability was studied to identify structural-induced droplet adhesion, which can be used for the development of artificial surfaces for water harvesting and passive surface water transport. The wettability was characterized by contact angle (CA) and tilt angle measurements, performed on fresh ray florets and their epoxy resin replica. The CAs on ray florets varied between 104° and 156°, but water droplets did not roll off when surface was tilted at 90°. Elongated cell structures and cuticle folding orientated in the same direction as the cell elongation caused capillary forces, leading to anisotropic wetting, with extension of water droplets along the length axis of epidermis cells. The strongest elongation of the droplets was also supported by a parallel, cell-overlapping cuticle striation. In artificial surfaces made of epoxy replica of ray florets, this effect was enhanced. The distribution of the identified four structural types exhibits a strong phylogenetic signal and allows the inference of an evolutionary trend in the modification of floret epidermal cells. (paper)

  1. The application of multiplex fluorimetric sensor for the analysis of flavonoids content in the medicinal herbs family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Sytar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of our research work was to quantify total flavonoid contents in the leaves of 13 plant species family Asteraceae, 8 representatives of family Lamiaceae and 9 plant species belonging to familyRosaceae, using the multiplex fluorimetric sensor. Fluorescence was measured using optical fluorescence apparatus Multiplex(R 3 (Force-A, France for non-destructive flavonoids estimation. The content of total flavonoids was estimated by FLAV index (expressed in relative units, that is deduced from flavonoids UV absorbing properties. RESULTS: Among observed plant species, the highest amount of total flavonoids has been found in leaves ofHelianthus multiflorus (1.65 RU and Echinops ritro (1.27 RU, Rudbeckia fulgida (1.13 RU belonging to the family Asteraceae. Lowest flavonoid content has been observed in the leaves of marigold (Calendula officinalis (0.14 RU also belonging to family Asteraceae. The highest content of flavonoids among experimental plants of family Rosaceae has been estimated in the leaves of Rosa canina (1.18 RU and among plant species of family Lamiaceae in the leaves of Coleus blumei (0.90 RU. CONCLUSIONS: This research work was done as pre-screening of flavonoids content in the leaves of plant species belonging to family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae. Results indicated that statistically significant differences (P > 0.05 in flavonoids content were observed not only between families, but also among individual plant species within one family.

  2. ASPECTOS TAXONÔMICOS, FITOGEOGRÁFICOS E USOS DE Pectis uniaristata DC. var. jangadensis (S.Moore) Keil (ASTERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    PEREIRA, ARILDO GONÇALO; NETO, GERMANO GUARIM

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho discute os aspectos taxonômicos, fitogeográficos e outros relacionados à Pectis uniaristata var. jangadensis (S. Moore) Keil (Asteraceae) uma planta de ocorrência na vegetação do cerrado e do pantanal de Mato Grosso.

  3. Sesquiterpenoids in subtribe Centaureinae (Cass.) Dumort (tribe Cardueae, Asteraceae): distribution, (13)C NMR spectral data and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Maurizio; Bancheva, Svetlana; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella

    2013-11-01

    Asteraceae Bercht. & J. Presl is one of the biggest and most economically important plant families. The taxonomy and phylogeny of Asteraceae is rather complex and according to the latest and most reliable taxonomic classification of Panero & Funk, based on the analysis of nine chloroplast regions, the family is divided into 12 subfamilies and 35 tribes. One of the largest tribes of Asteraceae is Cardueae Cass. with four subtribes (Carlininae, Echinopinae, Carduinae and Centaureinae) and more than 2500 species. Susanna & Garcia-Jacas have organized the genera of Centaureinae (about 800 species) into seven informal groups, which recent molecular studies have confirmed: 1. Basal genera; 2. Volutaria group; 3. Rhaponticum group; 4. Serratula group; 5. Carthamus group; 6. Crocodylium group; 7. Centaurea group. This review summarizes reports on sesquiterpenoids from the Centaureinae subtribe of the Asteraceae family, as well as the (13)C NMR spectral data described in the literature. It further reviews studies concerning the biological activities of these metabolites. For this work, literature data on sesquiterpenes from the Centaureinae subtribe were retrieved with the help of the SciFinder database and other similar data banks. All entries from 1958 until the end of 2011 were considered. This review is addressed to scientists working in the metabolomics field such as chemists, botanists, etc., the spectroscopic data reported make this work a good tool for structural elucidation, the biological section gives useful information to those who wish to study the structure activity relationships. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Deep sequencing of amplicons reveals widespread intraspecific hybridization and multiple origins of polyploidy in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce A. Richardson; Justin T. Page; Prabin Bajgain; Stewart C. Sanderson; Joshua A. Udall

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Hybridization has played an important role in the evolution and ecological adaptation of diploid and polyploid plants. Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) tetraploids are extremely widespread and of great ecological importance. These tetraploids are often taxonomically identified as A. tridentata subsp. wyomingensis or as autotetraploids of diploid...

  5. Evolution and Expression Patterns of CYC/TB1 Genes in Anacyclus: Phylogenetic Insights for Floral Symmetry Genes in Asteraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, María A.; Cubas, Pilar; Álvarez, Inés; Sanjuanbenito, Guillermo; Fuertes-Aguilar, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Homologs of the CYC/TB1 gene family have been independently recruited many times across the eudicots to control aspects of floral symmetry The family Asteraceae exhibits the largest known diversification in this gene paralog family accompanied by a parallel morphological floral richness in its specialized head-like inflorescence. In Asteraceae, whether or not CYC/TB1 gene floral symmetry function is preserved along organismic and gene lineages is unknown. In this study, we used phylogenetic, structural and expression analyses focused on the highly derived genus Anacyclus (tribe Anthemidae) to address this question. Phylogenetic reconstruction recovered eight main gene lineages present in Asteraceae: two from CYC1, four from CYC2 and two from CYC3-like genes. The species phylogeny was recovered in most of the gene lineages, allowing the delimitation of orthologous sets of CYC/TB1 genes in Asteraceae. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that in Anacyclus three of the four isolated CYC2 genes are more highly expressed in ray flowers. The expression of the four AcCYC2 genes overlaps in several organs including the ligule of ray flowers, as well as in anthers and ovules throughout development. PMID:28487706

  6. The application of multiplex fluorimetric sensor for the analysis of flavonoids content in the medicinal herbs family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytar, Oksana; Bruckova, Klaudia; Hunkova, Elena; Zivcak, Marek; Konate, Kiessoun; Brestic, Marian

    2015-01-16

    The aim of our research work was to quantify total flavonoid contents in the leaves of 13 plant species family Asteraceae, 8 representatives of family Lamiaceae and 9 plant species belonging to family Rosaceae, using the multiplex fluorimetric sensor. Fluorescence was measured using optical fluorescence apparatus Multiplex(R) 3 (Force-A, France) for non-destructive flavonoids estimation. The content of total flavonoids was estimated by FLAV index (expressed in relative units), that is deduced from flavonoids UV absorbing properties. Among observed plant species, the highest amount of total flavonoids has been found in leaves of Helianthus multiflorus (1.65 RU) and Echinops ritro (1.27 RU), Rudbeckia fulgida (1.13 RU) belonging to the family Asteraceae. Lowest flavonoid content has been observed in the leaves of marigold (Calendula officinalis) (0.14 RU) also belonging to family Asteraceae. The highest content of flavonoids among experimental plants of family Rosaceae has been estimated in the leaves of Rosa canina (1.18 RU) and among plant species of family Lamiaceae in the leaves of Coleus blumei (0.90 RU). This research work was done as pre-screening of flavonoids content in the leaves of plant species belonging to family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae. Results indicated that statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) in flavonoids content were observed not only between families, but also among individual plant species within one family.

  7. Podospermic acid, 1,3,5-tri-O-(7,8-dihydrocaffeoyl) quinic acid from Podospermum laciniatum (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zidorn, Christian; Petersen, Bent O.; Udovicic ́, Vedrana

    2005-01-01

    A phytochemical investigation of Podospermum laciniatum (L.) DC. (Asteraceae) yielded the new quinic acid derivative podospermic acid (1,3,5-tridihydrocaffeoylquinic acid), which was named after the genus it was isolated from. The structure was established by HR mass spectrometry and extensive 1D...

  8. Ribosomal DNA, heterochromatin, and correlation with genome size in diploid and polyploid North American endemic sagebrushes (Artemisia, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia Garcia; Teresa Garnatje; Jaume Pellicer; E. Durant McArthur; Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev; Joan Valles

    2009-01-01

    Subgenus Tridentatae (Artemisia, Asteraceae) can be considered a polyploid complex. Both polyploidy and hybridization have been documented in the Tridentatae. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and fluorochrome banding were used to detect and analyze ribosomal DNA changes linked to polyploidization in this group by studying four diploidpolyploid species pairs. In...

  9. Morfoanatomia, tricomas glandulares e fitoquímica de Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker (ASTERACEAE - EUPATORIEAE) - uma planta endêmica do Cerrado de Goiás

    OpenAIRE

    Trindade, Luma Mota Palmeira

    2013-01-01

    Morfoanatomia, tricomas glandulares e fitoquímica de Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker (Asteraceae - Eupatorieae) – Uma planta endêmica do cerrado de Goiás - A família Asteraceae é amplamente distribuída, possuindo 24.000 espécies e 1.600 a 1700 gêneros, constituindo uma das maiores famílias de fanerógamas. No Cerrado, dentre as fanerógamas, é a segunda maior família em quantidade de espécies. Dentre as inúmeras espécies de Asteraceae está presente Lomatozona artemisiifolia Baker, pertence à tr...

  10. Pollen morphology of the genus Eremanthus Less. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae Morfologia polínica de espécies do gênero Eremanthus Less. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BenoÎt Loeuille

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the significance of the pollen morphology for generic and infrageneric taxonomy of the genus Eremanthus (Vernonieae, Asteraceae, and to provide additional data for its phylogenetic reconstruction, the pollen of 20 of the 23 species of the genus was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Acetolysed pollen grains were measured, described, and illustrated using light microscopy, while non-acetolysed pollen grains were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Pollen grains of these species are isopolar, oblate-spheroidal in most of the species, more rarely prolate spheroidal or suboblate, subtriangular amb, tricolporate and subechinolophate. The variation among quantitative characters does not correlate with the macromorphological subdivision of the genus or with the generic or specific limits.Com a finalidade de avaliar a importância da morfologia polínica para a taxonomia de Eremanthus (Vernonieae, Asteraceae em nível genérico e infragenérico e fornecer dados adicionais para a sua reconstrução filogenética, os grãos de pólen de 20 das 23 espécies do gênero foram examinados usando a microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscópio de luz. Para a análise em microscópio eletrônico de varredura foram utilizados grãos de pólen com e/ou sem tratamento químico. As espécies apresentaram grãos de pólen isopolares, oblato-esferoidais, na maioria dos táxons, mais raramente prolato-esferoidais ou suboblatos, âmbito subtriangular, tricolporados e subechinolofados. A variação entre os caracteres quantitativos não se correlacionam com a subdivisão macromorfológica do gênero nem com os limites genéricos ou específicos.

  11. A Comparison of the First Two Sequenced Chloroplast Genomes in Asteraceae: Lettuce and Sunflower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timme, Ruth E.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2006-01-20

    Asteraceae is the second largest family of plants, with over 20,000 species. For the past few decades, numerous phylogenetic studies have contributed to our understanding of the evolutionary relationships within this family, including comparisons of the fast evolving chloroplast gene, ndhF, rbcL, as well as non-coding DNA from the trnL intron plus the trnLtrnF intergenic spacer, matK, and, with lesser resolution, psbA-trnH. This culminated in a study by Panero and Funk in 2002 that used over 13,000 bp per taxon for the largest taxonomic revision of Asteraceae in over a hundred years. Still, some uncertainties remain, and it would be very useful to have more information on the relative rates of sequence evolution among various genes and on genome structure as a potential set of phylogenetic characters to help guide future phylogenetic structures. By way of contributing to this, we report the first two complete chloroplast genome sequences from members of the Asteraceae, those of Helianthus annuus and Lactuca sativa. These plants belong to two distantly related subfamilies, Asteroideae and Cichorioideae, respectively. In addition to these, there is only one other published chloroplast genome sequence for any plant within the larger group called Eusterids II, that of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae, 156,318 bps, AY582139). Early chloroplast genome mapping studies demonstrated that H. annuus and L. sativa share a 22 kb inversion relative to members of the subfamily Barnadesioideae. By comparison to outgroups, this inversion was shown to be derived, indicating that the Asteroideae and Cichorioideae are more closely related than either is to the Barnadesioideae. Later sequencing study found that taxa that share this 22 kb inversion also contain within this region a second, smaller, 3.3 kb inversion. These sequences also enable an analysis of patterns of shared repeats in the genomes at fine level and of RNA editing by comparison to available EST sequences. In addition, since

  12. Clave interactiva para los géneros de la familia Asteraceae (Compositae presentes en la reserva municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Gómez

    2005-01-01

    Asteraceae presentes en la reserva, utilizando solamente los caracteres de tipo vegetativo, con escaso uso de los caracteres de inflorescencia, y nulo requerimiento de caracteres florales. Esto es un resultado asombroso y no esperado para la familia Asteraceae, cuyas claves tradicionales requieren, desde el comienzo caracteres reproductivos. Es posible apreciar así la alta efectividad de la clave y la gran utilidad del programa DELTA.

  13. Lactonas sesquiterpénicas de las plantas Viguiera sylvatica y Decachaeta thieleana (Asteraceae modulan la producción de óxido nítrico y la fagocitosis de macrófagos RAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A Dupuy L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas de la familia Asteraceae son una fuente potencial de lactonas sesquiterpénicas con propiedades antiinflamatorias. Los macrófagos son células que desempeñan una función central en la regulación de la respuesta inmune. Este estudio evaluó el efecto in vitro de dos lactonas sesquiterpénicas, un millerenólido y thieleanina, sobre la producción de óxido nítrico (NO en una línea celular de macrófagos de ratón (RAW, utilizando el reactivo de Griess. Además, se estudió el efecto sobre la capacidad fagocítica de RAW, evaluando al microscopio la fagocitosis de partículas inertes de látex y la reducción de nitroazul de tetrazolio (NBT. Se observó que los macrófagos tratados con lactona sesquiterpénica (>2.5 µg/ml disminuyeron la producción de NO. Además, se observó una disminución de la cantidad de macrófagos capaces de reducir NBT, después que fueron tratados con millerenólido (3 µg/ml o thieleanina (7.5 µg/ ml. Por otro lado, la exposición a 4 µg/ml de millerenólido ó 7.5 µg/ml de thieleanina redujo la cantidad promedio de partículas de látex fagocitadas. No se observaron diferencias entre tratamientos y control en cuanto al porcentaje de células fagocíticas. Sólo se observaron efectos citotóxicos sobre los macrófagos, cuando la concentración de millerenólido se incrementó a 8 µg/ml o la de thieleanina se aumentó a 25 µg/ml. Estos resultados sugieren que el millerenólido y la thieleanina podrían ser compuestos útiles en la elaboración de drogas antiinflamatorias.Sesquiterpene lactones of the plants Viguiera sylvatica and Decachaeta thieleana (Asteraceae modulate nitric oxide production and phagocytosis of macrophages cell line RAW. Different species of the Asteraceae family are a potential source of sesquiterpene lactones with anti-inflammatory properties. Macrophages play a central role in the regulation of immune responses. In the present study, the in vitro effect of two sesquiterpene

  14. A new genus and species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of gall midge, Haplopappusmyia gregaria, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, and female. This species induces apical galls on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae, an endemic shrub from central Chile. The specimens were collected at La Ligua Municipality, Petorca Province, Valparaiso region, Chile, during spring of 2011–2014. This area corresponds to one of the fifth Mediterranean Matorral biome, considered among Earth's biodiversity hotspots. The new genus is characterized by presenting lateral margin of antennal scape with a mesal reentrance; four-segmented palpus, one-toothed tarsal claws, R5 straight, reaching C anterior to wing apex; male seventh and eighth tergites lacking sclerotization mesally, beyond proximal margin; presence of trichoid sensilla on the abdominal terga and sterna of both sexes, protrusible ovipositor with elongate fused cerci, and larva with 4 pairs of setose terminal papillae. Keywords: Gall midge, Morphology, Neotropical, Taxonomy

  15. A new genus and species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new genus and species of gall midge, Haplopappusmyia gregaria, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, and female. This species induces apical galls on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae, an endemic shrub from central Chile. The specimens were collected at La Ligua Municipality, Petorca Province, Valparaiso region, Chile, during spring of 2011-2014. This area corresponds to one of the fifth Mediterranean Matorral biome, considered among Earth's biodiversity hotspots. The new genus is characterized by presenting lateral margin of antennal scape with a mesal reentrance; four-segmented palpus, one-toothed tarsal claws, R5 straight, reaching C anterior to wing apex; male seventh and eighth tergites lacking sclerotization mesally, beyond proximal margin; presence of trichoid sensilla on the abdominal terga and sterna of both sexes, protrusible ovipositor with elongate fused cerci, and larva with 4 pairs of setose terminal papillae.

  16. A taxonomic revision of the genus lactuca L. (cicihorieae- asteraceae) from Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiser, M.; Bano, R.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Lactuca L. of the tribe Cichorieae-Asteraceae is taxonomically revised from Pakistan and Kashmir. The revision is based on study of large number of herbarium specimens. In few cases plants have also been studied in their natural habitat. A total of 13 species are recognized from Pakistan and Kashmir including 1 new species i.e. Lactuca erostrata Roohi Bano and Qaiser. A new combination Lactuca orientalis subsp. nuristanica (Podlech) Roohi Bano and Qaiser is also proposed. All the taxa valid or synonyms have been typified with the help of type specimens and literature. Key to the species along with detailed morphological description and ecological notes of each taxon are also given. (author)

  17. Heme-binding activity of methoxyflavones from Pentzia monodiana Maire (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Sergio; Dali-Yahia, Kamel; Vasquez-Ocmin, Pedro; Grougnet, Raphaël; Grellier, Philippe; Michel, Sylvie; Maciuk, Alexandre; Boutefnouchet, Sabrina

    2017-04-01

    A heme-binding assay based on mass spectrometry was performed on P. monodiana Maire (Asteraceae) extracts to identify metabolites able to form adducts with heminic part of haemoglobin, as potential antimalarial drugs. Main adducts were characterized and their stability was measured. Isolation of main constituents of P. monodiana Maire lead to identification of the two methoxyflavones 3'-O-methyleupatorin (7) and artemetin (8) involved in the adducts formation. Four seco-tanapartholides (1-4), a guaianolide (5), a germacranolide (6) and two other methoxyflavones (9, 10) were also characterized. Evaluation of isolated compounds on P. falciparum and T. brucei brucei showed a moderate antiprotozoal activity of the two methoxyflavones. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A new acylated flavonol from the aerial parts of Asteriscus maritimus (L.) Less (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Marwa I; Ezzat, Shahira M; El Deeb, Kadriya S; El Fishawy, Ahlam M; El-Toumy, Sayed A

    2016-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the flowering aerial parts of Asteriscus maritimus (L.) Less (Asteraceae) led to the isolation of a new compound: patuletin 7-O-β-D-[(2″'S) 6″(3″'-hydroxy-2″'-methyl-propanoyl)] glucopyranoside, together with five known metabolites; β-sitosterol 2, chlorogenic acid 3, P-hydroxy -methylbenzoate 4, luteolin 5 and protocatechuic acid 6. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by comprehensive analyses of its 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS and compared with previously known analogues. The ethanolic extract of the flowering aerial parts of A. maritimus was found to be safe (LD50 = 4.6 mg/kg) and possess significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and this was in accordance with its high phenolic content (107.36 ± 0.051 mg GAE/g extract).

  19. Microsatellite primers for a species of South African everlasting daisy (Helichrysum odoratissimum; Gnaphalieae, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, Kelsey L; Cron, Glynis V

    2016-05-01

    Microsatellites were developed for the widespread Helichrysum odoratissimum (Asteraceae) to estimate gene flow across diploid populations and to test if gene flow occurs among other closely related lineages within this genus. Ten primer pairs were developed and tested using populations across South Africa; however, only seven primer pairs were polymorphic for the target species. The seven polymorphic primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with up to 16 alleles per locus among 125 diploid individuals used for analyses. These markers can be used to estimate gene flow among populations of known ploidy level of H. odoratissimum to test evolutionary hypotheses. Furthermore, these markers amplify successfully in other Helichrysum species, including the other three taxonomic Group 4 species, and therefore can be used to inform taxonomic work on these species.

  20. Microsatellite primers for a species of South African everlasting daisy (Helichrysum odoratissimum; Gnaphalieae, Asteraceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, Kelsey L.; Cron, Glynis V.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellites were developed for the widespread Helichrysum odoratissimum (Asteraceae) to estimate gene flow across diploid populations and to test if gene flow occurs among other closely related lineages within this genus. Methods and Results: Ten primer pairs were developed and tested using populations across South Africa; however, only seven primer pairs were polymorphic for the target species. The seven polymorphic primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with up to 16 alleles per locus among 125 diploid individuals used for analyses. Conclusions: These markers can be used to estimate gene flow among populations of known ploidy level of H. odoratissimum to test evolutionary hypotheses. Furthermore, these markers amplify successfully in other Helichrysum species, including the other three taxonomic Group 4 species, and therefore can be used to inform taxonomic work on these species. PMID:27213125

  1. Synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae), including a new species from northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael O; Luebert, Federico

    2014-01-01

    A synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae) is presented, including the description of a new species, Plazia robinsonii M.O.Dillon & Sagást., from a locality c. 20 kms west of Huamachuco, Department of La Libertad in northern Peru. It most closely resembles Plazia conferta Ruiz & Pav., a narrow endemic from central Peru some 450 km to the south; however, the latter species has larger leaves and smaller capitula. Plazia is a small genus of four species confined to the Andean Cordillera of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. A distribution map of the four species, an illustration of the new species, a photograph of the holotype, and a key to species are provided.

  2. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ak; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC-MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin.

  3. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the Asteraceae halophyte Karelinia caspica under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Liao, Maoseng; Chang, Dan; Zhang, Fuchun

    2014-12-17

    Much attention has been given to the potential of halophytes as sources of tolerance traits for introduction into cereals. However, a great deal remains unknown about the diverse mechanisms employed by halophytes to cope with salinity. To characterize salt tolerance mechanisms underlying Karelinia caspica, an Asteraceae halophyte, we performed Large-scale transcriptomic analysis using a high-throughput Illumina sequencing platform. Comparative gene expression analysis was performed to correlate the effects of salt stress and ABA regulation at the molecular level. Total sequence reads generated by pyrosequencing were assembled into 287,185 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 652 bp. Using the BLAST function in the Swiss-Prot, NCBI nr, GO, KEGG, and KOG databases, a total of 216,416 coding sequences associated with known proteins were annotated. Among these, 35,533 unigenes were classified into 69 gene ontology categories, and 18,378 unigenes were classified into 202 known pathways. Based on the fold changes observed when comparing the salt stress and control samples, 60,127 unigenes were differentially expressed, with 38,122 and 22,005 up- and down-regulated, respectively. Several of the differentially expressed genes are known to be involved in the signaling pathway of the plant hormone ABA, including ABA metabolism, transport, and sensing as well as the ABA signaling cascade. Transcriptome profiling of K. caspica contribute to a comprehensive understanding of K. caspica at the molecular level. Moreover, the global survey of differentially expressed genes in this species under salt stress and analyses of the effects of salt stress and ABA regulation will contribute to the identification and characterization of genes and molecular mechanisms underlying salt stress responses in Asteraceae plants.

  4. Capitate glandular trichomes in Aldama discolor (Heliantheae - Asteraceae): morphology, metabolite profile and sesquiterpene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombo, A B; Appezzato-da-Glória, B; Aschenbrenner, A-K; Spring, O

    2016-05-01

    The capitate glandular trichome is the most common type described in Asteraceae species. It is known for its ability to produce various plant metabolites of ecological and economic importance, among which sesquiterpene lactones are predominant. In this paper, we applied microscopy, phytochemical and molecular genetics techniques to characterise the capitate glandular trichome in Aldama discolor, a native Brazilian species of Asteraceae, with pharmacological potential. It was found that formation of trichomes on leaf primordia of germinating seeds starts between 24 h and 48 h after radicle growth indicates germination. The start of metabolic activity of trichomes was indicated by separation of the cuticle from the cell wall of secretory cells at the trichome tip after 72 h. This coincided with the accumulation of budlein A, the major sesquiterpene lactone of A. discolor capitate glandular trichomes, in extracts of leaf primordia after 96 h. In the same timeframe of 72-96 h post-germination, gene expression studies showed up-regulation of the putative germacrene A synthase (pGAS2) and putative germacrene A oxidase (pGAO) of A. discolor in the transcriptome of these samples, indicating the start of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Sequencing of the two genes revealed high similarity to HaGAS and HaGAO from sunflower, which shows that key steps of this pathway are highly conserved. The processes of trichome differentiation, metabolic activity and genetic regulation in A. discolor and in sunflower appear to be typical for other species of the subtribe Helianthinae. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Sex-mediated herbivory by galling insects on Baccharis concinna (Asteraceae Herbivoria por insetos galhadores mediada pelo sexo em Baccharis concinna (Asteraceae

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    Marco Antonio A. Carneiro

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction patterns between the dioecious shrub Baccharis concinna Barroso (Asteraceae and its speciose galling insect community were studied in southeastern Brazil. Two hypotheses were tested in this study: "the differential reproduction and growth hypothesis" that predicts that male plants present fewer reproductive structures and are larger than female plants; and the 'sex-biased herbivory hypothesis' that predicts that male plants support a larger abundance of insect galls than female plants. Plants did not show sexual dimorphism in growth (= mean leaf number. However, male plants had longer shoots and a lower average number of inflorescences than female plants. These results corroborate the hypothesis that male plants grow more and reproduce less than female plants. No statistically significant difference was found in the number of galls between male and female plants, but a sex by environmental effect on gall number was detected. When each species of galling insect was individually analyzed per population of the host plant, the rates of attack varied between sex and population of the host plant, and they were highly variable among the species of galling insects. These results highlight the importance of the interaction between sex and environment in the community structure of galling insects and indicate that other variables besides host sex may influence the patterns of attack by galling herbivores.Os padrões de interação entre o arbusto dióico Baccharis concinna Barroso (Asteraceae e sua diversa comunidade de insetos galhadores foram estudados na região sudeste do Brasil. Duas hipóteses foram testadas neste estudo: "a hipótese do crescimento e reprodução diferenciais", que prevê que plantas masculinas apresentam menos estruturas reprodutivas e são maiores do que plantas femininas; e a "hipótese da herbivoria mediada pelo sexo" que prevê que plantas masculinas sustentam uma maior abundância de insetos galhadores do que

  6. Anatomia e histoquímica dos órgãos vegetativos de Siegesbeckia orientalis (Asteraceae Anatomy and histochemistry of the vegetative organs of Siegesbeckia orientalis (Asteraceae

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    D.B. Aguilera

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se a anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de S. orientalis, em estrutura primária, enfatizando a caracterização e histoquímica de suas estruturas secretoras. Folhas, caules e raízes foram fixados em FAA50 e em sulfato ferroso e estocados em etanol 70%. Cortes transversais e longitudinais foram submetidos ao azul-de-toluidina pH 4,0, ao vermelho-de-rutênio, à reação de PAS, ao reativo Xylidine Ponceau, ao Sudan Black B e ao reativo Dragendorff. Anatomicamente, os órgãos vegetativos de S. orientalis são semelhantes aos caracteres descritos para Asteraceae. As raízes laterais são triarcas e o caule, um eustelo. Ductos estão ausentes na raiz e presentes no caule e na folha. Estas estruturas são de pequeno diâmetro, sendo delimitadas por quatro a cinco células epiteliais. No caule, os ductos estavam presentes no córtex, próximos à endoderme e na medula; nas folhas, associados aos feixes vasculares, tanto para o lado do xilema quanto para o do floema. As folhas são dorsiventrais e anfiestomáticas. Três tipos de estruturas secretoras foram observados: ductos, hidatódios e tricomas glandulares. Os testes histoquímicos aplicados demonstraram a presença de compostos fenólicos e alcalóides nos ductos e, nos tricomas, de compostos lipofílicos e fenólicos. Esses resultados indicam a complexidade da secreção produzida pelas estruturas secretoras na espécie.The anatomy of the vegetative organs of S. orientalis in primary structure was described, emphasizing the characterization and histochemistry of its secretory structures. Leaves, stems and roots were fixed in FAA50 and ferrous sulphate and stored in 70% ethanol. Cross and longitudinal sections were submitted to toluidine blue pH 4.0, ruthenium red, PAS reaction, Ponceau Xylidine reactive, Sudan Black B and Dragendorff reactive. Anatomically, S. orientalis vegetative organs are similar to the characters described for the Asteraceae. The lateral roots are triarches and

  7. Discovery of germacrene A synthases in Barnadesia spinosa: The first committed step in sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in the basal member of the Asteraceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Faraldos, Juan A.; Vardakou, Maria; Salmon, Melissa; O'Maille, Paul E.; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    The Andes-endemic Barnadesioideae lineage is the oldest surviving and phylogenetically basal subfamily of the Asteraceae (Compositae), a prolific group of flowering plants with world-wide distribution (∼24,000 species) marked by a rich diversity of sesquiterpene lactones (STLs). Intriguingly, there is no evidence that members of the Barnadesioideae produce STLs, specialized metabolites thought to have contributed to the adaptive success of the Asteraceae family outside South America. The biosynthesis of STLs requires the intimate expression and functional integration of germacrene A synthase (GAS) and germacrene A oxidase (GAO) to sequentially cyclize and oxidize farnesyl diphosphate into the advanced intermediate germacrene A acid leading to diverse STLs. Our previous discovery of GAO activity conserved across all major subfamilies of Asteraceae, including the phylogenetically basal lineage of Barnadesioideae, prompted further investigation of the presence of the gateway GAS in Barnadesioideae. Herein we isolated two terpene synthases (BsGAS1/BsGAS2) from the basal Barnadesia spinosa (Barnadesioideae) that displayed robust GAS activity when reconstituted in yeast and characterized in vitro. Despite the apparent lack of STLs in the Barnadesioideae, this work unambiguously confirms the presence of GAS in the basal genera of the Asteraceae. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the two BsGASs fall into two distinct clades of the Asteraceae's GASs, and BsGAS1 clade is only retained in the evolutionary closer Cichorioideae subfamily, implicating BsGAS2 is likely the ancestral base of most GASs found in the lineages outside the Barnadesioideae. Taken together, these results show the enzymatic capacities of GAS and GAO emerged prior to the subsequent radiation of STL-producing Asteraceae subfamilies. - Highlights: • Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites in Asteraceae family. • Barnadesioideae is the basal lineage of all Asteraceae plants

  8. WOOD ANATOMY OF TWO SPECIES OF THE GENUS Heterothalamus Lessing (ASTERACEAE FROM RIO GRANDE DO SUL (BRAZIL

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    Anabela Silveira de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the wood anatomy of Heterothalamus alienus and Heterothalamus rupestris (Astereae - Asteraceae, as part of the secondary xylem study in the named genus. For the two species it was recorded some features usually mentioned in the literature for the Asteraceae, as typically small vessels, grouped in a dendritic pattern, the presence of only simple perforation plates and of paratracheal parenchyma. Heterothalamus alienus shows spiral thickenings in the wood vessels and storied vasicentric axial parenchyma. Heterothalamus rupestris differs itself by the absence of spiral thickenings in wood vessels and by no storied axial parenchyma, in paratracheal vasicentric to unilateral patterns. Photomicrographs, quantitative data of anatomical features and a comparison between the two  species of wood are also provided.

  9. Novel anthraquinone derivatives produced by Phoma sorghina, an endophyte found in association with the medicinal plant Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Warley de Souza; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico

    2006-01-01

    Three known anthraquinones (1,7-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone, 1,6-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone), one new anthraquinone (1,7-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone), and two new hexahydroanthraquinone derivatives, dendryols E and F, were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Phoma sorghina, found in association with Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic da...

  10. Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabrera (Asteraceae) changes in leaf structure due to differences in light and edaphic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rossatto,Davi Rodrigo; Kolb,Rosana Marta

    2010-01-01

    Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) Cabrera is a widespread Asteraceae species found in different physiognomies of cerrado (Neotropical savanna) and in forest formations of southeast Brazil. This study describes some leaf anatomy characteristics of this species and quantitatively evaluates them in relation to different environments, as well as under different light conditions. We found quantitative differences in all anatomical parameters analyzed. The results demonstrate that high leaf anatomy plas...

  11. Multiple Polyploidization Events across Asteraceae with Two Nested Events in the Early History Revealed by Nuclear Phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Zhang, Caifei; Liu, Mian; Hu, Yi; Gao, Tiangang; Qi, Ji; Ma, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Biodiversity results from multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic variation and natural selection. Whole-genome duplications (WGDs), or polyploidizations, provide opportunities for large-scale genetic modifications. Many evolutionarily successful lineages, including angiosperms and vertebrates, are ancient polyploids, suggesting that WGDs are a driving force in evolution. However, this hypothesis is challenged by the observed lower speciation and higher extinction rates of recently formed polyploids than diploids. Asteraceae includes about 10% of angiosperm species, is thus undoubtedly one of the most successful lineages and paleopolyploidization was suggested early in this family using a small number of datasets. Here, we used genes from 64 new transcriptome datasets and others to reconstruct a robust Asteraceae phylogeny, covering 73 species from 18 tribes in six subfamilies. We estimated their divergence times and further identified multiple potential ancient WGDs within several tribes and shared by the Heliantheae alliance, core Asteraceae (Asteroideae-Mutisioideae), and also with the sister family Calyceraceae. For two of the WGD events, there were subsequent great increases in biodiversity; the older one proceeded the divergence of at least 10 subfamilies within 10 My, with great variation in morphology and physiology, whereas the other was followed by extremely high species richness in the Heliantheae alliance clade. Our results provide different evidence for several WGDs in Asteraceae and reveal distinct association among WGD events, dramatic changes in environment and species radiations, providing a possible scenario for polyploids to overcome the disadvantages of WGDs and to evolve into lineages with high biodiversity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Development of novel low-copy nuclear markers for Hieraciinae (Asteraceae) and their perspective for other tribes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krak, Karol; Álvarez, I.; Caklová, Petra; Costa, A.; Chrtek, Jindřich; Fehrer, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 2 (2012), s. 74-77 ISSN 0002-9122 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1363; GA ČR GA206/05/0657 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Asteraceae * Hieraciinae * low-copy nuclear markers Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.586, year: 2012

  13. Rapid Identification of Asteraceae Plants with Improved RBF-ANN Classification Models Based on MOS Sensor E-Nose

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    Hui-Qin Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants from Asteraceae family are widely used as herbal medicines and food ingredients, especially in Asian area. Therefore, authentication and quality control of these different Asteraceae plants are important for ensuring consumers’ safety and efficacy. In recent decades, electronic nose (E-nose has been studied as an alternative approach. In this paper, we aim to develop a novel discriminative model by improving radial basis function artificial neural network (RBF-ANN classification model. Feature selection algorithms, including principal component analysis (PCA and BestFirst + CfsSubsetEval (BC, were applied in the improvement of RBF-ANN models. Results illustrate that in the improved RBF-ANN models with lower dimension data classification accuracies (100% remained the same as in the original model with higher-dimension data. It is the first time to introduce feature selection methods to get valuable information on how to attribute more relevant MOS sensors; namely, in this case, S1, S3, S4, S6, and S7 show better capability to distinguish these Asteraceae plants. This paper also gives insights to further research in this area, for instance, sensor array optimization and performance improvement of classification model.

  14. Hydrolase and fructosyltransferase activities implicated in the accumulation of different chain size fructans in three Asteraceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaya, Nair M; Asega, Amanda F; Carvalho, Maria Angela M; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L

    2007-09-01

    Fructans are widely distributed in Asteraceae from floras with seasonal growth and are thought to be involved in drought and freezing tolerance, in addition to storage function. Reserve organs of Vernonia herbacea and Viguiera discolor, from the cerrado, and of the perennial herb Smallanthus sonchifolius, endemic to Andean region, store over 80% inulin, with different DP (35, 150, and 15, respectively). The fructan pattern in Asteraceae species could be explained by characteristics of their respective 1-FFTs. Hydrolases and fructosyltransferases from S. sonchifolius, V. herbacea and V. discolor were analyzed in plants at the same environmental conditions. The higher 1-FEH activities found in the species with lower DP, S. sonchifolius and V. herbacea reinforce the hypothesis of the involvement of 1-FEH in fructan profile and suggest that the high DP fructan of V. discolor is a consequence of the low affinity of its 1-FEH to the native long chain inulin. Long term incubation with sucrose suggested that the affinity of 1-FFT of V. discolor for 1-kestose is low when compared to that of V. herbacea. Indeed 1-FFT from V. discolor was shown to be an hDP 1-FFT, preferring longer inulins as acceptors. Conversely, 1-FFT from V. herbacea seems to have a higher affinity for short fructo-oligosaccharides, including 1-kestose, as acceptor substrates. Differences in fructan enzymes of the three Asteraceae provide new information towards the understanding of fructan metabolism and control of carbon flow between low and high DP fructans.

  15. Parasitoid Wasps in Flower Heads of Asteraceae in the Brazilian Cerrado: Taxonomical Composition and Determinants of Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, A R; Almeida-Neto, M; Almeida, A M; Fonseca, C R; Lewinsohn, T M; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2014-08-01

    This study provides the first survey of the parasitoid fauna reared in flower heads of Asteraceae in the Brazilian cerrado. We investigated the relative importance of herbivore richness and plant species commonness to differences in parasitoid species richness among the plant species. A total of 15,372 specimens from 192 morphospecies belonging to 103 genera of Hymenoptera were reared from the flower heads of 74 Asteraceae species. Chalcidoidea and Ichneumonoidea were the most common superfamilies, with Eulophidae and Braconidae as the main families of parasitoid wasps. Singletons and doubletons accounted for 45% of total parasitoid species richness. The number of parasitoid species per plant species ranged from 1 to 67, and the variation in parasitoid species richness among plants was mainly explained by the number of sites in which the plants were recorded. This study shows that there is a highly diversified fauna of Hymenoptera parasitoids associated with flower heads of Asteraceae in the Brazilian cerrado. Our findings suggest that the accumulation of parasitoid species on plants is mainly determined by the regional commonness of plant species rather than the number of herbivore species associated with the plants.

  16. Evolutionary Co-Option of Floral Meristem Identity Genes for Patterning of the Flower-Like Asteraceae Inflorescence1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broholm, Suvi K.; Tähtiharju, Sari

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary success of Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants, has been attributed to the unique inflorescence architecture of the family, which superficially resembles an individual flower. Here, we show that Asteraceae inflorescences (flower heads, or capitula) resemble solitary flowers not only morphologically but also at the molecular level. By conducting functional analyses for orthologs of the flower meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY) and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) in Gerbera hybrida, we show that GhUFO is the master regulator of flower meristem identity, while GhLFY has evolved a novel, homeotic function during the evolution of head-like inflorescences. Resembling LFY expression in a single flower meristem, uniform expression of GhLFY in the inflorescence meristem defines the capitulum as a determinate structure that can assume floral fate upon ectopic GhUFO expression. We also show that GhLFY uniquely regulates the ontogeny of outer, expanded ray flowers but not inner, compact disc flowers, indicating that the distinction of different flower types in Asteraceae is connected with their independent evolutionary origins from separate branching systems. PMID:27382139

  17. Evolutionary Co-Option of Floral Meristem Identity Genes for Patterning of the Flower-Like Asteraceae Inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yafei; Zhang, Teng; Broholm, Suvi K; Tähtiharju, Sari; Mouhu, Katriina; Albert, Victor A; Teeri, Teemu H; Elomaa, Paula

    2016-09-01

    The evolutionary success of Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants, has been attributed to the unique inflorescence architecture of the family, which superficially resembles an individual flower. Here, we show that Asteraceae inflorescences (flower heads, or capitula) resemble solitary flowers not only morphologically but also at the molecular level. By conducting functional analyses for orthologs of the flower meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY) and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) in Gerbera hybrida, we show that GhUFO is the master regulator of flower meristem identity, while GhLFY has evolved a novel, homeotic function during the evolution of head-like inflorescences. Resembling LFY expression in a single flower meristem, uniform expression of GhLFY in the inflorescence meristem defines the capitulum as a determinate structure that can assume floral fate upon ectopic GhUFO expression. We also show that GhLFY uniquely regulates the ontogeny of outer, expanded ray flowers but not inner, compact disc flowers, indicating that the distinction of different flower types in Asteraceae is connected with their independent evolutionary origins from separate branching systems. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological Activities of Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Risco, Mónica R; Mouhid, Lamia; Salas-Pérez, Lilia; López-Padilla, Alexis; Santoyo, Susana; Jaime, Laura; Ramírez de Molina, Ana; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2017-03-01

    Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) extracts were obtained by applying two sequential extraction processes: supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, followed by ultrasonic assisted extraction using green solvents (ethanol and ethanol:water 50:50). The extracts were analyzed in terms of the total content of phenolic compounds and the content of flavonoids; the volatile oil composition of supercritical extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography and the antioxidant capacity and cell toxicity was determined. Lamiaceae plant extracts presented higher content of phenolics (and flavonoids) than Asteraceae extracts. Regardless of the species studied, the supercritical extracts presented the lowest antioxidant activity and the ethanol:water extracts offered the largest, following the order Origanum majorana > Melissa officinalis ≈ Achillea millefolium > Calendula officinalis. However, concerning the effect on cell toxicity, Asteraceae (especially Achillea millefolium) supercritical extracts were significantly more efficient despite being the less active as an antioxidant agent. These results indicate that the effect on cell viability is not related to the antioxidant activity of the extracts.

  19. Is it possible to rapidly and noninvasively identify different plants from Asteraceae using electronic nose with multiple mathematical algorithms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Qin Zou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many plants originating from the Asteraceae family are applied as herbal medicines and also beverage ingredients in Asian areas, particularly in China. However, they may be confused due to their similar odor, especially when ground into powder, losing their typical macroscopic characteristics. In this paper, 11 different multiple mathematical algorithms, which are commonly used in data processing, were utilized and compared to analyze the electronic nose (E-nose response signals of different plants from Asteraceae family. Results demonstrate that three-dimensional plot scatter figure of principal component analysis with less extracted components could offer the identification results more visually; simultaneously, all nine kinds of artificial neural network could give classification accuracies at 100%. This paper presents a rapid, accurate, and effective method to distinguish Asteraceae plants based on their response signals in E-nose. It also gives insights to further studies, such as to find unique sensors that are more sensitive and exclusive to volatile components in Chinese herbal medicines and to improve the identification ability of E-nose. Screening sensors made by other novel materials would be also an interesting way to improve identification capability of E-nose.

  20. Historia de una histeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Una versión ecuatoriana de la novela "La guerra de los mundos" de H. G. Wells, en audición radiofónica de Radio Quito, en 1949, inauguró formalmente en el Ecuador la historia de las histerias colectivas. En este breve texto, el autor hace una reflexión sobre este fenómeno de masas.

  1. Anatomy of the underground system in Vernonia grandiflora Less. and V. brevifolia Less. (Asteraceae

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    Adriana Hissae Hayashi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This work dealt with the anatomy of the underground system in Vernonia grandiflora Less. and V. brevifolia Less. (Vernonieae; Asteraceae, two perennial geophytes, to elucidate their ability to sprout in the Brazilian Cerrado conditions. V. grandiflora, a subshrubby species, possessed a thickened underground system constituted by a xylopodium and many tuberous roots. The xylopodium had stem and root structure and its buds were axillary or originated from the cortical parenchyma proliferation. The tuberous roots produced by this organ were adventitious and accumulated inulin-type fructans mainly in the cortical parenchyma. The thickened underground system of V. brevifolia, an herbaceous species, was a tuberous primary root whose buds originated from the proliferated pericycle. The occurrence of these bud-forming underground systems, which stored reserve compounds, enabled these plants to survive throughout unfavourable environmental conditions in the Cerrado, such as dry season and frequent fires in the winter.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a anatomia dos sistemas subterrâneos de Vernonia grandiflora Less. e V. brevifolia Less. (Vernonieae; Asteraceae, duas geófitas perenes, a fim de esclarecer sua capacidade para brotar em condições de Cerrado. O sistema subterrâneo espessado de V. grandiflora, uma espécie subarbustiva, é constituído pelo xilopódio e por várias raízes tuberosas. O xilopódio possui estrutura mista (radicular e caulinar e suas gemas são de origem axilar ou se originam a partir da proliferação do parênquima cortical. As raízes tuberosas produzidas por este órgão são adventícias e acumulam frutanos do tipo inulina, principalmente no parênquima cortical. Em V. brevifolia, uma espécie herbácea, o sistema subterrâneo espessado é constituído pela raiz primária cujas gemas são originadas a partir do periciclo proliferado. A ocorrência destes sistemas subterrâneos gemíferos, que armazenam compostos

  2. Comparative Anatomical Investigations on six Endemic Tanacetum (Asteraceae) Taxa from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekin, M.; Kartal, C.

    2016-01-01

    Tanacetum is one of the large genera, belonging to the Anthemideae tribe of Asteraceae family and has numerous medicinal plants and widely usage in folk medicine. In this study, anatomical features of six endemic species to Turkey viz. Tanacetum albipannosum, T. argenteum subsp. argenteum, T. cappadocicum, T. densum subsp. sivasicum, T. haussknechtii and T. heterotomum, were investigated for the first time. The specimens were collected from their natural habitats in Sivas province (Turkey). Transverse sections of root, stem, petiole and leaflet were observed under light microscope for various anatomical features. The results showed that, root included periderm in the outer. There were parenchymatous cortex, endodermis and pericycle under the periderm respectively. Primary xylem ridges were triarch in T. albipannosum, T. densum subsp. sivasicum, T. haussknechtii and T. heterotomum, pentarch in T. cappadocicum and hexarch in T. argenteum subsp. argenteum, and pith was filled with xylem elements. Stem was made up epidermis, parenchymatous cortex, endodermis, vascular bundles and parenchymatous pith from exterior to interior. T. heterotomum had a cavity formed by the disintegration of the cells in the center. The amphistomatic leaflets had a single layered epidermis with usually silvery or whitish tomentose indumentum and equifacial mesophyll. Stomata are anomocytic. There were significant difference among examined taxa in respect to contour of petiole, structure of cortex parenchyma and organization of vascular bundles. The anatomical characteristic features of petiole proved to be a useful tool for the taxonomic discrimination of the six studied taxa. (author)

  3. Phytochemical and Cytogenetic Characterization of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae) from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carev, Ivana; Ruščić, Mirko; Skočibušić, Mirjana; Maravić, Ana; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Politeo, Olivera

    2017-02-01

    The cytogenetic characterization of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae) showed a chromosome number of 2n = 16. Karyotype is composed by four pairs of metacentric, two pairs of submetacentric and two pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes. Physical mapping of two rDNA probes revealed two loci of 35S and one locus of 5S rRNA genes. Chromomycin fluorochrome banding revealed that all rDNA loci were GC rich. The genome size (2C-value) of 1.95 pg classes this species in the group of very small genomes. Chemical composition of C. solstitialis volatile oil (VO) from Croatia, studied with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed dominant components as it follows: hexadecanoic acid, α-linolenic acid, germacrene D and heptacosane. Antioxidant capacity, measured by ferric reducing power assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods, as well as inhibition of acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase of VO was lower comparing to a standard solutions. Volatile oil tested with disc diffusion method showed good inhibitory potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and all tested fungi: Candida albicans, Penicillium funiculosum and Aspergillus fumigatus. The microdilution method showed best activity against Chronobacter sakazakii and A. fumigatus. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  4. Embryology of Ageratum conyzoides L. and A. fastigiatum R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Oliveira Franca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageratum has a complex circumscription, and recent studies have indicated its polyphyletism. The genus has been placed in the tribe Eupatorieae whose embryology is not fully known. Embryological data are conservative and important indicators of phylogenetic relationships and can improve family relationships. This study presents, for the first time in Eupatorieae, embryological data for Ageratum conyzoides and A. fastigiatum. Both species have common features of the family such as a unitegmic anatropous ovule, basal placentation, secretory tapetum, Polygonum megagametophyte, and Asterad embryogenesis. The data obtained reinforce the heterogeneity of the family embryology and show, for the first time, the anther wall development of the monocotyledonous type for Asteraceae. The species studied show also differences between themselves. A. conyzoides has bisporangiated and introrse anthers, conspicuous pappus, and cypselae with trichomes on the ribs, whereas A. fastigiatum has tetrasporangiate and latrorse anthers, pappus absent at maturity, and glabrous cypselae. The data presented support recent phylogenetic molecular studies, suggesting the replacement of A. fastigiatum to another genus along with Gyptidinae.

  5. Anti-inflammatory intestinal activity of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) in TNBS colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Ana Beatriz Albino; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Martín, Antonio Ramón; Luiz-Ferreira, Anderson; Trigo, José Roberto; Vilegas, Wagner; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Souza-Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro; de la Lastra, Catalina Alarcón

    2013-03-07

    In Brazilian traditional medicine, Arctium lappa (Asteraceae), has been reported to relieve gastrointestinal symptoms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the lactone sesquiterpene onopordopicrin enriched fraction (ONP fraction) from Arctium lappa in an experimental colitis model induced by 2,4,6 trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and performed experiments to elucidate the underlying action mechanisms involved in that effect. ONP fraction (25 and 50 mg/kg/day) was orally administered 48, 24 and 1 h prior to the induction of colitis and 24 h after. The inflammatory response was assessed by gross appearance, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels and a histological study of the lesions. We determined cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 protein expressions by western blotting and immunohistochemistry assays. TNBS group was characterized by increased colonic wall thickness, edema, diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration, increased MPO activity and TNF-α levels. On the contrary, ONP fraction (25 and 50 mg/kg) treatment significantly reduced the macroscopic inflammation scores (pArctium lappa exert marked protective effects in acute experimental colitis, confirming and justifying, at least in part, the popular use of this plant to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Insecticide Activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    Lizzeth Torres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. Materials and Methods: All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Results: Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Conclusion: Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei, comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei, hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control.

  7. Isolation and structural elucidation of secondary metabolites of plants of the families asteraceae and urticaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villagra Quesada, E.

    2002-01-01

    A phytochemistry study of plant's species of the Asteraceae and Urticaceae family is proposed in order to isolate and to elucidate the structure of active principles; due to the fact that several studies have found that some of these families have compounds with anti-inflammatory activity, mainly lactonas sesquiterpenicas . The phytochemistry study was carried out through the application of chromatography techniques, for the separation and purification of the compounds. Includes chromatography of column, fine and liquid layer of high resolution. On the other hand, spectroscopic techniques were used for the elucidation, mainly of nuclear magnetic resonance (RMN) as much of one as of two dimensions. In this way, it was possible to isolate 14 compounds in Decachaeta thieleana and 10 in Phenax mexicanus, from which 6 correspond compounds of innovative structure. The comparison of the results obtained in Decachaeta thieleana (with previous studies) evidences that specimens, orphologically identical (the same species, but different locations), possess totally different compounds. This suggests that the studied specimens do not correspond to the same species. However, the determination of such a cause not only evade the objectives of this work but also the area of study of Chemistry [es

  8. Key processes for Cheirolophus (Asteraceae diversification on oceanic islands inferred from AFLP data.

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    Daniel Vitales

    Full Text Available The radiation of the genus Cheirolophus (Asteraceae in Macaronesia constitutes a spectacular case of rapid diversification on oceanic islands. Twenty species - nine of them included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species - have been described to date inhabiting the Madeiran and Canarian archipelagos. A previous phylogenetic study revealed that the diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia started less than 2 Ma. As a result of such an explosive speciation process, limited phylogenetic resolution was reported, mainly due to the low variability of the employed molecular markers. In the present study, we used highly polymorphic AFLP markers to i evaluate species' boundaries, ii infer their evolutionary relationships and iii investigate the patterns of genetic diversity in relation to the potential processes likely involved in the radiation of Cheirolophus. One hundred and seventy-two individuals representing all Macaronesian Cheirolophus species were analysed using 249 AFLP loci. Our results suggest that geographic isolation played an important role in this radiation process. This was likely driven by the combination of poor gene flow capacity and a good ability for sporadic long-distance colonisations. In addition, we also found some traces of introgression and incipient ecological adaptation, which could have further enhanced the extraordinary diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia. Last, we hypothesize that current threat categories assigned to Macaronesian Cheirolophus species do not reflect their respective evolutionary relevance, so future evaluations of their conservation status should take into account the results presented here.

  9. Aspectos de la biología reproductiva de Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae

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    Irene Caponio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El género SteviaCav. (Asteraceae presenta alrededor de 200 especies en el continente americano. Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni, originaria de Paraguay, es la única especie cultivada. Ha sido ampliamente estudiada desde el punto de vista químico, por los principios activos que poseen sus hojas. Sin embargo existe controversia respecto a su sistema reproductivo, ya que es considerada apomíctica obligada por algunos autores, mientras otros la consideran de reproducción sexual. A los efectos de clarificar esta cuestión se realizaron estudios de: megasporogénesis, megagametogénesis, fenología de la floración, viabilidad de polen y receptividad estigmática en tres ecotipos en condiciones de autopolinización y polinización cruzada. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, las plantas analizadas se reproducen sexualmente y poseen un sistema de autoincompatibilidad que impide la autofertilización.

  10. The genus Pterocaulon (Asteraceae) - A review on traditional medicinal uses, chemical constituents and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros-Neves, Bruna; Teixeira, Helder Ferreira; von Poser, Gilsane Lino

    2018-06-15

    Species of the genus Pterocaulon (Asteraceae) are used in different parts of the world for mainly to treat skin and liver diseases, as well as disorders of the respiratory system, among others. This review aims to discuss the present state of the art concerning the ethnobotanical uses, secondary metabolites and biological effects of Pterocaulon species and their chemical components. The available information on the genus Pterocaulon was gathered from scientific databases (Web of Science, Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, ChemSpider, SciFinder ACS Publications, Wiley Online Library). Information was also obtained from local publications, M.Sc. and Ph.D. dissertations. All studies on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the plants until December 2017 were included in this review. Approximately 40 coumarins and 30 flavonoids have been isolated from Pterocaulon species. Coumarins have been considered the chemotaxonomic markers in the genus and the most active components. Pharmacological studies carried out with extracts and isolated compounds revealed in vitro bioactivities that include antifungal, antiviral, and cytotoxicity. Most of the pharmacological investigations were not correlated with traditional uses of the plants. Pterocaulon species, a rich source of coumarins, have great ethnomedical potential. Nevertheless, further studies into the pharmacological activities are necessary since none of the purported effects of these plants was fully assessed. In-depth research regarding the toxicity are also required to ensure the safety of these medicinal plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Morpho-anatomy and ontogeny of the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less. Dematt. (Asteraceae

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    Vanessa S. Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of thickened underground systems in Asteraceae is widely reported in the literature. Given the great complexity of underground systems, which may originate from roots, stems, or both, morpho-anatomical analyses are essential to ensure the use of correct terminology. The goals of this study were to describe the morpho-anatomy and ontogeny, investigate the occurrence of secondary metabolites and evaluate the effects of seasonality on the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less. Dematt. Samples were studied using standard protocols of plant anatomy, scanning electron microscopy, histochemical and phytochemical. The underground system of C. simplex was categorised as a rhizophore which started from cotyledonary node. In adult individuals, with rhizophores completely developed, the primary roots degenerated and adventitious radicular systems are formed. The buds in the subterranean portions promote the rhizophore growing, and form aerial stems when exposed to light. Lipophilic droplets were evident in the parenchymatous cells of the cortex and pith, endodermis and buds. Inulin-type fructans were observed in the stem axis and buds of the rhizophore. The presence of buds, secondary metabolites and the storage of fructans and lipids in the rhizophore can be seen as adaptive traits.

  12. Molecular phylogeny of Subtribe Artemisiinae (Asteraceae), including Artemisia and its allied and segregate genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Linda E; Bates, Paul L; Evans, Timothy M; Unwin, Matthew M; Estes, James R

    2002-01-01

    Background Subtribe Artemisiinae of Tribe Anthemideae (Asteraceae) is composed of 18 largely Asian genera that include the sagebrushes and mugworts. The subtribe includes the large cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated genus Artemisia, as well as several smaller genera and Seriphidium, that altogether comprise the Artemisia-group. Circumscription and taxonomic boundaries of Artemisia and the placements of these small segregate genera is currently unresolved. Results We constructed a molecular phylogeny for the subtribe using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA analyzed with parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian criteria. The resulting tree is comprised of three major clades that correspond to the radiate genera (e.g., Arctanthemum and Dendranthema), and two clades of Artemisia species. All three clades have allied and segregate genera embedded within each. Conclusions The data support a broad concept of Artemisia s.l. that includes Neopallasia, Crossostephium, Filifolium, Seriphidium, and Sphaeromeria. However, the phylogeny excludes Elachanthemum, Kaschgaria, and Stilnolepis from the Artemisia-group. Additionally, the monophyly of the four subgenera of Artemisia is also not supported, with the exception of subg. Dracunculus. Homogamous, discoid capitula appear to have arisen in parallel four to seven times, with the loss of ray florets. Thus capitular morphology is not a reliable taxonomic character, which traditionally has been one of the defining characters. PMID:12350234

  13. Polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family as potential radioprotectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbikowska, Halina Malgorzata; Szejk, Magdalena; Saluk, Joanna; Pawlaczyk-Graja, Izabela; Gancarz, Roman; Olejnik, Alicja Klaudia

    2016-05-01

    Polyphenolic-polysaccharide macromolecular, water-soluble glycoconjugates, isolated from the selected medicinal plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family: from leaves of Fragaria vesca L., Rubus plicatus Whe. et N. E., and from flowering parts of Sanguisorba officinalis L., and Erigeron canadensis L., were investigated for their ability to protect proteins and lipids of human plasma against γ-radiation-induced oxidative damage. Treatment of plasma with plant conjugates (6, 30, 150 μg/ml) prior exposure to 100 Gy radiation resulted in a significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation, evaluated by TBARS levels; conjugates isolated from E. canadensis and R. plicatus and a reference flavonoid quercetin showed similar high potential (approx. 70% inhibition, at 6 μg/ml). The conjugates prevented radiation-induced oxidation of protein thiols and significantly improved plasma total antioxidant capacity, estimated with Ellman's reagent and ABTS(.+) assay, respectively. The results demonstrate by the first time a significant radioprotective capability of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates isolated from E. canadensis, R. plicatus, S. officinalis and to the less extent from F. vesca. The abilities of these substances to inhibit radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and thiol oxidation in plasma seems to be mediated, but not limited to ROS scavenging activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Morpho-anatomy and ontogeny of the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vanessa S; Souza, Vinicius P; Vilhalva, Divina A A; Ferreira, Fernanda P S; Paula, José R; Rezende, Maria Helena

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of thickened underground systems in Asteraceae is widely reported in the literature. Given the great complexity of underground systems, which may originate from roots, stems, or both, morpho-anatomical analyses are essential to ensure the use of correct terminology. The goals of this study were to describe the morpho-anatomy and ontogeny, investigate the occurrence of secondary metabolites and evaluate the effects of seasonality on the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. Samples were studied using standard protocols of plant anatomy, scanning electron microscopy, histochemical and phytochemical. The underground system of C. simplex was categorised as a rhizophore which started from cotyledonary node. In adult individuals, with rhizophores completely developed, the primary roots degenerated and adventitious radicular systems are formed. The buds in the subterranean portions promote the rhizophore growing, and form aerial stems when exposed to light. Lipophilic droplets were evident in the parenchymatous cells of the cortex and pith, endodermis and buds. Inulin-type fructans were observed in the stem axis and buds of the rhizophore. The presence of buds, secondary metabolites and the storage of fructans and lipids in the rhizophore can be seen as adaptive traits.

  15. Flower structure and developmental stages of the capitulum of Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae): reproductive implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, M S; Mercado, M I; Coll Aráoz, M V; Zannier, M L; Grau, A; Ponessa, G I

    2017-03-01

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae) is an ancient andean crop that has numerous dietary and medicinal properties. Morphological and anatomical features and developmental changes of the capitulum were studied. A ray floret is a pistillate, female flower, while a disc floret is a staminate male flower, and the former opens before the latter, being pseudanthium protogynous. The capitulum presents interesting attributes for pollinators such as flower structure, nectaries and pollenkitt. Gynoecial nectaries were found on undeveloped ovary in the disc floret, but not in the ray floret. Glandular trichomes were observed on the abaxial epidermis of corolla in the ray floret, but not in the disc floret. Capitulum development was divided into eight stages. Stigma receptivity varied with these stages. Pollen viability was low (15%). In accordance with low viability, pollen grains exhibit diverse sizes and shapes, reduction in length of spines, and abnormal protoplasm. Examination of ovary development in the ray floret showed that a mature ovule was formed, but fertilization did not occur. In advanced developmental stages, the capitulum showed proliferation of the endothelium, degeneration of the embryo sac, and all harvested cypselae had aborted seeds. Problems found in pollen viability and aborted cypselae could be the result of a history of vegetative propagation in the domestication process.

  16. Key processes for Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) diversification on oceanic islands inferred from AFLP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitales, Daniel; García-Fernández, Alfredo; Pellicer, Jaume; Vallès, Joan; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Cowan, Robyn S; Fay, Michael F; Hidalgo, Oriane; Garnatje, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The radiation of the genus Cheirolophus (Asteraceae) in Macaronesia constitutes a spectacular case of rapid diversification on oceanic islands. Twenty species - nine of them included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species - have been described to date inhabiting the Madeiran and Canarian archipelagos. A previous phylogenetic study revealed that the diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia started less than 2 Ma. As a result of such an explosive speciation process, limited phylogenetic resolution was reported, mainly due to the low variability of the employed molecular markers. In the present study, we used highly polymorphic AFLP markers to i) evaluate species' boundaries, ii) infer their evolutionary relationships and iii) investigate the patterns of genetic diversity in relation to the potential processes likely involved in the radiation of Cheirolophus. One hundred and seventy-two individuals representing all Macaronesian Cheirolophus species were analysed using 249 AFLP loci. Our results suggest that geographic isolation played an important role in this radiation process. This was likely driven by the combination of poor gene flow capacity and a good ability for sporadic long-distance colonisations. In addition, we also found some traces of introgression and incipient ecological adaptation, which could have further enhanced the extraordinary diversification of Cheirolophus in Macaronesia. Last, we hypothesize that current threat categories assigned to Macaronesian Cheirolophus species do not reflect their respective evolutionary relevance, so future evaluations of their conservation status should take into account the results presented here.

  17. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Dendranthema morifolium (Asteraceae) using next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W-J; Ye, S; Du, L-H; Li, S-M; Miao, X; Shang, F-D

    2016-10-05

    Dendranthema morifolium (Asteraceae) is a perennial herbaceous plant native to China. A long history of artificial crossings may have resulted in complex genetic background and decreased genetic diversity. To protect the genetic diversity of D. morifolium and enabling breeding of new D. morifolium cultivars, we developed a set of molecular markers. We used pyrosequencing of an enriched microsatellite library by Roche 454 FLX+ platform, to isolate D. morifolium simple sequence repeats (SSRs). A total of 32,863 raw reads containing 2251 SSRs were obtained. To test the effectiveness of these SSR markers, we designed primers by randomly selecting 100 novel SSRs, and amplified them across 60 cultivars representing five different petal shape groups. Sixteen SSRs were polymorphic with the number of alleles ranging from 6 to 19, and their expected and observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.477 to 0.848, and 0.250 to 0.804, respectively. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.459 to 0.854 and the inbreeding coefficient ranged from -0.119 to 0.759. An unweighted pair-group method arithmetic average analysis was performed to survey the phylogenetic relationships of these 60 cultivars and five clusters were identified. These markers can be used for investigating genetic relationships and identifying elite alleles through linkage and association analyses.

  18. Volatiles and Nonvolatiles in Flourensia campestris Griseb. (Asteraceae), How Much Do Capitate Glandular Trichomes Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Leonardo A; López, Daniela; Silva, Mariana P; López Rivilli, Marisa J; Tourn, Mónica G; Cantero, Juan J; Scopel, Ana L

    2018-03-01

    The distribution and ultrastructure of capitate glandular trichomes (GTs) in Flourensia species (Asteraceae) have been recently elucidated, but their metabolic activity and potential biological function remain unexplored. Selective nonvolatile metabolites from isolated GTs were strikingly similar to those found on leaf surfaces. The phytotoxic allelochemical sesquiterpene (-)-hamanasic acid A ((-)-HAA) was the major constituent (ca. 40%) in GTs. Although GTs are quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs)-accumulating species, glycine betaine was not found in GTs; it was only present in the leaf mesophyll. Two (-)-HAA accompanying surface secreted products: compounds 4-hydroxyacetophenone (piceol; 1) and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxyacetophenone (2), which were isolated and fully characterized (GC/MS, NMR), were present in the volatiles found in GTs. The essential oils of fresh leaves revealed ca. 33% monoterpenes, 26% hydrocarbon- and 30% oxygenated sesquiterpenes, most of them related to cadinene and bisabolene derivatives. Present results suggest a main role of GTs in determining the volatile and nonvolatile composition of F. campestris leaves. Based on the known activities of the compounds identified, it can be suggested that GTs in F. campestris would play key ecological functions in plant-pathogen and plant-plant interactions. In addition, the strikingly high contribution of compounds derived from cadinene and bisabolene pathways, highlights the potential of this species as a source of high-valued bioproducts. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  19. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of some wild Saudi Arabian Asteraceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Ibrahim, Abeer Y; Elsaid, Mansour S

    2014-07-01

    To study the antioxidant properties of crude extract of different Asteraceae plants. The antioxidant properties of six extracts were evaluated using different antioxidant tests, including free radical scavenging, reducing power, metal chelation, superoxide anion radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation activities. Picris cyanocarpa (P. cyanocarpa) and Anthemis deserti (A. deserti) had powerful antioxidant properties as radical scavenger, reducing agent and superoxide anion radical scavenger while Achillia fragrantissima (A. fragrantissima) and Artemissia monosperma (A. monosperma) were the most efficient as ion chelator (100% at 100, 200 and 400 μg/mL) A. fragrantissima and Rhantarium appoposum (R. appoposum) showed 100% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 200 and 400 μg/mL, while butylatedhydroxy toluene and ascorbic acid showed 100 and 95% inhibition percentage at 400 μg/mL, respectively. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyl toluene and ascorbic acid. In most tests P. cyanocarpa and A. deserti had powerful antioxidant properties as radical scavenger, reducing agent and superoxide anion radical scavenger. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Patterns of MADS-box gene expression mark flower-type development in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae

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    Teeri Teemu H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inflorescence of the cut-flower crop Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae consists of two principal flower types, ray and disc, which form a tightly packed head, or capitulum. Despite great interest in plant morphological evolution and the tractability of the gerbera system, very little is known regarding genetic mechanisms involved in flower type specification. Here, we provide comparative staging of ray and disc flower development and microarray screening for differentially expressed genes, accomplished via microdissection of hundreds of coordinately developing flower primordia. Results Using a 9K gerbera cDNA microarray we identified a number of genes with putative specificity to individual flower types. Intrestingly, several of these encode homologs of MADS-box transcription factors otherwise known to regulate flower organ development. From these and previously obtained data, we hypothesize the functions and protein-protein interactions of several gerbera MADS-box factors. Conclusion Our RNA expression results suggest that flower-type specific MADS protein complexes may play a central role in differential development of ray and disc flowers across the gerbera capitulum, and that some commonality is shared with known protein functions in floral organ determination. These findings support the intriguing conjecture that the gerbera flowering head is more than a mere floral analog at the level of gene regulation.

  1. Anatomy and fructan distribution in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae) from the campos rupestres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Taiza M; Vilhalva, Divina A A; Moraes, Moemy G; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L

    2015-01-01

    Among the compounds stored by plants, several functions are assigned to fructans, such as source of energy and protection against drought and extreme temperatures. In the present study we analyzed the anatomy and distribution of fructans in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae), an endemic species from the Brazilian campos rupestres. D. vestitumhas amphistomatic and pubescent leaves, with both glandular and non-glandular trichomes. In the basal aerial stem the medulla has two types of parenchyma, which differ from the apical portion. The xylopodium has mixed anatomical origin. Interestingly, although inulin-type fructans with high degree of polymerization were found in all analyzed organs except the leaves, the highest amount and maximum degree of polymerization were detected in the xylopodium. Inulin sphero-crystals were visualized under polarized light in the medulla and in the vascular tissues mainly in the central region of the xylopodium, which has abundant xylem parenchyma. Secretory structures accumulating several compounds but not inulin were identified within all the vegetative organs. The presence of these compounds, in addition to inulin, might be related to the strategies of plants to survive adverse conditions in a semi-arid region, affected seasonally by water restriction and frequently by fire.

  2. Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Schizogyne sericea (Asteraceae) Endemic to Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Alessandro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Muscolo, Camilla; Zorzetto, Christian; Sánchez-Mateo, Candelaria C; Rabanal, Rosa M; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Damiano, Silvia; Iannarelli, Romilde; Lupidi, Giulio; Papa, Fabrizio; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2016-07-01

    Schizogyne sericea (Asteraceae) is a halophytic shrub endemic to the Canary Islands and traditionally employed as analgesic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, and vulnerary. A comprehensive phytochemical investigation was conducted on the flowering aerial parts by analyzing both essential oil constituents and polar compounds. The essential oil was dominated by p-cymene, with the noteworthy occurrence of β-pinene and thymol esters. From the EtOH extract, eight compounds were isolated and structurally elucidated. Essential oil, polar fractions, and isolates (2), (4), and (5) were separately in vitro assayed for antiproliferative activity on human tumor cell lines (A375, MDA-MB 231, and HCT116) by MTT assay, for antioxidant potential by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays, and for antimicrobial activity by the agar disk diffusion method. Results revealed that essential oil and compounds 1 and 2 exert a strong inhibition on tumor cells, and in some cases, higher than that of cisplatin. Fractions containing thymol derivatives (1 and 2) and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives 4 and 5 displayed antioxidant activity comparable to that of Trolox, making S. sericea extract an interesting natural product with potential applications as preservative or in the treatment of diseases in which oxidative stress plays an important role. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  3. Cytonuclear Coordination Is Not Immediate upon Allopolyploid Formation in Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae) Allopolyploids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehrish, Tina; Symonds, V. Vaughan; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Tate, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Allopolyploids, formed by hybridization and chromosome doubling, face the immediate challenge of having duplicated nuclear genomes that interact with the haploid and maternally inherited cytoplasmic (plastid and mitochondrial) genomes. Most of our knowledge of the genomic consequences of allopolyploidy has focused on the fate of the duplicated nuclear genes without regard to their potential interactions with cytoplasmic genomes. As a step toward understanding the fates of nuclear-encoded subunits that are plastid-targeted, here we examine the retention and expression of the gene encoding the small subunit of Ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco; rbcS) in multiple populations of allotetraploid Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae). These polyploids formed recently (~80 years ago) and repeatedly from T. dubius and T. pratensis in the northwestern United States. Examination of 79 T. miscellus individuals from 10 natural populations, as well as 25 synthetic allotetraploids, including reciprocally formed plants, revealed a low percentage of naturally occurring individuals that show a bias in either gene (homeolog) loss (12%) or expression (16%), usually toward maintaining the maternal nuclear copy of rbcS. For individuals showing loss, seven retained the maternally derived rbcS homeolog only, while three had the paternally derived copy. All of the synthetic polyploid individuals examined (S0 and S1 generations) retained and expressed both parental homeologs. These results demonstrate that cytonuclear coordination does not happen immediately upon polyploid formation in Tragopogon miscellus. PMID:26646761

  4. Anatomy and fructan distribution in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae from the campos rupestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiza M. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the compounds stored by plants, several functions are assigned to fructans, such as source of energy and protection against drought and extreme temperatures. In the present study we analyzed the anatomy and distribution of fructans in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae, an endemic species from the Brazilian campos rupestres. D. vestitum has amphistomatic and pubescent leaves, with both glandular and non-glandular trichomes. In the basal aerial stem the medulla has two types of parenchyma, which differ from the apical portion. The xylopodium has mixed anatomical origin. Interestingly, although inulin-type fructans with high degree of polymerization were found in all analyzed organs except the leaves, the highest amount and maximum degree of polymerization were detected in the xylopodium. Inulin sphero-crystals were visualized under polarized light in the medulla and in the vascular tissues mainly in the central region of the xylopodium, which has abundant xylem parenchyma. Secretory structures accumulating several compounds but not inulin were identified within all the vegetative organs. The presence of these compounds, in addition to inulin, might be related to the strategies of plants to survive adverse conditions in a semi-arid region, affected seasonally by water restriction and frequently by fire.

  5. Concomitant chemopreventive and antibacterial effects of some Iranian plants from the genus Cousinia (Asteraceae

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    Ahmad Reza Shahverdi

    Full Text Available During the past several years, various species of Cousinia (Asteraceae have been authenticated in Iran. However, data concerning their biological activities remain limited. The main purpose of this research was to assess potential cytotoxicity and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP inhibitory effects of seven ethanol extracts of Cousinia using a cell line model (Fibrosarcoma-WEHI 164. We further investigated the antibacterial activity of these Cousinia ethanol extracts, using disk diffusion method. Among the ethanol extracts, the total extract of C. sulabadensis elicited significant inhibition of MMP activity in a dose-response fashion (49.2 ± 0.51, p < 0.05. However, this extract exhibited the lowest cytotoxicity effect at all tested concentrations. The concentration necessary to produce a 50% cell death rate (IC50 with C. shulabadensis was 304.5 ± 0.61 µg/mL. The calculated IC50 for cytotoxicity of the other Cousinia species extracts ranged between 18.4 ± 0.59 to 87.9 ± 0.58 µg/mL. The highest antibacterial activity was observed for the total extract of Cousinia phyllocephala. In conclusion, this study supports that Cousinia species display a remarkable inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases activity. The concomitant MMP-inhibitory and low cytotoxicity effects observed in C. sulabadensis might coin this extract for future potential anti-invasive herbal medicine studies.

  6. Antioxidant activities of extracts from Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Asteraceae) and Penstemon gentianoides (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Mariana; Nieto, Antonio; Marin, Juan C; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Jeffery, Elizabeth; Céspedes, Carlos L

    2005-07-27

    Various extracts of the aerial parts of Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Asteraceae) and Penstemon gentianoides (Scrophulariaceae) have been used in folk medicine to treat many ailments, particularly inflammation and migraine. Neither the bioactive components responsible nor the mechanisms involved have been evaluated. Here are reported antioxidant activities of their methanol, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts. Samples were evaluated for oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and inhibition of the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant activities were strongly correlated with total polyphenol content. The most active extracts from P. gentianoides in scavenging DPPH radicals and inhibiting TBARS formation were the methanol extract (A) and a further ethyl acetate extract of this (E). Partition E was further divided into eight fractions, and both E and the fractions were compared for activity against butylated hydroxytoluene, quercetin, and tocopherol. Partition E and the most active fractions, 5 and 6, were found to have I(50) values of 14.1, 38.6, and 41.8 ppm, respectively, against DPPH and 18.5, 26.0, and 12.7 ppm, respectively, against TBARS formation. Consistent with this finding, partition E and fractions 4-6 had the greatest ORAC and FRAP values. These results show that these plants could be useful antioxidant sources.

  7. Recent assembly of the global herbaceous flora: evidence from the paper daisies (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ze-Long; Funk, Vicki A; Meng, Ying; Deng, Tao; Sun, Hang; Wen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    The global flora is thought to contain a large proportion of herbs, and understanding the general spatiotemporal processes that shaped the global distribution of these communities is one of the most difficult issues in biogeography. We explored patterns of world-wide biogeography in a species-rich herbaceous group, the paper daisy tribe Gnaphalieae (Asteraceae), based on the hitherto largest taxon sampling, a total of 835 terminal accessions representing 80% of the genera, and encompassing the global geographic range of the tribe, with nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS) sequences. Biogeographic analyses indicate that Gnaphalieae originated in southern Africa during the Oligocene, followed by repeated migrations into the rest of Africa and the Mediterranean region, with subsequent entries into other continents during various periods starting in the Miocene. Expansions in the late Miocene to Pliocene appear to have been the driving force that shaped the global distribution of the tribe as forests were progressively broken up by the mid-continent aridification and savannas and grasslands expanded into the interior of the major continents. This pattern of recent colonizations may explain the world-wide distribution of many other organisms in open ecosystems and it is highlighted here as an emerging pattern in the evolution of the global flora. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Anatomy and ultrastructure of floral nectary of lnula helenium L (Asteraceae

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    Aneta Sulborska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Floral nectaries of Inula helenium L. only occurred in disc florets and were situated above the inferior ovary. The shape of the investigated glands (five-armed star with rounded tips and deep incisions - observed from above clearly differed from the shape of the nectaries of other Asteraceae, also the height of nectary was much lower (129 µm. The glandular tissue of the nectaries of elecampane was composed of a single-layered epidermis and 5--9 layers of secretory cells. Nectar was released through modified stomata, mainly arranged in the top part of the gland. The secretory cells were characterised by granular cytoplasm and the presence of a large, often lobate, cell nucleus. In the cytosol, numerous amoeboid plastids, mitochondria, Golgi bodies and ribosomes were present. In small vacuoles, myelin-like structures, fibrous material and vesicles with the content of substances which can be secretion, were observed. The plastid stroma showed different electron density and the presence of internal tubules and plastoglobules. Vesicular extensions forming bright zones were visible between the membranes of the nuclear envelope. Adjacent to the plasmalemma, as well as between the plasmalemma and the cell wall, secretory vesicles occurred, indicating the granulocrine mechanism of nectar secretion.

  9. Biotechnological potential of endophytic actinomycetes associated with Asteraceae plants: isolation, biodiversity and bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-04-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes from five Asteraceae plants were isolated and evaluated for their bioactivities. From Parthenium hysterophorus, Ageratum conyzoides, Sonchus oleraceus, Sonchus asper and Hieracium canadense, 42, 45, 90, 3, and 2 isolates, respectively, were obtained. Of the isolates, 86 (47.2 %) showed antimicrobial activity. Majority of the isolates were recovered from the roots (n = 127, 69.7 %). The dominant genus was Streptomyces (n = 96, 52.7 %), while Amycolatopsis, Pseudonocardia, Nocardia and Micromonospora were also recovered. Overall, 36 of the 86 isolates were significantly bioactivity while 18 (20.9 %) showed strong bioactivity. In total, 52.1 and 66.6 % showed potent cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities. The LC50 for 15 strains was <20 μg/ml. Compared to the ascorbate standard (EC50 0.34 μg/ml), all isolates gave impressive results with notable EC50 values of 0.65, 0.67, 0.74 and 0.79 μg/ml.

  10. Estudio de la propagación sexual del arboloco Montanoa quadrangularis Schultz Bipontianus Asteraceae

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    William Escobar-Torres

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexual propagation of arboloco Montanoa quadrangularis Schultz Bipontianus (Asteraceae. Objective. To develop sexual propagationmethodologies for Montanoa quadrangularis Schultz Bipontianus (arboloco. Materials and methods. Seeds were harvested from treesgrown at the Chilaca environmental station (Geoambiente Ltda. located in Pacho, Cundinamarca, Colombia. The study was carried out intwo phases: firstly, substrate effect on germination responses was evaluated in seedbed conditions. Substrates evaluated were: local soil,local soil mixed with worm humus, and peat. Additionally, two spatial arrangements were assessed: seeds sown at random and at 0.5 cmin depth. Secondly, in nursery conditions the effect of the substrates local soil, local soil mixed with worm humus and peat, as well as theeffect of developmental stages of the plants (with 2, 4, and 6 leaves on their further growth and development were evaluated. Results. Inseedbed conditions, the germination capacity was highly influenced by peat substrate (83.67% whereas in local soil the germinationcapacity was 40.83%. In nursery conditions, 6-leaf plants grown in local soil mixed with worm humus showed the best responses onparameters such as plant total length (9.51 cm, leaf area (36.69 cm2, and total dry weight (0.10 g. Conclusions. The type of substrateused in seedbed conditions influenced the germination capacity of M. quadrangularis seeds. The substrate and the developmental stage ofthe plant had a significant influence on the growth and development of arboloco plants.

  11. Home at Last II: Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini (Mutisieae, Asteraceae is really a Chaptalia

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    Xiaodan Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini of the Gerbera-complex (Mutisieae, Asteraceae/Compositae is distributed in Ecuador and Peru. This perennial herb was first named as Onoseris hieracioides Kunth and was later recognised as Trichocline hieracioides (Kunth Ferreyra. Now it is generally treated as Gerbera hieracioides (Kunth Zardini but it has never been included in any section of Gerbera. In this study, the position of Gerbera hieracioides is assessed based on morphology and a molecular phylogeny that includes G. hieracioides and 28 other species from the Gerbera-complex. Morphologically, G. hieracioides bears leaves with the adaxial epidermal surface without stomates but with soft thin trichomes, bracteate scapes, trimorphic capitula and inner ray florets with the corolla shorter than the style. These characters suggest that the species is most closely related to Chaptalia rather than to Gerbera or Trichocline. Furthermore, the phylogenetic results based on two nuclear (ITS and ETS and two chloroplast (trnL–trnF and trnL–rpl32 sequences strongly support the placement of G. hieracioides nested within Chaptalia. As both morphological characters and the molecular phylogenetic results support the transfer of G. hieracioides to Chaptalia, this enigmatic taxon is recognised as Chaptalia hieracioides (Kunth X.-D. Xu & W. Zheng.

  12. Antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of various leaf extracts of Amphoricarpos vis. (Asteraceae taxa

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    Gavrilović Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of diethyl ether, 80% methanol and 50% acetone extracts of the leaves of three Amphoricarpos taxa (Asteraceae; A. neumayerianus, A. autariatus ssp. autariatus and A. autariatus ssp. bertisceus from the Balkan Peninsula were investigated. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the broth microdilution assay against eight bacterial and eight fungal species. The in vitro antioxidative activity was assessed by the DPPH assay. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined. The most sensitive bacterial species were Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The best antibacterial potential was obtained for the methanol extract of A. neumayerianus, while the diethyl ether extract of this species showed the lowest effect. In general, the tested extracts showed higher activity than the commercial antibiotics streptomycin and ampicillin. Also, all micromycetes were sensitive to the tested extracts. The most sensitive was Trichoderma viride. The highest and lowest antifungal effect was determined in A. a. ssp. autariatus for the diethyl ether and acetone extracts, respectively. The highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined in the methanol extract of A. a. autariatus. The best antioxidative activity was demonstrated by the methanol extract of A. a. ssp. autariatus as comparing to matching extracts from the other two taxa.

  13. Control of Three Stored−Product Beetles with Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae Essential Oil

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    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of the essential oil of aerial parts from Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae was investigated against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab., the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L., and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Dry ground plants were subjected to hydro−distillation using a Clevenger−type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil was studied by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS. The major components of the oil were camphor (29.24%, 1, 8−cineol (27.62%, yomogi alcohol (5.23%, and camphene (4.80%. The essential oil in same concentrations was assayed against (1−7 days old adults of insect species and percentage mortality was recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. LC50 values were varied between 19.84 and 103.59 μL L-1 air, depending on insect species and exposure time. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than other species. These results suggested that A. haussknechtii oil might have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum.

  14. Caracterização morfoanatômica de Ageratum fastigiatum (Asteraceae

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    Glauciemar Del-Vechio-Vieira

    Full Text Available Ageratum fastigiatum (Gardn. R. M. King et H. Rob. (Asteraceae, conhecido como "matapasto", é uma planta usada na medicina popular como cicatrizante e antimicrobiano. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar caracterização morfoanatômica da folha, dos ramos e da raiz de A. fastigiatum. Secções transversais e paradérmicas, coradas com safranina/azul de astra e azul de toluidina foram analisadas ao microscópio. As folhas são alternas ou fasciculadas; a inflorescência é constituída de capítulos; as flores com corola lilás; ausência de pápus. A raiz apresenta crescimento secundário na zona de ramificação com estruturas secretoras. O caule possui epiderme uniestratificada, estômatos, tricomas tectores simples e tricomas glandulares capitados. O pecíolo exibe contorno côncavo-convexo e a epiderme é unisseriada. A lâmina foliar é anfiestomática e o mesófilo dorsiventral. A epiderme possui células de contorno sinuoso e os estômatos são do tipo anomocítico. Os caracteres morfoanatômicos permitiram estabelecer parâmetros para identificação do A. fastigiatum.

  15. Insecticide Activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lizzeth; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Morales, Antonio; Nieves, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD 50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD 90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD 95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD 99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD 50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD 90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD 95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD 99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei , comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei , hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control.

  16. Discovery of germacrene A synthases in Barnadesia spinosa: The first committed step in sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in the basal member of the Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Faraldos, Juan A; Vardakou, Maria; Salmon, Melissa; O'Maille, Paul E; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2016-10-28

    The Andes-endemic Barnadesioideae lineage is the oldest surviving and phylogenetically basal subfamily of the Asteraceae (Compositae), a prolific group of flowering plants with world-wide distribution (∼24,000 species) marked by a rich diversity of sesquiterpene lactones (STLs). Intriguingly, there is no evidence that members of the Barnadesioideae produce STLs, specialized metabolites thought to have contributed to the adaptive success of the Asteraceae family outside South America. The biosynthesis of STLs requires the intimate expression and functional integration of germacrene A synthase (GAS) and germacrene A oxidase (GAO) to sequentially cyclize and oxidize farnesyl diphosphate into the advanced intermediate germacrene A acid leading to diverse STLs. Our previous discovery of GAO activity conserved across all major subfamilies of Asteraceae, including the phylogenetically basal lineage of Barnadesioideae, prompted further investigation of the presence of the gateway GAS in Barnadesioideae. Herein we isolated two terpene synthases (BsGAS1/BsGAS2) from the basal Barnadesia spinosa (Barnadesioideae) that displayed robust GAS activity when reconstituted in yeast and characterized in vitro. Despite the apparent lack of STLs in the Barnadesioideae, this work unambiguously confirms the presence of GAS in the basal genera of the Asteraceae. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the two BsGASs fall into two distinct clades of the Asteraceae's GASs, and BsGAS1 clade is only retained in the evolutionary closer Cichorioideae subfamily, implicating BsGAS2 is likely the ancestral base of most GASs found in the lineages outside the Barnadesioideae. Taken together, these results show the enzymatic capacities of GAS and GAO emerged prior to the subsequent radiation of STL-producing Asteraceae subfamilies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Selective advantage of ray florets in Scalesia affinis and S. pedunculata (Asteraceae), two endemic species from the Galápagos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Philipp, Marianne; Siegismund, Hans R.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of neuter ray florets in species within Asteraceae is generally believed to increase pollinator attraction. In the endemic Galápagos genus Scalesia (Asteraceae) a natural variation in the presence/absence of neuter ray florets is found. To evaluate whether the presence of ray florets...... plays a selective role on female reproductive success we chose two species of Scalesia, Scalesia affinis that carries ray florets and S. pedunculata that is rayless. On Santa Cruz Island capitula of S. pedunculata were equipped with fake ray florets while others were untouched. On Isabela Island ray...

  18. Functional diversification of duplicated CYC2 clade genes in regulation of inflorescence development in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntheikki-Palovaara, Inka; Tähtiharju, Sari; Lan, Tianying; Broholm, Suvi K; Rijpkema, Anneke S; Ruonala, Raili; Kale, Liga; Albert, Victor A; Teeri, Teemu H; Elomaa, Paula

    2014-09-01

    The complex inflorescences (capitula) of Asteraceae consist of different types of flowers. In Gerbera hybrida (gerbera), the peripheral ray flowers are bilaterally symmetrical and lack functional stamens while the central disc flowers are more radially symmetrical and hermaphroditic. Proteins of the CYC2 subclade of the CYC/TB1-like TCP domain transcription factors have been recruited several times independently for parallel evolution of bilaterally symmetrical flowers in various angiosperm plant lineages, and have also been shown to regulate flower-type identity in Asteraceae. The CYC2 subclade genes in gerbera show largely overlapping gene expression patterns. At the level of single flowers, their expression domain in petals shows a spatial shift from the dorsal pattern known so far in species with bilaterally symmetrical flowers, suggesting that this change in expression may have evolved after the origin of Asteraceae. Functional analysis indicates that GhCYC2, GhCYC3 and GhCYC4 mediate positional information at the proximal-distal axis of the inflorescence, leading to differentiation of ray flowers, but that they also regulate ray flower petal growth by affecting cell proliferation until the final size and shape of the petals is reached. Moreover, our data show functional diversification for the GhCYC5 gene. Ectopic activation of GhCYC5 increases flower density in the inflorescence, suggesting that GhCYC5 may promote the flower initiation rate during expansion of the capitulum. Our data thus indicate that modification of the ancestral network of TCP factors has, through gene duplications, led to the establishment of new expression domains and to functional diversification. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Self-organizing maps of molecular descriptors for sesquiterpene lactones and their application to the chemotaxonomy of the Asteraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Marcus T; Emerenciano, Vicente; Ferreira, Marcelo J P; Scotti, Luciana; Stefani, Ricardo; da Silva, Marcelo S; Mendonça Junior, Francisco Jaime B

    2012-04-20

    The Asteraceae, one of the largest families among angiosperms, is chemically characterised by the production of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). A total of 1,111 SLs, which were extracted from 658 species, 161 genera, 63 subtribes and 15 tribes of Asteraceae, were represented and registered in two dimensions in the SISTEMATX, an in-house software system, and were associated with their botanical sources. The respective 11 block of descriptors: Constitutional, Functional groups, BCUT, Atom-centred, 2D autocorrelations, Topological, Geometrical, RDF, 3D-MoRSE, GETAWAY and WHIM were used as input data to separate the botanical occurrences through self-organising maps. Maps that were generated with each descriptor divided the Asteraceae tribes, with total index values between 66.7% and 83.6%. The analysis of the results shows evident similarities among the Heliantheae, Helenieae and Eupatorieae tribes as well as between the Anthemideae and Inuleae tribes. Those observations are in agreement with systematic classifications that were proposed by Bremer, which use mainly morphological and molecular data, therefore chemical markers partially corroborate with these classifications. The results demonstrate that the atom-centred and RDF descriptors can be used as a tool for taxonomic classification in low hierarchical levels, such as tribes. Descriptors obtained through fragments or by the two-dimensional representation of the SL structures were sufficient to obtain significant results, and better results were not achieved by using descriptors derived from three-dimensional representations of SLs. Such models based on physico-chemical properties can project new design SLs, similar structures from literature or even unreported structures in two-dimensional chemical space. Therefore, the generated SOMs can predict the most probable tribe where a biologically active molecule can be found according Bremer classification.

  20. Novel anthraquinone derivatives produced by Phoma sorghina, an endophyte found in association with the medicinal plant Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Warley de Souza; Pupo, Monica Tallarico

    2006-01-01

    Three known anthraquinones (1,7-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone, 1,6-dihydroxy- 3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone), one new anthraquinone (1,7-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone), and two new hexahydro anthraquinone derivatives, dendryols E and F, were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Phoma sorghina, found in association with Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. (author)

  1. Novel anthraquinone derivatives produced by Phoma sorghina, an endophyte found in association with the medicinal plant Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Warley de Souza; Pupo, Monica Tallarico [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: mtpupo@fcfrp.usp.br

    2006-09-15

    Three known anthraquinones (1,7-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone, 1,6-dihydroxy- 3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone), one new anthraquinone (1,7-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone), and two new hexahydro anthraquinone derivatives, dendryols E and F, were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Phoma sorghina, found in association with Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. (author)

  2. Morphogenesis of galls induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae leaves

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    M. Arduin

    Full Text Available The commonest insect gall on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae leaves is induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera, Psyllidae. The gall-inducing insect attacks young leaves in both the unfolded and the fully expanded stages. Four developmental phases were observed in this type of gall: 1 A folding phase, during which the leaf lamina folded upward alongside the midrib and the edges of the upper portion of the leaf approached each other, forming a longitudinal slit. A single chamber was formed on the adaxial surface of the leaf; 2 A swelling phase, in which the folded leaf tissues thickened and the edges of the leaf drew closer together, narrowing the slit. In this phase the gall matured, turning succulent, fusiform and pale green. The single nymphal chamber was lined with white wax and was able to house from one to several nymphs; 3 A dehiscence phase, characterized by the opening of the slit to release inducers; and 4 A senescence phase, when the gall turned dark and dry. The dermal system of the mature gall was composed of a single-layered epidermis. The mesophyll was swollen, and the swelling was due mainly to hyperplasia of the parenchyma. The vascular tissues along the midrib vein were conspicuous and the perivascular fibers resembled parenchymal cells. The hypertrophied secretory cavities contained low lipophylic content. This gall does not form nutritive tissue, but salivary sheaths left by the inducers were observed near the parenchyma, vascular bundles and secretory cavities. This study complements our current knowledge of gall biology and sheds further light on the plasticity of plant tissues stimulated by biotic factors.

  3. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndihokubwayo, Noel; Nguyen, Viet-Thang; Cheng, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae), a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north-eastern and south-western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C), seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP) and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT) was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C) and seasons (in summer or autumn) were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6%) was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C), and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations.

  4. ent-Pimarane and ent-Kaurane Diterpenes from Aldama discolor (Asteraceae and Their Antiprotozoal Activity

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    Mauro S. Nogueira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aldama discolor (syn.Viguiera discolor is an endemic Asteraceae from the Brazilian “Cerrado”, which has not previously been investigated for its chemical constituents and biological activity. Diterpenes are common secondary metabolites found in Aldama species, some of which have been reported to present potential antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activities. In this study, the known ent-3-α-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-18-ol (1, as well as three new diterpenes, namely, ent-7-oxo-pimara-8,15-diene-18-ol (2, ent-2S,4S-2-19-epoxy-pimara-8(3,15-diene-7β-ol (3 and ent-7-oxo-pimara-8,15-diene-3β-ol (4, were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of A. discolor leaves and identified by means of MS and NMR. The compounds were assayed in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum and also tested for cytotoxicity against mammalian cells (L6 cell line. The ent-kaurane 1 showed significant in vitro activity against both P. falciparum (IC 50 = 3.5 μ M and L. donovani (IC 50 = 2.5 μ M and ent-pimarane 2 against P. falciparum (IC 50 = 3.8 μ M. Both compounds returned high selectivity indices (SI >10 in comparison with L6 cells, which makes them interesting candidates for in vivo tests. In addition to the diterpenes, the sesquiterpene lactone budlein A (5, which has been reported to possess a strong anti-T. b. rhodesiense activity, was identified as major compound in the A. discolor extract and explains its high activity against this parasite (100% growth inhibition at 2 μ g/mL.

  5. Phylogeography and disjunct distribution in Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae), an endangered cerrado shrub species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; Rabelo, Suelen Gonçalves; Vieira, Roberto F

    2009-09-01

    Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae) presents disjunct geographical distribution in cerrado rupestre in the south-east and central Brazil. The phylogeography of the species was investigated to understand the origin of the disjunct geographical distribution. Populations in the south and centre of Serra do Espinhaço, south-east Brazil and on ten other localities in Federal District and Goiás in central Brazil were sampled. Analyses were based on the polymorphisms at chloroplast (trnL intron and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer) and nuclear (ITS nrDNA) genomes. From 12 populations, 192 individuals were sequenced. Network analysis, AMOVA and the Mantel test were performed to understand the relationships among haplotypes and population genetic structure. To understand better the origin of disjunct distribution, demographic parameters and time to most recent common ancestor (T(MRCA)) were estimated using coalescent analyses. A remarkable differentiation between populations from the south-east and central Brazil was found and no haplotype was shared between these two regions. No significant effect of isolation by distance was detected. Coalescent analyses showed that some populations are shrinking and others are expanding and that gene flow between populations from the south-east and central Brazil was probably negligible. The results strongly support that the disjunct distribution of L. ericoides may represent a climatic relict and that long-distance gene flow is unlikely. With an estimated time to most recent common ancestor (T(MRCA)) dated from approx. 790,655 +/- 36,551 years bp (chloroplast) and approx. 623,555 +/- 55,769 years bp (ITS), it was hypothesized that the disjunct distribution may be a consequence of an expansion of the geographical distribution favoured by the drier and colder conditions that prevailed in much of Brazil during the Kansan glaciation, followed by the retraction of the distribution due to the extinction of populations in some areas as climate

  6. Atividades antiúlcera e antioxidante Baccharis trimera (Less DC (Asteraceae

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    Larissa Funabashi de Toledo Dias

    Full Text Available A "carqueja", Baccharis trimera (Less DC (Asteraceae, é uma espécie vegetal característica de regiões tropicais, muito utilizada na medicina popular como antiinflamatória, hipoglicemiante e em tratamento de problemas digestivos. A avaliação da atividade antiúlcera do extrato bruto liofilizado e do extrato liofilizado da "resina" (porção que durante a concentração dos extratos ficava depositada no fundo do recipiente com aspecto viscoso e pegajoso foi realizada através de indução aguda por etanol acidificado. O extrato bruto liofilizado, na dose de 400 mg/ kg, reduziu a área de lesão em 90%, 200 mg/kg, 87%, 100 mg/kg, 66% e o fármaco controle (lansoprazol, 66%. O extrato liofilizado da "resina", administrado na dose de 400 mg/kg, reduziu a área de lesão em 82%, 200 mg/kg, 82%, 100 mg/kg, 53% e o fármaco controle (lansoprazol, 70%. A atividade antioxidante foi ensaiada com extrato bruto liofilizado, extrato liofilizado da "resina", pó da droga e frações clorofórmica, acetato de etila, etanol e etanol 50% através do método que reduz o radical 2,2'-difenil-1-picril-hidrazil (DPPH, permitindo após o equilíbrio da reação, calcular a quantidade de antioxidante gasta para reduzir 50% do DPPH, apresentando resultado evidente, comparado à vitamina E. Não foram verificados sinais de alteração aparente no ensaio de toxicidade na dose única de 5g/kg, em camundongos.

  7. Relation between flower head traits and florivory in Asteraceae: a phylogenetically controlled approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Michio; Sakai, Satoki

    2015-03-01

    • While much research has examined the relation between leaf traits and herbivory, very little is known about the interaction between floral traits, particularly biochemical traits, and florivory. We investigated patterns between floral traits and florivory across multiple species using phylogenetic comparative approaches to enhance our understanding of the evolution of plant-florivore interactions.• The relation between the intensity of florivory and five biochemical traits (concentrations of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, water, and total phenolics) and two morphological traits (diameter and number of flower heads) were investigated in wild individuals of 18 native species of Asteraceae. The phylogenetic signals in the morphological traits and intensity of florivory were also tested.• We found that species with higher nitrogen, water, and total phenolics and lower phosphorus concentrations in the flower heads and species with a large number and diameter of flower heads tended to be attacked by florivores. In addition, we found significant phylogenetic signals in florivory and morphological traits.• Our results clearly show that biochemical traits also play important roles in plant-florivore interactions, as previously shown in plant-leaf herbivore interactions. The positive relationship between florivory and total phenolics implies that phenolic compounds in flower heads may not act as a defense in the species. In addition, the observed pattern of signals in florivory might not be solely explained by the signals of the measured traits and other plant traits may also play significant roles in plant-florivore interaction in these species. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  8. Floral development and evolution of capitulum structure in Anacyclus (Anthemideae, Asteraceae).

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    Bello, M Angélica; Álvarez, Inés; Torices, Rubén; Fuertes-Aguilar, Javier

    2013-11-01

    Most of the diversity in the pseudanthia of Asteraceae is based on the differential symmetry and sexuality of its flowers. In Anacyclus, where there are (1) homogamous capitula, with bisexual, mainly actinomorphic and pentamerous flowers; and (2) heterogamous capitula, with peripheral zygomorphic, trimerous and long-/short-rayed female flowers, the floral ontogeny was investigated to infer their origin. Floral morphology and ontogeny were studied using scanning electron microscope and light microscope techniques. Disc flowers, subtended by paleae, initiate acropetally. Perianth and androecium initiation is unidirectional/simultaneous. Late zygomorphy occurs by enlargement of the adaxial perianth lobes. In contrast, ray flowers, subtended by involucral bracts, initiate after the proximal disc buds, breaking the inflorescence acropetal pattern. Early zygomorphy is manifested through the fusion of the lateral and abaxial perianth lobes and the arrest of the adaxials. We report atypical phenotypes with peripheral 'trumpet' flowers from natural populations. The peripheral 'trumpet' buds initiate after disc flowers, but maintain an actinomorphic perianth. All phenotypes are compared and interpreted in the context of alternative scenarios for the origin of the capitulum and the perianth identity. Homogamous inflorescences display a uniform floral morphology and development, whereas the peripheral buds in heterogamous capitula display remarkable plasticity. Disc and ray flowers follow different floral developmental pathways. Peripheral zygomorphic flowers initiate after the proximal actinomorphic disc flowers, behaving as lateral independent units of the pseudanthial disc from inception. The perianth and the androecium are the most variable whorls across the different types of flowers, but their changes are not correlated. Lack of homology between hypanthial appendages and a calyx, and the perianth double-sided structure are discussed for Anacyclus together with potential

  9. The potential medicinal value of plants from Asteraceae family with antioxidant defense enzymes as biological targets.

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    Koc, Suheda; Isgor, Belgin S; Isgor, Yasemin G; Shomali Moghaddam, Naznoosh; Yildirim, Ozlem

    2015-05-01

    Plants and most of the plant-derived compounds have long been known for their potential pharmaceutical effects. They are well known to play an important role in the treatment of several diseases from diabetes to various types of cancers. Today most of the clinically effective pharmaceuticals are developed from plant-derived ancestors in the history of medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of methanol, ethanol, and acetone extracts from flowers and leaves of Onopordum acanthium L., Carduus acanthoides L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., and Centaurea solstitialis L., all from the Asteraceae family, for investigating their potential medicinal values of biological targets that are participating in the antioxidant defense system such as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In this study, free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the plant samples were assayed by DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu, and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods. Also, the effects of extracts on CAT, GST, and GPx enzyme activities were investigated. The highest phenolic and flavonoid contents were detected in the acetone extract of C. acanthoides flowers, with 90.305 mg GAE/L and 185.43 mg Q/L values, respectively. The highest DPPH radical scavenging was observed with the methanol leaf extracts of C. arvense with an IC50 value of 366 ng/mL. The maximum GPx and GST enzyme inhibition activities were observed with acetone extracts from the flower of C. solstitialis with IC50 values of 79 and 232 ng/mL, respectively.

  10. ent-Pimarane and ent-Kaurane Diterpenes from Aldama discolor (Asteraceae) and Their Antiprotozoal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Mauro S; Da Costa, Fernando B; Brun, Reto; Kaiser, Marcel; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2016-09-15

    Aldama discolor (syn.Viguiera discolor) is an endemic Asteraceae from the Brazilian "Cerrado", which has not previously been investigated for its chemical constituents and biological activity. Diterpenes are common secondary metabolites found in Aldama species, some of which have been reported to present potential antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activities. In this study, the known ent-3-α-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-18-ol (1), as well as three new diterpenes, namely, ent-7-oxo-pimara-8,15-diene-18-ol (2), ent-2S,4S-2-19-epoxy-pimara-8(3),15-diene-7β-ol (3) and ent-7-oxo-pimara-8,15-diene-3β-ol (4), were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of A. discolor leaves and identified by means of MS and NMR. The compounds were assayed in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum and also tested for cytotoxicity against mammalian cells (L6 cell line). The ent-kaurane 1 showed significant in vitro activity against both P. falciparum (IC 50 = 3.5 μ M) and L. donovani (IC 50 = 2.5 μ M) and ent-pimarane 2 against P. falciparum (IC 50 = 3.8 μ M). Both compounds returned high selectivity indices (SI >10) in comparison with L6 cells, which makes them interesting candidates for in vivo tests. In addition to the diterpenes, the sesquiterpene lactone budlein A (5), which has been reported to possess a strong anti-T. b. rhodesiense activity, was identified as major compound in the A. discolor extract and explains its high activity against this parasite (100% growth inhibition at 2 μ g/mL).

  11. Evaluation of Selected Ornamental Asteraceae as a Pollen Source for Urban Bees

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    Wróblewska Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Offering more floral resources for urban bees can be achieved by growing ornamental bee plants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate selected Asteraceae (Calendula officinalis ‘Persimmon Beauty’ and ‘Santana’, Centaurea macrocephala, Cosmos sulphureus, Dahlia pinnata, Tagetes patula, Tithonia rotundifolia, and Zinnia elegans as pollen sources for pollinators. Under urban conditions in Lublin, SE Poland, the investigated plants flowered from late June to the end of October. The mass of pollen produced in florets and capitula was found to be species-related. The highest pollen amounts per 10 florets (10.1 mg as well as per capitulum (249.7 mg were found for C. macrocephala. The mass of pollen yielded by a single plant depended on both the pollen mass delivered per disk florets and the proportion of disk florets in capitulum, and the flowering abundance of the plants. A single plant of D. pinnata and a single plant of T. rotundifolia each produced the largest pollen mass. Mean pollen yield per 1m2 of a plot ranged from 6.2 g (Z. elegans to 60.7 g (D. pinnata. Pollen grains are tricolporate, with echinate exine, medium or small in size. They can be categorised as oblatespherical, spherical, and prolatespherical. The principal visitors to C. macrocephala, C. sulphureus, and C. officinalis were honey bees, whereas bumble bees dominated on T. rotundifolia and D. pinnata. A magnet plant for butterflies was Z. elegans. Among the investigated species, D. pinnata, C. macrocephala, and T. rotundifolia were found to be the most valuable sources of pollen flow for managed and wild bees.

  12. Sesquiterpene lactones from the Yugoslavian wild growing plant families Asteraceae and Apiaceae (REVIEW

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    MILUTIN STEFANOVIC

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available 1. Introduction 2. Results 3. Asteraceae 3.1. Genus Artemisia L. 3.1.1. Artemisia annua L. 3.1.2. Artemisia vulgaris L. 3.1.3. Artemisia absinthium L. (warmwood 3.1.4. Artemisia scoparia W. et K. 3.1.5. Artemisia camprestris L. 3.2. Genus Ambrosia L. 3.2.1. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (the common rag weed 3.3. Genus Tanacetum L. (syn. Chrysanthemum L. 3.3.1. Tanacetum parthenium L. (feverfew 3.3.2. Tanacetum serotinum L. 3.3.3. Tanacetum vulgare L. (tansy 3.3.4. Tanacetum macrophyllum Willd. 3.3.5. Tanacetum corymbosum L. 3.4. Genus Telekia Baumg. 3.4.1. Telekia speciosa (Schreb. Baumg. 3.5. Genus Inula L. 3.5.1. Inula helenium L. 3.5.2. Inula spiraeifolia L. 3.6. Genus Eupatorium L. 3.6.1. Eupatorium cannabinum L. 3.7. Genus Achillea L. 3.7.1. Achillea abrotanoides Vis. 3.7.2. Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica 3.7.3. Achillea crithmifolia W. et K. 3.7.4. Achillea clypeolata Sibth. et Sm. 3.7.5. Achillea serbica Nyman 3.7.6. Achillea depressa Janka 3.8. Genus Anthemis L. 3.8.1. Anthemis carpatica Willd. 3.8.2. Anthemis cretica L. subsp. cretica 3.9. Genus Centaurea L. 3.9.1. Centaurea derventana Vis. et Panc. 3.9.2. Centaurea kosaninii Hayek 3.9.3. Centaurea solstitialis L. 4. Apiaceae 4.1. Genus Laserpitium L. 4.1.1. Laserpitium siler L. 4.1.2. Laserpitium marginatum L. 4.1.3. Laserpitium latifolium L. 4.1.4. Laserpitium alpinum W. K. 4.2. Genus Angelica L. 4.2.1. Angelica silvestris L. 4.3. Genus Peucedanum L. 4.3.1. Peucedanum austriacum (Jacq. Koch

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Genomic DNA Isolation Methods on Inula sp. (Asteraceae

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    Emre SEVİNDİK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Simple, fast, low-cost and high throughput protocols are required for DNA isolation of plant species. In this study, phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol and commercial (Sigma DNA isolation kit methods were applied on some Inula species that belong to Asteraceae family. Genomic DNA amounts, A260, A280, A260/A230 and purity degrees (A260/A280 that were obtained through both methods were measured through electrophoresis and spectrophotometer. Additionally, PCR amplification was realized by primer pairs specific to nrDNA ITS, cpDNA ndhF (972F-1603R and trnL-F regions. Results showed that maximum genomic DNA in nanograms obtained by phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method. The study also revealed that I. macrocephala had the maximum DNA and I. heterolepis had the minimum DNA amount. A260/A280 purity degrees showed that the highest and lowest purity in gDNAs obtained through phenol-choloform isoamyl alcohol method were in I.aucheriana and I. salicina, respectively. The highest and lowest purity degrees of gDNAs obtained through commercial kit was observed in I. fragilis and I. macrocephala samples, respectively. PCR amplification results showed that while band profiles of each three regions (ITS, trnL-F and ndhF did not yield positive results in PCR amplifications using phenol-choloform isoamyl alcohol method; PCR band profiles obtained through commercial kit yielded positive results. As a result, it is fair to say that the relation of genomic DNA with PCR was found to be more efficient although the maximum amount of genomic DNA was obtained through phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method.

  14. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae seeds

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    Noel Ndihokubwayo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae, a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north–eastern and south–western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C, seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C and seasons (in summer or autumn were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6% was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C, and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations.

  15. A volatolomic approach for studying plant variability: the case of selected Helichrysum species (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Claudia; Lazzaro, Lorenzo; Calamassi, Roberto; Calamai, Luca; Romoli, Riccardo; Fico, Gelsomina; Foggi, Bruno; Mariotti Lippi, Marta

    2016-10-01

    The species of Helichrysum sect. Stoechadina (Asteraceae) are well-known for their secondary metabolite content and the characteristic aromatic bouquets. In the wild, populations exhibit a wide phenotypic plasticity which makes critical the circumscription of species and infraspecific ranks. Previous investigations on Helichrysum italicum complex focused on a possible phytochemical typification based on hydrodistilled essential oils. Aims of this paper are three-fold: (i) characterizing the volatile profiles of different populations, testing (ii) how these profiles vary across populations and (iii) how the phytochemical diversity may contribute in solving taxonomic problems. Nine selected Helichrysum populations, included within the H. italicum complex, Helichrysum litoreum and Helichrysum stoechas, were investigated. H. stoechas was chosen as outgroup for validating the method. After collection in the wild, plants were cultivated in standard growing conditions for over one year. Annual leafy shoots were screened in the post-blooming period for the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by means of headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS). The VOC composition analysis revealed the production of overall 386 different compounds, with terpenes being the most represented compound class. Statistical data processing allowed the identification of the indicator compounds that differentiate the single populations, revealing the influence of the geographical provenance area in determining the volatile profiles. These results suggested the potential use of VOCs as valuable diacritical characters in discriminating the Helichrysum populations. In addition, the cross-validation analysis hinted the potentiality of this volatolomic study in the discrimination of the Helichrysum species and subspecies, highlighting a general congruence with the current taxonomic treatment of the genus. The consistency

  16. Diversity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in native and invasive Senecio pterophorus (Asteraceae): implications for toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Eva; Mulder, Patrick P J; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam

    2014-12-01

    Changes in plant chemical defenses after invasion could have consequences on the invaded ecosystems by modifying the interactions between plants and herbivores and facilitating invasion success. However, no comprehensive biogeographical studies have yet determined the phenotypic levels of plant chemical defenses, as consumed by local herbivores, covering large distributional areas of a species. Senecio pterophorus is a perennial shrub native to Eastern South Africa, expanded into Western South Africa and introduced into Australia and Europe. As other Asteraceae, S. pterophorus contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) toxic to vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores. Here we analyzed S. pterophorus PAs by LC-MS/MS on foliage sampled across its entire distributional range, including the native and all non-native areas. PA concentrations and diversity was very high: we found 57 compounds belonging to 6 distinct necine base-types, including the highly toxic 1,2-unsaturated PAs (retronecine and otonecines) and the less toxic 1,2-saturated PAs (platynecine and rosmarinecines). Plants from different origins diverged in their PA absolute and relative concentrations. Rosmarinine was the most abundant compound in Australia and South Africa, but it was nearly absent in Europe. We characterized three plant chemotypes: retrorsine-senkirkine chemotype in Eastern South Africa, rosmarinine chemotype in Australia and Western South Africa, and acetylseneciphylline chemotype in Europe. PA absolute concentrations were highest in Australia. The increased absolute and relative concentrations of retronecine PAs from Australia and Europe, respectively, indicate that S. pterophorus is potentially more toxic in the invasive range than in the native range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Origins and recent radiation of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Asteraceae) in the eastern Cerrado and Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Vanessa Lopes; Panero, Jose L; Schilling, Edward E; Crozier, Bonnie S; Moraes, Marta Dias

    2016-04-01

    The remarkable diversity of Eupatorieae in the Brazilian flora has received little study, despite the tribe's very high levels of endemism and importance in the threatened Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspots. Eupatorieae are one of the largest tribes in Asteraceae with 14 of 19 recognized subtribes occurring in Brazil. We constructed the largest phylogeny of Brazilian Eupatorieae to date that sampled the nrITS and ETS, chloroplast ndhI and ndhF genes, and the ndhI-ndhG intergenic spacer for 183 species representing 77 of the 85 Brazilian genera of the tribe. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses showed that these species are not collectively monophyletic, so their distribution reflects multiple introductions into Brazil. A novel clade was found that includes 75% of the genera endemic to Brazil (Cerrado-Atlantic Forest Eupatorieae, "CAFE" clade). This radiation of at least 247 species concentrated in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes of central eastern Brazil is <7 my old and exhibits several ecologically diverse life forms. Eight subtribes of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Ageratinae, Alomiinae, Ayapaninae, Critoniinae, Disynaphiinae, Eupatoriinae, Gyptidinae and Hebecliniinae) and 16 genera (Ageratum, Agrianthus, Austroeupatorium, Bejaranoa, Chromolaena, Critonia, Disynaphia, Grazielia, Hatschbachiella, Heterocondylus, Koanophyllon, Lasiolaena, Neocabreria, Praxelis, Stylotrichium, and Symphyopappus) were found to be polyphyletic. We attribute incongruities between the molecular phylogenetic results and the current classification of the tribe mostly to convergent evolution of morphological characters traditionally used in the classification of the tribe. We used these phylogenetic results to suggest changes to the classification of some subtribes and genera of Eupatorieae that occur in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Estudo anatômico de folha e caule de Elephantopus mollis Kunth (Asteraceae

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    Cláudia Bonissoni Empinotti

    Full Text Available Conhecida comumente como erva-de-colégio, erva-grossa e sussuaiá, Elephantopus mollis Kunth (Asteraceae é uma espécie herbácea perene, de base sublenhosa, ramos curtos e flores arroxeadas. Suas folhas são empregadas como emoliente, resolutivo, sudorífico e no tratamento de bronquite, tosse e gripe na medicina popular. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar caracteres anatômicos foliares e caulinares, a fim de fornecer subsídios aplicáveis à identificação da planta medicinal. Folhas adultas e fragmentos de caules foram fixados, seccionados e corados com azul de astra/fucsina básica ou com azul de toluidina. Testes microquímicos e análise ultra-estrutural de superfície foram também executados. A folha possui epiderme uniestratificada, recoberta por cutícula estriada e, em vista frontal, tem células com contorno ondulado. Ocorrem tricomas tectores e glandulares. Os primeiros são eretos, pluricelulares e unisseriados. Os tricomas glandulares são capitados e bisseriados. O mesofilo é dorsiventral e a nervura central é percorrida por feixes vasculares colaterais dispostos em arco aberto. O caule, em estrutura secundária inicial, possui epiderme unisseriada com cutícula estriada e tricomas semelhantes aos da folha. No córtex, observam-se colênquima anelar alternado com clorênquima e endoderme com estrias de Caspary. Calotas esclerenquimáticas apõem-se ao floema. Este é formado pelo câmbio vascular em direção à periferia e o xilema é gerado de modo centrípeto. A medula é parenquimática. Pequenos cristais de oxalato de cálcio estão presentes na folha e no caule.

  19. Adulticide effect of Monticalia greenmaniana (Asteraceae) against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, José; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Nieves, Elsa

    2012-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a public health problem that has been increasing year by year, with the further difficulty that an efficient control system is not available. Therefore, it is necessary to search for less contaminating and dangerous alternatives for controlling Leishmania transmitting sandflies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of Monticalia greenmaniana (Asteraceae) extracts and essential oil as an adulticide against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, from a laboratory colony, in experimental conditions. Dry aerial parts of M. greenmaniana (Hieron) Jeffrey were used. Methanolic and aqueous extracts were prepared, and essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. Adulticide tests in pots, adulticide tests in cages, and knocked-down effects were determined. The results obtained demonstrated that methanolic and aqueous extracts produced adulticide activity. The essential oil from M. greenmaniana was proved to be the most toxic against L. migonei, with a 95 % death rate at a concentration of 0.01 mg/ml during a 1-h exposure. The essential oil showed a DL50 = 0.0050 and DL98 = 0.0066 mg/ml. The methanolic extract was DL50 = 0.130 and DL98 = 1.016 mg/ml, and the aqueous extract, DL50 = 0.487 and DL98 10.924 mg/ml. The knocked-down effect for the M. greenmaniana oil showed a KDTL50 = 48.6 and KDTL98 = 90.1 min. It was concluded that the essential oil from M. greenmaniana showed a strong insecticide effect against L. migonei females, which encourages us to continue these studies in search for control alternatives against sandflies.

  20. una sociedad emergente

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    Derlisiret Rincón M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo busca reflexionar por una parte acerca del papel de la ciencia, la tecnología y la educación, como factores de desarrollo de las naciones e intenta responder la interrogante en torno al cómo estas variables contribuirán a la transformación de la realidad social venezolana. Los planteamientos expuestos en este artículo forman parte de una investigación cualitativa que se sustenta en una revisión teórica cuyos resultados indican que existe la posibilidad cierta de construir y alcanzar una Venezuela virtual en los próximos años; es decir, se vislumbra un país interconectado y funcionando a través de redes cuyos individuos estarían capacitados y entrenados en el uso y usufructo de las nuevas tecnologías. Esta visión de país, se basa en la premisa de que la oportuna implementación de la Planificación de Ciencia y Tecnología resultaría instrumento de vinculación de las variables tecnológicas, educativas y científicas, que permiten obtener conocimientos especializados y orientados a la solución de problemas de creciente dimensión global. Tales conocimientos, pudieran generar los cambios sustanciales necesarios en el contexto nacional, para lograr modificar o disminuir el sentido de crecimiento de la brecha o divisoria digital en este entorno

  1. CRIPTOSPORIDIOSIS: UNA ZOONOSIS PARASITARIA

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    Claudia Vergara

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available La criptosporidiosis es una enfermedad parasitariaproducida por protozoos coccidios pertenecientes algénero Cryptosporidium. Su importancia se puso demanifiesto a comienzos de los años 1980 por lo quepuede considerarse una patología de conocimientorelativamente reciente, aunque actualmente se hademostrado que es una de las infecciones entéricasmás frecuentes en humanos y animales y un problemade salud pública en todo el mundo (Casemore et al.1997. La especie de mayor interés dentro del género,y a la cual nos referiremos a lo largo de esta revisión,es C. parvum, que se multiplica preferentemente enlas células epiteliales del intestino delgado de losmamíferos desencadenando diarrea por absorción ydigestión deficientes y que debido a su escasaespecificidad de hospedador, puede transmitirseindistintamente entre los mamíferos domésticos y elhombre

  2. Hacia una vejez útil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Amparo

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Con lleva un interés bien particular encontrarnos con una población tan heterogénea en cuanto a caracterización se refiere, ya porque miremos en ella sus hábitos, sus costumbres, procedencia, nivel socio-cultural, etc., dicha comunidad de ancianos plantea, de inmediato la necesidad de ponerse en un contacto generacional que rompiera y dejara atrás la rutina y la monotonía, propia de su cotidianidad, es entonces cuando tres profesionales altamente motivadas en el trabajo comunitario, inician un proceso vivo y dinámico con el anciano institucionalizado a fin de que ellos recobraran el protagonismo, elevaran su autoestima, tomaran parte en la toma de decisiones frente a su vida, y volvieran a sentirse en capacidad de dar respuesta a sus conflictos, buscando alternativas de solución en una tarea mancomunada que exigió madurez, diálogo y comunicación permanente entre cada una de las partes involucradas en dicho proceso.

  3. Rapid Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations under Intergeneric Genomic Shock in Newly Synthesized Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum Hybrids (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The Asteraceae family is at the forefront of the evolution due to frequent hybridization. Hybridization is associated with the induction of widespread genetic and epigenetic changes and has played an important role in the evolution of many plant taxa. We attempted the intergeneric cross Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum. To obtain the success in cross, we have to turn to ovule rescue. DNA profiling of the amphihaploid and amphidiploid was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, start codon targeted polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Hybridization induced rapid changes at the genetic and the epigenetic levels. The genetic changes mainly involved loss of parental fragments and gaining of novel fragments, and some eliminated sequences possibly from the noncoding region of L. paludosum. The MSAP analysis indicated that the level of DNA methylation was lower in the amphiploid (∼45%) than in the parental lines (51.5–50.6%), whereas it increased after amphidiploid formation. Events associated with intergeneric genomic shock were a feature of C. morifolium × L. paludosum hybrid, given that the genetic relationship between the parental species is relatively distant. Our results provide genetic and epigenetic evidence for understanding genomic shock in wide crosses between species in Asteraceae and suggest a need to expand our current evolutionary framework to encompass a genetic/epigenetic dimension when seeking to understand wide crosses. PMID:24407856

  4. Rapid genetic and epigenetic alterations under intergeneric genomic shock in newly synthesized Chrysanthemum morifolium x Leucanthemum paludosum hybrids (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The Asteraceae family is at the forefront of the evolution due to frequent hybridization. Hybridization is associated with the induction of widespread genetic and epigenetic changes and has played an important role in the evolution of many plant taxa. We attempted the intergeneric cross Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum. To obtain the success in cross, we have to turn to ovule rescue. DNA profiling of the amphihaploid and amphidiploid was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, start codon targeted polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Hybridization induced rapid changes at the genetic and the epigenetic levels. The genetic changes mainly involved loss of parental fragments and gaining of novel fragments, and some eliminated sequences possibly from the noncoding region of L. paludosum. The MSAP analysis indicated that the level of DNA methylation was lower in the amphiploid (∼45%) than in the parental lines (51.5-50.6%), whereas it increased after amphidiploid formation. Events associated with intergeneric genomic shock were a feature of C. morifolium × L. paludosum hybrid, given that the genetic relationship between the parental species is relatively distant. Our results provide genetic and epigenetic evidence for understanding genomic shock in wide crosses between species in Asteraceae and suggest a need to expand our current evolutionary framework to encompass a genetic/epigenetic dimension when seeking to understand wide crosses.

  5. Genetic Analysis of Floral Symmetry in Van Gogh's Sunflowers Reveals Independent Recruitment of CYCLOIDEA Genes in the Asteraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Mark A.; Tang, Shunxue; Draeger, Dörthe; Nambeesan, Savithri; Shaffer, Hunter; Barb, Jessica G.; Knapp, Steven J.; Burke, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic basis of floral symmetry is a topic of great interest because of its effect on pollinator behavior and, consequently, plant diversification. The Asteraceae, which is the largest family of flowering plants, is an ideal system in which to study this trait, as many species within the family exhibit a compound inflorescence containing both bilaterally symmetric (i.e., zygomorphic) and radially symmetric (i.e., actinomorphic) florets. In sunflower and related species, the inflorescence is composed of a single whorl of ray florets surrounding multiple whorls of disc florets. We show that in double-flowered (dbl) sunflower mutants (in which disc florets develop bilateral symmetry), such as those captured by Vincent van Gogh in his famous nineteenth-century sunflower paintings, an insertion into the promoter region of a CYCLOIDEA (CYC)-like gene (HaCYC2c) that is normally expressed specifically in WT rays is instead expressed throughout the inflorescence, presumably resulting in the observed loss of actinomorphy. This same gene is mutated in two independent tubular-rayed (tub) mutants, though these mutations involve apparently recent transposon insertions, resulting in little or no expression and radialization of the normally zygomorphic ray florets. Interestingly, a phylogenetic analysis of CYC-like genes from across the family suggests that different paralogs of this fascinating gene family have been independently recruited to specify zygomorphy in different species within the Asteraceae. PMID:22479210

  6. Una metropolitana chiamata "tram"

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    Mariella Zoppi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Perché il caso-Firenze della tramvia ha avuto un rilievo così forte sui media nazionali? Perché la tramvia (se vogliamo continuare a chiamare così una metropolitana di superficie è parte di un sovvertimento dei valori storici, estetici ed economici della città di cui il sistema di trasporto è solo un frammento. La grande operazione di trasformazione, come viene chiamata dall’Amministrazione comunale, passa per il cambiamento di destinazione e la nuova edificazione di molte aree urbane: dall’area Fiat e da quella dell’ex-officine ferroviarie di Porta a Prato (ormai in fase conclusiva, dall’avvio dell’edificazione privata a Castello (vicenda nota negli anni Ottanta come “Fondiaria” a quelle di aree di minori dimensioni che interessano ex-cinema o teatri (è di questi giorni il destino dell’attuale Teatro comunale che si mutano in abitazioni pregiate o di fabbriche dismesse che si trasformano, con il loro carico volumetrico pressoché intatto (a pareggiare i conti ci pensa la “perequazione”, in parcheggi in struttura (semi-vuoti perché mal collocati, residenze, uffici, alberghi e quant’altro possa essere “utile” ad una città invecchiata che ha perso, centomila abitanti fra il 1971 ed il 2001, passando da una popolazione di 457.803 a una di 356.118. Come nel resto del Paese, anche a Firenze, non esiste più un dibattito pubblico che riporti gli umori della città all’interno delle vicende politiche e amministrative, e dunque tutto avviene fra l’indifferenza delle cronache locali che sembrano più interessate alle dichiarazioni di questo o quel personaggio che alla effettiva trasmissione delle informazioni. Le notizie circolano sulla rete, veicolate dai comitati (ormai c’è un comitato di cittadini per ogni strada o problema, che vive separatamente dagli amministratori e diventano patrimonio di quanti abbiano una sia pur minima alfabetizzazione informatica.

  7. Hieracium caespitosum and Hieracium piloselloides (Asteraceae) in the Black Hills National Forest: New state records for South Dakota, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian E. Dickerson; Cheryl Mayer; Justin Ramsey; Zach Mergen; Mark Gabel

    2016-01-01

    Hieracium spp. (Asteraceae) are noted for their taxonomic complexity, frequent incidence of apomixis and polyploidy, and invasive tendencies. Here we report the Eurasian taxa, Hieracium caespitosum Dumort. and Hieracium piloselloides Vill., as recent additions to the flora of South Dakota. Plants were collected at three locations in the Black Hills during 2014 and 2015...

  8. Type specimens of taxa of Artemisia L. (Asteraceae from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Insitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Korobkov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Typification of 97 Artemisia (Asteraceae taxa from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute was carried out. Holotypes for 39 taxa, lectotypes for 48 taxa, 28 syntypes and 4 isotypes are given.

  9. Morphometric, AFLP and plastid microsatellite variation in populations of Scalesia divisa and S. incisa (Asteraceae) from the Galápagos Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NIELSEN, LENE ROSTGAARD; Cowan, Robyn S.; SIEGISMUND, HANS R.

    2003-01-01

    Scalesia divisa and S. incisa (Asteraceae), both endemic to the Galápagos Islands, are found only on San Cristóbal, where S. divisa grows in the north-west of the island while S. incisa occurs in the north-east. At localities in between, populations with deviating individuals occur. Here we analyse...

  10. The first record of Baccharis L. (Asteraceae) as a host-plant genus for Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera), with description of new Stigmella species from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We record the first Nepticulidae species found to feed on Baccharis L. (Asteraceae). Despite the high species richness of Baccharis in the Western Hemisphere, no nepticulid has ever been recorded feeding on Baccharis. In this paper we describe four new Stigmella Schrank species feeding on Baccharis:...

  11. Seed size and nutrient content variation for twenty-one invasive and native California and Oregon taxa of the tribe Cynareae (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed characteristics are important for seed dispersal, seedling growth, and seedling survival, but there is little information on seed characteristics for several taxa of the tribe Cynareae (Family: Asteraceae). We determined seed characteristics and their variation from natural populations of twen...

  12. Effects of herbicide and nitrogen fertilizer on non-target plant reproduction and indirect effects on pollination in Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Yoko Luise; Strandberg, Beate; Damgaard, Christian Frølund

    2018-01-01

    and nitrogen fertilizer on reproductive features of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae). The study was carried out in an experimental set-up, in which plots of 7x7 m were treated with one of six treatments: four levels of the herbicide glyphosate (0%, 1%, 5%, and 25% of label rate of 1440 g a.i. ha-1) without...

  13. Open field experiment to assess the host specificity of Lixus cardui (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a potential candidate for biological control of Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotch thistle Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae) is native to Europe and Asia and has been accidentally introduced to temperate climates elsewhere, including North America and Australia. In the USA, the weed is most problematic in the semi-arid parts of the Northwest, California and Nevada. Lixus car...

  14. Repeated reunions and splits feature the highly dynamic evolution of 5S and 35S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in the Asteraceae family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garcia, S.; Panero, J.L.; Široký, Jiří; Kovařík, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 176 (2010), s. 1-18 ISSN 1471-2229 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : organization of rDNA unit * intergenic spacer * Asteraceae Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.085, year: 2010

  15. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    McCann, Jamie; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Stuessy, Tod F.; Villase?or, Jose L.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (ma...

  16. Metabolomic analysis applied to chemosystematics and evolution of megadiverse Brazilian Vernonieae (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallon, Marília Elias; Monge, Marcelo; Casoti, Rosana; Da Costa, Fernando Batista; Semir, João; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo

    2018-06-01

    Vernonia sensu lato is the largest and most complex genus of the tribe Vernonieae (Asteraceae). The tribe is chemically characterized by the presence of sesquiterpene lactones and flavonoids. Over the years, several taxonomic classifications have been proposed for Vernonia s.l. and for the tribe; however, there has been no consensus among the researches. According to traditional classification, Vernonia s.l. comprises more than 1000 species divided into sections, subsections and series (sensu Bentham). In a more recent classification, these species have been segregated into other genera and some subtribes were proposed, while the genus Vernonia sensu stricto was restricted to 22 species distributed mainly in North America (sensu Robinson). In this study, species from the subtribes Vernoniinae, Lepidaploinae and Rolandrinae were analyzed by UHPLC-UV-HRMS followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Data mining was performed using unsupervised (HCA and PCA) and supervised methods (OPLS-DA). The HCA showed the segregation of the species into four main groups. Comparing the HCA with taxonomical classifications of Vernonieae, we observed that the groups of the dendogram, based on metabolic profiling, were in accordance with the generic classification proposed by Robinson and with previous phylogenetic studies. The species of the genera Stenocephalum, Stilpnopappus, Strophopappus and Rolandra (Group 1) were revealed to be more related to the species of the genus Vernonanthura (Group 2), while the genera Cyrtocymura, Chrysolaena and Echinocoryne (Group 3) were chemically more similar to the genera Lessingianthus and Lepidaploa (Group 4). These findings indicated that the subtribes Vernoniinae and Lepidaploinae are non-chemically homogeneous groups and highlighted the application of untargeted metabolomic tools for taxonomy and as indicators of species evolution. Discriminant compounds for the groups obtained by OPLS-DA were determined. Groups 1 and 2 were characterized

  17. Anticonvulsant properties of methanol leaf extract of Laggera Aurita Linn. F. (Asteraceae) in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malami, S; Kyari, H; Danjuma, N M; Ya'u, J; Hussaini, I M

    2016-09-15

    Preparation of Laggera aurita Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various kinds of diseases such as epilepsy, malaria, fever, pain and asthma. Its efficacy is widely acclaimed among communities in Northern Nigeria. The present study is aimed at establishing the possible anticonvulsant effects of the methanol leaf extract of Laggera aurita using acute and chronic anticonvulsant models. Median lethal dose (LD50) was determined in mice and rats via oral and intraperitoneal routes. Anticonvulsant screening of the extract was performed using maximal electroshock-induced seizure test in day-old chicks; pentylenetetrazole-, strychnine- and picrotoxin- induced seizure models in mice. Similarly; its effects on pentylenetetrazole-induce kindling in rats as well as when co-administered with fluphenamic and cyproheptadine in mice, were evaluated. Median lethal dose (LD50) values were found to be >5000mg/kg, p.o. and 2154mg/kg, i.p., each for both rats and mice. The extract showed dose dependent protection against tonic hind limb extension (THLE) and significantly (p<0.05) decreased the mean recovery from seizure in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure. In the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model, the extract offered 50% protection at 600mg/kg and also increased the mean onset of seizure at all doses with significant (p<0.05) increase at the highest dose (600mg/kg). Similarly the extract produced significant (p<0.05) increase in the onset of seizures in both strychnine- and picrotoxin- induced seizure models, at all the doses except at 150mg/kg for the picrotoxin model. Co-administration of fluphenamic acid (FFA) (5mg/kg) and the extract (600mg/kg) showed an enhanced effect with percentage protection of 70% while co-administration of FFA (5mg/kg) and phenytoin (5mg/kg) as well phenytoin (5mg/kg) and the extract (600mg/kg) produced an additive effect. Administration of the extract (600mg/kg), phenytoin (20mg/kg) and cyproheptadine (4mg

  18. Ecuador: una democracia inestable

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    Juan J. Paz y Miño Cepeda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1979, tras una década de dictaduras militares, se inició la fase constitucional más larga en la historia del Ecuador. Ésta se levantó sobre las herencias del pasado y se caracterizó, de manera fundamental, por el tránsito desde un modelo estatal-desarrollista hacia uno de tipo empresarial, por el aparecimiento de nuevos agentes sociales, el multipartidismo político, la regionalización nacional, la presencia multicultural y la inserción del país en nuevas relaciones internacionales. Pero esos procesos trajeron como consecuencias centrales: la edificación de una economía inequitativa, una sociedad tensionada, la desestructuración institucional, la precarización del trabajo y la debilidad con la que la nación ha enfrentado el nuevo mundo unipolar. Todo ello ha configurado un cuadro de riesgos para la incipiente democracia. El Ecuador contemporáneo tiene, por tanto, una serie de desafíos económicos, sociales y políticos para escapar a la inestabilidad que ha acompañado a la construcción de su modernización democrática.___________________ABSTRACT:In 1979, after one decade of military dictatorships, the longest constitutional phase in the history of Ecuador was initiated. It was built upon the inheritance of the past and can be fundamentally characterized by the transition from a model that focused on the state as developing the economy (State-model to a model that focused on private business (enterprise-model. The appearance of new social agents, a multiparty system, national regionalization, multicultural presence and the country´s new international relationships are processes which show some important consequences: the establishment of an unequal economy, a society under tension, the breakdown of institutional structures, the vulnerability of working conditions and the weakness with which the nation faced the new polarized world. All this might put into danger this incipient democracy. And this is why Ecuador in these

  19. una propuesta de indicadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Luján Ponce

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La tecnología reviste características de neutralidad, eficiencia, transparencia y regularidad. Factores que hoy día resultan relevantes para realizar procesos electorales confiables. Las redistritaciones electorales en México 1996 y 2005 resultan casos paradigmáticos en relación a la cristalización de la tecnología como una mediación para la construcción de acuerdos entre los partidos y las autoridades electorales. Se ofrecen cinco indicadores para comparar ambos procesos de distritación.

  20. Construir una literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Wilde, Ariel Oscar

    1998-01-01

    La consideración de las relaciones entre los textos producidos en el centro yen la periferia del sistema es insoslayable a la hora de abordar la lectura crítica de una literatura, analizándola tanto en su proceso histórico (diacronía), como en un estado determinado de dicho proceso (sincronía). El presente trabajo, a partir de un corpus de diez textos publicados entre 1921 y 1931 en distintos lugares de Latinoamérica (Argentina, Brasil, Cuba, México, Nicaragua, Perú, Puerto Rico y República D...

  1. Una finestra sul polo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Busso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rabbia, dolore, incredulità si mescolano in un turbinio di emozioni quando, dalle affissioni che quasi quotidianamente si danno il cambio, si legge il necrologio di un “qualcuno” che sappiamo ucciso dal cancro. E pensiamo che, ancora e forse per tanto tempo, potremmo essere più fortunati. E non c’è pace, non c’è consolazione per quei giorni di vita vissuta, strappata, stropicciata, rubata da un mostro che non sempre è possibile sconfiggere finché non subentra la stanchezza, la rassegnazione, la secchezza delle ghiandole lacrimali. Unico strumento per cercare di “cambiare le cose”, per quanto difficile possa sembrare farlo, è combattere, perché la lotta per un ambiente più vivibile sarà una conquista per noi e per i nostri figli, un’eredità che non ha prezzo. La voglia di “gridare” la sofferenza di chi vive la realtà di uno sviluppo insostenibile si è da tempo trasformata ad Augusta in una battaglia di sensibilizzazione alla ormai annosa problematica e nel profondo desiderio di raccontare, far conoscere, testimoniare emozioni, desideri, sogni di chi vive in prima persona o ha vissuto la malattia di un proprio caro perché tutto questo possa servire a spingere verso quel mutamento culturale, storico, ambientale a cui tutti noi agogniamo.

  2. Morfoanatomia e ontogênese do fruto e semente de Vernonia platensis (Spreng. Less. (Asteraceae Morphology, anatomy and ontogeny of the fruit and seed of Vernonia platensis (Spreng. Less. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Arias Galastri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Asteraceae possui cerca de 23.000 espécies e Vernonieae tem sua maior representatividade no Brasil, sendo Vernonia o maior gênero da tribo. Devido à ampla ocorrência nos Cerrados, V. platensis foi selecionada para a realização deste trabalho, que objetiva descrever a morfoanatomia e o desenvolvimento do pericarpo e da semente desta espécie, comparando os resultados com a literatura. O material coletado foi processado segundo técnicas usuais. O ovário é ínfero, bicarpelar, sincárpico, unilocular, com um óvulo anátropo, unitegumentado, tenuinucelado, formado em placentação basal. A parede ovariana é homogênea, com células mais densas perifericamente. O tegumento possui três regiões, destacando-se evidente endotélio. Na maturidade, a maioria das camadas colapsa, mantendo-se as fibras mesocárpicas externas; o pápus duplo persiste formado por células lignificadas. A semente madura apresenta testa restrita a uma faixa de células colapsadas; o endosperma é celular, persistindo residualmente na maturidade, e o embrião exibe eixo hipocótilo-radícula axial, espesso e curto. Em apenas 40% das cipselas maduras analisadas, há sementes completamente desenvolvidas. As observações deste trabalho corroboram pesquisas anteriores com Asteraceae, mas destaca-se o papel nutritivo do tegumento no desenvolvimento seminal e a baixa produção de sementes em V. platensis.The Asteraceae comprises approximately 23,000 species and Vernonieae is best represented in Brazil; Vernonia is the largest genus in this tribe. Due to occurrence in extensive areas of Cerrado, Vernonia platensis was selected for this work that aims to describe the morphology, anatomy and development of the pericarp and seed of this species, comparing the results with the literature. The collected material was processed by conventional techniques. The ovary is inferior, bicarpellate, syncarpous, unilocular with a single anatropous ovule, unitegmic, tenuinucelate

  3. O gênero Piptocarpha R.Br. (Asteraceae: Vernonieae no estado do Paraná, Brasil The genus Piptocarpha R.Br. (Asteraceae: Vernonieae in the Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Grokoviski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo abrange o gênero Piptocarpha R.Br. (Vernonieae: Asteraceae no Estado do Paraná, Brasil. A metodologia consistiu no levantamento bibliográfico, coleta de material e observação de campo, estudos morfológicos e taxonômicos do material vivo e herborizado. Foram confirmadas para o Estado do Paraná nove espécies, sendo quatro escandentes: Piptocarpha leprosa (Less. Baker, P. oblonga (Gardner Baker, P. quadrangularis (Vell. Baker e P. sellowii (Sch.Bip. Baker; e cinco arbóreas: Piptocarpha angustifolia Dusén ex Malme, P. axillaris (Less. Baker, P. densifolia Dusén ex G.L. Smith, P. macropoda (DC. Baker e P. regnellii (Sch.Bip. Cabrera. São apresentadas chave de identificação, descrições morfológicas, época de floração e frutificação, nomes populares, distribuição geográfica, comentários e ilustrações para cada táxon estudado.The present study analysed the genus Piptocarpha R.Br. (Vernonieae: Asteraceae in the State of Paraná, Brazil. The methodology consisted of examining literature, botanical collections and field observations, morphological and taxonomic study of herborized specimens. Nine species were confirmed, four of these are scandent species: Piptocarpha leprosa (Less. Baker, P. oblonga (Gardner Baker, P. quadrangularis (Vell. Baker and P. sellowii (Sch.Bip. Baker; and five are trees species: Piptocarpha angustifolia Dusén ex Malme, P. axillaris (Less. Baker, P. densifolia Dusén ex G.L. Smith, P. macropoda (DC. Baker and P. regnellii (Sch.Bip. Cabrera. Identification key, descriptions, flowering and fruiting time, popular names, geographical distribution, comments and illustrations are provided for each studied taxa.

  4. Visitantes florales nocturnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina Nocturnal floral visitors of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P Torretta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El girasol (Helianthus annuus es un cultivo oleaginoso, polinizado por Apis mellifera L. y otras abejas en distintas regiones del mundo. Sin embargo, sus flores también son visitadas por insectos de actividad nocturna. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinó la diversidad de los visitantes nocturnos de capítulos de girasol, en cinco sitios de Argentina. También se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de los principales visitantes y la variación de la receptividad estigmática a lo largo del día, con el fin de establecer si estos visitantes contribuyen a la polinización. Al menos 67 especies o morfoespecies pertenecientes a cuatro órdenes de visitantes nocturnos fueron colectadas. El orden más rico y abundante fue Lepidoptera (44 especies o morfoespecies, cinco familias, seguido por Coleoptera (18 especies o morfoespecies, nueve familias, Orthoptera (tres morfoespecies, una familia y Blattaria (dos especies, una familia. Los lepidópteros forrajearon exclusivamente por néctar, mientras que los individuos de los demás órdenes consumieron polen y/o partes florales. El estigma se encontró receptivo durante las horas de luz, con una receptividad máxima al mediodía (12:00 - 14:00. Llamativamente, las flores del girasol son visitadas por mayor número de polillas que de abejas. Debido a que las polillas consumen néctar y potencialmente transportan polen entre flores, en un momento del día en que los estigmas se encuentran menos receptivos, es improbable que polinicen efectivamente el cultivo.Sunflower (Helianthus annuus is an oilseed crop pollinated by Apis mellifera L. and other diurnal bees in different regions of the world. However, their flowers are also visited by insects active at night. During three agricultural years, the diversity of nocturnal visitors to sunflower heads was assessed in five different sites in Argentina. The foraging behavior of the main visitors as well as the stigmatic receptivity variations along

  5. Mucormicosis: Una micosis emergente

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    Iris Tiraboschi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar la incidencia, frecuencia, características clínicas y evolución de los pacientes con mucormicosis atendidos en el Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martín, Universidad de Buenos Aires, entre los años 1982 y 2010. Durante ese período se diagnosticaron 10 casos de mucormicosis. Los tres primeros entre 1982 y 2004 y los últimos 7 entre 2005 y 2010. La incidencia y frecuencia de esta enfermedad, para el período 1980-2004 fue 0.13 pacientes/año y 0.1 casos/10 000 egresos (IC 95%: 0.00 a 0.3 respectivamente. En el período 2005-2010 la incidencia fue 0.86 pacientes/año y la frecuencia de 1.1 casos/10 000 egresos (IC 95%: 0.5 a 2.4. Hubo nueve casos de mucormicosis rinosinuso-orbitaria, siete en pacientes con diabetes mellitus, uno en una paciente con una hemopatía maligna y neutropenia, y el restante en un paciente con HIV/sida que además estaba neutropénico y con un síndrome hemofagocítico. En una paciente se realizó el diagnóstico post mortem de mucormicosis pulmonar. El diagnóstico se efectuó por la observación de filamentos cenocíticos en los diez casos. Hubo desarrollo de mucorales en los cultivos de 8/9 pacientes; cinco Rhizopus spp y tres Mucor spp. Todos los pacientes recibieron un tratamiento inicial con anfotericina B deoxicolato, que en tres de ellos fue continuado con anfotericina B liposomal, y cirugía. Tres enfermos recibieron además un tratamiento adyuvante con oxigeno hiperbárico. La mortalidad fue 30%.

  6. El blindaje de una PC

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    Revista Chasqui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La navegación en Internet y la consiguiente conexión a una red expone a una computadora a un sinfín de riesgos y peligros. Una PC que no sea utilizada para navegar en Internet o que no esté conectada a una red puede,incluso, ser también afectada por virus, por la utilización de disquetes contaminados que la contaminen con un virus. Para enfrentar esos problemas, la industria informática ha previsto una serie de protecciones y recaudos, de cuyo uso y utilización deben estar plenamente informados los usuarios de una PC.

  7. Leggere è una festa

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    Philippe Lejeune

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Come è possibile? Io, così agnostico, perché sono sollecitato da immagini religiose? Abbiamo inventato a poco a poco, dal 1992, poi ritualizzato, il nostro modo di fare. Una “liturgia” regola il corso delle nostre riunioni: è la “carta” dei gruppi di lettura. Le procedure devono essere le stesse in tutti i gruppi, al fine di garantire la coerenza di questo immenso lavoro. Vi è un’ortodossia, un’istanza di controllo che si preoccupa delle alterazioni delle regole, delle procedure d’invito … Come per gli ordini monastici c’è un noviziato (ogni nuovo partecipante è preso “in prova” in un gruppo e dei voti da pronunziare, in particolare quello di “leggere in simpatia” (su questo ci ritornerò dopo – voto di spoliazione di sé per aprirsi all’altro – scoprendo per gradi che non è facile come sembra.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of 11 New Microsatellite Loci in Erigeron breviscapus (Asteraceae, an Important Chinese Traditional Herb

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    Junbo Yang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Erigeron breviscapus (Vant. Hand.-Mazz. (Asteraceae is a species endemic to southwestern China and an important traditional Chinese herb for cardiovascular and cerebral vessel diseases. Applying a modified biotin-streptavidin capture method, 11 microsatellite loci were discovered. Polymorphism of each locus was assessed in 24 individuals collected from five wild populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7, with an average of 4.273. The observed (HO and expected (HE heterozygosities varied from 0.250 to 0.958 and from 0.337 to 0.786, respectively. Over half of these loci were successfully amplified in two congeneric species. The developed microsatellite markers will be useful for future population genetics and conservation studies, as well as accurate identification of different varieties.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation in Inuleae subtribe Inulinae (Asteraceae) based on ITS and cpDNA sequence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englund, Marcus; Pornpongrungrueng, Pimwadee; Gustafsson, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships in Inuleae subtribe Inulinae (Asteraceae) were investigated. DNA sequence data from three chloroplast regions (ndhF, trnL-F and psbA-trnH) and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were analysed separately and in combination using parsimony...... and Bayesian inference. A total of 163 ingroup taxa were included, of which 60 were sampled for all four markers. Conflicts between chloroplast and nuclear data were assessed using partitioned Bremer support (PBS). Rather than averaging PBS over several trees from constrained searches, individual trees were...... considered by evaluating PBS ranges. Criteria to be used in the detection of a significant conflict between data partitions are proposed. Three nodes in the total data tree were found to encompass significant conflict that could result from ancient hybridization. Neither of the large, heterogeneous...

  10. [Diversity of Plants Belonging to the Genus Ligularia (Asteraceae) Based on Terpenoids and Synthetic Studies on Some Terpenoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tori, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    The terpenoid constituents of Ligularia virgaurea (30 samples), Ligularia pleurocaulis (8 samples), Ligularia dictyoneura (8 samples), Ligularia brassicoides (5 samples), Ligularia lingiana (1 sample), and Ligularia liatroides (1 sample)(all belonging to section Senecillis of Ligularia, Asteraceae and collected in Yunnan, Sichuan, Qinghai, and Gansu provinces, China), from which 220 compounds were isolated, including 113 novel ones, are reviewed. Five chemotypes were identified in L. virgaurea based on their chemical constituents, while three clades were detected from the base sequences. Although intra-specific diversity was found in L. virgaurea, more samples were needed of other species in order to reach a definite conclusion. Inter-specific diversity was also examined in section Senecillis but was restricted due to the scarcity of samples. Synthetic studies on chiral natural products to determine their absolute configurations, especially those of riccardiphenols A and B as well as crispatanolide, which were all isolated from the liverwort, are briefly reviewed.

  11. Pollen morphology and its relationship to the taxonomy of the some taxa of helichrysum gaertner (asteraceae) in turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkiran, O.; Bagci, E.

    2017-01-01

    Palynological studies of Helichrysum chionophilum, Helichrysum noeanum, Helichrysum arenarium subsp. aucheri, Helichrysum graveolens, H. plicatum subsp. plicatum and H. plicatum subsp. polyphyllum (Asteraceae) from Turkey have been carried out. H. chionophilum, H. noeanum and H. arenarium subsp. aucheri are endemics to Turkey. Pollen features of both taxa were observed with the Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The pollen type of both taxa were determined as tricolporate, pollen shapes were spheroidal and oblate-spheroidal, reticular pollen ornamentation was observed. The studies show that the pollen of the six taxa are very similar regarding pollen shapes, apertures, and ornamentation, but may be distinguished by colpus length (Clg), pore width (Plt) and pore length (Plg). The findings obtained from the study are discussed with each other and the genus patterns. (author)

  12. Evaluation of antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal activities of Artemisia scoparia and A. Spicigera, Asteraceae

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    Fariba H. Afshar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia species (Asteraceae, widespread throughout the world, are a group of important medicinal plants. The extracts of two medicinal plants of this genus, Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. and A. spicigera C. Koch, were evaluated for potential antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal properties, using the heme biocrystallisation and inhibition assay, the DPPH assay and the contact toxicity bioassay using the pest Tribolium castaneum, respectively. The methanol extracts of both species showed strong free-radical-scavenging activity and the RC50 values were 0.0317 and 0.0458 mg/mL, respectively, for A. scoparia and A. spicigera. The dichloromethane extracts of both species displayed a moderate level of potential antimalarial activity providing IC50 at 0.778 and 0.999 mg/mL for A. scoparia and A. spicigera, respectively. Both species of Artemisia showed insecticidal properties. However, A. spicigera was more effective than A. scoparia.

  13. ALELOPATIA DE Arctium minus BERNH (ASTERACEAE NA GERMINAÇÃO E CRESCIMENTO RADICULAR DE SORGO E PEPINO

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    Valdenir José Belinelo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were identified and characterize the allelopatic activity of extracts obtained from Arctium minus (Hill Bernh (Asteraceae. The fitotoxic activity of organic extracts (1 e 100 mg.L-1 and aqueous extract (5,00 e 0,05% m/v on the germination and radicular growth of the monocotyledon Sorghum bicolor L. (sorghum, and the dicotyledon Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber were evaluated. The results showed the presence of allelopatic activity variable in according to the extract concentration and with the target plant. The intensity of induced inhibitory effect was higher for the ethanolic extract in concentration of 100 mg.L-1 for Sorghum bicolor L. The results also indicates the existence of the potential use of Arctium minus (Hill Bernh ethanolic extract as a natural herbicide and open perspectives for the research of the constituent(s with higher allelopatic activity.

  14. Evolution and diversification of the CYC/TB1 gene family in Asteraceae--a comparative study in Gerbera (Mutisieae) and sunflower (Heliantheae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tähtiharju, Sari; Rijpkema, Anneke S; Vetterli, Adrien; Albert, Victor A; Teeri, Teemu H; Elomaa, Paula

    2012-04-01

    Plant-specific TCP domain transcription factors have been shown to regulate morphological novelties during plant evolution, including the complex architecture of the Asteraceae inflorescence that involves different types of flowers. We conducted comparative analysis of the CYCLOIDEA/TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (CYC/TB1) gene family in Gerbera hybrida (gerbera) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower), two species that represent distant tribes within Asteraceae. Our data confirm that the CYC/TB1 gene family has expanded in Asteraceae, a condition that appears to be connected with the increased developmental complexity and evolutionary success of this large plant family. Phylogenetic analysis of the CYC/TB1 gene family revealed both shared and lineage-specific duplications in gerbera and sunflower, corresponding to the three gene lineages previously identified as specific to core eudicots: CYC1, CYC2, and CYC3. Expression analyses of early stages of flower primordia development indicated that especially within the CYC2 clade, with the greatest number of secondary gene duplications, gene expression patterns are conserved between the species and associated with flower and inflorescence development. All sunflower and gerbera CYC2 clade genes showed differential expression between developing flower types, being upregulated in marginal ray (and trans) flowers. One gene in gerbera (GhCYC3) and two in sunflower (HaCYC2d and HaCYC2c) were indicated to be strong candidates as regulators of ray flower identity, a function that is specific for Asteraceae. Our data further showed that other CYC2 clade genes are likely to have more specialized functions at the level of single flowers, including the late functions in floral reproductive organs that may be more conserved across plant families. The expression patterns of CYC1 and CYC3 clade genes showed more differences between the two species but still pointed to possible conserved functions during vegetative plant development. Pairwise protein

  15. Powdery mildew of Chrysanthemum × morifolium: phylogeny and taxonomy in the context of Golovinomyces species on Asteraceae hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Michael; Braun, Uwe; Götz, Monika; Meeboon, Jamjan; Takamatsu, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    The taxonomic history of the common powdery mildew of Chrysanthemum × morifolium (chrysanthemum, florist's daisy), originally described in Germany as Oidium chrysanthemi, is discussed. The position of O. chrysanthemi was investigated on the basis of morphological traits and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Based on the results of this study, this species, which is closely related to Golovinomyces artemisae, was reassessed and reallocated to Golovinomyces. The phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic reassessment of the chrysanthemum powdery mildew is supplemented by a morphological description, a summary of its worldwide distribution data, and a brief discussion of the introduction of this fungus to North America. G. chrysanthemi differs from true G. artemisiae in that it has much longer conidiophores, is not constricted at the base, and has much larger and most importantly longer conidia. The close affinity of Golovinomyces to Artemisia and Chrysanthemum species signifies a coevolutionary event between the powdery mildews concerned and their host species in the subtribe Artemisiinae (Asteraceae tribe Anthemideae). This conclusion is fully supported by the current phylogeny and taxonomy of the host plant genera and the coevolution that occurred with the host and pathogen. The following powdery mildew species, which are associated with hosts belonging to the tribe Anthemideae of the Asteraceae, are epitypified: Alphitomorpha depressa β artemisiae (≡ Alphitomorpha artemisiae), Erysiphe artemisiae, and Oidium chrysanthemi. Erysiphe macrocarpa is neotypified. Their sequences were retrieved from the epitype collections and have been added to the phylogenetic tree. Golovinomyces orontii, an additional powdery mildew species on Chrysanthemum ×morifolium, is reported. This species is rarely found as a spontaneous infection and was obtained from inoculation experiments.

  16. Relationship between the species-representative phenotype and intraspecific variation in Ranunculaceae floral organ and Asteraceae flower numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Miho S; Fujimoto, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Phenotypic variation in floral morphologies contributes to speciation by testing various morphologies that might have higher adaptivity, leading eventually to phylogenetic diversity. Species diversity has been recognized, however, by modal morphologies where the variation is averaged out, so little is known about the relationship between the variation and the diversity. We analysed quantitatively the intraspecific variation of the organ numbers within flowers of Ranunculaceae, a family which branched near the monocot-eudicot separation, and the numbers of flowers within the capitula of Asteraceae, one of the most diverse families of eudicots. We used four elementary statistical quantities: mean, standard deviation (s.d.), degree of symmetry (skewness) and steepness (kurtosis). While these four quantities vary among populations, we found a common relationship between s.d. and the mean number of petals and sepals in Ranunculaceae and number of flowers per capitulum in Asteraceae. The s.d. is equal to the square root of the difference between the mean and specific number, showing robustness: for example, 3 in Ficaria sepals, 5 in Ranunculus petals and Anemone tepals, and 13 in Farfugium ray florets. This square-root relationship was not applicable to Eranthis petals which show little correlation between the s.d. and mean, and the stamens and carpels of Ranunculaceae whose s.d. is proportional to the mean. The specific values found in the square-root relationship provide a novel way to find the species-representative phenotype among varied morphologies. The representative phenotype is, in most cases, unique to the species or genus level, despite intraspecific differences of average phenotype among populations. The type of variation shown by the statistical quantities indicates not only the robustness of the morphologies but also how flowering plants changed during evolution among representative phenotypes that eventually led to phylogenetic diversification. © The

  17. Outstanding Anti-inflammatory Potential of Selected Asteraceae Species through the Potent Dual Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-Lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela Aparecida; Oliveira, Tiago Branquinho; Faleiro, Danniela Príscylla Vasconcelos; Oliveira, Rejane Barbosa; Costa, Fernando Batista Da

    2015-09-01

    Cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase are enzymes that catalyze important inflammatory pathways, suggesting that dual cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibitors should be more efficacious as anti-inflammatory medicines with lower side effects than the currently available nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Many plants from the family Asteraceae have anti-inflammatory activities, which could be exerted by inhibiting the cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase enzymes. Nevertheless, only a small number of compounds from this family have been directly evaluated for their ability to inhibit the enzymes in cell-free assays. Therefore, this study systematically evaluated 57 Asteraceae extracts in vitro in enzyme activity experiments to determine whether any of these extracts exhibit dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase. The chemical profiles of the extracts were obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-diode array detector method, and their major constituents were dereplicated. Of the 57 tested extracts, 13 (26.6 %, IC50 range from 0.03-36.2 µg/mL) of them displayed dual inhibition. Extracts from known anti-inflammatory herbs, food plants, and previously uninvestigated species are among the most active. Additionally, the extract action was found to be specific with IC50 values close to or below those of the standard inhibitors. Thus, the active extracts and active substances of these species are potent inhibitors acting through the mechanism of dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase. The extracts were prepared for this study using nontoxic extraction solvents (EtOH-H2O), requiring only a small amount of plant material to carry out the bioassays and the phytochemical analyses. In summary, this study demonstrated the potential of the investigated species as dual inhibitors, revealing their potential as pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Toxicological evaluation of the natural products and some semisynthetic derivatives of Heterotheca inuloides Cass (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Chávez, José Luis; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Sicilia-Argumedo, Gloria; Ramírez-Apan, Teresa; Delgado, Guillermo

    2015-12-04

    Heterotheca ineuloides Cass (Asteraceae), popularly known as árnica mexicana, is widely used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat bruises, dermatological problems, rheumatic pains, and other disorders as cancer. The major constituents in H. inuloides are cadinane type sesquiterpenes, flavonoids and phytosterols. Compounds with a cadinane skeleton have been proved to possess cytotoxic activity against human-tumor cell lines and brine shrimp, and display toxic effects in different animal species. Although this plant has been widely used, there is little available information on the safety and toxicity especially of pure compounds. Evaluate the potential toxicity of the natural products isolated from H. inuloides and some semisynthetic derivatives. The toxic aspects of the following natural products isolated from dried flowers of H. inuloides: 7-hydroxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (1), 7-hydroxycadalene (2), 3,7-dihydroxy-3(4H)-isocadalen-4-one (3), (1R,4R)-1-hydroxy-4H-1,2,3,4- tetrahydrocadalen-15-oic acid (4), D-chiro-inositol (5), quercetin (6), quercetin-3,7,3'-trimethyl ether (7), quercetin-3,7,3',4'-tetramethyl ether (8), eriodictyol-7,4'-dimethyl ether (9), α-spinasterol (10), caryolan-1,9β-diol (11) and 7-(3,3-dimethylallyloxy)-coumarin (12) as well as the toxic aspects of the semisynthetic compounds 7-acetoxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (13), 7-benzoxy-3,4-dihydrocadalene (14), 7-acetoxycadalene (15), 7-benzoxycadalene (16), quercetin pentaacetate (17), 7-hydroxycalamenene (18), 3,8-dimethyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-1,2-naphthoquinone (19), and 4-isopropyl-1,6-dimethylbenzo[c]oxepine-7,9-dione (20). Toxic activities of compounds were determined by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, Artemia salina assay, RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Additionally, the acute toxicity in mouse of compound 1, the major natural sesquiterpene isolated from the acetone extract, was evaluated. The best cytotoxicity activity was observed for mansonone C (19) on K562 cell line with IC50 1.45 ± 0.14 μM, for

  19. Genetic structure and seed germination in Portuguese populations of Cheirolophus uliginosus (Asteraceae: Implications for conservation strategies

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    Vitales, D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cheirolophus uliginosus is a threatened species, endemic to the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula, where it occupies a few restricted localities. In our study we analysed the patterns of cpDNA haplotypes variation and reproductive success—germinability—among seven Portuguese populations of varying size. The aim was to examine the reproductive performance of Ch. uliginosus related to genetic structure and population size. The results showed very low within-population variability of cpDNA markers. Our study indicates that the germination rate is significantly reduced in small populations ( 250 individuals do not show any constraint. In the search for plausible causes explaining the lower germination success in the smallest populations, ecological concerns and genetic isolation must be taken into account. Besides, in large-sized populations of Ch. uliginosus (> 250 plants a higher incidence of predispersal seed predation was observed, maybe affecting their sexual reproductive response. Finally, smaller populations—presenting a reduced reproductive success—contain also the most evolutionary distant haplotypes, so their conservation should be a priority.Cheirolophus uliginosus es una especie amenazada endémica de la costa atlántica de la península ibérica, donde ocupa unas pocas y reducidas localidades. En nuestro estudio, analizamos los patrones de variación de los haplotipos de ADN cloroplástico y el éxito reproductivo —capacidad germinativa— en siete poblaciones portuguesas de diferente tamaño. El éxito reproductivo de Ch. uliginosus se ha examinado en relación con la estructura genética y el tamaño de sus poblaciones. Los resultados indican una variabilidad intrapoblacional muy baja para los marcadores cloroplásticos utilizados. Nuestro estudio muestra una tasa de germinación significativamente reducida en las poblaciones pequeñas ( 250 individuos. Para explicar este fenómeno, se deben tomar en consideración las

  20. Una revista distinta: Ellas

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    Requena Hidalgo, Cora

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the women’s magazine Ellas, published in the mid-nineteenth century in Madrid, and discusses its relationship with other approximately contemporary magazines and newspapers in order to contribute to a reconstruction of the history of women’s publications in the Spanish press. The approach is based on an analysis of the text of each issue of the magazine and comparison with other publications, where applicable. Key features of the article include a reflection on the social rights of women, an attempt to analyse the main differences between women and men and defining features of sexual gender, the need for women’s education, etc. Studying the magazine’s content clearly reveals a continual tension between progressive and conservative ideas typical of the historical context in which gender studies emerged in Spain.Este artículo centra su atención en la revista para mujeres Ellas, publicada a mediados del siglo XIX en Madrid. Analiza, asimismo, la relación de esta publicación con algunas otras revistas y periódicos de su contexto histórico próximo, con el fin de contribuir a la reconstrucción de una Historia de las publicaciones para mujeres en la prensa española. Para ello se utiliza el análisis de textos que forman parte de los números que componen la revista, así como el análisis comparativo entre publicaciones, cuando es pertinente. Entre los aspectos de mayor interés que el artículo pone de relieve se encuentra la reflexión sobre los derechos sociales de las mujeres, el intento de análisis de las principales diferencias entre mujeres y hombres y de los rasgos definitorios de los géneros sexuales, la necesidad de educación de las mujeres, entre otros. El estudio del contenido de la publicación revela claramente una tensión contradictoria continua entre las ideas progresistas y las ideas conservadoras propias del momento histórico que dieron origen en España al nacimiento de los estudios de género.

  1. Una visita a Buero Vallejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Navarro

    1962-06-01

    Full Text Available Si usted, que ha visto representadas o ha leído "Historia de una escalera", "En la ardiente oscuridad", "Meninas", quiere conocer a su autor, véngase conmigo. Ande, apurémonos: la cita es para la una y media y ya son las dos.

  2. Gnomon una indagine sul numero

    CERN Document Server

    Zellini, Paolo

    1999-01-01

    Lo "gnomone" di cui si parla in questo libro non è quello stilo, più o meno monumentale, la cui ombra indica l'ora solare, ma un semplice strumento matematico: una figura geometrica, piana o solida, che aggiunta a un'altra ne genera una simile. Si tratta quindi di una tecnica, ampiamente diffusa nell'antichità, atta a ingrandire o rimpicciolire una forma conservandone l'aspetto. Lo gnomone non aveva solo importanza geometrica. Dalla semplice operazione di correzione "gnomonica" di una figura sono dipesi infatti la stessa nozione di numero, la definizione di vari concetti dell'Analisi e alcuni tra i principali algoritmi numerici e algebrici della matematica.

  3. Reubicación de plantas de Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae como estrategia para el enriquecimiento de áreas de páramo alteradas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rojas-Zamora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El trasplante o reubicación de individuos ha sido ampliamente usado para la adición de especies en procesos de restauración. En este trabajo se estudió la respuesta de individuos de Espeletia grandiflora a la reubicación como estrategia de restauración ecológica; así mismo, se evaluó el efecto del tamaño de los individuos reubicados sobre la supervivencia y desarrollo. Se reubicaron individuos de tres diferentes tamaños, 5, 10 y 15cm de altura. Se registraron las variables supervivencia, altura de la planta, número de hojas vivas y diámetro del tallo de cada uno de los individuos, se evaluaron las posibles diferencias en cuanto a supervivencia y desarrollo. La categoría de tamaño más eficaz corresponde a la de 15cm de altura, que presentó una supervivencia del 85% luego de dos años. Se sugiere el uso del diámetro del tallo como criterio de selección de los individuos a reubicar, ya que es la variable que mejor predice la supervivencia dos años luego de la reubicación. Las tasas de crecimiento relativo en altura y diámetro del tallo disminuyen conforme aumenta el tamaño de los individuos; sin embargo, el incremento absoluto en altura no presenta diferencias entre los tres tamaños evaluados. A partir de los resultados se verifica el éxito de la reubicación de plantas de E. grandiflora como estrategia de enriquecimiento en pastizales de páramos alterados.Relocation of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae plants as a strategy for enrichment of disturbed paramo areas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia. Ecological restoration of the Andean paramos faces several ecological barriers mainly at the phase of dispersal and establishment of native species. With the aim to contribute to the enrichment of degraded areas, different strategies have to be developed to overcome those barriers. In this work we studied the response of individuals of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae to the relocation as a strategy for ecological restoration programs

  4. Visitantes florales nocturnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P TORRETTA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El girasol (Helianthus annuus es un cultivo oleaginoso, polinizado por Apis mellifera L. y otras abejas en distintas regiones del mundo. Sin embargo, sus flores también son visitadas por insectos de actividad nocturna. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinó la diversidad de los visitantes nocturnos de capítulos de girasol, en cinco sitios de Argentina. También se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de los principales visitantes y la variación de la receptividad estigmática a lo largo del día, con el fin de establecer si estos visitantes contribuyen a la polinización. Al menos 67 especies o morfoespecies pertenecientes a cuatro órdenes de visitantes nocturnos fueron colectadas. El orden más rico y abundante fue Lepidoptera (44 especies o morfoespecies, cinco familias, seguido por Coleoptera (18 especies o morfoespecies, nueve familias, Orthoptera (tres morfoespecies, una familia y Blattaria (dos especies, una familia. Los lepidópteros forrajearon exclusivamente por néctar, mientras que los individuos de los demás órdenes consumieron polen y/o partes florales. El estigma se encontró receptivo durante las horas de luz, con una receptividad máxima al mediodía (12:00 - 14:00. Llamativamente, las flores del girasol son visitadas por mayor número de polillas que de abejas. Debido a que las polillas consumen néctar y potencialmente transportan polen entre flores, en un momento del día en que los estigmas se encuentran menos receptivos, es improbable que polinicen efectivamente el cultivo.

  5. QUALITATIVE COMPOSITION AND ORGANI C ACIDS CONTENT IN THE ABOVEGROUN D PART OF PLANTS FRO M FAMILIES LAMIACEAE, ASTERACEAE, APIACEAE AND CHENOPODIACEAE

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    S. M. Marchyshyn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Organic acids are the compounds of aliphatic or aromatic orders, which are widespread in flora and have a wide range of biological activity. We studied the qualitative composition and quantitative contents of organic acids in the aboveground part of some unofficial medicinal plants from families Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Chenopodiaceae is relevant. Objective. The objects of the research are the aboveground part of unofficial medicinal plants from families Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Chenopodiaceae. Methods. Identification of organic acids was performed by means of thin-layer and paper chromatography, their content was determined by means of gas chromatography, the quantitative amount of organic acids was defined by titrimetric analysis. Results. In the studied raw plants the quality of organic acids and their total contents were determined (in terms of malic acid. It is established that the maximum content of organic acids is accumulated in the grass Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae, and the minimal is in the leaves of Chrysánthemum xhortorum L. variety Apro (Asteraceae. In all studied raw plants the dominance of aliphatic acids (citric, malic, oxalic and malonic was determined by means of gas chromatography. Benzoic is predominant among the aromatic acids. Conclusions. In the studied raw plants the quality of organic acids and their total content were determined. The following results can be used in developing the methods of quality control of the studied raw plants and during the study of new bioactive substances.

  6. Sesquiterpene lactone mix as a diagnostic tool for Asteraceae allergic contact dermatitis: chemical explanation for its poor performance and Sesquiterpene lactone mix II as a proposed improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Mathias; Brinkmann, Jürgen; Schmidt, Thomas J

    2012-05-01

    Two preparations are currently in use for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis caused by Asteraceae: (i) Sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix [three pure sesquiterpene lactones (STLs)], whose use has been questioned, owing to an insufficient rate of true-positive results; and (ii) Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae extracts, which is problematic because of lack of standardization and questionable reproducibility. To analyse the reasons for the narrow sensitivity of SL mix from a chemoinformatic point of view, and to propose a solution by rational selection of alternative constituents for a new SL mix II covering a broader cohort of allergic patients. Structural and biological information on allergenic STLs was retrieved from databases and the literature, and molecular modelling and chemoinformatic computations were performed. An explanation for the insufficient hit rate of SL mix is that the three constituents possess extremely similar molecular structures/properties and do not represent well the structural diversity of allergenic STLs. STLs that are known as constituents of Compositae mix plants show much a wider diversity, which explains the higher positive rate. On the basis of their positions in chemical property space, a new collection of STLs that more evenly cover the overall structural diversity spectrum is proposed. SL mix II is likely to detect a larger number of patients sensitized to Asteraceae. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Una visita en Sud America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Oisfrute de una estadfa en el Hotel La Silla, el mejor hotel de Sud America con su tan unica atmosfera extraterrestre! Los espera su calificado personal de experimentados hoteleros, jefes de cocina, etc., ansiosos todos de satisfacer sus deseos hasta el mas mfnimo detalle. Naturalmente nuestro espacioso restaurant de tres estrellas ofrece un completo surtido de exquisitas comidas y deliciosos tragos (conocedores usualmente eligen "Oelicia Orion" 0 "Centauro Especial"). EI servicio cempleto durante 24 horas incluye nuestra ya mundialmente famosa "Cena de medianoche para los miradores de estrellas", por eso - no olvide: No pierda la oportunidad de una estadfa en EL HOTEL LA SILLA - una experiencia maravillosa!

  8. Elisa de captura com IgY para quantificação de acetato de lupeol em Vernonia scorpioides lam. Pers (asteraceae Capture IgY-elisa to quantify lupeol acetate in Vernonia scorpioides lam. Pers (asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Bastos Freire

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento descreve, pela primeira vez, a elaboração de um ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA de captura com anticorpos IgY para a detecção e quantificação de acetato de lupeol (LAc em Vernonia scorpioides Lam. Pers (Asteraceae. Anticorpos anti-LAc, obtidos partir do soro das aves e gemas de seus ovos, após imunização com o conjugado acetato de lupeol-cBSA, foram concentrados em coluna contendo LAc-BSA acoplado a sepharose. A eficácia da metodologia de detecção imunológica foi de 97%, com índices de sensibilidade e especificidade de 99% e 95%, respectivamente com limites de detecção do ensaio entre 0,02µg.g-1 (inferior e 10 µg.g-1 (superior. A robustez do método foi atestada pela sua elevada reprodutibilidade (entre 94,75% e 96,81%, e pelo baixo coeficiente de variação interna (4,22 ± 1,03% nas condições de execução descritas.For the first time, a yolk immunoglobulins-based immunenzymatic assay (capture IgY-ELISA was carried out to detect Lupeol acetate (LAc from Vernonia scorpioides Lam. Pers (Asteraceae. Antibodies (IgY against lupeol acetate (anti-LAc antibodies were raised in White Leghorn hens immunized with LAc conjugated to the bovine serum albumin (LAc-BSA. The anti-LAc antibodies were recovered by cleanup columns containing LAc-BSA coupled to sepharose. The capture IgY-ELISA efficacy was of 97% when the predictive indices of sensitivity and specificity were 99.0% and 95%, respectively. The lowest and highest detection limits were of 0.02µg g-1 and 10µg.g-1 of plant extract, respectively. The strength of this method was attested by its high reproducibility (between 94.75% and 96.81%, and a low internal variation (4.22 ± 1.03%, under the described conditions.

  9. Meiotic analysis of the germoplasm of three medicinal species from Asteraceae family Análise meiótica do germoplasma de três espécies medicinais da família Asteraceae

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    Denise Olkoski

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic characterization was carried out on 12 accessions from Aster squamatus (Spreng. Hieron., Pterocaulon polystachyum DC, and Solidago microglossa DC by studying their meiotic behavior and pollen viability. These species are from the Asteraceae family, native to Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and are important for medicinal use. Young inflorescences with four accessions of each species were collected, fixed in ethanol-acetic acid (3:1, and conserved in ethanol 70% until use. The method used was that of squashing the anthers and coloring with acetic orcein 2%. Meiosis was regular in all accessions, presenting chromosomal associations preferentially bivalent, where n=10 was found for Aster squamatus and n=9 for Pterocaulon polystachyum, and Solidago microglossa. The studied accessions presented a Meiotic Index (MI that varied from 65% to 87% in Aster squamatus, 85% to 92% in Pterocaulon polystachyum, and 64% to 92% in Solidago microglossa, indicating meiotic stability, although irregularities appeared during the cellular division. The pollen viability estimative was high in all studied accessions. These results indicate that the studied species can be included in future studies of genetic breeding.Foi realizada a caracterização citogenética de doze acessos de Aster squamatus, Pterocaulon polystachyum e Solidago microglossa, espécies da família Asteraceae, nativas do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, por meio do estudo do comportamento meiótico e da viabilidade polínica, que possuem grande importância para uso medicinal. Inflorescências jovens de quatro acessos de cada espécie foram fixadas em álcool-ácido acético (3:1 e conservadas em álcool 70% até o uso. O método utilizado foi o de esmagamento de anteras e a coloração com orceína acética 2%. A meiose foi regular em todos os acessos, apresentando associações cromossômicas preferencialmente em bivalentes, encontrando-se n=10 para Aster squamatus e n=9 para Pterocaulon

  10. Repeated reunions and splits feature the highly dynamic evolution of 5S and 35S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in the Asteraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sònia; Panero, José L; Siroky, Jiri; Kovarik, Ales

    2010-08-16

    In flowering plants and animals the most common ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) organisation is that in which 35S (encoding 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA) and 5S genes are physically separated occupying different chromosomal loci. However, recent observations established that both genes have been unified to a single 35S-5S unit in the genus Artemisia (Asteraceae), a genomic arrangement typical of primitive eukaryotes such as yeast, among others. Here we aim to reveal the origin, distribution and mechanisms leading to the linked organisation of rDNA in the Asteraceae by analysing unit structure (PCR, Southern blot, sequencing), gene copy number (quantitative PCR) and chromosomal position (FISH) of 5S and 35S rRNA genes in approximately 200 species representing the family diversity and other closely related groups. Dominant linked rDNA genotype was found within three large groups in subfamily Asteroideae: tribe Anthemideae (93% of the studied cases), tribe Gnaphalieae (100%) and in the "Heliantheae alliance" (23%). The remaining five tribes of the Asteroideae displayed canonical non linked arrangement of rDNA, as did the other groups in the Asteraceae. Nevertheless, low copy linked genes were identified among several species that amplified unlinked units. The conserved position of functional 5S insertions downstream from the 26S gene suggests a unique, perhaps retrotransposon-mediated integration event at the base of subfamily Asteroideae. Further evolution likely involved divergence of 26S-5S intergenic spacers, amplification and homogenisation of units across the chromosomes and concomitant elimination of unlinked arrays. However, the opposite trend, from linked towards unlinked arrangement was also surmised in few species indicating possible reversibility of these processes. Our results indicate that nearly 25% of Asteraceae species may have evolved unusual linked arrangement of rRNA genes. Thus, in plants, fundamental changes in intrinsic structure of rDNA units, their copy

  11. Next-generation sampling: Pairing genomics with herbarium specimens provides species-level signal in Solidago (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, James B; Semple, John C

    2015-06-01

    The ability to conduct species delimitation and phylogeny reconstruction with genomic data sets obtained exclusively from herbarium specimens would rapidly enhance our knowledge of large, taxonomically contentious plant genera. In this study, the utility of genotyping by sequencing is assessed in the notoriously difficult genus Solidago (Asteraceae) by attempting to obtain an informative single-nucleotide polymorphism data set from a set of specimens collected between 1970 and 2010. Reduced representation libraries were prepared and Illumina-sequenced from 95 Solidago herbarium specimen DNAs, and resulting reads were processed with the nonreference Universal Network-Enabled Analysis Kit (UNEAK) pipeline. Multidimensional clustering was used to assess the correspondence between genetic groups and morphologically defined species. Library construction and sequencing were successful in 93 of 95 samples. The UNEAK pipeline identified 8470 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and a filtered data set was analyzed for each of three Solidago subsections. Although results varied, clustering identified genomic groups that often corresponded to currently recognized species or groups of closely related species. These results suggest that genotyping by sequencing is broadly applicable to DNAs obtained from herbarium specimens. The data obtained and their biological signal suggest that pairing genomics with large-scale herbarium sampling is a promising strategy in species-rich plant groups.

  12. Combined treatment with caffeic and ferulic acid from Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) protects against metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocco, B M; Fernandes, G W; Lorena, F B; Cysneiros, R M; Christoffolete, M A; Grecco, S S; Lancellotti, C L; Romoff, P; Lago, J H G; Bianco, A C; Ribeiro, M O

    2016-03-01

    Fractionation of the EtOH extract from aerial parts of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) led to isolation of caffeic and ferulic acids, which were identified from spectroscopic and spectrometric evidence. These compounds exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to be effective in the prevention/treatment of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids exhibits a more significant beneficial effect in a mouse model with metabolic syndrome. The combination treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids was tested for 60 days in C57 mice kept on a high-fat (40%) diet. The data obtained indicated that treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids prevented gain in body weight induced by the high-fat diet and improved hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The expression of a number of metabolically relevant genes was affected in the liver of these animals, showing that caffeic and ferulic acid treatment results in increased cholesterol uptake and reduced hepatic triglyceride synthesis in the liver, which is a likely explanation for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids displayed major positive effects towards prevention of multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome and liver steatosis in an obese mouse model.

  13. Physiological response and differential leaf proteome pattern in the European invasive Asteraceae Solidago canadensis colonizing a former cokery soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immel, Françoise; Renaut, Jenny; Masfaraud, Jean-François

    2012-02-02

    Derelict contaminated sites are often colonized spontaneously by plant species leading to a vegetal cover thought to limit particle dispersal and polluted water infiltration. Those plants must cope with soil pollutants through tolerance mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. Here, we focused our attention on a particular Asteraceae plant, Solidago canadensis, considered as invasive in Europe. S. canadensis spontaneously growing on either polluted (NM soil) or control soils dumped on experimental plots were studied for their physiological status, oxidative stress and 2D-DIGE of leaf extracts. S. canadensis tolerance to soil pollutants was demonstrated since growth rates, allocation to reproduction ratios and Fv/Fm ratios were similar in plants from control and NM soil. At the cell level, the catalase activity level was increased in plants collected on NM soil while lipoperoxidation was unaffected. Also, the leaf proteomic study revealed thirty down-regulated and sixty-six up-regulated proteins. Abundances of proteins related to oxidative stress, carbohydrate metabolism, ion transport were mainly up-regulated while those of proteins involved in cell cycle and transcription/translation were mostly down-regulated. Proteins associated to protein metabolism were either down- or up-regulated. Considered altogether, we highlighted that S. canadensis exhibited a complex proteome response when experiencing a multicontaminated soil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Volatile constituents from Baccharis spp. L. (Asteraceae): Chemical support for the conservation of threatened species in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteguiaga, Manuel; Andrés González, H; Cassel, Eduardo; Umpierrez, Noelia; Fariña, Laura; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2018-03-14

    Chemical bioprospecting is an important tool for generating knowledge regarding local human-threatened floras and for conservation management. For Baccharis L. (Asteraceae), several volatile components have been reported for Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile as a result of bioprospection, but not for Uruguayan flora, which is composed of more than 50 native species. In this work, through collection of aerial parts of different species and volatile simultaneous-distillation extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, 12 native species of Baccharis were studied (B. articulata, B. cultrata, B. genistifolia, B. gibertii, B. gnaphalioides, B. ochracea, B. phyteumoides, B. punctulata, B. crispa, B. dracunculifolia, B. linearifolia subsp. linearifolia, and B. spicata). A detailed analysis of the male and female volatile composition was conducted for the last four species. The profiles of B. cultrata, B. genistifolia, B. gibertii, and B. gnaphalioides are reported for the first time. Because half of the species analysed in this work are in Uruguay and are threatened or potentially threatened by human economic activities, the importance of their conservation as natural, sustainable resources is highlighted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Fly pollination of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae), and a possible mimetic function for dark spots on the capitulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.D.; Midgley, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the functional significance of raised black spots on the ray florets of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae) in South Africa. Field observations showed that G. diffusa is pollinated by a small bee-fly, Megapalpus nitidus (Bombyliidae). which is strikingly similar to the raised spots that occur on some of the ray florets. Removal of the spots resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of fly visits to capitula, but did not significantly affect seed set. Replacement of the spots with simple ink spots also significantly reduced the rate of pollinator visits, suggesting that flies respond to details in the structure of the spots. Investigations using scanning electron microscopy showed that the spots of G. diffusa consist of a complex of different cell types. Differences in epidermal sculpturing may partly explain the UV reflectance pattern of these spots, which is similar to that of the flies. Mate flies are strongly attracted to the spots, as well as to other flies sitting in the capitula, although female flies also visit the capitula. We conclude that the spots of G. diffusa mimic resting flies, thereby eliciting mate-seeking and aggregation responses in fly pollinators. Similar dark spots have evolved in unrelated South African Gazania. Dimorphotheca, and Pelargonium species pollinated by bee-flies

  16. On the road to diploidization? Homoeolog loss in independently formed populations of the allopolyploid Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae

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    Soltis Pamela S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyploidy (whole-genome duplication is an important speciation mechanism, particularly in plants. Gene loss, silencing, and the formation of novel gene complexes are some of the consequences that the new polyploid genome may experience. Despite the recurrent nature of polyploidy, little is known about the genomic outcome of independent polyploidization events. Here, we analyze the fate of genes duplicated by polyploidy (homoeologs in multiple individuals from ten natural populations of Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae, all of which formed independently from T. dubius and T. pratensis less than 80 years ago. Results Of the 13 loci analyzed in 84 T. miscellus individuals, 11 showed loss of at least one parental homoeolog in the young allopolyploids. Two loci were retained in duplicate for all polyploid individuals included in this study. Nearly half (48% of the individuals examined lost a homoeolog of at least one locus, with several individuals showing loss at more than one locus. Patterns of loss were stochastic among individuals from the independently formed populations, except that the T. dubius copy was lost twice as often as T. pratensis. Conclusion This study represents the most extensive survey of the fate of genes duplicated by allopolyploidy in individuals from natural populations. Our results indicate that the road to genome downsizing and ultimate genetic diploidization may occur quickly through homoeolog loss, but with some genes consistently maintained as duplicates. Other genes consistently show evidence of homoeolog loss, suggesting repetitive aspects to polyploid genome evolution.

  17. Next-Generation Sequencing of the Chrysanthemum nankingense (Asteraceae) Transcriptome Permits Large-Scale Unigene Assembly and SSR Marker Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Peng, Hui; Li, Pirui; Song, Aiping; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    Background Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Chrysanthemum is one of the largest genera in the Asteraceae family. Only few Chrysanthemum expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences have been acquired to date, so the number of available EST-SSR markers is very low. Methodology/Principal Findings Illumina paired-end sequencing technology produced over 53 million sequencing reads from C. nankingense mRNA. The subsequent de novo assembly yielded 70,895 unigenes, of which 45,789 (64.59%) unigenes showed similarity to the sequences in NCBI database. Out of 45,789 sequences, 107 have hits to the Chrysanthemum Nr protein database; 679 and 277 sequences have hits to the database of Helianthus and Lactuca species, respectively. MISA software identified a large number of putative EST-SSRs, allowing 1,788 primer pairs to be designed from the de novo transcriptome sequence and a further 363 from archival EST sequence. Among 100 primer pairs randomly chosen, 81 markers have amplicons and 20 are polymorphic for genotypes analysis in Chrysanthemum. The results showed that most (but not all) of the assays were transferable across species and that they exposed a significant amount of allelic diversity. Conclusions/Significance SSR markers acquired by transcriptome sequencing are potentially useful for marker-assisted breeding and genetic analysis in the genus Chrysanthemum and its related genera. PMID:23626799

  18. Propagule pressure, genetic structure, and geographic origins of Chondrilla juncea (Asteraceae): an apomictic invader on three continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, John F; Schwarzländer, Mark; Kinter, C Lynn; Smith, James F; Novak, Stephen J

    2013-09-01

    Assessing propagule pressure and geographic origins of invasive species provides insight into the invasion process. Rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea; Asteraceae) is an apomictic, perennial plant that is invasive in Australia, South America (Argentina), and North America (Canada and the United States). This study comprehensively compares propagule pressure and geographic structure of genotypes to improve our understanding of a clonal invasion and enhance management strategies. • We analyzed 1056 native range plants from Eurasia and 1156 plants from three invaded continents using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) techniques. We used measures of diversity (Simpson's D) and evenness (E), analysis of molecular variance, and Mantel tests to compare invasions, and genotype similarity to determine origins of invasive genotypes. • We found 682 unique genotypes in the native range, but only 13 in the invaded regions. Each invaded region contained distinct AFLP genotypes, suggesting independent introduction events, probably with different geographic origins. Relatively low propagule pressure was associated with each introduction around the globe, but levels of among-population variation differed. We found exact AFLP genotype matches between the native and invaded ranges for five of the 13 invasive genotypes. • Invasion dynamics can vary across invaded ranges within a species. Intensive sampling for molecular analyses can provide insight for understanding intraspecific invasion dynamics, which can hold significance for the management of plant species, especially by finding origins and distributions of invasive genotypes for classical biological control efforts.

  19. Selfing ability and dispersal are positively related, but not affected by range position: a multispecies study on southern African Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, C; Rodger, J G; Anderson, B; Ellis, A G

    2014-05-01

    Dispersal and breeding system traits are thought to affect colonization success. As species have attained their present distribution ranges through colonization, these traits may vary geographically. Although several theories predict associations between dispersal ability, selfing ability and the relative position of a population within its geographic range, there is little theoretical or empirical consensus on exactly how these three variables are related. We investigated relationships between dispersal ability, selfing ability and range position across 28 populations of 13 annual, wind-dispersed Asteraceae species from the Namaqualand region of South Africa. Controlling for phylogeny, relative dispersal ability--assessed from vertical fall time of fruits--was positively related to an index of autofertility--determined from hand-pollination experiments. These findings support the existence of two discrete syndromes: high selfing ability associated with good dispersal and obligate outcrossing associated with lower dispersal ability. This is consistent with the hypothesis that selection for colonization success drives the evolution of an association between these traits. However, no general effect of range position on dispersal or breeding system traits was evident. This suggests selection on both breeding system and dispersal traits acts consistently across distribution ranges. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Morphological and anatomical features of cypsela of some crepis taxa (asteraceae) from turkey and their taxonomic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru, J.; Cheng, X.Y.; Wang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit morphology and anatomy have taxonomic importance in Asteraceae. The fruits structures of Crepis from Turkey, which include five species (C. alpina, C. smyrnaea, C. pulchra, C. zacintha, C. sancta) and two subspecies (C. foetida subsp. foetida and C. foetida subsp. rhoeadifolia) were studied for fruit morphological and anatomical characters with one-way analysis of variance, cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Fruit size, shape, color, and the presence of beak were observed with stereomicroscopy. Whereas the surface patterns of fruit and pappus were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, pericarp structure, thicknesses of testa and endosperm, and number of rib, cotyledon width in cypsela were studied anatomically. Results indicated that cypsela sizes, the presence or absence of beak on the cypsela, fruit and pappus surfaces, pericarp. Thickness of testa and endosperm, and number of ribs are of major importance to illustrate interspecific relations among the examined taxa. Also, this investigation is a preliminary study, which was performed to use fruit morphological and anatomical characters for their practicality on the classification of taxa within the genus. (author)

  1. The Evolutionary History Of The White-Rayed Species Of Melampodium (Asteraceae) Involved Multiple Cycles Of Hybridization And Polyploidization1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebernig, Carolin A.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Blöch, Cordula; Turner, Barbara; Stuessy, Tod F.; Obermayer, Renate; Villaseñor, Jose L.; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study Polyploidy plays an important role in race differentiation and eventually speciation. Underlying mechanisms include chromosomal and genomic changes facilitating reproductive isolation and/or stabilization of hybrids. A prerequisite for studying these processes is a sound knowledge on the origin of polyploids. A well-suited group for studying polyploid evolution consists of the three species of Melampodium ser. Leucantha (Asteraceae): M. argophyllum, M. cinereum, and M. leucanthum. Methods The origin of polyploids was inferred using network and tree-based phylogenetic analyses of several plastid and nuclear DNA sequences and of fingerprint data (AFLP). Genome evolution was assessed via genome size measurements, karyotype analysis, and in situ hybridization of ribosomal DNA. Key results Tetraploid cytotypes of the phylogenetically distinct M. cinereum and M. leucanthum had, compared to the diploid cytotypes, doubled genome sizes and no evidence of gross chromosomal rearrangements. Hexaploid M. argophyllum constituted a separate lineage with limited intermixing with the other species, except in analyses from nuclear ITS. Its genome size was lower than expected if M. cinereum and/or M. leucanthum were involved in its origin, and no chromosomal rearrangements were evident. Conclusions Polyploids in M. cinereum and M. leucanthum are of recent autopolyploid origin in line with the lack of significant genomic changes. Hexaploid M. argophyllum also appears to be of autopolyploid origin against the previous hypothesis of an allopolyploid origin involving the other two species, but some gene flow with the other species in early phases of differentiation cannot be excluded. PMID:22645096

  2. A New Alkamide with an Endoperoxide Structure from Acmella ciliata (Asteraceae) and Its in Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Narjara; Saar, Julia; Santos, Alan Diego C; Barison, Andersson; Sandjo, Louis P; Kaiser, Marcel; Schmidt, Thomas J; Biavatti, Maique W

    2016-06-11

    From the aerial parts of Acmella ciliata (H.B.K.) Cassini (basionym Spilanthes ciliata Kunth; Asteraceae), three alkamides were isolated and identified by mass- and NMR spectroscopic methods as (2E,6E,8E)-N-isobutyl-2,6,8-decatrienamide (spilanthol, (1)), N-(2-phenethyl)-2E-en-6,8-nonadiynamide (2) and (2E,7Z)-6,9-endoperoxy-N-isobutyl-2,7-decadienamide (3). While 1 and 2 are known alkamides, compound 3 has not been described until now. It was found that the unusual cyclic peroxide 3 exists as a racemate of both enantiomers of each alkamide; the 6,9-cis- as well as the 6,9-trans-configured diastereomers, the former represents the major, the latter the minor constituent of the mixture. In vitro tests for activity against the human pathogenic parasites Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Plasmodium falciparum revealed that 1 and 3 possess activity against the NF54 strain of the latter (IC50 values of 4.5 and 5.1 µM, respectively) while 2 was almost inactive. Compound 3 was also tested against multiresistant P. falciparum K1 and was found to be even more active against this parasite strain (IC50 = 2.1 µM) with considerable selectivity (IC50 against L6 rat skeletal myoblasts = 168 µM).

  3. Dispersal, dormancy and life-history tradeoffs at the individual, population and species levels in southern African Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Caroli; Anderson, Bruce; Ellis, Allan G

    2016-04-01

    Dispersal and dormancy are important risk-reducing strategies in unpredictable environments. Negative covariation between these strategies is theoretically expected, but empirical evidence is limited and inconsistent. Moreover, covariation may be affected by other life-history traits and may vary across levels of biological organization. We assessed dispersal (vertical fall time of fruits, a proxy for wind dispersal ability) and dormancy (germination fractions measured during germination trials) in populations of 15 annual and 12 perennial wind-dispersed species in six Asteraceae genera from South Africa. Dormancy was higher in annuals than in perennials, whereas fall time was largely determined by evolutionary history. Controlling for phylogeny, dispersal and dormancy was negatively associated across species and life-history categories. Negative covariation between dispersal and dormancy was not evident at either the individual level (except for seed heteromorphic species) or the population level. Our study provides rare empirical support for the theoretical expectation of tradeoffs between dormancy and the alternative risk-reducing strategies, perenniality and dispersal, but refutes the expectation of increased dispersability in perennials. Although negative covariation between dispersal and dormancy at the species level appears not to be a simple consequence of upscaling individual-level mechanistic tradeoffs, our findings suggest that selection for one strategy may constrain evolution of the other. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Impact of sesquiterpenes from Inula racemosa (Asteraceae) on growth, development and nutrition of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Kumar, Rakesh; Upendrabhai, Deep Patel; Singh, Inder Pal; Kaur, Sanehdeep

    2017-05-01

    The use of botanical pesticides for protecting crops from insect pests has assumed greater importance all over the world owing to growing awareness of harmful effects of indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides. Inula racemosa Hook. f. (Asteraceae), a medicinally important perennial herb, is rich in sesquiterpenes with many biological activities. The present studies were conducted with the objective to evaluate the sesquiterpenes isolated from I. racemosa for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura (F.). Alantolactone and isoalantolactone isolated from I. racemosa exerted growth inhibitory effects on S. litura. Addition of both the sesquiterpenes to larval diet extended the development period and reduced pupation as well as adult emergence. The dietary utilisation experiments on third-instar larvae of S. litura revealed reduction in consumption and growth rates of larvae as well as efficiency of conversion of ingested and digested food owing to alantolactone and isoalantolactone. The root extract of I. racemosa, which is rich in two sesquiterpenes, i.e. alantolactone and isoalantolactone, has the potential for management of S. litura. However, there is a need to understand the specific mechanism of action of these compounds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Most Compositae (Asteraceae) are descendants of a paleohexaploid and all share a paleotetraploid ancestor with the Calyceraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Michael S; Li, Zheng; Kidder, Thomas I; Reardon, Chris R; Lai, Zhao; Oliveira, Luiz O; Scascitelli, Moira; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-07-01

    Like many other flowering plants, members of the Compositae (Asteraceae) have a polyploid ancestry. Previous analyses found evidence for an ancient duplication or possibly triplication in the early evolutionary history of the family. We sought to better place this paleopolyploidy in the phylogeny and assess its nature. We sequenced new transcriptomes for Barnadesia, the lineage sister to all other Compositae, and four representatives of closely related families. Using a recently developed algorithm, MAPS, we analyzed nuclear gene family phylogenies for evidence of paleopolyploidy. We found that the previously recognized Compositae paleopolyploidy is also in the ancestry of the Calyceraceae. Our phylogenomic analyses uncovered evidence for a successive second round of genome duplication among all sampled Compositae except Barnadesia. Our analyses of new samples with new tools provide a revised view of paleopolyploidy in the Compositae. Together with results from a high density Lactuca linkage map, our results suggest that the Compositae and Calyceraceae have a common paleotetraploid ancestor and that most Compositae are descendants of a paleohexaploid. Although paleohexaploids have been previously identified, this is the first example where the paleotetraploid and paleohexaploid lineages have survived over tens of millions of years. The complex polyploidy in the ancestry of the Compositae and Calyceraceae represents a unique opportunity to study the long-term evolutionary fates and consequences of different ploidal levels. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  6. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae, False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

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    R. Estrada-Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg, an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td, or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg, Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  7. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae), False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Reyes, R; Ferreyra-Cruz, O A; Jiménez-Rubio, G; Hernández-Hernández, O T; Martínez-Mota, L

    Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae) and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae) are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana . The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm) stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh) male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg), an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td), or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg), Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg) improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  8. Cytoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of an Edible Herb, Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae), against Experimentally Induced Lead Acetate Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Tarun K; Dewanjee, Saikat; Khanra, Ritu; Joardar, Swarnalata; Barma, Sujata; Das, Shilpa; Zia-Ul-Haq, M; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae), an edible aquatic herb, is traditionally employed against toxic effects of heavy metals in India. The present study was planned to discover the protective effect of edible extract of E. fluctuans (AEEF) against Pb toxicity. The cytoprotective role of AEEF was determined on murine hepatocytes employing MTT assay and Hoechst staining. The effects on lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, endogenous redox systems and the transcription levels of apoptotic proteins were studied after incubating the hepatocytes with AEEF (400 μg/ml) + Pb-acetate (6.8 μM). The defensive role of AEEF (100 mg/kg) against Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg) intoxication was measured in mice by in vivo assays. Biochemical, haematological and histological parameters, intracellular Pb burden and redox status were measured. AEEF exhibited a concentration dependent cytoprotective effect against Pb-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Pb-acetate incubation significantly (p intoxicated animals. However, concurrent administration of AEEF (100 mg/kg) could significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) reinstate the Pb-acetate mediated toxicity. Presence of metal chelators and phyto-antioxidants within AEEF would offer overall protection through promoting Pb clearance coupled with restoring redox balance.

  9. Phenolic Profiling of the South American “Baylahuen” Tea (Haplopappus spp., Asteraceae by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS

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    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of several Haplopappus species (Asteraceae, known under the common name “baylahuen”, are used as herbal teas in Chile and Argentina. In Chile, “baylahuen” comprises H. multifolius, H. taeda, H. baylahuen and H. rigidus. Little is known about the chemical identity of the infusion constituents in spite of widespread consumption. The aim of the present work was the characterization of phenolics occurring in the infusions and methanol extracts of “baylahuen” by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. A simple HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS method was developed for the fast identification and differentiation of Haplopappus spp. used as a tea source, based on the phenolics from the tea and methanol extracts. Some 27 phenolics were tentatively identified in the infusions and methanol extract, including 10 caffeoyl quinic and feruloyl quinic acid derivatives and 17 flavonoids. The HPLC patterns of the Haplopappus tea and methanol extract allow a clear differentiation at the species level. The occurrence of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids can explain the reputed nutraceutical and health beneficial properties of this herbal tea.

  10. Biochemical characterization of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G.Don subsp. italicum (Asteraceae) from Montenegro: phytochemical screening, chemotaxonomy, and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kladar, Nebojša V; Anačkov, Goran T; Rat, Milica M; Srđenović, Branislava U; Grujić, Nevena N; Šefer, Emilia I; Božin, Biljana N

    2015-03-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the essential oil and EtOH extract of immortelle (Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G.Don subsp. italicum, Asteraceae) collected in Montenegro were evaluated. The essential oil was characterized by GC/MS analysis, and the content of total phenolics and flavonoids in the EtOH extract was determined using the FolinCiocalteu reagent. The free-radical-scavenging capacity (RSC) of both the essential oil and the EtOH extract was assessed with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Moreover, the inhibition of hydroxyl radical ((.) OH) generation by the EtOH extract of immortelle was evaluated for the first time here. Neryl acetate (28.2%) and γ-curcumene (18.8%) were the main compounds in the essential oil, followed by neryl propionate (9.1%) and ar-curcumene (8.3%). The chemical composition of the oils of the examined and additional 16 selected Helichrysum italicum taxa described in literature were compared using principal component (PCA) and cluster (CA) analyses. The results of the statistical analyses implied the occurrence of at least four different main and three subchemotypes of essential oils. Considering the antioxidant properties, the EtOH extract of immortelle exhibited similar potential as propyl gallate and quercetin, while the essential oil exhibited relatively weak DPPH(.) -scavenging capacity. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  11. Genetic variation in Mediterranean Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae; Gnaphalieae): do disjunct populations of subsp. microphyllum have a common origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany-Casals, M; Blanco-Moreno, J M; Garcia-Jacas, N; Breitwieser, I; Smissen, R D

    2011-07-01

    The yellow-flowered everlasting daisy Helichrysum italicum (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) is widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin, where it grows in continuous and widespread populations in diverse open habitats. Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum has a disjunct distribution in the Balearic Islands (Majorca and Dragonera), Corsica, Sardinia, Crete and Cyprus. Numerous morphological intermediates between subsp. italicum and subsp. microphyllum are known from Corsica, where the two subspecies co-occur. The aims of the study were to investigate if subsp. microphyllum has a common origin, constituting an independent gene pool from subsp. italicum, or if the morphological differences between subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum have arisen independently in different locations from a common wider gene pool. Our analyses of AFLP, cpDNA sequences and morphological characters show that there is geographic structure to the genetic variation within H. italicum, with eastern and western Mediterranean groups, which do not correspond with the division into subsp. microphyllum and subsp. italicum as currently circumscribed. Local selection on quantitative trait loci provides sufficient explanation for the morphological divergence observed and is consistent with genetic data. Within the western Mediterranean group of the species we found considerable polymorphism in chloroplast DNA sequences among and within some populations. Comparison with chloroplast DNA sequences from other Helichrysum species showed that some chloroplast haplotypes are shared across species. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Anthelmintic Activity of Crude Extract and Essential Oil of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae against Adult Worms of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Loyana Silva Godinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae is used in folk medicine as a vermifuge. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the crude extract (TV and the essential oil (TV-EO from the aerial parts of T. vulgare. TV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, which allowed the identification of β-thujone (84.13% as the major constituent. TV and TV-EO, at 200 μg/mL, decreased motor activity and caused 100% mortality of all adult worms. At 100 and 50 μg/mL, only TV caused death of all adult worms, while TV-EO was inactive. TV (200 μg/mL was also able to reduce viability and decrease production of developed eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed morphological alterations in the tegument of the S. mansoni surface after incubation with TV (50 and 100 μg/mL. Quantitative analysis on the schistosomes tegument showed that TV caused changes in the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni male worms in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that T. vulgare is a potential source of schistosomicidal compounds.

  13. Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Tanacetum Sonbolii (Asteraceae on Pain-related Behaviors during Formalin Test in Mice

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    Mohammad Sofiabadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tanacetum sonbolii (Asteraceae is an endemic species in Iran. In the present study, we examined the effects of Tanacetum sonbolii hydroalcoholic extract on the formalin test in mice. Methods: 126 Swiss albino mice weighing 230-280g were used as subjects. The formalin test was performed on two control groups (marked as intact and saline groups n = 6 in each group and an experimental group. In all groups, the formalin test was recorded for 60 min after administration of extract and drugs in mice. Results: The results showed that Tanacetum sonbolii (150 and 300 mg/kg produced significant antinociception in phase 2. In addition, different doses of Tanacetum sonbolii extract (600, 900 and 1200 mg/kg also induced antinociceptive effects in phase1 and phase 2. On the other hand, morphine could induce antinociception in a dose-dependent manner. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg failed to affect the pain scores compared to Tanacetum sonbolii (300 mg/kg group. Discussion: It seems that administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Tanacetum sonbolii has the potential to relieve pain through both central and peripheral mechanisms in persistent inflammatory nociception.

  14. Una experiencia de campo con una cooperativa de promotores ambientales

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    Bazán, Claudia I.; Ferrari, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    La presente ponencia describe el trabajo que se está realizando con una cooperativa de promotores ambientes, El CorreCamino, cuya propuesta no es pensada como una actividad marginal sino que toma el proceso de reciclado como contribución social y enfatiza el papel activo del trabajador en solidaridad con los vecinos y el espacio ambiental. La metodología utilizada es la Investigación Acción Participativa (IAP) cuyo principal objetivo es aunar los ...

  15. Antinociceptive activity and toxicological study of aqueous extract of Egletes viscosa Less (Asteraceae Atividade antinociceptiva e estudo toxicológico de extrato aquoso de Egletes viscosa Lessa (Asteraceae

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    Adriano Antunes S. Araújo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Egletes viscosa Less (Asteraceae, popularly known as "macela" or "macela-da-terra", is a plant widely used in popular medicine due to its anti-inflammatory, bactericidal, antidiarrhoea, mio-relaxant, antispasmodic, antinociceptive, digestive, and anti-viral properties. Phytochemical screening of aqueous extract of Egletes viscosa (AEEV revealed the high presence of flavonoids. This study examined the oral antinociceptive potential of AEEV in rodents using different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.. The results showed significant antinociceptive action when tested in writhing (200 and 400 mg/kg-pEgletes viscosa Less (Asteraceae, popularmente conhecida como "macela" ou "macela-da-terra", é uma planta largamente usada na medicina popular devido as suas propriedades: anti-inflamatória, bactericida, antidiarréica, mio-relaxante, anti-espasmódica, antinociceptiva, digestiva e anti-viral. Análise fitoquímica do extrato aquoso da Egletes viscosa (AEEV mostrou elevada presença de flavonóides. Este estudo examinou o potencial antinociceptivo do AEEV em roedores usando diferentes concentrações (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.. Os resultados mostraram significante efeito antinociceptivo quando testadas as doses (200 mg/kg-p<0.01; 400 mg/kg-p<0.05 e na segunda fase dos testes com formalina (200 and 400 mg/kg-p<0.001. Este efeito antinociceptivo foi similar ao ácido acetilsalicílico (300 mg/kg nas doses de 200 e 400 mg/kg. Adicionalmente, estas observações sugerem que o AEEV é efetivo contra dores inflamatórias contínuas. AEEV foi bem tolerada. No teste de toxicidade aguda, utilizando uma administração oral de 5 g/kg de AEEV, não foi observado casos de mortalidade. Da mesma maneira, no estudo subcrônico nenhuma mortalidade foi observada após 30 dias de administração oral diária de 100 mg/kg do AEEV. Não houve diferença significativa entre os pesos corporal e dos órgãos isolados quando comparados grupo controle e teste

  16. Análise de crescimento e anatomia foliar da planta medicinal Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae cultivada em diferentes substratos Growth analysis and leaf anatomy of the medicinal plant Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae grown on different substrates

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    A.A Millani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae é uma espécie herbácea que ocorre em áreas de cerrado e, por se tratar de planta medicinal, é cultivada em escala familiar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar possíveis alterações no desenvolvimento das plantas quando cultivadas em solos com texturas diferentes (solo de cerrado, franco arenoso ou solo de terra roxa, muito argiloso. Foram analisados aos 40, 70 e 90 dias, o comprimento do caule e da raiz, massa seca da parte aérea (caule e folhas e das raízes, número de folhas e área foliar; além de parâmetros anatômicos foliares, como a densidade de tricomas. Os resultados mostraram que os comprimentos do caule e da raiz aumentaram no decorrer do experimento, independentemente do substrato (com exceção do comprimento da raiz de plantas cultivadas em solo de terra roxa. Porém, o comprimento do caule foi sempre maior nas plantas cultivadas em solo de cerrado, enquanto o comprimento da raiz foi significativamente maior somente aos 90 dias de cultivo neste solo. As biomassas secas da raiz e do caule também foram maiores nas plantas cultivadas em solo de cerrado por 70 e 90 dias, respectivamente. A massa seca foliar foi maior nas plantas cultivadas em solo de cerrado a partir dos 70 dias de experimento. Esse aumento foi devido ao maior número de folhas produzidas e a maior área foliar dessas plantas. No geral, a anatomia foliar não diferiu, porém o número de tricomas glandulares foi maior nas plantas cultivadas em solo de cerrado. Os resultados indicaram que esta espécie tem melhor desenvolvimento quando cultivada em solo mais arenoso.Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae is a herbaceous species found in cerrado areas and grown in family scale since it is a medicinal plant. The aim of this work was to study possible alterations in the plant development when grown in soils presenting different textures (a sandy-loam cerrado soil, or a very clayish red earth soil. At 40, 70 and 90 days, stem

  17. Caracterização morfoanatômica das folhas de Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae Leaf morpho-anatomical characterization of Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae

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    Rafael C. Dutra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, popularmente conhecida como "candeia-da-serra", é uma espécie utilizada na medicina tradicional como cicatrizante e antimicrobiano. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi comparar o número de tricomas glandulares nas folhas jovens e adultas de E. erythropappus, assim como realizar a caracterização morfoanatômica destas folhas. Secções transversais e paradérmicas das folhas foram submetidas às microtécnicas fotônicas e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A quantificação dos tricomas glandulares foi realizada em folhas jovens e adultas com auxílio de câmara clara. As folhas são alternas ou fasciculadas e a lâmina foliar possui epiderme uniestratificada, revestida por cutícula delgada e lisa e mesofilo dorsiventral. Em ambas as faces da epiderme, ocorrem estômatos predominantemente anomocíticos e tricomas glandulares inseridos em depressões. Na face abaxial observam-se numerosos tricomas tectores. O parênquima paliçádico é uniestratificado e o parênquima voltado para a face abaxial é formado por três a cinco camadas de células com disposição compacta. As folhas jovens e adultas apresentam respectivamente 21,78±5,83 e 17,80±6,69 tricomas glandulares na face adaxial. A análise morfoanatômica das folhas de E. erythropappus mostra-se um método rápido e prático para a identificação e controle de qualidade de espécies vegetais utilizadas na terapêutica.Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, commonly known as 'candeia-da-serra', is a plant used in folk medicine as wound healing and antimicrobial. The aim of this study was to compare the number of glandular trichomes between the young and the mature leaves, as well as to perform the morpho-anatomical characterization of E. erythropappus leaves. Transverse and paradermal sections of the leaves were prepared according to light and scanning microtechniques for the morpho-anatomical characterization

  18. Construction and characterization of two BAC libraries representing a deep-coverage of the genome of chicory (Cichorium intybus L., Asteraceae

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    Gonthier Lucy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asteraceae represents an important plant family with respect to the numbers of species present in the wild and used by man. Nonetheless, genomic resources for Asteraceae species are relatively underdeveloped, hampering within species genetic studies as well as comparative genomics studies at the family level. So far, six BAC libraries have been described for the main crops of the family, i.e. lettuce and sunflower. Here we present the characterization of BAC libraries of chicory (Cichorium intybus L. constructed from two genotypes differing in traits related to sexual and vegetative reproduction. Resolving the molecular mechanisms underlying traits controlling the reproductive system of chicory is a key determinant for hybrid development, and more generally will provide new insights into these traits, which are poorly investigated so far at the molecular level in Asteraceae. Findings Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries, CinS2S2 and CinS1S4, were constructed from HindIII-digested high molecular weight DNA of the contrasting genotypes C15 and C30.01, respectively. C15 was hermaphrodite, non-embryogenic, and S2S2 for the S-locus implicated in self-incompatibility, whereas C30.01 was male sterile, embryogenic, and S1S4. The CinS2S2 and CinS1S4 libraries contain 89,088 and 81,408 clones. Mean insert sizes of the CinS2S2 and CinS1S4 clones are 90 and 120 kb, respectively, and provide together a coverage of 12.3 haploid genome equivalents. Contamination with mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA sequences was evaluated with four mitochondrial and four chloroplast specific probes, and was estimated to be 0.024% and 1.00% for the CinS2S2 library, and 0.028% and 2.35% for the CinS1S4 library. Using two single copy genes putatively implicated in somatic embryogenesis, screening of both libraries resulted in detection of 12 and 13 positive clones for each gene, in accordance with expected numbers. Conclusions This

  19. Construction and characterization of two BAC libraries representing a deep-coverage of the genome of chicory (Cichorium intybus L., Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Lucy; Bellec, Arnaud; Blassiau, Christelle; Prat, Elisa; Helmstetter, Nicolas; Rambaud, Caroline; Huss, Brigitte; Hendriks, Theo; Bergès, Hélène; Quillet, Marie-Christine

    2010-08-11

    The Asteraceae represents an important plant family with respect to the numbers of species present in the wild and used by man. Nonetheless, genomic resources for Asteraceae species are relatively underdeveloped, hampering within species genetic studies as well as comparative genomics studies at the family level. So far, six BAC libraries have been described for the main crops of the family, i.e. lettuce and sunflower. Here we present the characterization of BAC libraries of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) constructed from two genotypes differing in traits related to sexual and vegetative reproduction. Resolving the molecular mechanisms underlying traits controlling the reproductive system of chicory is a key determinant for hybrid development, and more generally will provide new insights into these traits, which are poorly investigated so far at the molecular level in Asteraceae. Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries, CinS2S2 and CinS1S4, were constructed from HindIII-digested high molecular weight DNA of the contrasting genotypes C15 and C30.01, respectively. C15 was hermaphrodite, non-embryogenic, and S2S2 for the S-locus implicated in self-incompatibility, whereas C30.01 was male sterile, embryogenic, and S1S4. The CinS2S2 and CinS1S4 libraries contain 89,088 and 81,408 clones. Mean insert sizes of the CinS2S2 and CinS1S4 clones are 90 and 120 kb, respectively, and provide together a coverage of 12.3 haploid genome equivalents. Contamination with mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA sequences was evaluated with four mitochondrial and four chloroplast specific probes, and was estimated to be 0.024% and 1.00% for the CinS2S2 library, and 0.028% and 2.35% for the CinS1S4 library. Using two single copy genes putatively implicated in somatic embryogenesis, screening of both libraries resulted in detection of 12 and 13 positive clones for each gene, in accordance with expected numbers. This indicated that both BAC libraries are valuable tools for molecular

  20. Unraveling systematic inventory of Echinops (Asteraceae) with special reference to nrDNA ITS sequence-based molecular typing of Echinops abuzinadianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M A; Al-Hemaid, F M; Lee, J; Hatamleh, A A; Gyulai, G; Rahman, M O

    2015-10-02

    The present study explored the systematic inventory of Echinops L. (Asteraceae) of Saudi Arabia, with special reference to the molecular typing of Echinops abuzinadianus Chaudhary, an endemic species to Saudi Arabia, based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. A sequence similarity search using BLAST and a phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequence of E. abuzinadianus revealed a high level of sequence similarity with E. glaberrimus DC. (section Ritropsis). The novel primary sequence and the secondary structure of ITS2 of E. abuzinadianus could potentially be used for molecular genotyping.

  1. First description of leaf-mining Nepticulidae and Tischeriidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera) feeding on the Chilean endemic plant genus Podanthus Lag. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2016-01-05

    Despite taxonomic and conservation interest in the Chilean endemic plant genus Podanthus Lag. (Asteraceae: subfamily Asteroideae, tribe Heliantheae), no Podanthus-feeding Nepticulidae or Tischeriidae have ever been recorded. Here, on the basis of material reared from Podanthus from central Mediterranean Chile, we present the description of Stigmella podanthae sp. nov. (Nepticulidae) and a re-description of Astrotischeria chilei Puplesis & Diškus, 2003. Females and host-plant of the latter species were previously unknown. Both treated species are illustrated with numerous photographs of the leaf-mines, adults of both sexes, and male and female genitalia.

  2. alumnos de una sola cultura?

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    Siegfried Boehm

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que en la actualidad hay mayores posibilidades para practicar una lengua extranjera en su contexto natural con nativohablantes, es imprescindible poseer una cierta competencia intercultural a fin de que este diálogo pueda llevarse a cabo exitosamente. Sin embargo, los libros de texto convencionales editados en el país de origen de la lengua estudiada difícilmente pueden cubrir este requisito, puesto que las particularidades culturales de una sociedad sólo se vuelven interculturales al compararlas con la cultura de los alumnos. En el artículo presente se proponen varios ejercicios enfocados al aprendizaje intercultural en donde no sólo se aprenden las normas, reglas y actitudes de la cultura meta, en este caso de Alemania, Austria y Suiza, sino que también se estimula la reflexión sobre las de la cultura propia. Esta sensibilización cultural es indispensable para lograr una comunicación equitativa entre personas de diferentes culturas.

  3. Relationship between seed bank expression, adult longevity and aridity in species of Chaetanthera (Asteraceae) in central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, M T K; Chacon, P; Cavieres, L A

    2006-09-01

    Broad surveys have detected inverse relationships between seed and adult longevity and between seed size and adult longevity. However, low and unpredictable precipitation is also associated with seed bank (SB) expression in semi-arid and arid areas. The relationship between adult longevity, SB formation, seed mass and aridity is examined in annual and perennial herbs of Chaetanthera (Asteraceae) from the Chilean Mediterranean-type climate and winter-rainfall desert areas over a precipitation range of one order of magnitude. Seeds of 18 species and subtaxa (32 populations) were buried in field locations, and exhumed after two successive germination periods. Seeds not germinating in the field were tested in a growth chamber, and remnant intact seed tested for viability. Seed banks were classed as transient or persistent. The effect of life form, species, population and burial time on persistent SB size was assessed with factorial ANOVA. Persistent seed bank size was compared with the Martonne aridity index (shown to be a surrogate for inter-annual variation in precipitation) and seed size using linear regression. ANCOVA assessed the effect of life-form on SB size with aridity as covariate. Three species had a transient SB and 15 a persistent SB. ANOVA revealed a significant effect of life-form on SB size with annuals having larger SB size and greater capacity to form a persistent SB than perennials. Significant inter-population variation in SB size was found in 64% of cases. Seed mass was negatively correlated with persistent SB size. Persistent seed bank size was significantly correlated with the Martonne aridity index in the perennial and annual species, with species from more arid areas having larger persistent SBs. However, when aridity was considered as a covariate, ANCOVA revealed no significant differences between the annual and perennial herbs. Persistent seed bank size in Chaetanthera appears to reflect environmental selection rather than any trade-off with

  4. Spines vs. microspines: an overview of the sculpture exine in selected basal and derived Asteraceae with focus on Asteroideae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellería, María C

    2017-11-01

    This study presents a detailed examination of the echinate and microechinate sculpturing in relation to the size of pollen grains in 31 selected species of Asteraceae belonging to the subfamilies Barnadesioideae, Mutisioideae, Carduoideae and Asteroideae. The aims were to recognize sculpturing patterns, under LM and SEM, within large and small pollen of both basal and derived species and to explore the features that could have taxonomic value to apply in palynological disciplines. The detailed examination of the exine surface showed both the relevance and limits of sculptural patterns for taxonomy. Under LM, the microechinate sculpture gave little taxonomic information, whereas in the echinate sculpture, three exine types and two subtypes were recognized. Type I included microechinate exine, which is commonly present in large pollen grains of the basal lineages. Types II (subtypes IIa and IIb) and III included echinate and smaller pollen grains. In these types, spines were always regularly arranged and, were characterized by the length, shape, tip, perforations and distribution. Type IIa included more or less conical spines usually with a distended base, less than 4 µm in length, present in species of different tribes like Astereae, Eupatorieae, Helenieae, Gnaphalieae, Senecioideae and Heliantheae to a lesser extent. Type IIb includes slender spines with narrower bases, longer than 4 µm, present in species of Coreopsideae, Heliantheae, Tageteae and Eupatorieae to a lesser extent. Type III included spines with swollen base, blunt tip and perforations over their entire surface. This type was present in only one of the basal species-Carduus thoermeri-and in one species of the derived tribe Helenieae, Gaillardia megapotamica. Probably, this is due to evolutionary convergence.

  5. Bioactivity of the extracts and isolation of lignans and a sesquiterpene from the aerial parts of Centaurea pamphylica (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoeb M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Centaurea pamphylica Boiss. & Heldr. (Family: Asteraceae, commonly known as ‘pamphylia daisy', is a Turkish endemic species of the genus Centaurea that comprises ca. 500 species, many of which have been used as traditional medicines.  The n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of C. pamphylica were assessed for antioxidant activity and general toxicity using, respectively, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the brine shrimp lethality assays. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC and PTLC were used to isolate compounds from the extracts.  The structures of these compounds [1-4] were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and also by direct comparison with the respective published data.  Both the DCM and the MeOH extract showed significant levels of antioxidant activities with the RC50 values of 72.6 x 10-2 and 47.3 ´ 10-2 mg/mL, respectively. The MeOH extract exhibited low levels of toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = 125.0 ´ 10-2 mg/mL. Three major bioactive components of the MeOH extract were matairesinoside [1], arctiin [2] and matairesinol [3]. An eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, pterodontriol [4], was also isolated from the DCM extract.  Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to various ailments, the antioxidant properties of the extracts as well as the isolated compounds may be of medicinal significance. This is the first report on the occurrence of 1-4 in C. pamphylica, and 4 in the genus Centaurea.  

  6. Seed Dormancy, After‐ripening and Light Requirements of Four Annual Asteraceae in South‐western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHÜTZ, W.; MILBERG, P.; LAMONT, B. B.

    2002-01-01

    The role of dormancy, temperature and light in the regulation of seed germination of four annual Asteraceae from south‐western Australia was investigated. The experiments aimed to identify after‐ripening patterns, and to relate these to climatic conditions of the habitat in which the species occur. Seeds of all species were strongly dormant at maturity and maintained high levels of dormancy for time periods corresponding to the duration of summer in south‐western Australia. Dry after‐ripening was promoted best by temperatures lower than those prevailing in the dry season, although differences among storage temperatures were mostly insignificant. Germination percentages were highest at average winter temperatures (15 °C). A logistic model revealed significant differences in germinability among species, but not between incubation temperatures or light and dark treatments across species. Three species with seeds >0·5 mg germinated better in darkness than in light, whereas germination in darkness was almost inhibited in the species with the smallest seeds (0·14 mg). The course of dormancy loss, tested over a range of fluctuating incubation temperatures (7–30 °C), showed that seeds of three species came out of dormancy first at temperatures that prevail in south‐western Australia during the winter (10–15 °C). Seeds from one species, introduced from South Africa, first lost dormancy at the lowest temperature (7 °C). All species showed after‐ripening patterns of Type 1, typical of species growing in Mediterranean climates. The germination characteristics of the investigated species can be interpreted as ensuring that initial growth and establishment occur during the winter growing season, thereby avoiding the hot and dry summer conditions that follow seed dispersal. PMID:12451026

  7. In and out of Madagascar: Dispersal to Peripheral Islands, Insular Speciation and Diversification of Indian Ocean Daisy Trees (Psiadia, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijk, Joeri S.; Noyes, Richard D.; Strasberg, Dominique; Cruaud, Corinne; Gavory, Fredéric; Chase, Mark W.; Abbott, Richard J.; Thébaud, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Madagascar is surrounded by archipelagos varying widely in origin, age and structure. Although small and geologically young, these archipelagos have accumulated disproportionate numbers of unique lineages in comparison to Madagascar, highlighting the role of waif-dispersal and rapid in situ diversification processes in generating endemic biodiversity. We reconstruct the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the genus Psiadia (Asteraceae), a plant genus with near equal numbers of species in Madagascar and surrounding islands. Analyzing patterns and processes of diversification, we explain species accumulation on peripheral islands and aim to offer new insights on the origin and potential causes for diversification in the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands biodiversity hotspot. Our results provide support for an African origin of the group, with strong support for non-monophyly. Colonization of the Mascarenes took place by two evolutionary distinct lineages from Madagascar, via two independent dispersal events, each unique for their spatial and temporal properties. Significant shifts in diversification rate followed regional expansion, resulting in co-occurring and phenotypically convergent species on high-elevation volcanic slopes. Like other endemic island lineages, Psiadia have been highly successful in dispersing to and radiating on isolated oceanic islands, typified by high habitat diversity and dynamic ecosystems fuelled by continued geological activity. Results stress the important biogeographical role for Rodrigues in serving as an outlying stepping stone from which regional colonization took place. We discuss how isolated volcanic islands contribute to regional diversity by generating substantial numbers of endemic species on short temporal scales. Factors pertaining to the mode and tempo of archipelago formation and its geographical isolation strongly govern evolutionary pathways available for species diversification, and the potential for successful

  8. Polyploidisation and Geographic Differentiation Drive Diversification in a European High Mountain Plant Group (Doronicum clusii Aggregate, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachschwöll, Clemens; Escobar García, Pedro; Winkler, Manuela; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Schönswetter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene), polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae), whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum) are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous) and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid). Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear spacer) and AFLP fingerprinting data generated for 58 populations to infer phylogenetic relationships, origin of polyploids—whose ploidy level was confirmed by chromosomally calibrated DNA ploidy level estimates—and phylogeographic history. Taxonomic conclusions were informed, among others, by a Gaussian clustering method for species delimitation using dominant multilocus data. Based on molecular data we identified three lineages: (i) silicicolous diploid D. clusii s.s. in the Alps, (ii) silicicolous tetraploid D. stiriacum in the eastern Alps (outside the range of D. clusii s.s.) and the Carpathians and (iii) the basiphilous diploids D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (eastern Alps) and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (northeastern Alps); each taxon was identified as distinct by the Gaussian clustering, but the separation of D. glaciale subsp. calcareum and D. glaciale subsp. glaciale was not stable, supporting their taxonomic treatment as subspecies. Carpathian and Alpine populations of D. stiriacum were genetically differentiated suggesting phases of vicariance, probably during the Pleistocene. The origin (autopolyploid versus allopolyploid) of D. stiriacum remained unclear. Doronicum glaciale subsp. calcareum was genetically and morphologically weakly separated from D. glaciale subsp. glaciale but exhibited significantly higher genetic diversity and rarity. This suggests that the more widespread D. glaciale subsp

  9. Polyploidisation and geographic differentiation drive diversification in a European High Mountain Plant Group (Doronicum clusii Aggregate, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachschwöll, Clemens; Escobar García, Pedro; Winkler, Manuela; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Schönswetter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene), polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae), whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum) are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous) and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid). Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear spacer) and AFLP fingerprinting data generated for 58 populations to infer phylogenetic relationships, origin of polyploids-whose ploidy level was confirmed by chromosomally calibrated DNA ploidy level estimates-and phylogeographic history. Taxonomic conclusions were informed, among others, by a Gaussian clustering method for species delimitation using dominant multilocus data. Based on molecular data we identified three lineages: (i) silicicolous diploid D. clusii s.s. in the Alps, (ii) silicicolous tetraploid D. stiriacum in the eastern Alps (outside the range of D. clusii s.s.) and the Carpathians and (iii) the basiphilous diploids D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (eastern Alps) and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (northeastern Alps); each taxon was identified as distinct by the Gaussian clustering, but the separation of D. glaciale subsp. calcareum and D. glaciale subsp. glaciale was not stable, supporting their taxonomic treatment as subspecies. Carpathian and Alpine populations of D. stiriacum were genetically differentiated suggesting phases of vicariance, probably during the Pleistocene. The origin (autopolyploid versus allopolyploid) of D. stiriacum remained unclear. Doronicum glaciale subsp. calcareum was genetically and morphologically weakly separated from D. glaciale subsp. glaciale but exhibited significantly higher genetic diversity and rarity. This suggests that the more widespread D. glaciale subsp

  10. Polyploidisation and geographic differentiation drive diversification in a European High Mountain Plant Group (Doronicum clusii Aggregate, Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Pachschwöll

    Full Text Available Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene, polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae, whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid. Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear spacer and AFLP fingerprinting data generated for 58 populations to infer phylogenetic relationships, origin of polyploids-whose ploidy level was confirmed by chromosomally calibrated DNA ploidy level estimates-and phylogeographic history. Taxonomic conclusions were informed, among others, by a Gaussian clustering method for species delimitation using dominant multilocus data. Based on molecular data we identified three lineages: (i silicicolous diploid D. clusii s.s. in the Alps, (ii silicicolous tetraploid D. stiriacum in the eastern Alps (outside the range of D. clusii s.s. and the Carpathians and (iii the basiphilous diploids D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (eastern Alps and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (northeastern Alps; each taxon was identified as distinct by the Gaussian clustering, but the separation of D. glaciale subsp. calcareum and D. glaciale subsp. glaciale was not stable, supporting their taxonomic treatment as subspecies. Carpathian and Alpine populations of D. stiriacum were genetically differentiated suggesting phases of vicariance, probably during the Pleistocene. The origin (autopolyploid versus allopolyploid of D. stiriacum remained unclear. Doronicum glaciale subsp. calcareum was genetically and morphologically weakly separated from D. glaciale subsp. glaciale but exhibited significantly higher genetic diversity and rarity. This suggests that the more widespread D. glaciale

  11. Chemical Characterization, Antileishmanial Activity, and Cytotoxicity Effects of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Marley; Scull, Ramón; Satyal, Prabodh; Setzer, William N; Monzote, Lianet

    2017-09-01

    Current strategies to control leishmaniasis are mainly based on chemotherapy. However, none of the available drugs can be considered to be ideal to treat this disease. Because of the hydrophobic nature and bioactivities of their components, essential oils (EOs) can be considered as important sources for developing agents against intracellular pathogens, such as Leishmania parasites. In this study, we report the chemical characterization, antileishmanial activities, and cytotoxicity effect of the EO from Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don. (Asteraceae). Chemical analysis revealed that EO from aerial part from P. carolinensis is composed of 44 compounds. The main component was selin-11-en-4α-ol, which made up 51.0%. In vitro antileishmanial studies showed that P. carolinensis EO inhibited the growth of promastigotes (IC 50  = 24.7 ± 7.1 μg/mL) and amastigotes (IC 50  = 6.2 ± 0.1 μg/mL) of Leishmania amazonensis, while cytotoxicity evaluation revealed fivefold higher values than those for the parasites. In a model of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice, five doses of EO at 30 mg/kg by intralesional route demonstrated smaller lesion size and parasite burden (p < 0.05) compared with animals treated with Glucantime® and untreated mice. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo results showed the potentialities of EO from P. carolinensis with the future possibility of a new alternative in the treatment for leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. In and out of Madagascar: dispersal to peripheral islands, insular speciation and diversification of Indian Ocean daisy trees (Psiadia, Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri S Strijk

    Full Text Available Madagascar is surrounded by archipelagos varying widely in origin, age and structure. Although small and geologically young, these archipelagos have accumulated disproportionate numbers of unique lineages in comparison to Madagascar, highlighting the role of waif-dispersal and rapid in situ diversification processes in generating endemic biodiversity. We reconstruct the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the genus Psiadia (Asteraceae, a plant genus with near equal numbers of species in Madagascar and surrounding islands. Analyzing patterns and processes of diversification, we explain species accumulation on peripheral islands and aim to offer new insights on the origin and potential causes for diversification in the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands biodiversity hotspot. Our results provide support for an African origin of the group, with strong support for non-monophyly. Colonization of the Mascarenes took place by two evolutionary distinct lineages from Madagascar, via two independent dispersal events, each unique for their spatial and temporal properties. Significant shifts in diversification rate followed regional expansion, resulting in co-occurring and phenotypically convergent species on high-elevation volcanic slopes. Like other endemic island lineages, Psiadia have been highly successful in dispersing to and radiating on isolated oceanic islands, typified by high habitat diversity and dynamic ecosystems fuelled by continued geological activity. Results stress the important biogeographical role for Rodrigues in serving as an outlying stepping stone from which regional colonization took place. We discuss how isolated volcanic islands contribute to regional diversity by generating substantial numbers of endemic species on short temporal scales. Factors pertaining to the mode and tempo of archipelago formation and its geographical isolation strongly govern evolutionary pathways available for species diversification, and the

  13. Mucoadhesive formulation of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae reduces intestinal injury from 5-fluorouracil-induced mucositis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Marcelino de Ávila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal mucositis induced during cancer treatment is considered a serious dose-limiting side effect of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Frequently, interruption of the cancer treatment due to this pathology leads to a reduction in cure rates, increase of treatment costs and decrease life quality of the patient. Natural products such as Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae, represent a potential alternative for the treatment of mucositis given its anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, B. pilosa glycolic extract was formulated (BPF with poloxamer, a mucoadhesive copolymer, was used for treatment of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced mucositis in mice. As expected, animals only treated with 5-FU (200 mg/kg presented marked weight loss, reduction of intestinal villi, crypts and muscular layer, which was associated with severe disruption of crypts, edema, inflammatory infiltrate and vacuolization in the intestinal tissue, as compared to the control group and healthy animals only treated with BPF. On the other hand, the treatment of intestinal mucositis-bearing mice with BPF (75, 100 or 125 mg/kg managed to mitigate clinical and pathologic changes, noticeably at 100 mg/kg. This dose led to the restoration of intestinal proliferative activity through increasing Ki-67 levels; modulated the expression of Bax, Bcl2 and p53 apoptotic markers protecting intestinal cells from cell death. Moreover, this treatment regulated lipid peroxidation and inflammatory infiltration. No acute toxic effects were observed with this formulation. This work demonstrated that BPF was safe and effective against 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice. Additional studies are already in progress to further characterize the mechanisms involved in the protective effects of this technological formulation toward the development of a new medicine for the prevention and treatment of intestinal injury in patients undergoing chemotherapy/radiotherapy.

  14. Morfología del polen de especies de Gongylolepis (Mutisieae: Asteraceae de la Guayana venezolana

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    Torrecilla, Pedro

    2009-06-01

    polen, apertura, presencia de perforaciones, y la relación P/E para determinar forma de los granos. Las observaciones y fotografías se realizaron mediante MEB y MEL. Con la información obtenida, se elaboró una matriz y se realizó un análisis de conglomerados. Como resultado, se encontró que el polen de Gongylolepis es tricolporado, con aspecto esferoidal y principalmente de gran tamaño. Presentó diferencias en la ornamentación de la exina, lo cual permitió separar las especies estudiadas. Las espinas son cónicas, sin embargo se encontraron diferencias en cuanto a la forma del ápice, además se observaron perforaciones cercanas a la base de éstas. El dendrograma obtenido mostró cuatro agrupamientos, donde los caracteres analizados, como tamaño, forma, ornamentación, espinas, colpos y perforaciones, fueron de gran importancia para clasificar las especies bajo estudio.

  15. Viper and cobra venom neutralization by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A; Saha, Archita; Chatterjee, Ipshita; Chakravarty, A K

    2007-09-01

    We reported previously that the methanolic root extract of the Indian medicinal plant Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae) could neutralize viper venom-induced action [Alam, M.I., Auddy, B., Gomes, A., 1996. Viper venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plant (Hemidesmus indicus and P. indica) root extracts. Phytother. Res. 10, 58-61]. The present study reports the neutralization of viper and cobra venom by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of P. indica Less. (Asteraceae). The active fraction (containing the major compound beta-sitosterol and the minor compound stigmasterol) was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and the structure was determined using spectroscopic analysis (EIMS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR). Anti-snake venom activity was studied in experimental animals. The active fraction was found to significantly neutralize viper venom-induced lethal, hemorrhagic, defibrinogenation, edema and PLA(2) activity. Cobra venom-induced lethality, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, respiratory changes and PLA(2) activity were also antagonized by the active component. It potentiated commercial snake venom antiserum action against venom-induced lethality in male albino mice. The active fraction could antagonize venom-induced changes in lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity. This study suggests that beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol may play an important role, along with antiserum, in neutralizing snake venom-induced actions.

  16. Development of expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers for genetic characterization and population structure analysis of Praxelis clematidea (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q Z; Huang, M; Downie, S R; Chen, Z X

    2016-05-23

    Invasive plants tend to spread aggressively in new habitats and an understanding of their genetic diversity and population structure is useful for their management. In this study, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers were developed for the invasive plant species Praxelis clematidea (Asteraceae) from 5548 Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae) expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A total of 133 microsatellite-containing ESTs (2.4%) were identified, of which 56 (42.1%) were hexanucleotide repeat motifs and 50 (37.6%) were trinucleotide repeat motifs. Of the 24 primer pairs designed from these 133 ESTs, 7 (29.2%) resulted in significant polymorphisms. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 9. The relatively high genetic diversity (H = 0.2667, I = 0.4212, and P = 100%) of P. clematidea was related to high gene flow (Nm = 1.4996) among populations. The coefficient of population differentiation (GST = 0.2500) indicated that most genetic variation occurred within populations. A Mantel test suggested that there was significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distribution (r = 0.3192, P = 0.012). These results further support the transferability of EST-SSR markers between closely related genera of the same family.

  17. Una minga para el posdesarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Escobar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo sintetiza algunas conclusiones a las que han llegado movimientos sociales y académicos en las últimas dos décadas al reflexionar sobre la globalización y sus implicaciones; el modelo dominante, basado en las nociones de "desarrollo" y "modernidad", ha entrado en crisis. Por lo tanto, se hace necesario avanzar en una transición cultural que se pueda comprender como un cambio de época y no sólo como una época de cambios. Para llevar a cabo esta transformación, se deben resolver las con-tradicciones existentes entre el neodesarrollismo y el postdesarrollo, por supuesto, a favor de éste último.

  18. Una entrada popular al Internet

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    Bruce Girard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El Internet ofrece la posibilidad de una comunicación rápida y económica. El proyecto de AMARC y CEDEP (Ecuador financiado, en parte, por el Buró Canadiense de Educación Internacional, busca aprovechar esta posibilidad para proporcionar un servicio de noticias a las radios comunitarias de la región.

  19. "Rera": historia de una palabra

    OpenAIRE

    Fradejas Lebrero, José

    2011-01-01

    Se analiza una palabra que es un hapax legomenon que solo se documenta en la Vita Beata de Juan de Lucena y se establece, a partir de ella, que el étimo propuesto para algunos derivados es erróneo. It is analyzed a word that is only attested in Juan de Lucena's Vita Beata, and it is established that the proposed etymon for some of it reflexes is mistaken.

  20. Pre-release efficacy assessment of the leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae), a potential biological control agent for Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata (Asteraceae), in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae Gaedike & Kruger (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae) is a potential biological control agent for the invasive vine Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata Lemaire (Asteraceae), in western North America, where two morphological varieties (stipulate and exstipulate) of Cape-i...

  1. Sevilla, una encrucijada de caminos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martín Martin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El mundo del flamenco, tan acostumbrado a contemplar la historia del género como una sucesión de nombres distinguidos que, por su significación expresiva o por su carácter de maestría incontestable, simbolizan una época, olvida con frecuencia el universo en que esa constelación de estrellas irradia su luminosidad más intensa, esto es, relega a un rol de menor importancia el ámbito en que se desarrollaron unos talentos especiales que, a lapostre, describirían situaciones y formas que el tiempo estimaría de verdadera trascendencia. Sin ánimo de caer en un determinismo localista demasiado forzoso, justo es decir que uno de los más grandes milagros de la música flamenca, se llama Sevilla, su barrio de Triana y muchos pueblos de la provincia. Una unidad demográfica que ofrece en grado sumo el origen de la complacencia en los goces de los sentidos.

  2. Una Utopia Factible: Latin Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schenkel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Que la información de noticiero de radio y televisión oficiales en la mayoría de los países latinoamericanos, no brilla precisamente por su imparcialidad. Además los noticieros con información sobre actividades, políticas y criterios de entidades públicas difunden un punto de vista que no es necesariamente compartido por sectores políticos y económicos de la sociedad civil y que tampoco refleja necesariamente lo que ocurre en un país. Este es un hecho comprobado hasta la saciedad y constituye un problema que exigirá que las contribuciones al programa común se distingan por una excelente selección representativa del multifacético acontecer diario de una nación. Las estadísticas de otros sistemas como EUROVISION y ASIAVISION muestran que una noticia se difunde más si es oportuna - "caliente"-, objetiva y presentada con calidad.

  3. In vitro schistosomicidal and antiviral activities of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) against Schistosoma mansoni and Herpes simplex virus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Mirna Meana; Zuza, Ohana; Riani, Lorena R; de Faria Pinto, Priscila; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Silva, Marcos P; de Moraes, Josué; Ataíde, Ana Caroline Z; de Oliveira Silva, Fernanda; Cecílio, Alzira Batista; Da Silva Filho, Ademar A

    2017-10-01

    Schistosomiasis and herpes diseases represent serious issues to the healthcare systems, infecting a large number of people worldwide, mainly in developing countries. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), known as "bardana" and "burdock", is a medicinal plant popularly used for several purposes, including as antiseptic. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro schistosomicidal and antiherpes activities of the crude extract of A. lappa, which have not yet been described. Fruits of A. lappa L. were extracted by maceration with ethanol: H 2 O (96:4 v/v) in order to obtain the hydroalcoholic extract of A. lappa (AL). In vitro schistosomicidal assays were assessed against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni, while the in vitro antiviral activity of AL was evaluated on replication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Cell viability was measured by MTT assay, using Vero cells and chemical composition of AL was determined by qualitative UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis. UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis of AL revealed the presence of dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans, such as arctiin and arctigenin. Results showed that AL was not cytotoxic to Vero cells even when tested at 400μg/mL. qPCR results indicated a significant viral load decreased for all tested concentrations of AL (400, 50, and 3.125μg/mL), which showed similar antiviral effect to acyclovir (50μg/mL) when tested at 400μg/mL. Also, AL (400, 200, and 100μg/mL) caused 100% mortality and significantly reduction on motor activity of all adult worms of S. mansoni. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed tegumental morphological alterations and changes on the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni worms in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with AL. This report provides the first evidence for the in vitro schistosomicidal and antiherpes activities of AL, opening the route to further schistosomicidal and antiviral studies with AL and their compounds, especially lignans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [Relocation of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) plants as a strategy for enrichment of disturbed paramo areas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Zamora, Oscar; Insuasty-Torres, Jennyfer; de Cardenas, Camilo los Angeles; Ríos, Orlando Vargas

    2013-03-01

    Ecological restoration of the Andean paramos faces several ecological barriers mainly at the phase of dispersal and establishment of native species. With the aim to contribute to the enrichment of degraded areas, different strategies have to be developed to overcome those barriers. In this work we studied the response of individuals of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) to the relocation as a strategy for ecological restoration programs. We also evaluated the effect of size of relocated individuals on their survival and development. The work was carried out in an experimental plot at 3 424m altitude in the sector "Lagunas de Siecha" of Chingaza National Park, Colombia. We relocated 200 plants that belonged to three different size classes: 5, 10 and 15cm of initial height. The following variables were registered: survival, plant height, number of living leaves and stem diameter of each individual. We also evaluated the differences between individuals in survival and development. In terms of survival the most efficient size classes corresponded to 15cm high; the survival was 85% after two years. The relative growth rates for height and stem diameter decreases with the increase in size, but the absolute increase in height did not show significant differences between the three sizes tested. Since the stem diameter was found the strongest survival predictor after two years of relocation activities, we suggest its use as a criterion for selection of relocation individuals. The relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora had a positive side effect, carrying other species that may contribute to the enrichment and restoration of degraded areas. Among these, we found species of the genus Hypericum, as well as Arcytophyllum nitidum and Calamagrostis effusa, which should be evaluated in terms of survival and development for the subsequent implementation of the relocation strategy. In this study we verified the successful relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora as a

  5. Homeolog loss and expression changes in natural populations of the recently and repeatedly formed allotetraploid Tragopogon mirus (Asteraceae

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    Soltis Pamela S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although polyploidy has long been recognized as a major force in the evolution of plants, most of what we know about the genetic consequences of polyploidy comes from the study of crops and model systems. Furthermore, although many polyploid species have formed repeatedly, patterns of genome evolution and gene expression are largely unknown for natural polyploid populations of independent origin. We therefore examined patterns of loss and expression in duplicate gene pairs (homeologs in multiple individuals from seven natural populations of independent origin of Tragopogon mirus (Asteraceae, an allopolyploid that formed repeatedly within the last 80 years from the diploids T. dubius and T. porrifolius. Results Using cDNA-AFLPs, we found differential band patterns that could be attributable to gene silencing, novel expression, and/or maternal/paternal effects between T. mirus and its diploid parents. Subsequent cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS analyses of genomic DNA and cDNA revealed that 20 of the 30 genes identified through cDNA-AFLP analysis showed additivity, whereas nine of the 30 exhibited the loss of one parental homeolog in at least one individual. Homeolog loss (versus loss of a restriction site was confirmed via sequencing. The remaining gene (ADENINE-DNA GLYCOSYLASE showed ambiguous patterns in T. mirus because of polymorphism in the diploid parent T. dubius. Most (63.6% of the homeolog loss events were of the T. dubius parental copy. Two genes, NUCLEAR RIBOSOMAL DNA and GLYCERALDEHYDE-3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE, showed differential expression of the parental homeologs, with the T. dubius copy silenced in some individuals of T. mirus. Conclusions Genomic and cDNA CAPS analyses indicated that plants representing multiple populations of this young natural allopolyploid have experienced frequent and preferential elimination of homeologous loci. Comparable analyses of synthetic F1 hybrids showed only

  6. [Loss of pubescence and their physiological effects on endangered rosette Espeletia paipana (Asteraceae), Boyacá-Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Sindy; Vanegast, Leidy; Ramos, Carolina

    2015-09-01

    Espeletia paipana is an endangered giant caulescent rosette endemic to (Asteraceae), Boyacdi-Colombia. Espelelia paipana is an endangered giant caulescent rosette endemic to Boyacá department. In order to establish whether a plant disease, characterized by the loss of leaf pubescence (PPF) and attributed to the pathogenic action of endophytic microorganisms, is the cause of the increasing mortality of population, the physiological performance of the species was evaluated with and without PPF. The incidence (% leaves affected in each of the 27 individuals in the current population) and severity (% leaf area affected on 135 leaves) of the PPF were monitored over a period of nine months, in three topographic zones of different heights. During four consecutive days in both dry and wet season, physiological parameters as chlorophyll content index (ICC), stomatal conductance (Gs) and leaf temperature (Tfol) were measured in healthy and affected leaves. The study was complemented with isolations and pathogenicity tests to identify the causal agent of the PPF. Overall, although the disease incidence in E. paipana was constant over time, the severity progressed surpassing 60 % of the leaf area. The increasing of severity in the upper side of leaves was attributed to the photo-oxidative effect of high radiation between 11:00 h and 14:00 h of the day. The reduction of functional leaf area because of the PPF, led to low Gs with serious implications for carbon fixation and thus limiting growth and biomass renewal. The effect of season in Tfol varied according to the topographic zone, while the ICC did not present a defined pattern with respect to the PPF; its low values could be associated with the production of other pigments. Finally, although it is not possible to ensure that Botrytis sp. is the causative of the loss of leaf pubescence, it is postulated as the most probably causal agent due to its high representativeness in the isolates and its infectious potential during

  7. Una nueva ópera

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    José Sánchez Sanz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Si algo ha marcado al género operístico desde sus inicios ha sido el público que ha asistido a los espectáculos que se representaban en sus teatros. En el siglo XX, con la aparición del cine, la ópera sufre una crisis de audiencia, el público tiene un espectáculo masivo al que asistir, más económico y más cercano al consumo cultural dominante. La ópera pasa a convertirse en un espacio para una élite capaz de pagar los altos precios de los abonos. En la actualidad diversas decisiones tomadas por teatros de ópera están provocando que el interés por el género crezca en una sociedad posmoderna en la que la tecnología parece haber agotado los límites espaciales y temporales. Óperas con libretos basados en películas o en personajes de la contemporaneidad, que exhiben prodigios técnicos visuales y sonoros, realizados éstos por grandes figuras del arte y del diseño. Un concepto de la ópera que vuelve a ser un espectáculo que abarca todas las disciplinas, y que ha asumido la evolución que la tecnología ha aportado a éstas con total naturalidad. 

  8. Diario de una infancia. Mariana

    OpenAIRE

    Casal, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    Resumen: Este artículo está centrado en el análisis del diario de infancia que una de mis entrevistadas, Mariana, escribió durante su niñez en la dictatorial República Argentina a partir del secuestro de su padre, producido en 1977, situación que dio pie al exilio familiar en México. Mariana nos permite entrar en su universo, conocer sus sentimientos y emociones, y acercarnos -a través de sus palabras plasmadas en las cartas que le escribe a su padre desaparecido- a su vida cotidiana y a trav...

  9. Atresia biliar: una enfermedad grave

    OpenAIRE

    Ramonet, Margarita; Ciocca, Mirta; Alvarez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    La atresia biliar es una grave enfermedad que se manifiesta en los recién nacidos, y se desconoce su causa. La inflamación y destrucciónprogresiva de los conductos biliares conducen a la aparición de ictericia, coluria y acolia entre la segunda y sexta semana de vida. Como existen múltiples causas de colestasis neonatal en esta etapa de la vida, es necesario realizar un diagnóstico y derivación precoz para ofrecer un tratamiento quirúrgico, con el fin de restablecer el flujo biliar. Alrededor...

  10. Feronia Inc : una diosa desnuda

    OpenAIRE

    Muntané Puig, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    El informe cuenta con la colaboración de Devlin Kuyek (GRAIN), Carles Soler (Revista SABC), Liliane Spendeler (Amigos de la Tierra), Guadalupe Rodríguez (Salva la Selva) y Jean-François Mombia (RIAO-RDC). Este informe sigue el hilo de las actividades de la compañía Feronia Inc. para descubrir cómo unas plantaciones congoleñas de palma de aceite conectan de forma muy directa con la alimentación y los bolsillos de la ciudadanía española. El caso se muestra como un ejemplo concreto de un fenó...

  11. Pesquisas, recuerdos y una entrevista

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco, Selina

    2009-01-01

    Estudio del trabajo desarrollado por los arquitectos Luis M. Feduchi, Javier Feduchi y Pedro Feduchi en el ámbito del diseño. Sus trayectorias profesionales, a veces entrecruzadas, son el punto de partida de una reflexión, situada histórica y espacialmente en el Madrid del siglo XX, acerca de diversos ámbitos disciplinares (diseño de mobiliario, interiorismo, decorados cinematográficos, montajes de exposiciones, museografías, dispositivos para la exposición y venta en centros comerciales, ent...

  12. Seguridad en una red universitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal España, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Las redes de comunicaciones son muy importantes para las empresas. Se solicita una red de altas prestaciones que pueda llevar muchos sistemas sobre ella (cámaras de seguridad, video, voz, datos, SCADA, wifi). Ahora también necesitamos que la red sea segura. Cuando hablamos de seguridad no solo nos referimos a evitar ataques o virus, también hablamos de cómo puede afectarnos el incendio de un centro de proceso de datos. Basándonos en la ISO 27001:2013 daremos las principales pau...

  13. Effects of Salicylic Acid on Some Morphophysiological Characteristics of Border Flowers from Asteraceae Family under Water Deficit

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    majid zargarian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to improve physical and mental human healthy, development of the urban area landscape is necessary. Water deficit is one of the most important problems in arid and semi- arid regions. Water deficit causes to reduce growth of different plants parts, including roots, aerial parts, leaf area, height, dry weight, proteins, amino acids and chlorophyll. Using drought tolerance plantsisone solution. Moreover, one physiological method to decrease the hazardous effects of environmental stresses on plants is to applyplant growth regulators such as salicylic acid (SA. SA is one of the plant phenolic compounds in low amounts (mg/g wet weight or lower. This hormone can perform an important role in resistance to stresses. Asteraceae is one of the biggest plant families with over 20,000 species which is distributed worldwide in moderate and tropical regions. A lot of border flowers of this family are widely used in landscaping. Toselect drought tolerance flowers and application of materials that reducing stress effects, this experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of salicylic acid on some morphological and physiological characteristics of five border flowers of this family. Materials and Methods: The field experiment was conducted as split plot on randomized complete blocks design with four replications in which factors included two levels of water deficit (50, 100% FC as main plot and two levels of SA (0, 1mmol/L-1 as sub plot in the horticulturedepartment of faculty of Agriculture atFerdowsi University of Mashhad. In this investigation five border flowers (Ageratum houstonianum‘Blue Danube’, Tagetserecta ‘Discovery Yellow’, Tagetspatula‘Hero Harmony’, Zinnia elegans ‘Lilliput rose’andCallistephuschinensis ‘Milady Mix’ of Asteraceae family were chosen for study. The soil mixture was analyzed before starting the test. According to the result of physicochemical analysis of the soil, it had loamy texture

  14. Una nueva forma de conflicto

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    SALUSTIANO DEL CAMPO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el ataque del 11 de septiembre al World Trade Center, el siglo XXI ha empezado con una nueva forma de conflicto y un realineamiento global. Samuel P. Huntington (1993 describió esto como un choque de civilizaciones entre el islam y occidente, pero se argumenta que esto es una simplificación. Otros factores a tener en cuenta son la coexistencia de las sociedades modernas y postmodernas, la desigual distribución de la riqueza, los conflictos internacionales insolubles de larga duración y la condición del islam en diferentes países. Se discute el impacto de la futura diseminación de la tecnología de la información en la resolución de algunas de estas diferencias. Recientemente se han desmantelado anteriores redes internacionales e instituciones. Coexisten redes legales e ilegales de negocios y organizaciones. En el caso de las redes terroristas, es muy complicado identifcarlas, atacarlas y desactivarlas. En el proceso de combatir al terrorismo no deberían sacrificarse los derechos fundamentales democráticos.

  15. Diario de una infancia. Mariana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Beatriz Casal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo está centrado en el análisis del diario de infancia que una de mis entrevistadas, Mariana, escribió durante su niñez en la dictatorial República Argentina a partir del secuestro de su padre, producido en 1977, situación que dio pie al exilio familiar en México. Mariana nos permite entrar en su universo, conocer sus sentimientos y emociones, y acercarnos –a través de sus palabras plasmadas en las cartas que le escribe a su padre desaparecido– a su vida cotidiana y a través de ella a la de muchos otros niños que vivieron situaciones de violencia similares. Mi propósito es enfatizar que los niños son actores sociales y su aporte es vital en la construcción de una historia que los incluya como agentes activos. Abordaré la importancia histórica de escuchar la voz de los niños y el significado de acceder a escritos elaborados por ellos mismos durante la infancia.

  16. Diseño de una red WAN

    OpenAIRE

    Labella Sanz, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Disseny d'una xarxa WAN, formada per una xarxa d'Accés HFC, una xarxa de Commutació ATM i una xarxa de Transport SDH. Diseño de una red WAN, formada por una red de Acceso HFC, una red de Conmutación ATM y una red de Transporte SDH. WAN network design consisting of a HFC access network, an ATM switching network and a SDH transport network.

  17. Atividade antibacteriana e a preditividade do condimento Artemisia dracunculus Linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora - estragão -, frente à Salmonella sp Antimicrobial activity and preditivity of Artemisia acunculus (Asteraceae, var. inodora - tarragon -, as condiment, against Salmonella sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Carvalho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antibacteriana de extrato aquoso do condimento estragão - Artemisia dracunculus linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora -, frente à Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, por meio do sistema de tubos múltiplos e pelo emprego de desinibidores bacterianos, determinando-se a Intensidade de Inibição/Inativação (IINIB/IINAB, observando-se expressiva inibição, bem como ausência de inativação sobre esta salmonela. Na presença do fator matéria orgânica/sujeira representada pelo leite, estes atributos repetiram-se, embora com menor intensidade de inibição. Posteriormente, avaliou-se a preditividade de uma técnica oficial de isolamento desta bactéria, utilizando uma solução experimental de leite e caldo BHI (Brain Heart Infusion, contaminada com 10(4 UFC/mL da salmonela em estudo. Verificou-se a ausência de isolamento desta bactéria em alíquotas de 25 mL, após períodos de 24, 48 e 72 h de incubação a 36ºC, comprometendo a Validade Preditiva dos Resultados Negativos (VPR- do teste. Sugere-se que, nas investigações epidemiológicas de surtos toxiinfectivos alimentares, devem-se ser acrescidas informações sobre condimentação vegetal, entre outras, pertinentes à complexidade crescente do sistema de alimentação e nutrição.It was evaluated antibacterial activity of watery extract of the condiment tarragon - Artemisia dracunculus linn., var. inodora -, against the Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, through the system of multiple pipes and the job of bacterial inhibitors, it was determined Intensity of inhibition/inativation (IINIB/IINAB, observing expressive inhibition, as well as absence of inativation on this salmonela. In presence of the organic substance, represented by skimmed barren milk, these attributes if had repeated, even so with lesser intensity of inhnibition. Later, it was evaluated preditividade of one official technique of isolation of this bacterium, using an experimental solution of milk

  18. Nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae em capítulos de Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae para o Brasil

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    Alessandre Pereira-Colavite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae para o Brasil, Dasineura occulta sp. nov., é descrita associada a Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton (Asteraceae, uma espécie invasora e característica de ambientes antropizadas. Esta nova espécie foi encontrada ocupando capítulos e não há formação de galhas ou alterações no tecido das inflorescências que possam ser reconhecidas externamente. São apresentados desenhos de caracteres morfológicos de adultos (macho e fêmea, larva e pupa. Pranchas da ocupação do hospedeiro também são incluídas.

  19. Three new genera and three new species of Nearctic Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae: Cecidomyiinae) from Asteraceae and Caprifoliaceae, and the tribe Rhopalomyiini subsumed under Oligotrophini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Raymond J

    2016-08-30

    Three new Nearctic genera of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), each with a new species, are described: Helianthecis Gagné for Helianthecis capitum Gagné, new species, that lives in flower heads of Helianthus spp. (Asteraceae) from North Dakota to Texas; Lonicerae Gagné for Lonicerae russoi Gagné, new species, and Lonicerae lonicera (Felt), new combination, that form bud galls on Lonicera spp. (Caprifoliaceae) in California; and Chiosperma Gagné for Chiosperma turgidum Gagné, new species, that forms a bud gall on Symphoricarpos albus (L.) S.F. Blake (Caprifoliaceae) in Washington. The three new genera belong to the supertribe Lasiopteridi and are placed in the tribe Oligotrophini. The tribes Oligotrophini and Rhopalomyiini are combined.

  20. Investigating the potential of under-utilised plants from the Asteraceae family as a source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, O; Smyth, T J; Walsh, D; Kelleher, C T; Hewage, C M; Brunton, N P

    2014-10-15

    Antimicrobial properties of ethanol and water extracts from eight Asteraceae species were investigated against three Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA and Bacillus cereus) and two Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) bacterial strains. Ethanol extracts from Centaurea scabiosa, Arctium minus, Taraxacum officinale, Centaurea nigra and Cirsium palustre demonstrated antimicrobial activity against strains of S. aureus, MRSA and B. cereus (MIC=187.5-365μg/ml). Ethanol extracts also had higher antioxidant activities and phenolic content demonstrating a link between these compounds and the bioactivity of these extracts. Further investigation into the phenolic content of ethanol extracts using UPLC-MS/MS lead to the identification and quantification of numerous phenolic compounds in all species including; 18 from Cirsium arvense, 16 from Cirsium vulgare, 19 from C. palustre, 15 from C. nigra, 17 from C. scabiosa, 14 from Sonchus asper, 17 from A. minus and 11 from T. officinale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Santiago, una ciudad con temor

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    Enrique Oviedo S.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de este artículo es evaluar los efectos de la inseguridad ciudadana en el uso del espacio público. Dicha evaluación exige analizar dos relaciones que se establecen en el ámbito de la violencia: la relación entre victimización y percepción de inseguridad; y la que se establece entre actitudes sociales y resolución pacífica de conflictos nacionales. Para ello, se analizaron las variables victimización, percepción de inseguridad, uso del espacio físico, actitudes hacia el sistema institucional político y social y hacia la resolución de conflictos nacionales, y las posibles relaciones entre ellas. Los datos para realizar el estudio se obtuvieron por medio de una encuesta que se llevó a cabo con 1 200 personas de 18 y 70 años de edad residentes en la ciudad de Santiago. Los resultados indican que Santiago es una ciudad de habitantes con temor y que el aumento de la percepción de inseguridad de sus habitantes contrasta con el hecho de que las tasas de victimización se hayan mantenido, más o menos, constantes en los años que precedieron a la encuesta. El temor se relaciona con el abandono del espacio público físico y sociopolítico, así como con el refugio en los espacios y la vida privados. La actitud de resolver los conflictos por medios no pacíficos es frecuente y se asocia en mayor medida con la inseguridad, la actitud negativa hacia la democracia y la falta de expectativas sobre el futuro del país. Los resultados de este estudio respaldan la idea de que para superar el temor la gente tiende a adaptarse a la realidad adoptando una postura conformista, homogeneizando las creencias y los comportamientos, y sobreestimando la fuerza como medio para resolver las diferencias.

  2. Santiago, una ciudad con temor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oviedo S. Enrique

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de este artículo es evaluar los efectos de la inseguridad ciudadana en el uso del espacio público. Dicha evaluación exige analizar dos relaciones que se establecen en el ámbito de la violencia: la relación entre victimización y percepción de inseguridad; y la que se establece entre actitudes sociales y resolución pacífica de conflictos nacionales. Para ello, se analizaron las variables victimización, percepción de inseguridad, uso del espacio físico, actitudes hacia el sistema institucional político y social y hacia la resolución de conflictos nacionales, y las posibles relaciones entre ellas. Los datos para realizar el estudio se obtuvieron por medio de una encuesta que se llevó a cabo con 1 200 personas de 18 y 70 años de edad residentes en la ciudad de Santiago. Los resultados indican que Santiago es una ciudad de habitantes con temor y que el aumento de la percepción de inseguridad de sus habitantes contrasta con el hecho de que las tasas de victimización se hayan mantenido, más o menos, constantes en los años que precedieron a la encuesta. El temor se relaciona con el abandono del espacio público físico y sociopolítico, así como con el refugio en los espacios y la vida privados. La actitud de resolver los conflictos por medios no pacíficos es frecuente y se asocia en mayor medida con la inseguridad, la actitud negativa hacia la democracia y la falta de expectativas sobre el futuro del país. Los resultados de este estudio respaldan la idea de que para superar el temor la gente tiende a adaptarse a la realidad adoptando una postura conformista, homogeneizando las creencias y los comportamientos, y sobreestimando la fuerza como medio para resolver las diferencias.

  3. El derecho a una vivienda

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    John GLEDHILL

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available El derecho a la vivienda es un derecho humano básico recogido en las declaraciones internacionales y muchas constituciones nacionales. Del él puede hacerse también una lectura “burguesa”, como fundamento de la democracia liberal basada en la propiedad privada, con interesantes consecuencias cuando los ciudadanos ven que sus derechos son violados. Este artículo explora cómo va cambiando la definición del derecho a la vivienda a través de la agenda de ONU–Hábitat, y discute los puntos fuertes y débiles de este programa desde una perspectiva antropológica. El análisis incide sobre el hecho de que gran parte de la población mundial ha tenido que encontrar sus propias soluciones a los problemas de vivienda, y aborda los debates en torno a la “regularización” de los asentamientos, la tierra y las viviendas “informales”, a los mercados de la vivienda, y a las implicaciones sociales de los diferentes enfoques al respecto. Se sostiene que el enfoque de las Naciones Unidas, a pesar de su énfasis en la planificación participativa y la universalización del derecho a la ciudad, sigue marginando aspectos más complejos que surgen de las relaciones entre la vivienda, el hábitat y los patrones de sociabilidad. El artículo concluye con la consideración de las condiciones a las que se enfrentan los movimientos sociales que luchan por el derecho a la ciudad, en un contexto de regeneración urbana y gentrificación basado en la clase social, incorporando la comprensión de los procesos microsociales que ofrece la investigación etnográfica, desde una perspectiva multidimensional, sobre las relaciones de poder que han estructurado el reciente desarrollo de las ciudades metropolitanas.

  4. The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Olas, Beata; Kołodziejczyk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Wołoszczak, Marta; Wachowicz, Barbara; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-12-01

    Lots of plants belonging to Asteraceae family are very popular in folk medicine in Poland. These plants are also known as being rich in acidic polysaccharides, due to the presence of hexuronic acids or its derivatives. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the extract from Conyza canadensis L. possesses various biological activity, including antiplatelet, antiocoagulant and antioxidant properties. The aim of our study was to assess if macromolecular glycoconjugates from selected herbal plants of Asteraceae family: Achillea millefolium L., Arnica montana L., Echinacea purpurea L., Solidago virgaurea L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert., and Conyza canadensis L. protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite, which is responsible for oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins: the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups. These modifications may lead to changes of blood platelet functions and can have pathological consequences. The role of these different medicinal plants in the defence against oxidative/nitrative stress in human platelets is still unknown, therefore the oxidative damage to platelet proteins induced by peroxynitrite and protectory effects of tested conjugates by the estimation of carbonyl group level and nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of protein nitration) were studied in vitro. The antioxidative properties of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The obtained results demonstrate that the compounds from herbal plants: A. millefolium, A. montana, E. purpurea, C. recutita, S. virgaurea, possess antioxidative properties and protect platelet proteins against peroxynitrite toxicity in vitro, similar to the glycoconjugates from C. canadensis. However, in the comparative studies, the polyphenolic

  5. una aproximación

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    Roberto González Arana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone analizar la dinámica actual de las relaciones entre Colombia y los Estados Unidos, las negociaciones de cara al Tratado de Libre Comercio y la influencia del conflicto colombiano en el tipo de relaciones políticas y económicas bilaterales. Los recientes cambios políticos en la región afectan no sólo las relaciones bilaterales entre Colombia y sus vecinos sino también tienen una incidencia en las relaciones con los Estados Unidos. Para ello, se evalúan las particularidades de la política de Seguridad Democrática y el estado de las relaciones entre Colombia y Estados Unidos durante la administración del presidente Álvaro Uribe.

  6. Una mirada a las competencias

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    Germán Albeiro Castaño Duque

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de competencias cobra cada vez más fuerza y se extiende cada vez más en diferentes ámbitos y niveles. El presente artículo efectúa un breve recorrido por algunos autores de renombre que han hablado sobre el tema, hace referencia a la necesidad que tiene la universidad de flexibilizar sus currículos para responder a las nuevas demandas de la sociedad del conocimiento y la globalización, de manera que favorezcan el perfil ocupacional de sus egresados mediante la formación en competencias y, además, da una muestra clara de cómo se está llevando a cabo este proceso en la Universidad Nacional de Colombia e indica, finalmente, un breve esbozo de cómo será la educación del futuro.

  7. Geography shapes the phylogeny of frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae: a remarkable example of recent rapid radiation in sky islands

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    Mauricio Diazgranados

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The páramo ecosystem, located above the timberline in the tropical Andes, has been the setting for some of the most dramatic plant radiations, and it is one of the world’s fastest evolving and most diverse high-altitude ecosystems. Today 144+ species of frailejones (subtribe Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae dominate the páramo. Frailejones have intrigued naturalists and botanists, not just for their appealing beauty and impressive morphological diversity, but also for their remarkable adaptations to the extremely harsh environmental conditions of the páramo. Previous attempts to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this group failed to resolve relationships among genera and species, and there is no agreement regarding the classification of the group. Thus, our goal was to reconstruct the phylogeny of the frailejones and to test the influence of the geography on it as a first step to understanding the patterns of radiation of these plants. Methods Field expeditions in 70 páramos of Colombia and Venezuela resulted in 555 collected samples from 110 species. Additional material was obtained from herbarium specimens. Sequence data included nrDNA (ITS and ETS and cpDNA (rpl16, for an aligned total of 2,954 bp. Fragment analysis was performed with AFLP data using 28 primer combinations and yielding 1,665 fragments. Phylogenies based on sequence data were reconstructed under maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. The AFLP dataset employed minimum evolution analyses. A Monte Carlo permutation test was used to infer the influence of the geography on the phylogeny. Results Phylogenies reconstructed suggest that most genera are paraphyletic, but the phylogenetic signal may be misled by hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting. A tree with all the available molecular data shows two large clades: one of primarily Venezuelan species that includes a few neighboring Colombian species; and a second clade of only

  8. La Tuberculosis, Una Enfermedad Modificada*

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    Valentin Malagón Castro

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Con ocasión de un estudio de revisión que hemos llevado a cabo recientemente sobre la tuberculosis osteoarticular, *** se ha apreciado un cambio notable en las características y manifestaciones de esta enfermedad.

    Hemos sido testigos del comportamiento de la tuberculosis en los últimos 40 años. Realizamos la tesis profesional en el Hospital de niños de la Misericordia de Bogotá en el año 1950 (86, basada en el análisis de más de 300 enfermos de Mal de Pott tratados con pobres resultados en esa institución en la época prequimioterápica. Efectuamos estudios de control del tratamiento quirúrgico de esa afección en el Hospital Infantil Lorencita Villegas de Santos y publicamos sus resultados en los años 1975,1980 Y1987 (85-87-88. Los pacientes correspondientes a estas nuevas series, ya en la época de la quimioterapia moderna, presentaban un mejor pronóstico vital y funcional. Cuadro 1A.

    En el decenio 1978-1988 asistimos al descenso espectacular de la frecuencia de tuberculosis osteoarticular en las salas de nuestros hospitales. Posteriormente hemos sido igualmente testigos de su lenta y progresiva reaparición.

    El estudio actual nos ha mostrado profundos cambios, como ya se ha dicho, en el comportamiento de la entidad, por lo que estamos de acuerdo en denominarla: La tuberculosis, una enfermedad modificada, diferente a la que hasta hace un década parecía derrotada, vencida por las nuevas drogas y las recientes técnicas quirúrgicas.

    La actual es una enfermedad diferente que ha tomado una fuerza avasalladora que amenaza con volverse resistente al tratamiento específico y dar lugar a una pandemia de incalculables proporciones y de terribles consecuencias para la humanidad.

    El objeto de publicar este estudio es recordar a nuestros colegas, en especial a aquellos de las nuevas promociones que quizás no han tenido la oportunidad de estar en contacto con pacientes de tuberculosis osteoarticular, de

  9. Purificação do flavonóide trans-tilirosídeo do extrato metanólico das folhas de Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (asteraceae e avaliação da sua atividade nematicida Purification of the flavonoid trans-tiliroside from the methanolic extract of Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae leaves and evaluation of the nematicidal activity

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    Helvécio Martins dos Santos Júnior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O fracionamento do extrato metanólico das folhas de Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae resultou no isolamento do flavonol glicosídico trans-tilirosídeo [kaempferol 3-O- -D-(6''-O-E-p-cumaroil-glicopiranosídeo], que nunca tinha sido identificado na referida espécie vegetal. Em teste realizado in vitro, observou-se que tal substância a 500 μg/mL, não tem efeito sobre a mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estágio do nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi.Fractionation of the methanolic extract from Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae leaves resulted in the isolation of the flavonol glycoside trans-tiliroside [kaempferol 3-O- -D-(6''-O-E-p-coumaroyl-glucopyranoside], which had never been found in such plant species. Such substance at 500 μg/mL caused no in vitro effect on the mortality of second-stage juveniles of the nematode Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi.

  10. Wolbachia, una pandemia con posibilidades

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    Marcela S. RODRIGUERO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La infección causada por Wolbachia es la más extendida entre los animales. La capacidad de esta bacteria para manipular la reproducción de sus hospedadores la posicionan en el centro de la biología de los organismos, influyendo en procesos tan capitales como la determinación del sexo, el ciclo celular, la formación y extinción de especies y el comportamiento de artrópodos entre los que se cuentan varias plagas y vectores de enfermedades. Cualidades tales como la herencia vertical de Wolbachia, la velocidad a la que se propaga en las poblaciones que afecta, la capacidad de bloquear la actividad patogénica de diversos microorganismos o de acortar el ciclo de vida de sus hospedadores la señalan como un potencial instrumento para el control de poblaciones de insec - tos y nematodos perjudiciales. ¿Cuáles son las posibilidades que nos ofrece esta pandemia? En la presente contribución se presenta una revisión de los aspectos fundamen - tales de esta infección y sus implicancias prácticas para el manejo de insectos plaga. Esta revisión está basada en el simposio del mismo nombre acontecido en el VIII Congreso Argentino de Entomología.

  11. TERMODINAMICA DE ECOSISTEMAS UNA APROXIMACION

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    Gómez Palacio Germán Raúl

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available La ecología actual no es ya una ciencia puramente descriptiva y autosuficiente. Dada la naturaleza compleja de los ecosistemas, ha sido necesario recurrir a disciplinas como la física, la química, y a herramientas matemáticas como la teoría de catástrofes, la teoría de fractales, la cibernética y la teoría de redes, para el estudio y predicción de su comportamiento. La termodinámica -en sus distintos estadios -también aporta a esa visión pluralista, tal vez la única aproximada al comportamiento real de un ecosistema. Se presentan algunas ideas sobre la importancia que pueden tener conceptos como la energía, la entropía, la exergía, la información, el no equilibrio en el análisis de los procesos que tienen lugar en ecosistemas.

  12. Una red para la gente

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    Raúl Trejo Delarbre

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available La próxima Cumbre Mundial de la Sociedad de la Información ha revitalizado, en numerosos países, el debate acerca de las nuevas tecnologías de la comunicación y los usos que pueden tener. Lamentablemente en México hemos estado casi del todo ajenos a esa intensa, extensa y en otras latitudes fructífera discusión. Ni los especialistas interesados en estos temas, ni la sociedad que es a la postre beneficiaria o damnificada según sea el empleo de tales tecnologías, ni los organismos del Estado a cargo de tales asuntos, han propiciado la reflexión colectiva que nos podría permitir tanto afinar las posiciones de nuestro país rumbo a la cumbre de Ginebra y Túnez como deliberar, en ese contexto, acerca de lo mucho que nos falta para tener un país auténticamente imbricado en la construcción de una auténtica Sociedad de la Información.

  13. No queremos una sola voz

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    Lourdes Barrezueta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comunicación y Género, acopia trabajos que vinculan a la mujer y la comunicación y sus esfuerzos por no ser consideradas inferiores. Del libro a la pantalla, acerca a algunas reflexiones sobre el proceso que lleva del libro a la pantalla por la polémica que despierta la adaptación de las novelas, puesto que muchos señalan que la trama se ve desfigurada. Se agregan varios temas sobre el cine. En "Días de Radio", se plantea el que a pesar de la censura y los problemas económicos que deben enfrentar, las radios populares de América Latina, siguen ganando espacios, de su desarrollo depende una mayor profundización de la democracia. Tema de debate es Estrategias comunicativas en Chiapas y Haití. Se añaden dos entrevistas a un caricaturista brasileño y a un corresponsal de guerra muy prestigiado.

  14. Una Amistad y una Vocacion: Carlos Sanmartin Barberi

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    Carlos Sanmartin Barberi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Discurso Pronunciado por el Dr. EGON LICHTENBERGER en su recepción como Miembro Honorario de la Academia Nacional de Medicina.

    Con motivo de haber sido distinguido para presentarme en este recinto respetable para recibir la medalla de Miembro Honorario, revisé la lista de los académicos honorarios y demás miembros de la Academia Nacional de Medicina. Que la persona, que les dirige la palabra, pase a engrosar la lista de figuras tan eminentes de la Medicina Colombiana, me causa sentimientos de temor, de humildad y de satisfacción.

    De temor porque soy consciente de lo que significa ser y de lo que se espera de un Miembro Honorario de la Academia. De humildad por figurar al lado de profesionales tan eminentes y que han hecho contribuciones tan significativas en todas la ramas de la Medicina. Y de satisfacción por haber sido elegido por unanimidad para pertenecer a esta casa, después de mas de treinta años de labor académica y de casi quince frente al Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses.

    Me perdonarán ustedes, si de la lista de Académico Honorarios deseo mencionar en esta ocasión solamente el nombre del Doctor Carlos Sanmartín Barberi, cuya ausencia de esta sesión solemne es extremadamente dolorosa. Con Carlos tuvimos una larga y estrecha amistad que comenzó con los estudios en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional, cuyos cicuenta años de egresados como médicos, se celebró recientemente con un acto académico, en el cual, el Doctor Sanmartín deleitó a los asistentes con una disertación sobre los progresos de la Medicina durante los últimos cincuenta años, disertación profunda y amena como todas las que pronunció durante su vida académica y profesional.

    Recuerdo cuando por los años 1943-1944, nos reuníamos por la noche en su casa, ubicada en Teusaquillo y en el microscopio heredado de su padre, Doctor Roberto Sanmartín Latorre, tempranamente

  15. Una vida con una válvula: vivencias de una joven operada de corazón

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    María Correa Rodríguez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La informante del relato es una joven que tuvo que ser sometida a una intervención quirúrgica a corazón abierto. Este relato biográfico presenta sus vivencias, sentimientos y experiencias a lo largo del proceso, abarcando desde sus estancias hospitalarias, manejo de la enfermedad y situación actual. El objetivo del relato es describir el significado las experiencias relacionadas con la enfermedad que ha desarrollado la joven en las distintas etapas de su vida. Es una historia marcada por el enorme amor que siente hacia sus padres que la han apoyado en todo momento.

  16. Una vida con una válvula: vivencias de una joven operada de corazón

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    María Correa Rodríguez; José Antonio Gutiérrez Romero; Juan Manuel Martínez Guerrero

    2013-01-01

    La informante del relato es una joven que tuvo que ser sometida a una intervención quirúrgica a corazón abierto. Este relato biográfico presenta sus vivencias, sentimientos y experiencias a lo largo del proceso, abarcando desde sus estancias hospitalarias, manejo de la enfermedad y situación actual. El objetivo del relato es describir el significado las experiencias relacionadas con la enfermedad que ha desarrollado la joven en las distintas etapas de su vida. Es una historia marcada por el e...

  17. Una trayectoria de nuestro tiempo

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    Roberto Schwarz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La lectura crítica de la autobiografía de CaetanoVeloso, Verdade tropical, analiza la posición cultural y política de la Tropicália, movimiento en que este artista tuvo un papel decisivo con su música y sus shows. Se problematiza su distanciamiento de la izquierda tradicional y las críticas que hace de ésta: por un lado, su ilusión sobre la existencia de un ‘populismo’ y, por el otro, su complacencia con medidas dictatoriales tomadas en el nombre del pueblo. El artículo sostiene que esta actitud prepara el descompromiso social que caracteriza el post-modernismo, no obstante admite que tampoco la izquierda –hasta hoy– ha encontrado una respuesta sobre el periodo que apunte a una reevaluación de lo popular y del pueblo como sujeto políticamente viable. A leitura crítica da autobiografia de Caetano Veloso, Verdade tropical, analisa a perspectiva cultural e política da Tropicália, movimento no qual este artista teve um papel decisivo com sua música e seus shows. Problematiza-se o seu afastamento a respeito da esquerda tradicional e as críticas que faz dela: de um lado, a sua ilusão com a existência de um ‘populismo’ e, do outro, a sua complacência com medidas ditatoriais tomadas em nome do povo. O ensaio assinala que a atitude da Tropicália antecipa a desobrigação social que caracteriza o pós-modernismo, não obstante admite que a esquerda não foi capaz até hoje de propor uma nova avaliação tanto do período quanto do popular e do povo como sujeito politicamente viável. This critical approach to Caetano Veloso’s autobiographic book Verdade Tropical, analyzes the cultural and political dimensions of Tropicália, a movement in which this artist played a decisive role with his music and shows. This article questions the distance Tropicália took from traditional left-wing positions, as well as its criticism of the latter: on the one hand, Tropicália’s misleading depiction about populism and, on the other

  18. Paso superior en una ladera

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    Bender, O.

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available The Redwood highway, through the Californian forest, runs on a viaduct, as it crosses a mountain slope of about 45° inclination. The firm ground is fairly deep, and as an additional constructional difficulty, it was necessary to respect the natural beauty of the countryside. A structure of portal frames were built, forming a number of short spans. These spans were bridged with metal girders, on which a 19 m wide deck was placed. The columns are hollow and have a transversal cross beam, to join each pair. There was difficulty in excavating the foundations for the columns, as it was necessary to dig through the soft top soil, and also prevent this soil from hurting the trunks of the forest trees. Another significant difficulty in the construction of this viaduct was the access to the working site, since there were no suitable platforms from which to operate the appropriate machinery. This made it necessary to do a lot of the work by manual operation. As one of the edges of the deck is very close to the mountain side, a supporting beam was erected on this side. It was made of concrete, on metal piles. The formwork for the deck structure was placed on the concrete stems of the supporting piles.La autopista denominada Redwood (California salva, con un paso superior, la ladera de un bosque cuya pendiente es del 1/1. El terreno firme se halla a bastante profundidad, añadiéndose, a los naturales problemas de la construcción, el imperativo de respetar la belleza agreste del paraje. La solución adoptada consiste en una estructura porticada, con varios tramos de pequeñas luces, salvados con vigas metálicas, sobre los que se coloca la losa del tablero, de 19 m de anchura total. Los soportes están constituidos por pórticos de dos montantes huecos (con bases de hormigón en masa por debajo del suelo, hasta el firme coronados por un cabezal. La perforación de pozos para el hormigonado de los montantes presentaba la dificultad de atravesar el terreno

  19. Self-incompatibility, floral parameters, and pollen characterization in the narrow endemic and threatened species Artemisia granatensis (Asteraceae

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    Taisma, María Angélica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia granatensis Boiss. is a paradigmatic species for plant conservation in Spain and Europe. It is a critically endangered (CR endemic species growing above 2500 m in the Sierra Nevada (southern Spain. Natural populations have been considerably devastated in the past due to intensive human exploitation for folk medicine. The sparse available data concerning the reproductive biology of this species under natural conditions indicate a low reproductive success. To provide additional information on the reproductive biology of A. granatensis, and consequently information useful for the management and conservation of this species, we studied the breeding system through pollen-tube growth. In addition, some floral and pollen traits were recorded. No differences were found between populations in terms of the morphological traits of flowers and inflorescences. A. granatensis is an anemophilous species, and the data indicate that pollen transfer may be limited between isolated populations, and so contributing to an extremely low fruit-set. Results show A. granatensis is selfincompatible, probably with a sporophytic self-incompatibility system, and with no evidence of partial self-incompatibility. Reproductive traits, related to pollen morphology and settling speed may explain the low rate of recruitment in the small populations separated by geographical barriers.Artemisia granatensis Boiss. es una especie paradigmática en la conservación de flora a nivel español y europeo. Es una especie catalogada como En Peligro Crítico (CR endémica de Sierra Nevada (sur de España, donde habita por encima de los 2500 m. Las poblaciones naturales han sido casi exterminadas en el pasado debido a una recolección masiva de la especie, utilizada en medicina popular. Los escasos datos disponibles acerca de su biología reproductiva en condiciones naturales indican que existe un bajo éxi to reproductivo. Con el objetivo de proporcionar información adicional

  20. EI pensamiento organizacional estrategico: una perspectiva diacronica

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    Mauricio Sanabria

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo recorre los principales elementos que han permitido configurar el pensamiento organizacional estratégico. Este campo, inscrito en la disciplina administrativa, cuenta con destacadas contribuciones fundamentalmente durante las últimas cinco décadas. Se reconstruye su desarrollo conceptual, ubicándolo en un contexto histórico particular; más que una crítica profunda, se presenta un panorama general, resultado de una aproximación diacrónica, en la que es imposible no postular una serie de ideas, planteamientos y reflexiones específicas.

  1. HACIA UNA PEDAGOGÍA FRANCISCANA

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    Benjamín Soto Forero

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo busca presentar como mediante toda una manera de actuar, de ver y de pensar, se va construyendo una propuesta pedagógica franciscana; inspirada en el Evangelio y en la manera como Francisco de Asís vivió el mismo, buscando siempre la importancia de la persona humana, la fraternidad universal, el respeto por lo diferente, viviendo la cotidianidad de una manera alegre y festiva, donde la propuesta pedagógica franciscana se va dando en el caminar con el otro desde la fraternidad y el servicio.

  2. Desarrollo social y personalidad. Una perspectiva interdisciplinar

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    Riesco González, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    En las siguientes páginas se pretende establecer un diálogo interdisciplinar y abierto sobre cuestiones relevantes acerca del desarrollo social y de la personalidad. A partir de una breve reseña histórica del tema desde una perspectiva psicológica, se trata de comprender, con una visión amplia, el progreso humano como marco general del desarrollo social y de las personas. Finalmente, se muestra un bosquejo de la sociedad actual, definida como “sociedad del conocimiento”, “sociedad abierta” y ...

  3. Use of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae and Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae to treat intestinal mucositis in mice: Toxico-pharmacological evaluations

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    Carla Caroline Cunha Bastos

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies towards the development of an effective treatment for intestinal mucositis have been reported, since this condition represents a major problem in clinical oncology practice due to cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy. However standardized protocols and universally accepted treatment options are yet to be established. Objectives: Given above, this study evaluated the protective effects of a mucoadhesive formulation containing both Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae (BP and curcuminoids from Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae (CL on intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluoruoacil (5-FU in mice. Results: As expected, animals only treated with 5-FU (200 mg/kg showed a significant reduction of 60.3 and 42.4% in villi and crypts size, respectively, when compared to control. On the other hand, the proposed therapeutic/prophylactic treatment with mucoadhesive formulations managed to reduce histopathologic changes in mice bearing mucositis, especially at 125 mg/kg BP + 15 mg/kg CL dose. The formulation promoted an increase of 275.5% and 148.7% for villi and crypts size, respectively. Moreover, chemotherapy-related weight loss was reduced by 7.4% following the treatment. In addition, an increase of 10 and 30.5% in red and white blood cells was observed when compared to 5-FU group. Furthermore, treatments with the mucoadhesive formulation containing BP/CL up modulated Ki-67 and Bcl-2 expression while reduced pro-apoptotic regulator Bax. The formulation also modulated inflammatory response triggered by 5-FU through reduction of 68% of myeloperoxidase activity and a 4-fold increase in anti-inflammatory IL-10 levels. In parallel, the oxidative stress via lipid peroxidation was reduced as indicated by decrease of 63% of malondialdehyde concentrations. Additionally, the new formulation presented low acute oral systemic toxicity, being classified in the category 5 (2000 mg/kg < LD50 < 5000 mg/kg of the Globally Harmonized

  4. Palinologia de espécies de Asteraceae de utilidade medicinal para a comunidade da Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brasil Pollen morpology of species of Asteraceae with medicinal utility for the community from Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Marcelo Neto Galvão

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho trata da morfologia polínica e de descrições taxonômicas de 12 espécies de Asteraceae correspondentes em 12 diferentes gêneros, distribuídos em nove tribos. Todas as espécies estudadas são utilizadas como medicamentos pelos moradores da Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro. Neste estudo objetivou-se caracterizar os tipos polínicos das espécies usadas por esta comunidade e fornecer chaves diagnósticas de caracteres macromorfológicos e micromorfológicos que auxiliem a identificação das mesmas. A identificação taxonômica e palinológica correta é pré-requisito para estudos que validem a eficácia e segurança terapêutica dessas espécies. Deve-se considerar, ainda, que a utilização desses conhecimentos é importante para a comunidade, como por exemplo, na melissopalinologia. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscopia de luz. Para observar detalhes da superfície e abertura, grãos de pólen não acetolisados foram analisados em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Foram estudadas as características dos grãos de pólen como forma, tamanho, constituição da sexina e abertura. Os resultados mostraram que a morfologia polínica é bem definida entre as espécies estudadas, podendo ser usada para sua identificação e sustenta o caráter euripalinológico de Asteraceae.This study is a palynologycal characterization and taxonomic description of 12 species within 12 genera, distributed in nine tribes from Asteracaeae. All studied species are used as medicines by people from Vila Dois Rios and they occur in Ilha Grande. This work aimed to characterize the pollen grains of medicinal species of Asteraceae from Vila Dois Rios and provide diagnostic keys based on macromorphological and pollen characters to help their identification, since the correct taxonomic and palynological recognition of these species is necessary for further studies on therapeutic

  5. Plan de viabilidad de una casa rural

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    Nieto González, Óscar

    2011-01-01

    Este proyecto consiste en la puesta en marcha de una casa rural en la localidad de Argés, próxima a la ciudad de Toledo, se llamará “La Casona de Argés”, la casa tendrá 4 habitaciones dobles y una suite, todas ellas con cuarto de baño y además de las estancias habituales como cocina y salón dispondrá de un semisótano destinado a zona de juegos, una piscina, y una amplia parcela acondicionada para juegos y disfrute de los huéspedes. El negocio va estar enfocado a un público que viaje con niños...

  6. Educando una nueva ética global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ferrer

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Desde el trasfondo global, se han configurado espacios de poder diferenciados, que motivan a la educación de un mínimo de ética global, por la aspiración de una sociedad mas justa y humana. El presente artículo analiza las implícaciones en la formación ética global, bajo el enfoque de contribuir al reforzamiento de la interdependencia de valores éticos universales. Se realiza una contrastación teórica de las corrientes epistemológicas, desde la perspectiva postmodema. Se concluye sobre la necesidad de educar para una ética global, expandiendo sinergias entre dinamismo productivo, bien social e institucionalidad democrática, por la búsqueda de una convivencia social de futuro.

  7. Notas sobre una escuela circular prefabricada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1961-09-01

    Full Text Available En 1930, la idea de una planta circular para escuela, abarcando un espacio exterior frente a un edificio de usos varios, era ya antigua por lo menos en diez años. El Museo de Arte Moderno de Nueva York, que por aquellos tiempos instaló y preparó en sus nuevas dependencias la primera exposición masiva de Arquitectura moderna, dispuso una magnífica maqueta de este proyecto de Richard J. Neutra.

  8. Previous Experience a Model of Practice UNAE

    OpenAIRE

    Ormary Barberi Ruiz; María Dolores Pesántez Palacios

    2017-01-01

    The statements presented in this article represents a preliminary version of the proposed model of pre-professional practices (PPP) of the National University of Education (UNAE) of Ecuador, an urgent institutional necessity is revealed in the descriptive analyzes conducted from technical support - administrative (reports, interviews, testimonials), pedagogical foundations of UNAE (curricular directionality, transverse axes in practice, career plan, approach and diagnostic examination as subj...

  9. El budismo como una espiritualidad no religiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Granés Bayona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El budismo plantea acceder a una visión de la realidad desligada de creencias y supuestos de todo tipo. Para conseguirlo plantea una indagación libre en referencia al enclaustramiento de nuestro pensar y sentir al que nos somete el ego. El ego con sus necesidades y deseos genera un acceso a la realidad relativo a nosotros. Lo que se propone es una liberación de esta lectura para que la realidad pueda aparecer frente a nosotros de manera independiente de las imposiciones del ego, es decir, un acceso a ella ab-soluto (suelto de nosotros. El budismo es, pues, una propuesta de ‘espiritualidad no religiosa’, para la que el mismo término espiritualidad  resultaría inadecuado porque en él subyace la creencia en el ‘espíritu’. Vemos que por todo ello el mensaje budista resulta muy apropiado para las sociedades hoy presentes, bien para aquellas que están transitando de una sociedad agrícola a una industrial, que conlleva a debilitar las convicciones religiosas hasta disolverlas; bien para aquellas que están próximas o han entrado ya en las sociedades llamadas de conocimiento, innovación y cambio continuo cuya condición de movilidad impide  las creencias, porque son fijadoras, lo que arrastra como consecuencia la imposibilidad de tener religión ni espiritualidad. 

  10. Una matriz de contabilidad social para Asturias

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    Margarita Argüelles

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Una Matriz de Contabilidad Social es un sistema integrado de cuentas que presenta en un cuadro de doble entrada todas las transacciones que tienen lugar en una economía entre sectores productivos, factores de producción, sectores institucionales y resto del mundo. En comparación con una Tabla Input-Output, ofrece una mayor cantidad de información y presenta de forma plena el proceso circular de la renta, captando con mayor precisión los efectos de cambios exógenos. Una de las principales utilidades de una Matriz de Contabilidad Social es servir como base de datos para el desarrollo y aplicación de un modelo de equilibrio general computable. Este es, precisamente, el objetivo último que se persigue con la elaboración de la Matriz de Contabilidad Social de la economía asturiana que aquí se presenta. Esta Matriz ha sido construida con datos procedentes de las Cuentas Regionales de Asturias correspondientes al año 1995 y su estructura se ha adaptado a su futura utilización como base de datos para el modelo que se pretende aplicar en esta economía regional.

  11. Mito: memoria y legado de una sensibilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Humberto Moreno Durán

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Evocar con entusiasmo los logros de una revista cultural es una forma de hacer autobiografía. Una forma descaradamente amable de entronizar el propio gusto y de afiliarse a una tradición con pedigree. La revista, por esta vía, deja de ser lo que sociológicamente significa -o debe significar- en el contexto cultural de una época y un país y accede a un rango nuevo y singular: a su valor perse cabe añadir otro aporte: lo que cuenta en la vida espiritual y artística del lector qué la evoca y al cual ha cautivado. La revista adquiere entonces implicaciones antropológicas, en todo superiores a las meramente didácticas y formativas. Si es cierto eso de que el estilo es el hombre, hay estilos que sólo canalizan y concilian sus intereses a través de un tipo particular de revista, lo que de alguna forma constata la existencia de destinos unidos a la suerte de una publicación , y ese es el caso de Jorge Gaitán Durán y de un grupo de escritores , comúnmente designados en el panorama de las letras continentales bajo el nombre de Generación del Cincuenta.

  12. ABEJAS VISITANTES DE Aspilia tenella (KUNTH S. F. BLAKE (ASTERACEAE: COMPORTAMIENTO DE FORRAJEO Y CARGAS POLÍNICAS BEES VISITING Aspilia tenella (KUNTH S .F. BLAKE (ASTERACEAE: FORAGING BEHAVIOR AND POLLEN LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Isabel Aguilar Sierra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En cuatro localidades de la zona de influencia del embalse Porce II (Antioquia, Colombia, se observó el comportamiento de 23 taxones de abejas durante sus visitas a Aspilia tenella (Kunth S. F. Blake; se registró el número de individuos y el tiempo total de visita y se midieron la temperatura y la humedad relativa. Los análisis de varianza indican que hubo una relación estadísticamente significativa en cuanto a los atributos considerados para las especies de abejas y una covariación significativa con las variables ambientales. Las pruebas de rangos múltiples muestran que Trigona nigerrima es la especie con los mayores valores promedio para el número de individuos y el tiempo de visita. En el estudio de las cargas polínicas se encontraron 30 tipos polínicos, dentro de los cuales A. tenella presentó el mayor porcentaje; Piper aduncum, Miconia minuti flora, Psidium guajava, Rapanea sp., Mimosa pudica y Psychotria sp., en su orden, son otras fuentes de polen importantes para varias de las especies de abejas. El análisis de agrupamiento para las abejas capturadas permitió diferenciar dos grupos: el primero incluye a 18 especies cuyas cargas polínicas que poseían una abundancia relativa de granos de polen de A. tenella por encima de 77%; el segundo grupo estaba conformado por cinco especies de abejas que recolectaron porcentajes mayores de otros tipos polínicos: Exomalopsis sp. 1 (90,4% de M. minuti flora; Lasioglossum sp. 1 y Coelioxys aff. mexicana (77,4% y 64,1% de P. aduncum, respectivamente; Exomalopsis sp. 2 (67,1% de P. guajava y Auglochloropsis vesta (55,5% de Rapanea sp.. Trigona fulviventris y Apis mellifera presentaron los valores más altos de riqueza de tipos polínicos en las cargas de polen; ello evidencia sus nichos tróficos amplios y su comportamiento generalista de visita.We observed the behavior of 23 species of wild bees visiting Aspilia tenella (Kunth S .F. Blake in four different localities of the Porce II dam

  13. Short-term effects of dimethoate on metabolic responses in Chrysolina pardalina (Chrysomelidae) feeding on Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae), a hyper-accumulator of nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustyniak, M.; Migula, P. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J. [Materials Research Group, iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Tarnawska, M.; Nakonieczny, M. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Babczynska, A. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland)], E-mail: ababczyn@us.edu.pl; Przybylowicz, W. [Materials Research Group, iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Augustyniak, M.G. [Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia, Bedzinska 60, PL 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland)

    2007-11-15

    Berkheya coddii Roessler (Asteraceae) is a hyper-accumulator of nickel, which can be used in phytomining and phytoremediation. Chrysolina pardalina Fabricius (Chrysomelidae) is a phytophagous leaf beetle, which may be useful in controlling population levels of B. coddii after it has been introduced into a new habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of C. pardalina to topical application of dimethoate. Data recorded included the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the concentration of glutathione (GSH), and the activity of selected enzymes connected with GSH metabolism. Assays were carried out several times during the first 24 h after exposure to dimethoate. At the dosages used in this study, dimethoate was not as toxic as expected. AChE activity was significantly decreased 14 and 24 h after application. GST activity was significantly decreased 24 h after application. GSTPx activity was significantly decreased 2, 14 and 24 h after application. GR activity was significantly increased 4 h after application. GSH concentration was significantly increased 24 h after application. Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable C. pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides. - Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable Chrysolina pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides.

  14. Host Jumps and Radiation, Not Co‐Divergence Drives Diversification of Obligate Pathogens. A Case Study in Downy Mildews and Asteraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Joon; Thines, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Even though the microevolution of plant hosts and pathogens has been intensely studied, knowledge regarding macro-evolutionary patterns is limited. Having the highest species diversity and host-specificity among Oomycetes, downy mildews are a useful a model for investigating long-term host-pathogen coevolution. We show that phylogenies of Bremia and Asteraceae are significantly congruent. The accepted hypothesis is that pathogens have diverged contemporarily with their hosts. But maximum clade age estimation and sequence divergence comparison reveal that congruence is not due to long-term coevolution but rather due to host-shift driven speciation (pseudo-cospeciation). This pattern results from parasite radiation in related hosts, long after radiation and speciation of the hosts. As large host shifts free pathogens from hosts with effector triggered immunity subsequent radiation and diversification in related hosts with similar innate immunity may follow, resulting in a pattern mimicking true co-divergence, which is probably limited to the terminal nodes in many pathogen groups. PMID:26230508

  15. Fumigant toxicity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Kang, Jaesoon; Koh, Sang-Hyun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against the Japanese termite Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe. Fumigant toxicity varied with plant essential oils or constituents, exposure time, and concentration. Among the tested essential oils, those from Chamaemelum nobile exhibited the strongest fumigant toxicity, followed by those from Santolina chamaecyparissus, Ormenis multicaulis, and Eriocephalus punctulatus at 2 days after treatment. In all, 15, 24, 19, and 9 compounds were identified in the essential oils from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus, respectively, by using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or open-column chromatography. The identified compounds were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, trans-pinocarveol, caryophyllene oxide, sabinene hydrate, and santolina alcohol showed strong fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of the identified compounds from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus essential oils were tested to determine the mode of their action. The IC50 values of (+)-α-pinene, (-)-limonene, (-)-α-pinene, β-pinene, and β-phellandrene against Japanese termite AChE were 0.03, 0.13, 0.41, 0.42, and 0.67mg/mL, respectively. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Species tree phylogeny and character evolution in the genus Centipeda (Asteraceae): evidence from DNA sequences from coding and non-coding loci from the plastid and nuclear genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylinder, Stephan; Cronholm, Bodil; de Lange, Peter J; Walsh, Neville; Anderberg, Arne A

    2013-08-01

    A species tree phylogeny of the Australian/New Zealand genus Centipeda (Asteraceae) is estimated based on nucleotide sequence data. We analysed sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ETS, ITS) and three plasmid loci (ndhF, psbA-trnH, and trnL-F) using the multi-species coalescent module in BEAST. A total of 129 individuals from all 10 recognised species of Centipeda were sampled throughout the species distribution ranges, including two subspecies. We conclude that the inferred species tree topology largely conform previous assumptions on species relationships. Centipeda racemosa (Snuffweed) is the sister to remaining species, which is also the only consistently perennial representative in the genus. Centipeda pleiocephala (Tall Sneezeweed) and C. nidiformis (Cotton Sneezeweed) constitute a species pair, as does C. borealis and C. minima (Spreading Sneezeweed), all sharing the symplesiomorphic characters of spherical capitulum and convex receptacle with C. racemosa. Another species group comprising C. thespidioides (Desert Sneezeweed), C. cunninghamii (Old man weed, or Common sneeze-weed), C. crateriformis is well-supported but then include the morphologically aberrant C. aotearoana, all sharing the character of having capitula that mature more slowly relative the subtending shoot. Centipeda elatinoides takes on a weakly supported intermediate position between the two mentioned groups, and is difficult to relate to any of the former groups based on morphological characters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Jamie; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Stuessy, Tod F; Villaseñor, Jose L; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods), branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms) and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty) on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively) with no prevailing direction.

  18. Short-term effects of dimethoate on metabolic responses in Chrysolina pardalina (Chrysomelidae) feeding on Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae), a hyper-accumulator of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustyniak, M.; Migula, P.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Tarnawska, M.; Nakonieczny, M.; Babczynska, A.; Przybylowicz, W.; Augustyniak, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Berkheya coddii Roessler (Asteraceae) is a hyper-accumulator of nickel, which can be used in phytomining and phytoremediation. Chrysolina pardalina Fabricius (Chrysomelidae) is a phytophagous leaf beetle, which may be useful in controlling population levels of B. coddii after it has been introduced into a new habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of C. pardalina to topical application of dimethoate. Data recorded included the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the concentration of glutathione (GSH), and the activity of selected enzymes connected with GSH metabolism. Assays were carried out several times during the first 24 h after exposure to dimethoate. At the dosages used in this study, dimethoate was not as toxic as expected. AChE activity was significantly decreased 14 and 24 h after application. GST activity was significantly decreased 24 h after application. GSTPx activity was significantly decreased 2, 14 and 24 h after application. GR activity was significantly increased 4 h after application. GSH concentration was significantly increased 24 h after application. Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable C. pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides. - Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable Chrysolina pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides

  19. Terpenoid Composition and Base Sequences of Ligularia virgaurea (Asteraceae) Grown in the Hengduan Mountain Area in China and a Comment on Drawing Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tori, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    A chemical analysis of 30 samples of Ligularia virgaurea (Asteraceae) collected in Sichuan province and its adjacent territories in China was reviewed. These samples afforded 146 compounds, 73 of which were novel, and the chemical constituents were classified into 8 categories: (1) simple eremophilanes (without ring C) and eudesmanes including nor-derivatives, (2) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with a 1(10)-saturated bond, (3) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with a 1(10)-unsaturated bond, 1,10-epoxide, or 10-ol, (4) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with 1(10)-en-2-one, 1(10)-en-2-ol, or 1-en-3-one, (5) furanoeremophilanes and lactones with 1(10)-en-9-one, 1(10)-en-9-ol, or 1,10-epoxy-9-one, (6) cacalol and their derivatives, (7) bakkanes and their derivatives, and (8) others, as shown in Tables 1-7. In these studies, five chemotypes were identified in addition to three clades from the DNA sequences of L. virgaurea. The structural determination of some compounds was also discussed and a comment on how to express the real structure was proposed, particularly for spiro compounds.

  20. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Pil-Sun; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-03-04

    The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively.

  1. Evolution of apomixis loci in Pilosella and Hieracium (Asteraceae) inferred from the conservation of apomixis-linked markers in natural and experimental populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, M L; Vít, P; Krahulcová, A; Johnson, S D; Oelkers, K; Siddons, H; Chrtek, J; Fehrer, J; Koltunow, A M G

    2015-01-01

    The Hieracium and Pilosella (Lactuceae, Asteraceae) genera of closely related hawkweeds contain species with two different modes of gametophytic apomixis (asexual seed formation). Both genera contain polyploid species, and in wild populations, sexual and apomictic species co-exist. Apomixis is known to co-exist with sexuality in apomictic Pilosella individuals, however, apomictic Hieracium have been regarded as obligate apomicts. Here, a developmental analysis of apomixis within 16 Hieracium species revealed meiosis and megaspore tetrad formation in 1 to 7% of ovules, for the first time indicating residual sexuality in this genus. Molecular markers linked to the two independent, dominant loci LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP) controlling apomixis in Pilosella piloselloides subsp. praealta were screened across 20 phenotyped Hieracium individuals from natural populations, and 65 phenotyped Pilosella individuals from natural and experimental cross populations, to examine their conservation, inheritance and association with reproductive modes. All of the tested LOA and LOP-linked markers were absent in the 20 Hieracium samples irrespective of their reproductive mode. Within Pilosella, LOA and LOP-linked markers were essentially absent within the sexual plants, although they were not conserved in all apomictic individuals. Both loci appeared to be inherited independently, and evidence for additional genetic factors influencing quantitative expression of LOA and LOP was obtained. Collectively, these data suggest independent evolution of apomixis in Hieracium and Pilosella and are discussed with respect to current knowledge of the evolution of apomixis. PMID:25026970

  2. Suitability of Root and Rhizome Anatomy for Taxonomic Classification and Reconstruction of Phylogenetic Relationships in the Tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginko, Elisabeth; Dobeš, Christoph; Saukel, Johannes

    2016-05-27

    The value of root and rhizome anatomy for the taxonomic characterisation of 59 species classified into 34 genera and 12 subtribes from the Asteraceae tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae was assessed. In addition, the evolutionary history of anatomical characters was reconstructed using a nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence-based phylogeny of the Cichorieae. Taxa were selected with a focus on pharmaceutically relevant species. A binary decision tree was constructed and discriminant function analyses were performed to extract taxonomically relevant anatomical characters and to infer the separability of infratribal taxa, respectively. The binary decision tree distinguished 33 species and two subspecies, but only five of the genera (sampled for at least two species) by a unique combination of hierarchically arranged characters. Accessions were discriminated-except for one sample worthy of discussion-according to their subtribal affiliation in the discriminant function analyses (DFA). However, constantly expressed subtribe-specific characters were almost missing and even in combination, did not discriminate the subtribes. Most anatomical characters showed at least some degree of homoplasious evolution limiting their suitability as phylogenetically informative characters.

  3. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie McCann

    Full Text Available Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods, branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively with no prevailing direction.

  4. UNA ESCUELA RURAL EN TRANSFORMACIÓN: DE UNA CIUDADANÍA LOCAL A UNA CIUDADANÍA GLOBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rayón Rumayor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuación presentamos parte de los resultados obtenidos en una investigación colaborativa,desarrollada en una escuela de una localidad rural de la provincia de Guadalajara. El estudio se ha centrado en comprender cómo viven y experimentan la convivencia escolar profesoradoyalumnado, y cuáles son las creencias de las familias sobre ésta. Mediante un diseño de investigación que se gesta en sus inicios con una acción de transformación y mejora, se va construyendo un relato de la vida escolar que tiene en cuenta al alumnado como sujeto escolary sujeto social.Tras una breve presentación de cuándo y cómo se gesta el estudio, exponemos los referentes teóricos y algunos rasgos importantes en relación con el contexto en el que está inserta la escuelaPosteriormente, abordamos el proceso metodológico seguido, resaltando los aspectos críticos quedan muestras de la fecundidad y el enriquecimiento que la investigación colaborativa tiene para la construcción de un conocimiento intersubjetivo y contrastado de la convivencia en la escuela. A continuación presentamos los resultados obtenidos y los sometemos a discusión, valorando surelevancia en relación con las ideas y planteamientos de otros autores. Terminamos con unas conclusiones en las que señalamos las ideas más relevantes extraídas del estudio.

  5. de una relación fallida?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mureddu Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Los autores presentan los resultados de una investigación de campo realizada en dos instituciones pertenecientes al Sistema de Educación Superior en México, una pública y otra privada. Destacan en ella los tópicos referentes a la actitud política de los estudiantes y relevan la semejanza de ambos grupos, cuya tendencia es, fundamentalmente, hacia la incertidumbre. La conclusión del análisis de los datos los lleva a declarar que no hay suficiente evidencia empírica por la cual pueda asignarse una correlación significativa entre el tipo de institución y la actitud predominante entre los alumnos. Concluyen que en casos como el mexicano, frente a una situación política cambiante, la repuesta de los alumnos depende más de circunstancias que afectan a toda la estructura social y no necesariamente a una parte de ellas, como la acción de la universidad, por muy importante que ésta sea.

  6. ¿Madre hay una sola?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravi, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Un patrón de herencia uniparental libre de recombinación unido a una alta tasa de evolución molecular han hecho del ADNmt una herramienta de alta resolución en el estudio del origen y evolución de las poblaciones humanas. La existencia de una robusta filogenia global, basada en >2.000 genomas mitocondriales completos, y de más de 30.000 secuencias de la Región Hipervariable I (RHV-I publicadas a la fecha permiten evaluar los patrones de distribución étnico/geográfica y las afinidades extra-continentales de los linajes maternos presentes en América. El análisis de ∼4.000 RHV-I publicadas para Nativos Americanos permite describir: a una distribución recíprocamente excluyente para varios grupos monofiléticos de linajes maternos; b un origen "híbrido" para las poblaciones peri-árticas; c una notable pérdida de diversidad respecto de Asia: en todo el continente americano, desde Alaska a la Patagonia, coexisten hoy menor cantidad de haplogrupos y sub-haplogrupos mitocondriales que en cualquier población indígena siberiana.

  7. Mujeres sufridoras: Una realidad en el tiempo

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    Paloma Calero Martín de Villodres

    Full Text Available A través de las vivencias de una persona podemos comprender y conocer mejor sus experiencias. El nombre de nuestra informante es Ana, una mujer de 84 años, ella va a compartir con nosotros una vida llena de desgracias, sufrimientos, soledad y desconsuelo que provocaría un cuadro clínico de hipertensión arterial y azúcar elevada que desencadenarían en crisis asmáticas futuras, insuficiencia cardiaca, una embolia e innumerables caídas fortuitas. Es una mujer luchadora, que ha sido educada para servir sin protestar, con un gran sentido de la responsabilidad familiar, sometida al machismo de la época. Cansada de callar, nos relata cómo ha sido su vida desde su niñez, su matrimonio, sus hijos, la enfermedad de Alzheimer de su marido, la desaparición de su sintomatología y el largo camino de obstáculos que ha tenido que superar hasta llegar a nuestros días.

  8. Emprendimiento social, una mirada a la equidad

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    Ignacio Barrios Parejo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo comprende una revisión teórica acerca del emprendimiento social, entendido como una iniciativa de negocio con o sin fin de lucro, cuyo objetivo es la generación de valor social. Siendo este un campo de investigación reciente y atractivo, el objetivo de esta revisión consiste a su vez en identificar y generar una transformación social real, a partir de la reducción de los índices de pobreza, de la percepción de injusticia entre los ciudadanos y del aumento de la capacidad del país para darle a cada uno de sus ciudadanos lo que se merece en función de sus méritos y condiciones.

  9. Implementación de una red WAN en una escudería de F1

    OpenAIRE

    García Muñoz, Luis Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    TFC en el que se detalla la implementación de una red WAN en una escudería de Fórmula 1. TFC en què es detalla la implementació d'una xarxa WAN en una escuderia de Fórmula 1. Bachelor thesis for the Telecommunication Technologies program on Telematics.

  10. Editorial. Una Sabiduría Humanista

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    Angel Rodrigo Velez Bedoya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La construcción de una sociedad justa, equitativa, solidaria y, ante todo, humana, sigue siendo una tarea de nunca acabar; parece ser que la racionalización moderna, la instrumentalización científica y tecnológica, la pérdida del sujeto, el impersonalismo y la masificación de las organizaciones, así como la pérdida paulatina del mundo de la vida, emergen cada vez mayor fuerza como problemas de difícil solución.

  11. Para tener entre manos una revista

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Giannone

    2017-01-01

    Consideramos importante rescatar el trabajo colectivo y acumulado que precede y sucede a la labor de intermediación académica que realiza una revista. Para ello recordamos una clásica frase prologal: el texto que usted tiene en sus manos. Con cierta ironía, porque quizás muy pocos de los lectores puedan tener entre manos y oler el papel impreso de Chasqui. Desde sus pantallas, sus tablets o sus teléfonos la intención es que se comprenda este número como un solo cuerpo. Y al mismo tiempo, como...

  12. Toponimia: una preziosa eredità

    OpenAIRE

    Crivelli, Ruggero

    2013-01-01

    Nel 2008, Mauro Corona pubblica un libro il cui titolo è I fantasmi di pietra. In questo suo libro, l’autore racconta storie di vita del suo villaggio, Erto, nella regione del Vajont, distrutto dall’alluvione del 1963 e praticamente abbandonato da allora. Con il pretesto di una visita sui luoghi della sua infanzia, di cui non restano che le rovine delle case e delle piazze, lo scrittore si sofferma in questo o in quel luogo e racconta: racconta spezzoni di una vita passata i cui protagonisti ...

  13. En busca de una escuela posible

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    Gloria Domínguez Chillón

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La historia de las reformas educativas promovidas desde el poder político es una historia de sucesivas frustraciones. No obstante muchos profesores siguen buscando las formas de construir una escuela mejor. Se presenta la experiencia personal de la autora, comprometida en esta búsqueda, partiendo de su planteamiento educativo en relación con la Educación Infantil. Ese planteamiento se concreta entre otras cosas, en la organización de las actividades en torno a Proyectos de Trabajo, de los que se nos muestra un ejemplo detallando los pasos seguidos en su desarrollo.

  14. Una politica dell’open access

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    Marco Pasini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L’accesso libero al sapere è lo strumento principale per l’attuazione della democrazia del sapere. Per quello che ho potuto intuire fin dalle prime letture e comprendere poi meglio attraverso lo studio, vista la mia attività di traduzione, ho sempre notato la completezza nelle tematiche trattate e la varietà scientifica degli autori degli articoli. Questa caratteristica rappresenta certamente una garanzia di confronto e allo stesso tempo aumenta gli stimoli all’essere propositivo nel misurarsi in nuovi campi di applicazione, è una continua ricerca.

  15. El prematuro: una esperanza de vida

    OpenAIRE

    Betancur R., Diana Helena; Fundación Valle de Lili; Garzón F., Lucía

    1999-01-01

    Factores prenatales de riesgo para el feto/Alteraciones inherentes a la prematuréz/Manejo del niño prematuro/ ¿Existe relación entre la actividad física y los partos prematuros?/ ¿Cómo se puede prevenir la prematuréz?/ ¿El recién nacido prematuro puede llevar una vida normal una vez es dado de alta?/ ¿Qué tipo de alimentación deberá recibir el prematuro?/ ¿Cuándo debe usted consultar a su pediatra?

  16. Genomic and transcriptomic alterations following intergeneric hybridization and polyploidization in the Chrysanthemum nankingense×Tanacetum vulgare hybrid and allopolyploid (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiangyu; Wang, Haibin; Song, Aiping; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi

    2018-01-01

    Allopolyploid formation involves two major events: interspecific hybridization and polyploidization. A number of species in the Asteraceae family are polyploids because of frequent hybridization. The effects of hybridization on genomics and transcriptomics in Chrysanthemum nankingense×Tanacetum vulgare hybrids have been reported. In this study, we obtained allopolyploids by applying a colchicine treatment to a synthesized C. nankingense × T. vulgare hybrid. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP), and high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technologies were used to investigate the genomic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic alterations in both the hybrid and allopolyploids. The genomic alterations in the hybrid and allopolyploids mainly involved the loss of parental fragments and the gain of novel fragments. The DNA methylation level of the hybrid was reduced by hybridization but was restored somewhat after polyploidization. There were more significant differences in gene expression between the hybrid/allopolyploid and the paternal parent than between the hybrid/allopolyploid and the maternal parent. Most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showed down-regulation in the hybrid/allopolyploid relative to the parents. Among the non-additive genes, transgressive patterns appeared to be dominant, especially repression patterns. Maternal expression dominance was observed specifically for down-regulated genes. Many methylase and methyltransferase genes showed differential expression between the hybrid and parents and between the allopolyploid and parents. Our data indicate that hybridization may be a major factor affecting genomic and transcriptomic changes in newly formed allopolyploids. The formation of allopolyploids may not simply be the sum of hybridization and polyploidization changes but also may be influenced by the interaction between these processes.

  17. Demographic histories of adaptively diverged riparian and non-riparian species of Ainsliaea (Asteraceae) inferred from coalescent analyses using multiple nuclear loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Yuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2012-12-28

    Understanding demographic histories, such as divergence time, patterns of gene flow, and population size changes, in ecologically diverging lineages provide implications for the process and maintenance of population differentiation by ecological adaptation. This study addressed the demographic histories in two independently derived lineages of flood-resistant riparian plants and their non-riparian relatives [Ainsliaea linearis (riparian) and A. apiculata (non-riparian); A. oblonga (riparian) and A. macroclinidioides (non-riparian); Asteraceae] using an isolation-with-migration (IM) model based on variation at 10 nuclear DNA loci. The highest posterior probabilities of the divergence time parameters were estimated to be ca. 25,000 years ago for A. linearis and A. apiculata and ca. 9000 years ago for A. oblonga and A. macroclinidioides, although the confidence intervals of the parameters had broad ranges. The likelihood ratio tests detected evidence of historical gene flow between both riparian/non-riparian species pairs. The riparian populations showed lower levels of genetic diversity and a significant reduction in effective population sizes compared to the non-riparian populations and their ancestral populations. This study showed the recent origins of flood-resistant riparian plants, which are remarkable examples of plant ecological adaptation. The recent divergence and genetic signatures of historical gene flow among riparian/non-riparian species implied that they underwent morphological and ecological differentiation within short evolutionary timescales and have maintained their species boundaries in the face of gene flow. Comparative analyses of adaptive divergence in two sets of riparian/non-riparian lineages suggested that strong natural selection by flooding had frequently reduced the genetic diversity and size of riparian populations through genetic drift, possibly leading to fixation of adaptive traits in riparian populations. The two sets of riparian

  18. Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation of Eurasian Aster (Asteraceae: Astereae) inferred from ITS, ETS and trnL-F sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Ping; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Jivkova, Todorka; Yin, Gen-Shen

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The classification and phylogeny of Eurasian (EA) Aster (Asterinae, Astereae, Asteraceae) remain poorly resolved. Some taxonomists adopt a broad definition of EA Aster, whereas others favour a narrow generic concept. The present study aims to delimit EA Aster sensu stricto (s.s.), elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of EA Aster s.s. and segregate genera. Methods The internal and external transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the plastid DNA trnL-F region were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of EA Aster through maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Key Results The analyses strongly support an Aster clade including the genera Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding Kalimeris longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron. Many well-recognized species of Chinese Aster s.s. lie outside of the Aster clade. Conclusions The results reveal that EA Aster s.s. is both paraphyletic and polyphyletic. Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding K. longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron should be included in Aster, whereas many species of Chinese Aster s.s. should be excluded. The recircumscribed Aster should be divided into two subgenera and nine sections. Kalimeris longipetiolata, Aster batangensis, A. ser. Albescentes, A. series Hersileoides, a two-species group composed of A. senecioides and A. fuscescens, and a six-species group including A. asteroides, should be elevated to generic level. With the Aster clade, they belong to the Australasian lineages. The generic status of Callistephus should be maintained. Whether Galatella (including Crinitina) and Tripolium should remain as genera or be merged into a single genus remains to be determined. In addition, the taxonomic status of A. auriculatus and the A. pycnophyllus–A. panduratus clade remains

  19. High and uneven levels of 45S rDNA site-number variation across wild populations of a diploid plant genus (Anacyclus, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Marcela; Álvarez, Inés; Nieto Feliner, Gonzalo; Rosselló, Josep A

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear genome harbours hundreds to several thousand copies of ribosomal DNA. Despite their essential role in cellular ribogenesis few studies have addressed intrapopulation, interpopulation and interspecific levels of rDNA variability in wild plants. Some studies have assessed the extent of rDNA variation at the sequence and copy-number level with large sampling in several species. However, comparable studies on rDNA site number variation in plants, assessed with extensive hierarchical sampling at several levels (individuals, populations, species) are lacking. In exploring the possible causes for ribosomal loci dynamism, we have used the diploid genus Anacyclus (Asteraceae) as a suitable system to examine the evolution of ribosomal loci. To this end, the number and chromosomal position of 45S rDNA sites have been determined in 196 individuals from 47 populations in all Anacyclus species using FISH. The 45S rDNA site-number has been assessed in a significant sample of seed plants, which usually exhibit rather consistent features, except for polyploid plants. In contrast, the level of rDNA site-number variation detected in Anacyclus is outstanding in the context of angiosperms particularly regarding populations of the same species. The number of 45S rDNA sites ranged from four to 11, accounting for 14 karyological ribosomal phenotypes. Our results are not even across species and geographical areas, and show that there is no clear association between the number of 45S rDNA loci and the life cycle in Anacyclus. A single rDNA phenotype was detected in several species, but a more complex pattern that included intra-specific and intra-population polymorphisms was recorded in A. homogamos, A. clavatus and A. valentinus, three weedy species showing large and overlapping distribution ranges. It is likely that part of the cytogenetic changes and inferred dynamism found in these species have been triggered by genomic rearrangements resulting from contemporary

  20. Composição química volátil e não-volátil de Eupatorium ballotifolium Kunth, Asteraceae

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    Maria Rose Jane R. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a composição química dos óleos essenciais e o isolamento de onze substâncias de Eupatorium ballotifolium Kunth, Asteraceae. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos por hidrodestilação, analisados por CG-EM e avaliados quanto às suas atividades frente à enzima acetilcolinesterase. O rendimento dos óleos foi de 0,11% para as folhas e 0,03% para os talos. Os principais constituintes dos óleos foram os sesquiterpenos β-cariofileno (24,9 e 22,2%, espatulenol (17,7 e 12,4% e epóxi-allo-aromadendreno (23,0 e 23,6%. Do extrato hexânico da parte aérea foi isolada a mistura de β-sitosterol e estigmasterol, incluindo suas formas glicosiladas, e os triterpenos acetato de taraxasterila e taraxasterol, enquanto, do extrato etanólico foram isolados os flavonóides nepetina and 3-O-glicosil-quercetina. Do extrato hexânico das raízes foram isolados os triterpenos epi-friedelanol e damara-20,24-dien-3β-ol e do extrato etanólico a cumarina 11-hidroxi-11,12-di-hidroobliquina. As estruturas de todos os compostos foram determinadas usando técnicas espectroscópica tais como IV, EM e RMN ¹H e 13C.

  1. [Phagodeterrent activity of the plants Tithonia diversifolia and Montanoa hibiscifolia (Asteraceae) on adults of the pest insect Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnarello, Gina; Hilje, Luko; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Cartín, Victor; Calvo, Marco

    2009-12-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a polyphagous, cosmopolitan and worldwide relevant pest, mainly acting as a virus vector on many crops. A sound preventive approach to deal with it would be the application of repellent or deterrent substances hopefully present in tropical plants, which in turn may contribute to take advantage of the remarkable rich Mesoamerican biodiversity. Therefore, extracts of two wild plants belonging to family Asteraceae, titonia (Tithonia diversifolia) and "tora" (Montanoa hibiscifolia), were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults. The crude leaf extract of each one, as well as four fractions thereof (hexane, dichlorometane, ethyl acetate, and methanol) were tested under greenhouse conditions; in addition, the extracts were submitted to a phytochemical screening to determine possible metabolites causing phagodeterrence. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments were conducted. In the former ones, each fraction was tested at four doses (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v), which were compared with four control treatments: distilled water, endosulfan, an agricultural oil (Aceite Agricola 81 SC), and the emulsifier Citowett. Tomato plants were sprayed and placed inside sleeve cages, where 50 B. tabaci adults were released. The criterion to appraise phagodeterrence was the number of landed adults on plants at 48h. For the unrestricted-choice experiments, only the two highest doses (1.0 and 1.5%) of the crude extracts of each species were tested, and compared to distilled water and the agricultural oil. The titonia and "tora" crude extracts caused phagodeterrence, and for both plant species the methanol fraction stood out. Results suggest that metabolites causing phagodeterrence are several sesquiterpenic lactones, polyphenolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins) and saponins.

  2. Identificação de espécies da família Asteraceae, revisão sobre usos e triagem fitoquímica do gênero Eremanthus da Reserva Boqueirão, Ingaí-MG Asteraceae species identification, use revision and phytochemical screening of Eremanthus genus in Boqueirão Ecological Reserve, Ingaí - Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ribeiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar espécies da família Asteraceae, revisar seus usos e realizar triagem fitoquímica preliminar do gênero Eremanthus procederam-se coletas botânicas semanais de espécimes na Reserva Boqueirão, localizada em Ingaí, Minas Gerais. As amostras foram herborizadas e identificadas utilizando-se bibliografia especializada e comparação com espécimes disponíveis no Herbário ESAL, da Universidade Federal de Lavras. A revisão dos usos foi feita através de consulta a obras clássicas e artigos científicos contendo relatos sobre levantamentos etnobotânicos realizados na área de estudo. Para triagem fitoquímica empregaram-se reagentes específicos para cada grupo de metabólito. Foram levantadas 102 espécies da família Asteraceae, sendo 32 delas úteis para o homem. A triagem fitoquímica dos extratos hidroalcoólicos indicaram a presença de açúcares redutores, carboidratos, aminoácidos, taninos, flavonóides, glicosídeos cardiotônicos, carotenóides, esteróides e triterpenóides, depsídeos e depsidonas, derivados de cumarina, saponinas espumídicas, alcalóides, purinas, polissacarídeos e antraquinonas. Não foram detectados ácidos orgânicos, catequinas, lactonas sesquiterpênicas e azulenos.To identify Asteraceae species, review the utilization and perform a preliminary phytochemical screening of some species of Eremanthus genus, plants were weekly collected in Boqueirão Ecological Reserve, located in Ingaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The samples were herborized and identified by using a specialized bibliography and comparison with the species available in the Herbarium ESAL of the Federal University of Lavras. The utilization review was carried out by means of bibliographical research and ethnobotanical surveys in the sampling area. Specific reagents for each group of compounds were used for phytochemical screening. From the 102 Asteraceae species investigated, 32 were reported to be of use to

  3. PERSPECTIVAS PARA UNA TEOLOGIA LATINO AMERICANA

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    Juan Luis Segundo

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available La teologia es parte de Ia cultura general, no un fenômeno aparte. Y Io que podríamos Mamar "nuestra" cultura es una determinada mezcla de elementos autóctones y de elementos importados. Lo que no eqüivale a decir; elementos autênticos e inauténticos.

  4. Enrico Fermi significato di una scoperta

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Questo volume è la riedizione, rinnovata ed ampliata, del volume "Enrico Fermi. Significato di una scoperta" edito dal FIEN (Forum Italiano dell'Energia Nucleare) nel 1982 e nel 1992 in occasione, rispettivamente, del 40mo e del 50mo anniversario della pila di Fermi.

  5. Evolución de una casa

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    Mac L. Johansen, John

    1958-02-01

    Full Text Available La forma, aspecto, estructura, concepción y realización de una casa están en estrecha relación con el ambiente cultural, social y técnico que la rodean y con ellos evolucionan.

  6. La discapacidad: una imagen del paradigma.

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    Gloria Lucía Sierra.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available La educación especial ha refinado por siglos una intervención dirigida a la funcionalidad del organismo que aloja al sujeto discapacitado. Esta tendencia nos señala un apuntalamiento a lo real, que ignora a lo simbólico y a lo imaginario como dimensiones constituyentes del sujeto.

  7. Cubierta de madera para una nave industrial

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    Hossdorf, Heinz

    1958-05-01

    Full Text Available Para la ampliación de los talleres de Hans Schmidlin, de Basilea, Suiza, dedicados a la prefabricación de elementos de construcción de madera y metales ligeros para fachadas, se ha construido una nueva nave, rectangular, de 49x55,4 m en planta.

  8. Abrir una Venus: Hablar con ella

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    Ginnette Barrantes Sáenz

    2013-09-01

    Se propone a Alicia como la Venus abierta que  incita, mediante  la  cita cinematográfica del cine mudo en el cine de Almodóvar, la no tan conocida figura de  amar a una  dormida( Allouch, 2005

  9. Una descomposición convexa

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    Mario Lomelí - Haro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dada una colección P de puntos en el plano, una descomposición convexa de P es un conjunto Γ de polígonos convexos convértices en P que satisfacen lo siguiente: La unión de todos los elementos de Γ es el cierre convexo de P, cada elemento de Γ es vacío (no contiene a ningún otro elemento de P en su interior y para cualesquiera 2 elementos diferentes en Γ sus interiores son disjuntos (se intersecarán en a lo más una arista. Únicamente se sabe que existen descomposiciones convexas con a lo más 7n/5 elementos para toda colección de n puntos. En este trabajo diremos cómo obtener una descomposición convexa específica de P con a lo más 3n/ 2 elementos.

  10. Composición química y actividad anti- tripanosomal de aceites esenciales obtenidos de Tagetes (Fam. Asteraceae, recolectados en Colombia Chemical composition and anti-tripanosomal activity of essential oils from Tagetes (Asteraceae Fam. grown in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Escobar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La quimioterapia actual para enfermedad de Chagas es precaria con solo dos opciones de tratamiento: nifurtimox y benznidazol. Las plantas representan una fuente inmensa de moléculas potencialmente activas contra agentes infecciosos. Objetivo: Determinar la composición química y evaluar la actividad de aceites esenciales de Tagetes, recolectados en Colombia, contra Trypanosoma cruzi y su célula de mamífero hospedera. Materiales y métodos: Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron de plantas colectadas en diversas regiones de Colombia; se extrajeron por hidrodestilación asistida por la radiación de microondas y se caracterizaron por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. La actividad de siete (7 aceites esenciales se determinó en epimastigotes, amastigotes intracelulares de T. cruzi y células Vero. Los resultados fueron expresados como la concentración que inhibe (CI50, CI90 o destruye (CC50, CC90 50 ó 90 % de parásitos o células. Resultados: Los componentes mayoritarios de los aceites fueron estragol, dihidrotagetona y cis-tagetona con diferencias de composición entre las especies de Tagetes evaluadas. Todos los aceites esenciales fueron activos en epimastigotes de T. cruzi. El aceite de T. heterocarpha fue activo contra amastigotes intracelulares (CI(5041,35 μg/mL. Los aceites de T. caracasana y T. heterocarpha fueron tóxicos para las células Vero. Conclusiones: Los aceites esenciales obtenidos de T. heterocarpha, T. caracasana y T. zipaquirensis mostraron capacidad para inhibir el crecimiento de T. cruzi. Estudios complementarios de la actividad sus componentes mayoritarios se realizan actualmente. Salud UIS 2009; 41: 280-286Introduction: The current chemotheraphy of Chagas diseases is poor, with only two treatment options: nifurtimox and benznidazole. The plants represent an immense source of potentially active molecules against infectious agents. Aim: To determine the chemical composition and

  11. Avaliação do efeito de polietilenoglicóis no perfil de extratos de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, e Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae Evaluation of PEG effects on the extracts obtaining from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de Medeiros

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Os polietilenoglicóis (PEG são polímeros hidrossolúveis capazes de reduzir a constante dielétrica de solventes como a água, e assim são utilizados como cossolventes para solubilização de diferentes fármacos. Atualmente, o PEG tem sido empregado satisfatoriamente na obtenção de extratos de matérias-primas vegetais por favorecer a extração de substâncias com polaridades semelhantes às extraídas pelos solventes hidroetanólicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da concentração e da massa molar de PEG (400 e 4000 g/mol sobre a extração de flavonoides totais a partir de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, (maracujá e de cumarina a partir da Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco. Este estudo revelou que o aumento da concentração de PEG promoveu um aumento na capacidade extrativa de flavonoides totais e cumarina a partir da Passiflora edulis e Mikania glomerata respectivamente, comportamento atribuído a alterações da constante dielétrica. Apesar de elevar a capacidade extrativa, os líquidos extratores contendo PEG exigiram elevada relação planta:solvente para alcançar teores extrativos semelhante ao solvente hidroetanólico utilizado, com exceção da extração de flavonoides totais com PEG 4000 g/mol a partir da Passilfora edulis.Polyethylene glycols (PEG are hydrosoluble polymers able to reducing dielectric constant of solvents like water and thus are used as cosolvents to enhance the aqueous solubility of several drugs. Actually, the PEG have been successful applied to obtain extracts of plant raw material once can facilitate the extraction of substances with polarities similar to those extracted by hydroethanol solvents. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the effect of PEG concentration and molecular weight (400 and 4000 g/mol on the extraction of total flavonoids from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and coumarin from Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae. The results

  12. Anatomia de raiz, caule e folha e identificação de estruturas secretoras de Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.163 Anatomy of root, stem and leaf and identification of secretory structures of Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.163

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    Ismar Sebastião Moscheta

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo anatômico dos órgãos vegetativos raiz, caule e folha, e extraíram-se os óleos essenciais das diferentes partes da planta, identificando-se as possíveis estruturas secretoras desses óleos. Utilizou-se material fresco para a realização dos testes histoquímicos e para a confecção de lâminas semipermanentes, as quais se coraram com Safrablau. Para a confecção de lâminas permanentes, utilizou-se material fixado em FAA 50%, incluído em historesina. Observaram-se pêlos tectores no escapo e na folha, enquanto que pêlos glandulares foram encontrados no escapo e na flor. Canais secretores de origem esquizógena acompanham os feixes vasculares no rizoma, no escapo, na folha e na bráctea da flor. Na raiz, esses canais estão ausentes. Na folha e na inflorescência fechada, observouse maior quantidade de óleos essenciais. A folha é anfistomática e os estômatos, do tipo anomocítico, estão presentes também no escapo. A estrutura geral de Achillea millefolium é semelhante à de outras espécies da família Asteraceae.An anatomic study of the vegetative organs: root, stem and leaf was made. The essential oils were extracted from the plant identifying the possible secretory structures. Fresh material was used in order to perform histochemical tests and to prepare semi-permanent slides, which were colored with Safrabau. For the preparation of the semi-permanent slides, material fixed in FAA 50% was used including historesina. Tector hairs can be observed in the scape and flower. Secretory channels of schizogeneous origin follow the vascular bundles in the rhizome, scape, leaf and bract of the flower. In the root, these channels are absent. In the leaf and in the unopened inflorescence there is a greater quantity of the essential oils. The leaf is amphistomatic and the stomata of anomocytic type are present in the scape as well. The general structure of the Achillea millefolium is similar to the structures of the

  13. The Woodlands: Una forma diferente de gobernar

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    Raquel Insa-Ciriza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Woodlands (Texas es uno de los mejores ejemplos de éxito de los partenariados público-privados entre el Departamento de Urbanismo y Vivienda Americano (Department of Housing and Urban Development, US - HUD y la empresa privada. The Woodlands, que fue creada como una «Nueva Ciudad» por la compañía Mitchell Energy & Development Corporation, ha ido creciendo y creando una masa crítica de residentes, trabajadores, su propio sentido de comunidad y lo más importante, su propia forma de gobierno. Es el único caso en Estados Unidos de ciudad gobernada por asociaciones privadas. Estas asociaciones, representadas por un Consejo de Administración, proveen la mayoría de los servicios públicos a los ciudadanos. En este artículo se muestra lo que llamo «complicidad ciudadana» basada en lo que el Nuevo Servicio Público define como gobierno basado en la comunidad. Ellos no están reinventando ninguna clase de gobierno, lo que están haciendo es crear una nueva forma de gobierno en la que los ciudadanos prefieren tomar el mando que servir. El estudio del caso que muestro nos ayuda a entender cómo una mayor participación de los ciudadanos en las tareas de la administración local puede hacer disminuir visiblemente el poder del promotor en el desarrollo de una Nueva Ciudad. Esta complicidad ciudadana se traduce en términos de implicación de los miembros de la comunidad en el crecimiento y en el Gobierno de la ciudad

  14. Cuento: El último viernes de una guerra

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    Policarpo Varón

    1969-03-01

    Full Text Available La tarde en que Rosario Figueroa vda. de Rengifo murió, su vieja casa se llenó de gente falsamente condolida. Alguien recordó que la viuda formaba parte de algo que era como una institución. Al entierro la acompañaron no más de diez personas. Dos hijos varones con sus mujeres, una hija única con su marido, tres o cuatro nietos y un viejo que trabajosamente anduvo detrás del cortejo gesticulando y hablando solo y deteniéndose a veces para mirar algo a su espalda y limpiarse las lágrimas y el sudor de la cara y el cuello con un pañuelo floriado.

  15. Promocionar una franquicia española

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    Laura Pérez Sánchez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experiencia práctica dirigida a alumnos de niveles B1-B2 en la materia Español para los Negocios en la Universitat de València con una duración de 3 horas. El principal objetivo es que los alumnos aprendan a promocionar una franquicia española y repasar contenidos funcionales, gramaticales y culturales. Además, llevar al aula realias como material aplicable, el aprendizaje cooperativo y las diferentes agrupaciones formales e informales dependiendo de los roles asignados, el aprendizaje basado en proyectos (ABP de la promoción de la franquicia, el desarrollo de las Inteligencias Múltiples y diferentes tipos de evaluación: autoevaluación, coevaluación y heteroevaluación.

  16. Para tener entre manos una revista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Giannone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Consideramos importante rescatar el trabajo colectivo y acumulado que precede y sucede a la labor de intermediación académica que realiza una revista. Para ello recordamos una clásica frase prologal: el texto que usted tiene en sus manos. Con cierta ironía, porque quizás muy pocos de los lectores puedan tener entre manos y oler el papel impreso de Chasqui. Desde sus pantallas, sus tablets o sus teléfonos la intención es que se comprenda este número como un solo cuerpo. Y al mismo tiempo, como un esfuerzo colectivo. Alrededor de él están las propuestas, lecturas y análisis de cientos de autores, revisores externos y lectores.

  17. Estrategia organizacional: una propuesta de estudio

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    Ángela Lucía Noguera Hidalgo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de estrategia en el contexto de las organizaciones empresariales es uno de los temas que genera gran interés en los asuntos del management. Sin embargo, la proposición de nuevos enfoques no ha aportado significativamente al avance en el estudio de este concepto. El estancamiento se hace evidente, razón por la cual el presente documento esboza una propuesta que reúne algunos de los retos para el estudio de la estrategia. En él se presenta una revisión que deja por sentados los posibles caminos a seguir, los cuales contribuyen a la perdurabilidad de las organizaciones.

  18. Voz, una nueva interfaz hombre- maquina

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    Jorge Augusto Jaramillo M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El siguiente escrito ha sido elaborado  con base en los documentos actuales en los esfuerzos hechos por diferentes personas y  entidades gubernamentales, en implementar sistemas que permitan incorporar el habla  humana en un computador, como una interface alternativa y más natural. Aquí se da un esbozo bastante global de lo que es esta interface, pues los estudios hechos al respecto van desde simples algoritmos para el análisis de las señales (determinación de las características implícitas en ellas hasta sistemas bastante complejos que desean establecer una comunicación continua con cualquier locutor.

  19. Una experiencia lexicográfica

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    José Aldemar Álvarez Valencia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las dinámicas actuales de las sociedades modernas y postmodernas hacen que haya una constante creación y flujo de unidades léxicas cuyo origen se hace cada vez más difícil de identificar. Este documento se propone reportar una experiencia investigativa en el área de la lexicografía que se llevó a cabo en algunos pueblos de la región de Cundinamarca. A través de grabaciones de audio de conversaciones informales, entrevistas y cuestionarios se buscó elaborar un glosario de naturaleza dialectal. Las conclusiones indican que debido a la movilidad de los habitantes de la ciudad de Bogotá hacia los pueblos de Cundinamarca y viceversa, es difuso determinar un vocabulario específico.

  20. en una especie mexicana de serpiente

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    Javier Manjarrez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo trata los determinantes de la dieta en serpientes y en particular se discute un fenómeno único entre las 29 especies del género Thamnophis: la ingestión de acociles por T. melanogaster como posible invasión del género dentro de un nicho alimentario nuevo. Se plantea la oportunidad de estudiar aspectos del proceso de entrada como la microevolución de la conducta y la morfología de la dentición y cráneo asociada a la incorporación de una nueva presa en la dieta. Finalmente se discute la posibilidad de la acocilofagia como un carácter conductual ancestral que ahora sólo permanece como una conducta homóloga.

  1. Oxitocina: nuevas perspectivas para una droga antigua

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    Steven L. CLARK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La oxitocina es el medicamento más comúnmente asociada con la prevención de complicaciones perinatales y recientemente fue incluida por el Instituto para la Administración Medicamentosa Segura (Institute for Safe Medication Practices - ISMP en una pequeña lista de medicamentos “con alto grado de riesgos”, lo que puede “necesitar salvaguardas especiales para reducir el riesgo de error”. Las recomendaciones actuales para administrar este medicamento son vagas en relación a la indicación, tiempo de uso, dosis y el monitoreo de los efectos maternos y fetales. Una revisión de los datos clínicos y farmacológicos disponibles sugiere que las orientaciones específicas y basadas en evidencias para administrar oxitocina durante el parto puede derivarse de datos disponibles. Si implementadas, estas prácticas pueden reducir la probabilidad de daños al paciente. Esto sugiere el foco de las orientaciones para la administración electiva limitada de oxitocina, considerar estrategias que disminuyan la necesidad de usar oxitocina, confiar en terapéuticas de bajas dosis de oxitocina, la adhesión a definiciones semicuantitativas específicas sobre parto adecuado e inadecuado, y la aceptación de que, una vez que la actividad uterina adecuada sea alcanzada, es generalmente preferible esperar más tiempo que aumentar la infusión de oxitocina. El uso de protocolos conservadores y específicos para monitorear los efectos de la oxitocina en la madre y en el bebé tiende no sólo a aumentar los resultados, mas también a reducir los conflictos entre miembros del equipo obstétrico. Implementar estas orientaciones parece ser apropiada en una cultura cada vez más focalizada en la seguridad del paciente.

  2. Hacia una nueva Biología

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    Sandín, Máximo

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    «La victoria del darwinismo ha sido tan completa que es un shock darse cuenta de cuan vacía es realmente la visión darwiniana de la vida». Esta rotunda frase no parece significar solamente la manifestación de una opinión personal. Pertenece a un editorial publicado en Nature y fïrmado por Henry Gee, uno de sus comentaristas sobre evolución. El motivo de que una revista científica de las más prestigiosas (que se pueden considerar como las mantenedoras de la ortodoxia, haga suyo ese comentario es que las investigaciones más recientes (especialmente en el campo de la embriogénesis han revelado unos fenómenos que han puesto de manifiesto su absoluta incompatibilidad con la teoría darwinista de la evolución. Las consecuencias de esto son obvias, y las precisa otro editorialista de Nature, Philip Ball, en un comentario sobre la secuenciación del Genoma humano: «Los biólogos van a tener que construir una nueva Biología». Tenemos por delante un duro y largo trabajo científico por realizar, pero también tenemos una tarea previa: depurar la Biología de la, tan arraigada, terminología darwinista, cargada de conceptos y prejuicios deformadores de los fenómenos biológicos.

  3. Sobre una Rodoficea parasita de Gelidiaceas

    OpenAIRE

    Seoane Camba, Juan Antonio

    1982-01-01

    En este trabajo se hace un estudio de una Rodofícea parásita, encontrada sobre Gelidium cantabricum Seoane-Camba y Gelidium sesquipedale (Clemente) Thuret. Por sus características generales atribuímos esta planta al género Gelidiocolax. descrito por Gardner en 1927 para un parásito de Gelidium pulchrum Gardner de las costas americanas del Pacífico...

  4. Sardegna chiama Friuli: storia di una cooperazione

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    Sandra Bianchi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Un progetto sperimentale, attuato nella scuola dell'obbligo, in cui l'esperienza di precedenti corsi di formazione a distanza da parte delle due insegnanti coordinatrici del lavoro e l'organizzazione di una virtual classroom si sono coniugate nella realizzazione di "Gli Eroi Dimenticati" e "La Meglio Gioventu'", iniziative prodotte all'interno del piu' ampio progetto di cooperazione telematica "Sardegna Chiama Friuli".

  5. Factores claves para iniciar una empresa

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    Irenarco Rueda Reyna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El artículo presenta en forma esquemática los aspectos relevantes para la conformación de una empresa,  desde la planeación acertada, el mercado, los medios de producción,  personal y financiamiento. Resalta asimismo la importancia de las clasificaciones y características que debe tener el indicador  de negocios.

  6. The Woodlands: Una forma diferente de gobernar

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    Raquel Insa-Ciriza

    2010-01-01

    Unidos de ciudad gobernada por asociaciones privadas. Estas asociaciones, representadas por un Consejo de Administración, proveen la mayoría de los servicios públicos a los ciudadanos. En este artículo se muestra lo que llamo «complicidad ciudadana» basada en lo que el Nuevo Servicio Público define como gobierno basado en la comunidad. Ellos no están reinventando ninguna clase de gobierno, lo que están haciendo es crear una nueva forma de gobierno en la que los ciudadanos prefieren tomar el mando que servir. El estudio del caso que muestro nos ayuda a entender cómo una mayor participación de los ciudadanos en las tareas de la administración local puede hacer disminuir visiblemente el poder del promotor en el desarrollo de una Nueva Ciudad. Esta complicidad ciudadana se traduce en términos de implicación de los miembros de la comunidad en el crecimiento y en el Gobierno de la ciudad. Clasificación JEL: H1, H11, H70.

  7. Christine Angot: una hetero-homosexual incestuosa

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    María José Palma Borrego

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El proyecto literario de Christine Angot en L’inceste (1999 es el de desvelar no su historia incestuosa –ella misma afirma que su libro no es una autobiografía– sino el hacer visible lo más reprimido, lo más oculto y a la vez lo más originario de nuestra Cultura: el incesto con la madre. Un incesto que puede ser real o imaginario, y que el trabajo de escritura desvela y configura sus territorios que van desde la fusión con la madre, característica de toda situación preedípica, hasta una relación homosexual real con su doble narcisista, pasando por el deseo incestuoso por su hija. Mundo sin castración en donde todo puede ser posible, en ese juego de “ser” y “no-ser”, y en donde la temática del incesto está representada en el texto por una espacialidad vertical, de arriba abajo, generacional, madre/hija-Christine-Léonore, y horizontal, Christine-Marie Christine.

  8. Una imatge val per mil paraules

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    Jaume Cabré

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Una vegada hi havia un videoclub ple de pel·lícules i a l'entrada hi havia un rètol lluminós molt bonic que deia el lema d'aquesta casa, que és una imatge val per mil paraules. I vet aquí un dia que la clientela ja se n'havia anat, però encara no havien tancat els llums, van entrar al videoclub dues rates, l'Amàlia i l'Amèlia. I van dir: "Què fem avui?" Aleshores l'Amèlia se'n va anar de seguida cap al racó de la sèrie B i va agafar una pel·lícula poc coneguda, mentre que l'Amàlia va agafar Mort a Venècia. Llavors la va començar a rosegar i l'Amèlia li va dir: "Què, què te'n sembla?", i l'Amàlia li va contestar: "Mmm... Em va agradar més la novel·la."

  9. Computadores moleculares: una tecnología

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    Jorge Eduardo Ortiz Triviño

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se explican algunos detalles básicos para la realización de computadores moleculares basados en ADN; describe el método general para realizar programas en un computador molecular. Se concluye, que la labor de construcción e implementación de esos computadores no es tarea exclusiva del Ingeniero de sistemas sino, y con una participación importante, de profesionales en genética, medicina, biología y ciencias relacionadas. De otro lado, aunque es una tecnología que se encuentra en su primera infancia, puede constituirse en una buena alternativa en los próximos años, si se tiene en cuenta que apoyaría en la solución de problemas, en distintas áreas, cuya solución mediante computación electrónica convencional pueda ser difícil, sino imposible.

  10. Una diferencia inquietante: diario de un aprendiz..

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    Fernando BÁRCENA ORBE

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La comunicación afectiva con la persona discapacitada —como social y pedagógicamente se ha convenido en denominar— introduce un tipo de relación asentada en un principio de diferencia. Sin embargo, esta diferencia no es posible pensarla bajo un marco teórico que pretendiese dejar resueltas todas las contradicciones que semejante relación de alteridad implica. Pues se trata de un acontecimiento cargado de suficientes consecuencias en todos los aspectos como para requerir una reflexión narrativa en vez de un frío análisis conceptual. El presente artículo no ha podido ser escrito, por tanto, bajo el régimen de una escritura científica, pero tampoco se trata de un testimonio personal. Procurando evitar las posibles arrogancias derivadas de ambos planteamientos, lo que aquí se presenta es el diario de un aprendiz, de alguien que en su trato diario con la «discapacidad» ha ido descubriendo la singularidad de las emociones del otro y ha tenido que transformar la relación misma en un lenguaje que permitiese habitar la intimidad de una relación inquietante.

  11. Hacia una definición de la medida

    OpenAIRE

    Parot, Jean Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Hacia una definición de la medida A. Primera situación Un granjero va al mercado para vender a) Una gallina (20 pesos) b) Un bulto de naranjas (45 pesos) c) Un pate (38 pesos) d) Una docena de huevos (12 pesos)

  12. Crisis vital desde una perspectiva de género

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Eva; Flores López, Olga

    2004-01-01

    A continuación se presenta el caso de una mujer de 55 años que presenta una crisis de identidad, abordado desde una perspectiva de género y un modelo explicativo y terapéutico que incluye elementos del análisis transaccional y la terapia constructivista.

  13. Condiciones de posibilidad para una justicia global

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    Pereira, Gustavo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Recognition, as a constitutive part of subjectivity, is a basic need for people as well as for States. The terms of international relationships imposed by a great number of international credit and commerce institutions contradict and undermine such recognition, by means of policies that result in segregation and poverty in the poorest countries. Breaking such logic seems to be the way to enable the existence of conditions of global justice based on terms of reciprocal recognition. A prudential argument is the first step in this process; mid and long-term benefit would be the only rational motivation for international institutions to enable such an openness that would ensure reciprocal recognition. However, this argument is not sufficient, and the objective of a radical inclusion affecting all regions of the planet requires a moral argument based on the idea of equal dignity, inherent to every person. Global justice and its counterpart, local justice, will only be possible through the combination of these two arguments, which would make the existence of a logic of reciprocal recognition possible, thus enabling justice.

    El reconocimiento, en tanto que constitutivo de la subjetividad, es una necesidad básica tanto de las personas como de los Estados. Los términos de relación internacional impuestos por buena parte de los organismos internacionales de crédito y comercio niegan y socavan este reconocimiento a través de políticas que generan exclusión y pobreza en los países más pobres. La ruptura de esta lógica se presenta como un camino que posibilita el surgimiento de condiciones de justicia global basadas en términos de reconocimiento recíproco. Un argumento prudencial oficia como primer paso en este proceso, el beneficio a medio y largo plazo sería la motivación racional para que los organismos internacionales generasen una apertura que permitiese asegurar el reconocimiento recíproco. Sin embargo, este argumento no es

  14. ST proteins, a new family of plant tandem repeat proteins with a DUF2775 domain mainly found in Fabaceae and Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornos, Lucía; Martín, Ignacio; Iglesias, Rebeca; Jiménez, Teresa; Labrador, Emilia; Dopico, Berta

    2012-11-07

    Many proteins with tandem repeats in their sequence have been described and classified according to the length of the repeats: I) Repeats of short oligopeptides (from 2 to 20 amino acids), including structural cell wall proteins and arabinogalactan proteins. II) Repeats that range in length from 20 to 40 residues, including proteins with a well-established three-dimensional structure often involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. (III) Longer repeats in the order of 100 amino acids that constitute structurally and functionally independent units. Here we analyse ShooT specific (ST) proteins, a family of proteins with tandem repeats of unknown function that were first found in Leguminosae, and their possible similarities to other proteins with tandem repeats. ST protein sequences were only found in dicotyledonous plants, limited to several plant families, mainly the Fabaceae and the Asteraceae. ST mRNAs accumulate mainly in the roots and under biotic interactions. Most ST proteins have one or several Domain(s) of Unknown Function 2775 (DUF2775). All deduced ST proteins have a signal peptide, indicating that these proteins enter the secretory pathway, and the mature proteins have tandem repeat oligopeptides that share a hexapeptide (E/D)FEPRP followed by 4 partially conserved amino acids, which could determine a putative N-glycosylation signal, and a fully conserved tyrosine. In a phylogenetic tree, the sequences clade according to taxonomic group. A possible involvement in symbiosis and abiotic stress as well as in plant cell elongation is suggested, although different STs could play different roles in plant development. We describe a new family of proteins called ST whose presence is limited to the plant kingdom, specifically to a few families of dicotyledonous plants. They present 20 to 40 amino acid tandem repeat sequences with different characteristics (signal peptide, DUF2775 domain, conservative repeat regions) from the described group of 20 to 40

  15. Why do different oceanic archipelagos harbour contrasting levels of species diversity? The macaronesian endemic genus Pericallis (Asteraceae) provides insight into explaining the 'Azores diversity Enigma'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K E; Pérez-Espona, S; Reyes-Betancort, J A; Pattinson, D; Caujapé-Castells, J; Hiscock, S J; Carine, M A

    2016-10-08

    Oceanic archipelagos typically harbour extensive radiations of flowering plants and a high proportion of endemics, many of which are restricted to a single island (Single Island Endemics; SIEs). The Azores represents an anomaly as overall levels of endemism are low; there are few SIEs and few documented cases of intra-archipelago radiations. The distinctiveness of the flora was first recognized by Darwin and has been referred to as the 'Azores Diversity Enigma' (ADE). Diversity patterns in the Macaronesian endemic genus Pericallis (Asteraceae) exemplify the ADE. In this study we used morphometric, Amplified Length Polymorphisms, and bioclimatic data for herbaceous Pericallis lineages endemic to the Azores and the Canaries, to test two key hypotheses proposed to explain the ADE: i) that it is a taxonomic artefact or Linnean shortfall, ie. the under description of taxa in the Azores or the over-splitting of taxa in the Canaries and (ii) that it reflects the greater ecological homogeneity of the Azores, which results in limited opportunity for ecological diversification compared to the Canaries. In both the Azores and the Canaries, morphological patterns were generally consistent with current taxonomic classifications. However, the AFLP data showed no genetic differentiation between the two currently recognized Azorean subspecies that are ecologically differentiated. Instead, genetic diversity in the Azores was structured geographically across the archipelago. In contrast, in the Canaries genetic differentiation was mostly consistent with morphology and current taxonomic treatments. Both Azorean and Canarian lineages exhibited ecological differentiation between currently recognized taxa. Neither a Linnean shortfall nor the perceived ecological homogeneity of the Azores fully explained the ADE-like pattern observed in Pericallis. Whilst variation in genetic data and morphological data in the Canaries were largely congruent, this was not the case in the Azores, where

  16. Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae) in sub-Saharan Africa: A synthesis and review of its medicinal potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omokhua, Aitebiremen G; McGaw, Lyndy J; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-05-13

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae) is a scrambling perennial shrub that originated in the Americas, but is now common in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Oceania, where it has become a serious weed. The species, particularly the biotype found in Asia and West Africa, has many ethnopharmacological uses, including treatment of malaria, wounds, diarrhoea, skin infection, toothache, dysentery, stomach ache, sore throat, convulsions, piles, coughs and colds. Furthermore, no attempt has been made to synthesise and review the available literature on the usefulness of the plant in the sub-Saharan African region, hence this paper examines the beneficial attributes of C. odorata in sub-Saharan Africa. Published information on the species was gathered by the use of different database platforms, including Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, SciFinder and Scopus. Records indicate that two biotypes of C. odorata are present in sub-Saharan Africa viz. the more widespread Asian/West African C. odorata biotype (AWAB) and the southern African biotype (SAB). While the usefulness of the former is well elucidated in the literature, such information on the latter is still scarce. Although the importance of AWAB C. odorata as a fallow species and as a soil fertility improvement plant in the slash and burn rotation system of agriculture in West Africa is increasingly being recognised, its usage in traditional medicinal practice is far more appreciated. The species has a wide range of ethnopharmacological uses, possibly because of the presence of flavonoids, essential oils, phenolics, tannins and saponins. The plant is reported to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anthelminthic, antifungal, cytotoxic, anticonvulsant, antiprotozoal, antispasmodic, antipyretic and analgesic properties. While the results of this review suggest that the AWAB plant can be exploited as an alternative to other threatened plant species known to possess similar medicinal potential

  17. Una erótica del cuerpo narrado

    OpenAIRE

    Vigneron, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo estudia cómo Francisco Umbral, en una forma de autorretrato, propone una reflexión ontológica sobre su propio cuerpo y analiza los mecanismos literarios de una escritura del mismo basada en la erótica, entendiendo el erotismo en un sentido más creador que sexual. Con una escritura pulsional, al servicio de las manifestaciones del deseo, Mortal y rosa no es sólo el relato autobiográfico de una tragedia personal sino un estudio epistemológico de las alteraciones del cuerpo desde l...

  18. La escuela inclusiva: una oportunidad para humanizarnos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel López Melero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo mis reflexiones las centro en el amor y la educación como fundamentos de la escuela inclusiva. Un amor sin adjetivos, basado en el respeto al otro como legítimo otro en la convivencia. Es un modo de vida que se inicia en la confianza desde la edad más temprana. Más aun, el amor es un acto de confianza. La confianza es el fundamento de nuestra convivencia. Los seres humanos nos enfermamos en un ambiente de desconfianza, manipulación e instrumentalización de las relaciones. La ausencia de amor nos deshumaniza. Vivimos en un mundo en el que se habla mucho del amor pero lo negamos, continuamente, en nuestros comportamientos y acciones. Vivimos inmersos en la cultura patriarcal. El amor, en dicha cultura, es considerado como un bien inalcanzable o, acaso, una ilusión o una esperanza. Sin embargo, debemos recuperar la vida matrística de la infancia, viviendo en el amor, amando. Es decir, respetando a las personas como legítimas personas en su diferencia, independientemente del hándicap, del género, de la etnia, religión o procedencia, en la convivencia. Sólo en el respeto y en el reconocimiento de las personas como personas radica el sentido de lo humano. Lo que constituye al ser humano como tal es la dimensión social y no lo genético. La genética es la condición inicial, es un punto de partida, no de llegada. Somos lo que somos gracias a las oportunidades que hemos tenido y no a los genes. Ahora bien, lo más humano del ser humano es desvivirse por otro ser humano y en este desvivir surge el valor ético de la educación. Por tanto, hablar de inclusión es hablar de justicia y, parece lógico, que para construir una sociedad justa sea necesario desarrollar modelos educativos equitativos que afronten con justicia los desequilibrios existentes en la misma. Para ello es imprescindible que los responsables de las políticas educativas, el profesorado y los investigadores contraigamos el compromiso moral de orientar el

  19. Aprender a innovar: una experiencia on line

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    Joaquín MORENO MARCHAL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La creatividad y la innovación se han convertido en recursos clave en la denominada sociedad del conocimiento, que bien podría ser también llamada sociedad de la innovación. Pero innovar es una actividad compleja, que integra la aplicación de múltiples capacidades, el pensamiento divergente y convergente, la gestión de equipos humanos, la comunicación. Ahora bien, a innovar se puede, y se debe, aprender. Aprender a innovar es un reto y también una obligación para el conjunto del sistema educativo en todos sus niveles. Partiendo de estas consideraciones este trabajo expone una experiencia de aprendizaje de la creatividad y de la innovación a través de un curso totalmente on line basado en la plataforma MOODLE, en el marco del Programa de Formación Permanente de la Universidad de Cádiz. Se presenta un modelo del proceso de innovación, denominado CREALAB, de elaboración propia. Este modelo se ha utilizado como base del proceso de aprendizaje de la creatividad y de la innovación y en el diseño del curso, está organizado en torno a actividades y tiene un carácter iterativo y realimentado. Se presentan además el conjunto del diseño metodológico y los resultados obtenidos en las dos ediciones celebradas hasta el momento. El diseño del curso totalmente on line y los resultados alcanzados permiten estimar un alto potencial de aplicación, tanto a nivel personal como a nivel organizacional.

  20. Per una lettura laica della teologia medievale

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    Dino Buzzetti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available È possibile operare una forma di epoché sui concetti di carattere teologico? Ed è possibile riflettere sulla loro importanza, prescindendo dalla loro portata religiosa? I concetti teologici riescono a dirci qualcosa, se si trascura il loro riferimento essenziale alla nostra relazione con un essere divino? La risposta a queste domande consente di comprendere che cosa significhi essere un studioso laico della filosofia medievale, mentre è impossibile discutere tale problema senza prendere in considerazione anche la teologia medievale. Tutto ciò dunque riguarda non solo la natura della teologia, ma anche l’idea stessa di laicità. Dunque una storiografia del pensiero medievale pienamente consapevole di se stessa deve studiare il discorso teologico e affrontare in profondità la portata teorica di questo problema. Si può concludere che per una lettura laica della teologia medievale è paradossalmente essenziale cogliere proprio il senso intimo del pensiero religioso e le forme storicamente determinate della sua effettiva concettualizzazione.  Is some form of epoché possible on theological concepts? In which way? Is it possible consider their importance leaving their religious scope aside? Can the theological concepts tell us something unless we consider their essential reference to our relationship with a divine being? The answer to these questions let us to understand what means to be a secular (laico scholar of medieval philosophy. It's impossible conversely to discuss this problem without dealing with medieval theology. And this concerns not only the nature of theology, but also and deeply the same idea of secularism (laicità. Therefore a fully aware historiography of medieval thought has to understand the theological speech and to encounter the depth of this theoretical question. So we can conclude that for a secular reading of the medieval theology is paradoxically essential to catch the intimate sense of religious thought and the

  1. LA LINGUA PER STUDIARE: UNA RASSEGNA BIBLIOGRAFICA

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    Marina Tassara

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available I libri di testo adottati nelle scuole contengono parole sconosciute e costruzioni sintattiche e testuali complesse che rappresentano dei veri e propri “muri linguistici” per gli alunni stranieri che non possiedono una buona conoscenza della lingua italiana. Ciò facilmente determina un divario di competenze tra l’apprendente straniero e i suoi compagni e ritardi scolastici molto spesso incolmabili con conseguente perdita di motivazione e di autostima, senso di frustrazione e isolamento che a volte sfocia in un disagio psico-sociale. Tra gli strumenti adottati dalla scuola italiana per far fronte a questo problema vi sono i testi disciplinari ad alta comprensibilità che, pur mantenendo la maggior parte delle informazioni, le veicolano in una forma più semplice dal punto di vista linguistico. L’articolo fornisce una bibliografia di manuali ad alta comprensibilità il più possibile aggiornata suddivisa per ordine e grado di scuola e per materia scolastica, con l’intento di fornire agli insegnanti un aiuto nella scelta e nel reperimento dei testi.     Language for study:  a bibliography   Textbooks used in schools contain unknown words and complex sentence constructions that create real “linguistic barriers” for foreign students who do not know Italian well.  This creates an abyss between the competence of the foreign learner and his or her classmates and unsuccessful school performance which is often not made up for and leads to a loss of self-esteem, frustration, isolation, and ultimately to psycho-social malaise.  Among the tools utilized in the Italian school system to address this problem are highly comprehensible textbooks which, while containing most of the information, express the content in simpler language.  This article offers an up-dated bibliography of textbooks which are easily understandable, divided according to order and grade of school, for teachers to use in choosing the textbooks for their classes.

  2. Adaptación domótica de una vivienda para una persona con discapacidad

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Bermúdez, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Este proyecto plantea la necesidad de adaptar viviendas para personas con discapacidad con el objetivo de que se garantice el confort y la accesibilidad, no solo del discapacitado, sinó de todas las personas integrantes en ese hogar. En concreto, está focalizado en un caso real de una niña de 3 años que vive con sus padres. Se contempla a partir de un sistema económico y sencillo para que las personas usuarias del mismo, puedan tener garantizado a largo plazo una me...

  3. Educación familiar para una afectividad, desde una antropología personalista

    OpenAIRE

    Pedreros Silva, Claudia A.

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo pretende dar a conocer una propuesta de formación afectiva sexual para niños y adolescentes llamada “Aprendiendo a Querer”, un programa que abarca todo el arco de desarrollo del estudiante en el trascurso de la formación en los ciclos básica y media en Chile. Es una propuesta que encuentra cabida en la legislación vigente en el Estado de Chile bajo la ley general de educación 20.370 y la ley de salud 20.418 que establece la obligatoriedad de implementar...

  4. Implementació d'una Cache per a un processador MIPS d'una FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Riera Villanueva, Marc

    2013-01-01

    [CATALÀ] Primer s'explicarà breument l'arquitectura d'un MIPS, la jerarquia de memòria i el funcionament de la cache. Posteriorment s'explicarà com s'ha dissenyat i implementat una jerarquia de memòria per a un MIPS implementat en VHDL en una FPGA. [ANGLÈS] First, the MIPS architecture, memory hierarchy and the functioning of the cache will be explained briefly. Then, the design and implementation of a memory hierarchy for a MIPS processor implemented in VHDL on an FPGA will be explained....

  5. Oxitocina: nuevas perspectivas para una droga antigua

    OpenAIRE

    Steven L. CLARK; Kathleen Rice SIMPSON; G. Eric KNOX; Thomas J. GARITE

    2010-01-01

    La oxitocina es el medicamento más comúnmente asociada con la prevención de complicaciones perinatales y recientemente fue incluida por el Instituto para la Administración Medicamentosa Segura (Institute for Safe Medication Practices - ISMP) en una pequeña lista de medicamentos “con alto grado de riesgos”, lo que puede “necesitar salvaguardas especiales para reducir el riesgo de error”. Las recomendaciones actuales para administrar este medicamento son vagas en relación a la indicación, tiemp...

  6. Una alternativa literaria para la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Urueta Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    artistas: ellos, igual que quienes actúan en otros campos, también son objeto de determinaciones sociales y económicas. Las posiciones y disposiciones en el campo del arte han quedado así reducidas a las proporciones justas: los valores estéticos no son puramente estéticos, sino que responden a una búsqueda de prestigio, o a convicciones morales, o a intereses de poder económico y político.

  7. PLANIFICACION FAMILIAR: Un Derecho y una Necesidad

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    Miguel Trias

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available

    La relación que existe entre el crecimiento poblacional y la situación socio-economica de una región, país o continente es algo que en forma intuitiva y vaga se conoce desde la más
    remota antigüedad. No menos conocido, en cada familia, ha sido el efecto nocivo de una
    reproducción superior a la deseada.
    Se ha necesitado del perfeccionismo de nuestros demógrafos y estadísticos para oscurecer la cuestión debajo y detrás de montañas de datos y de complejas ecuaciones.

    La generalizada y muy frecuente práctica del infanticidio entre tantos pueblos primitivos
    de ayer y de hoy, demuestra que a pesar de la elevada mortalidad natural, uno de los pocos insumos sobrantes del que se puede, cuando no se debe, disponer con facilidad es la vida humana acabada de nacer. Los superficiales ritos propiciatorios utilizados en algunos
    casos para su eliminación, le dan un escaso barniz religioso a la profunda preocupación
    ecológica y por consiguiente demográfica que los subyace.

    El infanticidio por simple abandono, practicado sin reatos de conciencia en la China Imperial el Imperio Romano o la Inglaterra pre-victoriana tenia una clara etiología social y económica. Los multitudinarios sacrificios juveniles de los Aztecas en un altiplano altamente erosionado por sobrecultivo, como el que encontraron los españoles a su llegada, parece no tener otra explicación razonable que el de ser una desesperada solución a un grave desequilibrio ecológico. Un desequilibrio que corrigió rápidamente la mortalidad mucho más eficiente que introducir los microbios europeos transportados por los conquistadores...

  8. Una experiencia del atletismo en Cantabria

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Saornil, Santos

    2017-01-01

    Tesina titulada "Una experiencia del atletismo en Cantabria" del autor Santos Castillo Saornil y dirigida por el profesor Jesús Patricio Durán Piqueras. Instituto Nacional de Educación Física, curso 1983-1984. Consta de los siguientes capítulos: enseñanza del atletismo, iniciación al atletismo, la lección de iniciación al atletismo, iniciación a las carreras, experiencias personales, conclusiones y bibliografía.

  9. Praga, una suburbanización semidirigida

    OpenAIRE

    Welch Guerra, Max

    2011-01-01

    Índice Praga: breve perfil urbanístico. Nuevos factores para el desarrollo espacial desde 1989. Dos nuevos planes para la ciudad en su conjunto. Una suburbanización semidirigida. Entrevistas a expertos realizadas entre enero y julio de 2000. Bibliografía.ResumenDesde hace alrededor de 10 años se producen en Europa centrooriental transformaciones sociales profundas que abren un nuevo capítulo en la historia del urbanismo. A causa de muy diversos factores, en las estructuras urbanas de las gran...

  10. Tuberculosis una enfermedad prevenible y curable

    OpenAIRE

    García-Goez, José Fernando; Bedoya Quintero, Yamile

    2013-01-01

    La tuberculosis (TB) es una de las infecciones mas importante a nivel mundial, pues causa un número importante de muertes a pesar de ser prevenible y curable La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) estima que 1/3 de la población mundial se encuentra infectada por el Mycobacterium tuberculosis causante de la TB y anualmente se reportan 8.8 millones de casos nuevos de TB, que fallecen 3 millones de personas a consecuencia de esta enfermedad y entre un 10% y 12% de los pac...

  11. Una reforma constitucional para la periferia europea

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Pissarello

    2011-01-01

    La intempestiva reforma del artículo 135 de la Constitución española puede leerse como una expresión más de la erosión en Europa de los elementos garantistas del constitucionalismo de posguerra. Tanto por su contenido como por el procedimiento empleado para acometerla, su aprobación aparece reñida con principios constitucionales básicos, como el democrático, el del Estado social o el de la autonomía territorial. Asimismo, supone un golpe a la legitimidad global de la Constitución cuya reversi...

  12. Marketing Experiencial: Una nueva tendencia del marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Magro Magdalena, Lara

    2013-01-01

    El reciente desarrollo de las tecnologías y su cada vez mayor implicación en la vida diaria de las personas, ha permitido en el mundo del marketing, la creación de nuevos modelos de negocio y promociones que buscan cautivar, interesar y sorprender, siempre de forma innovadora y distintiva a los usuarios finales. Durante todo el trabajo presentado a continuación, se va a explicar una nueva forma de marketing que está creando moda entre las firmas más prestigiosas, como pueden ser A...

  13. Arte Joven: 1901, una revista modernista

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Arroyuelo, Francisco José

    2002-01-01

    La revista Arte Joven, publicada en 1901, fue exponente del primer movimiento modernista y de sus afanes renovadores en el campo de las artes y de la literatura que se desarrollaron en España en el cambio del siglo XIX al siglo XX. Participaron en ella escritores y artistas de diversa forma de pensar y con distintas intenciones estéticas, desde Picasso a Unamuno, pero con una intención común de superar los esquemas establecidos por la estética realista anterior.

  14. Aprendizaje Servicio. Una experiencia en Gobierno TI

    OpenAIRE

    García-Peñalvo, F. J.

    2017-01-01

    La conferencia “Aprendizaje Servicio. Una experiencia en Gobierno TI” fue impartida el día 16 de octubre de 2017 en la II Jornada: Aprendizaje Servicio y otras experiencias de innovación educativa en la UPM, dentro del Ciclo de Jornadas 2017. Tendencias en Innovación Educativa y su implantación en UPM. Presenta cómo se ha aplicado el aprendizaje-servicio en el contexto de la asignatura Gobierno de Tecnologías de la Información, del Máster en Ingeniería Informática de la Universidad ...

  15. Leasing: una alternativa de financiamiento para PYMES

    OpenAIRE

    Bedjan, María Belén

    2008-01-01

    En la actualidad las pequeñas y medianas empresas encuentran dificultades para acceder a las líneas tradicionales de créditos bancarios. Por otro lado las empresas necesitan actualizarse constantemente para poder ser competitivas en el mercado. Es aquí donde el leasing nace como una alternativa de financiación para las PyMEs. Este trabajo pretendió demostrar la conveniencia financiera del leasing con respecto a los préstamos bancarios para la compra de maquinarias agrícolas ...

  16. Dimorfismo sexual mandibular en una coleccion formativa

    OpenAIRE

    Barboza, María Carolina; Mendonça, Osvaldo Juan; Bordach, María A.

    2005-01-01

    Muchas piezas óseas permiten la estimación sexual. En la mandíbula es mediante la observación de sectores morfoestructurales (gonion, mentón, rama, etc). La efectividad discriminatoria de esta estructura puede verse incremententada y/o complementada con nuevas propuestas técnico-metodológicas. Una de estas propuestas (Loth y Henneberg 1996), basada en la conformación anatómica de la inflexión del borde posterior de la rama mandibular, ha sido cuestionada en su eficiencia diagnóstica. Puesto q...

  17. Valores y preferencias televisivas: una experiencia universitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Navarro, Santiago; Medrano Samaniego, Concepción; Cortes Pascual, Alejandra

    2005-01-01

    El trabajo que se presenta forma parte, por un lado, de una investigación más amplia donde se ha recogido información sobre distintas variables: conocimientos previos, hábitos de estudio, estrategias motivacionales, estilos de aprendizaje, estilos de pensamiento, juicio moral, razonamiento personal, autoconcepto, madurez (adultez), valores y razonamiento lógico. Por otro lado, este trabajo es uno de los primeros pasos del proyecto de investigación en torno a la siempre problemática r...

  18. Publicidad, medio para crear una ventaja competitiva

    OpenAIRE

    Leyva Mancera, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    El caso muestra la manera en que surge una capacidad dinámica de reacción de la empresa líder del mercado en el sector automotriz en Colombia. GM Colmotores, genera estrategias para responder a los cambios, oportunidades y retos del mercado y los competidores. Así mismo se muestra la flexibilidad y evolución de la empresa que durante los últimos años siempre ha estado con la mayor porción de mercado en la industria. El desarrollo del caso permite ver como por medio de la capacidad de diri...

  19. Esofagitis necrotizante aguda: Una entidad inusual

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    Silvana E. Pramparo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La esofagitis necrotizante aguda (ENA, también denominada esófago negro, es una rara enfermedad poco descripta en la literatura médica. Describimos el caso de un hombre de 80 años, con hemorragia digestiva alta quien desarrolló un esófago negro luego de un episodio de hipotensión. La necrosis fue confirmada histológicamente. Los pacientes se presentan con hematemesis y melena en más del 70% de los casos. Los hallazgos endoscópicos muestran una coloración negruzca de la mucosa esofágica. El diagnóstico se realiza con endoscopia y confirmación histológica. La mortalidad es alta (más del 50% aunque relacionada a las enfermedades de base del paciente. Por último, podemos decir que la sospecha es muy importante en el diagnóstico de ENA, particularmente en pacientes ancianos con enfermedades asociadas y evidencia de hemorragia digestiva alta. En este trabajo describimos las características clínicas, endoscópicas e histopatológicas de un paciente con ENA.

  20. Previous Experience a Model of Practice UNAE

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    Ormary Barberi Ruiz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The statements presented in this article represents a preliminary version of the proposed model of pre-professional practices (PPP of the National University of Education (UNAE of Ecuador, an urgent institutional necessity is revealed in the descriptive analyzes conducted from technical support - administrative (reports, interviews, testimonials, pedagogical foundations of UNAE (curricular directionality, transverse axes in practice, career plan, approach and diagnostic examination as subject nature of the pre professional practice and the demand of socio educational contexts where the practices have been emerging to resize them. By relating these elements allowed conceiving the modeling of the processes of the pre-professional practices for the development of professional skills of future teachers through four components: contextual projective, implementation (tutoring, accompaniment (teaching couple and monitoring (meetings at the beginning, during and end of practice. The initial training of teachers is inherent to teaching (academic and professional training, research and links with the community, these are fundamental pillars of Ecuadorian higher education.

  1. Pantani di Marco Martinelli: una narrazione polifonica

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    Franco Nasi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In questo articolo si analizza il testo drammaturgico Pantani di Marco Martinelli, una veglia epica teatrale di uno dei più noti eroi dello sport italiano degli ultimi anni. Il dramma rilegge anche la storia di Pantani e ricostruisce gli strani avvenimenti che portarono alla sospensione, alla estromissione del ciclista dal Giro d’Italia nel 1999, e in seguito alla sua profonda crisi psicologica e tragica morte in solitudine in un hotel, a soli 34 anni. Oltre alle modalità proprie della veglia rituale, il dramma utilizza anche i metodi del processo giudiziario, e offre testimonianze dettagliate che conducono a una riflessione critica sulla società italiana negli anni del potere politico di Berlusconi e della sua filosofia del consumismo. I tre diversi generi della retorica classica (epidittico, giudiziario e deliberativo si mescolano in questa complessa tessitura teatrale. Coniugando informazioni (processo e rito (veglia, Martinelli riesce a fondere la tragedia greca (forma mimetica e corale e il moderno teatro di narrazione (forma diegetica monologante. Combinando assieme scene intensamente drammatiche, ricordi di imprese sportive epiche, passaggi giocosi e parodici, e giustapponendo vari stili e registri (giornalistico, lirico, parodico, elegiaco, Martinelli crea momenti di forte “straniamento” e sorpresa, e rende particolarmente efficace il rito funebre, la ricostruzione storica della tragica vicenda di Pantani e la critica all’ideologia che ha dominato l’Italia negli anni di Berlusconi.

  2. Una vida ligada a La Floresta

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    Kintto Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este número, el módulo Dibujos Animados, recoge las experiencias del primer curso realizado por el CIESPAL con apoyo de la UNICEF sobre la producción de programas educativos y culturales que utilizan este recurso como una opción comunicacional. Se trata de nuevas tecnologías aprovechadas en Cuba y que pueden ser aplicadas en nuestros países. El módulo relativo al medio ambiente habla del periodismo ecológico con importante desarrollo en América Latina, tema de actualidad que requiere preocupación por parte de los medios de comunicación. Incluye entrevistas a Gunter Grass y Jesús Polanco. Gabriel Alba adentra a los lectores en una novedosa forma de usar las computadoras. En el módulo Debate se trata la Economía, cultura y comunicación; La publicidad vía televisión, La evolución del merchandising en las novelas brasileñas ¿Exigir Ética solo al periodista?

  3. Una nuova piattaforma per i Dati Aperti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lastres

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In un panorama di continua evoluzione ed interesse da parte della opinione pubblica sul tema dei “dati open” moltienti della pubblica amministrazione e di governo stanno svolgendo azioni specifiche per la concretizzazione di queste iniziative in ottica di open government. Tuttavia, sono in pochi quelli che nel settore privato hanno intrapreso delle iniziative importanti in tale direzione. In questo articolo presentiamo una iniziativa indipendente per una nuova piattaforma software dedicata ai dati open su internet che, se confermasse i propri scopi, costituirebbe un punto di partenza a livello nazionale per l’accesso a questi dati.In a very evolving context and in a particular moment of public interest in theme of open data, many public organizations and government institutions are carrying out specific actions for the realization of initiatives in order to promote the open government ideas. However, very few private organizations have launched initiatives in this direction. In this paper we present an independent initiative for a new software platform for opendata on the internet that aims to be a starting point at the national level for the access to these kind of data.

  4. Una nuova piattaforma per i Dati Aperti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lastres

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In un panorama di continua evoluzione ed interesse da parte della opinione pubblica sul tema dei “dati open” moltienti della pubblica amministrazione e di governo stanno svolgendo azioni specifiche per la concretizzazione di queste iniziative in ottica di open government. Tuttavia, sono in pochi quelli che nel settore privato hanno intrapreso delle iniziative importanti in tale direzione. In questo articolo presentiamo una iniziativa indipendente per una nuova piattaforma software dedicata ai dati open su internet che, se confermasse i propri scopi, costituirebbe un punto di partenza a livello nazionale per l’accesso a questi dati. In a very evolving context and in a particular moment of public interest in theme of open data, many public organizations and government institutions are carrying out specific actions for the realization of initiatives in order to promote the open government ideas. However, very few private organizations have launched initiatives in this direction. In this paper we present an independent initiative for a new software platform for opendata on the internet that aims to be a starting point at the national level for the access to these kind of data.

  5. El asistente personal para una vida independiente: una figura en construcción

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonell Aparici, Gonzalo José

    2017-01-01

    La figura del Asistente Personal (AP), que hace posible la autonomía de una persona con diversidad funcional (PDF), puede ser considerada desde diversas perspectivas. La primera es la del Movimiento de Vida Independiente (MVI), que ofrece el sustento te�

  6. La enfermera escolar, ¿una utopía o una realidad?

    OpenAIRE

    Bayón Carrascal, María

    2013-01-01

    En la actualidad, los problemas de los alumnos que acuden a la escuela no se reducen sólamente a un examen difícil, unos deberes sin hacer o una asignatura suspensa, si no que a menudo sufren onsecuencias como alguna enfermedad, malos hábitos, trastornos alimenticios, problemas de drogodependencia o embarazos no deseados

  7. El método es una digresión. Una lectura benjaminiana de Goethe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Filomena MOLDER

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El propio Benjamin nos dice que leer el trabajo de Simmel sobre el concepto de verdad en Goethe le ayudó a comprender que el concepto de origen propuesto en su libro sobre el Trauerspiel era una transposición del concepto goethiano de fenómeno original. Para discutir cómo los hechos económicos pueden convertirse en fenómenos originales, Benjamin se sirve de una analogía con el concepto de Goethe de la metamorfosis de las plantas. Por eso, aquí, intentaremos demostrar que comprender lo que es la filosofía en Benjamin implica una experiencia de umbral –en forma de salto, discontinuidad, interrupción, renuncia, disipación, obediencia y metamorfosis– cuya formulación suprema, concisa y enigmática es la siguiente: “El método es un desvio” [Methode is Umweg]. Algunos elementos del pensamiento morfológico de Goethe permitirán establecer una constelación de afinidades, algo bastante útil para la interpretación de este enigma.

  8. Utilização de espécies de Asteraceae por comunidades rurais do nordeste do Brasil: relatos em Camocim de São Félix, Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryecha Arruda Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n2p93   Asteraceae, com aproximadamente 2.000 espécies registradas no Brasil, destaca-se nos estudos etnobotânicos, posicionando-se quase sempre entre as quatro famílias com maior número de espécies na flora útil, principalmente para fins medicinais. Neste estudo investigou-se a importância dessa família em quatro comunidades rurais do município de Camocim de São Félix, em um brejo de altitude, no agreste de Pernambuco. Os trabalhos de campo foram realizados no período de dezembro de 2010 a maio de 2011. Para a coleta dos dados etnobotânicos, foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com 50 moradores, de ambos os sexos, na maioria agricultores, com renda familiar inferior a um salário-mínimo, sendo coletadas as espécies por eles citadas. Os entrevistados mostraram um diversificado conhecimento sobre as Asteraceae, citando 19 espécies, nas seguintes categorias: medicinal (12, ornamental (6, tecnológica (3 e alimentícia (2, algumas delas incluídas em mais de uma categoria. Acanthospermum hispidum DC., espécie ruderal conhecida como espinho-de-cigano, foi a planta mais citada como medicinal, indicada para o tratamento de problemas respiratórios, infecções, doenças renais e odontalgias. As espécies Dahlia pinnata Cav., Tagetes erecta L. e Zinnia elegans Jacq. são utilizadas como ornamentais. Lactuca sativa L. (cultivada e Emilia sonchifolia (L. DC. (daninha foram as únicas citadas como alimentícias e Conyza bonariensis (L. Cronquist, Egletes viscosa Less. e Parthenium hysterophorus L. foram citadas para fins tecnológicos.

  9. Anti-plasmodial activity of Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae) and identification of urospermal A-15-O-acetate as the main active compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Natural products could play an important role in the challenge to discover new anti-malarial drugs. In a previous study, Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae) was selected for its promising anti-plasmodial activity after a preliminary screening of several plants traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat malaria. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the anti-plasmodial properties of this plant and to isolate the active anti-plasmodial compounds. Methods Eight crude extracts obtained from D. tomentosa whole plant were tested in vitro against two Plasmodium falciparum strains (3D7 and W2) using the p-LDH assay (colorimetric method). The Peters’ four-days suppressive test model (Plasmodium berghei-infected mice) was used to evaluate the in vivo anti-plasmodial activity. An in vitro bioguided fractionation was undertaken on a dichloromethane extract, using preparative HPLC and TLC techniques. The identity of the pure compound was assessed using UV, MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity against WI38 human fibroblasts (WST-1 assay) and haemolytic activity were also evaluated for extracts and pure compounds in order to check selectivity. Results The best in vitro anti-plasmodial results were obtained with the dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts, which exhibited a high activity (IC50 ≤ 5 μg/ml). Hot water and hydroethanolic extracts also showed a good activity (IC50 ≤ 15 μg/ml), which confirmed the traditional use and the promising anti-malarial potential of the plant. The activity was also confirmed in vivo for all tested extracts. However, most of the active extracts also exhibited cytotoxic activity, but no extract was found to display any haemolytic activity. The bioguided fractionation process allowed to isolate and identify a sesquiterpene lactone (urospermal A-15-O-acetate) as the major anti-plasmodial compound of the plant (IC50 < 1 μg/ml against both 3D7 and W2 strains). This was also

  10. Impacto ambiental de una mina de mercurio abandonada

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Cuartas, María

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este Trabajo Fin de Máster es la evaluación del impacto ambiental de una explotación minera de mercurio en estado de abandono y de posible contaminación del medio ambiente. Una vez que se comprueba el elevado impacto debido al estado de abandono y a la alta contaminación, se ha elaborado una sencilla propuesta de restauración, barajado y comprando tres posibles alternativas.

  11. Leucoedema: una revisión de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Viñals Iglesias, Helena

    1999-01-01

    El leucoedema es una entidad de naturaleza benigna, que clinicamente se describe como un blanqueamiento difuso y opalino de la mucosa oral que le confiere un aspecto aterciopelado, generalmente bilateral, simétrico y de carácter crónico. Es más frecuente en negros americanos, aunque la prevalencia descrita en cada estudio es controvertida, al igual que su patogenia. Histologicamente se caracteriza por una hiperparaqueratosis, una acantosis con hiperplasia epitelial, espongiosis, edema intrace...

  12. Una respuesta a Linz desde el presidencialismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lucía Vargas Moreno

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una reflexión descriptiva de las relaciones e interacciones que se establecen entre los poderes Ejecutivo y Legislativo en el sistema presidencial. Su objetivo principal es responder a la crítica de Juan José Linz hacia el presidencialismo a través del examen de los dos argumentos centrales del autor: la legitimidad democrática dual y la rigidez de los mandatos. A su vez, este escrito incorpora el estudio del sistema electoral, del sistema de partidos y del liderazgo político, y las dinámicas que se generan entre estos elementos debido al tipo de régimen. La conclusión apunta a que no se puede establecer un fracaso rotundo del presidencialismo sin antes considerar distintas variables que han incidido, particularmente, en el escenario latinoamericano.

  13. Visual Virtual MT: relato de una pesquisa

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    LUDMILA BRANDÃO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de contribuir a la discusión acerca de las artes visuales en la sociedad contemporánea y de los dispositivos que operan la colonialidad del arte, sus mecanismos y efectos, cuya urgente desactivación nos impone enormes retos, en este artículo se presentan los resultados de la investigación titulada: “Artes Visuales en Mato Grosso: recopilación, difusión y crítica” encargada de crear el sitio Visual Virtual MT (VVMT. El VVMT reúne producciones aestésicas visuales de artistas individuales y colectivos que operan en diferentes soportes y medios, trabajando con una variedad de materiales que configuran, actualmente, la mayor colección catalogada y digital disponible en el Estado de Mato Grosso, en Brasil.

  14. Memoria y olvido de una ministra anarquista

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    Ángel Herrerín López

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza como la imagen histórica de Federica Montseny ha ido variando con el paso del tiempo. Para dicho análisis se utiliza una doble óptica: por un lado, la visión que nos aportan, a través de sus memorias, sus compañeros libertarios; y por otro, como es tratada, esa imagen, por la empresa publicista.This article analyses Federica Montseny's historical image which has changed throughout time. A double point of view is used to do it: On one, hand the visión that her anarchist colleagues provide thorugh their memories, and on the other hand, we can see the way that her image has been treated by the standard press.

  15. Impuestos verdes: una meta de equidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilliana Arrieta Quesada

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Al considerar necesario incorporar a los grupos económicos en el gran proyecto de alcanzar metas de desarrollo sostenible, que surge como un nuevo paradigma al tomarse en consciencia por parte de los organismos internacionales, entre ellos las Naciones Unidas, de la necesidad de hacer un planteamiento de desarrollo económico diferente al convencional que considera aspectos ambientales y de equidad social, se admite por primera vez que la explotación de los recursos naturales y su transformación en materia prima y fuente energética, tiene límites, los cuales deben ser considerados en cualquier planteamiento serio de desarrollo económico.Es así como surge la tesis de los impuestos verdes como una opción que permita a los gobiernos incidir tanto en el mercado como en el sector industrial y en los hábitos de los consumidores.

  16. Melanoma lentiginoso acral en una paciente adulta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoandra Seara Govea

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso clínico de una paciente ecuatoriana de 58 años, blanca, con antecedentes de hernias discales en regiones cervical y lumbar, quien hace 2 años asistió a la Consulta de Dermatología por presentar cambio de coloración en la uña del tercer dedo de la mano derecha, síntomas que se correspondían con un lentigo simple. En esta ocasión acude con destrucción de la lámina ungueal y aumento de la coloración que se extiende a todo el pulpejo del dedo, por lo cual se le realizó otra biopsia y se confirmó el diagnóstico histológico de melanoma lentiginoso acral (in situ

  17. Plan de Empresa para una ONG

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Pumarega, David

    2005-01-01

    Hace 5 años un grupo de jóvenes universitarios creamos la Asociación Juvenil Soñar Despierto, una asociación benéfica cuya finalidad es involucrar a jóvenes, familias e instituciones en programas y proyectos de ayuda a niños de familias desestructuradas y/o sin recursos de nuestra comunidad. La idea empezó como el sueño utópico de 4 amigos y ha ido tomando forma y calando entre la sociedad. Hasta el punto de que en el año 2005 son más de 900 los voluntarios que han colaborado con nosotros ...

  18. Mercadeo verde de una empresa dorada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Uribe-Saldarriaga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El caso presenta la campaña de mercadeo realizada por Ecopetrol entre 2009 y 2012 para la introducción en Colombia del diésel ultra bajo de azufre denominado diésel limpio. Se examina la campaña desde 2 puntos de vista: el primero, el posicionamiento de Ecopetrol como una de las empresas más admiradas de Colombia, tanto por sus resultados financieros como por sus actividades en la responsabilidad social empresarial; el segundo, desde las exigencias que se hacen al mercadeo ambiental en los países desarrollados, especialmente con respecto al lavado verde, teniendo en cuenta a la vez que Ecopetrol opera en un país en vía de desarrollo donde existe un menor avance en las exigencias ambientales hechas por los grupos de interés.

  19. Hacia una pedagogía pacicultora

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    ALEXANDER LUIS ORTIZ OCAÑA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se demuestra científicamente que el Bachillerato Pacicultor1 es un modelo didáctico innovador y pertinente dentro del contexto de las políticas de atención educativa a la población vulnerable y desplazada, sustentado en los modelos educativos de la Escuela Nueva y la Escuela del Desarrollo Integral, basado en enfoques constructivistas, tendencias humanistas, teorías sociocríticas o histórico – culturales y corrientes cognitivas de aprendizajes significativos. Este enfoque sistémico y configuracional del bachillerato aporta elementos esenciales que permitirán configurar una Pedagogía Pacicultora.   

  20. Mercadeo verde de una empresa dorada

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    Carlos Mario Uribe-Saldarriaga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El caso presenta la campa ̃ na de mercadeo realizada por Ecopetrol entre 2009 y 2012 para la introducción en Colombia del diésel ultra bajo de azufre denominado diésel limpio. Se examina la campa ̃ na desde 2 puntos de vista: el primero, el posicionamiento de Ecopetrol como una de las empresas más admiradas de Colombia, tanto por sus resultados financieros como por sus actividades en la responsabilidad social empresarial; el segundo, desde las exigencias que se hacen al mercadeo ambiental en los países desarro- llados, especialmente con respecto al lavado verde, teniendo en cuenta a la vez que Ecopetrol opera en un país en vía de desarrollo donde existe un menor avance en las exigencias ambientales hechas por los grupos de interés.

  1. Fibroma de ovario en una gestante joven

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    Martha Lazo Pérez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso clínico de una gestante de 24 años de edad, quien acudió al Cuerpo de Guardia del Hospital Provincial Ginecoobstétrico Docente "Mariana Grajales Coello" de Santiago de Cuba, por presentar dolor en la parte baja del vientre, además de náuseas y estreñimiento. Se consideró el diagnóstico de fibroma de ovario, que fue definitivo luego de intervenirle quirúrgicamente y realizar el estudio anatomopatológico. Posteriormente se mantuvo el seguimiento clínico en consulta externa; la paciente evolucionó favorablemente y mantuvo su embarazo hasta tener a su hijo -- un recién nacido sano y a término -- a través de parto eutócico

  2. Una memoria consensuada : El Informe Rettig

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho Padilla, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    No cabe duda que hoy día la memoria de la dictadura militar (1973-1990) está presente en la vida cotidiana de Chile más que ningún otro periodo histórico. La razón se encuentra en los trágicos sucesos que se vivieron duran- te esos años en materia de derechos humanos. Don Patricio Aylwin, primer presidente electo democráticamente en tras 17 años de autoritarismo y una figura comprometida con los derechos humanos, era consciente de la necesi- dad de investigar la verdad de los crímenes de lesa...

  3. Una historia de Arlequín

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    Arturo Laguado

    1966-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre los personajes vivos del teatro universal y de la vida real existe una transmutación frecuente; de la misma manera que algunos hombres abandonan su identidad para convertirse en tipos ideales, ciertos personajes ficticios adquieren todas las características de los seres humanos. Unos y otros conforman esa teoría de valores que nos ayudan a juzgar, a compararnos, y a comprender la realidad. En el momento en que el personaje entra a constituír un mito, su existencia física parece innecesaria: vivo o muerto, real o ficticio, sabemos que su imagen no podrá variar, que pertenece al futuro, a ese tiempo que no habremos de conocer.

  4. La imagen: una venta en silencio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Silva Guerra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los aspectos más importantes y que más gravita en el éxito financiero de una empresa es su imagen. Por eso, el manejo de la misma, es trascendental, porque no solo se debe pretender que sea competitiva, sino que armonice con la responsabilidad social y ambiental del todo el entorno, y que siempre sea recordada por los clientes, con gratitud y que permanezca en el universo de suspreferencias. Para ello, deben comulgar tantas cosas positivas que van desde el buen servicio al cliente, pasando por la calidad de productos que se ofrecen, hasta el impacto que cause en los compradores los símbolos cuidadosamente elegidos los cuales contribuyan a una fijación mental positiva y duradera.Palabras clave: Imagen; identidad; reputación; cliente.The image: a sale in silenceAbstrac One of the most important aspects, which supports the financial success of a company, is its image. Therefore, the management of it, is transcendental, as it does not only pretend to be competitive, but also that harmonize with the social and environmental responsibility of the whole surroundings, and that it always will be remembered by customers, with gratitude and remain in the universe of their preferences. for that many positive things must coincide, ranging from good customer service, to the quality of products offered, to the impact cause on the buyers the carefully chosen symbols, which contribute to a positive and lasting mental fixation.Keywords: Image; identity; reputation; customer.

  5. UNA ACUSTEMOLOGÍA DE LA SELVA TROPICAL

    OpenAIRE

    FELD, STEVEN

    2013-01-01

    Este texto tiene por objeto darle voz a un tipo de realidad alterna, a un tipo de sensibilidad sonora que he encontrado a través de la investigación antropológica de una ecología del lenguaje, la música y la acústica. La esperanza es que, al dar a las voces marginadas espacios desde donde hablar, gritar y cantar, la antropología podrá contrarrestar en alguna medida la arraigada arrogancia de la autoridad colonial e imperial, de la historia escrita en una sola lengua, a una sola voz, como una ...

  6. Una parodia de lo adverso: Buena Vida (delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ocaranza

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Hernán es un joven empleado en una pequeña empresa de reparto a domicilio (delivery. Mientras recorre los suburbios de la ciudad de Buenos Aires en su vieja motocicleta conoce a Patricia, quien trabaja en una estación de gasolina desde hace un tiempo. Hasta ese momento todo parece confluir en una esperada fórmula de amor de juventud entre un repartidor y su pretendiente. Pero cuando Hernán le ofrece a Patricia el alquiler de una habitación de su hogar la historia toma un destino insospechad...

  7. Un nuevo orden mundial, una ética universal, una nueva educación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo MARTÍNEZ SÁNCHEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo ofrece unas reflexiones sobre la urgencia de establecer un nuevo orden mundial que exige: «una ética universal», «una nueva educación», «un mundo en paz». Se subraya que es necesaria una educación que esté al servicio: del desarrollo económico de los pueblos, particularmente de los pueblos del Sur; de la justicia cultural global y del diálogo de civilizaciones; de la democratización de todas las sociedades. Una educación que tenga como base un humanismo de carácter universal. Se concluye apuntando que la tarea social más urgente consiste en activar una nueva conciencia y unos nuevos actores sociales que fortalezcan los vínculos humanos en el nuevo escenario de la mundialización.ABSTRACT: This article offers some reflections on the urgency of establishing a new world order that calls for: «a universal ethic», «a new education», «a peaceful world». It emphasises the importance of education that serves: economic development of communities, particularly those in the South; global cultural justice and dialogue between civilisations; démocratisation of all societies. Education based on universal humanity. The conclusion demonstrates that the most urgent social task is to activate a new social conscience, and new social actors to strengthen human bonds in the current scenario of globalisation.RÉSUMÉ: Cet article offre une réflexion sur l'urgence d'établir un nouvel ordre mondial exigeant: une éthique universelle, une nouvelle éducation, un monde en paix. L'article met en évidence la nécessité d'une éducation au service du développement économique des peuples, en particulier des peuples du Sud; de la justice culturelle globale et du dialogue entre civilisations; de la démocratisation de toutes les sociétés. Une nouvelle éducation ayant comme base un humanisme universel. La conclusion démontre que la tâche sociale la plus urgente est celle d'activer une nouvelle conscience et des nouveaux

  8. Implementación de una solución de Business Intelligence en una unidad de negocios de cobranzas de una entidad financiera

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón Ccatamayo, Magaly; Calderón Ccatamayo, Magaly

    2014-01-01

    El presente informe describe la implementación de una solución de Business Intelligence en una unidad de negocios de Cobranzas de una entidad financiera, utilizando un conjunto de metodologías y herramientas automatizadas de Business Intelligence. Los objetivos del proyecto presentado en este informe son facilitar a los usuarios de Cobranzas el análisis de la información, la toma de decisiones y las definiciones de estrategias acertadas, mejorando de esta forma la gestión y seguimiento del...

  9. Ricavare un'opera viva da una soffitta: scrittura e teatro in balia di una cura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Uber

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Il laboratorio di scrittura della Soffitta dura dall’autunno 2005 alla primavera 2006. In quell’anno l’Unità Operativa in cui lavoro, appartenendo diversi suoi operatori alla Società Italiana per lo Studio dei Comportamenti Alimentari (S.I.S.D.C.A., assume l’impegno di organizzare a Piacenza uno dei convegni nazionali annuali della Società stessa. Sulla scorta d’un consolidato piacere della mia équipe di valorizzare le risorse espressive dei suoi membri, progetto d’allestire con la collaborazione di un gruppo teatrale piacentino uno spettacolo a partire dal testo prodotto con il gruppo. Quest’ultimo viene rielaborato e ne viene ricavata una drammaturgia dove la soffitta diviene la stiva d’una nave nella quale A., la protagonista, compirà il suo viaggio “verso il mondo che l’aspetta là fuori”.

  10. Arqueología y cine: distorsiones de una ciencia y una profesión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tejerizo García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sólo en los últimos años la investigación arqueológica se ha dirigido a analizar la relación de esta ciencia con el contexto social, político o económico actual. La grave distorsión que existe entre la imagen de la Arqueología de los profesionales y la imagen social es tratada a través de una treintena de películas analizando, igualmente, las consecuencias que en el mundo académico, educativo y profesional tienen este tipo de distorsiones. Finalmente, se propone una Arqueología “militante” basada en algunos postulados de la Teoría Crítica y el materialismo dialéctico como solución a este distanciamiento entre la Arqueología y la sociedad.

  11. MODELO MATEMÁTICO DEL TRANSPORTE DE UNA TOXINA EN UNA RED TRÓFICA MARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Arbeláez A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Algunos casos de intoxicación por consumo de peces contaminados, como la intoxicación por ciguatera, ocurren inesperadamente y no son fáciles de detectar previamente, dado que los peces que portan la toxina no presentan aspecto y/o síntomas de enfermos. En este trabajo proponemos un modelo matemático para el transporte y acumulación de una toxina a través de una cadena alimentaria. El modelo se plantea mediante un sistema rígido de ecuaciones diferenciales que describen la dinámica. Se analiza la estabilidad local de la solución de equilibrio. Se discuten diferentes escenarios de aparición de brotes de una toxina a partir de simulaciones numéricas obtenidas mediante un esquema de discretización que combina un método de Runge-Kutta de tercer orden y la regla del trapecio, evitando la rigidez del sistema. Los resultados muestran que el tiempo que tarda en desaparecer la toxina en la red trófica depende del estado en que se encuentra la dinámica poblacional al momento del brote. Esta información puede emplearse para establecer un tiempo de veda en la pesca de tal manera que la toxina se reduzca a niveles inocuos para la salud humana.

  12. Processi e temi per una smartculturalcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gaiani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ItIn questo contributo si assume il concetto di ‘Smart City’ come paradigma per sottolineare l’importanza che riveste l’Information Technology (IT di prima e seconda generazione ai fini del miglioramento del profilo competitivo di una città, soprattutto per ciò che riguarda il patrimonio culturale in essa contenuto. Si estende così il costrutto di William Mitchell dalla città al patrimonio culturale precisando, anche attraverso alcune esemplificazioni, come le Smart IT modifichino profondamente le modalità di trasmissione, acquisizione e produzione della conoscenza trasformando quest’ultima in un fattore di sviluppo economico, sociale e culturale. Non secondariamente esse contribuiscono alla soluzione di problemi tipici dei processi connessi al lifecycle dei beni culturali: la loro conservazione, fruizione, comunicazione e gestione, nonché quelli connessi alla grande quantità di dati e alla loro eterogeneità. Infine, i nuovi sistemi come l’Internet of Things o il fenomeno dello User Generated Content permettono di concepire i beni culturali come ‘smart cultural objects’ e la generazione di conoscenza da parte degli utenti. Tutto ciò, se da una parte amplifica le possibilità di interazione tra soggetti e oggetti della conoscenza, dall’altra ne modifica radicalmente le modalità. Questo deve sollecitare le Università, le Istituzioni culturali e le Imprese a collaborare, nel prossimo futuro, sugli usi possibili delle soluzioni tecnologiche prospettate, in vista dell’affermazione di una più consapevole e partecipata cultura della sostenibilità del nostro patrimonio culturale.EnThis contribution takes the concept of ' Smart City ' as a paradigm in order to underline the importance of first and second generation of Information Technology (IT for the purpose of improving the competitiveness of a city, especially for what concerns its Cultural Heritage (CH. We extends so the construct of William Mitchell from the city to

  13. Estudio químico de los compuestos lipídicos de las hojas, tallos y flores de Vernonanthura patens (Kunth) H. Rob. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Manzano Santana, Patricia; Miranda Martínez, Migdalia; Montes de Oca Porto, Rodney; Orellana León, Tulio; Abreu Payrol, Juan; Peralta García, Esther L

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Vernonanthura patens (Kunth) H. Rob. es una especie que crece silvestre en el Ecuador, para la cual existen escasos antecedentes de estudios químicos y biológicos, y en ninguno de estos se aborda el estudio de fracciones lipídicas. Objetivos: estudiar las fracciones de compuestos lipídicos presentes en las hojas, tallos y flores de la especie. Métodos: la planta se recolectó en estado adulto, en época de floración, los órganos vegetales fueron secados en estufa por separado, se ...

  14. Desahuciando inmigrantes: una etnografía en una comunidad dañada

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    Ignasi Bernat Molina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El derrumbe financiero y económico que se inició en 2007 en Estados Unidos después de la conocida como crisis de las hipotecas subprime se tornó global un año después. En España, uno de los países más afectados por la larga crisis, la prosperidad anterior enseguida pareció ser un espejismo. Pero la crisis no ha afectado a todo el mundo en la misma medida. De hecho, hay gente que se ha enriquecido durante el período 2008-2012, en cambio, la crisis está teniendo un impacto mayor sobre los que ya se encontraba en una situación más precaria. En este artículo discutiré una de las múltiples caras de la crisis española que está afectando a los más desaventajados: los desahucios y su resistencia por parte de la población migrante. Para hacer esto, primero examinaré un municipio que ha sido paradigmático de enclave migrante en España: Salt. Salt es un municipio conocido en Girona, Catalunya, por haber sido descrito en los medios de comunicación como un gueto como resultado de los problemas que surgen con el exceso de inmigración (el 42% de su población es de origen extranjero. Salt se hizo famoso cuando en marzo de 2010 un grupo de vecinos entró en el ayuntamiento exigiendo más seguridad y denunciando la pasividad de la policía ante una ola de robos en el pueblo. Desde entonces, distinto conflictos aparecen en los medios de comunicación. De todos modos, una etnografía desde una perspectiva criminológica muestra que el problema que aparece en los medios de comunicación (el delito callejero es solo uno entre los varios que afectan a la población. Peor aún, toda la atención puesta sobre el municipio por medios, políticos y policías no ha servido para la detección de un problema que está generando mucho más daño social: los desahucios. La crisis ha servido para observar el modus operandi de bancos y agencias inmobiliarias, los principales victimarios en el conflicto de los desahucios. Vendían pisos, nunca los

  15. Biografía de una sombra

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    Gonzalo Ríos Ocampo

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Agustín Rodríguez Garavito nos ha entregado, en cordial gesto literario, un ejemplar dedicado de su último libro "Gaitán, biografía de una sombra" que hemos leído a la luz de nuestra ya antigua amistad y de predilecciones cuya impronta nos marca desde los tiempos ya casi desvanecidos de nuestra adolescencia manizaleña, cuando nos embriagábamos de D' Annunzio, Gautier, Barrés, Rodenbach, Larreta, Huidobro, Lotí, Balzac, los poetas malditos, Flaubert y otros que mezclábamos, en coctel espumoso y sápido, con Spencer, Leibnitz, Nietzsche, Chateaubriand, Schopenhauer el misógino, Lorrain el de los adjetivos esclavos, hiperbóreos, intuitivos y toda aquella baraja de líricos y pensadores que alumbraron los caminos de Europa y América con su linterna mental nutrida de pilas cósmicas.

  16. Si a tit e mantearon una vez

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    Mitja Skubic

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta oración compuesta, palabras pronunciadas por don Quijote* en el segundo capítulo de la segunda parte de la novela cervantina, "Si a ti te mantearon una vez, a mí me han molido ciento", solo en aparencia un periodo hipotético, representa en realidad un conjunto paratáctico de dos unidades contrapuestas en su significado. Suscitan nuestro interés por hallarse en el mismo período los dos paradigmas del pretérito español que llamaremos pretérito simple y préterito compuesto. Es sabido cuán variada es la denominación de estos dos paradigmas verbales en las gramáticas y en los tratádos españoles. Seguiremos la nomenclatura del francés: se prefiere, en cuanto sea posible, dejar a parte el contenido limitándose a la forma.

  17. Comentarios a una tesis de grado

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    Camilo Gutiérrez

    1938-06-01

    Full Text Available Por una casualidad llegó a mis manos la tesis que para optar el título de doctor en Medicina y Cirugía presentó al correspondiente Jurado Calificador el señor Aquilino Gaitán Mariño, con el nombre de "Crítica a la campaña antileprosa en Colombia", pero que más propiamente debiera llevar el de "Crítica a la organización de los lazaretos colombianos, en particular el de Agua de Dios", pues el panfleto se reduce a censurar varios aspectos de nuestras leproserías, que constituyen apenas un cortísimo capítulo de la gran obra de la lucha antileprosa en Colombia; y como el doctor Gaitán ejerció seis meses en Agua. de Dios, enfila sus baterías contra este leprosorioquizá el único conocido por él.

  18. Una riflessione interdisciplinare sul termine cambiamento

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    Giuseppe Licari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Il focus che presento propone una riflessione interdisciplinare sul campo semantico del termine cambiamento. Lo scopo è quello di cogliere, attraverso uno sguardo sulla complessità del reale, alcune delle situazioni e alcuni processi dove la parola cambiamento si va a collocare. Come sappiamo il cambiamento lo possiamo ritrovare sia nei processi evolutivi, come in quelli formativi, o in quelli epistemologici, si pensi ad esempio al cambio di paradigma più famoso nella conoscenza umana: il passaggio dal sistema di pensiero geocentrico al sistema eliocentrico. Così, al cambiamento troviamo associati lo spaesamento, le resistenze, la crisi, la rabbia, la tristezza, ma non ultimo, l’ampliamento dei propri orizzonti di crescita personale e collettiva. Parole chiave: paradigma, organizzazione, relazione, esperienze di vita.An interdisciplinary reflection on the term changeAbstract My presentation proposes an interdisciplinary reflection on the semantic field of the word change. While looking at the complexity of reality, it aims at grasping some situations and processes where the term change is involved. As we know, we can find changes in evolutionary, educational, epistemological processes, let us think for example of the most famous paradigm change of human knowledge: the passage from geocentric to heliocentric mindset. Bewilderment, resistances, crisis, anger, sadness are thus associated to change, as well as the enlargement of one’s own personal and collective growth.Key word : paradigm, organization, relationship, life experiences.

  19. LA INSTITUCION: UNA CATEGORIA A RECONSTRUIR

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    Gloria Alvarado Forero

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de las teorías del Sujeto modificó, de manera sensible, las estrategias de construcción del concepto de Institución y por tanto impuso la necesidad de reconsiderar a uno de los pilares en los cuales se fundamenta el saber de las Ciencias Sociales. Tales teorías, articuladas de manera indisoluble con los problemas del orden simbólico y por tanto con el problema del sentido, no han conducido sinembargo, a viabilizar satisfactoriamente un concepto dinámico de la institución como acción en y por la creación, manteniendo por el contrario afianzada su condición de entidad y estado de cosas. Una aproximación a la lógica del sentido, muestra por el contrario interesantes posibilidades, a la luz de las cuales ciertos debates sobre lo instituído y lo instituyente como momentos de la institución se revelan irrelevantes.

  20. Una lección que aprender

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    Roberto Lira Olmo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Una tremenda tragedia se abatió sobre Chile entre estos dos últimos números de la revista. Como en todos los momentos impresionantes de la vida, cada uno de nosotros recordará para siempre qué hacía esa madrugada el 27 de febrero pasado, en el momento del terremoto. En lo particular, aparte de las memorias del sacudón interminable, el correr a casa de los hijos y pasar la noche en la calle, apenas, alumbrar el sol, recuerdo comenzar a ver los resultados de la tragedia: la gente desorientada en las plazas y en los cerros, las casas y los edificios resquebrajados y muchos en el suelo, las calles partidas. El asombro no terminó esa mañana: todavía perdura. Ver los desmanes y la pérdida de las normas cívicas con tanta facilidad, fue de lo más duro. Luego, con los días y las semanas y hasta los meses, hemos seguido descubriendo destrucción en los lugares más apartados.

  1. El Número Uno, una Retrospectiva Conceptual.

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    Alejandro Garciadiego Dantan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to show how the concept of number ‘one’ has changed, from its initial formal definition in Euclid’s The Elements until very recently. Some of these changes are mathematical, others are philosophical, and others are historical in character. This retrospective of the concept of number ‘one’ implies that the history of mathematics is much more complex and rich than that which is suggested by our intuition when we limit ourselves to a unique, lineal and continuous mathematics. El objetivo de este ensayo es mostrar cómo es que el concepto de número ‘uno’ ha cambiado, desde que se definió de manera formal en Los Elementos de Euclides hasta hace relativamente unos cuantos años. Algunos de estos cambios son de naturaleza matemática, otros filosófica y otros histórica. Esta retrospectiva del concepto de número ‘uno’ implica que la historia de las matemáticas es mucho más compleja y rica que la que nuestra intuición nos sugiere, cuando nos limitamos a una matemática única, lineal y continua.

  2. una experiencia de intervención

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    Cecilia Villarreal Montoya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo resume la experiencia de intervención con una familia de la escuela de Villa Esperanza de Pavas. Se trata de un matrimonio con dificultades para disciplinar a sus tres hijos varones de ocho, seis, y cuatro años. En primer lugar, se exponen los principios teóricos y metodológicos, para luego mostrar la aplicación de ellos en el proceso vivido por la familia. Se aplica el modelo de intervención estructural, que busca que la misma familia logre realizar, paso a paso, los cambios requeridos en la dinámica y estructura familiar. En la situación específica de esta familia, se observa el fortalecimiento de la pareja como tal y como madre y padre en la medida que van logrando asumir la autoridad en forma compartida para disciplinar a los hijos. Al compartir esta experiencia, la autora pretende estimular a profesionales en Orientación a asumir el reto de considerar a las familias de la comunidad estudiantil, de las instituciones educativas donde laboran, como parte importante en el quehacer orientador.

  3. Entre Marx y una mujer desnuda

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    Omar Ospina García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comunicación y Género, acopia trabajos que vinculan a la mujer y la comunicación y sus esfuerzos por no ser consideradas inferiores. Del libro a la pantalla, acerca a algunas reflexiones sobre el proceso que lleva del libro a la pantalla por la polémica que despierta la adaptación de las novelas, puesto que muchos señalan que la trama se ve desfigurada. Se agregan varios temas sobre el cine. En "Días de Radio", se plantea el que a pesar de la censura y los problemas económicos que deben enfrentar, las radios populares de América Latina, siguen ganando espacios, de su desarrollo depende una mayor profundización de la democracia. Tema de debate es Estrategias comunicativas en Chiapas y Haití. Se añaden dos entrevistas a un caricaturista brasileño y a un corresponsal de guerra muy prestigiado.

  4. El ECTS y una Universidad que aprende

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    Mª Dolores BAENA CUADRADO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de Convergencia Europea que está viviendo la Universidad Española, trae consigo una adaptación del sistema de créditos que se centra en el trabajo del alumnado, para definir los programas de estudio. Esto supone, entre otros aspectos, un replanteamiento de las metodologías utilizadas por el profesorado y, por tanto, un cambio en la concepción del proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje en la Educación Superior. Ante este reto, es necesario conocer cuál es la situación actual de la práctica educativa universitaria. Presentamos los primeros resultados de un estudio exploratorio realizado en la Universidad de La Laguna, con la intención de contrastar la realidad actual con las demandas planteadas desde el modelo de Bolonia para la creación del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior.

  5. Una perspectiva internacional de la contabilidad

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    Martha Lucia Suarez Suarez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la medida en que la internacionalización empresarial ha ido intensificándose y va surgiendo un nuevo usuario de la información internacional, la problemática ha ido pasando tanto al ámbito académico como al profesional. Consciente de esta realidad, la Facultad de Contaduría Pública de la Universidad de La Salle ha ido reformando el plan de estudios, e incorporando a los profesores a una visión internacional de la profesión, para atender la demanda formativa en este campo de la Contaduría Pública, para cualificar a los profesionales de la empresa en el escenario que la nueva dimensión internacional de la información contable está creando y necesitando. Uno de los principales objetivos de la contabilidad es proporcionar información útil para la toma de decisiones por parte de los usuarios. Esto adquiere mayor relevancia en la utilización de la información contable, la cual no se ciñe al ámbito nacional, sino que va más allá de las fronteras; la evolución del entorno que rodea a la empresa ha propiciado en los últimos años un proceso de internacionalización de la actividad económica, como consecuencia de la información contable.

  6. Una poética del pliegue

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    Ana Porrúa

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available La producción de Juan Gelman-de Violín y otras cuestiones a Relaciones- puede inscribirse dentro de la poética sesentista caracterizada por la hegemonía de la narración y la apertura del discurso poético al resto de los discursos sociales, pero también establece una compleja relación con las vanguardias históricas. La noción de pliegue permite revisar las articulaciones de este conflicto; como espacio el pliegue separa ambas poéticas, la "coloquialista" y vanguardista, que pueden leerse en el interior del corpus propuesto en estado puro, yuxtapuestas, o bajo la forma del cruce que instala la polémica entre libros o textos de un mismo libro. La idea depliegue como rasgo operatorio permite, por su parte, revisar la relación entre ambas poéticas en el interior de un poema, focalizando la materia, el lenguaje. En este caso la poética vanguardista funciona como cuestionamiento de la linealidad del texto sesentista.

  7. Una poética del pliegue

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    Ana Porrúa

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available La producción de Juan Gelman-de Violín y otras cuestiones a Relaciones- puede inscribirse dentro de la poética sesentista caracterizada por la hegemonía de la narración y la apertura del discurso poético al resto de los discursos sociales, pero también establece una compleja relación con las vanguardias históricas. La noción de pliegue permite revisar las articulaciones de este conflicto; como espacio el pliegue separa ambas poéticas, la "coloquialista" y vanguardista, que pueden leerse en el interior del corpus propuesto en estado puro, yuxtapuestas, o bajo la forma del cruce que instala la polémica entre libros o textos de un mismo libro. La idea depliegue como rasgo operatorio permite, por su parte, revisar la relación entre ambas poéticas en el interior de un poema, focalizando la materia, el lenguaje. En este caso la poética vanguardista funciona como cuestionamiento de la linealidad del texto sesentista.

  8. Recomendaciones para una lactancia materna exitosa

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    María Elena Ortega-Ramírez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available La lactancia materna es la única manera de proporcionar los nutrientes ideales para el adecuado crecimiento y desarrollo de los niños y las niñas. Es el único alimento que tiene una influencia biológica y emocional sobre la salud de la madre y su hijo. La lactancia materna protege a los lactantes de enfermedades gracias a sus propiedades antiinfecciosas, además de que es de más fácil digestión por la menor cantidad de caseína. No contiene betalactoglobulina, que es la proteína que más frecuentemente se asocia con alergia a proteína de leche de vaca. Por estas razones los médicos y trabajadores de la salud deben favorecer la práctica de la lactancia materna.

  9. Anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos e histolocalização de compostos fenólicos e lipídicos em Porophyllum ruderale (Asteraceae Vegetative organ anatomy and histolocalization of lipids and phenolics compounds in Porophyllum ruderale (Asteraceae

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    M.C.M. Fonseca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Porophyllum ruderale (Asteraceae é uma erva ruderal e aromática conhecida popularmente como couve-cravinho. Na medicina popular, é utilizada como cicatrizante e antiinflamatória, antifúngica, antibacteriana, calmante, no combate à hipertensão arterial, no tratamento de leishmaniose, no tratamento de edemas e traumatismos, no tratamento de picada de cobra, doenças reumáticas e dores em geral. A atividade cicatrizante tem sido relacionada à presença de teores variáveis de compostos fenólicos do tipo taninos. Os objetivos do trabalho foram caracterizar as estruturas secretoras quanto à histolocalização dos compostos fenólicos e lipídicos e descrever a anatomia da raiz, do caule e da folha de couve-cravinho. De cinco plantas cultivadas, em fase de prefloração, foram coletadas a raiz, o caule e a folha, os quais foram fixados em FAA 50 ou em sulfato ferroso em formalina neutra tamponada (para observação de compostos fenólicos e submetidos ao teste com Sudan III, visando a observação de compostos lipídicos. O laminário foi obtido utilizando-se metodologia tradicional. As raízes são tetrarcas, desenvolvem estrutura secundária e apresentam ductos secretores, os quais estavam presentes no córtex. O caule possui epiderme unisseriada recoberta por cutícula relativamente espessa; o parênquima cortical é intercalado com o colênquima subepidérmico; a medula é parenquimática; e os feixes são colaterais. Nos caules, os ductos também estavam presentes, porém somente nos jovens a reação para compostos fenólicos foi positiva. Nas folhas, o contorno das células epidérmicas é sinuoso e a epiderme é unisseriada e recoberta por cutícula delgada. São evidentes duas a três camadas de colênquima subepidérmico, e imerso no parênquima fundamental está o feixe colateral. No limbo foliar, foram observados ductos delimitados por várias camadas de células epiteliais, cujo conteúdo reagiu positivamente, indicando a

  10. Neurociencia en Psiquiatria; hacia una medicina integral y personalizada en el DSM-V: una propuesta

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    Carlos Augusto Novo Olivas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En el último siglo la concepción de salud, y con ello de la ciencia médica, ha sufrido un cambio profundo, ontogénico, metanoico. Sin embargo, esta revolución no ha alcanzado de la misma manera a lo que hoy en día llamamos salud mental. En las siguientes páginas se tratará de mostrar, tomando como modelo al Trastorno Depresivo Mayor (TDM, la posibilidad y necesidad que tiene la psicopatología (comportamiento y capacidades “mentales”: intelectivas, racionales, cognitivas, ejecutivas, lingüísticas, emocionales, lógico-conceptuales, etc., de regresar a sus orígenes médicos, que le permitirán responder al “cómo” del funcionamiento cerebral y a su relación con el resto del organismo y con el medio ambiente, con el fin de obtener patrones que nos ayuden a definir enfermedad desde una perspectiva etiofisiopatogénica. Ha llegado el momento de cuestionar si hemos inventado una ciencia (psiquiatría que poco tiene que ver con la realidad, por lo que se propone la creación de bases de datos donde se integren variables biológicas (genéticas, cerebrales, endocrinológicas, inmunológicas, etc., sociales, personales, clínicas, etc., de forma multicéntrica e internacional, para finalmente obtener relaciones que nos permitan una reclasificación de la patología cerebral útil para proporcionar tratamientos integrales y personalizados.

  11. “creación de una papeleria en una zona residencial”

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Velásquez, Grace Elizabeth; Vera Loor, Angie Azucena

    2013-01-01

    Sabemos que el mercado papelero tiene competidores fuertes como Juan Marcet y Súper paco que se encuentran en los primeros puestos, pero también sabemos que existe un espacio de potenciales compradores para nuestro proyecto. Mediante un estudio se pudo observar que muchas personas que viven en las urbanizaciones vía a Samborondón no pueden acceder con frecuencia a una papelería, ya sea por tiempo, o distancia. Por estos motivos hemos decidido que un buen lugar para implantar nuestra pap...

  12. Una escuela inclusiva para una sociedad plural : nuestro referente, nuestro futuro

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Tilve, María Dolores; Malvar Méndez, María Laura

    2009-01-01

    La escuela del siglo XXI se torna cada día más compleja. El alumnado cada vez es más diverso, por lo que las situaciones de exclusión e inadaptación escolar se multiplican. Se hace necesario, más que nunca, promover desde la escuela la tolerancia, la solidariedad, la igualdad, la justicia y el respeto por la diversidad cultural, religiosa y lingüística, así como la integración escolar y social de las personas independientemente de sus particularidades. En una sociedad abierta, plu...

  13. Dimensionamiento de una EDAR para una población de 60.000 habitantes equivalentes

    OpenAIRE

    Vila Gordillo, Daniel Esteban

    2018-01-01

    La creciente importancia del agua como recurso natural indispensable, irreemplazable y altamente vulnerable, unida al creciente interés por la protección del medio ambiente, en general, han motivado una concienciación de la necesidad de depurar aguas procedentes de usos, tanto urbanos como industriales, e incluso, más recientemente, de los efluentes de riego. Es por ello necesario ayudar a la naturaleza con el diseño y la construcción de depuradoras que limiten los parámetros de c...

  14. Biocontabilidad: Hacia una definición de una nueva disciplina contable.

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía Soto, Eutimio

    2014-01-01

    La biocontabilidad se plantea como una nueva disciplina que pertenece a la ciencia contable, constituyendo así, un modelo que en conjunto con la sociocontabilidad y la contabilidad económica, configuran la Teoría tridimensional de la contabilidad T3C. La definición de biocontabilidad sugerida, principal objetivo de la investigación, se infiere de la definición general de contabilidad propuesta por la T3C y, metodológicamente, se soporta en los ítems básicos que debe tener toda acepción de un ...

  15. Sobre una redundancia: el Darwinismo social

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    Sandín, Máximo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A review of the original sources and historical circunstances that encompassed the birth of darwinism make patent their poor entity as strictly biological theory. Otherwise their only original contribution to previous evolutive theories and hypothesis where limited to interpret the Nature by mean of the Malthus and Spencer economical and social concepts. The so called «social darwinism» is, therefore, not a distortion of «scientific darwinism» because is esentially social.



    Una revisión de las fuentes originales y de las circunstancias históricas que rodearon el nacimiento del darwinismo, pone de manifiesto su escasa entidad como teoría estrictamente biológica, ya que las únicas aportaciones originales a las teorías e hipótesis evolutivas previas, se limitan a la aplicacióPOR UNA ECONOMÍA ORIENTADA HACIA LA VIDA

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    Franz Hinkelammert

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es servir de plataforma teórica para las distintas temáticas que se abordarán con mayor profundidad en una obra conjunta en preparación. No es por tanto una simple introducción a la problemática, sino una toma de posición inicial sobre el ámbito y los contenidos de una “Economía de la Vida”.No siendo ésta una propuesta o un modelo para una nueva sociedad, ni un recetario de política económica, sino una interpelación crítica de las instituciones e ideologías económicas a partir del criterio central de la reproducción y desarrollo de la vida humana; creemos conveniente establecer claramente el punto de partida y los principales fundamentos de la investigación. Esto es lo que intentamos ofrecer al lector en el presente artículo, con la esperanza de que el mismo incite a la discusión, pues toda crítica es bienvenida.

  16. Una visión tridimensional emergiendo de la ciudad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Pilar Pinchart Saavedra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Las primeras décadas del siglo XX comienzan a mostrarnos la postal que detona el gran paradigma metropolitano del siglo: Nueva York y la altura de sus edificaciones, una ruptura total con el concepto de ciudad conocido por los europeos, al tiempo que la distopía nace como crítica literaria a la revolución rusa y derivará en imágenes de ciencia ficción producidas por el rascacielos que llevarán al urbanismo a nuevos niveles de planificación. Una visión tridimensional de la ciudad más allá del plano, al tiempo que el cine comienza a convertir el rascacielos en un personaje central de la narración visual. Progresivamente, las visiones de una sociedad futurista, mecanizada y alienante solo son posibles en una ciudad densamente verticalizada. Una imagen precisa, diseñada por Moses King, una ficción visual de 1911 que visionaba cómo sería la metrópolis de Nueva York en un futuro próximo, permite hacer una revisión sobre el paradigma de ciudad de rascacielos, y la evolución real de la metrópolis producto del fenómeno de verticalización producido por el rascacielos y la conquista de la altura.

  17. ¿ Como se hace una Telenovela ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Gavaldón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La autora relata la historia de las Relaciones Públicas y dice que surgieron y se desarrollaron para legitimar ante el público los intereses económicos y políticos de quienes detentan el poder. Se cuestiona sobre el por qué no aplicar las relaciones públicas, en organizaciones populares, para que mejoren su publicación y orienten sus propósitos de desarrollo. El tema que aborda las Políticas culturales en América Latina acopia un extracto de lo más trascendente de los ensayos del libro editado por Néstor García Canclini. Sobre la telenovela se afirma que esta ha llegado a ser uno de los instrumentos más importantes de la comunicación popular: por ella desfilan las identidades de las más variadas culturas brasileñas. Y en cuanto a la caricatura se relata lo que ocurrió en el Seminario taller " Caricatura y Periodismo", realizado el(9-11 de Nov.- 1987 en el CIESPAL. El estudio sobre el mercado del vídeo se ve dificultado por la imprecisión de los datos obtenidos. Los datos oficiales no siempre se aproximan a la realidad, pues el mercado de vídeo se instauró en América Latina partiendo de una lógica totalmente diversa de los equipos de sonido e imagen.

  18. El desarrollo moral: una introduccion a la teoria de kohlberg

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Barra Almagiá

    1987-01-01

    Se presenta una introducción a la teoría de los estadios morales de Lawrence Kohlberg, teoría que mantiene una estrecha relación con la teoría del desarrollo cognitivo de Jean Piaget. Las investigaciones de Kohlberg sobre el razonamiento moral, utilizando una entrevista individual basada en dilemas morales hipotéticos, lo han llevado a delinear 3 niveles y 6 estadios del juicio moral. Los estadios morales evolutivos, los cuales comparten las propiedades de los estadios co...

  19. Plan de negocio de una escuela infantil (primer ciclo)

    OpenAIRE

    San Román Gómez, Ana de

    2014-01-01

    El presente documento establece los pasos a seguir para poner en marcha una escuela infantil en el barrio de Butarque, en Madrid. En un primer lugar se han realizado diversos estudios, tanto sobre el sector como sobre el área geográfica, ya que se partía de una situación de absoluto desconocimiento. En el análisis del sector se ha puesto de manifiesto que las competencias en educación en España están reguladas por el Ministerio en primera instancia, pero las Autonomías tienen también una g...