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Sample records for venice coastland stability

  1. Monitoring and Modeling Farmland Productivity Along the Venice Coastland, Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoli, G.; Bonetti, S.; Scudiero, E.

    2013-01-01

    The southern portion of the Venice coastland is a very precarious environment and salt contamination of land and groundwater is a severe problem that is seriously impacting the farmland productivity. Geophysical surveys, lab testing and continuous monitoring of hydrological parameters together wi...

  2. Farmland productivity under stress conditions: a field scale monitoring and modeling study on the Venice coastland, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoli, Gabriele; Scudiero, Elia; Putti, Mario; Morari, Francesco; Teatini, Pietro

    2014-05-01

    The Venice coastland, Italy, is a precarious environment jeopardized by both natural and anthropogenic factors. Due to a land elevation below sea level and the presence of sandy paleo-channels, salinization of soil and shallow groundwater is posing a serious threat to the agricultural productivity of the region. In order to identify and quantify the impacts of the saltwater contamination on crop productivity an integrated monitoring and modeling approach is used. A representative 21 ha basin cultivated with maize crop has been extensively studied by soil sampling, geophysical surveys, continuous hydrological monitoring and crop yield distribution. Based on field observations a field-scale model of soil moisture dynamics coupled with plant transpiration, photosynthesis and growth has been developed and applied at the site.

  3. Long term peatland subsidence: Experimental study and modeling scenarios in the Venice coastland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Francesca; Teatini, Pietro; Putti, Mario; Gambolati, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    Land subsidence in drained cultivated peatlands is responsible for a number of serious environmental concerns and economical problems at both the local and the global scale. In low-lying coastal areas it enhances the risk of flooding, the saltwater contamination of shallow aquifers, and the maintenance costs of the systems that help keep the farmland drained. Since the subsidence is a major consequence of the bio-oxidation of the soil organic fraction in the upper aerated zone, cropped peatlands in temperate and tropic regions are important sources of CO2 into the atmosphere. A 4-year long experimental study has been performed in a drained peatland located south of the Venice Lagoon, Italy, to help calibrate a land subsidence model developed to predict the expected behavior of the ground surface elevation. Continuous monitoring of the hydrological regime and land displacements shows that the vertical movement of the peat surface consists of the superimposition of daily/seasonal time-scale reversible deformations related to soil moisture, depth to the water table, and temperature fluctuations, and long term irreversible subsidence due to peat oxidation. A novel two-step modeling approach to separate the two contributions from the available observations is presented. First, the elastic component is computed by integrating the peat vertical deformations evaluated by a constitutive relationship describing the porosity variation with the moisture content and pore pressure changes implemented into a variably saturated flow equation-based numerical code. The observed trend is then filtered from the computed reversible displacement and is used to calibrate an empirical relationship relating land subsidence rate to drainage depth and soil temperature. The results show that in recent years the subsidence rate ranged from 3 to 15 mm a-1. The large variability is due to the different climate conditions underlying the monitoring period, in particular a wet 2002 and a very dry

  4. Development pattern of circular economy in Jiangsu coastland

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Circular economy is an effective development pattern to balance economic growth, social development and environmental protection. Based on apprehending the connotation of circular economy, this paper fully considers and studies on the future trends in this area according to the theory of circular economy and the empirical circumstances of Jiangsu Coastland. This paper also discusses the circular economy development pattern adopted by Jiangsu coastland during economic and social development fr...

  5. The stability of tidal flats in Venice Lagoon—the results of in-situ measurements using two benthic, annular flumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, C. L.; Bergamasco, A.; Umgiesser, G.; Cappucci, S.; Cloutier, D.; DeNat, L.; Flindt, M.; Bonardi, M.; Cristante, S.

    2004-11-01

    Seabed properties in Venice Lagoon were examined in situ in two multidisciplinary field campaigns. The purpose of this study was to understand the mechanisms controlling the stability of bed types. Two benthic annular flumes (Sea Carousel and Mini Flume) were deployed simultaneously from a floating pontoon at 24 sites during summer (1998), which were considered representative of the range in bed/habitat types. As well, bottom sampling and coring, water-column monitoring and benthic habitat analyses were carried out. All but three sites were on cohesive sediments. Bed types included bare shelly mudflats and regions colonised by the seagrasses Cymodocea nodosa and Zostera noltii, by filamentous cyanobacteria, and by patches of the macrophytes Ulva rigida and Chaetomorpha sp. A subset (13) of these sites was visited during the subsequent winter to evaluate seasonal changes. Six of the sites were intertidal, the remainder were in the sublittoral zone. Water temperature varied between 5 and 30 °C, and salinity varied between 20 and 38 psu. In the absence of waves, turbidity was generally low (rigida (BI=115%) and shell debris (BI=115%) were intermediate, while bare sublittoral mud beds were the least resistant (BI=58%). Summer erosion rates (as a function of applied stress) were lower than winter ones, probably due to water temperature changes. The algorithm E= χτsβ, yielded good results and indicated that erosion rates in Venice Lagoon were high, notwithstanding the high erosion thresholds. The mean summertime friction coefficient was φ=62° and was highest in the central lagoon. The wintertime φ=69° showed that there was no seasonal fluctuation in bed stability. Mass settling in Venice Lagoon was a strong function of suspended sediment concentration ( S) and a decay constant ( k) of the exponential function S( t)= Soe- kt; it was found to be in continuity with examples from other locations worldwide (and therefore normal).

  6. Saltwater contamination in the managed low-lying farmland of the Venice coast, Italy: An assessment of vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Lio, Cristina, E-mail: cristina.dalio@ve.ismar.cnr.it [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Arsenale — Tesa 104, Castello 2737/F, 30122 Venezia (Italy); Carol, Eleonora, E-mail: eleocarol@fcnym.unlp.edu.ar [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Cátedra de Hidrología General, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata 64 n" o3 La Plata (Argentina); Kruse, Eduardo, E-mail: kruse@fcnym.unlp.edu.ar [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Cátedra de Hidrología General, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata 64 n" o3 La Plata (Argentina); Teatini, Pietro, E-mail: pietro.teatini@unipd.it [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Arsenale — Tesa 104, Castello 2737/F, 30122 Venezia (Italy); Dept. of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Padova, Via Trieste 63, 35121 Padova (Italy); Tosi, Luigi, E-mail: luigi.tosi@ismar.cnr.it [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Arsenale — Tesa 104, Castello 2737/F, 30122 Venezia (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    The original morphology and hydrogeology of many low-lying coastlands worldwide have been significantly modified over the last century through river diversion, embankment built-up, and large-scale land reclamation projects. This led to a progressive shifting of the groundwater–surficial water exchanges from naturally to anthropogenically driven. In this human-influenced hydrologic landscape, the saltwater contamination usually jeopardizes the soil productivity. In the coastland south of Venice (Italy), several well log measurements, chemical and isotope analyses have been performed over the last decade to characterize the occurrence of the salt contamination. The processing of this huge dataset highlights a permanent variously-shaped saline contamination up to 20 km inland, with different conditions in relation with the various geomorphological features of the area. The results point out the important role of the land reclamation in shaping the present-day salt contamination and reveal the contribution of precipitation, river discharge, lagoon and sea water to the shallow groundwater in the various coastal sectors. Moreover, an original vulnerability map to salt contamination in relation to the farmland productivity has been developed taking into account the electrical conductivity of the upper aquifer in the worst condition, the ground elevation, and the distance from salt and fresh surface water sources. Finally, the study allows highlighting the limit of traditional investigations in monitoring saltwater contamination at the regional scale in managed Holocene coastal environments. Possible improvements are outlined. - Highlights: • Land reclamation shapes the present saltwater contamination in the Venice coastland. • Natural and anthropogenic forcings drive the seawater flow in shallow aquifers. • Hydro-geophysical–geochemical investigations highlight the groundwater origin. • The vulnerability of the farmland to salt contamination extents up to 20

  7. Saltwater contamination in the managed low-lying farmland of the Venice coast, Italy: An assessment of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Lio, Cristina; Carol, Eleonora; Kruse, Eduardo; Teatini, Pietro; Tosi, Luigi

    2015-11-15

    The original morphology and hydrogeology of many low-lying coastlands worldwide have been significantly modified over the last century through river diversion, embankment built-up, and large-scale land reclamation projects. This led to a progressive shifting of the groundwater-surficial water exchanges from naturally to anthropogenically driven. In this human-influenced hydrologic landscape, the saltwater contamination usually jeopardizes the soil productivity. In the coastland south of Venice (Italy), several well log measurements, chemical and isotope analyses have been performed over the last decade to characterize the occurrence of the salt contamination. The processing of this huge dataset highlights a permanent variously-shaped saline contamination up to 20km inland, with different conditions in relation with the various geomorphological features of the area. The results point out the important role of the land reclamation in shaping the present-day salt contamination and reveal the contribution of precipitation, river discharge, lagoon and sea water to the shallow groundwater in the various coastal sectors. Moreover, an original vulnerability map to salt contamination in relation to the farmland productivity has been developed taking into account the electrical conductivity of the upper aquifer in the worst condition, the ground elevation, and the distance from salt and fresh surface water sources. Finally, the study allows highlighting the limit of traditional investigations in monitoring saltwater contamination at the regional scale in managed Holocene coastal environments. Possible improvements are outlined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Eight years of groundwater monitoring at the building site of the MOSE system for the safeguard of Venice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasso, Alessandro; Sethi, Rajandrea; Di Molfetta, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    barrier works on Venice coastland stability. Remote Sensing of Environment 113:2682-2688. DOI:10.1016/j.rse.2009.08.001

  9. Evocations of a Historical Night in Venice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    Venice is a big dream, at once ineffably meaningful and yet still intangible; not merely to the authors of this paper but to many others as well. Why? Not only are we drawn by its mystery and romance; Venice, this otherworldly city, unfolds an architectural nocturne that in many ways makes histor...... are unfolded by NoRA, an example of how to understand the taste, smell, sound and feeling of the historical city as a point of departure for learning about the contemporary city and importantly; Architecture’s Nocturne....

  10. Inventory analysis and carbon footprint of coastland-hotel services: A Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Rita; Kiliç, Eylem; Navarro, Alejandra; Albertí, Jaume; Chacón, Lorenzo; Fullana-I-Palmer, Pere

    2017-10-01

    Tourism is a key industry in the Spanish economy. Spain was in the World top three ranking by international tourist arrivals and by income in 2015. The development of the tourism industry is essential to maintain the established economic system. However, if the environmental requirements were not taken into account, the country would face a negative effect on depletion of local environmental resources from which tourism depends. This case study evaluates, through a life cycle perspective, the average carbon footprint of an overnight stay in a Spanish coastland hotel by analyzing 14 two-to-five-stars hotels. Inventory and impact data are analyzed and presented both for resource use and greenhouse gases emissions, with the intention of helping in the environmental decision-making process. The main identified potential hotspots are electricity and fuels consumption (6 to 30kWh/overnight stay and 24 to 127MJ/overnight stay respectively), which are proportional to the number of stars and unoccupancy rate and they produce more than 75% of the impact. It is also revealed that voluntary implementation of environmental monitoring systems (like EMAS regulation) promotes collection of more detailed and accurate data, which helps in a more efficient use of resources. A literature review on LCA and tourism is also discussed. Spanish hotels inventory data presented here for the first time will be useful for tourism related managers (destination managers, policy makers and hotel managers among others) to calculate sustainability key indicators, which can lead to achieve real sustainable-tourism goals. Further data collection will be needed in future projects to gather representative data from more hotels, other accommodation facilities and also other products/services offered by tourist sector in Spain (like transport of tourists, food and beverage, culture-sports & recreation and others). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fluvial response to the last Holocene rapid climate change in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Devillers, Benoît; Blanchemanche, Philippe; Dezileau, Laurent; Oueslati, Hamza; Tillier, Margaux; Bohbot, Hervé

    2017-05-01

    The variability of fluvial activity in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastal lowlands and its relationship with modes of climate change were analysed from the late 9th to the 18th centuries CE. Geochemical analyses were undertaken from a lagoonal sequence and surrounding sediments in order to track the fluvial inputs into the lagoon. An index based on the K/S and Rb/S ratios was used to evidence the main periods of fluvial activity. This index reveals that the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) was a drier period characterized by a lower fluvial activity, while the Little Ice Age (LIA) was a wetter period with an increase of the river dynamics. Three periods of higher than average fluvial activity were evidenced at the end of the first millennium CE (ca. 900-950 cal yr CE), in the first half of the second millennium CE (ca. 1150-1550 cal yr CE), and during the 1600s-1700s CE (ca. 1650-1800 cal yr CE). The comparison of these fluvial periods with other records of riverine or lacustrine floods in Spain, Italy, and South of France seems to indicate a general increase in fluvial and flood patterns in the Northwestern Mediterranean in response to the climate change from the MCA to the LIA, although some episodes of flooding are not found in all records. Besides, the phases of higher than average fluvial dynamics are in good agreement with the North Atlantic cold events evidenced from records of ice-rafted debris. The evolution of fluvial activity in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastlands during the last millennium could have been driven by atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns.

  12. Venice: a meeting, a plague, a death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Botasso

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Death in Venice is based on the novella of the same name by Thomas Mann, except that in the cinema version the main character, Gustav von Aschenbach, is a musician instead of a writer. Owing to poetic license not always within the layman’s grasp, Luchino Visconti also wished to identify the artist with Gustav Mahler. Beyond such dissimilarities, however, the film is a feasible recreation of the story and a faithful reconstruction of those times: a Venice divorced from its former splendor and invaded by a plague and yet at the same time still able to evoke the captivating, nostalgic legacy of its magnificent past. An ideal scenario indeed for the musical ideas of Mahler, and perfectly reflected in the Midnight Song and the adagietto of his third and fifth symphonies.

  13. DHA in Pregnant and Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China: Results of a DHA Evaluation in Women (DEW Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in pregnant and lactating women in developing countries like China, where DHA-enriched supplements are increasingly popular. We aimed to assess the DHA status among Chinese pregnant and lactating women residing areas differing in the availability of aquatic products. In total, 1211 women in mid-pregnancy (17 ± 2 weeks, late pregnancy (39 ± 2 weeks, or lactation (42 ± 7 days were enrolled from Weihai (coastland, Yueyang (lakeland, and Baotou (inland city, with approximately 135 women in each participant group by region. DHA concentrations were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and are reported as weight percent of total fatty acids. Mean plasma DHA concentrations were higher in coastland (mid-pregnancy 3.19%, late pregnancy 2.54%, lactation 2.24% and lakeland women (2.45%, 1.95%, 2.26% than inland women (2.25%, 1.67%, 1.68% (p values < 0.001. Similar differences were observed for erythrocyte DHA. We conclude that DHA concentrations of Chinese pregnant and lactating women are higher in coastland and lakeland regions than in inland areas. DHA status in the study population appears to be stronger than populations from other countries studied to date.

  14. [Anaerobic co-digestion of RSU and macro-algae in the Venice lagoon. Preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, F; Pavan, P; Bassetti, A; Farneti, A; Barbaresi, U

    1991-01-01

    In these last few years in the lagoon of Venice the phenomenon of eutrophization has increased. The possibility of turning to an anaerobic digestion of the biomass seems to be interesting. In this view, the following experiment describes a study on the co-digestion of mechanically selected algaebiomass and organic fraction of solid urban waste. The results relevant to both yield parameters and process stability are reported, which have been obtained by monitoring a 3 m3 pilot digestor during a running period of about 85 days, under different working conditions.

  15. A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Jiao Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± 7 days postpartum were recruited from four hospitals located in Weihai (coastland, Yueyang (lakeland and Baotou (inland city. The categories of food containing DHA, the average amount consumed per time and the frequency of consumption in the past month were assessed by a tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, the DHA Intake Evaluation Tool (DIET. DHA dietary intake (mg/day was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table (Version 2009. In addition, fasting venous blood (5 mL and breast milk (10 mL were collected from lactating women. DHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and were reported as absolute concentration (μg/mL and relative concentration (weight percent of total fatty acids, wt. %. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between intakes of DHA and its concentrations in biological specimens. The study showed that the breast milk, plasma and erythrocyte DHA concentrations were positively correlated with DHA dietary intake; corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 for relative concentration and 0.33, 0.32, and 0.18 for absolute concentration (p < 0.05. The median DHA dietary intake varied significantly across areas (p < 0.05, which was highest in the coastland (24.32 mg/day, followed by lakeland (13.69 mg/day, and lowest in the inland (8.84 mg/day. The overall relative and absolute DHA concentrations in breast milk were 0.36% ± 0.23% and 141.49 ± 107.41 μg/mL; the concentrations were significantly lower in inland women than those from coastland and lakeland. We conclude that DHA dietary intake is positively correlated with DHA

  16. Combining L- and X-Band SAR Interferometry to Assess Ground Displacements in Heterogeneous Coastal Environments: The Po River Delta and Venice Lagoon, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Tosi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available From leveling to SAR-based interferometry, the monitoring of land subsidence in coastal transitional environments significantly improved. However, the simultaneous assessment of the ground movements in these peculiar environments is still challenging. This is due to the presence of relatively small built-up zones and infrastructures, e.g., coastal infrastructures, bridges, and river embankments, within large natural or rural lands, e.g., river deltas, lagoons, and farmland. In this paper we present a multi-band SAR methodology to integrate COSMO-SkyMed and ALOS-PALSAR images. The method consists of a proper combination of the very high-resolution X-band Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI, which achieves high-density and precise measurements on single structures and constructed areas, with L-band Short-Baseline SAR Interferometry (SBAS, properly implemented to raise its effectiveness in retrieving information in vegetated and wet zones. The combined methodology is applied on the Po River Delta and Venice coastland, Northern Italy, using 16 ALOS-PALSAR and 31 COSMO-SkyMed images covering the period between 2007 and 2011. After a proper calibration of the single PSI and SBAS solution using available GPS records, the datasets have been combined at both the regional and local scales. The measured displacements range from ~0 mm/yr down to −35 mm/yr. The results reveal the variable pattern of the subsidence characterizing the more natural and rural environments without losing the accuracy in quantifying the sinking of urban areas and infrastructures. Moreover, they allow improving the interpretation of the natural and anthropogenic processes responsible for the ongoing subsidence.

  17. “News on the Rialto”: Shakespeare's Venice | Freed | Shakespeare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Holofernes: I may speak of thee as the traveler doth of Venice: Venetia, Venetia, Chi non ti vede, non ti pretia. (Love's Labour's Lost 4.2.92-93)1. Shakespeare set thirteen of his plays in Italy. Since he probably never visited the country, he shows only the vaguest notion of the topography of most of his Italian settings.

  18. The Venice specimen of Ouranosaurus nigeriensis (Dinosauria, Ornithopoda

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    Filippo Bertozzo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ouranosaurus nigeriensis is an iconic African dinosaur taxon that has been described on the basis of two nearly complete skeletons from the Lower Cretaceous Gadoufaoua locality of the Ténéré desert in Niger. The entire holotype and a few bones attributed to the paratype formed the basis of the original description by Taquet (1976. A mounted skeleton that appears to correspond to O. nigeriensis has been on public display since 1975, exhibited at the Natural History Museum of Venice. It was never explicitly reported whether the Venice specimen represents a paratype and therefore, the second nearly complete skeleton reported in literature or a third unreported skeleton. The purpose of this paper is to disentangle the complex history of the various skeletal remains that have been attributed to Ouranosaurus nigeriensis (aided by an unpublished field map of the paratype and to describe in detail the osteology of the Venice skeleton. The latter includes the paratype material (found in 1970 and collected in 1972, with the exception of the left femur, the right coracoid and one manus ungual phalanx I, which were replaced with plaster copies, and (possibly other manus phalanges. Some other elements (e.g., the first two chevrons, the right femur, the right tibia, two dorsal vertebrae and some pelvic bones were likely added from other individual/s. The vertebral column of the paratype was articulated and provides a better reference for the vertebral count of this taxon than the holotype. Several anatomical differences are observed between the holotype and the Venice specimen. Most of them can be ascribed to intraspecific variability (individual or ontogenetic, but some are probably caused by mistakes in the preparation or assemblage of the skeletal elements in both specimens. The body length of the Venice skeleton is about 90% the linear size of the holotype. Osteohistological analysis (the first for this taxon of some long bones, a rib and a dorsal

  19. Sediment remediation treatment techniques for the Venice industrial canals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pippa, R.; Scanferla, P.; Cammarata, F.; Zampieri, L.; Carlon, C. [Consorzio Venezia Ricerche (Italy); Pavoni, B. [Ca' Foscari University of Venice (Italy). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Pannocchia, G. [Venezia Technologie SpA, Venice (Italy); Hreglich, S. [Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro, Venice (Italy); Avezzu, F. [Depuracque Impianti srl, Venice (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    The main objective of SeRTech project (Sediment Remediation Technologies) is to develop an integrated cost-effective treatment system to address heterogeneous contamination and matrixes, such as those of Venice lagoon dredged materials. Seven treatment techniques, selected over a large array, have been tested: Thermal Desorption. A preliminary set of isothermal treatments at different temperatures was performed to evaluated the losses of organic and the most volatile metals (such as Pb and As). An almost full volatilisation of organic compounds was observed at temperatures ranging between 200 and 300 C. Chemical stabilization-solidification. Depuracque Impianti srl process uses innovative patented additives (polimers and superplasticizers) to immobilize heavy metals into cement pellets. Solvent extraction. Organic contaminants such as PAHs and PCBs were extracted from sediments by using ethyl acetate. The results showed that solvent extraction obtained high efficiency in removal of PAHs and other organic contaminants. Immobilization of heavy metals employing sulfate-reducing bacteria. High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS). Sulfate reducing bacteria (SBR) produce an iron sulfide containing biomass with a high capability to adsorbe hevy metals and some organic compounds. This biomass can be separated through a high gradient magnetic field removing a substantial fraction of contaminants. Vitrification. Sediment was mixed with other inorganic wastes (glass cullet, feldsphatic tailings) and low amounts of row material to obtain an inert glass, which in turn can be recycled into other useful products, for example glass fibres, foam glass and glass ceramics. Phytoremediation. Phragmites australis (Cav.), Trin; Juncus Iacustrus, Arthrocnmemum fruticosum, Spartina maritima, Helianthus annuus L., Zea mais L., Brassica napus L., Brassica juncea L. have been selected to verify limit and efficiency of phytoextraction for heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Hg, Cd, As, Ni). Not only

  20. Autogenous Crack Control during Construction Phases of MOSE Venice Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnoli, Gabriele; Anerdi, Constanza; Malavisi, Marzia; Zoratto, Nadia

    2017-10-01

    The design of concrete structures exposed to severe environmental attack, like in marine environment, requires serious attention for concrete durability. Early age cracking due to autogenous deformations can be detrimental to the performance of tidal structures. The study of the structural effects of hydration heat and rheological behaviour of a set of huge concrete structures of the Mobile Venice Dams known with the MOSE acronym (Experimental Electromechanical Module) is presented in this paper. Together with other measures such as coastal reinforcement, the raising of quaysides, and the paving and improvement of the lagoon, MOSE is designed to protect Venice and the lagoon from tides of up to 3 meters. Construction began simultaneously in 2003 at all three lagoon inlets, and the project has been completed in 2014. Floods have caused damage since ancient times and have become more frequent and intense as a result of the combined effect of eustatism (a rise in sea level) and subsidence (a drop in land level) caused by natural and man-induced phenomena. Nowadays, towns and villages in the lagoon are about 23 cm lower with respect to the water level than at the beginning of the 1900s. Each year, floods can cause serious problems for the inhabitants as well as deterioration of architecture, urban structures and the ecosystem. Over the entire lagoon area, there is also a constant risk of a catastrophic event such as that of 4 November 1966, when a tide of 194 cm submerged Venice, Chioggia and the other built-up areas.

  1. 75 FR 38589 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Venice: Canaletto and His...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Venice: Canaletto and His Rivals... that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Venice: Canaletto and His Rivals,'' imported from...

  2. The 1966 Flooding of Venice: What Time Taught Us for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincardi, Fabio; Barbanti, Andrea; Bastianini, Mauro; Benetazzo, Alvise; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Papa, Alvise; Pomaro, Angela; Sclavo, Mauro; Tosi, Luigi; Umgiesser, Georg

    2017-04-01

    Upon this fiftieth anniversary of the storm that flooded the historical Italian centers of Venice and Florence, we review the event from the perspective of today's scientific knowledge. In particular, we discuss the components of relative sea level rise in Venice that contribute to flooding, the monitoring networks and forecast capabilities that are currently in place, and the engineering actions adopted since the 1966 flood to safeguard the Venice lagoon and the city. Focusing on the meteo-oceanographic aspects, we also show how sheer luck at the time avoided a much worse disaster in Venice. Reference Trincardi, F., A. Barbanti, M. Bastianini, A. Benetazzo, L. Cavaleri, J. Chiggiato, A. Papa, A. Pomaro, M. Sclavo, L. Tosi, and G. Umgiesser. 2016. The 1966 flooding of Venice: What time taught us for the future. Oceanography 29(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/ oceanog.2016.87.

  3. Floating call boys and agile homosexuals: homophobia/Venice/history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, John

    2014-01-01

    Because works of nonfiction are always composed of literary tropes and metaphors, they have to be read critically for the ways in which their truth claims are potentially structured by ideologies and stereotypes. This essay reads passages from Richard Sennett's sociological analysis Flesh and Stone, The Body and the City in Western Civilization and Joseph Brodsky's memoir Watermark in order to demonstrate how these alleged works of nonfiction shore up some dishearteningly familiar literary stereotypes of male homosexuality and participate in a tradition, dating from the 19th century, of linking the city of Venice with homosexuality and death.

  4. The land subsidence of the Venice historical center: twenty years of monitoring by SAR-based interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, L.; Strozzi, T.; Teatini, P.

    2012-12-01

    The subsidence of Venice, one of the most beautiful and famous cities in the world, is well known not by reason of the magnitude of the ground movement, which amounts to less than 15 cm over the last century, but because it has seriously compromised the ground safety level of the city in relation of its small elevation above the sea. The lowering of Venice is still today a subject of debates with large rumours on press releases every time a scientific paper is published on the topic. Over the last two decades, satellites instrumented with SAR sensors provided excellent data for detecting land displacements by inteferometric processing. In particular, the accuracy achieved by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) and the impressive number of detected measurement points have progressively reduced the use of in situ traditional measurements, i.e. leveling survey, for monitoring land displacements of Venice. In fact, the intensive urban development makes the historical center an optimal site for PSI. On the other hand, the correct interpretation of the PSI outcomes, which provide the relative movement of single churches, palaces, bridges with millimetric precision and metric spatial resolution, require a deep knowledge of the city and its subsoil due to the peculiarity of this urban area developed over the centuries within the sea. We investigate the movements of Venice by Interferometric Point Target Analysis (IPTA) over the last 20 years using SAR acquisitions of the ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, TerraSAR-X, and Cosmo-SkyMed satellites. The density of detected scatterers is one order of magnitude larger with the newest very high resolution X-band sensors from TerraSAR-X and Cosmo-SkyMed, but by reason of the larger observation period the accuracy of the mean displacement rate of the C-band ERS and ENVISAT is higher. IPTA results have been calibrated using leveling and permanent GPS stations to correct the so-called flattening problem, i.e. the slight phase tilt resulting by

  5. Architectures drawn / digital models: the Venices (impossible on line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvina Borgherini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A contemporary city representation talks not only about architecture and landscape but also about the effects that political institutions, cultural traditions and economic enterprises have on the urban community. Methods and ways traditionally used to present the complexity and, at the same time, the personality of a town, or on a smaller scale of one of his monument, are not suitable with the contemporary reality. A very famous panel presented at Venice Biennale in 1976, Aldo Rossi’s «Città Analoga», within real and ideal architectures, ancient monuments and contemporary landscapes, individual and collective memories, human presences and empty spaces, can be taken as an example for the preparation of a new ‘story’ or a new ‘map’ for a city like Venice. The space of a digital model can become a place for discussion and analysis, a place where to see together historical records and projects never realized, where to put subjective and objective visions, which overlap daily and occasional tracks.

  6. “Shadowed Livery”: Morocco in The Merchant of Venice

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    Harrington Gary

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In The Merchant of Venice, Portia seems relieved when the Prince of Morocco chooses the wrong casket—relieved at least in part because Morocco is black. Much textual evidence, however, suggests that Morocco is the worthiest of the three suitors who choose among the caskets in attempting to win Portia. For example, Morocco is the only one of the three who while deliberating on the caskets refers to Portia by name or by reference, and only he uses the word “love” while making his choice. Moreover, unlike Aragon and Bassanio, Morocco bases his choice on what he considers to be Portia’s merits, which he holds in so high an esteem that he mistakenly chooses the gold casket. And while Bassanio’s motives are largely mercenary, Morocco is clearly wealthy and so has no need of Portia’s money. Although Morocco exits in act two, his presence reverberates later via his association with Shylock and the Moorish woman whom Launce impregnates. Sometimes alleged to exhibit anti-Semitism, The Merchant of Venice, as the presentations of Morocco and Shylock demonstrate, actually constitutes one of Shakespeare’s most compelling endorsements of the vibrancy which diversity can impart to any society.

  7. Effect of Partial Use of Venice Flood Barriers

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    Luca Cavallaro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Venice lagoon is one of the most important areas in Italy because of its history and its particular structure and form. In order to defend Venice and other towns within the lagoon from severe floods, the Italian Government promotes a project that includes, among other measures, the construction of the Experimental Electromechanical Module (MoSE. The MoSE is a system of mobile gates installed at the lagoon inlets that are able to temporarily isolate the Venetian lagoon from the Adriatic Sea during severe storm surge events, thus ensuring acceptable safeguarding water levels. To prevent interference between the barriers and the normal port activities, locks have been constructed at each lagoon inlet. However, the use of such locks causes a slowdown in maritime traffic. In order to evaluate a means of reducing such interference during the flooding events characterized by high but not extreme water levels, the present paper demonstrates, by means of a numerical approach, that one of the three inlets can be left open so as to ensure the transit of the vessels. The present paper also points out the meteorological conditions for which the safeguarding water levels of the lagoon are not exceeded when closing only two inlets.

  8. Relations between constructive peculiarities and structural behavior in Venice buildings

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    Doglioni, F.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we are synthetically describing some constructive peculiarities of Venice civil buildings, analyzing the relation with the features of their structural decay and behavior in the long run. We suppose Venetian buildings, especially those parts which are conceived to suit the lagoon environment, to have undergone an evolution made of some adjustments, which were based on the observation of damages in previous buildings. That is we suppose ancient builders to rely on their awareness of the behavior of structures yet to come, and to be able to forecast it in part. This process brought some building contrivances to perfection, as exclusive and enduring features of Venice, overcoming changes in style and architectural layout, till they grew into essential elements of a whole and adaptable “device”. This writing is meant for a concise interpretation of this device, which is the result of some research works carried out at Venice IUAV University.

    En este texto, se describen sintéticamente algunas peculiaridades de la edificación residencial de Venecia, analizando su relación con el abanico de problemas estructurales que caracterizan el comportamiento estructural del edificio a lo largo del tiempo. Se aventura la hipótesis que las construcciones venecianas y, en particular, algunos de sus detalles, concebidos específicamente para la laguna donde se enclava, han sido objeto de una adaptación evolutiva a través de la observación de los problemas estructurales de los edificios precedentes. Los alarifes venecianos aprendieron a tener en cuenta el comportamiento estructural posterior del edificio, que previeron en cierta medida. Este proceso ha llevado a perfeccionar algunos detalles constructivos exclusivos de Venecia que han perdurado en el tiempo, que han resistido impertérritos a mutaciones de estilo y de configuración arquitectónica, hasta constituir elementos esenciales de un aparato indivisible y adaptable cuya interpretaci

  9. The high resolution mapping of the Venice Lagoon tidal network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madricardo, Fantina; Foglini, Federica; Kruss, Aleksandra; Bellafiore, Debora; Trincardi, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    One of the biggest challenges of the direct observation of the ocean is to achieve a high resolution mapping of its seafloor morphology and benthic habitats. So far, sonars have mapped just 0.05% of the ocean floor with less than ten-meter resolution. The recent efforts of the scientific community have been devoted towards the mapping of both Deep Ocean and very shallow coastal areas. Coastal and transitional environments in particular undergo strong morphological changes due to natural and anthropogenic pressure. Nowadays, only about 5% of the seafloor of these environments † have been mapped: the shallowness of these environments has prevented the use of underwater acoustics to reveal their morphological features. The recent technological development of multibeam echosounder systems, however, enables these instruments to achieve very high performances also in such shallow environments. In this work, we present results and case studies of an extensive multibeam survey carried out in the Lagoon of Venice in 2013. The Lagoon of Venice is the biggest lagoon in the Mediterranean Sea with a surface of about 550 km2 and with an average depth of about 1 m. In the last century, the morphological and ecological properties of the lagoon changed dramatically: the surface of the salt marshes was reduced by 60% and some parts of the lagoon are deepening with a net sediment flux exiting from the inlets. Moreover, major engineering interventions are currently ongoing at the inlets (MOSE project). These changes at the inlets could affect substantially the lagoon environment. To understand and monitor the future evolution of the Lagoon of Venice, ISMAR within the project RITMARE (a National Research Programme funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research) carried out an extensive survey, involving a team of more than 25 scientists, to collect high resolution (0.5 m) bathymetry of key study areas such as the tidal inlets and channels. Following a broad

  10. Venice, Genoa, and John VIII Palaeologus’ Renovation of the Fortifications of Constantinople

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    Marios Philippides

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chalcocondyles’ account of John’s conflict with the Genoese ca. 1434 is supplemented by a contemporary panegyric that shows the events to be part of a larger conflict between Genoa and Venice.

  11. The Frari bell tower in Venice: study and restoration

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    Ilaria Cavaggioni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary study, project and restoration process of the bell tower of the Frari church in Venice is an exemplary case of intervention on a historic building. This intervention started within depth research into the documentary data along with a detailed study of the material fabric which has made it possible to compare the verisimilitude and gaps in the historic sources, the evolution of the building, its built reality and the effects of the repair works carried out in the past at the same time as the damages in the fabric were monitored. Thanks to the knowledge thus gleaned, the restoration works proceeded with great caution in order to respect the material history of the building and short and long-term structural compatibility.

  12. Macroalgae, nutrient cycles, and pollutants in the lagoon of Venice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfriso, A.; Pavoni, B.; Marcomini, A.; Orio, A.A. (Department of Environmental Sciences, Venezia (Italy))

    1992-12-01

    The Lagoon of Venice is a wide, shallow coastal basin that extends for about 50 km along the northwest coast of the Adriatic Sea. The lagoon has been substantially modified through the actions of man over the last century through the artificial control of the hydraulic dynamics of the lagoon including the construction of channels to facilitate navigation. The lagoon is subjected to considerable pollutant loading through the drainage of land under cultivation, municipal sewage, and industrial effluents. In this paper are reported the results of observations designed to document recent changes in macroalgal species composition, seasonal cycles of primary producers and nutrient levels, and the effects of the macroalgal community on concentrations of organic and inorganic pollutants. The dominant macroalgae in the lagoon was Ulva rigida, and the levels of plant nutrients and pollutants were influenced by the seasonal cycles of the macroalgal community. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Postcards from Venice: Life and the City in Paul Morand's Venises

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    Kimberly Philpot van Noort

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul Morand's 1971 book Venises leads the reader on a labyrinthine path not only through the various manifestations of the city of Venice and of the life of the author that it presents, but also through the slippery experience of referentiality as the text engulfs the reader in proper names. This article traces Morand's simultaneous construction and destruction of the notion of a referential self as he pieces together his life in and around the city of Venice. By exploiting the complementary genres of autobiography and travel writing, Morand creates a dialogue between the city and the self, an exchange facilitated by the hydra-like city of Venice. Morand, like Proust, "does not say Venice by chance" as he capitalizes on the ever-receding signifier of Venice in order to provide a space in which to elide that particular self, Morand the collaborator, that he wishes to disappear amid the pluralities of his city of Venice. This pluralistic relationship of the self and the city and its consequent "disappearing act" consciously implicates both the position and the experience of the reader not only of Venises but of referential texts in general.

  14. Is the lagoon of Venice health? A look at budgets and pathways of POP's in Venice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerzoni, S.; Sarretta, A. [CNR - Istituto di Scienze Marine, Venezia (Italy); Ferrari, G. [Magistrato alle Acque, Venezia (Italy); Molinaroli, E. [Univ. Ca Foscari, Venezia (Italy). Dip. Scienze Ambientali; Rossini, P. [Istituto di Ricerca Gruppo CSA, Rimini (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    The rapid deterioration of the world's major ecosystems has intensified the need for effective monitoring and development of operational indicators of ecosystem health, and the extension of health to describe regional ecosystems is a response to accumulating evidence that humandominated ecosystems have become highly dysfunctional. The Lagoon of Venice is probably one of the world's best-known examples of an ecosystem that has been historically influenced by human intervention since the XVth century. The area has a long history of industrial activity (even recent, mainly after World War II), with oil refining and several chemical production plants around the Lagoon. Only recently has Venice also been recognised because of its environmental problems, mainly due to POPs accumulating in sediments and seafood which has aroused local concern. It is well-known that one important effect of ecosystem degradation is an increased risk to the health of human populations. In the case of POPs, the simplest way for humans to be exposed is through the consumption of food contaminated by dioxins and PCBs. Due to bio-accumulation and long-term exposure (additives) to these pollutants, even minimal doses of dioxins and PCBs can result in negative effects on health. Human health should thus be understood within an ecological framework as an expression of the life-supporting capacity of the environment. Consequently, human health becomes an important criterion of sustainability - one which, over time, signals whether we are satisfactorily sustaining the social and ecological realms. This paper gathers together recent data on dioxins and PCBs, related both to the environment and to human health, in order to emphasize the need for intervention.

  15. Ship traffic and shoreline erosion in the Lagoon of Venice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Gian Marco; Zaggia, Luca; Lorenzetti, Giuliano; Manfè, Giorgia; Parnell, Kevin; Molinaroli, Emanuela; Rapaglia, John; Gionta, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    A study based on the analysis of a historical sequence of aerial photographs and satellite images combined with in situ measurements revealed an unprecedented shoreline regression on the side of a major waterway in the Venice Lagoon, Italy. The study considered long and short-term recession rates caused by ship-induced depression wakes in an area which was reclaimed at the end of the '60 for the expansion of the nearby Porto Marghera Industrial Zone and never used since then. The GIS analysis performed with the available imagery shows an average retreat of about 4 m yr-1 in the period between 1965 and 2015. Field measurements carried out between April 2014 and January 2015 also revealed that the shoreline's regression still proceed with a speed comparable to the long-term average regardless of the distance from the navigation channel and is not constant through time. Periods of high water levels determined by astronomical tide or storm surges, more common in the winter season, are characterized by faster regression rates. The retreat proceeds by collapse of slabs of the reclaimed muddy soil after erosion and removal of the underlying original salt marsh sediments and is a discontinuous process in time and space depending on morphology, intrinsic propertiesand vegetation cover of the artificial deposits. Digitalization of historical maps and new bathymetric surveys made in April 2015 allowed for the reconstruction of two digital terrain models for both past and present situations. The two models have been used to calculate the total volume of sediment lost during the period between 1970 and 2015. The results of this study shows as ship-channel interactions can dominate the morphodynamics of a waterway and its margins and permitted to better understand how this part of the Venice Lagoon reacted to the pressure of human activities in the post-industrial period. Evaluation of the temporal and spatial variation of shoreline position is also crucial to predict future

  16. Indoor air quality at the Correr Museum, Venice, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuffo, D; Brimblecombe, P; Van Grieken, R; Busse, H J; Sturaro, G; Valentino, A; Bernardi, A; Blades, N; Shooter, D; De Bock, L; Gysels, K; Wieser, M; Kim, O

    1999-09-15

    Two multidisciplinary field surveys, one in winter and the other in summer have monitored the indoor microclimate, air pollution, deposition and origin of the suspended particulate matter and microorganisms of the Correr Museum, Venice. In addition, this study was focused to identify the problems caused by the heating and air conditioning system (HAC) and the effects due to the presence of carpets. Heating and air conditioning systems (HACs), when chiefly designed for human welfare, are not suitable for conservation and can cause dangerous temperature and humidity fluctuations. Improvements at the Correr Museum have been achieved with the assistance of environmental monitoring. The carpet has a negative influence as it retains particles and bacteria which are resuspended each time people walk on it. The indoor/outdoor pollutants ratio is greater in the summertime, when doors and windows are more frequently open to allow for better ventilation, illustrating that this ratio is mainly governed by the free exchange of the air masses. The chemical composition, size and origin of the suspended particulate matter have been identified, as well as the bacteria potentially dangerous to the paintings. Some general suggestions for improving indoor air quality are reported in the conclusions.

  17. SHADES OF VENICE IN THE BIOGRAPHY OF HEGUMEN PALLADY ROGOVSKY

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    Alex YASTREBOV

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pallady Rogovsky was the fi rst Russian doctor of theology and philosophy. While a student of the Slavyano-Greek-Latin Academy directed by the Brothers Lichudes, he left his homeland for the West in order to obtain a full university education. The years which he spent in Europe and particularly in Italy have attracted little notice on the part of Church historians. The study of unpublished materials in Italian archives together with those already published by the Russian researcher E. Shmurlo from the archive of the Propaganda de Fide and the Greek College, which however, remain unnoticed for the great majority of academics, permit us to have an idea of what occupied Rogovsky during this time, as well as to draw a more precise portrait of his personality. Most remarkable is the fact of his priestly ordination in the Roman Catholic Church and the correspondence relating to Rome’s acceptance of his Russian Orthodox diaconal ordination. One of the most informative documents found among those relating to his ordination and addressed to the Roman Curia is the letter of a Russian Catholic, the deacon (later defrocked Petr Artem’ev, in which Artem’ev revealed that Rogovsky already had converted to Roman Catholicism before he left Russia. Equally noteworthy is Rogovsky’s own letter which he composed while in Venice and in which he formulated his plans for the propagation of Roman Catholicism in Russia.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of nitrophilic algal biomass from the Venice Lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigoni-Stern, S.; Rismondo, R. (Technital S.p.A., Verona (IT)); Szpyrkowicz, L.; Zilio-Grandi, F. (Venice Univ. (Italy)); Vigato, P.A. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Padua (Italy). Lab. di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Radioelementi)

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of producing biogas by anaerobic digestion of a nitrophilic algae biomass obtained from the highly eutrophicated Venice Lagoon has been investigated. Methods for harvesting algal biomass have been examined in detail and different pretreatments used prior to analysis and digestion of the algae described. Results obtained from three pilot plant digesters over a period of 12 months using Ulva rigida and Gracilaria as feed material gave no indication of inhibition of the process by either high salinity or high metals content resulting from pollutants discharged into the lagoon. Sulphides were formed during digestion as a consequence of the high sulphate content of the interstitial water as well as the level of sulphur present in the algae. However, the sulphides did not appear to cause inhibition or result in a reduction in gas yield. A maximum biogas production rate of 0.347 m{sup 3} kg VS{sup -1} day{sup -1} was obtained during digestion at a retention time of 20 days with an organic loading rate of 1 kg VS m{sup -3} day{sup -1}. (author).

  19. Heavy metal contamination in the seaweeds of the Venice lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliceti, M; Argese, E; Sfriso, A; Pavoni, B

    2002-04-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, As) were determined in seven seaweeds of environmental and commercial relevance (Ulva rigida C. Ag., Gracilaria gracilis (Stackhouse) Steentoft, L. Irvine and Farnham, Porphyra leucosticta Thuret, Grateloupia doryphora (Montagne) Howe., Undaria pinnatifida (Harv.) Suringar, Fucus virsoides J. Agardh, Cystoseira barbata (Good. et Wood.) Ag.) collected in four sampling sites in the lagoon of Venice, in spring and autumn 1999. Metals were extracted using hot concentrated acids in a Microwave Digestion Rotor and analysed by absorption spectrophotometry using a flame mode for Fe and Zn and a graphite furnace for Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni and As. High contamination levels, especially for Pb, were detected in Ulva and to a lesser extent in Gracilaria. Brown seaweeds, especially Cystoseira was highly contaminated by As. The least contaminated genera with all metals except As were Porphyra and Undaria. A concentration decrease for Zn and Cd was observed from the inner parts of the central lagoon, close to the industrial district, towards the lagoon openings to the sea.

  20. Demons, nature, or God? Witchcraft accusations and the French disease in early modern Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Laura J

    2006-01-01

    In early modern Venice, establishing the cause of a disease was critical to determining the appropriate cure: natural remedies for natural illnesses, spiritual solutions for supernatural or demonic ones. One common ailment was the French disease (syphilis), widely distributed throughout Venice's neighborhoods and social hierarchy, and evenly distributed between men and women. The disease was widely regarded as curable by the mid-sixteenth century, and cases that did not respond to natural remedies presented problems of interpretation to physicians and laypeople. Witchcraft was one possible explanation; using expert testimony from physicians, however, the Holy Office ruled out witchcraft as a cause of incurable cases and reinforced perceptions that the disease was of natural origin. Incurable cases were explained as the result of immoral behavior, thereby reinforcing the associated stigma. This article uses archival material from Venice's Inquisition records from 1580 to 1650, as well as mortality data.

  1. Ruling the Market: How Venice Dominated the Early Music Printing World

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    Elizabeth M. Poore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to prove that Venice was the main geographical center of music printing and publishing from the 1300s to the late 1500s using several economic, legal, and cultural factors. The primary research method was examining secondary sources on music printing, publishing, and European and Venetian history. From the 1300s to the late 1500s, Venetian commercial trade and activity, including book publishing, reached unheard of levels. Venice held a powerful position in the European economy and its merchants were able to leverage this to great advantage when the new technology of printing became available. The specialized business of music printing and publishing was dominated by Venetian companies, who produced more sheet music than the rest of Europe combined between 1530 and 1560. The economic success of Venice also created a legal framework that benefited the burgeoning music printing industry. The printing and publishing of music required considerable capital such as specialized type faces, but the government system and capitalist economy of Venice made it easier for entrepreneurs to finance music publishing enterprises. The Venetian government system also encouraged close personal or even family relationships between different printing and publishing companies. This created a culture in which competing companies frequently benefited from cooperation. This paper makes it clear that there were a variety of economic, legal, and cultural factors that helped to propel Venice to its preeminent position as the provider of printed music to Europe during the 1300s to the late 1500s. In the mid-Renaissance, when it came to printed music, Venice did indeed own the market.

  2. The Lagoon of Venice : the result of both natural factors and human influence

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    Oscar RAVERA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a picture of the lagoon of Venice and analyze the combined effects of natural factors and human influence on this fragile ecotone. The structure, functioning and evolution of the lagoon are illustrated. Under natural conditions, the solid load from the tributaries would transform the lagoon into dry land or, if the violence of the sea exceeded the solid load from the watershed, the lagoon would evolve into a marine bay. This natural succession has been hindered by the works undertaken by the Republic of Venice uninterruptedly through the centuries, because the lagoon environment was essential to the life and power of Venice. The effects of human activities from the beginning of the Venetian Republic to the present are described. In addition, the influence of socio-economic development on the lagoon area and, particularly, the impact of intensive agriculture and industrialization are discussed. A possible effect of eutrophication was the dramatic proliferation of the opportunistic macroalga Ulva rigida, which for about a decade played an important role in the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the lagoon. At present, the most crucial problems of Venice and its lagoon are: the lowering of the level of the city in relation to that of the sea, the continuous decline in the number of inhabitants, the increasing frequency of the “high water” phenomenon, air and water pollution, and the increased erosion and salinity of the lagoon. The recent measures taken and those still to be applied for conserving and recovering Venice and its lagoon and, particularly, the works for preventing the risk of high water are compared. There is an evident need for a new type of socio-economic development in symbiosis with the environment and tradition of Venice.

  3. [Work-related stress in nursery school educators in the Venice and Marghera districts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Donatella; Fichera, G P; Punzi, Silvia; Campanini, P; Conway, P M; Prevedello, Laura; Costa, G

    2011-01-01

    Based on an investigation on organizational well-being in the Municipality of Venice (2009), we examined 110 public nursery school and preschool teachers working in the Venice and Marghera districts. The aim of this study was to develop and implement a procedure for work-related stress assessment and management in Municipality of Venice, in the light of Law 81/2008. Occupational stress and its impact on teachers' well-being and health were assessed by means of self-administered questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Descriptive analyses were conducted to compare teachers' data with those concerning employees operating in other services in the Venice and Marghera districts. According to the results, while nursery school and preschool teachers work with considerable commitment, vigor, dedication and involvement, problems were observed related to: assignment of administrative tasks without appropriate support from the district offices; difficult access to support services; shortage of temporary teachers and auxiliary personnel and, limited to some facilities, lack of adequate physical space devoted to teaching activities. Such adverse conditions result in an increase in vigilance levels required to ensure children's safety. Personnel also suffer from a lack of career prospects, with scarce opportunities for contact with other facilities in the area and inadequate involvement in the decisional processes at Municipality level. Improving such adverse conditions could solve the current marginalization of public nursery school and preschool teachers and encourage mutual exchange of information, which would in turn favour more appropriate methods of managing each single facility.

  4. Sedimentation rates and erosion processes in the lagoon of Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfriso, Adriano; Adriano, Sfriso; Facca, Chiara; Chiara, Facca; Marcomini, Antonio; Antonio, Marcomini

    2005-09-01

    Since the early 1990s in the lagoon of Venice, especially in the central basin, the surface sediment underwent high re-suspension and sedimentation changes and water turbidity increased both because of the disappearance of the macroalgal coverage and the harvesting of the Manila clam Tapes philippinarum Adams and Reeve, which had rapidly colonised the bottom free of macrophytes. Clams are harvested with hydraulic and mechanical dredges which remove and re-suspend surface sediments causing the transport and loss of the finest materials. Sediment transport and re-deposition in the lagoon have been monitored with sediment traps placed onto the bottoms near the Malamocco mouth (st. A), the Lido watershed (st. B) and the mainland (sts. C and D). From 1989-1993 to 1998-1999 sedimentation rates increased significantly at st. A (from 41 to 228 kg DW m(-2) year(-1)), st. B (from 65 to 760 kg DW m(-2) year(-1)) and st. C (from 140 to 721 kg DW m(-2) year(-1)), while at st. D sedimentation rates increased only by ca. 20%. In parallel sediment grain-size changed with a loss of the finest fraction especially near the mainland. The erosion or sedimentation status, acquired by utilizing sedimentation devices placed onto the bottoms, showed that sts. B, C, D were affected by sediment losses, while st. A, populated by seagrasses and characterised by seasonal variations which depend on the shoot development, did not show any significant bathymetric change on an annual basis. The highest sediment erosion was recorded at st. D (ca. 3.6 cm year(-1)) whereas a loss of ca. 1.5 and 0.5 cm year(-1) was found at sts. C and B, respectively, which accounted for a mean loss in the central lagoon of ca. 1.2 million tonnes year(-1). Those data agree with the previous indirect estimation of sediment loss which was based on the number of fishing boats operating in the lagoon on an annual basis.

  5. The effects of clam fishing on the properties of surface sediments in the lagoon of Venice, Italy

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    R. J. Aspen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting of clams(Tapes philippinarum has important socio-economic and environmental implications for the Venice lagoon area, Italy. Clam harvesting disrupts the structure of benthic communities but the effects upon sediment stability and surface structure remain unclear. The effect of clam fishing on the sediment properties of the lagoon bed was investigated at two different sites, a heavily fished site (San Angelo and an infrequently fished site (San Giaccomo. Both sites were assessed for immediate impacts of fishing, using indicators of biogenic sediment stabilisation. Samples were taken at three points along three 100 m linear transects at each site prior to and post fishing. Paired samples were also taken parallel to each transect at a distance of 5m, to allow for temporal variation. Sediment stability, measured with a cohesive strength meter (CSM, was significantly higher at the less impacted site (F1,34 = 6.23, p a (chl a, colloidal-S carbohydrate and dry bulk density were observed on the transect after fishing but not adjacent to the fishing path. At the heavily impacted site, clam fishing by trawling had, in general, no significant effect on the biological and physical properties (although chl a did decrease significantly after fishing. The lack of a significant impact from fishing at the impacted site was attributed to the higher frequency of fishing occurring in this area. Hence, frequent fishing of the lagoon prevents establishment of biotic communities, preventing biostabilisation and thus reduces the stability of the surface sediment. Keywords: clam harvesting, erosion threshold, microphytobenthos, sediment, stability

  6. Stabilization

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    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  7. Variations of the macrobenthic community in a seagrass transplanted area of the Lagoon of Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pranovi

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Modifications in a benthic community, induced by an experimental transplant of seagrass (Cymodocea nodosa Ucria, were studied in an area located in the southern basin of the Lagoon of Venice. Two surveys, carried out in March and September 1996, indicated that species composition and numerical dominants changed with season, with increasing dissimilarity between the transplanted meadow and the surrounding area. The latter was used as a control area and was characterised by the presence of pleustophytic algae (Ulva rigida, Gracilaria verrucosa, Chaetomorpha linum. Comparison with a natural C. nodosa bed showed that, only two vegetative seasons after transplant, seagrass performance and the structure of the macrobenthic community were quite similar to those recorded in a natural meadow. The experiment demonstrated the importance of C. nodosa transplant in the Lagoon of Venice and the changes induced in the whole benthic community by the introduction of seagrass in an area previously lacking it.

  8. Atmospheric fall-out of metals around the Murano glass-making district (Venice, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Paolo; Matteucci, Gabriele; Guerzoni, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Murano's glass-makers have held a monopoly on quality glass-making for centuries known all over the world. Artistic glass manufacture entails exposure to complex mixtures of pollutants, including metals. A few studies have reported high levels of trace elements in marine waters, sediments and mussels around Murano and shown that emissions from Murano glass-making workshops significantly influence air quality in the Venice area. Nevertheless, to date, there is very little information on atmospheric concentrations and virtually none on atmospheric deposition fluxes of trace elements around the island. This study presents data on the distribution of trace elements in the air and atmospheric depositions around Murano, based on a 2-year sampling period. Airborne PM10 particulate matter was collected daily in the period December 2001-June 2003 (254 air samples), and atmospheric depositions were collected every 19 +/- 6 days, in the period August 2001-July 2003 (38 samples) on the roof of the Experimental Glass Laboratory on the island of Murano. All samples were analysed by ICP-MS for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se and Zn contents. Atmospheric concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater on the island of Murano than in the nearest urban areas (Venice and Mestre), with values higher than those reported for European industrial sites. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of all elements were also higher in Murano than those detected by other studies in Venice and Mestre and in the Porto Marghera industrial zone, with As, Cd, Sb and Se 1-2 orders of magnitude higher. In order to study the spatial variability of the atmospheric fall-out, data from other sampling stations belonging to Venice atmospheric deposition monitoring networks were used. A decreasing gradient from Murano to the closer leeward stations was observed for As, Cd and Se. Pb and Zn deposition fluxes in Venice were also comparable to those observed in the Porto

  9. With the Void, Full Powers: Anish Kapoor and the Venice Biennale of 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhee Balaram

    2016-01-01

    In 1990, Anish Kapoor, supported by the British Council, was Britain's representative at the Venice Biennale. Still an Indian citizen at the time of his selection, Kapoor's exhibition questioned what it meant to be claimed as a "British" artist at a time when multiculturalism was at its height and, in Europe, events in Berlin would signal geopolitical change. Aligned for years with artists associated with the “New British Sculpture”, Kapoor's bold exhibition at the British Pavilion would brin...

  10. Kraków, the Old Town – A Continental Venice

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    Maria Urmă

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Surviving the destructions of the war, the old town of Krakow is a lesson of architecture and urbanism through the multitude of architectural styles, coherence and urban continuity. These features were preserved despite the numerous stages of construction, just as in San Marco Square from Venice, thus proving the power of consolidation of the values which had naturally been constituted, in time.

  11. Situation Venice : towards a performative 'ex-planation' of a city

    OpenAIRE

    Whybrow, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The article's main concern is to analyse theoretical and artistic factors influencing the attempt by a group of undergraduate students (at the University of Warwick, UK) to produce a "performative mapping" of the city of Venice. In other words, it asks what kind of performance-based strategies might usefully be applied in the process of encountering and documenting – or creatively researching – an "unknown" but highly determined urban situation. Far less an evaluative assessment of pedagogy a...

  12. Flood Forecast Accuracy and Decision Support System Approach: the Venice Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canestrelli, A.; Di Donato, M.

    2016-02-01

    In the recent years numerical models for weather predictions have experienced continuous advances in technology. As a result, all the disciplines making use of weather forecasts have made significant steps forward. In the case of the Safeguard of Venice, a large effort has been put in order to improve the forecast of tidal levels. In this context, the Istituzione Centro Previsioni e Segnalazioni Maree (ICPSM) of the Venice Municipality has developed and tested many different forecast models, both of the statistical and deterministic type, and has shown to produce very accurate forecasts. For Venice, the maximum admissible forecast error should be (ideally) of the order of ten centimeters at 24 hours. The entity of the forecast error clearly affects the decisional process, which mainly consists of alerting the population, activating the movable barriers installed at the three tidal inlets and contacting the port authority. This process becomes more challenging whenever the weather predictions, and therefore the water level forecasts, suddenly change. These new forecasts have to be quickly transformed into operational tasks. Therefore, it is of the utter importance to set up scheduled alerts and emergency plans by means of easy-to-follow procedures. On this direction, Technital has set up a Decision Support System based on expert procedures that minimizes the human mistakes and, as a consequence, reduces the risk of flooding of the historical center. Moreover, the Decision Support System can communicate predefined alerts to all the interested subjects. The System uses the water levels forecasts produced by the ICPSM by taking into account the accuracy at different leading times. The Decision Support System has been successfully tested with 8 years of data, 6 of them in real time. Venice experience shows that the Decision Support System is an essential tool which assesses the risks associated with a particular event, provides clear operational procedures and minimizes

  13. Chemical and mineralogical characterisation of weathered historical bricks from the Venice lagoonal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Nick; Mazzocchin, Gian Antonio; Baudo, Fulvio

    2008-12-01

    Surficial and bulk samples of historical bricks of different age (from XII to XVIII centuries) recovered from a campaign of archaeological excavations recently carried out at the site of a medieval monastery in the S. Giacomo in Paludo Island in theVenice Lagoon have been characterised by FT-IR, TGA-DTG and DTA, XRD, SEM + EDS. The samples belong to a particular brick type commonly used in the Venice region: the " altinella brick". The bulk relative abundance of primary (i.e. calcite and dolomite) and secondary firing minerals (i.e. diopside and wollastonite) in the bricks coupled with their relative geometrical dimensions allows placing the samples in a chronological sequence according to known historical changes in brickmaking firing temperatures and practices. Most of the bricks were used as paving material and have been exposed to the action of seawater salts (chlorides and sulphates) due to periodical submersion following high tide episodes. Salt-laden (gypsum, halite, mirabilite) surficial patinas are indeed present but salt weathering does not appear to have affected the overall structural soundness of the bricks in this now abandoned island as it is the case with brickwork located in other more populated (and polluted) areas in Venice and its lagoon.

  14. Elemental characterization, sources and wind dependence of PM1 near Venice, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotto, Gabrio; Squizzato, Stefania; Masiol, Mauro; Zannoni, Daniele; Visin, Flavia; Rampazzo, Giancarlo

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, PM1 elemental composition and relative sources have been investigated near Venice (Eastern Po Valley, Italy). Considering the lack of information on PM1 composition in this area and the general poor knowledge of emission profiles, this study can give useful information to better understand the source profile and the dispersion of finer particles. A sampling campaign was carried out in two sampling sites located inside the "Marco Polo" international airport of Venice. Elemental composition on PM1 samples was characterized by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Five sources were identified and quantified by using the positive matrix factorization receptor model: heavy oil combustion, road traffic, airplane tire-wear, glassmaking and mixed combustions. The role of local atmospheric circulation was investigated by studying the source contributions as a function of wind velocity. Days characterized by low dispersion (lower wind speed and higher wind calm with respect to full period rose) showed a higher contribution for all sources, and a glassmaking contribution increase linked to wind blowing from South, where the artistic glass district of Venice is located.

  15. The City, the Ghetto and Two Books. Venice and Jewish Early Modernity

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    Cristiana Facchini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1638 two books written by two Venitian rabbis were published in Venice. They were both destined successfully to reach wide circulation over the following decades. This article aims at exploring the intimate connection between Venice, a city which deeply influenced the imagination of European culture during the early modern period, and its Jewish ghetto, the first of its kind to be founded within Catholic lands.The author suggests that it was here in Venice, within the liminal space of the ghetto, that the theory of Jews as merchants, marked by undertones of utilitarianism was finally drafted. It also suggests that, in conjunction with this well-known theory, other theories based on religious tolerance were elaborated.The paper also invites the reader to view the ghetto as a space capable of enacting special religious encounters, mainly driven by an interest in religion and rituals. Therefore, the very specific local and tangible conditions of the urban environment – the city and the ghetto – performed a very important undertaking, for example, debates over the place and role of Jews in Christian society.

  16. Protecting the historic centre of Venice. A coordinated analysis of the physical and perceived wear processes to define mitigating actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Codello

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to identify "physical" and "perceptual" wear factors of the historic center of Venice (with particular attention to the effects of anthropogenic pressure related to the phenomenon of tourism and to assess the damages they could produce to identify criteria and tools of mitigation and control. Research is part of the Action Plan "Protection and conservation of the heritage", established by the Plan of Management for the UNESCO Site of Venice and its Lagoon. Through a systemic reading and analysis of the forces of change in place, this study identifies the " macro-emergencies", i.e. the main factors that adversely affect the site’s safeguarding. The research project "Evaluation of wear processes and critical factors of the City of Venice and its lagoon, and its impact on the site’s protection" is part of the actions set out by the Management Plan of the UNESCO site of Venice and its Lagoon. The main objective of the project is the identification of physical and perceptual factors of wear, which threaten the conservation of the historical and artistic heritage of the historic center of Venice, with a particular focus on the effects of anthropogenic pressure linked to tourism, and the evaluation of their level of danger. A further objective is the recognition of measurable parameters (indicators for monitoring and, subsequently, mitigation strategies for the most significant phenomena.

  17. Study of water chlorophyl content in the Venice Lagoon through hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfagnoli, Francesca; Bizzaro, Beatrice; Moretti, Sandro

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of the HICO Project (http://hico.coas.oregonstate.edu/), a number of radiance and reflectance images of the Venice Lagoon were used to evaluate the possibility of performing quick and reliable mapping of water quality parameters. Sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO™) is the first spaceborne imaging spectrometer specifically designed to sample the coastal areas, with 128 spectral bands, a 90 m spatial resolution, full spectral coverage (380 to 960 nm sampled at 5.7 nm) and a very high signal-to-noise ratio to resolve the complexity of the coastal ocean. Eutrophication is one of the major causes of water quality deterioration. The concentration of chlorophyll-a found in water can be used to trace the abundance of planktonic algae in rivers, lakes or lagoons. The Venice Lagoon, famous worldwide, represents one of the most fragile and vulnerable ecosystems, which is being constantly threatened by factors of stress, both human and natural, such as erosion, presence of urban and agricultural sources of pollution, stress from fishing, pollution produced by the industrial area of Porto Marghera and by the city of Venice itself, downwash of sediments from the hinterland and eutrophication. Traditional methods of water quality estimation are often time consuming and involve periodical sampling and plenty of laboratory analyses. In this study the possibility of using imaging spectroscopy to rapidly obtain raster-based maps of chlorophyll concentration by comparing the results obtained through five different literature bio-optical models, which permit the retrieval of mathematical relations between the water's spectral properties and physicochemical parameters; pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and chlorophyll concentration. Evaluation of performances is achieved by comparing the hyperspectral based maps with maps of kriged concentration values, provided by the Magistrato delle Acque di Venezia (http

  18. Cultural structures & accesibility of Sant´Erasmo island in Venice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cappai

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The refurbishment of an old defensive structure in Venice Lagoon involved not only the material conservation of the edifice but an intervention on the surrounding area and landscape. This article addresses the need to conceive the restoration of a monument and its natural milieu as an inseparable ensemble requiring both physical repairs and the insertion of the infrastructures necessary to allow the public to enjoy it, in the most discreet way possible, so as not to distort the atmosphere.

  19. Assessing Land Motion of Venice, Italy with GPS: Effects of Regional Filtering on Vertical Rate Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, W. C.; Plag, H.

    2005-12-01

    We evaluate the vertical land motion in the city of Venice, Italy with data from 36 continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers of the IGS, EUREF and FREDNET networks. This analysis has been undertaken in support of the Appraisal of Relative Sea Level Rise for Venice Project, which aims to define possible future relative sea level change scenarios for this World Heritage site over the next 100 years. Our objective is to quantify the present land surface vertical velocity in a geocentric reference frame so that the results can be combined with the other factors that contribute to the relative sea level rise. Vertical GPS velocities for the sites in the city and lagoon of Venice have been estimated from processing the daily continuous files with the GIPSY/OASIS II software package. Time series that are free of equipment changes or other apparent offsets are ~3.5 years long. We find their motion is significantly downward with respect to other GPS sites on the stable European plate that have long and linear time series. When cast in the ITRF2000 reference frame, however, their sense of motion is uniformly upward by an average of 0.5±0.2 mm/yr, but uncertainty of the motion of ITRF2000 with respect to the geocenter is on the order of 1 mm/yr, and dominates the error budget. To better resolve changes in the regional network shape over time, filtering is applied to mitigate the effects of daily reference frame noise. The filter assumes constant velocities and applies a daily Helmert transformation to minimize the misfit between the expected and actual positions. Generally, the filtering produces velocities that are better resolved, and time series that have ~35% less residual RMS scatter. After regional filtering the Venice city and lagoon sites move vertically downward at -2.7±0.2 mm/yr with respect to the geocenter and thus filtering strongly affects the perception of vertical motion. Results from numerical tests on subsets of the longer time series show that

  20. Sedimentation rate and lateral migration of tidal channels in the Lagoon of Venice (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnici, Sandra; Madricardo, Fantina; Serandrei-Barbero, Rossana

    2017-11-01

    Tidal channels are crucial for the functioning of highly valuable coastal environments, such as estuaries and lagoons. Their properties, however, are currently less understood than those of river systems. To elucidate their past behaviour, an extensive geophysical investigation was performed to reconstruct the evolution of channels and tidal surfaces in the central part of the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) over the past 5000 years. Comparing high-spatial-resolution acoustic data and sedimentary facies analyses of 41 cores, 29 of which were radiocarbon dated, revealed the sedimentation rates in different lagoonal environments and allowed the migration of two large meanders to be reconstructed. The average sedimentation rate of the study succession in the different sedimentary environments was 1.27 mm yr-1. The lateral migration rates were 13-23 m/century. This estimate is consistent with the lateral migration rates determined by comparing aerial photographs of recent channels. Comparing the buried channels with historical and current maps showed that, in general, the number of active channels is now reduced. Their morphology was sometimes simplified by artificial interventions. An understanding of the impact of the artificial interventions over time is useful for the management and conservation of tidal environments, particularly for the Lagoon of Venice, where management authorities are currently debating the possible deepening and rectification of large navigation channels.

  1. Ecotoxicological evaluation of industrial port of Venice (Italy) sediment samples after a decontamination treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libralato, Giovanni [Environmental Sciences Department, Venice University Ca Foscari, Campo della Celestia 2737/b, I-30122 Venice (Italy)], E-mail: giovanni.libralato@unive.it; Losso, Chiara; Arizzi Novelli, Alessandra [Environmental Sciences Department, Venice University Ca Foscari, Campo della Celestia 2737/b, I-30122 Venice (Italy); Citron, Marta; Della Sala, Stefano; Zanotto, Emanuele [Environmental Department, Venice Port Authority, Zattere 1401, I-30123, Venice (Italy); Cepak, Franka [Institute of Public Health, Vojkovo nabrezje 4a, 6000 Koper (Slovenia); Volpi Ghirardini, Annamaria [Environmental Sciences Department, Venice University Ca Foscari, Campo della Celestia 2737/b, I-30122 Venice (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    This work assesses the ecotoxicological effects of polluted sediment after a decontamination treatment process using a new sediment washing technique. Sediment samples were collected from four sites in Marghera Port industrial channels (Venice, Italy). Ecotoxicological evaluations were performed with Vibrio fischeri and Crassostrea gigas bioassays. Whole sediment and elutriate were deemed as the most suitable environmental matrices for this study. Toxicity scores developed in the Lagoon of Venice for V. fischeri on whole sediment and for C. gigas on elutriate were considered for the final ranking of samples. Ecotoxicological results showed that the treated sediment samples presented both acute and sub-chronic toxicities, which were mainly attributed to the presence of some remaining chemicals such as metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The acute toxicity ranged from low to medium, while the sub-chronic one from absent to very high, suggesting that treated sediments could not be reused in direct contact with seawater. - A sediment washing technique was assessed for port contaminated sediment remediation and reuse, indicating its reduced efficiency and the need for further improvements.

  2. Geochemical characterization of PM10 emitted by glass factories in Murano, Venice (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Masiol, Mauro; Visin, Flavia; Rampado, Egisto; Pavoni, Bruno

    2008-05-01

    The atmosphere in Venice, like in other European cities, is influenced by complex PM(10) multi-emission sources with a net tendency to exceed the limits fixed by the directive 99/30/EC. This study investigated the composition of an ensemble of similar industrial sources, the Murano Glassmaking Factories (MGFs), and their influence on the Venice air quality, using a modelling approach, statistical analysis and geochemical considerations. Preliminary modelling simulations were conducted to select three sampling sites along the way of preferential transport of pollutants from source between February and April 2003. Subsequently, a sampling campaign was carried out in the same period of simulations. Concentrations of PM(10), eight major elements (Al, Ti, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn), 20 minor and trace elements (Li, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ru, Rh, Cd, Sb, Ba, Ce, Pt, Pb) and four PAHs (BaA, BbF, BkF, BaP) were quantified. The analytical results were statistically processed for exploring the relationships between inorganic elements and organic compounds, and results were interpreted using geochemical considerations. Results show a MGF component of PM(10) characterised by two different fingerprints: the first linked to glass raw material composition and the second mainly related to glass additives. Particularly, Cd, Se, As and Li preserve their ratios in all study area, and are interpreted as principal components of the MGF emissions. Other fingerprints can be traced to urban sources from the Venetian mainland.

  3. An integrated approach to prevent the erosion of salt marshes in the lagoon of Venice

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    Alberto Barausse

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The loss of coastal habitats is a widespread problem in Europe. To protect the intertidal salt marshes of the lagoon of Venice from the erosion due to natural and human causes which is diffusely and intensely impacting them, the European Commission has funded the demonstrative project LIFE VIMINE. LIFE VIMINE aims to protect the most interior, hard-to-access salt marshes in the northern lagoon of Venice through an integrated approach, whose core is the prevention of erosion through numerous, small but spatially-diffuse soil-bioengineering protections works, mainly placed through semi-manual labour and with low impact on the environment and the landscape. The effectiveness of protection works in the long term is ensured through routine, temporally-continuous and spatially-diffuse actions of monitoring and maintenance. This method contrasts the common approach to managing hydraulic risk and erosion in Italy which is based on large, one-off and irreversible protection actions. The sustainability of the LIFE VIMINE approach is ensured by the participatory involvement of stakeholders and the recognition that protecting salt marshes means defending the benefits they provide to society through their ecological functions, as well as protecting the jobs linked to the existence or conservation of this habitat.

  4. Paolo Sarpi’s vow of obedience: catholic political thought in early seventeenth-century Venice

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    Kainulainen, Jaska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the idea of obedience in early-modern Catholic political thought. I focus on early seventeenth-century Venice and on one of its leading political thinkers, Paolo Sarpi. I argue that for Sarpi and the Venetian nobility obedience was a religious, Catholic concept, which they nonetheless applied to a secular system of governance; notwithstanding their refusal to obey the papal ban during the interdict of Venice in 1606-1607, Venetians regarded obedience as an act of piety and an indispensable element of civic life.El objetivo de este artículo es estudiar la idea de obediencia en el pensamiento político católico de la edad moderna, en particular en Venecia en el siglo XVII y en Paolo Sarpi, uno de sus pensadores políticos más importantes. Este artículo argumenta que para Sarpi y la nobleza la obediencia era un concepto católico, que a pesar de ello, aplicaron a un sistema de gobierno secular. A pesar de su negativa a obedecer la prohibición papal durante el interdicto de Venecia en 1606-1607, los venecianos consideraban la obediencia como un acto de piedad y un elemento indispensable de la vida cívica.

  5. Atmospheric Deposition of Inorganic Elements and Organic Compounds at the Inlets of the Venice Lagoon

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    E. Morabito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Venice Lagoon is subjected to long-range transport of contaminants via aerosol from the near Po Valley. Moreover, it is an area with significant local anthropogenic emissions due to the industrial area of Porto Marghera, the urban centres, and the glass factories and with emissions by ships traffic within the Lagoon. Furthermore, since 2005, the Lagoon has also been affected by the construction of the MOSE (Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico—Electromechanical Experimental Module mobile dams, as a barrier against the high tide. This work presents and discusses the results from chemical analyses of bulk depositions, carried out in different sites of the Venice Lagoon. Fluxes of pollutants were also statistically analysed on PCA with the aim of investigating the spatial variability of depositions and their correlation with precipitations. Fluxes of inorganic pollutants depend differently on precipitations, while organic compounds show a more seasonal trend. The statistical analysis showed that the site in the northern Lagoon has lower and almost homogeneous fluxes of pollutants, while the other sites registered more variable concentrations. The study also provided important information about the annual trend of pollutants and their evolution over a period of about five years, from 2005 to 2010.

  6. The application of profile imaging for monitoring organic and metal pollution in the Venice lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bona, F.; Maffiotti, A. [FISIA s.p.a., Turin (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    Since 1993 the technique of Sediment Profile Imaging (SPI) has been applied in monitoring the Venice Lagoon. The purposes of the monitoring were several, ranging from an initial baseline survey of sediment quality, to the control of Ulva rigida proliferation, to sediment quality assessment for dredging and capping activities in restricted areas of the lagoon. Data resulting from each computer image analysis have been summarized in one index which takes into consideration the mutual interactions between the physical and chemical conditions and the benthic community. In this way a spatial and seasonal gradient in the quality Venice Lagoon sediments has been established and the key roles of the organic enrichment and of the ecosystem hydrodynamics have been confirmed. The underwater camera and image analysis have also been an effective screening tool to address further investigations in those areas of particular concern for sediment contamination. On the basis of the SPI indices a selection of stations has been made in order to sample and perform sediment toxicity tests and chemical analyses to assess contamination levels.

  7. Regulation for "saving" the drowned in Italy (XVIII-XIXth century), with particular reference to the Republic of Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Este, B R

    1990-01-01

    The author gives a brief chronological syntesis, starting from the XVIII century, of the various provisions issued in Italy, with particular reference to the Republic of Venice, relating to the saving of the drowned, as an introduction to the discipline of "Life-Saving" oriented swimming.

  8. "I Could Teach You How to Choose Right": Using Holocaust Memoir to Teach Shakespeare's "The Merchant of Venice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Annemarie Koning

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the problems of teaching William Shakespeare's "The Merchant of Venice" after the Holocaust, arguing that even though the play is anti-Semitic, it can become a valuable teaching tool when placed in the context of the Holocaust memoirs "Dry Tears" by Nechama Tec and "The Nazi Officer's Wife" by…

  9. On the Lateral Retreat of Salt Marshes: Field Monitoring in the Venice Lagoon (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, L.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marshes are geomorphic structures located in ecotone environments such as lagoon and estuaries, providing lot of ecosystem services to local population. In the last decades they are disappearing due to several factors such as sea level rise, subsidence and edge erosion due to surface waves. The latter is likely the chief mechanism modeling marsh boundaries and leading to the loss of wide marsh areas. In the case of the Venice Lagoon, from the beginning of the last century, the whole salt marsh surface has more than halved and trends indicate that the salt marshes might completely disappear over the next 50 years. Here, we present a field monitoring activity on a retreating salt marsh located in the north part of the Lagoon of Venice (Italy). The marsh is subject to North-East (Bora) wind. Marsh area loss during the last decades has been documented through the comparison of georeferenced aerial photographs showing a retreat rate of the order of 1 m/year. Field measurements started by the end of November 2013 and consist of: salt marsh bank geometry at different cross-sections and wave climate in the lagoon about 30 m in front of the salt marsh. Erosion data are obtained by means of erosion pins located horizontally on the marsh scarp; at higher banks (about 0.9 m), two pins are located along the same vertical direction, for lower banks (about 0.4 m), only one pin is employed. Significant wave height has been measured during three storm surges by means of pressure transducers. The measured wave climate in front of the bank was then put into relationship with the offshore wave climate estimated using wind data (intensity and direction) and bathymetric data. Wind intensity and direction is measured hourly by several measurement stations located in the Lagoon of Venice. In this way, it is possible to extrapolate wave climate hourly at the monitored marsh and calculate the wave power that acted on the bank in a given time interval. Field survey revealed that the

  10. The Lido as Venice's refuse tip: Dalmatian sheep and the 1819 elephant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giormani, Virgilio

    2004-01-01

    The Lido of Venice is an island twelve kilometers long and between a hundred and one thousand meters wide. The citizans of Venice and many turists can't imagine today, what Lido was some centuries ago Initially totally sandy, it was fertilized by means of a continuous supply of Venice's garbage (the "scoasse"). In addition to the "scoasse", damaged foodstuffs and the waste of the vegetable market were also sent to the Lido. Other fertilisers originated from the dung of the cattle and sheep arriving by ship from Dalmatia, which were landed on the Lido, where they could pasture before slaughter to regain weight lost during their voyage. The sheep dung, especially, was important for the proto-industrial production of saltpetre, a material of the greatest strategic importance, like uranium at the present time. Saltpetre is the most important component of gun powder, which was the only explosive known up to the second half of 19th century. There were plans to establish an "artificial nitriary" in the Lido, making use of the garbage and of the animal waste. In all probability, the most bulky item ever buried in the Lido is the corpse of an enraged elephant, which escaped from its cage on the Riva degli Schiavoni where it was performing during the 1819 carnival, and was killed by a cannon shot in a church where it took refuge. The original title of the paper, published in Italian is: V. Giormani, II Lido di Venezia "scoassera" della città. I montoni dalmati e l'elefante del 1819, in Atti del III Convegno nazionale di storia della medicina veterinaria, Lastra a Signa (Firenze), 23-24 settembre 2000, a cura di Alba Veggetti, Brescia, 2001, pp. 333-339. Other information has been added in order to facilitate non-italians readers and articles appearing after the publication of the Proceedings of the Third National Congress for the History of Veterinary Medicine, Lastra a Signa, (Florence), Italy, have also been used. I am deeply grateful to Mrs. Mary Moors for the

  11. With the Void, Full Powers: Anish Kapoor and the Venice Biennale of 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhee Balaram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1990, Anish Kapoor, supported by the British Council, was Britain's representative at the Venice Biennale. Still an Indian citizen at the time of his selection, Kapoor's exhibition questioned what it meant to be claimed as a "British" artist at a time when multiculturalism was at its height and, in Europe, events in Berlin would signal geopolitical change. Aligned for years with artists associated with the “New British Sculpture”, Kapoor's bold exhibition at the British Pavilion would bring him international acclaim. Routinely positioned between East and West, Kapoor's sculpture and conceptual concerns were often read as universalist, but the messy postcolonial and diasporic legacies of British art force a reconsideration of this timely exhibition.

  12. High throughput, multiplexed pathogen detection authenticates plague waves in medieval Venice, Italy.

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    Thi-Nguyen-Ny Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Historical records suggest that multiple burial sites from the 14th-16th centuries in Venice, Italy, were used during the Black Death and subsequent plague epidemics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: High throughput, multiplexed real-time PCR detected DNA of seven highly transmissible pathogens in 173 dental pulp specimens collected from 46 graves. Bartonella quintana DNA was identified in five (2.9% samples, including three from the 16th century and two from the 15th century, and Yersinia pestis DNA was detected in three (1.7% samples, including two from the 14th century and one from the 16th century. Partial glpD gene sequencing indicated that the detected Y. pestis was the Orientalis biotype. CONCLUSIONS: These data document for the first time successive plague epidemics in the medieval European city where quarantine was first instituted in the 14th century.

  13. High throughput, multiplexed pathogen detection authenticates plague waves in medieval Venice, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi-Nguyen-Ny; Signoli, Michel; Fozzati, Luigi; Aboudharam, Gérard; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2011-03-10

    Historical records suggest that multiple burial sites from the 14th-16th centuries in Venice, Italy, were used during the Black Death and subsequent plague epidemics. High throughput, multiplexed real-time PCR detected DNA of seven highly transmissible pathogens in 173 dental pulp specimens collected from 46 graves. Bartonella quintana DNA was identified in five (2.9%) samples, including three from the 16th century and two from the 15th century, and Yersinia pestis DNA was detected in three (1.7%) samples, including two from the 14th century and one from the 16th century. Partial glpD gene sequencing indicated that the detected Y. pestis was the Orientalis biotype. These data document for the first time successive plague epidemics in the medieval European city where quarantine was first instituted in the 14th century.

  14. Ship-induced solitary Riemann waves of depression in Venice Lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnell, Kevin E. [College of Marine and Environmental Sciences and Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Sciences, James Cook University, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Soomere, Tarmo, E-mail: soomere@cs.ioc.ee [Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Estonian Academy of Sciences, Kohtu 6, 10130 Tallinn (Estonia); Zaggia, Luca [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Castello 2737/F, 30122 Venice (Italy); Rodin, Artem [Institute of Cybernetics at Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 21, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Lorenzetti, Giuliano [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Castello 2737/F, 30122 Venice (Italy); Rapaglia, John [Sacred Heart University Department of Biology, 5151 Park Avenue, Fairfield, CT 06825 (United States); Scarpa, Gian Marco [Università Ca' Foscari, Dorsoduro 3246, 30123 Venice (Italy)

    2015-03-06

    We demonstrate that ships of moderate size, sailing at low depth Froude numbers (0.37–0.5) in a navigation channel surrounded by shallow banks, produce depressions with depths up to 2.5 m. These depressions (Bernoulli wakes) propagate as long-living strongly nonlinear solitary Riemann waves of depression substantial distances into Venice Lagoon. They gradually become strongly asymmetric with the rear of the depression becoming extremely steep, similar to a bore. As they are dynamically similar, air pressure fluctuations moving over variable-depth coastal areas could generate meteorological tsunamis with a leading depression wave followed by a devastating bore-like feature. - Highlights: • Unprecedently deep long-living ship-induced waves of depression detected. • Such waves are generated in channels with side banks under low Froude numbers. • The propagation of these waves is replicated using Riemann waves. • Long-living waves of depression form bore-like features at rear slope.

  15. The musical magic of ambiguity in Benjamin Britten’s Death in Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Spies

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the blurred musical significations in Benjamin Britten’s Death in Venice, an opera based on Thomas Mann’s important novella Der Tod in Venedig. The discussion of multiple meanings links up with two categories of ambiguity as set out by William Empson in his Seven Types of Ambiguity, that is two or more meanings which do not agree among themselves, but combine to make clear a more complicated state of mind, and two opposite meanings that show a fundamental division in the mind of the protagonist. It is indicated how this opera, as a story through music, portrays the physical and moral decay of the anti-hero, Gustav von Aschenbach, who enters the opera as a celebrated, worldrenowned writer.

  16. Directional Storm Surge in Enclosed Seas: The Red Sea, the Adriatic, and Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Drews

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Storm surge is dependent on wind direction, with maximum surge heights occurring when strong winds blow onshore. It is less obvious what happens when a port city is situated at the end of a long narrow gulf, like Venice at the northwestern end of the Adriatic Sea. Does the narrow marine approach to the port city limit the dangerous wind direction to a span of only a few degrees? This modeling study shows that the response in surge height to wind direction is a sinusoidal curve for port cities at the end of a long inlet, as well as for cities exposed along a straight coastline. Surge height depends on the cosine of the angle between the wind direction and the major axis of the narrow gulf. There is no special protection from storm surge afforded by a narrow ocean-going approach to a port city.

  17. Masterplan to safeguard Venice and to restore the lagoon and conterminous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Gallo, Alba; Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Venice and its lagoon constitute a complex system, well known all over the world for the peculiarity of the town and for the fragility of the lagoon ecosystem with its delicate equilibrium. The whole system has been, and is currently, affected by human activities (industry, agriculture, settlements, tourism) that impact severely the ecosystem. Discharge from the agricultural drainage basin affects particularly the area North of the city of Venice; the central and southern areas, instead, receive important pollutant inputs from the industrial zone of Porto Marghera since the early'50s. Additional sources of pollution are domestic sewage and waste disposal from the urban area, that is visited by more than 10M people every year. As a consequence of the increasing land contamination, significant amounts of contaminants (both organic and inorganic) are accumulated in soils of the borderline, in water and in lagoon sediments, which constitute a potential source of secondary pollution. Results of surveys carried out in recent years in the whole area show that contaminants concentration increased from the beginning of the industrial activities until the '90s, when Porto Marghera declined. Most of contaminants have concentrations above the background levels. The highest metal levels were found in an area between Porto Marghera and the city of Venice, where both industrial and urban sewage are discharged, provoking environmental and human health hazard. In order to safeguard the city of Venice, and to restore its lagoon and conterminous areas, a Master Plan of intervention has been developed since the early 2000s. The land currently interested by environmental analysis and/or restoration covers approximately 1350ha; 78% of these (1100ha) proved variously contaminated, with 85% of sites overcoming the National Reference Values. Contamination, besides being diffused, is quite complex, involving the co-existence of several contaminant families (PAH, PCB, dioxin, heavy metals

  18. Metal accumulation in a biological indicator (Ulva rigida) from the lagoon of Venice (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, N; Cattalini, F; Bertaggia, D; Albergoni, V

    1996-07-01

    Ulva rigida (C. Agardht) was collected from the Palude della Rosa (lagoon of Venice), a particular area characterized by a salinity gradient, from December 1991 to June 1993. Metal contents (Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cd, and Pb) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and statistically analysed for differences between months and sampling sites. The mean seasonal variability is very significant (p rigida specifically accumulates Fe. CF linearly correlates with dissolved metal concentrations, suggesting that U. rigida is a good bioindicator of metal bioavailability, although seasonal active accumulation occurs in some cases (Mn). Metal concentrations determined in this macroalga support the conclusion that the studied area is rich in bioavailable Fe and poor in toxic metals. In any case, a great affinity for Al in U. rigida may be proposed.

  19. Hydrogeological effects of dredging navigable canals through lagoon shallows. A case study in Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Teatini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For the first time a comprehensive investigation has been carried out to quantify the possible effects of dredging a navigable canal on the hydrogeological system underlying a coastal lagoon. The study is focused on the Venice Lagoon, Italy, where the port authority is planning to open a new 10 m deep and 3 km long canal to connect the city passenger terminal to the central lagoon inlet, thus avoiding the passage of large cruise ships through the historic center of Venice. A modeling study has been developed to evaluate the short (minutes, medium (months, and long (decades term processes of water and pollutant exchange between the shallow aquifer system and the lagoon, possibly enhanced by the canal excavation, and ship wakes. An in-depth characterization of the lagoon subsurface along the channel has supported the numerical modeling. Piezometer and sea level records, geophysical acquisitions, laboratory analyses of groundwater and sediment samples (chemical analyses and ecotoxicity testing, and the outcome of 3-D hydrodynamic and computational fluid dynamic (CFD models have been used to set up and calibrate the subsurface multi-model approach. The numerical outcomes allow us to quantify the groundwater volume and estimate the mass of anthropogenic contaminants (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se likely leaked from the nearby industrial area over the past decades, and released into the lagoon from the canal bed by the action of depression waves generated by ships. Moreover, the model outcomes help to understand the effect of the hydrogeological layering on the propagation of the tidal fluctuation and salt concentration into the shallow brackish aquifers underlying the lagoon bottom.

  20. Radiological impact of phosphogypsum discharged into the Venice lagoon: 222Rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasson A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available For about 20 years, between the 60 ’s and the 80 ’s of the last century, in the Passo a Campalto area (Lagoon of Venice - Italy about 400,000 m3 of phosphogypsum (PG were deposited at the border of the lagoon and next to urban areas without any environmental control. These materials are a by-product formed during the wet processing of phosphate rocks by sulphuric acid and have a significant environmental impact due to their abundance and their chemical-physical and radiochemical characteristics. The PG contains both chemical elements, which are considered dangerous for the ecosystems and natural radionuclides whose concentrations are much higher if compared to those typical for the Earth’s crust. These discarded materials caused for many years the dispersion of radionuclides in the environment due to the tidal erosion, the re-suspension of radioactive inhalable dusts, the uncontrolled radon exhalation and the bioaccumulation of some radionuclides in the lagoon environment. After a decision of the appointed authorities, the Venice Water Authority (Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport, planned a permanent safety control of the site resulting in the complete isolation of the entire volume of contaminated materials from the environmental system. The entire project was specific for the particular features of the site and it required the improvement of analytical, sampling and measurement techniques in order to verify the effectiveness of the safety action. The radon assessment, in particular the check of the effectiveness of the inhibition of radon exhalation, is part of a more complex study, covering many other aspects of the management of a permanent disposal; they will be the object of further notes. The ultimate results of this study prove the efficacy of the intervention: radon concentrations in air and exhalation values from the restored area, measured during surveys, have been proved to be well in agreement with those of non

  1. Radiological impact of phosphogypsum discharged into the Venice lagoon: 222Rn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantaluppi, C.; Ceccotto, F.; Cianchi, A.; Fasson, A.; Degetto, S.

    2012-04-01

    For about 20 years, between the 60 's and the 80 's of the last century, in the Passo a Campalto area (Lagoon of Venice - Italy) about 400,000 m3 of phosphogypsum (PG) were deposited at the border of the lagoon and next to urban areas without any environmental control. These materials are a by-product formed during the wet processing of phosphate rocks by sulphuric acid and have a significant environmental impact due to their abundance and their chemical-physical and radiochemical characteristics. The PG contains both chemical elements, which are considered dangerous for the ecosystems and natural radionuclides whose concentrations are much higher if compared to those typical for the Earth's crust. These discarded materials caused for many years the dispersion of radionuclides in the environment due to the tidal erosion, the re-suspension of radioactive inhalable dusts, the uncontrolled radon exhalation and the bioaccumulation of some radionuclides in the lagoon environment. After a decision of the appointed authorities, the Venice Water Authority (Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport), planned a permanent safety control of the site resulting in the complete isolation of the entire volume of contaminated materials from the environmental system. The entire project was specific for the particular features of the site and it required the improvement of analytical, sampling and measurement techniques in order to verify the effectiveness of the safety action. The radon assessment, in particular the check of the effectiveness of the inhibition of radon exhalation, is part of a more complex study, covering many other aspects of the management of a permanent disposal; they will be the object of further notes. The ultimate results of this study prove the efficacy of the intervention: radon concentrations in air and exhalation values from the restored area, measured during surveys, have been proved to be well in agreement with those of non contaminated soils.

  2. Thermal pollution and settlement of new tropical alien species: The case of Grateloupia yinggehaiensis (Rhodophyta) in the Venice Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M. A.; Sfriso, A.; Moro, I.

    2014-06-01

    The Venice Lagoon has become increasingly affected by the introduction of allochthonous macroalgae mainly coming from the Indo-Pacific area. In consequence to the recent climate changes and temperature increase, such species could simply find numerous habitats suitable for their growth. One local process that contributes to water temperature changes is thermal pollution. In this study we used the DNA barcoding method to identify a new alien macroalgal species, Grateloupia yinggehaiensis Wang et Luan (Rhodophyta), found near the industrial area of Porto Marghera (Venice, Italy) hosting the Fusina thermoelectric power plant. The microclimate of this area has enabled the spread of this species native of the tropical area of the Hainan Province (China) and probably introduced in the Mediterranean Sea via shellfish transfers.

  3. Subsoil architecture and morphological setting shaping the saltwater intrusion in the coastal plain south of the Venice lagoon, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Tosi, Luigi; Carol, Eleonora; Da Lio, Cristina; Donnici, Sandra; Kruse, Eduardo; Bassan, Valentina; Mazzuccato, Andrea; Fornaro, Elena; Teatini, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The southern catchment of the Venice watershed (Italy) is threatened by shallow aquifer and soil salinization. The saltwater may extend inland up to 20 km from the Adriatic coastline and deepen down to some tens of meters. Here, saltwater contamination is driven by other forcing factors than excessive pumping, such as ground elevation, buried geological structures, tide encroachment along watercourses, climate and tide conditions, and drainage practices implemented in reclaimed areas. This wo...

  4. Geophysical techniques in the historical center of Venice (Italy): preliminary results from HVSR and multichannel analysis of surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano; Rocca, Michele; Boaga, Jacopo

    2014-05-01

    This presentation aims to outline the preliminary findings related to an extensive seismic survey conducted in the historical center of Venice, Italy. The survey was conducted via noninvasive and low-cost seismic techniques based on surface waves analysis and microtremor methods, mainly using single station horizontal to vertical spectral ratio techninques (HVSR) and multichannel analysis of surface waves in passive (ReMI) and active (MASW) configurations. The importance and the fragility of the cultural heritage of Venice, coupled with its peculiar geological and geotechnical characteristics, stress the importance of a good knowledge of its geological architecture and seismic characteristics as an opportunity to improve restoration and conservation planning. Even if Venice is located in a relatively low seismic hazard zone, a local characterization of soil resonance frequencies and surficial shear waves velocities could improve the planning of engineering interventions, furnishing important information on possible local effects related to seismic amplification and possible coupling within buildings and soil resonance frequencies. In the specific we collected more than 50 HVSR single station noise measurements and several passive and active multichannel analysis of surface waves located in the historical center. In this work we report the characteristics of the conducted seismic surveys (instrumentation, sampling geometry, etc.) and the preliminary findings of our analysis. Moreover, we discuss briefly the practical issues, mainly of logistic nature, of conducting this kind of surveys in a peculiar and crowed historical center as represented by Venice urban contest. Acknowledgments Instrumentation acquired in relation to the project co-financed by Regione Veneto, POR-CRO, FESR, 2007-2013, action 1.1.1. "Supporto ad attività di ricerca, processi e reti di innovazione e alla creazione di imprese in settori a elevato contenuto tecnologico"

  5. Application of ultra clean sampling and analysis methods for the speciation of mercury in the Venice lagoon (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, L. M.; Bloom, N. S.; Scopece, P.; Ugo, P.

    2003-05-01

    The Venice lagoon is an estuarine environment stressed by pollution from urban, industrial and agriculture settings. In spite of the importance of Hg as a pollutant, many aspects of its biogeochemistry within this fragile ecosystem are still unknown. Since the Venice lagoon is shallow, is high in marine SO4 and nutrient loading from agriculture and urban origins, it may act as a vigorous microbiological incubator for Hg methylation. We report here initial results of a year-long survey of Hg and CH3Hg in water column, suspended material, sediment samples and biota collected using ultra-clean sampling techniques in different seasons of the year. The samples were obtained in zones of different anthropic influence, ranging from the more agriculture impacted northern area, through the urban area of Venice and up to the Marghera industrial zone. Samples from Adriatic sea collected just outside of the Lido port mouth provide a local “background" for comparison. Total Hg was determined by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy, while CH3Hg detemiination was caiied out by the same technique after chromatograplc separation of the ethylated forms.

  6. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated sites in the Venice lagoon and conterminous areas (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia; Maleci, Laura

    2013-04-01

    The lagoon of Venice and the conterminous land are affected by heavy contamination of anthropogenic origin, and for this reason the whole area has been classified as site of national interest, and must be restored. Heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Sb, Se, Zn) and organic compounds (IPA, PCB, Dioxine) have been identified as the main contaminants at various sites, owing to agriculture and industrial wastes discharged on soils and convoyed to the lagoon. Five case studies of soil remediation are here reported. S. Giuliano is a former palustrine area reclaimed since the 60's with various human transported materials (HTM). In this area, hot spots overpassing the reference limits for residential and green areas have been recorded for Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and IPA. Campalto is a site bordering the Venice lagoon and subjected to oscillating water level, that enhances metal mobility; diffuse contamination by heavy metals, particularly Pb, has been recorded at this site, utilized since 30 years for military and sport (skate) activities. Marghera is dramatically famous for its numerous factories and for oil refineries that affected the lagoon sediments since the 50's. Sediments proved heavily contaminated by As (up to 137 mgkg-1), Cd (57 mgkg-1), Hg (30mgkg-1), Ni, Pb (700 mgkg-1), Zn (5818 mgkg-1). Murano is a small island where many glass factories (the most famous all over the world) are running since XIII century. Glass is stained with several metals and, moreover, some substances are used to regulate fusion temperature, purity, etc., and therefore the surrounding environment is heavily contaminated by these substances. Mean concentrations of As (429 mgkg-1), Cd (1452 mgkg-1), Pb (749 mgkg-1), Zn (1624 mgkg-1), Se (341 mgkg-1), Sb (74 mgkg-1) widely overpass the reference values for both residential and industrial areas in national guidelines. Molo Serbatoi is a former oil container currently under restoration in the port of Venice. Soil contamination by As, Hg, Zn and

  7. Recent sea-level changes and related engineering problems in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirazzoli, Paolo Antonio

    In the city of Venice, where the average altitude is only a few tens of centimetres, there has been a dangerous increase in the frequency of flooding during the past few decades. Since 1872, the average increase in flooding levels (“acqua alta”) has been about 40cm: 27cm of this is due to the local rise in mean sea-level (of which some 14cm are related to man-induced subsidence of land, and 3-7cm to geological factors), and at least 14cm are caused by hydrodynamical factors, of which about 10cm can be ascribed to man-induced tidal changes. These latter are due above all to the dredging of deep artificial channels, the reclamation of wide areas of tidal flats, and the diking of fish ponds (“valli”), which have changed the ratio between the surface of the lagoon and that of the inlets. Since the latest modification (1963-1969), the lagoon has been open to large oil tankers, thereby allowing an easier entry of storm surges arising out at sea. Indeed an incompatibility exists between the accessibility of very large boats to the lagoon and the safeguard of Venice. Several engineering projects have been proposed with a view to improving the present critical situation. These projects include underground injections to raise the islands, the construction of new embankments, a reduction in the size of the passes, new access to wide areas for the tide, and the construction of flood gates at the passes. The reliability and effects of these projects are analysed and discussed. In conclusion, the removal of the oil terminal from the lagoon and a stricter control of water pollution are considered the most urgent preliminary actions for a long term solution of the flooding problem. This would enable a decrease in the exchanges between the lagoon and the sea, without, however, reducing the depth of the navigation channels to levels inconsistent with most of the present non-oil traffic. A final measure would be the construction of mobile gates at the passes which would

  8. Benthic macrofauna changes in areas of Venice lagoon populated by seagrasses or seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfriso, A; Birkemeyer, T; Ghetti, P F

    2001-10-01

    Two areas of the Venice lagoon populated by seagrasses (three stations covered by Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Asherson, Zostera marina Linnaeus, Zostera noltii Hornemann) or seaweeds (two stations: one covered by Ulva rigida C. Agardh and another at present without seaweed biomass) were monitored by means of six surveys over a year in order to study macrofaunal composition and seasonal changes. The seagrass stations showed a mean species richness (28-30 S m(-2)), individual abundance (1854-4018 N m(-2)) and biomass (22.3-37.7 g m(-2) ash-free-dry-weight, AFDW) ca. 3-8 times higher than those populated by seaweeds (10-15 S m(-2), 494-1395 N m(-2) and 5.6-13.7 g m(-2) AFDW). Differences among seagrass or seaweed stations were much lower. The Ulva-dominated station showed a macrofauna completely different both from the other stations and the communities recorded ca. 30 years ago, before the prolific growth of Ulva. In this station, frequent biomass decompositions and anoxic crises created critical conditions for life favouring organisms with reduced life cycles, younger individuals and the epifaunal species instead of the infaunal ones. In particular, Ulva grazers and scrapers such as Gammarus aequicauda Stock and Gibbula adriatica Philippi were found to be by far the most abundant species, whereas the taxa characteristic of the associations found in the past, in the presence of seagrasses or seaweeds and typical of low eutrophicated environments, appear strongly reduced. Marked differences in the macrophyte dominance and in the bio-physico-chemical variables which characterise the main environmental conditions of the Venice lagoon support the different distribution and composition of macrofaunal communities. Seaweed stations appear mainly governed by the seasonal cycles of these un-rooted macrophytes which, by alternating periods of production and decomposition, are responsible for the drastic reduction of macrofauna biodiversity and biomass. Conversely, seagrass

  9. Evaluation of Corophium orientale as bioindicator for Venice Lagoon: sensitivity assessment and toxicity-score proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Marco; Bergamin, Martina; Novelli Alessandra, Arizzi; Noventa, Seta; Delaney, Eugenia; Barbanti, Andrea; Ghirardini, Annamaria Volpi

    2008-05-01

    The 96-h water-only exposure and 10-d sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Corophium orientale were performed in order to enhance the knowledge about its overall sensitivity and its applicability to Venice Lagoon sediments. The values obtained with cadmium as reference toxicant demonstrated a certain variability of the LC(50); the higher value was found in spring and the lower in late summer. Tests with other pure chemicals (Ni, Total Ammonia, Sodium Dodecyl-Sulphate) showed good discriminatory power; the toxicity gradient observed was: Cd (LC(50) of 3.3 mg/L)>SDS (LC(50) of 8.7 mg/L)>total ammonia (LC(50) of 126mg/L)>Ni (LC(50) of 352 mg/L). Sediment toxicity test results were used to obtain information on non-treatment factors (grain-size, TOC content) that could act as confounding factors, and to develop a site-specific toxicity-score based on minimum significant difference approach. Confounding factors seem not to affect test results. The procedure to develop the toxicity score took into account the relatively lower sensitivity of C. orientale with respect to other amphipods commonly used in toxicity tests (Ampelisca abdita and Rhepoxynius abronius).

  10. Postmortem interval (PMI) determined by study sarcophagous biocenoses: three cases from the province of Venice (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetto, M; Lafisca, S; Costantini, G

    2001-08-15

    This paper presents and discusses three cases of cadavers found, unburied, in the province of Venice, Northern Italy. In each case, all insect species playing some role in carrion decay processes, both sarcophagous and their predators, found on or in the bodies, were collected and determined. In one case, many larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) were found and are reported, for the first time in Italy, as necrophagous. Experimental breeding of some fly species was also carried out in controlled temperature and humidity conditions. In particular, it was of interest to know how the Neotropical black soldier fly modified its life-cycle to adapt to a temperate climate. It was thus possible to establish the rate of larval growth and timing of pupation, emergence, oviposition and hatching in various external conditions. The postmortem interval (PMI) established by identifying the life-cycle stages of dipterofauna were later confirmed in all cases through police investigations and the results of forensic analyses.

  11. Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in milk from Italian women living in Rome and Venice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingelido, A.M.; Domenico, A. Di; Felip, E. De; Dellatte, E.; Ferri, F.; Fulgenzi, A.R.; Iacovella, N.; Miniero, R. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Ballard, T. [FAO, Rome (Italy); Herrmann, T.; Papke, O. [ERGO, Hamburg (Germany); Porpora, M.G. [Univ. of Rome (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Increasing concern on the potential effects on neurobehavioral development in children caused by perinatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has prompted a number of regulatory actions aimed to reduce PBDE maternal body burden. In fact, in spite of a still incomplete congener-specific PBDE toxicological characterization, many experimental studies consistently reported neurotoxic effects following neonatal exposure to these compounds. Breast milk monitoring studies on PBDEs are of primary importance to carry out an adequate risk assessment at the actual levels of exposure, since it has been shown that levels in breast milk reflect maternal body burden during pregnancy and are a dose-metric of prenatal exposure to PBDEs. Additional exposure occurs during breast-feeding. Although in humans it is difficult to distinguish between exposure of offspring by transplacental or by breast milk transfer, both human and animal data from a different species indicate that accumulation of highly persistent chemicals ingested via milk far exceeds the contribution from maternal-foetal transfer. In order to characterize the current levels of infant exposure due to breast feeding in Italy, we analyzed milk from mothers from the general population of Rome and Venice and its surroundings. In this latter case, an assessment of PBDE levels was carried out as a function of maternal fish consumption, remarkably higher than the national mean value in some subgroups of the local population.

  12. Classification of submersed aquatic vegetation of the Venice lagoon using MIVIS airborne data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pignatti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In July 2001 an aerial survey with MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Spectrometer hyperspectral sensor and an in situ survey campaign were performed on Venice lagoon to map benthic macro-algae and sea phanerogams distribution. On MIVIS VIS spectral range images, training areas for benthic macro-algae and sea phanerogams have been selected by using sea truth data collected by CNR-ISMAR from in situ campaign and periodic area surveys used in the lagoon by the local authorities. The derived spectral signature has been used to classify the area in order to produce the maps of the pure and mixture submersed vegetation population. The algorithm applied to the data is based on the Subpixel Spectral Analytical Process (SSAP method. The method assumes that the spectrum of a single pixel is composed of a fraction of the material of interest while the remainder of the observed spectra contains background materials. In terms of recognition processes the produced maps present a very good agreement with the sea truth data even though the fraction material expressed in the maps does not represent a quantitative estimation of the material of interest.

  13. Representation and function of characters from Greek antiquity in Benjamin Britten’s Death in Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Spies

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Lack of insight into Greek antiquity, more specifically the nature of classical tragedy and mythology, could be one reason for the negative reception of Benjamin Britten’s last opera Death in Venice. In the first place, this article considers Britten’s opera based on Thomas Mann’s novella as a manifestation of classical tragedy. Secondly, it is shown how mythological characters in Mann’s novella represent abstract ideas2 in Britten’s opera, thereby enhancing the dramatic impact of the opera considerably. On the one hand it is shown how the artist’s inner conflict manifests itself in a dialectic relationship between discipline and inspirat ion in Plato’s Phaedrus dialogue that forms the basis of Aschenbach’s monologue at the end of the opera. The conflict between Aschenbach’s rational consciousness and his irrational subconscious, on the other hand, is depicted by means of mythological figures, Apollo and Dionysus. Two focal points in the opera, namely the Games of Apollo at the end of Act 1 and the nightmare scene which forms the climax of the opera in Act 2, are used to illustrate the musical manifestation of this conflict.

  14. Submerged pedology: the soils of minor islands in the Venice lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Washa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor islands of the Venice lagoon are part of a delicate ecosystem, with equilibrium that depends on multiple factors deriving from both the aqueous and the terrestrial compartment, and represent useful indicators of the lagoon ecosystem status. Over centuries, some islands emerged, some others disappeared, others are being submerged in consequence of sea level rise, or are dismantled by marine erosion. Ecological survey and soil sampling evidenced rather homogeneous environment and soil characters, likely due to the same genesis from HTM during centuries, and to environmental conditions such as moisture and brackish groundwater. Four of the examined soils are Inceptisols, while the others present limited horizon differentiation, and are Entisols. All the profiles reflect udic or aquic conditions, and some of them are submerged for most time. Most soils are moderately alkaline (7.9 250 g/kg; organic carbon content at surface is within the normal range (8 17 g/kg and carbonates. Moreover, the textural class is generally silty-loam with increasing clay content with depth. Currently, the soils examined present hydromorphic pedofeatures, which are the result of the most important pedogenic process in the lagoon. Alternating reduction/oxidation processes would increase as a consequence of sea level rise, determining reducing conditions at bottom, and conversely enhancing salt concentration uppermost, with negative consequences for both pedogenic evolution and vegetation survival.

  15. Estimating sediment transport from acoustic measurements in the Venice Lagoon inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defendi, V.; Kovačević, V.; Arena, F.; Zaggia, L.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a 3-year-long (November 2004-November 2007) study based on the use of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) to estimate the solid transport through the three inlets of Venice lagoon. In each of the three inlets instruments were mounted both on survey boats and deployed on the channel bed. The three bottom-mounted ADCPs were positioned in the central part of the inlets, continuously monitoring vertical profiles in the water column. Periodic transects along the investigated sections were collected by the boat-mounted ADCP. Both installations measured current speed and acoustic backscatter intensity. The latter expresses the attenuation of acoustic energy due to material in the water column. The conversion of acoustic backscatter into suspended solids concentration (SSC) was carried out by means of direct measurements of concentration; also an indirect method was used. Boat-mounted ADCP acquisitions were used to calibrate and to validate the bottom-mounted ADCP data. Hourly time series of water discharge and SSC were obtained by calculation from the current speed and acoustic backscatter data recorded by the fixed ADCPs. Hourly solid flux time series were computed. The solid flux and SSC time series at the three inlets were analyzed in relation to the hydrodynamic and atmospheric conditions, highlighting the impact of intense meteorological events on the resuspension process. The lagoon sediment budget is estimated to be about 0.5×10 6 t/yr and shows a tendency for sediment loss.

  16. Biodiversity of prokaryotic communities in sediments of different sub-basins of the Venice lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borin, Sara; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Daffonchio, Daniele; Delaney, Eugenia; Baldi, Franco

    2009-06-01

    Microbial community structure and diversity in the wide and shallow Venice lagoon were assessed, prior to construction of mobile dams, at nine stations representative of four different sub-basins previously selected on the basis of international guidelines for sediment quality. The sediments were mainly anoxic and were colonized by microbial communities the species richness of which was quantitatively correlated with total elemental sulfur and acid-volatile sulfide. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis clustered the stations into three groups. One station for each group was hence analyzed in detail for bacterial and archaeal diversity by screening of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. The dominance of Gammaproteobacteria clones (84% with a high proportion of Vibrionaceae, indicator of urban pollution) determined significant divergence of the station adjacent to industrial and metropolitan areas. Bacteroidetes were widespread, especially where prairies of aquatic plants are located. The other two analyzed stations were dominated by bacterial taxa implicated in the sulfur cycle: the anoxygenic photosynthetic Chromatiales, sulfate- and sulfur-reducing Desulfobacterales and Desulfuromonadales, and members of the Alpha- and Epsilonproteobacteria.

  17. A proposed integrated bioindex for the macrofouling biocoenosis of hard substrata in the lagoon of Venice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cima, Francesca; Ballarin, Loriano

    2013-09-01

    Bioindices are often employed to evaluate the ecological status of an unstable habitat such as a lagoon. However, no bioindex to date has considered the macrofouling biocoenosis of hard substrata, which is characterised by a higher biodiversity than that of the benthic communities of soft substrata. We analysed the progression of the hard-substratum biocoenosis at two stations located in the southern basin of the lagoon of Venice using data collected monthly from artificial panels that were immersed continually for a period of one year. Our goal was to develop an integrated specific bioindex, according to the objectives of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in Europe, that is easy to calculate and provides a useful and immediate value for the ecological status on a logarithmic scale from 1 to 10. The bioindex proposed here takes into account species richness, covering area, and the Q-values of important physico-chemical parameters (e.g., pH, salinity, temperature). To validate the bioindex, our sampling campaign was repeated for an additional year at the two previous stations and a third station in the central basin that had different hydrodynamic features and was subject to greater anthropogenic impact. The ecological status of the third station was "poor-to-moderate", in contrast to the "good" status of the two stations in the southern basin. Seasonal changes in the bioindex values provide useful information on environmental changes because they indicate the moment of an ecological crisis as well as its causes and long-term effects.

  18. Butyltins and phenyltins in biota and sediments from the Lagoon of Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Bortoli

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Sediments and organisms were sampled to determine organotin contents - butyltins (BTs and phenyltins (PhTs - at 12 locations in an estuarine ecosystem, the Lagoon of Venice, characterised by varying contamination impacts. The results showed that organotin contamination in sediments is at lower levels, ranging from 2.5 ± 0.1 to 84 ± 1 ng g-1 (d.w. for SigmaBTs and from 0.8 ± 0.2 to 7 ± 1 ng g-1 (d.w., for SigmaPHTs, than in organisms, where the highest concentrations were found infilter feeders like mussels - from 60 ± 3 to 7632 ± 148 ng g-1 (d.w. for SigmaBTs and from 0.80 ± 0.01 to 4005 ± 121 ng g-1 (d.w. for SigmaPHTs. The possible risk to human health was assessed on the basis of the consumption of edible species sampled in some areas of the lagoon.

  19. Groundwater flow in the Venice lagoon and remediation of the Porto Marghera industrial area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Giovanni Pietro; Terrenghi, Jacopo

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to determine the groundwater flow in a large area of the Venice (northeast Italy) lagoon that is under great anthropogenic pressure, which is influencing the regional flow in the surficial aquifer (about 30 m depth). The area presents several elements that condition the groundwater flow: extraction by means of drainage pumps and wells; tidal fluctuation; impermeable barriers that define part of the coastline, rivers and artificial channels; precipitation; recharge, etc. All the elements were studied separately, and then they were brought together in a numerical groundwater flow model to estimate the impact of each one. Identification of the impact of each element will help to optimise the characteristics of the Porto Marghera remediation systems. Longstanding industrial activity has had a strong impact on the soil and groundwater quality, and expensive and complex emergency remediation measures in problematic locations have been undertaken to ensure the continuity of industrial and maritime activities. The land reclamation and remediation works withdraw 56-74% of the water budget, while recharge from the river accounts for about 21-48% of the input. Only 21-42% of groundwater in the modelled area is derived from natural recharge sources, untouched by human activity. The drop of the piezometric level due to the realization of the upgradient impermeable barrier can be counteracted with the reduction of the pumping rate of the remediation systems.

  20. Tapes philippinarum seed exposure to metals in polluted areas of the Venice lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfriso, A.; Argese, E.; Bettiol, C.; Facca, C.

    2008-09-01

    The concentration changes of 12 metals (As, Hg, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, Fe, and Hg) in the soft tissues of Tapes philippinarum during growth were investigated. Clams were seeded in two contaminated areas of the Venice lagoon (San Giuliano and Fusina) and in an area of the Marano lagoon (Lignano Sabbiadoro) close to the clam-farm where the seed was produced. Metal trends were very different according to the considered element, the study site and the growth period. Arsenic was always higher in clam tissues than in surface sediments and suspended particles in all the three stations. Mercury, Cd and Cu were higher in the clams from Marano and Fusina but not in those from San Giuliano. Zinc and Co in clams exceeded the concentrations in the sediment and suspended particles only at Marano. The other elements (Cr, Pb, Mn, Ni, and Fe) were always higher in SPM and sediments. In general metal concentrations in clams were more highly correlated to concentrations in the suspended particles rather than in the surface sediments and in suspended clams rather than in bottom clams, nevertheless significant differences between stations and contaminants were found. Metal concentrations in clams were always lower than the European regulatory limits.

  1. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge. Application to the macroalgae from the Venice lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchi, F. [University of L`Aquila, Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, Abruzzo (Italy); Pavan, P. [Environmental Sciences, University of Venice, Venice (Italy); Mata-Alvarez, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    1996-07-05

    Possibilities of co-digestion of sewage sludge (SS) with other organic wastes are examined in this paper. Anaerobic co-digestion of macroalgae of the Venice lagoon (A) with SS, in wastewater treatment plants is studied in detail. This approach can contribute to the solution of the final disposal of the 50,000 m{sup 3} of macrophytes harvested each season. These are mainly Ulva rigida and Gracilaria confervoides. In the experiments A and SS were mixed at different ratios (20 - 40% algae, TS basis) and fed to mesophilic (37C) and thermophilic (55C) digesters which operated at 11- to 15-day hydraulic retention times and 1.7 - 4.4 kgTVS/ m{sup 3}/day organic loading rates. It was concluded that the mesophilic co-digestion process is applicable with potentialities of around 30% of the present SS flow-rate. Thermophilic digestion is not possible, because of the inhibition of methanogens probably due to the activity of sulphate-reducers

  2. Mercury in the food chain of the Lagoon of Venice, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominik, Janusz; Tagliapietra, Davide; Bravo, Andrea G; Sigovini, Marco; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Amouroux, David; Zonta, Roberto

    2014-11-15

    Sediments and biota samples were collected in a restricted area of the Lagoon of Venice and analysed for total mercury, monomethyl mercury (MMHg), and nitrogen and carbon isotopes. Results were used to examine mercury biomagnification in a complex food chain. Sedimentary organic matter (SOM) proved to be a major source of nutrients and mercury to primary consumers. Contrary to inorganic mercury, MMHg was strongly biomagnified along the food chain, although the lognormal relationship between MMHg and δ(15)N was less constrained than generally reported from lakes or coastal marine ecosystems. The relationship improved when logMMHg concentrations were plotted against trophic positions derived from baseline δ(15)N estimate for primary consumers. From the regression slope a mean MMHg trophic magnification factor of 10 was obtained. Filter-feeding benthic bivalves accumulated more MMHg than other primary consumers and were probably important in MMHg transfer from sediments to higher levels of the food chain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Petition of Peter the Great for The Orthodox Christians of Venice as Part of Russia's Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iastrebov Aleksei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The petition of Peter the Great for return of a taken church from the Orthodox christians of Venice is interesting in the context of the religious motives behind his domestic and foreign policy, his interaction with Catholicism, and his support of Orthodoxy in Europe and the Ottoman Empire. The charter itself is a unique document testifying to the concerns of the Russian czar for coreligionists in a Catholic country. At the same time, it is clear that in an epoch when religion was tightly intertwined with politics, such an appeal was not only part of religious but also secular politics. The goals of the Russian government in the Balkans coincide with the aspirations of the Orthodox peoples languishing under the yoke of the Turks: they had seen in Russia the liberator of the hated invaders. The natural allies of Moscow-Petersburg themselves for a long time to convince kings to stand up for the persecuted faith, and calls were heard from bishops of the Eastern Church and the authorities are dependent on the Turkish vassal principalities. Finally, the moment came. Despite the fact that Peter did not want war with the Sultan, he had to prepare for it, and for that sought to mobilize all the allies, including the Balkan Christians. The letter addressed to the Venetian Doge, actually addressed to them. Following the message the Russian government opens in Venice diplomatic agency, whose task are monitoring the political situation in Italy and the Balkans, as well as the recruitment of volunteers under the fl ag of St. Andrew. Thus, the charter-petition of Peter for the Orthodox of Venice has completely fulfi lled its task — it has become part of a policy to win sympathy of the peoples of the Balkans, and has contributed to the understanding that the Venetian government would not object to the actions of the Russian envoys in the country.

  4. Genetic heterogeneity in populations of the Mediterranean shore crab, Carcinus aestuarii (Decapoda, Portunidae), from the Venice Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Ilaria Anna Maria; Barbisan, Federica; Gennari, Micol; Giomi, Folco; Beltramini, Mariano; Bisol, Paolo Maria; Zane, Lorenzo

    2010-03-01

    Heterogeneity in genetic composition among recruits, mostly due to a large variance in reproductive success mediated by oceanographic processes, has been reported for marine species but is less understood in coastal lagoons' organisms. Temporal genetic variation in natural populations of the Mediterranean shore crab Carcinus aestuarii was quantified over a multi-year sample. A total of 486 adult crabs were collected at eight different sites of the Venice Lagoon during the period 2005-2007 and screened for genetic variation using 11 microsatellite loci. Two additional samples (N = 115) from neighbouring sites, located approximately 100 km North and South to the Venice Lagoon, were included for the sake of comparison. Our results show significant differences in allelic frequencies at the micro-geographic scale of the Venice Lagoon, observed between sites of collection, typologies of habitat, and areas with different class of ecological risk or pattern of hemocyanin expression. However, this pattern was not constant between years, with significant differences observed mainly in 2005 and 2006, but not in 2007. Our results indicate significant temporal differences suggesting the existence of dynamic processes that act on the genetic pool of this species. Although natural selection and gene flow might play a role, we suggest that genetic drift linked to large variation in the reproductive success of individuals is the most probable scenario to explain the local genetic patterns of differentiation in the Mediterranean shore crab. Our study, by providing the first evidence for the existence of genetic differences in this species at the micro-geographic scale, suggests that a better comprehension of the link between reproduction, recruitment and oceanography is critical to understand how colonization and maintenance of genetic variation is achieved in ephemeral and vulnerable environments such as coastal lagoons.

  5. Macroalgal biomass and species variations in the Lagoon of Venice (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy: 1981-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Curiel

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past hundred years, the composition of the submerged aquatic vegetation of the Lagoon of Venice has changed considerably, due to increased anthropic activities and large-scale industrialisation. Seagrasses have gradually been reduced, whereas macroalgae (Ulva rigida, Enteromorpha spp., Cladophora spp., Chaetomorpha spp. have increased. Macroalgal overgrowths peaked between 1970 and 1990 to the extent that, in order to estimate macroalgal biomass and coverage, the Venice Magistrato alle Acque (the Lagoon water management authority started a series of investigations including monthly in situ measurements and aerial photo surveys. In the present paper these data are compared with available information on the Lagoon of Venice, and the widespread phenomenon of macroalgal proliferation is described. At the end of the 1980s, in our study area (78 km2 in the central part of the Lagoon biomass values ranged from 10 to 25 kg wet weight (w.w. m-2 (sub-areas of Lido and Sacca Sessola, with a total mean biomass of 392,000 t w.w. A slight reduction took place in 1992 and at the end of the 1990s the highest biomass values were relatively low, 5 kg w.w. m-2, with a total mean biomass of 1,600 t w.w. Our qualitative research carried out in 1991 on 130 sampling stations in the study area showed that soft substrates had a greatly reduced floristic composition in the five sub-areas in comparison with the control area (from 18 to 6 taxa, with Chlorophyta (50-80% prevailing over both Rhodophyta (14-38% and Phaeophyta (0-14%, and a slight or reduced distribution of seagrasses. The trend in macroalgal reduction during the 1990s corresponded to seagrass recolonisation, mainly of Zostera marina, taking advantage of new, compacted, oxidised and stabilised sediments that were no longer covered by extensive Ulva beds.

  6. COULD SALT WATER INTRUSION AND LAND SUBSIDENCE TRIGGER SOIL DESERTIFICATION IN THE CATCHMENT SOUTH OF THE VENICE LAGOON (ITALY)?

    OpenAIRE

    Tosi, Luigi; Teatini, Pietro; Strozzi, Tazio; Rizzetto, Federica; Carbognin, Laura; Putti, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The catchment south of the Venice Lagoon is threatened by shallow aquifer salinization and land subsidence. Although the area is not experiencing everywhere saline contamination and high sinking rates, a very serious situation has been brought to light in a large portion of the coastal farmland. The salt water contamination, recently investigated within a series of research projects, i.e. ISES, BRENTA, Co.Ri.La. 3.10-3.16, extends up to 20 km inland from the coast (Carbognin and Tosi, 2003; R...

  7. "The Root is Hidden and the Material Uncertain": the challenges of prosecuting witchcraft in early modern Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The rich archival records of the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Venice have yielded much information about early modern society and culture. The transcripts of witchcraft trials held before the Inquisition reveal the complexities of early modern conceptions of natural and supernatural. The tribunal found itself entirely unable to convict individuals charged with performing harmful magic, or maleficio, as different worldviews clashed in the courtroom. Physicians, exorcists, and inquisitors all had different approaches to distinguishing natural phenomena from supernatural, and without a consensus guilty verdicts could not be obtained.

  8. Comments on the artistic interchange between conquered Byzantium and Venice as well as on its political background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drakopoulou Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Political choices and historical imperatives dictated a rapprochement of the Eastern and Western Churches in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The Venetian state, attracted by the superiority of Byzantine culture, always coveted a seat among its beneficiaries, while renowned Byzantine exiles sought Venetian assistance against the Ottomans. The Orthodox artworks they brought with them, gave the artists of Renaissance Venice the opportunity to commune with the art of Constantinople, creating new cultural contributions. In the first decades of the sixteenth century, the political and religious alliances of Ohrid and the West were associated with a Venetian-inspired artistic revival in painting on the territory of the Archbishop of Ohrid.

  9. Teaching Jessica: race, religion, and gender in The Merchant of Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicher Efraim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Jew’s “fair daughter” in Shakespeare’s play The Merchant of Venice converts and marries a Christian, Lorenzo. Recent attention, however, to changing ideas of race and identity in the early modern period has brought into question the divisions of Christian/Jew/Moor. Can Jessica convert and no longer be considered the Jew’s daughter? As “gentle” and “fair” is she to be considered gentile and in no way dark (spiritually or racially? Jessica’s conversion has apparently little religious meaning, but rather she is saved from the Jew her father by marriage to Lorenzo, who becomes Shylock’s heir. Is Jessica’s conversion to be considered a matter of convenience that might, as Launcelot quips, raise the price of hogs, or is it also to be counted as an ideological and racial conversion that reveals underlying anxieties about gender, sexuality, and religious identity? This essay attempts to argue against the grain of the performance history of The Merchant History, which often downplays the role of Jessica or revises the text of the play, and returns to the text in order to contextualize the conversion of Jessica in contemporary discourses of gender, race, and religion in England’s expansionist colonialism and proto-capitalist commerce. The conversion of Jessica can be seen in that context as an exchange of monetary and ethical value, in which women’s sexuality also had a price-tag. These questions have implications for the teaching of the play and for the understanding of its concerns with unstable sexual, religious, and national identities.

  10. Time trend of butyl- and phenyl-tin contamination in organisms of the Lagoon of Venice (1999-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanon, F; Rado, N; Centanni, E; Zharova, N; Pavoni, B

    2009-05-01

    In the period 1999-2003 a monitoring study on the accumulation of organotin compounds in edible organisms in the Lagoon of Venice was conducted. Butyl and Phenyl derivatives were determined in pooled samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis and Tapes spp. with the aims of assessing organotin contamination in the Lagoon of Venice in the period just preceding their ban in Europe, monitoring the concentrations in organisms with a high commercial use, evaluating a potential hazard for human health due to seafood and identifying the possible contamination sources. Sampling stations (up to 20) were distributed around the Lagoon and particularly concentrated in the area close to the town of Chioggia. Significantly higher (analysis of variance (ANOVA), p 0.05) in either species. Furthermore, by analyzing the entire data set, it is evident that most stations show analogous concentrations in the 3 years for both species, whereas few have anomalously higher concentrations. If organotin concentrations in specimens from some sites are compared with the Tolerable Average Residue Level, a possible risk for human health must be considered.

  11. Assessing adaptive capacity of institutions to climate change : a comparative case study of the Dutch Wadden Sea and the Venice Lagoon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munaretto, S.; Klostermann, J.E.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we assess the adaptive capacity of relevant institutions for ecosystems and environmental management in two complex systems: the Dutch Wadden Sea and the Venice Lagoon. A new tool called the Adaptive Capacity Wheel (ACW) is used to diagnose strengths and weaknesses in the institutional

  12. Variability of currents in front of the Venice Lagoon, Northern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cosoli

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Time scales and modes of variability of the flow in the water column in the Northern Adriatic Sea for late summer 2002 are described based on current record from a single bottom-mounted ADCP in the shallow-water area in front of the Venice Lagoon.

    The time averaged flow was directed 277° E (CCW, roughly aligned with the coastline, with typical magnitudes in the range 4–6 cm/s and a limited, not significant clockwise veering with depth. Tidal forcing was weak and mainly concentrated in the semidiurnal frequency band, with a barotropic (depth-independent structure. On a diurnal time scale, tidal signal was biased by the sea-breeze regime and was characterized by a clockwise veering with depth according to the Ekman spiral.

    A complex EOF analysis on the velocity profile time series extracted two dominant spatial modes of variability, which explained more than 90% of the total variance in the current field. More than 78% of the total variance was accounted for by the first EOF mode, with a barotropic structure that contained the low-frequency components and the barotropic tidal signal at semidiurnal and diurnal frequencies. The second mode had a baroclinic structure with a zero-crossing at mid-depth, which was related with the response of the water column to the high-frequency wind-driven diurnal sea breeze variability.

    The response of low-passed non-tidal currents to local wind stress was fast and immediate, with negligible temporal lag up to mid-depth. Currents vectors were pointing to the right of wind stress, as expected from the surface Ekman veering, but with angles smaller than the expected ones. A time lag in the range 10 to 11 h was found below 8 m depth, with current vectors pointing to the left of wind stress and a counterclockwise veering towards the bottom. The delay was consistent with the frictional adjustment time scale describing the dynamics of a frictionally dominated flow in shallow water, thus

  13. Characterization of hourly NOx atmospheric concentrations near the Venice International Airport with additive semi-parametric statistical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotto, Gabrio; Varin, Cristiano

    2016-01-01

    An additive modeling approach is employed to provide a statistical description of hourly variation in concentrations of NOx measured in proximity of the Venice ;Marco Polo; International Airport, Italy. Differently from several previous studies on airport emissions based on daily time series, the paper analyzes hourly data because variations of NOx concentrations during the day are informative about the prevailing emission source. The statistical analysis is carried out using a one-year time series. Confounder effects due to seasonality, meteorology and airport traffic volume are accounted for by suitable covariates. Four different model specifications of increasing complexity are considered. The model with the aircraft source expressed as the NOx emitted near the airport is found to have the best predictive quality. Although the aircraft source is statistically significant, the comparison of model-based predictions suggests that the relative impact of aircraft emissions to ambient NOx concentrations is limited and the road traffic is the likely dominant source near the sampling point.

  14. Economic Nationalism in Haughton’s Englishmen for My Money and Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldo Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Close to the time of Elizabeth’s expulsion of the Hanseatic merchants and the closing of the Steelyard (der Stahlhof in the years 1597-98, two London plays engaged extensively with the business of trade, the merchant class, foreign merchants, and moneylending: early modern England’s first city comedy, William Haughton’s Englishmen for My Money, or A Woman Will Have Her Will (1598; and Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice (registered 22 July 1598. Whereas Haughton’s play uses foreignness, embodied in a foreign merchant, three half-English daughters, and three foreign suitors, as a means of promoting national consciousness and pride, Shakespeare indirectly uses the foreign not to unify but to reveal the divisions within England’s own economic values and culture.

  15. Distribution of Escherichia coli in a coastal lagoon (Venice, Italy): Temporal patterns, genetic diversity and the role of tidal forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, L; Quero, G M; García, E Serrano; Luna, G M

    2015-12-15

    Despite its worldwide importance as fecal indicator in aquatic systems, little is known about the diversity of Escherichia coli in the environment and the factors driving its spatial distribution. The city of Venice (Italy), lying at the forefront of a large European lagoon, is an ideal site to study the mechanisms driving the fate of fecal bacteria, due to the huge fluxes of tourists, the city's unique architecture (causing poor efficiency of sewages treatment), and the long branching network of canals crossing the city. We summarize the results of a multi-year investigation to study the temporal dynamics of E. coli around the city, describe the population structure (by assigning isolates to their phylogenetic group) and the genotypic diversity, and explore the role of environmental factors in determining its variability. E. coli abundance in water was highly variable, ranging from being undetectable up to 10(4) Colony Forming Units (CFU) per 100 ml. Abundance did not display significant relationships with the water physico-chemical variables. The analysis of the population structure showed the presence of all known phylogroups, including extra-intestinal and potentially pathogenic ones. The genotypic diversity was very high, as likely consequence of the heterogeneous input of fecal bacteria from the city, and showed site-specific patterns. Intensive sampling during the tidal fluctuations highlighted the prominent role of tides, rather than environmental variables, as source of spatial variation, with a more evident influence in water than sediments. These results, the first providing information on the genetic properties, spatial heterogeneity and influence of tides on E. coli populations around Venice, have implications to manage the fecal pollution, and the associated waterborne disease risks, in coastal cities lying in front of lagoons and semi-enclosed basins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anatomy of the Holocene succession of the southern Venice lagoon revealed by very high-resolution seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecchin, Massimo; Brancolini, Giuliano; Tosi, Luigi; Rizzetto, Federica; Caffau, Mauro; Baradello, Luca

    2009-05-01

    The southern portion of the Venice lagoon contains a relatively thick (up to 20 m) Holocene sedimentary body that represents a detailed record of the formation and evolution of the lagoon. New very high-resolution (VHR) seismic profiles provided a detailed investigation on depositional geometries, internal bounding surfaces and stratal relationships. These informations, combined with core analysis, allowed the identification of large- to medium-scale sedimentary structures (e.g. dunes, point bars), the corresponding sedimentary environment, and of retrogradational and progradational trends. In addition, the availability of dense seismic network produced a 3D reconstruction of the southern lagoon and the recognition of the along-strike and dip variability of the stratal architecture. Three main seismic units (H1-H3), separated by key stratal surfaces (S1-S3), form the Holocene succession in the southern Venice lagoon. This succession is bounded at the base by the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary (the surface S1), which consists of a surface of subaerial exposure locally subjected to river incision. The lower part of the Holocene succession (up to 13 m thick) consists of incised valley fills passing upward into lagoon and then shallow-marine sediments (Unit H1), and therefore shows a deepening-upward trend and a retrogradational stacking pattern. A prograding delta and adjacent shorelines, showing internal clinoforms downlapping onto the top of Unit H1 (the surface S2), form the middle part of the Holocene succession (Unit H2, up to 7.5 m thick). Unit H2 is interpreted as a result of a regressive phase started about 6 kyr BP and continued until recent time. The upper part of the Holocene succession (Unit H3) consists of lagoonal deposits, including tidal channel and tidal and subtidal flat sediments, that abruptly overlie Unit H2. Unit H3 is thought to represent a drowning of the area primarily due to human interventions that created rivers diversion and consequent

  17. Survey and Modelling for the Bim of Basilica of San Marco in Venice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregonese, L.; Taffurelli, L.; Adami, A.; Chiarini, S.; Cremonesi, S.; Helder, J.; Spezzoni, A.

    2017-02-01

    The Basilica of San Marco is a singular case in the field of Cultural heritage, as it constitutes a construction site always active for the maintenance and preservation of the basilica itself. The continuous intervention of conservation, due to the particular environmental conditions of Venice and the opening to the public, together with the complexity of the building itself, imposes the need to identify an optimized management system. For this reason, in 2013 the Procurator of St. Marco Basilica commissioned the construction of a 3D model of the Basilica to be used for the creation of a BIM. The model must meet the required precision of the scale of 1:50, and should also include, in addition to the geometric description, a description of the mosaic and marble surfaces of the basilica through high resolution orthophoto which are essential for the restoration of the mosaics. The complexity of the church and the large and continuous flow of public led to work in non-optimal conditions especially for the acquisition stage. The basilica has certain peculiarities that led to some important choices, for example the use of photogrammetry instead of laser scanning technique. The same technique was preferred also by the need to realize, in addition to the geometric model, high-resolution orthophotos of marbles and mosaic surfaces. The modelling of the basilica has highlighted a number of problems related to the building features. The basilica, indeed, is the result of the juxtaposition of elements (capitals, columns) with different origin, which therefore cannot be standardized in special libraries. Moreover, especially in the extensive mosaic areas, there are not edges that characterize the architecture, but only beveled surfaces. This has resulted in a change also in the modeling paradigm with the need to identify alternative systems even for the construction of simple elements. Therefore, we decided to model using NURBS since it is the method that allows greater

  18. BIM SYSTEM FOR THE CONSERVATION AND PRESERVATION OF THE MOSAICS OF SAN MARCO IN VENICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fassi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Basilica of San Marco in Venice is a well-known masterpiece of World Heritage. It is a real multi-faceted architecture. The management of the church and its construction site is very complicated, and requires an efficient system to collect and manage different kinds of data. The BIM approach appeared to be the most suitable to collect multi-source data, to monitor activities and guarantee the well-timed operations inside the church. The purpose of this research was to build a BIM of the Basilica, considering all aspects that characterize it and that require particular care. Many problems affected the phase of the acquisition of data, and forced the team to establish a clear working pipeline that allowed the survey simultaneously, hand in hand, with all the usual activities of the church. The fundamental principle for the organization of the whole work was the subdivision of the entire complex in smaller parts, which could be managed independently, both in the acquisition and the modelling stage. This subdivision also reflects the method used for the photogrammetric acquisition. The complexity of some elements, as capitals and statues, was acquired with different Level of Detail (LoD using various photogrammetric acquisitions: from the most general ones to describe the space, to the most detailed one 1:1 scale renderings. In this way, different LoD point clouds correspond to different areas or details. As evident, this pipeline allows to work in a more efficient way during the survey stage, but it involves more difficulties in the modelling stage. Because of the complexity of the church and the presence of sculptural elements represented by a mesh, from the beginning the problem of the amount of data was evident: it is nonsense to manage all models in a single file. The challenging aspect of the research job was the precise requirement of the Procuratoria di San Marco: to obtain the 1:1 representation of all the mosaics of the Basilica. This

  19. Bim System for the Conservation and Preservation of the Mosaics of San Marco in Venice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassi, F.; Fregonese, L.; Adami, A.; Rechichi, F.

    2017-08-01

    The Basilica of San Marco in Venice is a well-known masterpiece of World Heritage. It is a real multi-faceted architecture. The management of the church and its construction site is very complicated, and requires an efficient system to collect and manage different kinds of data. The BIM approach appeared to be the most suitable to collect multi-source data, to monitor activities and guarantee the well-timed operations inside the church. The purpose of this research was to build a BIM of the Basilica, considering all aspects that characterize it and that require particular care. Many problems affected the phase of the acquisition of data, and forced the team to establish a clear working pipeline that allowed the survey simultaneously, hand in hand, with all the usual activities of the church. The fundamental principle for the organization of the whole work was the subdivision of the entire complex in smaller parts, which could be managed independently, both in the acquisition and the modelling stage. This subdivision also reflects the method used for the photogrammetric acquisition. The complexity of some elements, as capitals and statues, was acquired with different Level of Detail (LoD) using various photogrammetric acquisitions: from the most general ones to describe the space, to the most detailed one 1:1 scale renderings. In this way, different LoD point clouds correspond to different areas or details. As evident, this pipeline allows to work in a more efficient way during the survey stage, but it involves more difficulties in the modelling stage. Because of the complexity of the church and the presence of sculptural elements represented by a mesh, from the beginning the problem of the amount of data was evident: it is nonsense to manage all models in a single file. The challenging aspect of the research job was the precise requirement of the Procuratoria di San Marco: to obtain the 1:1 representation of all the mosaics of the Basilica. This requirement

  20. The “Mostra del Quarantennio” and the Canon of Modern Art at the Venice Biennale in the Interwar Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moure Cecchini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1935 the Venice Biennale organized an atypical exhibition commemorating its 40th anniversary. The “Mostra dei Quarant’anni” was mostly devoted to art from the Triveneto. Yet four rooms showed works by European artists who had exhibited in the Biennale, and were part of the collections of the Gallerie d’Arte Moderna in Rome and Venice. The show refl ected on the evolution of modern art and of the Biennale between 1895 and 1935, exemplifying the aesthetic criteria of Italian public collections at the time. It included many artists that are still considered part of the modernist canon but most of them are now all but forgotten. It thus represents an optimal case study to analyze renegotiations of the artistic canon. Furthermore, the “Mostra” played a key role in re-defi ning the international role of Venice within fascist artistic organization. As the “Mostra” took place in the gap year between two Biennales and received little support from governmental institutions, it is generally overlooked in the literature on the period. Yet, on the basis of unpublished archival documentation and of the digital reconstruction of these rooms, this paper argues that the “Mostra dei Quarant’anni” is crucial for our understanding of the history of the Biennale and of the cultural policies of the fascist state. Nel 1935 la Biennale di Venezia ha organizzato una mostra atipica per commemorare il proprio 40° anniversario. La “Mostra dei Quarant’anni” era in gran parte dedicata all’arte dal Triveneto. Eppure quattro sale espongono opere di artisti europei che furono in mostra alla Biennale, e divennero parte delle collezioni della galleria d’Arte Moderna di Roma e Venezia. La Mostra rifl ette sull’evoluzione dell’arte moderna e della Biennale tra il 1895 e il 1935, esemplifi cando i criteri estetici adottati a quell’epoca in collezioni pubbliche italiane. Vengono esposti molti artisti ancora considerati parte del canone

  1. Macrofauna impact on Ulva rigida C. Ag. production and relationship with environmental variables in the lagoon of Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, C; Sfriso, A; Pavoni, B

    2001-07-01

    The grazing pressure of the macrofaunal invertebrates associated with the biomass of Ulva rigida in the Venice lagoon, their species composition and relationship with environmental variables have been studied. Fifteen sampling campaigns were carried out during different seasons both in the central basin of the lagoon, dominated by macroalgae (especially U. rigida C. Ag.) and in the southern basin, prevalently populated by seagrasses (especially Zostera marina L.). Replicate experiments were conducted in the field by exposing Ulva fronds in net cages of 10 and 1 mm (control) mesh-sizes to allow or prevent grazer entrance. The grazing pressure was determined as Ulva growth rate difference in the cages. In the absence of invertebrate herbivores, Ulva exhibited per cent relative growth rates (%RGRs) ranging from 1.5 to 9.5% day(-1), whereas in their presence the %RGRs were significantly lower (from -2.5 to 3.4% day(-1)) and frequently negative, especially in the station dominated by macroalgae. In this area, peak grazing rates and macrofauna biomasses of up to 8.6% day(-1) and 1,480 g m(-2) fwt (84.4 ash-free dry weight), respectively, were found. On the whole, during in field experiments in the Ulva-dominated station, herbivores removed an amount of biomass whose percentage ranged from 59 to 165% (mean: 103%) of the biomass yield (grazers excluded) found in the cages. These results suggest the possibility that grazers could act as an important factor affecting Ulva production in the Venice lagoon. Macrofauna populations were analysed by means of multivaliate techniques applied to biological variables only and biological and environmental variables together. Data of individual abundance, after a log(x + 1) transformation and the calculation of the Bray-Curtis matrix, were classified using the Cluster Analysis and ordinated by means of the Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) technique, in accordance with the strategies used in the study of multispecies

  2. The Aristotelian Heritage in Early Naval Architecture. From the Venice Arsenal to the French Navy, 1500-1700

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    Larrie David Ferreiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This paper examines the Aristotelian roots of the mechanics of naval architecture, beginning with Mechanical Problems, through its various interpretations by Renaissance mathematicians including Vettor Fausto and Galileo at the Venice Arsenal, and culminating in the first synthetic works of naval architecture by the French navy professor Paul Hoste at the end of the seventeenth century.

  3. Microplastic particles in sediments of Lagoon of Venice, Italy: First observations on occurrence, spatial patterns and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianello, A.; Boldrin, A.; Guerriero, P.; Moschino, V.; Rella, R.; Sturaro, A.; Da Ros, L.

    2013-09-01

    In order to improve knowledge of the identification, distribution and abundances of microplastic particles of 1 mm or less (S-MPPs) in the coastal area of the Mediterranean region, a preliminary monitoring survey was carried out in a transitional environment along the north-eastern Italian coasts, the Lagoon of Venice. S-MPPs were evaluated in sediments collected from 10 sites chosen in shallow areas variously affected by natural conditions and anthropogenic influences (i.e., landward stations influenced by freshwater inputs, seaward areas near sea inlets, and sites influenced by the presence of aquaculture farms, industry and city centers). S-MPPs, extracted from bulk sediments by density separation, were counted and identified by Fourier-Transform Infrared Micro-spectroscopy (μFT-IR). The μFT-IR process included automatic surface chemical mapping and references to an infrared library database to identify the compositional spectra of particles. S-MPPs were recovered from all samples - a fact which emphasizes their extensive distribution throughout the Lagoon. Total abundances varied from 2175 to 672 S-MPPs kg-1 d.w., higher concentrations generally being observed in landward sites. Of the ten polymer types identified, the most abundant, accounting for more than 82% of total S-MPPs, were polyethylene and polypropylene. The most frequent size (93% of observed microplastics) was in the range 30-500 μm. Total S-MPP values were significantly correlated with the finer sediment fraction and with the metal pollution index.

  4. From Point Cloud to Digital Fabrication: a Tangible Reconstruction of Ca' Venier Dei Leoni, the Guggenheim Museum in Venice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balletti, C.; D'Agnano, F.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2016-06-01

    The paper describes how new digital methodologies can be used within the field of Cultural Heritage, not only with the aim of documenting the actual state of an architecture but to review the past transformations it has undergone, conserving and representing these histories as well. The premise to conservation and enhancement of our Heritage is a deep study in terms of position, shape, colour, and also of the historical and artistic features. Survey methods have acquired data acquisition techniques in line with technological progress: today's electronic and IT technologies, that are the tools of modern Geomatics, allow the effective survey and representation of 3D objects, from architectural structures to sculptures or archaeological finds. Over the last few years, the methodologies of acquisition and integrated representation for 3D patrimony documentation have developed and consolidated considerably: the possibilities of the digital realm can augment the understanding and the valorisation of a monument. The specific case offered in the present paper, Ca' Venier dei Leoni, the palace where is the Guggenheim Museum in Venice, is a significant example. It suggests not only the theme of the "no longer existing", or better never built, but also the opportunity to formulate hypotheses regarding its implementation and the impact that the palace would have had in the Venetian contest.

  5. Long-Term Dynamic Monitoring of the Historical Masonry FAÇADE: the Case of Palazzo Ducale in Venice, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, J.; Russo, S.

    2017-08-01

    Long-term dynamic monitoring of the masonry façade of Palazzo Ducale known as Doge's palace in Venice, Italy was performed from September 2010 to October 2012. This article demonstrates the results of preliminary analysis on the data set of the first 12-month long monitoring campaign for out-of-plumb dynamic responses of the medieval façade of the monument. The aim of the analysis of the dynamic signals is to validate the data set and investigate dynamic characteristics of the vibration signature of the historical masonry wall in the long-term. Palazzo Ducale is a heavily visited heritage due to its high cultural importance and architectural value. Nevertheless, little is known about the dynamic behaviour of the double-leaf masonry façade. In this study, the dynamic properties of the structure are presented by dynamic identification carried out with the effect of the ambient vibration measured at four different locations on the façade and portico level. The trend and intensity of the vibration at each measurement locations are identified over the year. In addition, the issue on eliminating the noise blended in the signals for reliable analysis are also discussed.

  6. Natural Recovery and Planned Intervention in Coastal Wetlands: Venice Lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Facca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of conservation and sustainable use of environmental ecosystems have increased the need for detailed knowledge of ecological evolution and responses to both anthropogenic pressures and recovery measures. The present study shows the effects of natural processes and planned intervention in terms of reducing nutrient inputs in a highly exploited coastal lagoon, describing its evolution over a 16-year period from the late 1980s (when eutrophication was at its peak until 2003. Changes in nutrient and carbon concentrations in the top layer of sediments were investigated in parallel with macroalgal and seagrass biomass in the most anthropized basin of Venice Lagoon in four surveys conducted in accordance with the same protocols in 1987, 1993, 1998, and 2003. A pronounced reduction in trophic state (mainly total nitrogen, organic phosphorus, and organic carbon concentrations and macroalgal biomass was recorded, together with the progressive expansion of seagrass meadows. General considerations are also made on the effects of Manila clam farming and the shift from illegal to managed clam farming.

  7. Sediment toxicity assessment in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) using Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) fertilization and embryo bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi Ghirardini, A; Arizzi Novelli, A; Tagliapietra, D

    2005-09-01

    The capacity of two toxicity bioassays (fertilization and embryo toxicity tests) to discriminate sediment toxicity using the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus was tested in five stations with different levels of pollution in the Lagoon of Venice. Two stations were located in estuarine sites, two in the industrial zone, and one in a site at the top of our quality gradient (reference). Elutriate was chosen as sediment matrix to assess the potential effects of bioavailable pollutants in the water column as a consequence of sediment resuspension (dredging and dumping, fishing gear, etc.). An experimental design based on Quality Assurance/Quality Control procedures (QA/QC) was adopted in order to set the methodological basis for an effective use of these bioassays in monitoring programs. Results revealed both higher embriotoxicity than spermiotoxicity in all stations and the efficacy of combined use of both toxicity bioassays in discriminating differing pollution/bioavailability between stations and periods. The good representativeness of the integrated sampling scheme and the standardization of all experimental phases yielded high precision of results. Clear Toxicity Fingerprints were evidenced for the investigated sites through the combined use of both bioassays. A good fit between ecotoxicological data and chemical contamination levels was found, except for unnatural sediment texture.

  8. Hyperspectral Sensor Data Capability for Retrieving Complex Urban Land Cover in Comparison with Multispectral Data: Venice City Case Study (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Santini

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at comparing the capability of different sensors to detect land cover materials within an historical urban center. The main objective is to evaluate the added value of hyperspectral sensors in mapping a complex urban context. In this study we used: (a the ALI and Hyperion satellite data, (b the LANDSAT ETM+ satellite data, (c MIVIS airborne data and (d the high spatial resolution IKONOS imagery as reference. The Venice city center shows a complex urban land cover and therefore was chosen for testing the spectral and spatial characteristics of different sensors in mapping the urban tissue. For this purpose, an object-oriented approach and different common classification methods were used. Moreover, spectra of the main anthropogenic surfaces (i.e. roofing and paving materials were collected during the field campaigns conducted on the study area. They were exploited for applying band-depth and sub-pixel analyses to subsets of Hyperion and MIVIS hyperspectral imagery. The results show that satellite data with a 30m spatial resolution (ALI, LANDSAT ETM+ and HYPERION are able to identify only the main urban land cover materials.

  9. Imposex levels and concentrations of organotin compounds (TBT and its metabolites) in Nassarius nitidus from the Lagoon of Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavoni, Bruno; Centanni, Elena; Valcanover, Sara; Fasolato, Marco; Ceccato, Silvia; Tagliapietra, Davide

    2007-01-01

    Specimens of Nassarius nitidus were collected in seven stations of the Venice Lagoon to assess the levels of tributyltin (TBT) and its metabolites monobutyltin and dibutyltin in the tissues and monitor their effect on organisms, in particular the phenomenon of imposex (superimposition of male sexual characteristics on females). The following values of population indices were found: vas deferens sequence: 1.2+/-0.7-4.0+/-0.5; relative penis length: 6-47%. The least impacted station was situated in the northern part of the Lagoon, where females without imposex were found and Butyltin (BuTs) concentrations in the organisms (average sum of BuTs=43+/-14 ngSng(-1)w.) were significantly lower than in the other stations (range of average sum of BuTs: 101+/-22-217+/-27 ngSng(-1)d.w.). Population indices were found to be related to the TBT content in the tissues. In particular VDSI had a significant logarithmic correlation: r=0.95, n=8, p<0.05.

  10. Source apportionment of PM2.5 at multiple sites in Venice (Italy): Spatial variability and the role of weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Squizzato, Stefania; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Pavoni, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the chemical speciation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected at three sites in the Venice area, eastern Po Valley (Italy). This area is one of the few hot spots left in Europe where levels of PM2.5 frequently breach EU target values and cause a serious risk for public health. Elemental composition, inorganic ions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were quantified in 448 PM2.5 samples and the multiple-site PMF receptor model was based on the elemental and inorganic ion data. Six factors associated with potential sources were quantified, namely, secondary sulfate, ammonium nitrate and combustions, fossil fuels, traffic, industrial and glassmaking. Source apportionment results were further processed using a series of chemometric tools for returning additional information about the seasonal and spatial changes of factors extracted by the PMF analysis. In addition, PMF results were also studied in combination with weather conditions and PAH concentrations revealing that sources of secondary nitrate and sulfate are homogeneously distributed throughout the area, while remaining pollutant sources may have a distinct origin. PMF results were cluster analyzed to sort out samples with similar source profiles and then the wind roses of grouped samples were examined to assess the role of wind speed and direction on PM2.5 pollution and chemistry. The tested tools and the results obtained can be used for air quality assessment studies and air pollution reduction strategies.

  11. LONG-TERM DYNAMIC MONITORING OF THE HISTORICAL MASONRY FAÇADE: THE CASE OF PALAZZO DUCALE IN VENICE, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Noh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term dynamic monitoring of the masonry façade of Palazzo Ducale known as Doge’s palace in Venice, Italy was performed from September 2010 to October 2012. This article demonstrates the results of preliminary analysis on the data set of the first 12-month long monitoring campaign for out-of-plumb dynamic responses of the medieval façade of the monument. The aim of the analysis of the dynamic signals is to validate the data set and investigate dynamic characteristics of the vibration signature of the historical masonry wall in the long-term. Palazzo Ducale is a heavily visited heritage due to its high cultural importance and architectural value. Nevertheless, little is known about the dynamic behaviour of the double-leaf masonry façade. In this study, the dynamic properties of the structure are presented by dynamic identification carried out with the effect of the ambient vibration measured at four different locations on the façade and portico level. The trend and intensity of the vibration at each measurement locations are identified over the year. In addition, the issue on eliminating the noise blended in the signals for reliable analysis are also discussed.

  12. Sequential toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) for characterizing toxicity of Venice Lagoon sediments: comparison of two different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Marco; Bergamin, Martina; Volpato, Elisa; Delaney, Eugenia; Turetta, Clara; Ranaldo, Martina; Capodaglio, Gabriele; Nasci, Cristina

    2009-02-01

    A toxicity identification evaluation phase-I (TIE-1) procedure was carried out on five pore water samples extracted from sediments of the Venice Lagoon previously investigated to assess both chemical contamination and toxic effects on the biota. Two different sequential TIE procedures were tested. A first sequence (TIE-1) provided for adding Na2S2O3, adding Na-EDTA, filtering, elution through a C18-SPE column and removing ammonia using the macroalgae Ulva rigida Agardh 1823, while a second procedure (TIE-2) was set up using U. rigida treatment for ammonia removal as first step, keeping unchanged the sequence of the other manipulations. Two different exposure time to the macroalgae were tested (3-h and 15-h). Sperm-cell toxicity test with the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus and embryotoxicity tests with the bivalves Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas were performed on pore-water samples to assess the effect of the sequential treatments on the overall toxicity. The results confirmed that ammonia contribution to toxicity is strong in most of the samples and that metals, specially Cu, are of concern at least in three sites. The TIE-2 procedure provided more reliable results for the samples characterized by high ammonia contribution to the overall toxicity, whereas the results of TIE-1 and TIE-2 were equivalent for the samples where ammonia contribution was not prevailing. Chemical analyses and test results showed that a 3-h U. rigida exposure is suitable to remove ammonia toxicity minimizing potential metal up-take.

  13. Assessing the Impact of Urban Improvement on Housing Values: A Hedonic Pricing and Multi-Attribute Analysis Model for the Historic Centre of Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Rosato

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Hedonic Pricing Method is one of the principal assessment methods for evaluating services and resources not normally exchanged on the market. However, the method is often unable to account for the great variety of qualities in an urban context and faces scarce and heterogeneous market data. This paper presents a model for the valuation of benefits generated by environmental and urban improvement investments adopting a mixed hedonic-multi-attribute procedure for modeling a value function of urban real estate values. The peculiarity of the model is that the independent variables are aggregated indicators, which synthetize more detailed characteristics. Using the expertise of real estate agents, all relevant variables influencing real estate values were weighted and synthetized in a set of cardinal indicators. Next, market prices were used to calibrate a hedonic function that transforms the cardinal indicators into real estate values. The valuation model was integrated into a GIS for mapping the housing value, and its variation induced by urban investment. The proposed model pointed out plausible and robust results, in particular, the possibility to use any available information, such as location, position, technical and economic characteristics of buildings, and organize it in a flexible and transparent way, and to keep evident the role of each characteristic through the hierarchical structure of the model. The model was applied to the real estate market of Venice to test the effects of the MOSE project (Electromechanical Experimental Module for the protection of Venice from high tides. The results of the application showed a relevant increase in real estate values in the center of Venice, especially related to property in ground floor units, of about 1.4 billion €.

  14. Mongol histories at the center of Christianity. Het‘um of Korykos and his first readers in Avignon: Marino Sanudo and Paolino of Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Bueno

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Presenting Mongol history from an Armenian perspective, Het‘um of Korykos’ Flor des estoires de la terre d’Orient (1307 introduced to Western audiences previously unknown information about the history, geography, and ethnography of Asia, and it rapidly gained enormous popularity. This article analyzes the first circulation of this text, which took place in the culturally dynamic and lively space of the papal court of Avignon. Under the stimulus of Venetian authors related to the curia, such as Marino Sanudo and Paolino of Venice, the Flor met significant interpretative shifts, crossing different contexts of reception and textual genres and making use of historical writings in new ways.

  15. Production changes and distribution of ulva rigida in Venice Lagoon; Decremento di produzione e cambio nella vegetazione macroalgale nella laguna di Venezia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfriso, A. [Venice Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Scienze Ambientali

    1996-05-01

    Aim of this work in supplying information on the Ulva rigida C. Ag. distribution and production changes recently monitored in the central part of the lagoon of Venice. This species from 1970s replaced the meadows of rhizophytes which in the past populated the lagoon and nowadays is declining. Estimations of the amounts of nutrients which were involved in the growth of this species before and after its decline are supplied. On the basis of data collected in field during the period 1989-1991, some hypotheses on the main causes promoting these progressive changes are presented.

  16. Stefano Mozzi Scolari «stampadore e miniatore di stampe di rame» in 17th century Venice: life, activity and successors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Giachery

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Born around Brescia around 1612, Stefano Mozzi Scolari was active in Venice between 1644 and 1687 as printer. He was among the firsts to devote his activity entirely to illustrated editions. It is possible to distinguish three fields of his activity: the reproduction of already published copperplates, mainly geographical; the collaboration with Giacomo Piccini and Giovanni Merlo as editor and printer of images commissioned by himself; the one as printer of images drawn by himself. Scolari’s enterprise had two specific features, such as the reproduction of already existing works –more favourable for his printer shop- and the production of images from the city life and the contemporary events. Geographically, his professional activity developed in Venice around the parish church of San Zulian, where he also probably had lived since 1642. He was an active member of the guilds “dei Pittori” between 1660 and 1683 and regular participant in the Capitoli della Scuola del Santissimo Sacramento of San Zulian between 1660 and 1691. The analysis of his three wills provides with several information regarding his family and his professional acquaintances. His personal condition results as that of a well-off craftsman, owner of a printer shop but not more. He died in 1691. Three years before his death, he wrote, together with Francesco Busetto and Giacomo Zini, the inventory of the bookshop of Giovanni Battista Scalvinoni. Further archival records confirm that his nephew, Stephan, was active in the same area as trader of engravings.

  17. Assess the environmental health status of macrophyte ecosystems using an oxidative stress biomarker. Case studies: The Gulf of Aqaba and the Lagoon of Venice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahsha, Mohammad; Juhmani, Abdul-Salam; Buosi, Alessandro; Sfriso, Andrea; Sfriso, Adriano

    2017-04-01

    Macrophytes play a fundamental role in structuring communities in aquatic environments. They contribute to maintaining the ecosystem services. Unfortunately, nowadays, they are threatened by different sources of pollution. The release of such potentially toxic elements (PTEs) to the environment may influence negatively the ecosystem health, which often limits and sometimes disqualifies the ecosystem biodiversity. Indeed, the increasing concentration and distribution of PTEs in the marine ecosystem by mismanagement of industrial activities, overuse of agrochemicals, and waste disposal are causing worldwide concern. The aim of this work is to describe the developing of an innovative early warning tool, based on the implementation of the lipid peroxidation oxidative stress biomarker for the assessment and monitoring of ecological status in response to PTEs in different marine environments. Six sites were selected along the Jordanian coastline of the Gulf of Aqaba and the lagoon of Venice in Italy according to different morphological, ecological conditions and anthropogenic impact. Our results indicated that the effect of PTEs causes oxidative stress to macrophytes; in particular: Ulva fasciata and Ulva lactuca collected from the lagoon of Venice and Gulf of Aqaba respectively. The oxidative stress by PTEs alters the biochemical processes, as it stimulates the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and accordingly the oxidative degradation of lipids (LPO). The by-products of LPO, the organic compound malondialdehyde (MDA) is significantly correlated (plipid peroxidation.

  18. Mandatory and recommended vaccination in the EU, Iceland and Norway: results of the VENICE 2010 survey on the ways of implementing national vaccination programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkate, M; D'Ancona, F; Giambi, C; Johansen, K; Lopalco, P L; Cozza, V; Appelgren, E

    2012-05-31

    This report provides an updated overview of recommended and mandatory vaccinations in the European Union (EU), Iceland and Norway, considering the differences in vaccine programme implementation between countries. In 2010, the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) network, conducted a survey among the VENICE project gatekeepers to learn more about how national vaccination programmes are implemented, whether recommended or mandatory. Information was collected from all 27 EU Member States, Iceland and Norway. In total 15 countries do not have any mandatory vaccinations; the remaining 14 have at least one mandatory vaccination included in their programme. Vaccination against polio is mandatory for both children and adults in 12 countries; diphtheria and tetanus vaccination in 11 countries and hepatitis B vaccination in 10 countries. For eight of the 15 vaccines considered, some countries have a mixed strategy of recommended and mandatory vaccinations. Mandatory vaccination may be considered as a way of improving compliance to vaccination programmes. However, compliance with many programmes in Europe is high, using only recommendations. More information about the diversity in vaccine offer at European level may help countries to adapt vaccination strategies based on the experience of other countries. However, any proposal on vaccine strategies should be developed taking into consideration the local context habits.

  19. Nafion Coated Electrodes as Voltammetric Sensors for Iron Analysis in Sediments and Pore Waters: an Example from the Lagoon of Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Argese

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Glassy carbon electrodes coated with Nafion are used for the ion-exchange voltammetric (IEV determination of Fe(II in the pore-waters and acidic extracts of sediments of the lagoon of Venice (Italy. The coated electrodes give reversible voltammetric signals, well resolved from background currents, which can be used for quantitative determinations. The yield of iron extracted by HCl from the sediment depends on the experimental conditions, in particular on the concentration of hydrochloric acid. By combining IEV on the acid extract with trapping and analysis of gaseous H2S evolved it is possible to obtain quantitative information both on the total content of iron dissolved by the acid attack and on the fraction of iron present in the form of acid volatile sulphides (AVS. As far as pore-waters are concerned, in this kind of samples the IEV determination of iron can be performed simply after dilution with HCl. The pore-waters here examined were sampled without alteration of their equilibrium conditions by using a suitable “in situ” sampler. IEV data obtained in samples from the lagoon of Venice (Italy show satisfactory correlation with previous results obtained using different analytical techniques.

  20. Mathematical-statistical model for analysis of Ulva algal net photosynthesis in Venice lagoon; Modello matematico-statistico per l`analisi della produttivita` primaria dell`alga Ulva nella laguna di Venezia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, G.; Rizzo, V. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente; Bella, A.; Picci, M. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Statistica e Probabilita` Applicata; Giordano, P. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Biologia Vegetale

    1996-08-01

    The algal net photosynthesis, an important factor for the characterization of water quality in Venice lagoon, has been studied experimentally providing a mathematical model, validated by using statistical methods. This model relates oxygen production with irradiance, according to a well known law in biological literature. Its observed an inverted proportion between algal oxygen production and temperature, thus seasonality.

  1. Assessment of sediment toxicity in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) using a multi-species set of bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Marco; Bergamin, Martina; Losso, Chiara; Delaney, Eugenia; Arizzi Novelli, Alessandra; Ghirardini, Annamaria Volpi

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of a Weight of Evidence (WoE) approach, a set of four toxicity bioassays involving the amphipod Corophium volutator (10 d lethality test on whole sediment), the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (fertilization and embryo toxicity tests on elutriate) and the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (embryo toxicity test on elutriate) was applied to sediments from 10 sampling sites of the Venice Lagoon (Italy). Sediments were collected during three campaigns carried out in May 2004 (spring campaign), October 2004 (autumn campaign) and February 2005 (winter campaign). Toxicity tests were performed on all sediment samples. Sediment grain-size and chemistry were measured during spring and autumn campaigns. This research investigated (i) the ability of toxicity tests in discriminating among sites with different contamination level, (ii) the occurrence of a gradient of effect among sampling sites, (iii) the possible correlation among toxicity tests, sediment chemistry, grain size and organic carbon, and (iv) the possible occurrence of toxicity seasonal variability. Sediment contamination levels were from low to moderate. No acute toxicity toward amphipods was observed, while sea urchin fertilization was affected only in few sites in just a single campaign. Short-term effects on larval development of sea urchin and oyster evidenced a clear spatial trend among sites, with increasing effects along the axis connecting the sea-inlets with the industrial area. The set of bioassays allowed the identification of a spatial gradient of effect, with decreasing toxicity from the industrial area toward the sea-inlets. Multivariate data analysis showed that the malformations of oyster embryos were significantly correlated to the industrial contamination (metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls), while sea urchin development to sediment concentrations of As, Cr and organic carbon. Both embryo toxicity tests were

  2. Testing lagoonal sediments with early life stages of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana): An approach to assess sediment toxicity in the Venice Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Marco; Bergamin, Martina; Delaney, Eugenia; Ghirardini, Annamaria Volpi; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2018-01-01

    The early-life stages of development of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa from egg to copepodite I is proposed as an endpoint for assessing sediment toxicity by exposing newly released eggs directly onto the sediment-water interface. A preliminary study of 5 sediment samples collected in the lagoon of Venice highlighted that the larval development rate (LDR) and the early-life stages (ELS) mortality endpoints with A. tonsa are more sensitive than the standard amphipod mortality test; moreover LDR resulted in a more reliable endpoint than ELS mortality, due to the interference of the sediment with the recovery of unhatched eggs and dead larvae. The LDR data collected in a definitive study of 48 sediment samples from the Venice Lagoon has been analysed together with the preliminary data to evaluate the statistical performances of the bioassay (among replicate variance and minimum significant difference between samples and control) and to investigate the possible correlation with sediment chemistry and physical properties. The results showed that statistical performances of the LDR test with A. tonsa correspond with the outcomes of other tests applied to the sediment-water interface (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryotoxicity test), sediments (Neanthes arenaceodentata survival and growth test) and porewater (S. purpuratus); the LDR endpoint did, however, show a slightly higher variance as compared with other tests used in the Lagoon of Venice, such as 10-d amphipod lethality test and larval development with sea urchin and bivalves embryos. Sediment toxicity data highlighted the high sensitivity and the clear ability of the larval development to discriminate among sediments characterized by different levels of contamination. The data of the definitive study evidenced that inhibition of the larval development was not affected by grain-size and the organic carbon content of the sediment; in contrast, a strong correlation between inhibition of the larval development

  3. Morphodynamic evolution and stratal architecture of tidal meander bends through geophysical investigations and numerical modelling: inferences from the Venice Lagoon (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brivio, Lara; Ghinassi, Massimilano; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Finotello, Alvise; Carniello, Luca; Marani, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: tidal meanders, stratal architecture, morphodynamics, mathematical modeling, Venice Lagoon. Although meanders are ubiquitous features of the tidal landscape, very few papers have analyzed their morphodynamic evolution or internal architecture, which is commonly analyzed basing on facies models developed for fluvial meander bend deposits. Towards the goal of providing new insight into the morphodynamic evolution of tidal meanders, together with high-resolution facies models, we analyzed a tidal point bar located in the Northern part of the Venice Lagoon (Italy), the largest Mediterranean brackish water body, characterized by an area of about 550 km2 and subjected to a semidiurnal tidal regime with an average tidal range of about 1 m and peak tidal amplitudes of about 0.75 m. High-resolution spatial data were acquired through the use of a sub-bottom profiler along a meander bend in the Northern part of the Venice lagoon. Sub-bottom profiles were collected along transects oriented both parallel and transverse to the main channel axis, and interpreted through a specific 3D modeling software. In the study segment, the channel is 100 m wide and 3 - 5 m deep and defines a bend with a curvature radius of about 200 m. Geophysical data highlight the presence of two laterally extensive key surfaces, which divide the channel deposits into three sedimentary units (up to 6.0, 4.0 and 3.5 m thick, respectively), associated with three main depositional stages of meander bend evolution. All these stages emphasize the occurrence of an ebb - dominated transport, especially in the first and in the second ones. The first stage is associated with development of point-bar deposits and is characterized by lateral accreting beds dipping toward the channel thalweg at about 10-20°. The second stage is associated with deposition in the landward side of the meander bend, where both aggradation and lateral accretion are documented. The third stage is characterized by accumulation of

  4. Multi-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of road dust samples from a traffic area of Venice using stoichiometric and environmental references

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotto, Gabrio; Cattaruzza, Elti; Bardelli, Fabrizio

    2017-02-01

    The appropriate selection of representative pure compounds to be used as reference is a crucial step for successful analysis of X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) data, and it is often not a trivial task. This is particularly true when complex environmental matrices are investigated, being their elemental speciation a priori unknown. In this paper, an investigation on the speciation of Cu, Zn, and Sb based on the use of conventional (stoichiometric compounds) and non-conventional (environmental samples or relevant certified materials) references is explored. This method can be useful in when the effectiveness of XANES analysis is limited because of the difficulty in obtaining a set of references sufficiently representative of the investigated samples. Road dust samples collected along the bridge connecting Venice to the mainland were used to show the potentialities and the limits of this approach.

  5. PROPOSAL OF A NEW METHOO OF ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF VEGETATION: THE CASE STUDY OF THE VEGETATION OF THE VENICE LAGOON LANDSCAPE ANO OF ITS SALT MARSHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. IGEGNOLI

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In frequent case studies, the heterogeneity of vegetation formation is very high, because of the frequency of both natural and human disturbances. Consequently, the phytosociological approach .and the auto-ecological one are not completely adequate for the evaluation or the ecological state of this vegetation in a landscape.So, this evaluation needs the integration with a landscape ecological method of vegetation survey through schedules, as indicated by Ingegnoli (2002. Each type of schedule has been designed to check the organisation level and to estimate the metastability of a tessera of a certain type of vegetation, considering both general ecological and landscape ecological characters: (A Landscape e1ement characters (e.g. tessera, corridor, (8 Plant, biomass above ground, (C Ecocoenotope pararneters. (D Relation among the elements and their landscape parameters. There are four evaluation classes, the weights per class depending on an evaluation model designed as shown later on. The principal aim of this research is to design a new schedule, available for the main coenosis of salt marshes vegetation, which allows to complete a preliminary study on the Venice lagoon landscape dynamics, based on its vegetation. The landscape of the Venice lagoon is very complex and articulated, its main vegetation formations are the following: Underwater, Salt marshes. Littoral. Reclamation colonisations, Wet areas. Wooded patches and corridors. Agricultural cultivations, Urban green. The most important typc of vegetation is represented by salt marshes prairies called "barene", especially by Limonietum venetum (Pignani. 1966, This association can be divided into three sub-associations, the first with three facies: but the reality presents a large quantity of tesserae in intermediate or ecotonal states, even mixed with other associations (e,g, Spartinetum maritimae. The design and control of the schedule, the first measure of the community plant biomasses are

  6. PROPOSAL OF A NEW METHOO OF ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF VEGETATION: THE CASE STUDY OF THE VEGETATION OF THE VENICE LAGOON LANDSCAPE ANO OF ITS SALT MARSHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GIGLIO

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available

    In frequent case studies, the heterogeneity of vegetation formation is very high, because of the frequency of both natural and human disturbances. Consequently, the phytosociological approach .and the auto-ecological one are not completely adequate for the evaluation or the ecological state of this vegetation in a landscape.

    So, this evaluation needs the integration with a landscape ecological method of vegetation survey through schedules, as indicated by Ingegnoli (2002. Each type of schedule has been designed to check the organisation level and to estimate the metastability of a tessera of a certain type of vegetation, considering both general ecological and landscape ecological characters: (A Landscape e1ement characters (e.g. tessera, corridor, (8 Plant, biomass above ground, (C Ecocoenotope pararneters. (D Relation among the elements and their landscape parameters. There are four evaluation classes, the weights per class depending on an evaluation model designed as shown later on. The principal aim of this research is to design a new schedule, available for the main coenosis of salt marshes vegetation, which allows to complete a preliminary study on the Venice lagoon landscape dynamics, based on its vegetation. The landscape of the Venice lagoon is very complex and articulated, its main vegetation formations are the following: Underwater, Salt marshes. Littoral. Reclamation colonisations, Wet areas. Wooded patches and corridors. Agricultural cultivations, Urban green. The most important typc of vegetation is represented by salt marshes prairies called "barene", especially by Limonietum venetum (Pignani. 1966, This association can be divided into three sub-associations, the first with three facies: but the reality presents a large quantity of tesserae in intermediate or ecotonal states, even mixed with other associations (e,g, Spartinetum maritimae. The design and control of the schedule, the first measure of the community plant

  7. An evaluation of the PM 2.5 trace elemental composition in the Venice Lagoon area and an analysis of the possible sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stortini, A. M.; Freda, A.; Cesari, D.; Cairns, W. R. L.; Contini, D.; Barbante, C.; Prodi, F.; Cescon, P.; Gambaro, A.

    2009-12-01

    Global emissions reported by many authors have shown as natural and anthropic sources can contribute to the principal aerosol classes, but values change according the local scenario. The Venice Lagoon is exposed to different anthropic source emissions like vehicular traffic, industrial thermoelectric power plant, petrochemical plant, incinerator plant, domestic heating, ship traffic, glass factories and airport. Samplings of PM 2.5 were daily performed between March and November 2007 in Sacca San Biagio island (Venice), and values of PM 2.5 concentration and element concentration were obtained. Monthly average concentrations (μg m -3) during this period show higher values during the spring and the autumn. A good relationship between data obtained and concentration values from environmental local agencies is evidenced, both for PM 2.5 from urban area (Venezia Mestre), and for PM 10 sampled in the same area, as well as the influence of some meteorological parameters on PM 2.5 concentration sampled. Trace elements samples were measured by an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (ICP-QMS), and values (ng m -3 and μg g -1) for elements regulated by European directives (As, Cd, Ni, Pb), as well as, other elements (Na, Al, K, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Se, Ag) are also reported. Data analysis by mean of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) pointed out four principal groups of elements like Mn-Fe-K, As-Se-Cd, V-Co, and Pb that could be assigned to specific sources of the Venetian wetland basin.

  8. A multi-disciplinary approach to evaluate vulnerability and risks of pluvial floods under changing climate: the case study of the municipality of Venice (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperotto, Anna; Torresan, Silvia; Gallina, Valentina; Coppola, Erika; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect the intensity and frequency of extreme events (e.g. heat waves, drought, heavy precipitations events) leading to increasing natural disasters and damaging events (e.g. storms, pluvial floods and coastal flooding) worldwide. Especially in urban areas, disasters risks can be exacerbated by changes in exposure and vulnerability patterns (i.e. urbanization, population growth) and should be addressed by adopting a multi-disciplinary approach. A Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology integrating climate and environmental sciences with bottom-up participative processes was developed and applied to the urban territory of the municipality of Venice in order to evaluate the potential consequences of climate change on pluvial flood risk in urban areas. Based on the consecutive analysis of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risks, the RRA methodology is a screening risk tool to identify and prioritize major elements at risk (e.g. residential, commercial areas and infrastructures) and to localize sub-areas that are more likely to be affected by flood risk due to heavy precipitation events, in the future scenario (2041-2050). From the early stages of its development and application, the RRA followed a bottom-up approach to select and score site-specific vulnerability factors (e.g. slope, permeability of the soil, past flooded areas) and to consider the requests and perspectives of local stakeholders of the North Adriatic region, by means of interactive workshops, surveys and discussions. The main outputs of the assessment are risk and vulnerability maps and statistics aimed at increasing awareness about the potential effect of climate change on pluvial flood risks and at identifying hot-spot areas where future adaptation actions should be required to decrease physical-environmental vulnerabilities or building resilience and coping capacity of human society to climate change. The overall risk assessment methodology and the results

  9. Visconti in Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Hendrykowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Luchino Visconti’s masterpiece “Death in Venice” (“La morte in Venezia” has the reputation of being a quintessential work of European art film, the epitome of 1970s auteur cinema, one of the most impressive film poems ever made. Based on famous novel written by Thomas Mann in 1911 (after Gustav Mahler’s death, it is a profound and intriguing artwork concerned at its depth to communicate the most important human meanings like the essence of death or powerfully symbolic depiction of 19th Europe ideas and values in a fascinating filmic imagery. The 1971 film adaptation is not only a lament for a lost nobility and a swan song for human sublime forms of life created by the noble class, but also an epic panorama of the old Europe that evokes the cultural upheaval brought on by the collapse of ‘la belle époque’. In his comparative study Marek Hendrykowski explores central motifs of the literary and film versions of “Death in Venice” and expands on this contention, pinpointing the various sources of the film’s uniquely impressive effect. Hendrykowski’s contextual analysis and interpretation, written in a lively and accessible style, traces the complex motifs that run through “Death in Venice” and discovers step by step the elements (Mahler’s music, the use of authentic locations, high culture vs mass culture conflict, biographical background, etc. evoked and appealed in Visconti’s film.

  10. The Venice effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, O.

    2011-01-01

    Curators of the Biennale have always played down its impact on the art market but the two go hand-in-hand, says Olav Velthuis, who tackles the taboo of commerce and culture at the world's most famous exhibition of contemporary art.

  11. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017); Venice (Italy); October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Quality Improvement, Parents Centered Care"

    OpenAIRE

    --- Various Authors

    2017-01-01

    Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017); Venice (Italy); October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR), European Society for Neonatology (ESN), Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS), European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI)ORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zi...

  12. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017); Venice (Italy); October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neurology and Follow-up"

    OpenAIRE

    --- Various Authors

    2017-01-01

    Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017); Venice (Italy); October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR), European Society for Neonatology (ESN), Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS), European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI)ORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmer...

  13. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017); Venice (Italy); October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neonatal Pulmonology, Neonatal Respiratory Support, Resuscitation"

    OpenAIRE

    --- Various Authors

    2017-01-01

    Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017); Venice (Italy); October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR), European Society for Neonatology (ESN), Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS), European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI)ORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann...

  14. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017); Venice (Italy); October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neonatal Fetal Nutrition and Metabolism"

    OpenAIRE

    --- Various Authors

    2017-01-01

    Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017); Venice (Italy); October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR), European Society for Neonatology (ESN), Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS), European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNI)ORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmer...

  15. The Pronunciation of Hebrew in the Western Sephardic Settlements (XVIth-XXth Centuries. First Part: Early Modern Venice and Ferrara (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    di Leone Leoni, Aron

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In or around 1552, Isac Cavallero in Venice and Yomtob Atias in Ferrara published various Spanish translations of the Hebrew prayer-book. Almost at the same time in Ferrara, Abraham Usque produced some new vulgarizations of the Hebrew ritual. These works were conceived mainly for the former Marranos who had embraced the Jewish religion but were still unfamiliar with Hebrew. In order to enable them to recite at least a part of the most important prayers, the authors of these vulgarizations transliterated into Latin characters some passages of different prayers and blessings. These translations of the prayer-book were repeatedly reprinted throughout the following centuries in Venice, Amsterdam and in several North-European cities. The subsequent editions followed very closely the pattern of the Ferrara prototypes, however several re-issues bore different additions. Of particular interest are the transliterations of new and wider passages from various prayers and hymns. By carrying on an extensive graphematic analysis of these prayer-books as well as of other texts such as grammar-books, registers of the deliberations of the Sephardic communities, notarial deeds and other documents, it was possible to ascertain the features of the Sephardi pronunciation in the early modern communities of Venice and Ferrara and in the West-European settlements. The main differences and analogies between the Sephardi, the Judeo-Italian and the Ashkenazi pronunciation were also examined. Special attention has been paid to the consonant 'Ayin which, in the 16th century, had a phonetic value equal to zero or tending to zero.En torno a 1552, Isac Cavallero en Venecia y Yomtob Atías en Ferrara publicaron varias traducciones al español del oracional judío. De manera casi simultánea en Ferrara,Abraham Usque publicó nuevas versiones del ritual judío en lengua vernácula. Estas obras estaban concebidas principalmente para individuos de origen converso que hab

  16. Evaluation of seabed mapping methods for fine-scale classification of extremely shallow benthic habitats - Application to the Venice Lagoon, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montereale Gavazzi, G.; Madricardo, F.; Janowski, L.; Kruss, A.; Blondel, P.; Sigovini, M.; Foglini, F.

    2016-03-01

    Recent technological developments of multibeam echosounder systems (MBES) allow mapping of benthic habitats with unprecedented detail. MBES can now be employed in extremely shallow waters, challenging data acquisition (as these instruments were often designed for deeper waters) and data interpretation (honed on datasets with resolution sometimes orders of magnitude lower). With extremely high-resolution bathymetry and co-located backscatter data, it is now possible to map the spatial distribution of fine scale benthic habitats, even identifying the acoustic signatures of single sponges. In this context, it is necessary to understand which of the commonly used segmentation methods is best suited to account for such level of detail. At the same time, new sampling protocols for precisely geo-referenced ground truth data need to be developed to validate the benthic environmental classification. This study focuses on a dataset collected in a shallow (2-10 m deep) tidal channel of the Lagoon of Venice, Italy. Using 0.05-m and 0.2-m raster grids, we compared a range of classifications, both pixel-based and object-based approaches, including manual, Maximum Likelihood Classifier, Jenks Optimization clustering, textural analysis and Object Based Image Analysis. Through a comprehensive and accurately geo-referenced ground truth dataset, we were able to identify five different classes of the substrate composition, including sponges, mixed submerged aquatic vegetation, mixed detritic bottom (fine and coarse) and unconsolidated bare sediment. We computed estimates of accuracy (namely Overall, User, Producer Accuracies and the Kappa statistic) by cross tabulating predicted and reference instances. Overall, pixel based segmentations produced the highest accuracies and the accuracy assessment is strongly dependent on the number of classes chosen for the thematic output. Tidal channels in the Venice Lagoon are extremely important in terms of habitats and sediment distribution

  17. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Cardiac Physiology and Pathology"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Cardiac Physiology and Pathology"ABS 1. EVALUATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS AND THE PLATELET MASS INDEX IN PRETERM INFANTS • M. Kara, İ. Caner, K.Ş. Tekgündüz, İ. Polat, H. KeskinABS 2. DIAGNOSIS OF DIGEORGE SYNDROME: THE CONTRIBUTION OF MOLECULAR GENETICS • Y. Halleb, H. Hadj-Abdallah, S. Nouri, A. Touati, M. Bellallah, J. Mathlouthi, N. Mahdhaoui, H. Sboui, A. Saad, D. H’midaABS 3. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SIZE OF PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS AND CO-MORBIDITIES • S. Bellis, Y. SinghABS 4. EFFICACY OF MEDICAL TREATMENT IN CLOSING PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS IN ELBW INFANTS • S. Bellis, Y. SinghABS 5. ACETAMINOPHEN FOR CLOSING PDA. SHOULD IT BE A FIRST LINE THERAPEUTIC OPTION? • I. Tofé, M.D. Ruiz, M.P. Jaraba, M.V. Rodriguez, R.L. Rueda, M.D. Ordoñez, M.J. ParragaABS 6. PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS WITH HEMODYNAMIC REPERCUSSION IN VERY LOW WEIGHT PRETERM INFANTS TREATED WITH ORAL IBUPROFEN PRESENTS A HIGH RATE OF BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA • M.M. Lourenço, E. Sacramento, F. Carmona, C. Calixto, F. Martin-Celini, G.H. Seribelli, W.A. Gonçalves-FerriABS 7

  18. Chemometric studies in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy. Annual evolution of sulphur species and relationship to biogeochemical cycles in lagoon water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Ivo; Gambaro, Andrea; Piazza, Rossano; Corami, Fabiana; Ravazzi, Cesare; Andreoli, Carlo; Truzzi, Cristina; Lambertucci, Luca; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    During the period March 1997-March 1998 dimethyl sulphide (DMS), dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) and carbon disulphide (CS2) were determined weekly in the water of the Lagoon of Venice, Italy (at three stations located in the Giudecca Canal, the San Secondo Canal and the Rio di San Nicolò). At the same time, the following hydrological and biological variables were also measured: tide height, temperature, transmittance, fluorescence, pH, salinity, chlorinity, sulphate, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, silicate, chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, phytoplankton (abundance and biomass). Principal component analysis (PCA), applied as a dimension reduction tool, made it possible to summarize multivariate information in a small number of components, which highlighted the relationships between the temporal evolutions of the sulphur compounds with hydrological and biological variables in the seasonal biogeochemical cycle of the lagoon. In particular the overall temporal cycle, which begins with the development of biological activity in late winter and spring, followed by the predominance of degradation processes during the late summer and the remineralization of nutrients in autumn, is clearly described in the plane of the first two principal components, together with the interrelationships between all the relevant variables.

  19. Evidence of climatic variations in upper Pleistocene and Holocene sediments from the lagoon of Venice (Italy and the Bohai Sea (China))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonardi, M.; Carbognin, L.; Tosi, L. [CNR-ISDGM, Venice (Italy); Marabini, F. [CNR-IGM-Area di Ricerca, Bologna (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    An accurate forecasting of environmental impact on sea level and shoreline changes due to global warming, requires a detailed investigation and interpretation of the events that occurred during the past 20,000 years. This time interval in fact corresponds to two significant climatic global changes: the last Wuermian glaciation, during the Upper Pleistocene, and the warming during the Holocene. Examples of the climatic variation impact on paleoenvironments are here evidenced by sedimentological studies, radiocarbon dating, paleobotanic, paleontological, mineralogical and geochemical investigations of two stratigraphic columns that are geographically far apart: the Lagoon of Venice, Italy, and the Bohai Sea, China. The study focuses first on a general overview of the regional paleoclimatic history of these two core locations and their correlation with the sedimentological variations; second on some depositional events, such clay layers and beachrock formations, that carry the imprints of the climatic conditions. The results of this investigation may contribute to a better understanding of diagenetic processes, still not sufficiently described, caused by the climatic changes. Furthermore the study provided information that may be useful to a more complete overview of the environmental impact caused by natural global warming before the anthropogenic input.

  20. Construction of a Bayesian Network for the Assessment of Agri-Environmental Measures – The Case Study of the Venice Lagoon Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Carpani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A methodological framework was designed to assess the effectiveness of agri-environmental policy measures adopted by the Veneto Region to reduce diffuse water pollution of agricultural origin. Two already existing methodologies were combined in a new flexible approach for policy assessment: Conceptual Modelling and Bayesian Networks (BNs. The former supported the development of a shared conceptual model (a cognitive map of the agro-ecosystem of the study area; while the latter allowed the development of a probabilistic model coherent with the cognitive map. BNs were selected because they allow analyses with scarce data; they can be updated when further information becomes available, and are easily understandable by layperson. The paper reports the results obtained in the Venice Lagoon Watershed (VLW case study, where the current agri-environmental measures were assessed in order to identify their effectiveness in terms of reduction of nitrogen releases in water bodies connected to the lagoon ecosystem. Preliminary results obtained by implementing expert opinions in the BN pointed out the likely limited effects of the measures on the declared objective of

  1. Characterization of a former dump site in the Lagoon of Venice contaminated by municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash, and estimation of possible environmental risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Chiarafrancesca; Zamengo, Luca; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Argese, Emanuele

    2009-10-01

    Bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator on a former contaminated site, the island of Sacca San Biagio (Lagoon of Venice), was examined in order to evaluate levels of pollutants and their potential mobility and availability. Heavy metal concentrations were determined and the actual contamination of the site was compared with national legislation on polluted sites. The site was mainly contaminated by zinc, copper and lead. Physico-chemical characterization of bottom ash was carried out by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) with micro-analysis by EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) and XRD (X-ray Diffractometry), for information on newly formed minerals. SEM-EDS analysis revealed the presence of particles, compounds and clusters containing heavy metals and, in particular, the presence of barium sulfate, which was assumed to be a site-specific compound. Similarities between bottom ash and atmospheric PM10 collected on the adjacent island of Sacca Fisola were studied and a risk of aerodispersion of the fine fraction of ash was assumed. Lastly, in order to evaluate the potentially available fraction of metals (non-residual fraction) and the directly exchangeable fraction, two single extraction procedures with HCl and citric acid were carried out, respectively. Results showed a relatively low concentration of readily phyto-available metals, as well as the high concentrations found for some heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) in the potentially mobilizable fraction.

  2. Summary of the 1st Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference oral sessions, Venice, Italy, June 21-25, 2008: the rapporteur reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubaker, Roohi; Alaerts, Maaike; Allman, Ava-Ann; Barnett, Jennifer; Belujon, Pauline; Bittner, Robert A; Burne, Thomas H J; Cahn, Wiepke; Chance, Steven; Cherkerzian, Sara; deSouza, Renan; Di Forti, Marta; du Bois, Teresa; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Green, Melissa; Halperin, Demian; Halpern, Demian; John, John P; Kemp, Aaron; Koelkebeck, Katja; Lee, Jimmy; Lodge, Daniel J; Michalopoulou, Panayiota; Mompremier, LaNina; Nelson, Barnaby; Perälä, Jonna; Rotarska-Jagiela, Anna; Schoeman, Renata; Thakkar, Katharine N; Valuri, Giuletta; Varambally, Shivarama; Zai, Clement; DeLisi, Lynn E

    2008-10-01

    The Schizophrenia International Research Society held its first scientific conference in Venice, Italy, June 21 to 25th, 2008. A wide range of controversial topics were presented in overlapping and plenary oral sessions. These included new genetic studies, controversies about early detection of schizophrenia and the prodrome, treatment issues, clinical characteristics, cognition, neuropathology and neurophysiology, other etiological considerations, substance abuse co-morbidity, and animal models for investigating disease etiology and for use as targets in drug studies. Young investigators in the field were awarded travel grants to participate in the congress and one of their roles was to summarize the oral sessions and subsequent discussions. The reports that follow are the culmination of this work produced by 30 young investigators who attended the congress. It is hoped that these summaries will be useful synopses of what actually occurred at the congress for those who did not attend each session or were unable to be present. The abstracts of all presentations, as submitted by the authors a few months prior, were previously published as supplement 2 to volume 102/1-3, June 2008.

  3. Organochlorine compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in populations of Hexaplex trunculus affected by imposex in the lagoon of Venice, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, Chiara; Centanni, Elena; Pellizzato, Francesca; Pavoni, Bruno

    2006-02-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in gastropods from the Lagoon of Venice, Italy. The visceral coil and the rest of the soft body of organisms (Hexaplex trunculus) sampled at two stations inside the lagoon and three stations on the seaward side were analyzed to evaluate their contamination levels. Preferential accumulation of PCBs and pesticides in the visceral coil (>80%) compared with the rest of the soft body was observed, whereas on average, PAHs showed no preferential partitioning. Differences between levels of organochlorine contaminants in the gastropods highlighted a gradient of pollution from the stations inside the lagoon (PCBs, 45-363 ng/g; pesticides, 4-51 ng/g) to the sea (PCBs, 13-131 ng/g; pesticides, 2-29 ng/g). The possible role of the three classes of contaminants, in addition to that of organotin compounds (OTCs), previously analyzed in the same samples, in causing one of the anatomic modifications because of imposex in this gastropod also was studied. A modeling approach by partial least squares (PLS) in latent variables was applied to explain the penis length of imposex-affected females with concentrations of organic pollutants. The synergistic role of PCBs, pesticides, and OTCs was evidenced, whereas the contribution of PAHs appeared to be very low.

  4. Accumulation of nutrients and heavy metals in Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel and Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla in a constructed wetland of the Venice lagoon watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragato, Claudia [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, University of Padova, Agripolis, 35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Brix, Hans [Department of Biological Sciences, Plant Biology, University of Aarhus, Ole Worms Alle, Building 1135, DK-8000 Arhus C (Denmark); Malagoli, Mario [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, University of Padova, Agripolis, 35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy)]. E-mail: mario.malagoli@unipd.it

    2006-12-15

    A recently constructed wetland, located in the Venice lagoon watershed, was monitored to investigate growth dynamics, nutrient and heavy metal shoot accumulation of the two dominating macrophytes: Phragmites australis and Bolboschoenus maritimus. Investigations were conducted over a vegetative season at three locations with different distance to the inlet point to assess effects on vegetation. The distance from the inlet did not affect either shoot biomass or nutrients (N, P, K and Na) and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn) shoot content. With the exception of Na, nutrient and heavy metal concentrations were higher in shoots of P. australis than in B. maritimus. Heavy metal concentration in the incoming water and in the soil was not correlated to the plant content of either species. Shoot heavy metal concentrations were similar to those reported in the current literature, but accumulation generally increased towards the end of the growing season. - Heavy metal shoot concentration in Phragmites australis and Bolboschoenus maritimus increased significantly at the end of the growing season.

  5. Proceedings of the Second Forum for the Euro-Japan Academic Networking for Humanities Project held at Venice International University on 2nd and 3rd October, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    AOKI, Saburo; Hattori, Eiji; HANNACHI, Salah; TAMBA, Akira; TUYCHIEV, Mukhiddin

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the proceedings of the Second Forum for the Euro-Japan Academic Networking for Humanities Project held at Venice International University on 2nd and 3rd October, 2012.本稿は2012年10月2日、3日に開催された「人文系欧州・日本学術ネットワーキングプロジェクト」第2回フォーラムの議事録である。

  6. Seasonality and environmental conditioning in Ulva rigida in Venice lagoon. In situ growth measurement with thalli discs; Stagionalita` e condizionamenti ambientali nello sviluppo di Ulva rigida nella laguna di Venezia. Prove di accrescimento in sity di frammenti di tallo algale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rismondo, R.; Zanella, L.; Rismondo, A. [Societa` Biotecnica, Venezia-Mestre (Italy)

    1997-11-01

    The growth trend, the sites and the environmental conditions for the macro algae Ulva rigida have been investigated in Venice lagoon. A method based on in situ growth, using transparent plastic bottles containing thalli discs, and on bi-weekly measurement has been applied for a number of significant lagoon sites. Results pointed out the higher growth period, being from April to June. There was no correlation between the sites where maximum growth was measured and those where algal accumulation used to occur. The effects of some of the environmental factors conditioning algal growth in the different sites have been studied by using cluster analysis.

  7. Submarine groundwater discharge in a subsiding coastal lowland: A {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn investigation in the Southern Venice lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gattacceca, Julie C., E-mail: jcg54@esc.cam.ac.uk [CEREGE, Aix-Marseille Universite, UMR 6635 CNRS-IRD-CDF, Europole Mediterraneen de l' Arbois, BP80, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Mayer, Adriano [IDPA-CNR, Via Mario Bianco 9, 20131 Milano (Italy); Cucco, Andrea [Coastal Oceanography, CNR-IAMC, Oristano Unit, Loc. Sa MArdini, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Claude, Christelle; Radakovitch, Olivier; Vallet-Coulomb, Christine; Hamelin, Bruno [CEREGE, Aix-Marseille Universite, UMR 6635 CNRS-IRD-CDF, Europole Mediterraneen de l' Arbois, BP80, 13545 Aix en Provence (France)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > Occurence/magnitude of submarine groundwater discharge investigated in Venice lagoon (Italy) using {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn isotopic tracers. > Single box mass balance compared with multi boxes mass balance coupled with hydrodynamic model. > Groundwater flux accounts for 1% of lagoon hydrological balance (1-3 times surface runoff) and 30-50% of tracers inputs. > Necessary to assess this flux impact on nutrient budget in lagoon. - Abstract: Several recent studies have suggested that submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) occurs in the Venice lagoon with discharge rates on the same order or larger than the surface runoff, as demonstrated previously in several other coastal zones around the world. Here, the first set of {sup 222}Rn data, along with new {sup 226}Ra data are reported, in order to investigate the occurrence and magnitude of SGD specifically in the southern basin of the lagoon. The independent connection with the Adriatic Sea (at the Chioggia inlet), in addition to the relative isolation of the water body from the main lagoon, make this area an interesting case study. There is probably only minimal fresh groundwater flux to the lagoon because the surrounding aquifer is subsiding and mainly has a lower hydraulic head than seawater. The data show that the Ra and Rn activities are in slight excess in the lagoon compared to the open sea, with values on the same order as those observed in the northern and central basins. Taking into account the water exchange rate between the lagoon and adjacent seawater provided by previous hydrodynamic numerical modelling, it is shown that this excess cannot be supported at steady state by only riverine input and by diffusive release from the sediment interstitial water. High activities observed in groundwater samples collected from 16 piezometers tapping into the shallow aquifer over the coastal lowland substantiate that the excess radioactivity in the lagoon may indeed be due to the advection of groundwater

  8. Phosphategypsum wastes in Venice lagoon. Radiological impact; Le discariche di fosfogessi nella laguna di Venezia. Valutazioni preliminari dell'impatto radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, M; Blasi, M; Guogang, J.; Rosamilia, S.; Sansone, U. [Agenzia Nazionale per la Protezione dell' Ambiente, Rome (Italy); Biancotto, R.; Bidoli, P.; Sepulcri, D. [Agenzia Regionale di Prevenzione e Protezione del Veneto, Venice (Italy). Dipt. provinciale di Venezia; Cavolo, F. [Smilax, Mira, VE (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    The phosphoric minerals utilized in phosphoric acid production, presents high concentrations of radioactive materials: U238, Th 232, K 40. The phosphogypsum is the waste material obtained in the phosphoric acid production in wet process. This type of production method is employed for many years in Venice lagoon (Porto Marghera chemical plants). In this paper are reported evaluations of radiological impact on aquatic environment of lagoon. [Italian] Con il termine di fosfogessi si intende comunemente il materiale di risulta che si ottiene nella produzione di acido fosforico attraverso la via umida (attacco acido). Questa tipologia di produzione che ha operato per diversi decenni a Porto Marghera, e' finalizzata allo scopo di ottenere acido fosforico principalmente per l'industria dei fertilizzanti e quindi come prodotto intermedio per la chimica e per le preparazioni alimentari. Il fosforo, elemento principale della reazione, era ricavato da rocce fosfatiche di origine sedimentaria marina provenienti per lo piu' dall'Africa settentrionale. Il sistema produttivo utilizzato negli impianti di Porto Marghera era basato su una reazione principale, che partendo dal minerale attraverso un attacco acido, produceva acido fosforico: Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} (Minerale Fosforico) + 3H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (Acido Solforico) + 3H{sub 2}O (Acqua) {yields} 2H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (Acido fosforico) + 3CaSO{sub 4}H{sub 2}O (Solfato di calcio (gesso)). In particolare il minerale era preventivamente macinato e vagliato, quindi si procedeva alla sua miscelazione con l'acido fosforico ed alla successiva reazione del composto ottenuto.

  9. A multi-disciplinary approach to evaluate pluvial floods risk under changing climate: The case study of the municipality of Venice (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperotto, A; Torresan, S; Gallina, V; Coppola, E; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2016-08-15

    Global climate change is likely to pose increasing threats in nearly all sectors and across all sub-regions worldwide (IPCC, 2014). Particularly, extreme weather events (e.g. heavy precipitations), together with changing exposure and vulnerability patterns, are expected to increase the damaging effect of storms, pluvial floods and coastal flooding. Developing climate and adaptation services for local planners and decision makers is becoming essential to transfer and communicate sound scientific knowledge about climate related risks and foster the development of national, regional and local adaptation strategies. In order to analyze the effect of climate change on pluvial flood risk and advice adaptation planning, a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed and applied to the urban territory of the municipality of Venice. Based on the integrated analysis of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk, RRA allows identifying and prioritizing targets and sub-areas that are more likely to be affected by pluvial flood risk due to heavy precipitation events in the future scenario 2041-2050. From the early stages of its development and application, the RRA followed a bottom-up approach taking into account the requests, knowledge and perspectives of local stakeholders of the North Adriatic region by means of interactive workshops, surveys and discussions. Results of the analysis showed that all targets (i.e. residential, commercial-industrial areas and infrastructures) are vulnerable to pluvial floods due to the high impermeability and low slope of the topography. The spatial pattern of risk mostly reflects the distribution of the hazard and the districts with the higher percentage of receptors' surface in the higher risk classes (i.e. very high, high and medium) are Lido-Pellestrina and Marghera. The paper discusses how risk-based maps and statistics integrate scientific and local knowledge with the final aim to mainstream climate adaptation in the development

  10. Attrattività delle città di celluloide. A Venezia tra cinema "avventura" e turismo / Attractiveness of the celluloid cities. In Venice between “adventure” cinema and tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Privitera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Molte destinazioni hanno basato la loro strategia di promozione affidandosi ai prodotti multimediali, considerando i vantaggi legati alla potenza incisiva del cinema. Il cinema conserva un ruolo privilegiato grazie alla sua capacità di suggestione. Lo scopo dello studio è di migliorare la comprensione del cineturismo in location in film noti e di avventura. Quali sono le immagini che i turisti hanno di Venezia visionando i film di James Bond? Le interviste sono state condotte con un gruppo di studenti che hanno visto la pellicola Casino Royale. I risultati mostrano che Venezia nel mondo di Bond contiene elementi attrattivi ma rimane piuttosto in secondo piano.   Film and Tourism share a close relationship. The aim of the study is to improve understanding of film induced tourism on locations featured in popular films. The present research used the case of James Bond film to explore this issue about Venice. Interviews were conducted with students who have seen Casino Royale movie. These interviews indicate that Venice, into the world of Bond contains elements attractive but it remains of little importance compared to Bond.

  11. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Ethics"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Ethics"ABS 1. THE DELIVERY OF BAD NEWS: A ONE OR 2-STEP APPROACH? THE CASE FOR TRISOMY 21 • M.S. Schimmel, M.Y. Kassirer, H.M. TowersABS 2. NEONATAL ORGAN DONATION: A POTENTIAL NEW DONOR SOURCE FOR CELL AND ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION • C. Jorns, E. Henckel, G. Nowak, A. Karadagi, T. Kjellin, E. Bluhme, Ö. Jynge, M. Hending, A. Croon, M. Söderström, B. Fischler, A. Nemeth, R. Gramignoli, S. Strom, E. Ellis, B. HallbergABS 3. HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS’ AND PARENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARD PARENTAL AUTONOMY AND THE BEST INTEREST OF THE EXTREME PRETERM INFANT: A NATIONAL STUDY IN SWITZERLAND • M. Hendriks, H. Bucher, S. Klein, R. Baumann-Holzle, J. Streuli, J. FauchèreABS 4. CHANGING PARENTAL PERCEPTIONS IN TRISOMIES – A POTENTIAL ETHICAL DILEMMA FOR NEONATOLOGISTS? • E. Simons, P. Nath, P. ParthasarathyABS 5. INGEBORG SYLLM-RAPOPORT (1912-2017 – AN EXEMPLARY LIFE FOR CHILDREN AND PAEDIATRICS • H. Sallmon, R.R. Wauer, C.C. RoehrABS 6. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSES OF PARENTAL COUNSELING AND DECISION MAKING FOR EXTREME PRETERM BIRTH IN A TERTIARY DUTCH PERINATAL CENTER • E. de Booij, J

  12. Aggradation and lateral migration shaping geometry of a tidal point bar: An example from salt marshes of the Northern Venice Lagoon (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brivio, Lara; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Finotello, Alvise; Fontana, Alessandro; Roner, Marcella; Howes, Nick

    2016-08-01

    Although meanders are ubiquitous features of the tidal landscape, the architectural geometries of tidal point bar deposits are relatively unexplored and commonly investigated on the basis of facies models developed for their fluvial counterparts. The present study aims at improving current understanding of tidal point bar deposits developed in salt marsh settings, through a high-resolution investigation of an abandoned intertidal meander loop, located in the northern part of the Venice Lagoon (Italy). The study channel is 6 m wide and was active until the 1950s, when it was deactivated as consequence of a neck cut-off. A total of 150 cores was recovered from the associated point bar. The bar erosionally overlies a subtidal platform consisting of sand and mud and is covered by both channel fill and salt marsh mud. The bar, floored by a shell-rich sandy lag, consists of stratified fine sand, grading upward into sandy mud. The outer bank of the bend is characterized by well-developed, sand-rich levee deposits and absence of crevasse splays, which represent a distinctive feature of alluvial sedimentation. Sediment grain size distributions suggesting that seaward and landward sides of the point bar experienced comparable changes of bed shear stress due to alternation between flood and ebb currents, highlighting a remarkable difference with the classical downstream-fining characterizing fluvial point bars. Spatial interpolation between key stratal surfaces shows an overall thickening of the bar from 1.2 to 1.7 m in the direction of channel migration, associated with both lowering of the bar base and rising of its brink, which occurs in parallel with an increase in channel cross-sectional area, to progressively accommodate the increasing tidal prism. The bar top surface is characterized by a spoon-shaped geometry stemming out from a combination between lateral migration (8-10 cm/yr) and vertical aggradation (2.5-3.0 mm/yr) of the inner bank. In salt marsh settings

  13. Visual stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, David

    2011-02-27

    Our vision remains stable even though the movements of our eyes, head and bodies create a motion pattern on the retina. One of the most important, yet basic, feats of the visual system is to correctly determine whether this retinal motion is owing to real movement in the world or rather our own self-movement. This problem has occupied many great thinkers, such as Descartes and Helmholtz, at least since the time of Alhazen. This theme issue brings together leading researchers from animal neurophysiology, clinical neurology, psychophysics and cognitive neuroscience to summarize the state of the art in the study of visual stability. Recently, there has been significant progress in understanding the limits of visual stability in humans and in identifying many of the brain circuits involved in maintaining a stable percept of the world. Clinical studies and new experimental methods, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, now make it possible to test the causal role of different brain regions in creating visual stability and also allow us to measure the consequences when the mechanisms of visual stability break down.

  14. Macroeconomic stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    It is demonstrated that full employment and sustainable development not necessarily are conflicting goals. On the other hand macroeconomic stability cannot be obtained without a deliberate labour sharing policy and a shift in the composition of private consumption away from traditional material...

  15. Imposex in Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867) as a possible investigative tool to monitor butyltin contamination according to the Water Framework Directive: A case study in the Venice Lagoon (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Federica; Noventa, Seta; Antonini, Camilla; Formalewicz, Malgorzata; Gion, Claudia; Berto, Daniela; Gabellini, Massimo; Brusà, Rossella Boscolo

    2016-01-07

    Butyltin (TBT, DBT, and MBT) effects on molluscs, especially endocrine disruption in bivalves and gastropods, have been widely investigated. Imposex, the superimposition of male characters onto female gonochoristic Caenogastropods, is the most studied biological effect of TBT. TBT compounds are among the priority hazardous substances within Directives 2000/60/EC (WFD) and 2008/105/EC. The Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs) set by the WFD for TBT are quite difficult to quantify by means of chemical analysis, without the use of expensive and high performance methods. Assuming that EQSs set for TBT were derived from evidence of imposex development at very low concentrations, this specific biomarker could be used as an indirect measure of assessing levels of bioavailable BTs. Therefore, this study aims to validate the use of imposex development as an investigative tool to monitor the bioavailable fraction of BTs within the WFD, by comparing imposex levels and BT concentrations in Nassarius nitidus from the Venice Lagoon. BT concentrations and imposex levels in N. nitidus, collected in 2013, had decreased when compared to previous studies in the same area. Both VDSI and RPLI correlated positively with BT body burden in females, confirming that imposex is a valid tool to monitor bioavailable BTs. However, TBT is still a matter of concern in the Venice Lagoon, as TBT concentrations were still higher than its degradation products suggesting recent fresh TBT inputs in the studied area. To propose imposex levels as an indicator of the impact of BTs within the WFD, classification class boundaries and Ecological Quality Ratios were introduced. As a preliminary attempt, imposex levels were also compared to the OSPAR Commission EcoQOs which linked imposex levels in Nassarius reticulatus with TBT concentrations in water. Based on this comparison the degree of imposex development in the Venice Lagoon suggested that TBT concentrations in water should be over the EQS

  16. Study of the biological impact of organic contaminants on mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis L.) from the Venice Lagoon, Italy: responses of CYP1A-immunopositive protein and benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Sole C Nasci D R Livingstone

    2000-01-01

    A survey to evaluate the impact of organic contaminants on the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in the Venice Lagoon, Italy was carried out in May 1993. M. galloprovincialis were sampled from putative moderately contaminated (Alberoni, Lio Grande, Crevan), urban (Salute) and industrial (CVE) sites in the Venice Lagoon, and from a clean reference site (Plataforma) in the adjacent Adriatic Sea. Measurements comprised (i) whole-tissue body burdens of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other organochlorines (DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes and hexachlorobenzene); and (ii) digestive gland microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent monooxygenase system (i.e. total CYP and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)-immunopositive protein levels, benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase (BPH) activity) as a specific biomarker of impact by organic contaminants. Chemical analysis identified a contaminant gradient with Plataforma as the cleanest and CVE followed by Salute as the most contaminated extremes. No elevation of total CYP content or CYP1A-immunopositive protein level was seen at any of the lagoon sites compared with Plataforma. In contrast, BPH activity and BPH turnover (i.e. BPH activity per amount total CYP) were respectively 1- and 2.5-fold higher at CVE than Plataforma (P < 0.05), and indicated to be higher (up to 1-fold) at all the other lagoon sites compared with Plataforma. Correlation was seen between BPH activity and tissue levels of total aliphatic hydrocarbons (r = 0.94-0.98), but not between the former and total PAHs or PCBs. The results are consistent with other studies in the area and indicate greatest biological impact of contaminants was at CVE followed by the other lagoon sites, with a possible genotoxic role for the elevated BPH activity in the formation of bulky DNA-adducts.

  17. Exceedance probability map: a tool helping the definition of arsenic Natural Background Level (NBL) within the Drainage Basin to the Venice Lagoon (NE Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Libera, Nico; Fabbri, Paolo; Mason, Leonardo; Piccinini, Leonardo; Pola, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic groundwater contamination affects worldwide shallower groundwater bodies. Starting from the actual knowledges around arsenic origin into groundwater, we know that the major part of dissolved arsenic is naturally occurring through the dissolution of As-bearing minerals and ores. Several studies on the shallow aquifers of both the regional Venetian Plain (NE Italy) and the local Drainage Basin to the Venice Lagoon (DBVL) show local high arsenic concentration related to peculiar geochemical conditions, which drive arsenic mobilization. The uncertainty of arsenic spatial distribution makes difficult both the evaluation of the processes involved in arsenic mobilization and the stakeholders' decision about environmental management. Considering the latter aspect, the present study treats the problem of the Natural Background Level (NBL) definition as the threshold discriminating the natural contamination from the anthropogenic pollution. Actually, the UE's Directive 2006/118/EC suggests the procedures and criteria to set up the water quality standards guaranteeing a healthy status and reversing any contamination trends. In addition, the UE's BRIDGE project proposes some criteria, based on the 90th percentile of the contaminant's concentrations dataset, to estimate the NBL. Nevertheless, these methods provides just a statistical NBL for the whole area without considering the spatial variation of the contaminant's concentration. In this sense, we would reinforce the NBL concept using a geostatistical approach, which is able to give some detailed information about the distribution of arsenic concentrations and unveiling zones with high concentrations referred to the Italian drinking water standard (IDWS = 10 µg/liter). Once obtained the spatial information about arsenic distribution, we can apply the 90th percentile methods to estimate some Local NBL referring to every zones with arsenic higher than IDWS. The indicator kriging method was considered because it

  18. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Perinatal Pharmacology and Anesthesia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Perinatal Pharmacology and Anesthesia"ABS 1. UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DOPAMINE CONCENTRATION AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN NEONATES: INCUBATORS VERSUS COT • K. Kirupakaran, H. Rabe, B. PatelABS 2. IBUPROFEN PHARMACOGENETIC STUDY IN HUMAN MILK SAMPLES • V. Rigourd, C. Verstyuft, J.F. Méritet, P. Seraissol, B. De Villepin, A. Amirouche, R. SerreauABS 3. EFFECT OF POSTNATAL CORTICOSTEROID ON BROWN ADIPOSE TISSUE THERMOGENESIS IN NEONATAL RAT • Y.-S. Chang, C.-H. Lin, Y.-S. TsaiABS 4. URINARY 17-α-HYDROXY-PROGESTERONE AS A POTENTIAL MARKER OF NEONATAL PAIN • M. Brasseler, T. HoehnABS 5. PHARMACOKINETIC AND PHARMACODYNAMIC STUDIES AIMING FOR RATIONAL DRUG DOSING IN PRETERM NEONATES: THE DINO STUDY • R.B. Flint, S. Völler, R. de Groot, D. Liem, P. Andriessen, P. Degrauewe, I. Reiss, D. Burger, D. Tibboel, C.A.J. Knibbe, S.H.P. Simons and DINO Research groupABS 6. VENO-ARTERIAL EXTRACORPOREAL MEM­BRANE OXYGENATION IMPAIRS ACETYL­CHOLINE-INDUCED CONTRACTION IN NEONATAL PORCINE CORONARY ARTERIES • L. Provitera, G. Cavallaro, G. Raffaeli, I. Amodeo, S. Gulden, G. Zuanetti, V

  19. Before Stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Horst, Maja

    2013-01-01

    of the communication about innovations in information and communication technology (ICT), and to contribute to an understanding of how different visions promise particular future configurations of workflows, communication processes, politics, economic models and social relations. Hereby, the paper adds...... to the literature on the relationship between ICTs and organizing, but with a distinct focus on innovation communication and distributed innovation processes taking place before ICTs are stabilized, issues which cannot be captured by studies of diffusion and adaptation of new ICTs within single organizations....

  20. STABILIZATION PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarsih Sunarsih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for natural syst ems used in Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP Sewon Bantul. The model is m odeling development, derived from the physical and biochemical phenomena involved in the biological treatment process. The numerical solution of the resulting on 13 simultaneous systems of nonlinear equations by the Quasi_Newton. Data validation is measured by facultative pond at the inlet and outlet of the pond to the concentration of b acteria, algae, zooplankton, organic matter, detritus, organic nitrogen, NH3, organi c phosphor, dissolved phosphorus, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, total coliform, faecal coliform and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD. A simulation model is presented to predict performance regime steady state of domestic wastewater treatment facultative stabilization pond. The high degree of significant of at least 10% indicates that the effluent parameters can be reasonably accurately predicted.

  1. De la controverse à la conversion : Venise et la défense de la rhétorique dans The Ephemerides of Phialo de Stephen Gosson From Controversy to Conversion: Venice and the Defence of Rhetoric in Stephen Gosson’s The Ephemerides of Phialo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Geoffroy-Piscou

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Controversy was raging in England in the late 1570s and early 1580s as Puritans attacked the evils of the age and above all the stage. Stephen Gosson is well-known for having joined the anti-theatrical polemics in his Schoole of Abuse. However, this article will focus on his less known euphuistic fiction entitled The Ephemerides of Phialo (1579 which he had actually started just before writing his attack on the misuse of art. The fact that Gosson chose to locate his prose fiction in Venice is highly significant and this study argues that the city’s association with vices provides an appropriate, though paradoxical, setting for Gosson’s defence of rhetoric at the expense of fiction. Furthermore, Gosson’s representation of Venice as a “colledge of curtezans” should be viewed against his own attempt to resume his studies at Corpus Christi. Ultimately, if Gosson failed to secure Sir Philip Sidney’s patronage—despite dedicating The Ephemerides to Sidney—he contributed to including and furthering the image of Venice within the field of prose fiction while denouncing the very evils of fiction itself.

  2. Reamer stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, W.R.

    1981-04-14

    A roller reamer-stabilizer tool includes a tubular body having threaded pin and box connectors at each end adapted to be connected in a drill string and providing a fluid passage connecting the upper part of the drill string with the lower part. Rollers having integral pins at their ends are mounted in pockets in the sides of the body. The pins are received in stepped, arcuate cross-section bearing blocks received in correlative sockets in the body at the ends of the pockets. The blocks make an interference fit with the body. Releasing bar access passages allow a releasing bar to be inserted behind each block to drive, wedge, or pry it out. Means is provided to seal and lubricate the full lengths of the pin-block interfaces. The seals are downwardly facing to avoid entrapment of foreign material. The lubrication means includes a reservoir having a flexible wall exposed to pressure outside the tool. The roller pins are locked to the bearing blocks to enable the roller-block assemblies to be handled as unitary subassemblies used to replace worn out subassemblies of existing tools. The locking means at one end includes ball bearings to take axial thrust; at the other end the locking means is releasable to enable the block at that end to shift axially relating to the roller, to accommodate manufacturing tolerances and wear and prevent preloading of the thrust bearings.

  3. Clinical commentary --COPD is not a systemic disease. Results from the AIMAR Expert Opinion Consensus/Dissensus Seminar "COPD is/is not a systemic disease?", Venice, Italy, 13-14 November 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Claudio F; Bjermer, Leif

    2009-09-01

    Although COPD is a major disease worldwide there is a perplexing current uncertainty about the nature of this disease. COPD is characterized at onset and prevalently by the involvement of the lungs and bronchi, but as the disease evolves abnormalities develop in other organs and systems and the question arises: what is the pathogenesis of these respiratory and systemic impairments? Are the alterations that occur outside the respiratory system in the course of COPD a direct consequence of the lung pathology or is the lung simply the local expression of a pathological event whose origin lies in the organism as a whole? To tease out this issue, the Expert Opinion Consensus/Dissensus Seminar "COPD is/is not a systemic disease?" took place in Venice, on 13-14 November 2008. The Seminar was conceived and organized by the Italian Interdisciplinary Association for Research in Lung Disease, AIMAR. Top international opinion leaders in the respiratory field were invited to participate, the aim being to bring together sustainers of the two sides in a format allowing the best opportunity for an in-depth debate. Over the two days, different aspects of the issue 'upstream' (pathophysiology and biology) and 'downstream' (treatment and outcome assessment) were discussed. The general consensus that emerged, based on the still limited evidence available, was that COPD begins as a local inflammation in the lungs and this leads - through differentiated pathways yet to be fully clarified - to systemic consequences.

  4. Dispersal and metapopulation stability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Shaopeng; Haegeman, Bart; Loreau, Michel

    2015-01-01

    .... Previous studies have shown that dispersal can stabilize local populations; however, as dispersal also tends to increase spatial synchrony, its net effect on metapopulation stability has been controversial...

  5. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Circulation, Macro- and Microcirculation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Circulation, Macro- and Microcirculation"ABS 1. MOLECULAR AND GENETIC MARKERS FOR PREDICTION OF RESISTANCE TO INOTROPIC THERAPY IN NEWBORNS WITH ARTERIAL HYPOTENSION • D. Kryuchko, A. Donnikov, E. Baibarina, I. Nikitina, O. Ionov, D. DegtyarevABS 2. GUT AND CEREBRAL OXYGENATION FROM BIRTH TO SIX WEEKS OF LIFE IN PRETERM INFANTS: WHAT IS NORMAL? • C. Howarth, T. Leung, J. Banerjee, J. Morris, N. AladangadyABS 3. CHANGES OF NT-PROBNP CONCENTRATION WITHIN THE FIRST WEEK OF LIFE IN PRETERM NEWBORNS WITH BIRTH WEIGHT ≤ 1,200 G • T. Talar, E. Gulczyńska, B. Cyranowicz, J. MollABS 4. RESISTANCE INDEX (RI OF ARTERIA CEREBRI ANTERIOR AND CEREBRAL OXYGENATION IN PRETERM INFANTS • N. Baik-Schneditz, B. Urlesberger, B. Schwaberger, L. Mileder, N. Höller, G. PichlerABS 5. THE INFLUENCE OF MATERNAL MEDICATION ON CLOSURE OF THE DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS IN THE PREMATURE NEWBORN • W.P. de Boode, J. van Drongelen, M.J.A. RaaymakersABS 6. INFLUENCE OF GLOBAL HYPOXIA AND REMOTE ISCHEMIC POSTCONDITIONING ON NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE EXPRESSION IN NEWBORN PIGLET HEART CHAMBERS • H. Kierkegaard, K.J. Kyng, B

  6. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Epidemiology and Networks"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Epidemiology and Networks"ABS 1. AN EVALUATION OF DOCTORS AND MEDICAL STUDENT’S KNOWLEDGE OF PAEDIATRIC VACCINATIONS IN PAKISTAN • N. NadeemABS 2. AN EVALUATION OF DOCTORS AND MEDICAL STUDENT’S ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS OF PAEDIATRIC VACCINATIONS IN PAKISTAN • N. NadeemABS 3. APPLYING DATA MINING TECHNIQUES TO PREDICT BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA IN VERY-LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT (VLBW INFANTS. A POPULATION-BASED STUDY • Y.J. Lin, C.H. Lin, Y.C. Lin, Y.S. Chang, C.C. Huang, K.I. TsouABS 4. IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO PERFLUOROALKYL AND POLYFLUOROALKYL SUBSTANCES AND ATTENTION AND EXECUTIVE FUNCTION IN THE OFFSPRING • C.C. Bach, Z. Liew, N.B. Matthiesen, T.B. Henriksen, B.H. Bech, E.A. Nohr, E.C. Bonefeld-Jørgensen, J. OlsenABS 5. MORTALITY, MORBIDITY AND SHORT-TERM RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY OUTCOMES IN EXTREME PRETERM NEONATES: A 5 YEAR STUDY • H. Jarvis, M. Sdobnikovs, J. William, F. Dean, P. SatodiaABS 6. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MATERNAL BODY MASS INDEX IN EARLY PREGNANCY AND INCIDENCE OF CEREBRAL PALSY • S. Johansson, E. Villamor, K. Tedroff, M. Peterson, M. Neovius, G. Petersson, S

  7. Plutonium inventories for stabilization and stabilized materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.K.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to stabilize these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the stabilization activities. All current stabilization activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing stabilization of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to stabilizing problem materials within 3 years, and stabilizing all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring stabilization and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. Stabilization of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start stabilization activities to meet these criteria.

  8. Termite assemblages in five semideciduous Atlantic Forest fragments in the northern coastland limit of the biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Bruno de Araújo Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Termites are abundant organisms in tropical ecosystems and strongly influence the litter decomposition and soil formation. Despite their importance, few studies about their assemblage structures have been made in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments, especially in the area located north of the São Francisco River. This study aims to analyze the assemblage composition of five Atlantic Forest fragments located in the northern biome limit along the Brazilian coast. A standardized sampling protocol of termites was applied in each fragment. Thirty-three termite species belonging to twenty genera and three families were found in the forest fragments. The wood-feeder group was dominant both concerning to species richness and number of encounters in all areas. In sites northern to 7°S, there is an evident simplification of the termite assemblage composition regarding species richness and number of encounters by feeding group. This fact is apparently due to a higher sandy level in soils and to semideciduous character of the vegetation in the northern fragments. Thus, even on the north of São Francisco River, termite biodiversity is heterogeneously spread with highest density of species in the portion between 07°S and São Francisco River mouth (10°29'S.

  9. Stability of parallel flows

    CERN Document Server

    Betchov, R

    2012-01-01

    Stability of Parallel Flows provides information pertinent to hydrodynamical stability. This book explores the stability problems that occur in various fields, including electronics, mechanics, oceanography, administration, economics, as well as naval and aeronautical engineering. Organized into two parts encompassing 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the general equations of a two-dimensional incompressible flow. This text then explores the stability of a laminar boundary layer and presents the equation of the inviscid approximation. Other chapters present the general equation

  10. Limits to Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The author reflects briefly on what limited degree of global ecological stability and human cultural stability may be achieved, provided that humanity retains hope and does not give way to despair or hide in denial. These thoughts were triggered by a recent conference on International Stability and Systems Engineering. (Contains 5 notes.)

  11. Feedback stabilization initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  12. Stability and Diversity of Ecosystems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anthony R. Ives; Stephen R. Carpenter

    2007-01-01

    .... The relationship is also complex, because the concept of stability is multifaceted; different types of stability describing different properties of ecosystems lead to multiple diversity-stability relationships...

  13. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Quality Improvement, Parents Centered Care"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Quality Improvement, Parents Centered Care"ABS 1. REDUCING MEDICATION ERRORS IN NICU – A QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROJECT • D.A. Al Masri, B. Ofoegbu, L. Yahya, K. Catroon, A. Saliba, H. IbrahimABS 2. PRETERM INFANTS WITH MEDICAL COM­PLEXITY: IMPACT ON HEALTH CARE RESOURCE USE, FAMILY EMPLOYMENT AND NEURODEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES • D. Nassel, C. Chartrand, M.-J. Doré-Bergeron, M. Ballantyne, F. Lefebvre, T.M. LuuABS 3. BREAST MILK DONATION IN THE MUSLIM POPULATION • S. Jebali, E. Ayachi, R. Terki Hassaine, A. Giuseppi, D. Vaiman, S. Brunet, V. RigourdABS 4. CORE OUTCOMES IN NEONATOLOGY: PRELIMINARY RESULTS • J. Webbe, N. Modi, C. Gale, on behalf of the COIN Steering GroupABS 5. A PILOT STUDY ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A FAMILY-CENTERED CARE INTERVENTION IN PRETERM INFANTS IN CHINA • R. Zhang, R. Huang, X. Gao, X. Peng, L. Zhu, R. Ramanathan, J. LatourABS 6. TO DETERMINE HOW MANY MOTHERS OF PRETERM BABIES, WHO WERE DELIVERED BETWEEN 24 AND 34 WEEKS GESTATION AND WERE ADMITTED TO NEONATAL UNIT AT ST. MARY’ S HOSPITAL, DID NOT RECEIVE ANTENATAL STEROIDS • A. Arunoday, A. Manou

  14. Internet Addiction: Stability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined five indices of stability and change in Internet addiction: structural stability, mean-level stability, differential stability, individual-level stability, and ipsative stability. The study sample was 351 undergraduate students from end of freshman year to end of junior year. Convergent findings revealed stability…

  15. Structural Stability and Vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Pedersen, Pauli

    This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author at the Uni......This book offers an integrated introduction to the topic of stability and vibration. Strikingly, it describes stability as a function of boundary conditions and eigenfrequency as a function of both boundary conditions and column force. Based on a post graduate course held by the author...... and their derivation, thus stimulating them to write interactive and dynamic programs to analyze instability and vibrational modes....

  16. Ornithopter flight stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2007-04-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model and the vehicle dynamics model of ornithopter flight are explained, and numerical methods are described to capture limit cycle behavior in ornithopter flight. The Floquet method is used to determine stability in forward flight, and a linear discrete-time state-space model is developed. This is used to calculate stabilizing and disturbance-rejecting controllers.

  17. Stability of Hyperthermophilic Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiefler-Jensen, Daniel

    in the high stability of hyperthermophilic enzymes. The thesis starts with an introduction to the field of protein and enzyme stability with special focus on the thermophilic and hyperthermophilic enzymes and proteins. After the introduction three original research manuscripts present the experimental data...

  18. Conformational stability of calreticulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte S; Trandum, Christa; Larsen, Nanna Brink

    2005-01-01

    The conformational stability of calreticulin was investigated. Apparent unfolding temperatures (Tm) increased from 31 degrees C at pH 5 to 51 degrees C at pH 9, but electrophoretic analysis revealed that calreticulin oligomerized instead of unfolding. Structural analyses showed that the single C......-terminal alpha-helix was of major importance to the conformational stability of calreticulin....

  19. Conformational stability of calreticulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.S.; Trandum, C.; Larsen, N.

    2005-01-01

    The conformational stability of calreticulin was investigated. Apparent unfolding temperatures (T-m) increased from 31 degrees C at pH 5 to 51 degrees C at pH 9, but electrophoretic analysis revealed that calreticulin oligomerized instead of unfolding. Structural analyses showed that the single C......-terminal a-helix was of major importance to the conformational stability of calreticulin....

  20. The statistical stability phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Gorban, Igor I

    2017-01-01

    This monograph investigates violations of statistical stability of physical events, variables, and processes and develops a new physical-mathematical theory taking into consideration such violations – the theory of hyper-random phenomena. There are five parts. The first describes the phenomenon of statistical stability and its features, and develops methods for detecting violations of statistical stability, in particular when data is limited. The second part presents several examples of real processes of different physical nature and demonstrates the violation of statistical stability over broad observation intervals. The third part outlines the mathematical foundations of the theory of hyper-random phenomena, while the fourth develops the foundations of the mathematical analysis of divergent and many-valued functions. The fifth part contains theoretical and experimental studies of statistical laws where there is violation of statistical stability. The monograph should be of particular interest to engineers...

  1. The role of stabilization centers in protein thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magyar, Csaba [Institute of Enzymology, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar Tudósok krt 2, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Gromiha, M. Michael [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Sávoly, Zoltán [Institute of Enzymology, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar Tudósok krt 2, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Simon, István, E-mail: simon.istvan@ttk.mta.hu [Institute of Enzymology, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar Tudósok krt 2, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-02-26

    The definition of stabilization centers was introduced almost two decades ago. They are centers of noncovalent long range interaction clusters, believed to have a role in maintaining the three-dimensional structure of proteins by preventing their decay due to their cooperative long range interactions. Here, this hypothesis is investigated from the viewpoint of thermal stability for the first time, using a large protein thermodynamics database. The positions of amino acids belonging to stabilization centers are correlated with available experimental thermodynamic data on protein thermal stability. Our analysis suggests that stabilization centers, especially solvent exposed ones, do contribute to the thermal stabilization of proteins. - Highlights: • Stabilization centers contribute to thermal stabilization of protein structures. • Stabilization center content correlates with melting temperature of proteins. • Exposed stabilization center content correlates with stability even in hyperthermophiles. • Stability changing mutations are frequently found at stabilization centers.

  2. Dispersal and metapopulation stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaopeng Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metapopulation dynamics are jointly regulated by local and spatial factors. These factors may affect the dynamics of local populations and of the entire metapopulation differently. Previous studies have shown that dispersal can stabilize local populations; however, as dispersal also tends to increase spatial synchrony, its net effect on metapopulation stability has been controversial. Here we present a simple metapopulation model to study how dispersal, in interaction with other spatial and local processes, affects the temporal variability of metapopulations in a stochastic environment. Our results show that in homogeneous metapopulations, the local stabilizing and spatial synchronizing effects of dispersal cancel each other out, such that dispersal has no effect on metapopulation variability. This result is robust to moderate heterogeneities in local and spatial parameters. When local and spatial dynamics exhibit high heterogeneities, however, dispersal can either stabilize or destabilize metapopulation dynamics through various mechanisms. Our findings have important theoretical and practical implications. We show that dispersal functions as a form of spatial intraspecific mutualism in metapopulation dynamics and that its effect on metapopulation stability is opposite to that of interspecific competition on local community stability. Our results also suggest that conservation corridors should be designed with appreciation of spatial heterogeneities in population dynamics in order to maximize metapopulation stability.

  3. Gravity stabilizes itself

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Sumanta; SenGupta, Soumitra [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Department of Theoretical Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2017-08-15

    We show that a possible resolution to the stabilization of an extra spatial dimension (radion) can be obtained solely in the context of gravitational dynamics itself without the necessity of introducing any external stabilizing field. In this scenario the stabilized value of the radion field gets determined in terms of the parameters appearing in the higher curvature gravitational action. Furthermore, the mass of the radion field and its coupling to the standard model fields are found to be in the weak scale implying possible signatures in the TeV scale colliders. Some resulting implications are also discussed. (orig.)

  4. Modeling of residue stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco-Arjona, A.; Castro, M.D.L. de [Univ. of Cordoba (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Izquierdo, A. [Gemasur, Cordoba (Spain). Dept. of R and D

    1999-04-01

    Because of the variety in anthropogenic toxic residues produced by human activity, the establishment of a general procedure for the destruction of these residues or transformation into less toxic materials is difficult. A study was made on the decrease in toxicity of various contaminated residues when treated with three different stabilizers. General criteria of the requirements for stabilization were also established, which depended on both the toxicity and nature of the toxic substances. The modeling of the stabilization process will allow nonspecialized personnel to carry out the operations and will also standardize the modus operandi of such enterprises.

  5. Stability analysis of ferrofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Duda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs are used as tracer for the new imaging technique Magnetic Particle Imaging. The stability of ferrofluids for medical application has a great importance, in addition to the particle size. The shell material, which protects the iron core prior from agglomeration and sedimentation, can be degraded by various processes. Another important aspect of stability is the constant performance of magnetisation. Therefore, the measurement of the magnetisation of the particles must be controlled in order to ensure the stability of the samples.

  6. The operator's emotional stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, P. B.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide a psychological interpretation of the concept of emotional stability in connection with other psychics qualities of an operator's personality. Emotional stability is understood as a person's capacity to control his emotional state for the purpose of maintaining the necessary level of work performance under extreme stress conditions. By modeling the operator's sensorimotor activity and by comparing the productivity indicators under ordinary conditions with those obtained during work involving an emotional load, the level of emotional stability can be determined.

  7. Core stability exercise principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuthota, Venu; Ferreiro, Andrea; Moore, Tamara; Fredericson, Michael

    2008-02-01

    Core stability is essential for proper load balance within the spine, pelvis, and kinetic chain. The so-called core is the group of trunk muscles that surround the spine and abdominal viscera. Abdominal, gluteal, hip girdle, paraspinal, and other muscles work in concert to provide spinal stability. Core stability and its motor control have been shown to be imperative for initiation of functional limb movements, as needed in athletics. Sports medicine practitioners use core strengthening techniques to improve performance and prevent injury. Core strengthening, often called lumbar stabilization, also has been used as a therapeutic exercise treatment regimen for low back pain conditions. This article summarizes the anatomy of the core, the progression of core strengthening, the available evidence for its theoretical construct, and its efficacy in musculoskeletal conditions.

  8. Measuring core stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, Wendell P; Baumgartner, Ted A; Gagnon, Laura H

    2005-08-01

    In this study, a 4-item battery of core stability (CS) tests modeled on core stabilization activities used in training and rehabilitation research was developed, and a measurement schedule was established to maximize internal consistency and stability reliabilities. Specifically, we found that 4 test administrations on each of 4 days produced intraclass correlation coefficients that in most instances exceeded 0.90 and stability reliability coefficients on the third and fourth days of testing that exceeded 0.90 for 2 of the tests and 0.80 for the other 2. Thus, it is recommended that in future research, examiners administer the battery for at least 3 days and consider the data collected on day 3 as the best estimate of participant CS.

  9. Intelligent passively stabilized quadrotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayfeddine, D.; Bulgakov, A. G.; Kruglova, T. N.

    2017-10-01

    Quadrotor stability is one of the most topical researches worldwide. It is due to the simplicity, availability and cost of such platform. This miniature aerial vehicle is highly manoeuvrable, straight forward to use and to maintain. It can be deployed to perform wide variety of tasks. On the other hand, the quadrotor suffers from non-stability, which makes it unreliable, especially when flying on low speed, high altitude and in windy circumstances. This paper discusses the improvement of the quadrotor by adding a stabilizing mechanism working as a passive breaking system in sharp and spontaneous turns. The mechanism is described and simulated as a standalone module. The end result represents the determination of the stiffness coefficient of the stabilizing actuator using fuzzy logic controller.

  10. PFP solution stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aftanas, B.L.

    1996-04-30

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.

  11. Stabilities of generalized entropies

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Sumiyoshi; Kaniadakis, G.; Scarfone, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    The generalized entropic measure, which is optimized by a given arbitrary distribution under the constraints on normalization of the distribution and the finite ordinary expectation value of a physical random quantity, is considered and its Lesche stability property (that is different from thermodynamic stability) is examined. A general condition, under which the generalized entropy becomes stable, is derived. Examples known in the literature, including the entropy for the stretched-exponenti...

  12. Fuel Stability Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    The third method is to add liquid chemical stabilizing additives to fuel which is likely to form insoluble products from chemical degradation during...storage. 1 The treatment choice depends on the storage stability of the fuel and several highly accelerated test methods have been developed to...include carbamate, amide, urea, biuret , isocyanurate and allophanate which may interact with the polar species responsible for deposit formation. PU foams

  13. METHOD FOR STABILIZING KLYSTRONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, D.W.; Smith, D.F.

    1959-04-14

    High-frequency oscillators for the generation of microwaves, particularly a system for stabilizing frequency-modulated klystron oscillators of the reflex type, are described. The system takos advantage of the fact that a change in oscillator frequency will alter the normal phase displacement between the cavity and its modulator, creating an error voltage which is utilized to regulate the frequency of the oscillator and stabilize it.

  14. Food Fortification Stability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmons, T. A.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G. L.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the stability of vitamin content, sensory acceptability and color variation in fortified spaceflight foods over a period of two years. Findings will help to identify optimal formulation, processing, and storage conditions to maintain stability and acceptability of commercially available fortification nutrients. Changes in food quality were monitored to indicate whether fortification affects quality over time (compared to the unfortified control), thus indicating their potential for use on long-duration missions.

  15. Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Eduard Mitu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Policies or institutions (built into an economic system that automatically tend to dampen economic cycle fluctuations in income, employment, etc., without direct government intervention. For example, in boom times, progressive income tax automatically reduces money supply as incomes and spendings rise. Similarly, in recessionary times, payment of unemployment benefits injects more money in the system and stimulates demand. Also called automatic stabilizers or built-in stabilizers.

  16. Cyber Deterrence and Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goychayev, Rustam [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carr, Geoffrey A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weise, Rachel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Donnelly, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clements, Samuel L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Benz, Jacob M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rodda, Kabrena E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartholomew, Rachel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McKinnon, Archibald D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Andres, Richard B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    Throughout the 20th and early 21st centuries, deterrence and arms control have been cornerstones of strategic stability between the superpowers. However, the weaponization of the cyber realm by State actors and the multipolar nature of cyber conflict now undermines that stability. Strategic stability is the state in which nations believe that if they act aggressively to undermine U.S. national interests and the post-World War II liberal democratic order, the consequences will outweigh the benefits. The sense of lawlessness and lack of consequences in the cyber realm embolden States to be more aggressive in taking actions that undermine stability. Accordingly, this paper examines 1) the role of deterrence and arms control in securing cyber stability, and 2) the limitations and challenges associated with these traditional national security paradigms as applied to this emerging threat domain. This paper demonstrates that many 20th-century deterrence and arms control concepts are not particularly applicable in the cyber realm. However, they are not entirely irrelevant. The United States can distill lessons learned from this rich deterrence and arms control experience to develop and deploy a strategy to advance cyber stability.

  17. Death in Venice : The homosexuality enigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, GA

    A hypothesis is presented which regards homosexuality neither as an aberration of 'normal' human sexuality, i.e. heterosexuality, nor as a 'defect, genetically transmitted from parent(s) to offspring. Nor is homosexuality regarded as the regrettable result of accidental circumstances. Homosexuality,

  18. Lessons from Venice: Authenticity, Emotions, and ICTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi S. Baron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of modern artificial intelligence research in the 1950s, scholars have striven to model the ways in which humans think, speak, move, and emote. A presumed measure of success is the degree to which computer-driven programs or mechanical constructs can reproduce (that is, simulate behaviors of their human counterparts. With the development of robotic pets, comparable measures have been considered. The goal of simulation is based upon an assumption regarding the extent to which humans seek authenticity, more generally, in the representations they encounter. By “representation” we mean everything from an audio recording of a musical performance, to an architectural reproduction of an original edifice, to a sculpture depicting a person, to a robotic pet. This essay argues that authenticity in representation is not always a desired goal. As a result, as we think about the extent to which the robots of today (and tomorrow are capable of expressing emotion and other behaviors that are judged to be life-like, it behooves us to consider the degree to which users of robots are actually seeking verisimilitude.

  19. Stability and diversity of ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Anthony R; Carpenter, Stephen R

    2007-07-06

    Understanding the relationship between diversity and stability requires a knowledge of how species interact with each other and how each is affected by the environment. The relationship is also complex, because the concept of stability is multifaceted; different types of stability describing different properties of ecosystems lead to multiple diversity-stability relationships. A growing number of empirical studies demonstrate positive diversity-stability relationships. These studies, however, have emphasized only a few types of stability, and they rarely uncover the mechanisms responsible for stability. Because anthropogenic changes often affect stability and diversity simultaneously, diversity-stability relationships cannot be understood outside the context of the environmental drivers affecting both. This shifts attention away from diversity-stability relationships toward the multiple factors, including diversity, that dictate the stability of ecosystems.

  20. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neurology and Follow-up"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Neurology and Follow-up"ABS 1. PRETERM BIRTH AND THE TIMING OF PUBERTY • E. James, C. Wood, H. Nair, T. WilliamsABS 2. NEONATAL PAIN, OPIOID AND ANAESTHETIC EXPOSURE; WHAT REMAINS IN THE HUMAN BRAIN AFTER THE WHEELS OF TIME? • G.E. van den Bosch, D. Tibboel, J.C. de Graaff, H. El Marroun, A. van der Lugt, T. White, M. van DijkABS 3. DEPRESSION DURING PREGNANCY AND DNA METHYLATION CHANGES IN CORD BLOOD • A.-C. Viuff, G. Sharp, D. Raj, K.J. Kyng, L.H. Pedersen, T.B. Henriksen, C.L. ReltonABS 4. PREVENTION OF CEREBRAL PALSY: FEASIBILITY OF UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD STEM CELLS AND UMBILICAL CORD MESENCHYMAL STROMAL CELLS • H. Shintaku, M. Nabetani, T. Hamazaki, S. Kusuda, M. Tamura, S. Watabe, M. Hayakawa, Y. Sato, M. Tsuji, A. Taguchi, H. Ichiba, O. Akira, R. Mori, A.Taki, T. Mukai, T. Nagamura-InoueABS 5. NO GENDER-RELATED DIFFERENCES IN FETAL CORPUS CALLOSUM THICKNESS: IN-UTERO MRI STUDY • R. Bercovitz, R. Achiron, C. Hoffmann, A. AchironABS 6. NEUROMOTOR PROFILE OF HIGH-RISK INFANTS AT TERM OR NEAR TERM • I. Ereno, W.Y. TehABS 7. THE PREDICTIVE VALUE OF SEVERE BRONCHOPULMONARY

  1. Hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekhar, S

    1981-01-01

    Dr. Chandrasekhar's book received high praise when it first appeared in 1961 as part of Oxford University Press' International Series of Monographs on Physics. Since then it has been reprinted numerous times in its expensive hardcover format. This first lower-priced, sturdy paperback edition will be welcomed by graduate physics students and scientists familiar with Dr. Chandrasekhar's work, particularly in light of the resurgence of interest in the Rayleigh-Bénard problem. This book presents a most lucid introduction to the Rayleigh-Bénard problem: it has also been applauded for its thorough, clear coverage of the theory of instabilities causing convection. Dr. Chandrasekhar considers most of the typical problems in hydromagnetic stability, with the exception of viscous shear flow; a specialized domain deserving a book unto itself. Contents include: Rotation; Stability of More General Flows; Bénard Problem; Gravitational Equilibrium and Instability; Stability of a Magnetic Field; Thermal Instability of a L...

  2. Progress on plutonium stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, D. [Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium stabilization and has has a considerable influence on DOE`s stabilization schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities.

  3. Chromium and Genomic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Sandra S.; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-01-01

    Many metals serve as micronutrients which protect against genomic instability. Chromium is most abundant in its trivalent and hexavalent forms. Trivalent chromium has historically been considered an essential element, though recent data indicate that while it can have pharmacological effects and value, it is not essential. There are no data indicating that trivalent chromium promotes genomic stability and, instead may promote genomic instability. Hexavalent chromium is widely accepted as highly toxic and carcinogenic with no nutritional value. Recent data indicate that it causes genomic instability and also has no role in promoting genomic stability. PMID:22192535

  4. Stability of dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Xiaoxin; Yu, P 0

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of developing stability theory is to examine dynamic responses of a system to disturbances as the time approaches infinity. It has been and still is the object of intense investigations due to its intrinsic interest and its relevance to all practical systems in engineering, finance, natural science and social science. This monograph provides some state-of-the-art expositions of major advances in fundamental stability theories and methods for dynamic systems of ODE and DDE types and in limit cycle, normal form and Hopf bifurcation control of nonlinear dynamic systems.ʺ Presents

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Zohm, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    This book bridges the gap between general plasma physics lectures and the real world problems in MHD stability. In order to support the understanding of concepts and their implication, it refers to real world problems such as toroidal mode coupling or nonlinear evolution in a conceptual and phenomenological approach. Detailed mathematical treatment will involve classical linear stability analysis and an outline of more recent concepts such as the ballooning formalism. The book is based on lectures that the author has given to Master and PhD students in Fusion Plasma Physics. Due its strong lin

  6. Stability through cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Economic variables like GDP growth, employment, interest rates and consumption show signs of cyclical behavior. Many variables display multiple cycles, with lengths ranging in between 5 to even up to 100 years. We argue that multiple cycles can be associated with long-run stability of the economic

  7. Orbit Stabilization of Nanosat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON,DAVID J.

    1999-12-01

    An algorithm is developed to control a pulsed {Delta}V thruster on a small satellite to allow it to fly in formation with a host satellite undergoing time dependent atmospheric drag deceleration. The algorithm uses four short thrusts per orbit to correct for differences in the average radii of the satellites due to differences in drag and one thrust to symmetrize the orbits. The radial difference between the orbits is the only input to the algorithm. The algorithm automatically stabilizes the orbits after ejection and includes provisions to allow azimuthal positional changes by modifying the drag compensation pulses. The algorithm gives radial and azimuthal deadbands of 50 cm and 3 m for a radial measurement accuracy of {+-} 5 cm and {+-} 60% period variation in the drag coefficient of the host. Approaches to further reduce the deadbands are described. The methodology of establishing a stable orbit after ejection is illustrated in an appendix. The results show the optimum ejection angle to minimize stabilization thrust is upward at 86{sup o} from the orbital velocity. At this angle the stabilization velocity that must be supplied by the thruster is half the ejection velocity. An ejection velocity of 0.02 m/sat 86{sup o} gives an azimuthal separation after ejection and orbit stabilization of 187 m. A description of liquid based gas thrusters suitable for the satellite control is included in an appendix.

  8. Linearity stabilizes discrete breathers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... Here we study the dynamics of highly localized excitations, or discrete breathers, which are known to be initiated by the quasistatic stretching of bonds between adjacent particles. We show via dynamical simulations that acoustic waves introduced by the harmonic term stabilize the discrete breather by ...

  9. The Dynamics of Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage

    politiske aktører der greb disse muligheder. Disse historiske faktorer, der hjalp med at skabe opbakning til velfærdsstaten, er dog blevet svækket med tiden, mens støtten til modellen forbliver stabil. Denne umiddelbare modsætning er denne afhandlings omdrejningspunkt. Derfor vender jeg I denne afhandling...

  10. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neonatal Gastrointestinal Physiology and NEC"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Neonatal Gastrointestinal Physiology and NEC"ABS 1. DETRIMENTAL MUCOSAL EFFECT OF IBUPROFEN IN THE IMMATURE HUMAN INTESTINE • E. Tremblay, E. Ferretti, M.-P. Thibault, D. Grynspan, K.M. Burghardt, M. Bettolli, C. Babakissa, E. Levy, J.-F. Beaulieu; Research Consortium on Child Intestinal InflammationABS 2. CORRELATION BETWEEN CALPROTECTIN LEVELS IN MECONIUM AND VITAMIN D STATUS IN CORD BLOOD: ASSOCIATION WITH INTESTINAL DISTRESS DURING NEONATAL PERIOD • S.H. Park, W.H. Kim, Y.M. LeeABS 3. COMPARISON OF FECAL CALPROTECTIN LEVELS ACCORDING TO FEEDING KINDS IN VERY PRETERM INFANTS • J.H. Park, N.H. Lee, S.Y. Shin, C.S. Kim, S.L. Lee, W.M. LeeABS 4. NEONATAL MORBIDITY OF EXTREME PRETERM INFANTS BEFORE AND AFTER THE INTRODUCTION OF A DONOR HUMAN MILK BANK AT THE PERINATAL CENTER GROßHADERN • V. Lieftüchter, M. Kujawa, A. Schuze, A.W. Flemmer, S. Herber-JonatABS 5. IS NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY A RELIABLE TECHNIQUE TO MEASURE GUT PERFUSION IN PRETERM INFANTS? • J. Banerjee, T.S. Leung, N. AladangadyABS 6. EARLY BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS ASSOCIATED WITH DEVELOPMENT OF NECROTIZING

  11. Surface-stabilized gold nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Yan, Wenfu [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-12-08

    A surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst includes a solid support having stabilizing surfaces for supporting gold nanoparticles, and a plurality of gold nanoparticles having an average particle size of less than 8 nm disposed on the stabilizing surfaces. The surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst provides enhanced stability, such as at high temperature under oxygen containing environments. In one embodiment, the solid support is a multi-layer support comprising at least a first layer having a second layer providing the stabilizing surfaces disposed thereon, the first and second layer being chemically distinct.

  12. Hillslope hydrology and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Landslides are caused by a failure of the mechanical balance within hillslopes. This balance is governed by two coupled physical processes: hydrological or subsurface flow and stress. The stabilizing strength of hillslope materials depends on effective stress, which is diminished by rainfall. This book presents a cutting-edge quantitative approach to understanding hydro-mechanical processes across variably saturated hillslope environments and to the study and prediction of rainfall-induced landslides. Topics covered include historic synthesis of hillslope geomorphology and hydrology, total and effective stress distributions, critical reviews of shear strength of hillslope materials and different bases for stability analysis. Exercises and homework problems are provided for students to engage with the theory in practice. This is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers in hydrology, geomorphology, engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and geomechanics and for professionals in the fields of civil and environmental engineering and natural hazard analysis.

  13. Marital stability and repartnering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Mariana V; Costa, Patrício; Peterson, Brennan D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the trajectories of infertility-related stress between patients who remain in the same relationship and patients who repartner. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study using latent growth modeling. SETTING: Fertility centers. PATIENT(S): Childless men and women evaluated before...... starting a new cycle of fertility treatment and observed for a 5-year period of unsuccessful treatments. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Marital stability and infertility-related stress. RESULT(S): The majority of patients (86%) remained with their initial partner, but 14% of participants...... separated and repartnered while pursuing fertility treatments. Marital stability significantly predicted the initial status of infertility stress and infertility stress growth levels. Specifically, patients who repartnered had higher infertility stress levels at all time points compared with those who...

  14. Dynamically stabilized magnetic skyrmions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Iacocca, E.; Awad, A. A.; Dumas, R. K.; Zhang, F. C.; Braun, H. B.; Åkerman, J.

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic skyrmions are topologically non-trivial spin textures that manifest themselves as quasiparticles in ferromagnetic thin films or noncentrosymmetric bulk materials. So far attention has focused on skyrmions stabilized either by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) or by dipolar interaction, where in the latter case the excitations are known as bubble skyrmions. Here we demonstrate the existence of a dynamically stabilized skyrmion, which exists even when dipolar interactions and DMI are absent. We establish how such dynamic skyrmions can be nucleated, sustained and manipulated in an effectively lossless medium under a nanocontact. As quasiparticles, they can be transported between two nanocontacts in a nanowire, even in complete absence of DMI. Conversely, in the presence of DMI, we observe that the dynamical skyrmion experiences strong breathing. All of this points towards a wide range of skyrmion manipulation, which can be studied in a much wider class of materials than considered so far.

  15. Stability of Organic Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, F.; Schiek, M.; Wallmann, I.

    2011-01-01

    The morphological stability of organic nanowires over time and under thermal load is of major importance for their use in any device. In this study the growth and stability of organic nanowires from a naphthyl end-capped thiophene grown by organic molecular beam deposition is investigated via...... atomic force microscopy (AFM). Aging experiments under ambient conditions already show substantial morphological changes. Nanoscopic organic clusters, which initially coexist with the nanowires, vanish within hours. Thermal annealing of nanowire samples leads to even more pronounced morphology changes......, such as a strong decrease in nanowire number density, a strong increase in nanowire height, and the formation of new types of crystallites. This happens even before sublimation of organic material starts. These experiments also shine new light on the formation process of the nanowires....

  16. Glycosylation and thermodynamic versus kinetic stability of horseradish peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tams, J.W.; Welinder, Karen G.

    1998-01-01

    Glycoprotein stability, glycoprotein unfolding, horseradish peroxidase, thermodynamic stability, kinetik stability......Glycoprotein stability, glycoprotein unfolding, horseradish peroxidase, thermodynamic stability, kinetik stability...

  17. Limits of Nuclear Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Nerlo-Pomorska, B; Kleban, M

    2003-01-01

    The modern version of the liquid-drop model (LSD) is compared with the macroscopic part of the binding energy evaluated within the Hartree-Fock- Bogoliubov procedure with the Gogny force and the relativistic mean field theory. The parameters of a liquid-drop like mass formula which approximate on the average the self-consistent results are compared with other models. The limits of nuclear stability predicted by these models are discussed.

  18. Chromium and Genomic Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, Sandra S.; Wise, John Pierce

    2011-01-01

    Many metals serve as micronutrients which protect against genomic instability. Chromium is most abundant in its trivalent and hexavalent forms. Trivalent chromium has historically been considered an essential element, though recent data indicate that while it can have pharmacological effects and value, it is not essential. There are no data indicating that trivalent chromium promotes genomic stability and, instead may promote genomic instability. Hexavalent chromium is widely accepted as high...

  19. Heterotic moduli stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, M. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. Fisica ed Astronomia; INFN, Bologna (Italy); Adbus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy); De Alwis, S. [Adbus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). UCB 390 Physics Dept.; Westphal, A. [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2013-04-15

    We perform a systematic analysis of moduli stabilization for weakly coupled heterotic string theory compactified on smooth Calabi-Yau three-folds. We focus on both supersymmetric and supersymmetry breaking vacua of generic (0,2) compactifications obtained by minimising the total (F+D)-term scalar potential. After reviewing how to stabilise all the geometric moduli in a supersymmetric way by including fractional fluxes, non-perturbative and threshold effects, we show that the inclusion of {alpha}' corrections leads to new de Sitter or nearly Minkowski vacua which break supersymmetry spontaneously. The minimum lies at moderately large volumes of all the geometric moduli, at perturbative values of the string coupling and at the right phenomenological value of the GUT gauge coupling. However the structure of the heterotic 3-form flux used for complex structure moduli stabilization does not contain enough freedom to tune the superpotential. This results in the generic prediction of high-scale supersymmetry breaking around the GUT scale. We finally provide a dynamical derivation of anisotropic compactifications with stabilized moduli which allow for perturbative gauge coupling unification around 10{sup 16} GeV.

  20. Vibrational stability of graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangfan Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical stability of graphene as temperature rises is analyzed based on three different self-consistent phonon (SCP models. Compared with three-dimensional (3-D materials, the critical temperature Ti at which instability occurs for graphene is much closer to its melting temperature Tm obtained from Monte Carlo simulation (Ti ≃ 2Tm, K. V. Zakharchenko, A. Fasolino, J. H. Los, and M. I. Katsnelson, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23, 202202. This suggests that thermal vibration plays a significant role in melting of graphene while melting for 3-D materials is often dominated by topologic defects. This peculiar property of graphene derives from its high structural anisotropy, which is characterized by the vibrational anisotropic coefficient (VAC, defined upon its Lindermann ratios in different directions. For any carbon based material with a graphene-like structure, the VAC value must be smaller than 5.4 to maintain its stability. It is also found that the high VAC value of graphene is responsible for its negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperature range. We believe that the VAC can be regarded as a new criterion concerning the vibrational stability of any low-dimensional (low-D materials.

  1. Improved roof stabilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities require that personnel have access to all areas of structures, some of which are more than 40 years old. In many cases, these structures have remained in a standby condition for up to 10 years; few preventative maintenance activities have been performed on them because of lack of funding or a defined future plan of action. This situation has led to deteriorated building conditions, resulting in potential personnel safety hazards. In addition, leaky roofs allow water to enter the buildings, which can cause the spread of contamination and increase building deterioration, worsening the already unsafe working conditions. To ensure worker safety and facilitate building dismantlement, the assessment of roof stabilization techniques applicable to US Department of Energy (DOE) structures has become an important issue. During Fiscal year 1997 (FY97), a comprehensive reliability-based model for the structural stabilization analysis of roof system in complex structures was developed. The model consists of three major components: a material testing method, a deterministic structural computer model, and a reliability-based optimization, and probabilistic analyses of roof structures can be implemented. Given site-specific needs, this model recommends the most appropriate roof stabilization system. This model will give not only an accurate evaluation of the existing roof system in complex structures, but it will also be a reliable method to aid the decision-making process. This final report includes in its appendix a Users` Manual for the Program of Deterministic and Reliability Analysis of Roof Structures.

  2. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neonatal Pulmonology, Neonatal Respiratory Support, Resuscitation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Neonatal Pulmonology, Neonatal Respiratory Support, Resuscitation"ABS 1. HOW SAFE IS NASAL CANNULAE OXYGEN THERAPY DURING NEONATAL TRANSPORT? • A. Brunton, J. O’Shea, A. JacksonABS 2. WEANING PREMATURE INFANTS FROM NASAL CONTINUOUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE – CURRENT PRACTICE IN GERMANY • A. Kidszun, C. Arnold, J. Winter, C. Whybra-Trümpler, E. MildenbergerABS 3. TIMING OF KEY EVENTS IN NEONATAL RE­SUSCITATION • A. Heathcote, J. Jones, P. ClarkeABS 4. COMPARING NON-INVASIVE VENTILATION METHODS IN RESPIRATORY SUPPORT OF PRETERM NEONATES WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASES • A.S. Farhat, A. Mohammadzadeh, G.A. Mamuri, R. Saeidi, S. NoorizadehABS 5. PREDICTORS AND OUTCOMES OF CONTINU­OUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE AND NA­SAL HIGH-FLOW TREATMENT FAILURE IN PRE­TERM INFANTS: A SECONDARY ANALYSIS OF A RANDOMIZED TRIAL • B. Manley, C. Roberts, D. Frøisland, L. Doyle, P. Davis, L. OwenABS 6. NEONATAL NON-INVASIVE RESPIRATORY SUPPORT APPROACH: A TWO COUNTRIES COMPARISON • I. Bresesti, S. Zivanovic, G. Lista, C. RoehrABS 7. PREDICTORS OF EARLY CPAP FAILURE IN VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT PRETERM

  3. A transmission line phase stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutes, G. F.

    1979-01-01

    To meet the phase stability requirements of certain experiments performed with the Deep Space Network, transmission lines carrying reference signals must be stabilized to reduce changes in their electrical length due to mechanical movement or changes in ambient temperature. A transmission line phase stabilizer being developed at JPL to perform this function is described.

  4. Moral Hazard and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    2014-01-01

    Economists perceive moral hazard as an undesirable problem because it undermines efficiency. Carefully designed contracts can mitigate the moral hazard problem, but this assumes that a team is already formed. This paper demonstrates that these contracts are sometimes the reason why teams do...... not form. Formally, we study the team formation problem in which the agents’ efforts are not verifiable and the size of teams does not exceed quota r . We show that if the team members cannot make transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable...

  5. Core stability and bicycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Chad; Ross, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Bicycling is a popular fitness activity in the United States and around the world. Because of the nature of the bicycling position, the neck and back are at risk for injury. One method to prevent these injuries is to ensure that the body's "core" is strong and stable. A strong and stable core also provides a platform to maximize power transfer, improving performance. Core exercises also may enhance recovery from intense bicycling efforts. Simple stability exercises can improve performance and may prevent injuries in bicyclists.

  6. Cosmic baldness and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchapakesan, N.; Lohiya, D.

    1985-04-01

    The stability of the de Sitter metric and the relevance of the initial state of a domain which approaches a de Sitter universe asymptotically are investigated analytically, adapting the one-dimensional wave equation with effective potential derived by Khanal and Panchapakesan (1981), for the perturbations of the de Sitter-Schwarzschild metric, to the de Sitter case. It is demonstrated that initial nonspherical perturbations do not increase exponentially with time but rather decay, the frozen modes exponentially and the backscattered perturbations of finite angular momentum l as t to the -(2l - l). It is concluded that the cosmic horizon is stable and has no hair. 14 references.

  7. STABILITY PARAMETERS IN LENTIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B TUBA BİÇER

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen lentil genotypes were tested for grain yield in Southeastern Anatolia ecological conditions, over our consecutive years to classify these cultivars for yield stability. Seed yield ranged from 1.903 t/ha to 1.367 t/ha. RM76, RM601 and RM152 showed regression coeffi cient above 1.00, but RM76 among these lines was consistently produced the highest yields. The unstable cultivars, RM601 and RM152 had the highest S2 values and high C.V. for grain yield.

  8. Sustainability, Stability, and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Ludwig

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this essay is to define and refine the concepts of stability and resilience and to demonstrate their value in understanding the behavior of exploited systems. Some ecological systems display several possible stable states. They may also show a hysteresis effect in which, even after a long time, the state of the system may be partly determined by its history. The concept of resilience depends upon our objectives, the types of disturbances that we anticipate, control measures that are available, and the time scale of interest.

  9. Stability Landscape of Shell Buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, Emmanuel; Kreilos, Tobias; Schneider, Tobias M.; Rubinstein, Shmuel M.

    2017-12-01

    We measure the response of cylindrical shells to poking and identify a stability landscape, which fully characterizes the stability of perfect shells and imperfect ones in the case where a single defect dominates. We show that the landscape of stability is independent of the loading protocol and the poker geometry. Our results suggest that the complex stability of shells reduces to a low dimensional description. Tracking ridges and valleys of this landscape defines a natural phase-space coordinates for describing the stability of shells.

  10. Stability of the Levitron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflinger, Lee O.; Ridgway, S. L.; Simon, Martin D.

    1996-05-01

    The Levitron, manufactured by Fascinations in Seattle WA, successfully demonstrates magnetic suspension. A 22 gram spinning magnetic dipole top is supported by magnetic forces that balance its weight about 3.2 cm above a magnetized base, and it will float about two minutes until its spin rate has declined to about 1000 rpm. However, since in general it is not possible (The Feynman Lectures on Physics Volume II, 5-4) to have a potential energy minimum or maximum for any rigidly connected system of poles in a magnetic field, the stability of the Levitron is not obvious. Gyroscopic forces that prevent the top from flipping over and being attracted to the base have been suggested as the source of the stability (US Patent 5,404,062, Hones et al.). We find that fixing the direction of the top axis in space is not sufficient. An analysis and numerical integration of the five degree of freedom equations of motion of the top that includes gyroscopic precession around the local magnetic field lines do predict that the top will be supported stably up to spin speeds of 2100 rpm.

  11. Genotype adaptability and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Miodrag

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns in breeding programs is a small genotype reaction to environmental factor variation for better usage of yield genetic potential. Particularly if one takes in consideration that yield could van greatly because of more and more variable meteorological conditions. Studies conducted to observe genotype and environmental relations relay on numerous mathematical models, but genotype behavior in various ecological conditions is not, still, precisely defined Major sources of variation influencing genotype behavior in different environments are genotype/environment interaction, genetic background and environmental conditions. These factors could play an important role in establishing growth regions for maximal realization of genotype genetic potential, as well as in selection of genotypes having better response to complex requirements of particular growth region. Stability, the genotype ability to perform high, uniform yield no meter of different environmental conditions, and adaptability, genotype ability to give uniform yield in a different environmental conditions, are two common terms used to define genotype reaction in a consequence of environmental changes. Most of the models dealing with stability and adaptability are based on variation sources appearing under the influence of treatment, multivariate effects and residue. No meter which statistical model is used for GE interaction estimation, there is an opinion that no solid proof for the existence of stable genotypes obtained in breeding programs, which make some space for further investigations. There are still questions to answer dealing with definitions, sources of variation, usage value of existent models and interpretation of the results. .

  12. Gender and family stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trend of partnership disruption among families with children in recent decades has been accompanied by substantial changes in traditional gender roles in industrialized countries. Yet, relatively little is known about the effects of changing gender relations on family stability in the European context. In this paper, we study such gender influences at the familial and societal level in Sweden and Hungary between the mid-1960s and the early 1990s. We focus on the disruption of the first parental union (i.e. the union in which a couple's first child was born. Our analysis is based on data extracted from the Swedish and Hungarian Fertility and Family Surveys of 1992/93. We use the method of hazard regression. The results suggest (i that the establishment of the dual-earner family model influences family stability only if it is accompanied by some changes in traditional gender relations within the family, and (ii that women's and men's labor-market behavior have different effects in spite of the relatively long history of women's (also mothers' labor-force participation in both Sweden and Hungary.

  13. Polymer Thin Film Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A. C.; Oslanec, R.; Composto, R. J.; Vlcek, P.

    1998-03-01

    We study the dewetting dynamics of thin polystyrene (PS) films deposited on silicon oxide surfaces using optical (OM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopes. Quantitative analysis of the hole diameter as a function of annealing time at 175^oC shows that blending poly(styrene-block-methyl-methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) with PS acts to dramatically slow down the dewetting rate and even stops holes growth before they impinge. AFM studies show that the hole floor is smooth for a pure PS film but contains residual polymer for the blend. At 5% vol., a PS-b-PMMA with high molar mass and low PMMA is a more effective stabilizing agent than a low molar mass/high PMMA additive. The optimum copolymer concentration is 3% vol. beyond which film stability doesn't improve. Although dewetting is slowed down relative to pure PS, PS/PS-b-PMMA bilayers dewet at a faster rate than blends having the same overall additive concentration.

  14. Helminth fauna of Rhinella fernandezae (Anura: Bufonidae) from the Rio Grande do Sul coastland, Brazil: analysis of the parasite community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V G T; Amato, S B

    2010-08-01

    Ninety specimens of Rhinella fernandezae , collected in Imbé, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from August 2006 to April 2007, were examined for presence of helminth parasites; all were infected by at least 1 species. Thirteen species of parasites were found: 4 digeneans, 2 cestodes, 2 acanthocephalans, and 5 nematodes. Rhinella fernandezae represents a new host record, as well as for Gorgoderina festoni , Cylindrotaenia americana , Acanthocephalus lutzi , Aplectana meridionalis , and Strongyloides carinii . The nematodes Cosmocerca parva and A. meridionalis occurred with a prevalence of 79.1%, and, as in other Rhinella species, the nematodes dominated the parasite community. Host gender had no influence on either abundance or prevalence of the helminths, and neither the length nor weight of the hosts influenced the richness of the parasitic helminths of these burrowing toads. Only A. meridionalis and Centrorhynchus sp. (both cystacanths) exhibited a significant correlation between host length and abundance of helminths; only A. meridionalis showed a relationship between host length and prevalence.

  15. Food Fortification Stability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmons, T.; Cooper, M.; Douglas, G.

    2017-01-01

    NASA has established the goal of traveling beyond low-Earth orbit and extending manned exploration to Mars. The length of proposed Mars missions and the lack of resupply missions increases the importance of nutritional content in the food system, which will need a five-year shelf life. The purpose of this research is to assess the stability of vitamin supplementation in traditionally processed spaceflight foods. It is expected that commercially available fortification nutrients will remain stable through a long duration exploration mission at sufficient levels if compatible formulation, processing, and storage temperatures are achieved. Five vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and thiamin) were blended into a vitamin premix (DSM, Freeport, TX) such that the vitamin concentration per serving equaled 25% of the recommended daily intake after two years of ambient storage. Four freeze-dried foods (Scrambled Eggs, Italian Vegetables, Potatoes Au Gratin, Noodles and Chicken) and four thermo-stabilized foods (Curry Sauce with Vegetables, Chicken Noodle Soup, Grilled Pork Chop, Rice with Butter) were produced, with and without the vitamin premix, to assess the impact of the added fortification on color and taste and to determine the stability of supplemental vitamins in spaceflight foods. The addition of fortification to spaceflight foods did not greatly alter the organoleptic properties of most products. In most cases, overall acceptability scores remained above 6.0 (minimum acceptable score) following six months and one year of low-temperature storage. Likewise, the color of fortified products appears to be preserved over one year of storage. The only exceptions were Grilled pork Chop and Chicken Noodle Soup whose individual components appeareddegrade rapidly over one year of storage. Finally, most vitamins appeared to be stable during long-term storage. The only exception was thiamin, which degraded rapidly during the first year of storage at

  16. Food Fortification Stability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmalik, T. O.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G. L.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has established the goal of traveling beyond low-Earth orbit and extending manned exploration to Mars. The extended length of a Mars mission, along with the lack of resupply missions increases the importance of nutritional content in the food system. The purpose of this research is to assess the stability of vitamin supplementation in traditionally processed spaceflight foods. It is expected that commercially available fortificants will remain stable through long-duration missions if proper formulation, processing, and storage temperatures are all achieved. Five vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and thiamin) were blended into a vitamin premix (DSM, Freeport, TX); premixes were formulated to be compatible with current processing techniques (retort or freeze-dried), varied water activities (high or low), and packaging material. The overall goal of this process is to provide 25% of the recommended daily intake of each vitamin (per serving), following processing and two years of ambient storage. Four freeze-dried foods (Scrambled Eggs, Italian Vegetables, Potatoes Au Gratin, Noodles and Chicken) and four thermostabilized foods (Curry Sauce with Vegetables, Chicken Noodle Soup, Grilled Pork Chop, Rice with Butter) were produced (with and without the vitamin premix), to assess the impact of the added fortificant on color and taste, and to determine the stability of supplemental vitamins in spaceflight foods. The use of fortification in spaceflight foods appears to be a plausible mitigation step to inadequate nutrition. This is due to the ease of vitamin addition as well as the sustainability of the premixes through initial processing steps. Postprocessing analysis indicated that vitamin fortification with this premix did not immediately impact organoleptic properties of the food. At this stage, the largest hurdle to fortification is the preciseness to which vitamins can be added; the total amount of vitamins required for production is 10

  17. Stability versus Optimality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inanloo, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Caspian Sea is considered to be the largest inland body of water in the world, which located between the Caucasus Mountains and Central Asia. The Caspian Sea has been a source of the most contentious international conflicts between five littoral states now borders the sea: Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan. The conflict over the legal status of this international body of water as an aftermath of the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. Since then the parties have been negotiating without coming up with any agreement neither on the ownerships of waters, nor the oil and natural gas beneath them. The number of involved stakeholders, the unusual characteristics of the Caspian Sea in considering it as a lake or a sea, and a large number of external parties are interested in the valuable resources of the Sea has made this conflict complex and unique. This paper intends to apply methods to find the best allocation schemes considering acceptability and stability of selected solution to share the Caspian Sea and its resources fairly and efficiently. Although, there are several allocation methods in solving such allocation problems, however, most of those seek a socially optimal solution that can satisfy majority of criteria or decision makers, while, in practice, especially in multi-nation problems, such solution may not be necessarily a stable solution and to be acceptable to all parties. Hence, there is need to apply a method that considers stability and acceptability of solutions to find a solution with high chance to be agreed upon that. Application of some distance-based methods in studying the Caspian Sea conflict provides some policy insights useful for finding solutions that can resolve the dispute. In this study, we use methods such as Goal Programming, Compromise Programming, and considering stability of solution the logic of Power Index is used to find a division rule that is stable negotiators. The results of this study shows that the

  18. Entrepreneurship and Employment Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2017-01-01

    This paper challenges the conventional belief that entrepreneurship is an unstable career path. Using longitudinal matched employer–employee data from Denmark, the analysis reveals that a transition to entrepreneurship decreases individual's employment turnover tendency. Three explanations...... are identified and empirically explored: (i) job matching, (ii) labour market value, and (iii) personal commitment. Entrepreneurs appear to be more productive and thus better matched compared to wageworkers. However, they also appear to be locked in entrepreneurship because of their anticipated lower value...... in the labour market and because of their personal attachment to the venture. The counter-intuitive finding – entrepreneurship yields greater employment stability – only holds with respect to subsequent transitions to wagework and not for new venture founding. The results have implications for our understanding...

  19. From Crisis to Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Cornel; Seabrooke, Leonard

    , but also access to documents regulation and accountability vis-à-vis the European Parliament, the Court of Auditors and Anti-Fraud Office. Transparency International EU’s in-depth study of the governance and accountability of the ESM provides the first comprehensive analysis of the newest European economic...... governance institution, and makes a number of concrete recommendations. To make the ESM accountable, more transparency is in order, about where decisions are taken and who calls the shots. Is it the ESM, the Eurogroup, the Commission, or a coalition of Member States? Our report launch attempts to answer......The European Stability Mechanism (ESM) was created to save the euro from collapse. But the Eurozone’s bailout fund is not actually an EU institution. This has a series of knock-on effects, making it difficult to hold the ESM to EU standards as regards transparency, legal review by the CJEU...

  20. Laser controlled flame stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, James W.; Thomas, Matthew E.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus is provided for initiating and stabilizing fuel combustion in applications such as gas turbine electrical power generating engines and jet turbine engines where it is desired to burn lean fuel/air mixtures which produce lower amounts of NO.sub.x. A laser induced spark is propagated at a distance from the fuel nozzle with the laser ignitor being remotely located from the high temperature environment of the combustion chamber. A laser initiating spark generated by focusing high peak power laser light to a sufficiently tight laser spot within the fuel to cause the ionization of air and fuel into a plasma is unobtrusive to the flow dynamics of the combustion chamber of a fuel injector, thereby facilitating whatever advantage can be taken of flow dynamics in the design of the fuel injector.

  1. Complementarity and stability conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Georgi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the issue of complementarity between the confining phase and the Higgs phase for gauge theories in which there are no light particles below the scale of confinement or spontaneous symmetry breaking. We show with a number of examples that even though the low energy effective theories are the same (and trivial, discontinuous changes in the structure of heavy stable particles can signal a phase transition and thus we can sometimes argue that two phases which have different structures of heavy particles that cannot be continuously connected and thus the phases cannot be complementary. We discuss what this means and suggest that such “stability conditions” can be a useful physical check for complementarity.

  2. Stabilizing posture through imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Eleonora; Manzoni, Diego; Santarcangelo, Enrica L

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the general population, suppression of vision modulates body sway by increasing the center of pressure (CoP) velocity, while a light fingertip touch reduces the area of the CoP displacement in blindfolded subjects. This study assessed whether imagined fixation and fingertip touch differentially stabilize posture in subjects with high (highs) and low (lows) hypnotizability. Visual and tactile imageries were ineffective in lows. In highs, the effects of visual imagery could not be evaluated because the real information was ineffective; real tactile stimulation was effective only on velocity, but the imagery effects could not be definitely assessed owing to low effect size. The highs' larger variability could account for this and represents the most important finding.

  3. IMPROVED ROOF STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    Many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) remediation sites have performed roof repair and roof replacement to stabilize facilities prior to performing deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) activities. This project will review the decision criteria used by these DOE sites, along with the type of repair system used for each different roof type. Based on this information, along with that compiled from roofing experts, a decision-making tool will be generated to aid in selecting the proper roof repair systems. Where appropriate, innovative technologies will be reviewed and applied to the decision-making tool to determine their applicability. Based on the results, applied research and development will be conducted to develop a method to repair these existing roofing systems, while providing protection for the D and D worker in a cost-efficient manner.

  4. Stabilities of generalized entropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Sumiyoshi [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Kaniadakis, G [Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia (INFM), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Scarfone, A M [Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia (INFM), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy)

    2004-11-05

    The generalized entropic measure, which is maximized by a given arbitrary distribution under the constraints on normalization of the distribution and the finite ordinary expectation value of a physical random quantity, is considered. To examine if it can be of physical relevance, its experimental robustness is discussed. In particular, Lesche's criterion is analysed, which states that an entropic measure is stable if its change under an arbitrary weak deformation of the distribution (representing fluctuations of experimental data) remains small. It is essential to note the difference between this criterion and thermodynamic stability. A general condition, under which the generalized entropy becomes stable, is derived. Examples known in the literature, including the entropy for the stretched-exponential distribution, the quantum-group entropy and the {kappa}-entropy are discussed.

  5. Stability Analysis of Hybrid ALOHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Huahui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform stability analysis of a recently proposed MAC protocol, hybrid ALOHA, based on the multipacket reception (MPR model. Hybrid ALOHA distinguishes from conventional slotted ALOHA by allowing conditional collision-free channel estimation and simultaneous transmissions, and hence improves the MPR capability of the system. The stability analysis of the two-user case ( has been conducted in our previous work. In this paper, we study the stability region of hybrid ALOHA for the general N-user ( system. By using the method of stochastic dominance and mathematical induction, we obtain the sufficient condition for the stability of hybrid ALOHA. As an illustration, we characterize the stability inner bounds for the case. In this particular situation, the results are derived by solving a nonhomogeneous Riemann-Hilbert problem. Potentially, the mathematical tools used in this paper can be exploited for obtaining closed-form results in stability analysis of wireless networks.

  6. Towards predicting the stability of protein-stabilized emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delahaije, R.J.B.M.; Gruppen, H.; Giuseppin, M.L.F.; Wierenga, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    The protein concentration is known to determine the stability against coalescence during formation of emulsions. Recently, it was observed that the protein concentration also influences the stability of formed emulsions against flocculation as a result of changes in the ionic strength. In both

  7. Reamer-stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, G.L.

    1983-03-29

    A roller reamer-stabilizer tool includes a tubular body having threaded pin and box connectors at each end adapted to be connected in a drill string and providing a fluid passage connecting the upper part of the drill string with the lower part. Rollers having integral pins at their ends are mounted in pockets in the sides of the body. The pins are journaled in holes in arcuate cross section bearing blocks received in correlative sockets in the body at the ends of the pockets. The blocks make an interference fit with the body. Release bar access passages allow a release bar to be inserted behind each block to drive, wedge or pry it out. The holes in the blocks extend only part way through the blocks, the hole in the block at one end of each roller being blind, and the wall at the end of the hole in the block at the other end of each roller being ported. Each bearing is sealed by an O ring at the mouth or open end of the hole in the block. An additional O ring is provided adjacent the end wall of the ported block. Grease is stored in a bore extending axially in each roller through the pins at each end. Radial ports in the pins communicate the bore with the bearings. A flexible elastomeric boot closes the bore at the end of each roller received in the respective ported block, the port subjecting the interior of the boot to drilling fluid pressure.

  8. Spray combustion stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pak-Yan; Jeng, S. M.; Litchford, Ronald

    1995-01-01

    The central purpose of this project is the improvement of liquid-fueled rocket motor design technology in order to assist the establishment of economical commercial access to space through the development of engines with enhanced performance and reliability. Specific research effort in the project is focused on spray physics and associated combustion instability phenomena. Results garnered from this work will contribute to the development of new computational tools for design of stable liquid propellant rocket engines. The specific objectives of the research effort include identifying and evaluating physical submodels which pertain to spray combustion stability with the idea of enhancing or refining existing submodels with a more comprehensive approach. In particular, any refinements to the spray combustion physical submodels which are achieved during the project will be channeled back to Rocketdyne for incorporation in their ARICC liquid rocket combustor code as second generation improvements. Also, as the ARICC code forms the basis or future CFD development, some effort is devoted to an evaluation of the code's capability for modeling oscillating pressure waves within the combustor.

  9. Stability and Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April K. Clark

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ever since Stouffer began to measure political tolerance a half century ago, multiple studies have shown that a number of social, psychological, and political characteristics play a significant role in influencing whether individuals want to extend civil liberties to fringe groups. However, less is known about the stability of tolerance attitudes over an individual’s lifetime. To address this problem, our research draws on a national U.S. multiple-generation, four-wave panel study stretching from 1965 to 1997. The intuitive appeal of the approach used in this study is to advance theoretical accounts for variations in political intolerance irrespective of generational placement, life cycle, and differences in the political context. Specifically, the panel design encourages an effort to examine the relative impact of the social, political, and psychological predictors on intolerance over time and across the same individuals, and to assess the consequences of how changes in these determinants affect some of our most fundamental hypotheses about the origins of these attitudes.

  10. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neonatal Infectious Diseases/Immunology"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Neonatal Infectious Diseases/Immunology"ABS 1. UPTAKE OF PERTUSSIS AND INFLUENZA VACCINES IN PREGNANCY • A. Saso, B. Donaldson, B. KampmannABS 2. THE FREQUENCY OF MANNAN-BINDING LECTIN (MBL DEFICIENCY IN PREMATURE BABIES AND THE EFFECT ON LONG TERM MORBIDITIES • H. Ozkan, P.Dogan, N. Koksal, B. Oral, O. Bagcı, I. VaralABS 3. SEVERE COMBINED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY AND CONTINUED BREASTFEEDING: REPORT OF 5 OWN MOTHER’S MILK DONATION (OMM AT THE REGIONAL ILE DE FRANCE MILK BANK • V. Rigourd, D. Moshous, J.F. Méritet, M. Nicloux, C. Hovhannisyan, M. Dorsi, T. Hachem, P. Frange, A. Lapillonne, J.F. MagnyABS 4. MATERNAL CONTRIBUTION TO NEONATAL MICROBIOTA • R.S. Procianoy, L.F. Roesch, A.L. Corso, V. Mai, R.C. SilveiraABS 5. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF COPPER IN REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL BURDEN IN A NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT (NICU • Ch. Petropoulou, E. Kouskouni, P. Efstathiou, H. Bouza, Z. Manolidou, K. Karageorgou, A. Efstathiou, M. LogothetisABS 6. ANTIBIOTIC EXPOSURE IN NEONATES AND IMPACT ON GUT MICROBIOTA AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE DEVELOPMENT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW • J. Fjalstad, E

  11. Exponential Stabilization of Underactuated Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, K.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Underactuated vehicles are vehicles with fewer independent control actuators than degrees of freedom to be controlled. Such vehicles may be used in inspection of sub-sea cables, inspection and maintenance of offshore oil drilling platforms, and similar. This doctoral thesis discusses feedback stabilization of underactuated vehicles. The main objective has been to further develop methods from stabilization of nonholonomic systems to arrive at methods that are applicable to underactuated vehicles. A nonlinear model including both dynamics and kinematics is used to describe the vehicles, which may be surface vessels, spacecraft or autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). It is shown that for a certain class of underactuated vehicles the stabilization problem is not solvable by linear control theory. A new stability result for a class of homogeneous time-varying systems is derived and shown to be an important tool for developing continuous periodic time-varying feedback laws that stabilize underactuated vehicles without involving cancellation of dynamics. For position and orientation control of a surface vessel without side thruster a new continuous periodic feedback law is proposed that does not cancel any dynamics, and that exponentially stabilizes the origin of the underactuated surface vessel. A further issue considered is the stabilization of the attitude of an AUV. Finally, the thesis discusses stabilization of both position and attitude of an underactuated AUV. 55 refs., 28 figs.

  12. Stability of Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikkel; Norrman, Kion; Gevorgyan, Suren

    2012-01-01

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) evolve in an exponential manner in the two key areas of efficiency and stability. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) has in the last decade been increased by almost a factor of ten approaching 10%. A main concern has been the stability that was previously measured ...

  13. Vibrations and Stability: Solved Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003.......Worked out solutions for exercise problems in J. J. Thomsen 'Vibrations and Stability: Advanced Theory, Analysis, and Tools', Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, 2003....

  14. Dispersion stability of thermal nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal nanofluids, the engineered fluids with dispersed functional nanoparticles, have exhibited extraordinary thermophysical properties and added functionalities, and thus have enabled a broad range of important applications. The poor dispersion stability of thermal nanofluids, however, has been considered as a long-existing issue that limits their further development and practical application. This review overviews the recent efforts and progresses in improving the dispersion stability of thermal nanofluids such as mechanistic understanding of dispersion behavior of nanofluids, examples of both water-based and oil-based nanofluids, strategies to stabilize nanofluids, and characterization techniques for dispersion behavior of nanofluids. Finally, on-going research needs, and possible solutions to research challenges and future research directions in exploring stably dispersed thermal nanofluids are discussed. Keywords: Thermal nanofluids, Dispersion, Aggregation, Electrostatic stabilization, Steric stabilization

  15. Jet dynamics and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perucho M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics and stability of extragalactic jets may be strongly influenced by small (and probable di_erences in pressure between the jet and the ambient and within the jet itself. The former give rise to expansion and recollimation of the jet. This occurs in the form of conical shocks, or Mach disks, if the pressure di_erence is large enough. Pressure asymmetries within the jet may trigger the development of helical patterns via coupling to kink current-driven instability, or to helical Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, depending on the physical conditions in the jet. I summarize here the evidence collected during the last years on the presence of recollimation shocks and waves in jets. In the jet of CTA 102 evidence has been found for (travelingshock-(standingshock interaction in the core-region (0.1 mas from the core, using information from the light-curve of the source combined with VLBI data. The conclusions derived have been confirmed by numerical simulations combined with emission calculations that have allowed to study the spectral evolution of the perturbed jet. Helical structures can also be identified in radio-jets. The ridge-line of emission of the jet of S5 0836+710 has been identified as a physical structure corresponding to a wave developing in the jet flow. I review here the evidence that has allowed to reach this conclusion, along with an associated caveat. Current data do not allow to distinguish between magnetic or hydrodynamical instabilities. I finally discuss the importance of these linear and non-linear waves for jet evolution.

  16. Quantifying Stability in Complex Networks: From Linear to Basin Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurths, Jürgen

    The human brain, power grids, arrays of coupled lasers and the Amazon rainforest are all characterized by multistability. The likelihood that these systems will remain in the most desirable of their many stable states depends on their stability against significant perturbations, particularly in a state space populated by undesirable states. Here we claim that the traditional linearization-based approach to stability is in several cases too local to adequately assess how stable a state is. Instead, we quantify it in terms of basin stability, a new measure related to the volume of the basin of attraction. Basin stability is non-local, nonlinear and easily applicable, even to high-dimensional systems. It provides a long-sought-after explanation for the surprisingly regular topologies of neural networks and power grids, which have eluded theoretical description based solely on linear stability. Specifically, we employ a component-wise version of basin stability, a nonlinear inspection scheme, to investigate how a grid's degree of stability is influenced by certain patterns in the wiring topology. Various statistics from our ensemble simulations all support one main finding: The widespread and cheapest of all connection schemes, namely dead ends and dead trees, strongly diminish stability. For the Northern European power system we demonstrate that the inverse is also true: `Healing' dead ends by addition of transmission lines substantially enhances stability. This indicates a crucial smart-design principle for tomorrow's sustainable power grids: add just a few more lines to avoid dead ends. Further, we analyse the particular function of certain network motifs to promote the stability of the system. Here we uncover the impact of so-called detour motifs on the appearance of nodes with a poor stability score and discuss the implications for power grid design. Moreover, it will be shown that basin stability enables uncovering the mechanism for explosive synchronization and

  17. Stability study of Raloxifene tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Rodríguez Chanfrau

    Full Text Available Introduction: Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator from the benzothiophene family. Several clinical trials have shown that raloxifene reduces bone loss rate in the spinal column and may increase bone mass at certain sites. Objective: to determine the physical and chemical stabilities of raloxifene tablets. Methods. three pilot scale batches of 5 kg each were prepared. In vitro dissolution, chemical stability, photostability and humidity studies were carried out. Samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 6 months for the accelerated stability study and at 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months for the shelf life stability study. Chemical stability was determined using high performance liquid chromatography analytical method, which was developed and validated prior to the study. Results: in the accelerated stability study, the percentages of dissolved drug were more than 90 % and drug content porcentages were between 90 % and 110 %. Humidity conditions affected the chemical stability of the tablets. Conclusions: All raloxifene tablet batches formulations were stable for 24 months in the studied containers stored at 32 ± 2 ºC and waterproof. In vitro drug release dissolution showed good results for 24 months.

  18. The First Published History of Universal Architectural Models. Jean-Nicholas-Louis Durand’s Recueil et parallèle des édifices de tout genre, anciens et modernes (Paris 1800, and the Extended Italian Edition of Giuseppe Antonelli (Venice 1833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Fontana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available “Recueil et parallèle des édifices de tout genre, anciens et modernes”, published in Paris in 1799-1800 by Jean- Nicholas-Louis Durand, at the height of the positivistic climate engendered by the contemporary culture of encyclopedism, plays an important role in architectural historiography. The volume allowed architectural students and architectural enthusiasts alike the first opportunity to study a vast range of architectural design models of all periods and places organised into typological categories, illustrated in highly didactic and homogenous drawings. The immediate success of the “Recueil” was guaranteed by the simultaneous publication (in 1800 of an explanatory text to accompany the illustrative material, written by Jacques Guillaume Legrand in accordance with Durand. More than thirty years later, the Venetian editor Giuseppe Antonelli proposed a re-launch of the “Recueil” intended to meet the contemporaneous historical and critical context of modern Europe, publishing a bilingual Italian-French edition of highly commercially ambitious scope. The Venetian “Raccolta”, which appeared in 1833, united Legrand’s text with Durand’s illustrations, - and importantly included almost double the illustrations- with the addition of antique buildings, and also included modern architectural models, alongside contemporary Italian, French and German architectural design projects. This contribution intends to set Antonelli’s ambitious undertaking into the contemporaneous critical and vivacious academic cultural climate of the Venice of the 1830’s, and also includes a thorough examination of the additional illustrations that were added by the Venetian publisher to the original French canon.

  19. Stability of dispersions in polar organic media. I. Electrostatic stabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooy, N. de; Bruyn, P.L. de; Overbeek, J.Th.G.

    Electrostatically stabilized sols of silver, silver iodide, α-goethite, and copper phthalocyanine in methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and acetone have been prepared and characterized. Coagulation concentrations with electrolytes of various charge numbers have been determined in water, in organic

  20. Can the UN Stabilize Mali? Towards a UN Stabilization Doctrine?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arthur Boutellis

    2015-01-01

    ... of MINUSMA’s mandate and capabilities. It also raises a broader issue, of whether the consent-based UN peacekeeping tool is appropriate and can be effective in carrying out stabilization mandates in such a context and what doctrine...

  1. Field investigation of keyblock stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yow, Jr., Jesse Lewis [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1985-04-01

    Discontinuities in a rock mass can intersect an excavation surface to form discrete blocks (keyblocks) which can be unstable. This engineering problem is divided into two parts: block identification, and evaluation of block stability. One stable keyblock and thirteen fallen keyblocks were observed in field investigations at the Nevada Test Site. Nine blocks were measured in detail sufficient to allow back-analysis of their stability. Measurements included block geometry, and discontinuity roughness and compressive strength. Back-analysis correctly predicted stability or failure in all but two cases. These two exceptions involved situations that violated the stress assumptions of the stability calculations. Keyblock faces correlated well with known joint set orientations. The effect of tunnel orientation on keyblock frequency was apparent. Back-analysis of physical models successfully predicted block pullout force for two-dimensional models of unit thickness. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) analytic models for the stability of simple pyramidal keyblocks were examined. Calculated stability is greater for 3D analyses than for 2D analyses. Calculated keyblock stability increases with larger in situ stress magnitudes, larger lateral stress ratios, and larger shear strengths. Discontinuity stiffness controls block displacement more strongly than it does stability itself. Large keyblocks are less stable than small ones, and stability increases as blocks become more slender. Rock mass temperature decreases reduce the confining stress magnitudes and can lead to failure. The pattern of stresses affecting each block face explains conceptually the occurrence of pyramidal keyblocks that are truncated near their apex.

  2. Finite-time stability and finite-time stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sanjay Purushottam

    While non-Lipschitzian effects such as Coulomb friction abound in nature, most of the available techniques for feedback stabilization yield closed-loop systems with Lipschitzian dynamics. The convergence in such systems is at best exponential with infinite settling time. In this dissertation, we are interested in finite-settling-time behavior, that is, finite-time stability. The object of this dissertation is to provide a rigorous foundation for the theory of finite-time stability of continuous autonomous systems and motivate a closer examination of finite-time stability as a possible objective in control design. Accordingly, the notion of finite-time stability is precisely formulated and properties of the settling-time function are studied. Lyapunov and converse Lyapunov results involving scalar differential inequalities are obtained. It is shown that, under certain conditions, finite-time-stable systems possess better disturbance rejection and robustness properties. As an application of these ideas, we consider the finite-time stabilization of the translational and rotational double integrators. In the case of the rotational double integrator, the topology of the cylindrical state space renders continuous global stabilization impossible and hence the closed-loop system possesses saddle points. Because of the non-Lipschitzian character of the feedback law, these saddle points are, in fact, finite-time repellers--equilibria from which solutions can spontaneously and unpredictably depart. It is generally believed that models obtained from classical dynamics are completely deterministic. We present a counterexample to this widely held notion. The counterexample consists of a particle moving along a nonsmooth (once, but not twice, differentiable) constraint in a uniform gravitational field. The equation of motion obtained by applying classical Lagrangian dynamics contains non-Lipschitzian terms and, consequently, the dynamics of the system exhibit a finite-time saddle

  3. Sludge Stabilization Campaign blend plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, M.L.

    1994-10-04

    This sludge stabilization blend plan documents the material to be processed and the order of processing for the FY95 Sludge Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing sludge. The source of the sludge is residual and glovebox floor sweepings from the production of material at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The reactive sludge is currently being stored in various gloveboxes at PFP. There are two types of the plutonium bearing material that will be thermally stabilized in the muffle furnace: Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) sludge and Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line material.

  4. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  5. FUNDAMENTAL MODELS OF STRUCTURAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Jaguljnjak Lazarević

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, basic structural stability phenomena are described. After some general comments about stability in the field of civil engineering, four elementary sources of nonlinearity are mentioned: of equilibrium equations, strain (geometry relations, material (stress-strain law, force and displacement boundary conditions. Four fundamental stability models are analysed, both ideal (perfect and with geometric imperfection. Besides geometrically exact theory, initial post-buckling behavior and linearization are briefly sketched. This paper is concluded with comments about the influence of plasticity.

  6. MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox Trim and Static Stability Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Sean P.; Crespo, Luis

    2012-01-01

    MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox (MASCOT) utilizes geometric, aerodynamic, and inertial inputs to calculate air vehicle stability in a variety of critical flight conditions. The code is based on fundamental, non-linear equations of motion and is able to translate results into a qualitative, graphical scale useful to the non-expert. MASCOT was created to provide the conceptual aircraft designer accurate predictions of air vehicle stability and control characteristics. The code takes as input mass property data in the form of an inertia tensor, aerodynamic loading data, and propulsion (i.e. thrust) loading data. Using fundamental nonlinear equations of motion, MASCOT then calculates vehicle trim and static stability data for the desired flight condition(s). Available flight conditions include six horizontal and six landing rotation conditions with varying options for engine out, crosswind, and sideslip, plus three take-off rotation conditions. Results are displayed through a unique graphical interface developed to provide the non-stability and control expert conceptual design engineer a qualitative scale indicating whether the vehicle has acceptable, marginal, or unacceptable static stability characteristics. If desired, the user can also examine the detailed, quantitative results.

  7. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neonatal Fetal Nutrition and Metabolism"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Neonatal Fetal Nutrition and Metabolism"ABS 1. PREVALENCE OF BREASTFEEDING AT 6 MONTHS IN SICK NEONATES • S. Kositamongkol, K. MoungsuwanABS 2. ROLE OF BREAST MILK AND FECAL MICROBIAL CONTENT IN DEVELOPMENT OF BREAST MILK JAUNDICE • N. Koksal, O. Bagcı, H. Ozkan, I. Varal, P. DoganABS 3. VARIABILITY IN THE PROTEIN AND FAT CONTENT OF THE DONOR HUMAN MILK SUPPLY REVEALED BY MID-INFRARED SPECTROMETER ANALYSIS: A FIRST STEP TOWARDS PREVENTING DISRUPTION OF “PERINATAL PROGRAMMING” • V. Rigourd, Z. Assaf, A. Lapillonne, J.F. MagnyABS 4. BOVINE COLOSTRUM FOR PRETERM INFANTS IN THE FIRST DAYS OF LIFE: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED PILOT TRIAL • S.M. Juhl, X. Ye, P. Zhou, Y. Li, E.O. Iyore, L. Zhang, P. Jiang, J.B. van Goudoever, G. Greisen, P.T. SangildABS 5. PROTEIN AND CALORIC DEFICIT DURING THE NEONATAL PERIOD IN INFANTS WITH BIRTH WEIGHT LESS THAN 1,500 G AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH BLOOD PRESSURE IN THE ADOLESCENCE • A. Dinerstein, C. Solana, R. Nieto, M. Casale, R. Conti, M. Moiron, F. GeneralABS 6. EFFECTS OF EXCLUSIVE DONOR HUMAN MILK FEEDING IN A SHORT PERIOD AFTER BIRTH ON

  8. Oxidative stability of marine phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline Pascale

    Many studies have shown that marine phospholipids (MPL) provide more advantages than fish oil. They have better bioavailability, better resistance towards oxidation and higher content of eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) than oily triglycerides (fish oil). The objective...... of this study is to investigate the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of MPL. In addition, this study also investigates the effect of chemical composition of MPL and Maillard reaction (interaction between lipids oxidation products with the residue of amino acids) on MPL emulsions’ stability. Firstly, MPL were...... prepared in the form of emulsions by high pressure homogenizer. Then, the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of phospholipids was investigated by measurement of simple chemical analyses such as Peroxide Value and Free Fatty Acids, and 31PNMR after 32 days storage at 2ºC. The oxidative stability of MPL...

  9. Cyclicity of stability in economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin, Evgeny

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the science problem of identification of a life cycle of an economic agent in particular and of organizational-economic system in general. As an alternative solution of this problem the author proposes to use an universal index – stability index, which is directly linked with measure of uncertainty (entropy) and certainty (negentropy). Differentiated life cycle of stability allows us to approach the question of deliberate adaptation to ongoing changes, when control and r...

  10. Market liquidity and financial stability.

    OpenAIRE

    Crockett, A.

    2008-01-01

    Stability in financial institutions and in financial markets are closely intertwined. Banks and other financial institutions need liquid markets through which to conduct risk management. And markets need the back-up liquidity lines provided by financial institutions. Market liquidity depends not only on objective, exogenous factors, but also on endogenous market dynamics. Central banks responsible for systemic stability need to consider how far their traditional responsibility for the health ...

  11. Financial Stability and Financial Inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Peter J. Morgan; Victor Pontines

    2014-01-01

    Developing economies are seeking to promote financial inclusion, i.e., greater access to financial services for low-income households and firms, as part of their overall strategies for economic and financial development. This raises the question of whether financial stability and financial inclusion are, broadly speaking, substitutes or complements. In other words, does the move toward greater financial inclusion tend to increase or decrease financial stability? A number of studies have sugge...

  12. Reliability criteria for voltage stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Carson W.; Silverstein, Brian L. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In face of costs pressures, there is need to allocate scare resources more effectively in order to achieve voltage stability. This naturally leads to development of probabilistic criteria and notions of rick management. In this paper it is presented a discussion about criteria for long term voltage stability limited to the case in which the time frames are topically several minutes. (author) 14 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Subgrade stabilization alternatives to lime and cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    This project involved four distinct research activities, (1) the influence of temperature on lime-stabilized soils, (2) the influence of temperature on cement-stabilized soils (3) temperature modeling of stabilized subgrade and (4) use of calcium chl...

  14. Use of soil stabilizers on highway shoulders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated soil additives as stabilizers for aggregate and topsoil shoulders. Its purpose was to determine (1) the effect soil stabilizers have on the strength and stability of soil shoulders, and (2) the costs and benefits of using stabili...

  15. Stability criteria for complex ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesina, Stefano; Tang, Si

    2012-02-19

    Forty years ago, May proved that sufficiently large or complex ecological networks have a probability of persisting that is close to zero, contrary to previous expectations. May analysed large networks in which species interact at random. However, in natural systems pairs of species have well-defined interactions (for example predator-prey, mutualistic or competitive). Here we extend May's results to these relationships and find remarkable differences between predator-prey interactions, which are stabilizing, and mutualistic and competitive interactions, which are destabilizing. We provide analytic stability criteria for all cases. We use the criteria to prove that, counterintuitively, the probability of stability for predator-prey networks decreases when a realistic food web structure is imposed or if there is a large preponderance of weak interactions. Similarly, stability is negatively affected by nestedness in bipartite mutualistic networks. These results are found by separating the contribution of network structure and interaction strengths to stability. Stable predator-prey networks can be arbitrarily large and complex, provided that predator-prey pairs are tightly coupled. The stability criteria are widely applicable, because they hold for any system of differential equations.

  16. Stability of p53 homologs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Brandt

    Full Text Available Most proteins have not evolved for maximal thermal stability. Some are only marginally stable, as for example, the DNA-binding domains of p53 and its homologs, whose kinetic and thermodynamic stabilities are strongly correlated. Here, we applied high-throughput methods using a real-time PCR thermocycler to study the stability of several full-length orthologs and paralogs of the p53 family of transcription factors, which have diverse functions, ranging from tumour suppression to control of developmental processes. From isothermal denaturation fluorimetry and differential scanning fluorimetry, we found that full-length proteins showed the same correlation between kinetic and thermodynamic stability as their isolated DNA-binding domains. The stabilities of the full-length p53 orthologs were marginal and correlated with the temperature of their organism, paralleling the stability of the isolated DNA-binding domains. Additionally, the paralogs p63 and p73 were significantly more stable and long-lived than p53. The short half-life of p53 orthologs and the greater persistence of the paralogs may be biologically relevant.

  17. Stability of Pharmaceuticals in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Y-Uyen

    2009-01-01

    Stability testing is a tool used to access shelf life and effects of storage conditions for pharmaceutical formulations. Early research from the International Space Station (ISS) revealed that some medications may have degraded while in space. This potential loss of medication efficacy would be very dangerous to Crew health. The aim of this research project, Stability of Pharmacotherapeutic Compounds, is to study how the stability of pharmaceutical compounds is affected by environmental conditions in space. Four identical pharmaceutical payload kits containing medications in different dosage forms (liquid for injection, tablet, capsule, ointment and suppository) were transported to the ISS aboard a Space Shuttle. One of the four kits was stored on that Shuttle and the other three were stored on the ISS for return to Earth at various time intervals aboard a pre-designated Shuttle flight. The Pharmacotherapeutics laboratory used stability test as defined by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), to access the degree of degradation to the Payload kit medications that may have occurred during space flight. Once these medications returned, the results of stability test performed on them were compared to those from the matching ground controls stored on Earth. Analyses of the results obtained from physical and chemical stability assessments on these payload medications will provide researchers additional tools to promote safe and efficacious medications for space exploration.

  18. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P.; Gao, B. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Stability Analysis and Stabilization of Miduk Heap Leaching Structure, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Amini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To construct copper heap leaching structures, a stepped heap of ore is placed over an isolated sloping surface and then washed with sulphuric acid. The isolated bed of such a heap consists of some natural and geosynthetic layers. Shear strength parameters between these layers are low, so they form the possible sliding surfaces of the heaps. Economic and environmental considerations call for studying such slides. In this study, firstly, results of the laboratory tests carried on the materials of the heap leaching structures bed are presented. Then, the instability mechanisms of such structures are investigated and proper approaches are summarized for their stabilization. Finally, stability of the Miduk copper heap is evaluated as a case history, and appropriate approaches and their effects are discussed for its stabilization.

  20. Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox: Trim and Static Stability Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the technical background of the Trim and Static module of the Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox. This module performs a low-fidelity stability and control assessment of an aircraft model for a set of flight critical conditions. This is attained by determining if the control authority available for trim is sufficient and if the static stability characteristics are adequate. These conditions can be selected from a prescribed set or can be specified to meet particular requirements. The prescribed set of conditions includes horizontal flight, take-off rotation, landing flare, steady roll, steady turn and pull-up/ push-over flight, for which several operating conditions can be specified. A mathematical model was developed allowing for six-dimensional trim, adjustable inertial properties, asymmetric vehicle layouts, arbitrary number of engines, multi-axial thrust vectoring, engine(s)-out conditions, crosswind and gyroscopic effects.

  1. Can the UN Stabilize Mali? Towards a UN Stabilization Doctrine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Boutellis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost two years after the deployment of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA in July 2013, the increasing number of asymmetric terrorist attacks targeting UN peacekeepers – in the context of a drawn-out peace process – has raised a number of questions in Mali, the sub-region, and in New York, over the relevance and adequacies of MINUSMA’s mandate and capabilities. It also raises a broader issue, of whether the consent-based UN peacekeeping tool is appropriate and can be effective in carrying out stabilization mandates in such a context and what doctrine such operations should be based on. The UN is indeed under increasing pressure from host countries and some African troop-contributing countries to go on the offensive. Member States have also increasingly recognized terrorism and organized crime as a strategic threat, and while opposed to the UN directly engaging in counterterrorism (CT operations, some may wish to see the UN playing a greater stabilization role following the January 2013 French military intervention in Mali. However, little guidance and means have been given so far to UN missions for dealing with such threats and implementing effective stabilization mandates. The High-Level Panel on Peace Operations, which recently released its report, noted that the usage of the term “stabilization” by the UN requires clarification. This article analyses the complex and evolving nature of threats in northern Mali and implications for MINUSMA and describes the military and political tools – including mediation – so far available within and outside the UN. The article concludes that the UN is bound to move towards stabilization when and if deployed in contexts such as Mali’s if it wants to remain relevant. However, such a move should be based on an overarching UN stabilization doctrine and context-specific UN-wide stabilization strategies which are first and foremost political

  2. Development of emotional stability scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Chaturvedi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotional stability remains the central theme in personality studies. The concept of stable emotional behavior at any level is that which reflects the fruits of normal emotional development. The study aims at development of an emotional stability scale. Materials and Methods: Based on available literature the components of emotional stability were identified and 250 items were developed, covering each component. Two-stage elimination of items was carried out, i.e. through judges′ opinions and item analysis. Results: Fifty items with highest ′t′ values covering 5 dimensions of emotional stability viz pessimism vs. optimism, anxiety vs. calm, aggression vs. tolerance., dependence vs. autonomy., apathy vs. empathy were retained in the final scale. Reliability as checked by Cronbach′s alpha was .81 and by split half method it was .79. Content validity and construct validity were checked. Norms are given in the form of cumulative percentages. Conclusion: Based on the psychometric principles a 50 item, self-administered 5 point Lickert type rating scale was developed for measurement of emotional stability.

  3. Stabilizing effect of epoxidized sunflower oil as a secondary stabilizer for Ca/Hg stabilized PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated triglyceride oil sunflower was epoxidized and characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Epoxidized sunflower oil (ESO was used as an organic thermal co-stabilizer for rigid poly(vinyl chloride (PVC in the presence of tricalcium dicitrate (Ca3(C6H5O72 and mercury (II acetate (Hg(CH3COO2. The thermo-oxidative degradation of PVC was studied in the presence of these ternary stabilizer systems at 170, 180, 190 and 200°C in N2 atmosphere. The effects of metal carboxylate combination Ca/Hg in the absence and in the presence of epoxidized sunflower oil on static heat treatment of PVC have been studied. The formation of polyene sequences was investigated by UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy and by comparing viscosity data obtained in the presence and in the absence of the additives. It was found that the additives retard the rate of degradation and reduce the extent of polymer chain scission associated with the thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride. Synergistic effects were found when stabilizer was blended in 50:50 weight ratios with either. It was found that ESO exerted a stabilizing effect on the degradation of PVC. The activation energy for degraded PVC in absence of stabilizers was 38.6 kJ•mol–1 and in the presence of Ca/Hg and Ca/Hg/ESO were 53.3 and 64.7 kJ•mol–1 respectively. In order of compare the efficiency of the epoxidized sunflower oil with these metal soap stabilizers, thermal stabilities were evaluated on the basis of evolved hydrogen chloride determined by conductometry technique and degree of discoloration are discussed.

  4. Translational Influence on Messenger Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette

    RNA messenger stability is in uenced by how well it is protected from ribonuclase degradation. The level and distribution of translating ribosomes on the messenger has an effect on messenger stability, which is tuned partly by the nature of the ribosome binding site and partly by the codon...... composition of the coding sequence of a gene. This thesis focussed on illuminating the impact of ribosome binding sites on the functional messenger half-life using a range of ribosome binding sites with altered binding strength. Furthermore, the additive in uence of the transcription terminator, Rho......, on messenger stability was examined. Depending on the translation initiation frequency, the chance of an initial ribosome trailing the RNA polymerase get better for better initiation sites, thus protecting transcription from termination by Rho. A polarity assay in which the activity of the downstream lac...

  5. Hydraulic Stability of Accropode Armour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.; Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    , and to assess the influence of core permeability on the hydraulic stability of Accropodes. Two structures were examined, one with a relatively permeable core and one with a relatively impermeable core. In November/December 1995, Ph.D.-student Marten Christensen carried out the model tests on the structure...... with permeable core (crushed granite with a gradation of 5-8 mm). The outcome of this study is described in "Hydraulic Stability of Single-Layer Dolos and Accropode Armour Layers" by Christensen & Burcharth (1995). In January/February 1996, Research Assistant Thomas Jensen carried out a similar study......The present report describes the hydraulic model tests of Accropode armour layers carried out at the Hydraulics Laboratory at Aalborg University from November 1995 through March 1996. The objective of the model tests was to investigate the hydraulic stability of Accropode armour layers...

  6. Protein stability, flexibility and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Olsen, Johan G; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2011-01-01

    for a delineation of the molecular details of their function. Several of these mutations interfered with the binding of a specific ligand with a concomitant effect on the stability of the protein scaffold. It has been ambiguous and not straightforward to recognize if any relationships exist between the stability...... presented is it clear that there are specific sites (flexibility hotspots) in proteins that are important for both binding and stability. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Dynamics: Experimental and Computational Approaches.......Proteins rely on flexibility to respond to environmental changes, ligand binding and chemical modifications. Potentially, a perturbation that changes the flexibility of a protein may interfere with its function. Millions of mutations have been performed on thousands of proteins in quests...

  7. Hydrothermal stability of zirconia ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.Y. [Daelim College of Technology, Anyang (Korea); Gogotsi, G.A. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Uzbekistan); Kim, D.J. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea); Park, N.J. [Kumho National University of Technology, Kumi (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} partially-Stabilized Zirconia single Crystals (PSZCs) containing a small quantity (<0.5%) of rare-earth oxides (CeO{sub 2}, Tb{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were prepared by using a direct high-frequency skull melting technique to evaluate hydrothermal stability in an autoclave. Pole figure measurements indicate that both CeO{sub 2} and Tb{sub 2}O{sub 3} containing specimens prepared by the skull melting are single crystals. PSZCs exhibited no t{yields}m phase transformation during aging for 5 h at temperatures from 150 to 250 deg. C and 4 MPa water vapor pressure in an autoclave, resulting in excellent hydrothermal stability. (author). 19 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  8. 21 CFR 211.166 - Stability testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shelf life studies, there must be stability studies conducted, including drug product testing at... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stability testing. 211.166 Section 211.166 Food... Stability testing. (a) There shall be a written testing program designed to assess the stability...

  9. Stability constant estimator user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, B.P.; Castleton, K.J.; Rustad, J.R.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of the Stability Constant Estimator (SCE) program is to estimate aqueous stability constants for 1:1 complexes of metal ions with ligands by using trends in existing stability constant data. Such estimates are useful to fill gaps in existing thermodynamic databases and to corroborate the accuracy of reported stability constant values.

  10. Stability and stabilization of linear systems with saturating actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Tarbouriech, Sophie; Gomes da Silva Jr, João Manoel; Queinnec, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Gives the reader an in-depth understanding of the phenomena caused by the more-or-less ubiquitous problem of actuator saturation. Proposes methods and algorithms designed to avoid, manage or overcome the effects of actuator saturation. Uses a state-space approach to ensure local and global stability of the systems considered. Compilation of fifteen years' worth of research results.

  11. Xanthan gum stabilized gold nanoparticles: characterization, biocompatibility, stability and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooja, Deep; Panyaram, Sravani; Kulhari, Hitesh; Rachamalla, Shyam S; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2014-09-22

    Xanthan gum (XG) has been widely used in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In the present study, we explored the potential of XG in the synthesis of gold nanoparticle. XG was used as both reducing and stabilizing agent. The effect of various formulation and process variables such as temperature, reaction time, gum concentration, gum volume and gold concentration, in GNP preparation was determined. The XG stabilized, rubey-red XGNP were obtained with 5 ml of XG aqueous solution (1.5 mg/ml). The optimum temperature was 80°C whereas the reaction time was 3 h. The optimized nanoparticles were also investigated as drug delivery carrier for doxorubicin hydrochloride. DOX loaded gold nanoparticles (DXGP) were characterized by dynamic light scattering, TEM, FTIR, and DSC analysis. The synthesized nanoparticle showed mean particle size of 15-20 nm and zeta potential -29.1 mV. The colloidal stability of DXGP was studied under different conditions of pH, electrolytes and serum. Nanoparticles were found to be stable at pH range between pH 5-9 and NaCl concentration up to 0.5 M. In serum, nanoparticles showed significant stability up to 24h. During toxicity studies, nanoparticles were found biocompatible and non-toxic. Compared with free DOX, DXGP displayed 3 times more cytotoxicity in A549 cells. In conclusion, this study provided an insight to synthesize GNP without using harsh chemicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gelatin stabilization of quantum dots for improved stability and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parani, Sundararajan; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi Samuel

    2018-02-01

    We herein report an aqueous synthesis of gelatin stabilized CdTe/CdS/ZnS (CSSG) core/double shell quantum dots (QDs) with improved biocompatibility. The as-synthesized QDs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic techniques, x-ray diffraction technique (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The CSSG QDs revealed high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) with excellent stability over a period of one year and retained 90% of its initial PLQY without any aggregation or precipitation under ambient condition. The cell viability study conducted on HeLa, cervical cancer cell lines indicated that the gelatin stabilization effectively decreased the QDs cytotoxicity by about 50%. The CSSG QDs were conjugated with transferrin (Tf) for the efficient delivery to the cancer cells followed by fluorescence imaging. The results showed that the CSSG QDs illuminates the entire cell which renders the QDs as cell labeling markers. The gelatin stabilized core/double shell QDs are potential candidates for long time fluorescent bio-imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of Stability Parameters and Yield Stability of Sesame ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten sesame genotypes were tested in four locations in 2011 and 2012 crop seasons using a randomized block design, with three replications. Nine statistical methods were used to determine seed yield stability of the sesame genotypes. The results of the various statistical analyses showed significant variations in seed ...

  14. The myth of core stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Eyal

    2010-01-01

    The principle of core stability has gained wide acceptance in training for the prevention of injury and as a treatment modality for rehabilitation of various musculoskeletal conditions in particular of the lower back. There has been surprisingly little criticism of this approach up to date. This article re-examines the original findings and the principles of core stability/spinal stabilisation approaches and how well they fare within the wider knowledge of motor control, prevention of injury and rehabilitation of neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems following injury.

  15. Stability of facetted translation shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik; Vanggaard, Ole

    2004-01-01

    This article is discussing the spatial stability i.e. rigidity of double curved shell surfaces under different support conditions. It is based upon a method developed by Henrik Almegaard, as part of the theory concerning the stringer system (ALM04a).......This article is discussing the spatial stability i.e. rigidity of double curved shell surfaces under different support conditions. It is based upon a method developed by Henrik Almegaard, as part of the theory concerning the stringer system (ALM04a)....

  16. Radiohumeral stability to forced translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Lund; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Seki, Atsuhito

    2002-01-01

    Radiohumeral stability to forced translation was experimentally analyzed in 8 osteocartilaginous joint preparations. The joints were dislocated in 8 centrifugal directions at 12 different combinations of joint flexion and rotation while a constant joint compression force of 23 N was applied...... did not. In supination, the greatest stability was observed for anteromedial dislocations, in neutral rotation for posteromedial dislocations, and in pronation for posterolateral dislocations. The findings from this study indicate systematic variations in wall height around the radial head concavity...... as well as individual variations in joint constraint. This may have implications for the treatment of conditions involving radiohumeral joint dislocation....

  17. [Stability of complete dentures. 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, U

    1990-01-01

    The Author considers the necessary requisites for the complete denture's stability during masticatory function. This is due to the following anatomic and functional factors: a) Support tissues' morphology. b) Morpho-functional characteristics of the prosthetic tooth: unitary nupolivalent function in the different occlusal sectors. c) Linear arrangement of the teeth with unitary function along the "structural sagittal axis" or "central axis of dinamic and muscolar stabilization" of the mandible. d) Teeth's arrangement in the neutral or muscolar equilibration zone. e) Interalveolar axis' verticality of the teeth with unitary grinding function.

  18. Radiation Stability of Metal Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedin, S. A.; Makhin'ko, F. F.; Ovchinnikov, V. V.; Gerasimenko, N. N.; Zagorskiy, D. L.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the radiation stability of pure nickel and iron- nickel Fe0.56Ni0.44 alloy nanowires fabricated by matrix synthesis using polymer track membranes and Ar+ and Xe+ (E = 20 keV, j = 300 μA/cm2) beam irradiation. The dependence of the stability of nanowires on their diameter, fluence, and type of implanted ions is investigated. The assumption that the thermalized regions of dense cascades of atomic displacements (thermal spikes) play an important role in the nanowire structure change is made. These regions are nanosized zones of explosive energy release and heated to several thousands of degrees.

  19. Stability analysis of nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshmikantham, Vangipuram; Martynyuk, Anatoly A

    2015-01-01

    The book investigates stability theory in terms of two different measure, exhibiting the advantage of employing families of Lyapunov functions and treats the theory of a variety of inequalities, clearly bringing out the underlying theme. It also demonstrates manifestations of the general Lyapunov method, showing how this technique can be adapted to various apparently diverse nonlinear problems. Furthermore it discusses the application of theoretical results to several different models chosen from real world phenomena, furnishing data that is particularly relevant for practitioners. Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Systems is an invaluable single-sourse reference for industrial and applied mathematicians, statisticians, engineers, researchers in the applied sciences, and graduate students studying differential equations.

  20. FINANCIAL STABILITY AS A FACTOR ECONOMIC SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Endovitskaya; Volkova, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary. The article examines the linkages between financial stability and the level of its economic security. Considered the content of financial stability, represented by its own definition, we studied the basic conditions to achieve it. The logic diagram showing the location of financial stability and financial security to ensure the economic security of the business entity. A system of internal and external factors affecting the financial stability and endanger financial stability and fin...

  1. Stability of personality traits in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Allemand, Mathias; Gruenenfelder-Steiger, Andrea E; Hill, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    Stability represents a fundamental concept in developmental theory and research. In this article we give an overview of recent work on personality traits and their stability in adulthood. First, we define personality traits and stability. Second, we present empirical evidence supporting change and stability of personality traits across the adult years with respect to conceptually and statistically different forms of stability. Third, we describe mechanisms and processes that enable trait stab...

  2. The condition for dynamic stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, AL; Gazendam, MGJ; Sinke, WE

    The well-known condition for standing stability in static situations is that the vertical projection of the centre of mass (CoM) should be within the base of support (BoS). On the basis of a simple inverted pendulum model, an extension of this rule is proposed for dynamical situations: the position

  3. Postmortem stability of Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Munster, Vincent J

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus-infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks.

  4. Homological stability of diffeomorphism groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Alexander; Madsen, Ib Henning

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we prove a stability theorem for block diffeomorphisms of 2d -dimensional manifolds that are connected sums of S d ×S d . Combining this with a recent theorem of S. Galatius and O. Randal-Williams and Morlet’s lemma of disjunction, we determine the homology of the classifying space ...

  5. Quantum Contextuality with Stabilizer States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vala

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pauli groups are ubiquitous in quantum information theory because of their usefulness in describing quantum states and operations and their readily understood symmetry properties. In addition, the most well-understood quantum error correcting codes—stabilizer codes—are built using Pauli operators. The eigenstates of these operators—stabilizer states—display a structure (e.g., mutual orthogonality relationships that has made them useful in examples of multi-qubit non-locality and contextuality. Here, we apply the graph-theoretical contextuality formalism of Cabello, Severini and Winter to sets of stabilizer states, with particular attention to the effect of generalizing two-level qubit systems to odd prime d-level qudit systems. While state-independent contextuality using two-qubit states does not generalize to qudits, we show explicitly how state-dependent contextuality associated with a Bell inequality does generalize. Along the way we note various structural properties of stabilizer states, with respect to their orthogonality relationships, which may be of independent interest.

  6. Rudder roll stabilization for ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amerongen, J.; van der Klugt, P.G.M.; van Nauta lemke, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an autopilot for rudder roll stabilization for ships. This autopilot uses the rudder not only for course keeping but also for reduction of the roll. The system has a series of properties which make the controller design far from straightforward: the process has

  7. On core stability and extendability

    OpenAIRE

    Shellshear, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates conditions under which the core of a TU cooperative game is stable. In particular the author extends the idea of extendability to find new conditions under which the core is stable. It is also shown that these new conditions are not necessary for core stability.

  8. Stability of Molten Core Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layne Pincock; Wendell Hintze

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document a literature and data search for data and information pertaining to the stability of nuclear reactor molten core materials. This includes data and analysis from TMI-2 fuel and INL’s LOFT (Loss of Fluid Test) reactor project and other sources.

  9. The stability of lifestyle behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M; Ranchor, AV; Sanderman, R; Bouma, J; van den Heuvel, WJA

    Background The stability of Lifestyle behaviour has been studied over a 4-year period in a sample of 1400 men in The Netherlands. The influence of both socioeconomic status and age was studied in relation to lifestyle behaviour change. Methods Lifestyle behaviour was analysed by means of index

  10. Aerodynamic Drag and Gyroscopic Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elya R

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the effects on aerodynamic drag of rifle bullets as the gyroscopic stability is lowered from 1.3 to 1.0. It is well known that a bullet can tumble for stability less than 1.0. The Sierra Loading Manuals (4th and 5th Editions) have previously reported that ballistic coefficient decreases significantly as gyroscopic stability, Sg, is lowered below 1.3. These observations are further confirmed by the experiments reported here. Measured ballistic coefficients were compared with gyroscopic stabilities computed using the Miller Twist Rule for nearly solid metal bullets with uniform density and computed using the Courtney-Miller formula for plastic-tipped bullets. The experiments reported here also demonstrate a decrease in aerodynamic drag near Sg = 1.23 +/- 0.02. It is hypothesized that this decrease in drag over a narrow band of Sg values is due to a rapid damping of coning motions (precession and nutation). Observation of this drag decrease at a consistent value of Sg demonstrates the relati...

  11. Simultaneous stabilization using genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, R.W.; Schmitendorf, W.E. (California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of simultaneously stabilizing a set of plants using full state feedback. The problem is converted to a simple optimization problem which is solved by a genetic algorithm. Several examples demonstrate the utility of this method. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Stability of Functional Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Lemm, Jeffrey M

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the structure and stability properties of solutions of functional differential equations. Numerous examples of applications (such as feedback systrems with aftereffect, two-reflector antennae, nuclear reactors, mathematical models in immunology, viscoelastic bodies, aeroautoelastic phenomena and so on) are considered in detail. The development is illustrated by numerous figures and tables.

  13. Protein stability: a crystallographer’s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deller, Marc C., E-mail: mdeller@stanford.edu [Stanford University, Shriram Center, 443 Via Ortega, Room 097, MC5082, Stanford, CA 94305-4125 (United States); Kong, Leopold [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Building 8, Room 1A03, 8 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Rupp, Bernhard [k.-k. Hofkristallamt, 91 Audrey Place, Vista, CA 92084 (United States); Medical University of Innsbruck, Schöpfstrasse 41, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-01-26

    An understanding of protein stability is essential for optimizing the expression, purification and crystallization of proteins. In this review, discussion will focus on factors affecting protein stability on a somewhat practical level, particularly from the view of a protein crystallographer. Protein stability is a topic of major interest for the biotechnology, pharmaceutical and food industries, in addition to being a daily consideration for academic researchers studying proteins. An understanding of protein stability is essential for optimizing the expression, purification, formulation, storage and structural studies of proteins. In this review, discussion will focus on factors affecting protein stability, on a somewhat practical level, particularly from the view of a protein crystallographer. The differences between protein conformational stability and protein compositional stability will be discussed, along with a brief introduction to key methods useful for analyzing protein stability. Finally, tactics for addressing protein-stability issues during protein expression, purification and crystallization will be discussed.

  14. Stability and stabilization of the lattice Boltzmann method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, R A; Gorban, A N; Levesley, J

    2007-03-01

    We revisit the classical stability versus accuracy dilemma for the lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM). Our goal is a stable method of second-order accuracy for fluid dynamics based on the lattice Bhatnager-Gross-Krook method (LBGK). The LBGK scheme can be recognized as a discrete dynamical system generated by free flight and entropic involution. In this framework the stability and accuracy analysis are more natural. We find the necessary and sufficient conditions for second-order accurate fluid dynamics modeling. In particular, it is proven that in order to guarantee second-order accuracy the distribution should belong to a distinguished surface--the invariant film (up to second order in the time step). This surface is the trajectory of the (quasi)equilibrium distribution surface under free flight. The main instability mechanisms are identified. The simplest recipes for stabilization add no artificial dissipation (up to second order) and provide second-order accuracy of the method. Two other prescriptions add some artificial dissipation locally and prevent the system from loss of positivity and local blowup. Demonstration of the proposed stable LBGK schemes are provided by the numerical simulation of a one-dimensional (1D) shock tube and the unsteady 2D flow around a square cylinder up to Reynolds number Re approximately 20,000.

  15. Stability and skill in driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffner, Paul; Barrett, Rod; Petersen, Andrew

    2002-12-01

    Two experiments addressed the relation between postural stability, perceptual sensitivity, and stability of driving performance. A vehicle was fitted with differential GPS for measuring position and speed, position sensors for measuring brake and accelerator depression, force transducers for measuring door, console and footrest bracing forces, and an accelerometer for measuring the 3D accelerations of the vehicle. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether the initiation of deceleration and the control of braking might be due to sensitivity to the perceptual variable tau, which specifies time-to-contact (TTC), and in particular, whether its first derivative, tau-dot, is used to maintain a constant deceleration profile. Using both untrained experienced drivers (EDs) and trained driving instructors from the Holden Performance Driving Centre (HPDC), results confirmed that, regardless of skill level, tau-dot was maintained at a value close to 0.5 and, as predicted by Lee [Perception 5 (1976) 437], braking was initiated when TTC approximately 5 s. In Experiment 2, we wished to quantify the purported differences in driving behaviour between EDs and HPDC instructors during a variety of everyday manoeuvres. Results indicated that instructors utilised a different cornering trajectory, a different emergency braking strategy, and were able to perform a high-speed swerve and recovery task more effectively than the EDs. In general, the instructors applied greater bracing forces using the door and console compared with EDs. The instructors also applied greater footrest forces during emergency braking than did the EDs. The greater use of bracing by instructor drivers to resist g-forces represents a strategy of active stabilisation that enhances both postural stability, as well as overall stability and consistency of driving performance. Results are discussed with regard to the dynamics of perceptual-motor coordination, and how increased stability might improve sensitivity to

  16. Stochastic stability of traffic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Michael

    2012-12-01

    We study the ergodic properties of a family of traffic maps acting in the space of bi-infinite sequences of real numbers. The corresponding dynamics mimics the motion of vehicles in a simple traffic flow, which explains the name. Using connections to topological Markov chains we obtain nontrivial invariant measures, prove their stochastic stability and calculate the topological entropy. Technically these results in the deterministic setting are related to the construction of measures of maximal entropy via measures uniformly distributed on periodic points of a given period, while in the random setting we construct (spatially) Markov invariant measures directly. In distinction to conventional results the limiting measures in the non-lattice case are non-ergodic. The average velocity of individual ‘vehicles’ as a function of their density and its stochastic stability is studied as well.

  17. Straightening: existence, uniqueness and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrade, M.; Ogden, R. W.; Sgura, I.; Vergori, L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the least studied universal deformations of incompressible nonlinear elasticity, namely the straightening of a sector of a circular cylinder into a rectangular block, is revisited here and, in particular, issues of existence and stability are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the system of forces required to sustain the large static deformation, including by the application of end couples. The influence of geometric parameters and constitutive models on the appearance of wrinkles on the compressed face of the block is also studied. Different numerical methods for solving the incremental stability problem are compared and it is found that the impedance matrix method, based on the resolution of a matrix Riccati differential equation, is the more precise. PMID:24711723

  18. FINANCIAL STABILITY - A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vasilescu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Central banks have become poles of stability and decisive factors of globalization. Financialstability represents a national issue, a public asset, that requires both an intervention of public judicious authoritiesand their cooperation with private sector. Given the integration of financial markets during the last decades in bothdeveloped and developing countries, as direct result of globalization, liberalization and deregulation processes, andthe high degree of innovation they felt over time, a shift in market participants’ perceptions on the importance ofstable financial systems in economic growth arose. The global context characterized by the interdependence ofmarkets and institutions, emergence of new techniques and instruments, increasing international capital flowsstressed the new meanings of the analysis of financial stability.

  19. Macroprudential policy and financial stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan CHIRIACESCU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries a conceptual framing of the issue of financial stability in economic theory and also to identify solutions to address episodes of financial instability. An essential reference is Minsky's financial instability hypothesis, which argues that a fundamental feature of the financial system is that it swings between robustness and fragility and these pendulum swings are an integral part of the process that generates the business cycle. Studies show that the effects of banking crises on economic activity are important both in magnitude and duration. Recently, macroprudential policy stood out as a central pillar in promoting financial stability in a broad sense. Regarding specific objectives of macroprudential policy, the prevalent vision refers to limiting systemic risk and macroeconomic costs of financial crises, but there are also important nuances.

  20. Chromatin dynamics in genome stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nair, Nidhi; Shoaib, Muhammad; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2017-01-01

    Genomic DNA is compacted into chromatin through packaging with histone and non-histone proteins. Importantly, DNA accessibility is dynamically regulated to ensure genome stability. This is exemplified in the response to DNA damage where chromatin relaxation near genomic lesions serves to promote ...... of chromatin structure regulation in maintaining genome integrity by multiple mechanisms including facilitating DNA repair and directly suppressing endogenous DNA damage.......Genomic DNA is compacted into chromatin through packaging with histone and non-histone proteins. Importantly, DNA accessibility is dynamically regulated to ensure genome stability. This is exemplified in the response to DNA damage where chromatin relaxation near genomic lesions serves to promote...... access of relevant enzymes to specific DNA regions for signaling and repair. Furthermore, recent data highlight genome maintenance roles of chromatin through the regulation of endogenous DNA-templated processes including transcription and replication. Here, we review research that shows the importance...

  1. Stability analysis using SDSA tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzendorf-Grabowski, Tomasz; Mieszalski, Dawid; Marcinkiewicz, Ewa

    2011-11-01

    The SDSA (Simulation and Dynamic Stability Analysis) application is presented as a tool for analysing the dynamic characteristics of the aircraft just in the conceptual design stage. SDSA is part of the CEASIOM (Computerized Environment for Aircraft Synthesis and Integrated Optimization Methods) software environment which was developed within the SimSAC (Simulating Aircraft Stability And Control Characteristics for Use in Conceptual Design) project, funded by the European Commission 6th Framework Program. SDSA can also be used as stand alone software, and integrated with other design and optimisation systems using software wrappers. This paper focuses on the main functionalities of SDSA and presents both computational and free flight experimental results to compare and validate the presented software. Two aircraft are considered, the EADS Ranger 2000 and the Warsaw University designed PW-6 glider. For the two cases considered here the SDSA software is shown to be an excellent tool for predicting dynamic characteristics of an aircraft.

  2. Posterior crossbite - treatment and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Rodrigues de Almeida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Posterior crossbite is defined as an inadequate transversal relationship of maxillary and mandibular teeth. Even when eliminating the etiologic factors, this malocclusion does not have a spontaneous correction, and should be treated with maxillary expansion as early as possible. This treatment aims at providing a better tooth/skeletal relationship, thereby improving masticatory function, and establishing a symmetrical condyle/fossa relationship. Should posterior crossbite not be treated early, it may result in skeletal changes, demanding a more complex approach. Additionally, an overcorrection expansion protocol should be applied in order to improve the treatment stability. Although the literature has reported a high rate of relapse after maxillary expansion, the goal of this study was to demonstrate excellent stability of the posterior crossbite correction 21 years post treatment.

  3. Endocannabinoid Signaling Regulates Sleep Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Pava

    Full Text Available The hypnogenic properties of cannabis have been recognized for centuries, but endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid regulation of vigilance states is poorly characterized. We report findings from a series of experiments in mice measuring sleep with polysomnography after various systemic pharmacological manipulations of the endocannabinoid system. Rapid, unbiased scoring of vigilance states was achieved using an automated algorithm that we devised and validated. Increasing endocannabinoid tone with a selective inhibitor of monoacyglycerol lipase (JZL184 or fatty acid amide hydrolase (AM3506 produced a transient increase in non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep due to an augmentation of the length of NREM bouts (NREM stability. Similarly, direct activation of type 1 cannabinoid (CB1 receptors with CP47,497 increased NREM stability, but both CP47,497 and JZL184 had a secondary effect that reduced NREM sleep time and stability. This secondary response to these drugs was similar to the early effect of CB1 blockade with the antagonist/inverse agonist AM281, which fragmented NREM sleep. The magnitude of the effects produced by JZL184 and AM281 were dependent on the time of day this drug was administered. While activation of CB1 resulted in only a slight reduction in gamma power, CB1 blockade had dramatic effects on broadband power in the EEG, particularly at low frequencies. However, CB1 blockade did not significantly reduce the rebound in NREM sleep following total sleep deprivation. These results support the hypothesis that endocannabinoid signaling through CB1 is necessary for NREM stability but it is not necessary for sleep homeostasis.

  4. Stability of Ecosystems Under Invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Vladimir; Vakulenko, Sergey; Wennergren, Uno

    2016-11-01

    This paper considers a model of foodwebs taking into account species extinction and invasion. We show that system stability depends not only on usual parameters (mortality rates, self-limitation coefficients, and resource abundances), but also on an additional parameter ("biodiversity potential"). The main result is as follows. For foodwebs with random parameters, we obtain an estimate of probability that the foodweb exposed to invasion survives. This estimate involves different system parameters, size and its topological properties.

  5. Singapore; Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses key findings of the Financial System Stability Assessment on Singapore. The Singapore financial system is highly developed, and well regulated and supervised. Singapore’s current regulation and supervision are among the best globally. The Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) oversees the entire financial system, and has the analytical and operational capabilities to do so effectively. Singapore is exposed to a broad array of domestic and global risks, especially in light...

  6. Developmental stability and human violence.

    OpenAIRE

    Furlow, B; Gangestad, S W; Armijo-Prewitt, T

    1998-01-01

    Developmental stability (the precision with which genotypes are translated into phenotypes under physically stressful developmental conditions), is a major source of phenotypic and behavioural variation, yet researchers have largely ignored its potential role in the ontogeny of individual propensities toward human aggression and violence. In this study, we measured fluctuating asymmetry of the body and administered aggression and fighting history questionnaires to 229 college students (139 fe...

  7. Exponentially Stabilizing Robot Control Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, John T.; Bayard, David S.

    1990-01-01

    New class of exponentially stabilizing laws for joint-level control of robotic manipulators introduced. In case of set-point control, approach offers simplicity of proportion/derivative control architecture. In case of tracking control, approach provides several important alternatives to completed-torque method, as far as computational requirements and convergence. New control laws modified in simple fashion to obtain asymptotically stable adaptive control, when robot model and/or payload mass properties unknown.

  8. Dimensional stability of natural fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Mark S. [Ultraviolet Light/Electron Beam (UV/EB) Technology Center, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), 1 Forestry Drive, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); Smith, Jennifer L.; Woods, Sean; Tiss, Kenneth J. [Ultraviolet Light/Electron Beam (UV/EB) Technology Center, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF), 1 Forestry Drive, Syracuse, NY 13210 and Sustainable Construction Management and Engineering, SUNY-ESF (United States); Larsen, L. Scott [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), 17 Columbia Circle, Albany, NY 12203 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    One of the main problems associated with the use of natural fibers as reinforcing agents in composites is their uptake of moisture. Many natural fibers are lignocellulosic, which causes them to swell and shrink as the amount of available moisture changes. Swelling and shrinking can cause composites to prematurely fail. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study that considers the use of two different low molecular weight monomers, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), polymerized by electron beam ionizing radiation, to dimensionally stabilize natural fibers. Eight different treatments consisting of varying amounts of monomer, encapsulating agent, and cross-linkers, were evaluated for their ability to dimensionally stabilize sisal fiber. Results indicate that both polymerized HEA and HEMA can reduce the swelling of sisal fiber. The effectiveness of HEA and HEMA can be further enhanced with the use of a cross-linker (SR 454). The use of hydroxylated monomers to dimensionally stabilize natural fibers may play an important role in reducing delamination and improving fiber-resin adhesion in composites.

  9. Stability properties of gravity theories

    CERN Document Server

    Deser, S

    1982-01-01

    Studies the stability properties of general relativity with a non- vanishing cosmological constant Lambda by means of the energy. First, it is shown that there exists a suitable definition of energy in these models, for all metrics tending asymptotically to any background solution which has a timelike Killing symmetry. It is conserved and has flux integral form. Stability is established for all systems tending asymptotically to anti-De Sitter space when Lambda >0, using supergravity techniques. Spinorial charges are defined which are also flux integrals and satisfy the global graded anti-De Sitter algebra. The latter then implies that the energy is always positive. For Lambda >0, it is shown that small excitations about De Sitter space are stable, provided they occur within the event horizon intrinsic to this space. Outside the horizon an instability arises which signals the onset of Hawking radiation: it is shown to be universal to all systems. Semi-classical stability is also discussed for Lambda >0.

  10. Temperature stability of nanocellulose dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggset, Ellinor B; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary; Syverud, Kristin

    2017-02-10

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) have potential as rheology modifiers of water based fluids, e.g. drilling fluids for use in oil wells or as additives in injection water for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The temperature in oil wells can be high (>100°C), and the retention time long; days for drilling fluids and months for EOR fluids. Hence, it is important to assess the temperature stability over time of nanocellulose dispersions to clarify their suitability as rheology modifiers of water based fluids at such harsh conditions. Dispersions of CNF produced mechanically, by using TEMPO mediated oxidation and by using carboxymethylation as pretreatment, in addition to cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), have been subjected to heat aging. Temperature stability was best for CNC and for mechanically produced CNF that were stable after heating to 140°C for three days. The effect of additives was evaluated; cesium formate and sodium formate increased the temperature stability of the dispersions, while there was no effect of using phosphate buffer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. HIF Stabilization Weakens Primary Cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Although solitary or sensory cilia are present in most cells of the body and their existence has been known since the sixties, very little is known about their functions. One suspected function is fluid flow sensing- physical bending of cilia produces an influx of Ca++, which can then result in a variety of activated signaling pathways. Defective cilia and ciliary-associated proteins have been shown to result in cystic diseases. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is a progressive disease, typically appearing in the 5th decade of life and is one of the most common monogenetic inherited human diseases, affecting approximately 600,000 people in the United States. Because the mechanical properties of cilia impact their response to applied flow, we asked how the stiffness of cilia can be controlled pharmacologically. We performed an experiment subjecting cilia to Taxol (a microtubule stabilizer) and CoCl2 (a HIF stabilizer to model hypoxia). Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells were selected as our model system. After incubation with a selected pharmacological agent, cilia were optically trapped and the bending modulus measured. We found that HIF stabilization significantly weakens cilia. These results illustrate a method to alter the mechanical properties of primary cilia and potentially alter the flow sensing properties of cilia.

  12. Stability of fluid motions I

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Daniel D

    1976-01-01

    The study of stability aims at understanding the abrupt changes which are observed in fluid motions as the external parameters are varied. It is a demanding study, far from full grown"whose most interesting conclusions are recent. I have written a detailed account of those parts of the recent theory which I regard as established. Acknowledgements I started writing this book in 1967 at the invitation of Clifford Truesdell. It was to be a short work on the energy theory of stability and if I had stuck to that I would have finished the writing many years ago. The theory of stability has developed so rapidly since 1967 that the book I might then have written would now have a much too limited scope. I am grateful to Truesdell, not so much for the invitation to spend endless hours of writing and erasing, but for the generous way he has supported my efforts and encouraged me to higher standards of good work. I have tried to follow Truesdell's advice to write this work in a clear and uncomplicated style. This is not ...

  13. Spectrum stabilizer; Stabilisateur de spectres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detourne, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Departement d' electronique generale, Service d' instrumentation nucleaire

    1967-05-01

    A spectrum stabilizer is a control mechanism which renders an analytical chain reliable. It can detect a drift in the amplification and in the base of the energy scale, and can modify the characteristics of this chain. The results of a theoretical study make it possible to calculate the width and the abscissae of the peaks of a stabilized spectrum as a function of the drifts. The SPECTROSTAB is a numerical stabilizer of a continuous type; it provides the artificial reference peak at low energies. Experimental results give the performances obtained on a reference peak provided by a semi-conductor detector, in the field of gamma spectroscopy. (author) [French] Un stabilisateur de spectres est un asservissement qui permet de rendre fidele une cha e d'analyse. Il detecte les derives du gain et de l'origine de l'echelle des energies et reagit sur les caracteristiques de cette cha e. Les resultats d'une etude theorique permettent le calcul des elargissements et des abscisses des pics d'un spectre stabilise, en fonction des derives. Le SPECTROSTAB est un stabilisateur numerique du genre continu; il fournit le pic de reference artificiel aux basses energies. Des resultats experimentaux donnent les performances obtenues sur un pic de reference fourni par un detecteur a semi-conducteur, dans le domaine de la spectrometrie gamma. (auteur)

  14. Stability analysis of ecomorphodynamic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärenbold, F.; Crouzy, B.; Perona, P.

    2016-02-01

    In order to shed light on the influence of riverbed vegetation on river morphodynamics, we perform a linear stability analysis on a minimal model of vegetation dynamics coupled with classical one- and two-dimensional Saint-Venant-Exner equations of morphodynamics. Vegetation is modeled as a density field of rigid, nonsubmerged cylinders and affects flow via a roughness change. Furthermore, vegetation is assumed to develop following a logistic dependence and may be uprooted by flow. First, we perform the stability analysis of the reduced one-dimensional framework. As a result of the competitive interaction between vegetation growth and removal through uprooting, we find a domain in the parameter space where originally straight rivers are unstable toward periodic longitudinal patterns. For realistic values of the sediment transport parameter, the dominant longitudinal wavelength is determined by the parameters of the vegetation model. Bed topography is found to adjust to the spatial pattern fixed by vegetation. Subsequently, the stability analysis is repeated for the two-dimensional framework, where the system may evolve toward alternate or multiple bars. On a fixed bed, we find instability toward alternate bars due to flow-vegetation interaction, but no multiple bars. Both alternate and multiple bars are present on a movable, vegetated bed. Finally, we find that the addition of vegetation to a previously unvegetated riverbed favors instability toward alternate bars and thus the development of a single course rather than braiding.

  15. Stability of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leubner, I. H.

    2008-12-01

    It is a well established myth that the solar system is stable. The argument is generally based on the fact that the rate of the radiative plus solar wind mass loss of the Sun has a relatively small value of 8.81E-05 (1/Byr = 1/Ma) (radiative: 6.63E-05 (1/By)). Experimental results, e.g., that the Earth is separating from the Sun (10m/100year)(1), put the concept of stability of solar planetary orbits into doubt. An understanding of the stability of the solar system is a critical step towards the understanding of the stability of galaxies and the Universe.(2,3) The stability of planetary orbits, which is the other factor determining the stability of the solar system, has until recently not been modeled.(4) A model is presented which shows that the planetary orbits are weakly bound relative to orbital separation, ranging from 0.6 percent for Mercury to 0.006 for Pluto, and 0.0011 percent for CR105, the furthest reported planetesimal. These values are in the order of solar mass/gravity loss, and as a consequence, the model predicts that the solar system is expanding since its formation. The present separation rate of Earth is calculated to 3.0 m/year. Eventually orbital separation of planets will occur, e.g., at 133.8, 1.30, and 0.23 Billion years for Mercury, Pluto, Cr105, respectively under current conditions. The model shows that Mars was previously closer to the Sun and exposed to higher radiation, and that the transition from water to ice on its surface occurred 3.6 Billion years ago.(4) Predictions of the model are reported for all planets and dwarf planets. References: 1. C. Laemmerzahl, 2006, 70th Annual Meeting, German Physical Society, (DPG); Note: indirect measurements, quote: The cause for the drifting apart of Sun and Earth cannot be explained by present knowledge and methods of gravitation physics' 2. I. H. Leubner, 2003, 'The Formation of the universe (Big Bang) as a Crystallization Process', Rochester Academy of Science, 30th Fall Paper Session

  16. Colloidal Stabilization of Neurofilaments and Microtubules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoh, Jan

    2000-01-01

    ... in what has been called colloidal stabilization. We suggest that failure of such stabilization may be related to, and even causal, in neuropathologies such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS...

  17. Chemical and thermal stability of insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huus, Kasper; Havelund, Svend; Olsen, Helle B

    2006-01-01

    To study the correlation between the thermal and chemical stability of insulin formulations with various insulin hexamer ligands.......To study the correlation between the thermal and chemical stability of insulin formulations with various insulin hexamer ligands....

  18. Scramjet Combustion Stability Behavior Modeling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in combustion stability analysis (UCDS) offers the means to accurately predict the combustion stability of a scramjet. This capability is very...

  19. Scramjet Combustion Stability Behavior Modeling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in combustion stability analysis (UCDS) offers the potential to predict the combustion stability of a scramjet. This capability is very...

  20. Optical metrology techniques for dimensional stability measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, Jonathan David

    2010-01-01

    This thesis work is optical metrology techniques to determine material stability. In addition to displacement interferometry, topics such as periodic nonlinearity, Fabry-Perot interferometry, refractometry, and laser stabilization are covered.

  1. Geochemical Investigations of Groundwater Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    The report describes geochemical parameters and methods that provide information about the hydrodynamic stability of groundwaters in low permeability fractured rocks that are potential hosts for radioactive waste repositories. Hydrodynamic stability describes the propensity for changes in groundwater flows over long timescales, in terms of flow rates and flow directions. Hydrodynamic changes may also cause changes in water compositions, but the related issue of geochemical stability of a potential repository host rock system is outside the scope of this report. The main approaches to assessing groundwater stability are numerical modelling, measurement and interpretation of geochemical indicators in groundwater compositions, and analyses and interpretations of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in these minerals. This report covers the latter two topics, with emphasis on geochemical indicators. The extent to which palaeohydrogeology and geochemical stability indicators have been used in past safety cases is reviewed. It has been very variable, both in terms of the scenarios considered, the stability indicators considered and the extent to which the information was explicitly or implicitly used in assessing FEPs and scenarios in the safety cases. Geochemical indicators of hydrodynamic stability provide various categories of information that are of hydrogeological relevance. Information about groundwater mixing, flows and water sources is potentially provided by the total salinity of groundwaters, their contents of specific non-reactive solutes (principally chloride) and possibly of other solutes, the stable isotopic ratio of water, and certain characteristics of secondary minerals and fluid inclusions. Information pertaining directly to groundwater ages and the timing of water and solute movements is provided by isotopic systems including tritium, carbon-14, chlorine-36, stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, uranium isotopes and dissolved mobile gases in

  2. Phospholipid stabilized gold nanorods: towards improved colloidal stability and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Poornima Budime; Thomas, Neethu; Sudhakar, Swathi; Chadha, Anju; Mani, Ethayaraja

    2017-07-19

    Biocompatible and colloidally stable gold nanorods (GNRs) with well-defined plasmonic properties are essential for biomedical and theranostic applications. The as-synthesized GNRs using the seed-mediated method are stabilized by the surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which is known for its cytotoxicity in many cell lines. Biocompatible GNRs synthesized using known protocols exhibit some extent of cytotoxicity and colloidal instability because of the incomplete removal of CTAB. We report a facile method for the efficient removal of CTAB molecules with 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) phospholipid molecules, which are naturally present in cell membranes. The kinetics of the ligand exchange process is studied using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and corroborated with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. From colloidal stability studies using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, the optimal lipid concentration and duration required for the successful ligand exchange of CTAB by DMPC are reported. Using thermogravimetric analysis, the surface concentration of DMPC on colloidally stable GNRs is found to be approximately 9 molecules per nm2. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiozol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays show that the surface-modified DMPC-GNRs have significantly better biocompatibility than those of CTAB-GNRs. Studies on the ligand exchange, colloidal stability and biocompatibility of DMPC-GNRs with aspect ratios ranging from 2.2 to 4.2 demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method. The results provide insights into the important factors to be considered while designing biocompatible GNRs suitable for applications in nanomedicine.

  3. Characterizing core stability with fuzzy games

    OpenAIRE

    Shellshear, Evan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates core stability of cooperative, TU games via a fuzzy extension of the totally balanced cover of a TU game. The stability of the core of the fuzzy extension of a game, the concave extension, is shown to reflect the core stability of the original game and vice versa. Stability of the core is then shown to be equivalent to the existence of an equilibrium of a certain correspondence.

  4. Nonconservative stability problems of modern physics

    OpenAIRE

    Kirillov, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This monograph gives a complete overview on the subject of nonconservative stability from the modern point of view. Relevant mathematical concepts are presented, as well as rigorous stability results and numerous classical and contemporary examples from mechanics and physics.It deals with both finite- and infinite-dimensional nonconservative systems and covers the fundamentals of the theory, including such topics as Lyapunov stability and linear stability analysis, Ham...

  5. Thermal stability of an interface-stabilized skyrmion lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, A; Hermenau, J; Krause, S; Wiesendanger, R

    2014-08-15

    The thermal stability of the magnetic nano-skyrmion lattice in the monolayer Fe/Ir(111) is investigated using temperature dependent spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. Our experiments show that the skyrmion lattice disappears at a temperature of T_{c}=27.8  K, indicating a loss of long-range magnetic order. At second-layer iron islands the lattice is pinned and local order persists at temperatures above T_{c}. The findings are explained in terms of the complex magnetic interactions involved in the formation of the skyrmion lattice.

  6. Stabilizing oscillating universes against quantum decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithani, Audrey T.; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the effect of vacuum corrections, due to the trace anomaly and Casimir effect, on the stability of an oscillating universe with respect to decay by tunneling to the singularity. We find that these corrections do not generally stabilize an oscillating universe. However, stability may be achieved for some specially fine-tuned non-vacuum states.

  7. Orthogonality preserving property, Wigner equation, and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmieliński Jacek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We deal with the stability of the orthogonality preserving property in the class of mappings phase-equivalent to linear or conjugate-linear ones. We give a characterization of approximately orthogonality preserving mappings in this class and we show some connections between the considered stability and the stability of the Wigner equation.

  8. Structure stability and spectroscopy of metal clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Theory based on self-consistent field-linear combinations of atomic orbitals-molecular orbital theory was applied to clusters. Four areas were covered: electronic structure, equilibrium geometries, and stability of charged clusters, interaction of metal clusters with H and halogen atoms, thermal stability of isolated clusters, and stability and optical properties of hetero-atomic clusters. (DLC)

  9. Gait Stability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Millard, Matthew; van Gestel, Leen; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) have several gait impairments, amongst which impaired gait stability may be one. We tested whether a newly developed stability measure (the foot placement estimator, FPE) which does not require long data series, can be used to asses gait stability in typically developing (TD) children as well as…

  10. Stabilizing oscillating universes against quantum decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mithani, Audrey T.; Vilenkin, Alexander [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy,Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2015-07-07

    We investigate the effect of vacuum corrections, due to the trace anomaly and Casimir effect, on the stability of an oscillating universe with respect to decay by tunneling to the singularity. We find that these corrections do not generally stabilize an oscillating universe. However, stability may be achieved for some specially fine-tuned non-vacuum states.

  11. Core stability training for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxel Bliven, Kellie C; Anderson, Barton E

    2013-11-01

    Enhancing core stability through exercise is common to musculoskeletal injury prevention programs. Definitive evidence demonstrating an association between core instability and injury is lacking; however, multifaceted prevention programs including core stabilization exercises appear to be effective at reducing lower extremity injury rates. PUBMED WAS SEARCHED FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC, BIOMECHANIC, AND CLINICAL STUDIES OF CORE STABILITY FOR INJURY PREVENTION (KEYWORDS: "core OR trunk" AND "training OR prevention OR exercise OR rehabilitation" AND "risk OR prevalence") published between January 1980 and October 2012. Articles with relevance to core stability risk factors, assessment, and training were reviewed. Relevant sources from articles were also retrieved and reviewed. Stabilizer, mobilizer, and load transfer core muscles assist in understanding injury risk, assessing core muscle function, and developing injury prevention programs. Moderate evidence of alterations in core muscle recruitment and injury risk exists. Assessment tools to identify deficits in volitional muscle contraction, isometric muscle endurance, stabilization, and movement patterns are available. Exercise programs to improve core stability should focus on muscle activation, neuromuscular control, static stabilization, and dynamic stability. Core stabilization relies on instantaneous integration among passive, active, and neural control subsystems. Core muscles are often categorized functionally on the basis of stabilizing or mobilizing roles. Neuromuscular control is critical in coordinating this complex system for dynamic stabilization. Comprehensive assessment and training require a multifaceted approach to address core muscle strength, endurance, and recruitment requirements for functional demands associated with daily activities, exercise, and sport.

  12. Core Stability Training for Injury Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Huxel Bliven, Kellie C.; Anderson, Barton E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Enhancing core stability through exercise is common to musculoskeletal injury prevention programs. Definitive evidence demonstrating an association between core instability and injury is lacking; however, multifaceted prevention programs including core stabilization exercises appear to be effective at reducing lower extremity injury rates. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanic, and clinical studies of core stability for injury prevention (keywords: ...

  13. Computationally designed libraries for rapid enzyme stabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijma, Hein J.; Floor, Robert J.; Jekel, Peter A.; Baker, David; Marrink, Siewert J.; Janssen, Dick B.

    The ability to engineer enzymes and other proteins to any desired stability would have wide-ranging applications. Here, we demonstrate that computational design of a library with chemically diverse stabilizing mutations allows the engineering of drastically stabilized and fully functional variants

  14. Financial Stability In The Eurozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielińska Klaudia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Financial stability inside the European Monetary Union (EMU is a trendy topic in most developed countries around the world. From the moment the EMU was brought to life, there was much speculation about its imperfections, inadequate management, and vulnerability. Some of them have turned out to be true, while others have been proved invalid. Nevertheless, the debt crisis has demonstrated inadequacies in the EMU’s structure and proved that a higher degree of integration is necessary in order to guarantee the robustness of the common currency and fully utilize its potential.

  15. Stabilization of modified polyamide matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchini, Leonardo G.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: dfparra@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Films of PA 6 (polyamide) doped with europium luminescent complexes have been develop and studied for applications in advanced technologies. Development of optical marker for process monitoring is the focus of the present study. Based in doped luminescent polyamide samples were prepared for polymer processing use. Films were prepared by dissolution of PA 6 in acid moiety with addition of europium complex. Stability evaluation was done in samples submitted to irradiation with 10 and 100 kGy of ionizing source. The luminescent polymer matrices were characterized using the techniques of infrared, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and photoluminescent properties by electron emission spectroscopy. (author)

  16. Stability of collagen during denaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkova, R; Goshev, I; Gorinstein, S; Nedkov, P

    1999-05-01

    The stability of calf skin collagen (CSC) type I during thermal and chemical denaturation in the presence of glycerol was investigated. Thermal denaturation of type I collagen was performed in the presence of glycerol or in combination with urea and sodium chloride. The denaturation curves obtained in the presence of urea or sodium chloride retained their original shape without glycerol. These curves were shifted upward proportionally to the glycerol concentration in the reaction medium. This means that glycerol and the denaturants act independently. The explanation is based on the difference in the mechanism of their action on the collagen molecule.

  17. Stability in quadratic torsion theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, Teodor Borislavov; Cembranos, Jose A. R.; Valcarcel, Jorge Gigante; Martín-Moruno, Prado

    2017-11-01

    We revisit the definition and some of the characteristics of quadratic theories of gravity with torsion. We start from a Lagrangian density quadratic in the curvature and torsion tensors. By assuming that General Relativity should be recovered when the torsion vanishes and investigating the behaviour of the vector and pseudo-vector torsion fields in the weak-gravity regime, we present a set of necessary conditions for the stability of these theories. Moreover, we explicitly obtain the gravitational field equations using the Palatini variational principle with the metricity condition implemented via a Lagrange multiplier.

  18. Quantum Spin Stabilized Magnetic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, C. C.; Pöchhacker, V.; Kustura, K.; Cirac, J. I.; Romero-Isart, O.

    2017-10-01

    We theoretically show that, despite Earnshaw's theorem, a nonrotating single magnetic domain nanoparticle can be stably levitated in an external static magnetic field. The stabilization relies on the quantum spin origin of magnetization, namely, the gyromagnetic effect. We predict the existence of two stable phases related to the Einstein-de Haas effect and the Larmor precession. At a stable point, we derive a quadratic Hamiltonian that describes the quantum fluctuations of the degrees of freedom of the system. We show that, in the absence of thermal fluctuations, the quantum state of the nanomagnet at the equilibrium point contains entanglement and squeezing.

  19. Beam stability at CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, T

    2012-01-01

    The two-beam acceleration tested at CTF3 imposes very tight tolerances on the drive beam stability. A description of the specialized monitoring tool developed to identify the drifts and jitter in the machine is presented. It compares all the relevant signals in an on-line manner to help the operator to identify drifts and to log data for off-line analysis. The main sources for the drifts of the drive beam have been identified and their causes are described. A feedback applied to the RF was implemented to reduce the effects. It works by changing the waveform for the pulse compression to compensate for the drifts.

  20. Head stabilization in whooping cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinloch, M.R.; Cronin, T.W.; Olsen, G.H.; Chavez-Ramirez, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    The whooping crane (Grus americana) is the tallest bird in North America, yet not much is known about its visual ecology. How these birds overcome their unusual height to identify, locate, track, and capture prey items is not well understood. There have been many studies on head and eye stabilization in large wading birds (herons and egrets), but the pattern of head movement and stabilization during foraging is unclear. Patterns of head movement and stabilization during walking were examined in whooping cranes at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland USA. Four whooping cranes (1 male and 3 females) were videotaped for this study. All birds were already acclimated to the presence of people and to food rewards. Whooping cranes were videotaped using both digital and Hi-8 Sony video cameras (Sony Corporation, 7-35 Kitashinagawa, 6-Chome, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan), placed on a tripod and set at bird height in the cranes' home pens. The cranes were videotaped repeatedly, at different locations in the pens and while walking (or running) at different speeds. Rewards (meal worms, smelt, crickets and corn) were used to entice the cranes to walk across the camera's view plane. The resulting videotape was analyzed at the University of Maryland at Baltimore County. Briefly, we used a computerized reduced graphic model of a crane superimposed over each frame of analyzed tape segments by means of a custom written program (T. W. Cronin, using C++) with the ability to combine video and computer graphic input. The speed of the birds in analyzed segments ranged from 0.30 m/s to 2.64 m/s, and the proportion of time the head was stabilized ranged from 79% to 0%, respectively. The speed at which the proportion reached 0% was 1.83 m/s. The analyses suggest that the proportion of time the head is stable decreases as speed of the bird increases. In all cases, birds were able to reach their target prey with little difficulty. Thus when cranes are walking searching for food

  1. Domestic Equality and Marital Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steingrimsdottir, Herdis; Vardardottir, Arna

    by the father while parents who had a child before were did not get this option. This created large economic incentives for parents to involve fathers in caring for their children during their first months. In this paper we use the precise timing of the introduction of the paternal quota in Iceland to evaluate...... the causal effects of paternity leave on parents’ earnings, the gender wage gap and marital stability. The results are obtained using detailed register based panel data, comparing families who had a child just before or just after the reform. Spouses who are entitled to paternity leave are less likely...

  2. Stability of helical Janus clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Connor L.; Whitmer, Jonathan K.; Chen, Qian; Granick, Steve; Luijten, Erik

    2012-02-01

    Recent experimental and computational work has elucidated the importance of kinetic pathways in the formation of helical structures by hydrophobic-charged Janus particles.ootnotetextQ. Chen, J.K. Whitmer, et al., Science 331, 199 (2011). Motivated by these findings, we perform free-energy calculations to investigate the equilibrium structure and relative stability of helical aggregates as a function of cluster size and Janus balance. These results simultaneously aid in the interpretation of experimental observations and in the design of building blocks for specific structures.

  3. Stabilizing and changing phenomenal worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Andersen, Hanne

    2001-01-01

    In the work of both Ludwik Fleck and Thomas Kuhn the scientific literature plays important roles for stability and change of scientific phenomenal worlds. In this article we shall introduce the analyses of scientific literature provided by Fleck and Kühn, respectively. From this background we shall...... discuss the problem of how divergent thinking can emerge in a dogmatic atmosphere. We shall argue that in their accounts of the factors inducing changes of scientific phenomenal worlds Fleck and Kuhn offer substantially different approaches, and we shall discuss in which respects their approaches may...

  4. Stability of aztreonam in AZACTAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Marianna; Jelińska, Anna; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Oszczapowicz, Irena

    2005-01-01

    The influence of temperature and relative humidity on the stability of aztreonam in AZACTAM was investigated. Changes of the concentration of aztreonam were followed using the HPLC method with UV detection. The first-order rate constants of the reversible reaction of isomerization Z-aztreonam right harpoon over left harpoonE-aztreonam and the parallel reaction Z-aztreonam-->products were determined at RH=76.4% and T=313, 323, 333, 343 and 353 K, and at T=343 K and RH=50.9%, 60.5%, 66.5% and 76.4%. The thermodynamic parameters-energy, enthalpy and entropy of these reactions were calculated.

  5. Stability theory of differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Bellman, Richard Ernest

    1953-01-01

    Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, this was the first English-language text to offer detailed coverage of boundedness, stability, and asymptotic behavior of linear and nonlinear differential equations. It remains a classic guide, featuring material from original research papers, including the author's own studies.The linear equation with constant and almost-constant coefficients receives in-depth attention that includes aspects of matrix theory. No previous acquaintance with the theory is necessary, since author Richard Bellman derives the results in matrix theory from

  6. Plume spread and atmospheric stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R.O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The horizontal spread of a plume in atmospheric dispersion can be described by the standard deviation of horizontal direction. The widely used Pasquill-Gifford classes of atmospheric stability have assigned typical values of the standard deviation of horizontal wind direction and of the lapse rate. A measured lapse rate can thus be used to estimate the standard deviation of wind direction. It is examined by means of a large dataset of fast wind measurements how good these estimates are. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  7. Centromere Stability: The Replication Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. Forsburg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fission yeast centromere, which is similar to metazoan centromeres, contains highly repetitive pericentromere sequences that are assembled into heterochromatin. This is required for the recruitment of cohesin and proper chromosome segregation. Surprisingly, the pericentromere replicates early in the S phase. Loss of heterochromatin causes this domain to become very sensitive to replication fork defects, leading to gross chromosome rearrangements. This review examines the interplay between components of DNA replication, heterochromatin assembly, and cohesin dynamics that ensures maintenance of genome stability and proper chromosome segregation.

  8. Nitride stabilized core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuttiyiel, Kurian Abraham; Sasaki, Kotaro; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2018-01-30

    Nitride stabilized metal nanoparticles and methods for their manufacture are disclosed. In one embodiment the metal nanoparticles have a continuous and nonporous noble metal shell with a nitride-stabilized non-noble metal core. The nitride-stabilized core provides a stabilizing effect under high oxidizing conditions suppressing the noble metal dissolution during potential cycling. The nitride stabilized nanoparticles may be fabricated by a process in which a core is coated with a shell layer that encapsulates the entire core. Introduction of nitrogen into the core by annealing produces metal nitride(s) that are less susceptible to dissolution during potential cycling under high oxidizing conditions.

  9. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND STABILITY OF BIRD COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsyura M.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available When comparing the suggested stability indicators, we obtained statistically significant correlations for indicators of annual stability of species and total number and standard deviation of the logarithm of the number. Annual Stability Index can be applied with a high degree of reliability as a characteristic of the averaged structure of the community and its pyramid of abundances. The results of correlation analysis confirm our assumptions about the correlation between stability over the years and indices of species diversity and relative uniformity.The final task of the study was to create a mathematical model of stability, where the independent variables are the indices of species diversity. The calculation of these indices allows forecasting birds’ community stability. According to the result of multiple regression for the indicators of diversity and stability of the breeding birds’ community highest correlation coefficients were obtained fro Shannon index and Simpson's dominance Index.Community stability could be determined by its overall species diversity. When considering the stability of community its diversity should be considered as a combination of uniformity of their total number and number of species. The most suitable predictors for the community stability were the nonparametric index of dominance and information-statistical indices, since they considered simultaneously evenness and richness. The community stability is subject of the complexity of its internal communications pattern.

  10. Protein stability: a crystallographer’s perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deller, Marc C.; Kong, Leopold; Rupp, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Protein stability is a topic of major interest for the biotechnology, pharmaceutical and food industries, in addition to being a daily consideration for academic researchers studying proteins. An understanding of protein stability is essential for optimizing the expression, purification, formulation, storage and structural studies of proteins. In this review, discussion will focus on factors affecting protein stability, on a somewhat practical level, particularly from the view of a protein crystallographer. The differences between protein conformational stability and protein compositional stability will be discussed, along with a brief introduction to key methods useful for analyzing protein stability. Finally, tactics for addressing protein-stability issues during protein expression, purification and crystallization will be discussed. PMID:26841758

  11. Numerical Stability of Generalized Entropies

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrecher, György

    2016-01-01

    In many applications, the probability density function is subject to experimental errors. In this work the continuos dependence of a class of generalized entropies on the experimental errors is studied. This class includes the C. Shannon, C. Tsallis, A. R\\'enyi and generalized R\\'enyi entropies. By using the connection between R\\'enyi or Tsallis entropies, and the "distance" in a family of metric functional spaces, family that includes the Lebesgue normed vector spaces, we introduce a further extensive generalizations of the R\\'enyi entropy. In this work we suppose that the experimental error is measured by some $L^{p}$ norm. In line with the methodology normally used for treating the so called "ill-posed problems", auxiliary stabilizing conditions are determined, such that small - in the sense of $L^{p}$ metric - experimental errors provoke small variations of the classical and generalized entropies. These stabilizing conditions are formulated in terms of $L^{p}$ metric in a class of generalized $L^{p}$ spac...

  12. Is crisis stability still achievable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Joshua

    During the Cold War, the idea of crisis stability concerned whether the United States and the Soviet Union would be faced with powerful incentives to strike each other first with their nuclear weapons during periods of tension. This idea influenced the design of nuclear forces and guided aspects of nuclear arms control. The United States and Russia continue to operate large, alert nuclear forces, but at least three new factors have emerged that add significantly greater complexity to this picture. The first new factor consists of the development and deployment of new strategic military technologies that are entangled with nuclear weapons. These include strategic ballistic missile defenses, counter-space weapons, and strategic conventional weapons. The second new factor consists of new dyads of interacting strategic forces beyond US-Russia. These include US-China, US-North Korea, India-Pakistan, and India-China. The third new factor consists of the emergence of three-actor crisis stability dynamics, where the third actor is not necessarily nuclear-armed. This paper illustrates the concept with the US-North Korea-South Korea triangle. It briefly discusses the implications of these developments and reflects on the broad policy options that may be available.

  13. Vacuum Stability of Standard Model^{++}

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Goldberg, Haim; Huang, Xing; Lust, Dieter; Taylor, Tomasz R.; Vlcek, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The latest results of the ATLAS and CMS experiments point to a preferred narrow Higgs mass range (m_h \\simeq 124 - 126 GeV) in which the effective potential of the Standard Model (SM) develops a vacuum instability at a scale 10^{9} -10^{11} GeV, with the precise scale depending on the precise value of the top quark mass and the strong coupling constant. Motivated by this experimental situation, we present here a detailed investigation about the stability of the SM^{++} vacuum, which is characterized by a simple extension of the SM obtained by adding to the scalar sector a complex SU(2) singlet that has the quantum numbers of the right-handed neutrino, H", and to the gauge sector an U(1) that is broken by the vacuum expectation value of H". We derive the complete set of renormalization group equations at one loop. We then pursue a numerical study of the system to determine the triviality and vacuum stability bounds, using a scan of 10^4 random set of points to fix the initial conditions. We show that, if there...

  14. Turbulence and the Stabilization Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2010-01-01

    Further results of research, reported in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles, were obtained on a mathematical formalism for postinstability motions of a dynamical system characterized by exponential divergences of trajectories leading to chaos (including turbulence). To recapitulate: Fictitious control forces are introduced to couple the dynamical equations with a Liouville equation that describes the evolution of the probability density of errors in initial conditions. These forces create a powerful terminal attractor in probability space that corresponds to occurrence of a target trajectory with probability one. The effect in ordinary perceived three-dimensional space is to suppress exponential divergences of neighboring trajectories without affecting the target trajectory. Con sequently, the postinstability motion is represented by a set of functions describing the evolution of such statistical quantities as expectations and higher moments, and this representation is stable. The previously reported findings are analyzed from the perspective of the authors Stabilization Principle, according to which (1) stability is recognized as an attribute of mathematical formalism rather than of underlying physics and (2) a dynamical system that appears unstable when modeled by differentiable functions only can be rendered stable by modifying the dynamical equations to incorporate intrinsic stochasticity.

  15. The Effects of Cervical Stabilization Exercises on the Electromyographic Activity of Shoulder Stabilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jungseo; Lee, Daehee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of cervical stabilization exercises on the electromyographic activity of the shoulder stabilizers in normal adults. [Subjects] In the present study, 20 normal adults were divided into an experimental group (EG, n=10) that performed cervical stabilization exercises and shoulder stabilization exercises and a control group (CG, n=10) that performed shoulder stabilization exercises. [Methods] The EG and CG performed their exerc...

  16. Stability and boundary stabilization of 1-D hyperbolic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bastin, Georges

    2016-01-01

    This monograph explores the modeling of conservation and balance laws of one-dimensional hyperbolic systems using partial differential equations. It presents typical examples of hyperbolic systems for a wide range of physical engineering applications, allowing readers to understand the concepts in whichever setting is most familiar to them. With these examples, it also illustrates how control boundary conditions may be defined for the most commonly used control devices. The authors begin with the simple case of systems of two linear conservation laws and then consider the stability of systems under more general boundary conditions that may be differential, nonlinear, or switching. They then extend their discussion to the case of nonlinear conservation laws and demonstrate the use of Lyapunov functions in this type of analysis. Systems of balance laws are considered next, starting with the linear variety before they move on to more general cases of nonlinear ones. They go on to show how the problem of boundary...

  17. Stability of multispecies bacterial communities: signaling networks may stabilize microbiomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Kerényi

    Full Text Available Multispecies bacterial communities can be remarkably stable and resilient even though they consist of cells and species that compete for environmental resources. In silico models suggest that common signals released into the environment may help selected bacterial species cluster at common locations and that sharing of public goods (i.e. molecules produced and released for mutual benefit can stabilize this coexistence. In contrast, unilateral eavesdropping on signals produced by a potentially invading species may protect a community by keeping invaders away from limited resources. Shared bacterial signals, such as those found in quorum sensing systems, may thus play a key role in fine tuning competition and cooperation within multi-bacterial communities. We suggest that in addition to metabolic complementarity, signaling dynamics may be important in further understanding complex bacterial communities such as the human, animal as well as plant microbiomes.

  18. Addressing Sustainability of Clam Farming in the Venice Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Melaku Canu

    2011-09-01

    According to the System Approach Framework (SAF, based on previous studies and stakeholder interactions, we developed a model integrating ecological, social, and economic (ESE aspects. We chose the aspects necessary to represent the essential dynamics of major ecological, social, and economic clam farming system components to project the consequences of implementing alternative management policies and to address the ecological and social carrying capacity. Results of the simulations suggest that a properly managed farming system can sustain an acceptable income and support the local community, while reducing negative environmental impacts, social conflicts, and consumer health risks and improving system resilience. The results highlight the importance of an interdisciplinary, participatory, and adaptive approach in planning the management of this important renewable resource.

  19. The social lives of paintings in Sixteenth-Century Venice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, Elisabeth Johanna Maria van

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies Venetian painting in its golden age, the sixteenth century, from an unconventional, anthropological point of view. Paintings of masters like Titian are demonstrated to have had social lives. Together with human beings they were embedded in social networks in which humans and

  20. REcall Venice - Exploring disciplines of visual literacy through difficult heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen; Fisker, Anna Marie; Møller, Hans Ramsgaard

    2015-01-01

    According to James Elkin visual literacy is interpreted as material representations, which communicate knowledge and create insight through their visual appearance. Based on the EU Cultural Heritage project REcall, we argue that visual literacy can also relate to interdisciplinary knowledge rooted......, and archeologists question the role of architectural environments when dealing with war heritage. Today, there are still traces left from WWII in the European architectural environments, traces that by visual literacy represent unpleasant memories. However, these visual literacies have shaped our environment, yet...

  1. New Orleans to Venice, Louisiana. Hurricane Protection Project. Appendixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    occur in these areas. Changes in the physical and chemical composition , and elevation of levee f ill areas will be essentially permanent. Substrate...caused by pesticide accumulation through the food chain. It appears that high residue levels, especially of dieldrin, have resulted in thin eggshells ...and eggshell thin- ning approached 20 percent. The project would have no effect oR the Peregrine Falcon as it is a transient species which is

  2. EVALUATION OF SOIL DIFFUSE CONTAMINATION IN VENICE REGION (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Giandon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey on the concentration of some metals and metalloids in soils of Veneto conducted on 2393 samples, of which 1363 topsoil (0-40 cm and 1030 subsoil (70-100 cm, allowed to define the background values for the metals considered.Particularly for some metals and in areas of volcanic substrata these values were above certain threshold concentrations of contamination defined by the Italian environmental legislation. Some results of persistent organic pollutants monitoring inthe soils are reported and available.

  3. Current trends to measure implant stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanthi Swami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant stability plays a critical role for successful osseointegration. Successful osseointegration is a prerequisite for functional dental implants. Continuous monitoring in an objective and qualitative manner is important to determine the status of implant stability. Implant stability is measured at two different stages: Primary and secondary. Primary stability comes from mechanical engagement with cortical bone. Secondary stability is developed from regeneration and remodeling of the bone and tissue around the implant after insertion and affected by the primary stability, bone formation and remodelling. The time of functional loading is dependent upon the implant stability. Historically the gold standard method to evaluate stability were microscopic or histologic analysis, radiographs, however due to invasiveness of these methods and related ethical issues various other methods have been proposed like cutting torque resistance, reverse torque analysis, model analysis etc. It is, therefore, of an utmost importance to be able to access implant stability at various time points and to project a long term prognosis for successful therapy. Therefore this review focuses on the currently available methods for evaluation of implant stability.

  4. Meritocratic administration and democratic stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornell, Agnes; Lapuente, Victor

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a hypothesis for understanding democratic stability based on the distinction between politicized and meritocratic bureaucracies. We argue that in a politicized administration, the professional careers of large numbers of government officials depend directly upon which party wins...... the elections. This increases the likelihood that the government will take opportunistic actions aimed at surviving in office at any cost; that is, benefiting core supporters at the expense of other groups. In turn, this may foster pre-emptive actions from the opposition, such as military coups. Conversely......, in democracies with meritocratic administrations, incumbents are credibly constrained from undertaking partial policies because their hands are tied in terms of managing the staff policy of the state apparatus. Consequently, countries with meritocratic bureaucracies have greater prospects for democratic...

  5. Stability in a changing world -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares, Ingrid; Svenning, J.-C.; van Bodegom, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Are the hyperdiverse local forests of the western Amazon undergoing changes linked to global and local drivers such as climate change, or successional dynamics? We analyzed local climatic records to assess potential climatic changes in Yasuní National Park, Ecuador, and compared two censuses (1995......, but local climatic records showed that no significant changes in precipitation, temperature or river-level have occurred during the last decade. Thus, we found no evidence of recent directional shifts in climate or the palm community in Yasuní. The absence of changes in local climate and plant community...... dynamics in Yasuní contrast with recent findings from eastern Amazon, where environmental change is driving significant changes in ecosystem dynamics. Our findings suggest that until now, local forests in the northwest Amazon may have escaped pressure from climate change. The stability of this rich palm...

  6. Stability in hovering ornithopter flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2008-03-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model is coupled to a dynamic model of ornithopter flight. Previously, the combined model has been used to calculate forward flight trajectories, each a limit cycle in the vehicle's states. The limit cycle results from the periodic wing beat, producing a periodic force while on the cycle's trajectory. This was accomplished using a multiple shooting algorithm and numerical integration in MATLAB. An analysis of hover, a crucial element to vertical takeoff and landing in adverse conditions, follows. A method to calculate plausible wing flapping motions and control surface deflections for hover is developed, employing the above flight dynamics model. Once a hovering limit cycle trajectory is found, it can be linearized in discrete time and analyzed for stability (by calculating the trajectory's Floquet multipliers a type of discrete-time eigenvalue) are calculated. The dynamic mode shapes are discussed.

  7. Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A

    2013-01-01

    We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low energy spectrum as a function of m_{3/2}. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).

  8. Stability of geodesically complete cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creminelli, Paolo [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, 34151 (Italy); Pirtskhalava, David [Institute of Physics, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne,Lausanne, CH-1015 (Switzerland); Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico [Scuola Normale Superiore,Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, Pisa, 56126 (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Pisa,Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, Pisa, 56100 (Italy)

    2016-11-22

    We study the stability of spatially flat FRW solutions which are geodesically complete, i.e. for which one can follow null (graviton) geodesics both in the past and in the future without ever encountering singularities. This is the case of NEC-violating cosmologies such as smooth bounces or solutions which approach Minkowski in the past. We study the EFT of linear perturbations around a solution of this kind, including the possibility of multiple fields and fluids. One generally faces a gradient instability which can be avoided only if the operator {sup (3)} RδN is present and its coefficient changes sign along the evolution. This operator (typical of beyond-Horndeski theories) does not lead to extra degrees of freedom, but cannot arise starting from any theory with second-order equations of motion. The change of sign of this operator prevents to set it to zero with a generalised disformal transformation.

  9. Aging of dynamically stabilized microtubules

    CERN Document Server

    Ebbinghaus, M

    2009-01-01

    The microtubule network, an important part of the cytoskeleton, is constantly remodeled by alternating phases of growth and shrinkage of individual filaments. Plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) interact with the microtubule and in many cases alter its dynamics. While it is established that the prototypal CLIP-170 enhances microtubule stability by increasing rescues, the plus-end tracking mechanism is still under debate. We present a model for microtubule dynamics in which a rescue factor is dynamically added to the filament while growing. As a consequence, the filament shows aging behavior which should be experimentally accessible and thus allow one to exclude some hypothesized models of the inclusion of rescue factors at the microtubule plus end. Additionally, we show the strong influence of the cell geometry on the quantitative results.

  10. Aircraft nonlinear stability analysis and multidimensional stability region estimation under icing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang QU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Icing is one of the crucial factors that could pose great threat to flight safety, and thus research on stability and stability region of aircraft safety under icing conditions is significant for control and flight. Nonlinear dynamical equations and models of aerodynamic coefficients of an aircraft are set up in this paper to study the stability and stability region of the aircraft under an icing condition. Firstly, the equilibrium points of the iced aircraft system are calculated and analyzed based on the theory of differential equation stability. Secondly, according to the correlation theory about equilibrium points and the stability region, this paper estimates the multidimensional stability region of the aircraft, based on which the stability regions before and after icing are compared. Finally, the results are confirmed by the time history analysis. The results can give a reference for stability analysis and envelope protection of the nonlinear system of an iced aircraft.

  11. Nitrogen enrichment weakens ecosystem stability through decreased species asynchrony and population stability in a temperate grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhai; Loreau, Michel; Lü, Xiaotao; He, Nianpeng; Zhang, Guangming; Han, Xingguo

    2016-04-01

    Biodiversity generally promotes ecosystem stability. To assess whether the diversity-stability relationship observed under ambient nitrogen (N) conditions still holds under N enriched conditions, we designed a 6-year field experiment to test whether the magnitude and frequency of N enrichment affects ecosystem stability and its relationship with species diversity in a temperate grassland. Results of this experiment showed that the frequency of N addition had no effect on either the temporal stability of ecosystem and population or the relationship between diversity and stability. Nitrogen addition decreased ecosystem stability significantly through decreases in species asynchrony and population stability. Species richness was positively associated with ecosystem stability, but no significant relationship between diversity and the residuals of ecosystem stability was detected after controlling for the effects of the magnitude of N addition, suggesting collinearity between the effects of N addition and species richness on ecosystem stability, with the former prevailing over the latter. Both population stability and the residuals of population stability after controlling for the effects of the magnitude of N addition were positively associated with ecosystem stability, indicating that the stabilizing effects of component populations were still present after N enrichment. Our study supports the theory predicting that the effects of environmental factors on ecosystem functioning are stronger than those of biodiversity. Understanding such mechanisms is important and urgent to protect biodiversity in mediating ecosystem functioning and services in the face of global changes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Surface rheology and interface stability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaklin, Melissa A.; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Walker, Lynn; Koehler, Timothy P.; Reichert, Matthew D. (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a mature laboratory at Sandia to measure interfacial rheology, using a combination of home-built, commercially available, and customized commercial tools. An Interfacial Shear Rheometer (KSV ISR-400) was modified and the software improved to increase sensitivity and reliability. Another shear rheometer, a TA Instruments AR-G2, was equipped with a du Nouey ring, bicone geometry, and a double wall ring. These interfacial attachments were compared to each other and to the ISR. The best results with the AR-G2 were obtained with the du Nouey ring. A Micro-Interfacial Rheometer (MIR) was developed in house to obtain the much higher sensitivity given by a smaller probe. However, it was found to be difficult to apply this technique for highly elastic surfaces. Interfaces also exhibit dilatational rheology when the interface changes area, such as occurs when bubbles grow or shrink. To measure this rheological response we developed a Surface Dilatational Rheometer (SDR), in which changes in surface tension with surface area are measured during the oscillation of the volume of a pendant drop or bubble. All instruments were tested with various surfactant solutions to determine the limitations of each. In addition, foaming capability and foam stability were tested and compared with the rheology data. It was found that there was no clear correlation of surface rheology with foaming/defoaming with different types of surfactants, but, within a family of surfactants, rheology could predict the foam stability. Diffusion of surfactants to the interface and the behavior of polyelectrolytes were two subjects studied with the new equipment. Finally, surface rheological terms were added to a finite element Navier-Stokes solver and preliminary testing of the code completed. Recommendations for improved implementation were given. When completed we plan to use the computations to better interpret the experimental data and account for the effects of the underlying bulk

  13. Stability of a tachyon braneworld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germán, Gabriel [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo [Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla,Apartado Postal J-48, 72570, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Ciudad Universitaria, CP 58040, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Kuerten, André Martorano [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC),Avenida dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Malagón-Morejón, Dagoberto [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Rocha, Roldão da [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC),Avenida dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

    2016-01-26

    Within the braneworld paradigm the tachyonic scalar field has been used to generate models that attempt to solve some of the open problems that physics faces nowadays, both in cosmology and high energy physics as well. When these field configurations are produced by the interplay of higher dimensional warped gravity with some matter content, braneworld models must prove to be stable under the whole set of small fluctuations of the gravitational and matter fields background, among other consistency tests. Here we present a complete proof of the stability under scalar perturbations of tachyonic thick braneworlds with an embedded maximally symmetric 4D space-time, revealing its physical consistency. This family of models contains a recently reported tachyonic de Sitter thick braneworld which possesses a series of appealing properties. These features encompass complete regularity, asymptotic flatness (instead of being asymptotically dS or AdS) even when it contains a negative bulk cosmological constant, a relevant 3-brane with dS metric which naturally arises from the full set of field equations of the 5D background (it is not imposed), qualitatively describing the inflationary epochs of our Universe, and a graviton spectrum with a single zero mode bound state that accounts for the 4D graviton localised on the brane and is separated from the continuum of Kaluza-Klein massive graviton excitations by a mass gap. The presence of this mass gap in the graviton spectrum makes the extra-dimensional corrections to Newton’s law decay exponentially. Gauge vector fields with a single massless bound state in its mass spectrum are also localised on this braneworld model a fact that allows us to recover the Coulomb’s law of our 4D world. All these properties of the above referred tachyonic braneworld together with the positive stability analysis provided in this work, constitute a firm step towards the construction of realistic cosmological models within the braneworld paradigm.

  14. Stability of a tachyon braneworld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germán, Gabriel; Kuerten, André Martorano; Malagón-Morejón, Dagoberto [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México (Mexico); Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo [Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal J-48, 72570, Puebla, Puebla, México (Mexico); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: gabriel@fis.unam.mx, E-mail: aherrera@ifuap.buap.mx, E-mail: andre.kuerten@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: malagon@fis.unam.mx, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Avenida dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

    2016-01-01

    Within the braneworld paradigm the tachyonic scalar field has been used to generate models that attempt to solve some of the open problems that physics faces nowadays, both in cosmology and high energy physics as well. When these field configurations are produced by the interplay of higher dimensional warped gravity with some matter content, braneworld models must prove to be stable under the whole set of small fluctuations of the gravitational and matter fields background, among other consistency tests. Here we present a complete proof of the stability under scalar perturbations of tachyonic thick braneworlds with an embedded maximally symmetric 4D space-time, revealing its physical consistency. This family of models contains a recently reported tachyonic de Sitter thick braneworld which possesses a series of appealing properties. These features encompass complete regularity, asymptotic flatness (instead of being asymptotically dS or AdS) even when it contains a negative bulk cosmological constant, a relevant 3-brane with dS metric which naturally arises from the full set of field equations of the 5D background (it is not imposed), qualitatively describing the inflationary epochs of our Universe, and a graviton spectrum with a single zero mode bound state that accounts for the 4D graviton localised on the brane and is separated from the continuum of Kaluza-Klein massive graviton excitations by a mass gap. The presence of this mass gap in the graviton spectrum makes the extra-dimensional corrections to Newton's law decay exponentially. Gauge vector fields with a single massless bound state in its mass spectrum are also localised on this braneworld model a fact that allows us to recover the Coulomb's law of our 4D world. All these properties of the above referred tachyonic braneworld together with the positive stability analysis provided in this work, constitute a firm step towards the construction of realistic cosmological models within the braneworld

  15. Storage stability of marine phospholipids emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline Pascale

    acids (DHA) than oily triglycerides (fish oil). Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the feasibility of using marine phospholipids emulsions as delivery system through investigation of the physical, oxidative and hydrolytic stability of MPL emulsions with or without addition of fish oil....... The effect of initial Peroxide Value, total lipids, phospholipids and antioxidants content on stability of MPL emulsions were studied. The physical stability was investigated through measurement of particle size distribution and creaming stability, which involve measurement of changes (%) in emulsion volume....... In addition, preliminary investigation of the oxidative and hydrolytic stability was carried out through determination of Peroxide Value and Free Fatty Acids Value after 32 days storage at room temperature and 2ºC, respectively. Oxidative stability of MPL emulsions were also investigated through measurement...

  16. Leadership Stability in Army Reserve Component Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Leadership Stability in...standards for research quality and objectivity. Leadership Stability in Army Reserve Component Units Thomas F. Lippiatt, J. Michael Polich NATIONAL SECURITY...RESEARCH DIVISION Leadership Stability in Army Reserve Component Units Thomas F. Lippiatt, J. Michael Polich Prepared for the Office of the

  17. Stability investigation of quadratic systems with delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Davydov

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Systems of differential equations with quadratic right-hand sides with delay are considered in the paper. Compact matrix notation form is proposed for the systems of such type. Stability investigations are performed by Lyapunov's second method with functions of quadratic form. Stability conditions of quadratic systems with delay, uniformly by argument deviation, and with delay depending on the system's parameters are derived. A guaranteed radius of the ball of asymptotic stability region for zero solution is obtained.

  18. Exponential Stabilization of an Underactuated Surface Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Y. Pettersen

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that a large class of underactuated vehicles cannot be asymptotically stabilized by either continuous or discontinuous state feedback. Furthermore, stabilization of an underactuated surface vessel is considered. Controllability properties of the surface vessels is presented, and a continuous periodic time-varying feedback law is proposed. It is shown that this feedback law exponentially stabilizes the surface vessel to the origin, and this is illustrated by simulations.

  19. Bottle microresonator with actively stabilized evanescent coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Junge, C; O'Shea, D; Rauschenbeutel, A

    2011-01-01

    The evanescent coupling of light between a whispering-gallery-mode bottle microresonator and a sub-wavelength-diameter coupling fiber is actively stabilized by means of a Pound-Drever-Hall technique. We demonstrate the stabilization of a critically coupled resonator with a control bandwidth of 0.1 Hz, yielding a residual transmission of (9 \\pm 3) \\times 10^-3 for more than an hour. Simultaneously, the frequency of the resonator mode is actively stabilized.

  20. Nanoporous silica membranes with high hydrothermal stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Magnacca, Giualiana; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Despite the use of sol-gel derived nanoporous silica membranes in substitution of traditional separation processes is expected leading to vast energy savings, their intrinsic poor steam-stability hampers their application at an industrial level. Transition metal ions can be used as dopant...... to improve the stability of nanoporous silica structure. This work is a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions on the microporous structure and stability of amorphous silica-based membranes, which provides information on how to design chemical compositions...... and synthetic paths for the fabrication of silica-based membranes with a well accessible and highly stabile nanoporous structure...

  1. Absolute Stability And Hyperstability In Hilbert Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, John Ting-Yung

    1989-01-01

    Theorems on stabilities of feedback control systems proved. Paper presents recent developments regarding theorems of absolute stability and hyperstability of feedforward-and-feedback control system. Theorems applied in analysis of nonlinear, adaptive, and robust control. Extended to provide sufficient conditions for stability in system including nonlinear feedback subsystem and linear time-invariant (LTI) feedforward subsystem, state space of which is Hilbert space, and input and output spaces having finite numbers of dimensions. (In case of absolute stability, feedback subsystem memoryless and possibly time varying. For hyperstability, feedback system dynamical system.)

  2. FINANCIAL STABILITY AS A FACTOR ECONOMIC SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Endovitskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article examines the linkages between financial stability and the level of its economic security. Considered the content of financial stability, represented by its own definition, we studied the basic conditions to achieve it. The logic diagram showing the location of financial stability and financial security to ensure the economic security of the business entity. A system of internal and external factors affecting the financial stability and endanger financial stability and financial security company. It has been established that it is the internal factors such as the availability of financial resources and financial position, capital structure, the company's ability to generate profits determine the level of economic security and its ability to withstand the negative impact of external and internal threats. The necessity of improving the financial sustainability in order to improve the economic security of the enterprise. On the basis of the research proposed matrix of risks affecting the financial stability and economic security, which allows to determine the probability of their occurrence and impact. It presents the economic, social, human, financial, organizational, economic, innovative and productive tools to increase the stability and financial security of an economic entity. List considered standard measures will make a plan of action to minimize the adverse impacts and enhance financial stability and security. Therefore, a prerequisite for the economic security of the enterprise is the attainment of financial stability.

  3. Stochastic stability and instability of model ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladde, G. S.; Siljak, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    In this work, we initiate a stability study of multispecies communities in stochastic environment by using Ito's differential equations as community models. By applying the direct method of Liapunov, we obtain sufficient conditions for stability and instability in the mean of the equilibrium populations. The conditions are expressed in terms of the dominant diagonal property of community matrices, which is a suitable mechanism for resolving the central problem of 'complexity vs stability' in model ecosystems. As a by-product of this analysis we exhibit important structural properties of the stochastic density-dependent models, and establish tolerance of community stability to a broad class of nonlinear time-varying perturbations.

  4. Relationship Stability through Lenses of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakurt, Gunnur

    2012-01-01

    Research on relationship stability usually considers the effect of couple outcomes and individual differences on relationship stability in isolation from each other. These separate bodies of research often lead to inconsistent results. In order to better understand relationship stability and explain inconsistencies in the literature, it is important to investigate more complex models that integrate couple outcomes and behaviors with individual differences. Motivated by these considerations, we examined the complex interplay between personal characteristics, couple interactions, and relationship stability. In particular, we investigated the relationships among investment model, big five personality traits, attachment dimensions, relationship factors and relationship stability. Participants of this study included 162 individuals (Female N=117) who are currently in a relationship from a large Midwestern university campus. Analyses were conducted using Structural Equation Modeling. Examination of the structural path parameters indicated that attachment had significant direct effect on personality, relationship factors, and relationship stability. Personality also had a significant direct effect on relationship stability. Finally personality had no direct effect on relationship factors and relationship factors had no direct effect on relationship stability. These results suggest that the effect of personality on relationship stability is direct, rather than being mediated by relationship factors. PMID:23124824

  5. An improved criterion for Kapitza's pendulum stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butikov, Eugene I.

    2011-07-01

    An enhanced and more exact criterion for dynamic stabilization of the parametrically driven inverted pendulum is obtained: the boundaries of stability are determined with greater precision and are valid in a wider region of the system parameters than previous results. The lower boundary of stability is associated with the phenomenon of subharmonic resonances in this system. The relationship of the upper limit of dynamic stabilization of the inverted pendulum with ordinary parametric resonance (i.e. with destabilization of the lower equilibrium position) is established. Computer simulation of the physical system aids the analytical investigation and proves the theoretical results.

  6. U31: vehicle stability and dynamics electronic stability control final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    A team led by NTRCI is working to improve the roll and yaw stability of heavy duty combination trucks through developing stability algorithms, assembling demonstration hardware, and investigating robust wireless communication. : Modern electronic sta...

  7. Does thermophoresis reduce aggregate stability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Eyal; Sarah, Pariente

    2017-04-01

    Thermophoresis is mass flow driven by a thermal gradient. As a result of Seebeck effect and Soret effect, colloids can move from the hot to the cold region or vice versa, depending on the electrolyte composition and on the particle size. This migration of colloids can weaken aggregates. The effect of raindrop temperatures on runoff generation and erosion on clayey soil was investigated in sprinkling experiments with a laboratory rotating disk rain simulator. The experiments were applied to Rhodoxeralt (Terra Rossa) soil with two pre-prepared moisture contents: hygroscopic and field capacity. For each moisture content three rainfall temperatures were applied: 2, 20, and 35°C. Erosion was generally lower in the pre-wetted soil than in the dry soil (12.5 and 24.4 g m-2 per 40 mm of rain,respectively). Whereas there was no significant effect of raindrop temperature on the dry soil the soil that was pre-moistened to field capacity was affected by rainwater temperature: runoff and erosion were high when the temperature difference between rainfall and soil surface was high, sediment yields were 13.9, 5.2, and 18.3 g m-2 per 40 mm of rain, for rain temperature of 2, 20, and 35 °C, respectively. It is reasonable to conclude that thermophoresis caused by thermal gradients within the soil solution reduces the stability of aggregates and then increase the soil losses.

  8. KAM Stability and Celestial Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Celletti, A

    2004-01-01

    KAM theory is a powerful tool apt to prove perpetual stability in Hamiltonian systems, which are a perturbation of integrable ones. The smallness requirements for its applicability are well known to be extremely stringent. A long standing problem, in this context, is the application of KAM theory to ``physical systems" for ``observable" values of the perturbation parameters. Here, we consider the Restricted, Circular, Planar, Three-Body Problem (RCPTBP),i.e., the problem of studying the planar motions of a small body subject to the gravitational attraction of two primary bodies revolving on circular Keplerian orbits (which are assumed not to be influenced by the small body). When the mass ratio of the two primary bodies is small the RCPTBP is described by a nearly-integrable Hamiltonian system with two degrees of freedom; in a region of phase space corresponding to nearly elliptical motions with non small eccentricities, the system is well described by Delaunay variables. The Sun-Jupiter observed motion is ne...

  9. Stability of single skyrmionic bits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedmedenko, Olena; Hagemeister, Julian; Romming, Niklas; von Bergmann, Kirsten; Wiesendanger, Roland

    The switching between topologically distinct skyrmionic and ferromagnetic states has been proposed as a bit operation for information storage. While long lifetimes of the bits are required for data storage devices, the lifetimes of skyrmions have not been addressed so far. Here we show by means of atomistic Monte Carlo simulations that the field-dependent mean lifetimes of the skyrmionic and ferromagnetic states have a high asymmetry with respect to the critical magnetic field, at which these lifetimes are identical. According to our calculations, the main reason for the enhanced stability of skyrmions is a different field dependence of skyrmionic and ferromagnetic activation energies and a lower attempt frequency of skyrmions rather than the height of energy barriers. We use this knowledge to propose a procedure for the determination of effective material parameters and the quantification of the Monte Carlo timescale from the comparison of theoretical and experimental data. Financial support from the DFG in the framework of the SFB668 is acknowledged.

  10. Trunk orientation, stability and quadrupedalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri P Ivanenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Interesting cases of human quadrupedalism described by Uner Tan and colleagues (2005-2012 have attracted the attention of geneticists, neurologists and anthropologists. Since his first publications in 2005, the main attention has focused on the genetic aspects of disorders that lead to quadrupedalism within an evolutionary framework. In recent years this area has undergone a convincing critique (Downey 2010 and ended with a call "... to move in a different direction … away from thinking solely in terms of genetic abnormality and evolutionary atavism". We consider quadrupedalism as a ‘natural experiment’ that may contribute to our knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying our balance system and our tendency toward normal (upright posture. Bipedalism necessitates a number of characteristics that distinguish us from our ancestors and present-day mammals, including: size and shape of the bones of the foot, structure of the axial and proximal musculature, and the orientation of the human body and head. In this review we address the results of experimental studies on the mechanisms that stabilize the body in healthy people, as well as how these mechanisms may be disturbed in various forms of clinical pathology. These disturbances are related primarily to automatic rather than voluntary control of posture and suggest that human quadrupedalism is a behavior that can result from adaptive processes triggered by disorders in postural tone and environmental cues. These results will serve as a starting point for comparing and contrasting bi- and quadrupedalism.

  11. Can human populations be stabilized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Stephen G.

    2015-02-01

    Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, Easter Island, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are wrong because they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food.

  12. The stability of protoplanet systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshinaga, K; Makino, J

    1999-01-01

    The authors investigated the stability of 10 protoplanet systems using three-dimensional N-body simulations. They found that the time scale of instability T depends strongly on the initial random velocities nu (eccentricities e and inclinations i) and orbital separations Delta a. For zero initial random velocities, they confirmed the result of Chambers et al. (1996, Icarus 119, 261-268) that T is proportional to exp( Delta a). For finite random velocities, they found that T depends strongly on the initial random velocities. The relation between T and Delta a is still expressed as log T=b+c Delta a. However, both b and c depend on initial random velocities and the slope, b, becomes smaller for larger nu . Even for relatively small initial eccentricities such as e~2r/sub H//a, where r/sub H/ is the Hill radius, the time scale can be reduced by a factor of 10 compared with the case of the zero random velocity. Therefore, the time scale of the formation of inner planets might be much shorter than what implied by ...

  13. Stability of aflatoxins in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Cepeda, Sandra M; Martos, Perry A

    2012-01-01

    The stability of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 was studied in solutions containing different concentrations of water, acetonitrile, and/or methanol, and in autosampler vials treated with nitric acid or silanized. When stored at room temperature (20 degrees C) for 24 h, aflatoxins G1 and G2 were stable only in solutions containing 100% organic solvent, whereas aflatoxins B1 and B2 were stable in solutions of methanol-water and acetonitrile-water at greater than 60 and 40% organic content, respectively. At 5 degrees C, aflatoxins G1 and G2 showed a significant decrease in concentration only when kept in less than 20% aqueous organic solvent. Significant loss of aflatoxins was realized in standard, commercially available amber type I borosilicate autosampler vials, but chemical etching of the vials with nitric acid or with silanization prevented aflatoxin degradation. These results indicate that aflatoxins are unstable in aqueous solutions and that this instability can be counteracted by the presence of at least 20% organic solvent and keeping the solutions at 5 degrees C or by the use of treated vials.

  14. Developmental stability and human violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlow, B; Gangestad, S W; Armijo-Prewitt, T

    1998-01-07

    Developmental stability (the precision with which genotypes are translated into phenotypes under physically stressful developmental conditions), is a major source of phenotypic and behavioural variation, yet researchers have largely ignored its potential role in the ontogeny of individual propensities toward human aggression and violence. In this study, we measured fluctuating asymmetry of the body and administered aggression and fighting history questionnaires to 229 college students (139 female and 90 male undergraduates). Among males, but not females, fluctuating asymmetry correlated negatively and significantly with the participants' number of fights and propensity to escalate agonistic encounters to physical violence. Principal components analyses and scree tests suggested that two psychometric factors underlie observed correlations between self-report measures of aggressive tendencies. The first factor, 'aggressive negative affect', reflected verbal aggression and hostility toward others, while the second factor, 'self-assessed fighting ability', reflected physical violence and a tendency to win fights. The two factors correlated minimally. For both males and females, the second factor correlated with number of fights while the first factor did not. Fluctuating asymmetry did not significantly correlate with either factor for either sex, but for both sexes, psychometric intelligence (IQ) correlated positively with the first factor.

  15. Effect of core stability exercise on postural stability in children with Down syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sobhy M. Aly

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome is one of the commonest causes of developmental delay in children. Postural stability problems often exist with Down syndrome. To investigate the effect of core stability exercises on postural stability in children with down syndrome. Thirty children (21 boys and 9 girls) with down syndrome, with ages ranged from 6 to 10 years were participated in this study. They were assigned randomlyinto study and control group. Study group received core stability exercises and conventional p...

  16. Stitching Stabilizer: Two-frame-stitching Video Stabilization for Embedded Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    In conventional electronic video stabilization, the stabilized frame is obtained by cropping the input frame to cancel camera shake. While a small cropping size results in strong stabilization, it does not provide us satisfactory results from the viewpoint of image quality, because it narrows the angle of view. By fusing several frames, we can effectively expand the area of input frames, and achieve strong stabilization even with a large cropping size. Several methods for doing so have been s...

  17. Estimating Stability Class in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonidas G. Lavdas

    1997-01-01

    A simple and easily remembered method is described for estimating cloud ceiling height in the field. Estimating ceiling height provides the means to estimate stability class, a parameter used to help determine Dispersion Index and Low Visibility Occurrence Risk Index, indices used as smoke management aids. Stability class is also used as an input to VSMOKE, an...

  18. Feasibility and Stability in Normative Political Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2006-01-01

    Arguments from stability for liberal nationalism rely on considerations about conditions for the feasibility or stability of liberal political ideals and factual claims about the circumstances under which these conditions are fulfilled in order to argue for nationalist conclusions. Such reliance ...

  19. The Stabilizer-Free Emulsion Polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrowolska, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    The research described in this thesis has been performed with the goal to understand and develop a method for stabilizer-free emulsion polymerization. In order to develop rules for this method, three main issues had to be understood: colloidal stability, emulsification method and polymerization

  20. Univariate stability analysis methods for determining genotype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, superior genotypes are recommended for use by farmers in semi-arid areas. Finally, based on most statistics, mean yield and dynamic concept of stability genotype G13 was stable and favorable and is recommended for national release in rain-fed lands of Iran. Regression method's slopes, genotypic stability (D2) ...

  1. Stability of Adolescents' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaramian, Susan P.; Huebner, E. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Eighty-four students were administered the Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS) on three occasions, 1 year apart (Grades 8, 9, and 10). The 1-year stability coefficients ranged from 0.29 to 0.59, whereas the 2-year stability coefficients ranged from 0.41 to 0.59. MSLSS mean scores were consistent across administrations, with…

  2. Stability of drinking water distribution network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Tobias; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    We strive to prove stability of a hydraulic network, where the pressure at the end user is controlled with PI control. The non-polynomial model is represented by numerous polynomial systems defined on sub-sets of Rn. The sub-sets are defined by compact basic semi-algebraic sets. The stability...

  3. MHD equilibrium and stability in heliotron plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichiguchi, Katsuji [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Recent topics in the theoretical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) analysis in the heliotron configuration are overviewed. Particularly, properties of three-dimensional equilibria, stability boundary of the interchange mode, effects of the net toroidal current including the bootstrap current and the ballooning mode stability are focused. (author)

  4. Stabilizer bars: Part 3. Production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam-Markus WITTEK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the methods of stabilizer bar production as well as selected issues concerning the theory of cold roll forming. A proper construction and the selection of parameters are fundamental factors influencing the selection of a suitable production process. The selection of the manufacturing process has a fundamental impact on the quality and durability of the stabilizer bars.

  5. Effects of phosphoramides on wood dimensional stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Lin. Lee; George C. Chen; Roger M. Rowell

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the dimensional stability of phosphoramide-reacted wood, wood was reacted with a mixture which was derived from compounding phosphorus pentoxide and each of 12 amines including alkyl, halophenyl, and phenyl amines in N,N-dimethylformamide. Dimensional stability of such reacted wood was analyzed by antishrink efficiency (ASE) using the water-soak method....

  6. Magnetically stabilized plasma sources of getter films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpov, D.; Saksagansky, G. (Div. Efremov Scientific Research Inst. of Electrophysical Apparatus, Leningrad (USSR))

    1990-01-01

    Modern state and ways of development of getter film plasma sources with the magnetic stabilization (GFPS) are considered. The description of physical mechanism of the magnetic stabilization, GFPS constructions and technical characteristics, their confronting parameters and the main factors defining usage perspectives is presented. (orig.).

  7. Stabilization of Volterra equations by noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the stability of an autonomous convolution Itô-Volterra equation where the linear diffusion term depends on the current value of the state only, and the memory of the past fades exponentially fast. It is shown that the presence of noise can stabilize an equilibrium solution which is unstable in the absence of this noise.

  8. Stability of flows in fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopal, C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we carry out a systematic linearized stability analysis of the state of uniform fluidization for a fluid infused with granular particles. We carry out an interesting optimization procedure which leads to bounds for certain parameters, within which the state of uniform fluidization is stable. We find that this stability depends critically on the structure of the pressure-like term. (VC)

  9. Power system stability modelling, analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Sallam, Abdelhay A

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the subject from both a physical and mathematical perspective and covers a range of topics including modelling, computation of load flow in the transmission grid, stability analysis under both steady-state and disturbed conditions, and appropriate controls to enhance stability.

  10. Bottle microresonator with actively stabilized evanescent coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, C.; Nickel, S.; O'Shea, D.; Rauschenbeutel, A.

    2011-01-01

    The evanescent coupling of light between a whispering-gallery-mode bottle microresonator and a subwavelength-diameter coupling fiber is actively stabilized by means of the Pound-Drever-Hall technique. We demonstrate the stabilization of a critically coupled resonator with a control bandwidth of 0.1

  11. Conditions for equilibrium solid-stabilized emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Daniela J; de Folter, Julius W J; Luigjes, Bob; Castillo, Sonja I R; Sacanna, Stefano; Philipse, Albert P; Kegel, Willem K

    2010-08-19

    Particular types of solid-stabilized emulsions can be thermodynamically stable as evidenced by their spontaneous formation and monodisperse droplet size, which only depends on system parameters. Here, we investigate the generality of these equilibrium solid-stabilized emulsions with respect to the basic constituents: aqueous phase with ions, oil, and stabilizing particles. From systematic variations of these constituents, we identify general conditions for the spontaneous formation of monodisperse solid-stabilized emulsions droplets. We conclude that emulsion stability is achieved by a combination of solid particles as well as amphiphilic ions adsorbed at the droplet surface, and low interfacial tensions of the bare oil-water interface of order 10 mN/m or below. Furthermore, preferential wetting of the colloidal particles by the oil phase is necessary for thermodynamic stability. We demonstrate the sufficiency of these basic requirements by extending the observed thermodynamic stability to emulsions of different compositions. Our findings point to a new class of colloid-stabilized meso-emulsions with a potentially high impact on industrial emulsification processes due to the associated large energy savings.

  12. A note on Weak Stability Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    García González, Fernando; Gómez Muntané, Gerard

    2006-01-01

    This paper is devoted to clarify the algorithmic definition of the weak stability boundary in the framework of the planar Restricted Three Body Problem. The role of the invariant hyperbolic manifolds associated to the central manifolds of the libration points L1 and L2, as boundary of the weak stability region, is shown Peer Reviewed

  13. Structural Stability Of Detached Low Crested Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Kramer, Morten; Lamberti, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    determining armour stone size in shallow water conditions is given together with a rule of thumb for the required stone size in depth-limited design waves. Rock toe stability is discussed on the basis of prototype experience, hard bottom 2-D tests in depth-limited waves and an existing hydraulic stability...

  14. Stability of the Groves and Ledyard Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the stability properties of the game defined by the Groves and Ledyard mechanism. It is shown that when we no longer assume the static Nash-Cournot equilibrium as defined by Groves and Ledyard, but instead assume a dynamic version, the stability of the model is put at serious

  15. Stability Testing of Beclomethasone Dipropionate Nanoemulsion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stability Testing of Beclomethasone Dipropionate Nanoemulsion. MS Alam, MS Ali, MI Alam, T Anwer, MMA Safhi. Abstract. Purpose: To perform stability studies on a nanoemulsion formulation containing beclomethasone dipropionate (BD) and prepared by spontaneous emulsification method. Method: A nanoemulsion ...

  16. Homological stability for unordered configuration spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randal-Williams, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    This paper consists of two related parts. In the first part we give a self-contained proof of homological stability for the spaces C_n(M;X) of configurations of n unordered points in a connected open manifold M with labels in a path-connected space X, with the best possible integral stability ran...

  17. Stability of large-area molecular junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Hylke B.; Kronemeijer, Auke J.; Harkema, Jan; van Hal, Paul A.; Smits, Edsger C. P.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; Blom, Paul W. M.

    The stability of molecular junctions is crucial for any application of molecular electronics. Degradation of molecular junctions when exposed to ambient conditions is regularly observed. In this report the stability of large-area molecular junctions under ambient conditions for more than two years

  18. Local Dynamic Stability Associated with Load Carrying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Current study confirmed the sensitivity of local dynamic stability measure in load carrying situation. It was concluded that load carrying tasks were associated with declined local dynamic stability, which may result in increased risk of fall accident. This finding has implications in preventing fall accidents associated with occupational load carrying.

  19. Electret Stability Related to Spherulites in Polypropylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Anders; Almdal, Kristoffer; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2015-01-01

    Electret charge stability has been related to the size of the spherulites in polypropylene. As the size of the spherulites is decreased the stability is increased. This is seen for isothermal conditions at 90 °C and 120 °C as well as for 90 % relative humidity at 50 °C. The charge release...

  20. Stability and change in results of schooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doolaard, Simone

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on the stability and changes in primary school results over an eight-year period, and stems from the tradition of school effectiveness research. To estimate the (in)stability of results, a longitudinal, multilevel design with repeated measurements at school level was used. It

  1. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, M.; Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Wang, D.

    2009-01-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts

  2. Financial Stability: the Problem of Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaniak Mykola M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with studying the problem of interpretation of the concept of «financial stability», allocating the major groups of approaches to its interpretation and clarifying the reasons for absence of a single uniform definition. On the basis of an analysis, approaches to interpretation of the category of «financial stability» have been divided into three main groups. In the definitions by central banks (the first group emphasis is more often placed upon the matter that a system (not necessarily financial is considered stable if it is able to perform all their functions even under conditions of minor adverse shocks and upheavals. The second way to interpretation – by contradiction – must be taken into consideration in the process of studying the financial stability. According to the third group of views, a system can be considered financially stable until the process of transforming savings into investments remains unbroken. The main reasons for the absence of a single clear formulation of the concept of «financial stability» have been identified, namely: different approaches used by scientists to understanding the content of financial system; refocusing from studying the financial stability towards financial crises; accounting the indicator of financial stability in place of the indicator of financial disturbances. A prospective direction for further research is assessment of financial stability through practical consideration of quantitative characteristics that influence on such stability

  3. GENOTYPE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION AND STABILITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GENOTYPE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION AND STABILITY ANALYSIS OF SEED YIELD IN NAVY BEAN GENOTYPES. ... Abstract. Genotype x environment interactions, genotype response to environments and stability for seed yield of navy bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were studied. Sixteen genotypes were ...

  4. STRATIFICATION IN WASTE STABILIZATION PONDS II: MODELLING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria,. Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. The occurrence of thermal stratification in waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) alters the flow pattern of the pond. Hence, its study is important for complete and accurate modelling of the waste stabilization pond. In this study, a ...

  5. Park power deficit due to atmospheric stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Barthelmie, Rebecca; Ott, Søren

    The purpose of this paper is to present a power deficit analysis based on offshore wind farm measurements with respect to the atmospheric stability classification. The result is used to validate wind farm prediction models under different inflow and atmospheric stability conditions...

  6. Life Span Personality Stability in Sibling Statuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, B. G.

    Personality stability and change in sibling status in the one- and two-child-family are examined in this Study. Q-sort data were analyzed for the same 33 male and 34 female subjects during four periods of their lives-- early and late adolescence and early and middle adulthood. Results indicate that stability of personality was greatest during…

  7. On Stabilization in Herman’s Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiefer, Stefan; Murawski, Andrzej S.; Ouaknine, Joël

    2011-01-01

    Herman’s algorithm is a synchronous randomized protocol for achieving self-stabilization in a token ring consisting of N processes. The interaction of tokens makes the dynamics of the protocol very difficult to analyze. In this paper we study the expected time to stabilization in terms...

  8. Stability of the SOMPA's Health History Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Cheryl Yelich; Oakland, Thomas

    Interest in and use of the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment's (SOMPA's) Health History Inventories (HHI) has been intensive despite the unavailability of psychometric data estimating its stability. This paper reports the results of a longitudinal study designed to provide data on the stability of the HHI over a four year period. The…

  9. Theory of Arched Structures Strength, Stability, Vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A

    2012-01-01

    Theory of Arched Structures: Strength, Stability, Vibration presents detailed procedures for analytical analysis of the strength, stability, and vibration of arched structures of different types, using exact analytical methods of classical structural analysis. The material discussed is divided into four parts. Part I covers stress and strain with a particular emphasis on analysis; Part II discusses stability and gives an in-depth analysis of elastic stability of arches and the role that matrix methods play in the stability of the arches; Part III presents a comprehensive tutorial on dynamics and free vibration of arches, and forced vibration of arches; and Part IV offers a section on special topics which contains a unique discussion of plastic analysis of arches and the optimal design of arches.

  10. Trait diversity promotes stability of community dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lai; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Knudsen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical exploration of how diversity influences stability has traditionally been approached by species-centric methods. Here we offer an alternative approach to the diversity–stability problem by examining the stability and dynamics of size and trait distributions of individuals...... body size. The dynamic properties of the models are described by a stability analysis of equilibrium solutions and by the non-equilibrium dynamics. We find that the introduction of trait diversity expands the set of parameters for which the equilibrium is stable and, if the community is unstable, makes...... the oscillations smaller, slower, and more regular. The stabilizing mechanism is the variation in growth rate between individuals with the same body size but different trait values....

  11. The Mechanics of Gross Moist Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Fuchs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The gross moist stability relates the net lateral outflow of moist entropy or moist static energy from an atmospheric convective region to some measure of the strength of the convection in that region. If the gross moist stability can be predicted as a function of the local environmental conditions, then it becomes the key element in understanding how convection is controlled by the large-scale flow. This paper provides a guide to the various ways in which the gross moist stability is defined and the subtleties of its calculation from observations and models. Various theories for the determination of the gross moist stability are presented and its roles in current conceptual models for the tropical atmospheric circulation are analyzed. The possible effect of negative gross moist stability on the development and dynamics of tropical disturbances is currently of great interest.

  12. Electrostatic Stabilization of Graphene in Organic Dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Andrew N J; Velický, Matěj; Dryfe, Robert A W

    2015-12-08

    The exfoliation of graphite to give graphene dispersions in nonaqueous solvents is an important area with regards to scalable production of graphene in bulk quantities and its ultimate application in devices. Understanding the mechanisms governing the stability of these dispersions is therefore of both scientific interest and technological importance. Herein, we have used addition of an indifferent electrolyte to perturb few-layer graphene dispersions in a nonaqueous solvent (1,2-dichloroethane) as a way to probe the importance of interparticle electrostatic repulsions toward the overall dispersion stability. At a sufficient electrolyte concentration, complete sedimentation of the dispersions occurred over 24 h, and the relationship between dispersed graphene concentration and electrolyte concentration was consistent with a dispersion stabilized by electrostatic repulsions. We also found that an increased oxygen content in the graphite starting material produced dispersions of greater stability, indicating that the extent of oxidation is an important parameter in determining the extent of electrostatic stabilization in nonaqueous graphene dispersions.

  13. Protein stabilization utilizing a redefined codon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, Kazumasa; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Mukai, Takahito; Kashimura, Hiroki; Hirano, Nobutaka; Haruki, Mitsuru; Kohashi, Sosuke; Yamagishi, Kenji; Murayama, Kazutaka; Tomabechi, Yuri; Itagaki, Takashi; Akasaka, Ryogo; Kawazoe, Masahito; Takemoto, Chie; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Sakamoto, Kensaku

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances have fundamentally changed the ways in which synthetic amino acids are incorporated into proteins, enabling their efficient and multiple-site incorporation, in addition to the 20 canonical amino acids. This development provides opportunities for fresh approaches toward addressing fundamental problems in bioengineering. In the present study, we showed that the structural stability of proteins can be enhanced by integrating bulky halogenated amino acids at multiple selected sites. Glutathione S-transferase was thus stabilized significantly (by 5.2 and 5.6 kcal/mol) with 3-chloro- and 3-bromo-l-tyrosines, respectively, incorporated at seven selected sites. X-ray crystallographic analyses revealed that the bulky halogen moieties filled internal spaces within the molecules, and formed non-canonical stabilizing interactions with the neighboring residues. This new mechanism for protein stabilization is quite simple and applicable to a wide range of proteins, as demonstrated by the rapid stabilization of the industrially relevant azoreductase. PMID:25985257

  14. Core Stabilization Exercise Prescription, Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumitt, Jason; Matheson, J. W.; Meira, Erik P.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Injury to the low back can cause significant pain and dysfunction, which can affect an athlete’s performance and result in time lost from sport. A common conservative treatment is therapeutic core stabilization exercises, which can address pain and musculoskeletal dysfunction in patients with low back pathology. Evidence Acquisition: MEDLINE and CINAHL were searched (from 1966 to March 2013) to identify relevant research. Keywords and keyword combinations searched included motor control exercise, segmental stabilization, core stabilization, transversus abdominis, multifidi, and low back pain. Results: There are 2 popular rehabilitation strategies to assess core function and promote core stabilization. Each has been developed based on biomechanical models of lumbar segmental stability and observed motor control dysfunction in patients with low back pain. Conclusion: Controversy exists among clinical and research groups as to the optimal strategy for an athlete with low back pain. PMID:24427424

  15. Methods to measure stability of dental implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Digholkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental implant treatment is an excellent option for prosthetic restoration that is associated with high success rates. Implant stability is essential for a good outcome. The clinical assessment of osseointegration is based on mechanical stability rather than histological criteria, considering primary stability (absence of mobility in bone bed after implant insertion and secondary stability (bone formation and remodeling at implant-bone interface. However, due to the invasive nature of the histological methods various other methods have been proposed: Radiographs, the surgeon′s perception, Insertion torque (cutting torque analysis, seating torque, reverse torque testing, percussion testing, impact hammer method, pulsed oscillation waveform, implant mobility checker, Periotest, resonance frequency analysis. This review focuses on the methods currently available for the evaluation of implant stability.

  16. 100 million refugees. The world stabilizes through population stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaiya, T

    1993-09-01

    Global change has come about due to shifts in the business cycle, a new undeveloped paradigm to replace the Cold War, and a stabilization of expansion and development of modern industrial society. Japan has been transfixed with its own internal domestic affairs, but will feel the consequences of the Industrial Age nearing its end. Industrialization had relied on unlimited resources from the natural environment and the belief that a free-market economy would automatically lead to orderliness and a state of economic equilibrium. Population control has been an issue that has slid over the years as a priority status. In 1800, the population in developed countries was 4 times the population in developing countries; the reverse is becoming true. Mass migration was an unusual phenomena and not the problem it is today. There is a gap between population and productive capacity. Developed countries believed in humanitarian aid for refugees and impoverished peoples, but the numbers were unanticipated. There is no shame for war or civil unrest to drive boat people and hugh numbers to another country. The notion of nation state has changed. The boat people from Cuba were a beginning example of how governments were unconcerned about the loss of population. Afghanistan in 1979 was another example of refugees fleeing civil war. Iraq bombed the Kurds until there was no choice but to leave. Turkey was required to use troops to drive the Kurds back into Iraq. To increase aid indefinitely, or to send out more refugees than it takes in, or to use military forces to kill the invading refugees are not acceptable. An international framework with consensus from developed and developing countries is needed for dealing with mass migrations. Conventions adopted would have to be recognized as in each countries self-interest; disregard of the regulations would have to reflect significant disadvantages to a nation. Several issues are discussed as key in such a global framework: assuring

  17. Stability of Furosemide and Chlorothiazidea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cies, Jeffrey J.; Moore, Wayne S.; Chopra, Arun; Lu, Guizhen; Mason, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Furosemide is a loop diuretic and chlorothiazide is a thiazide diuretic which are commonly used in pediatric patients for varying reasons. Furosemide and chlorothiazide can be used concomitantly to maximize diuresis. It has been a practice at some institutions to combine furosemide and chlorothiazide in the same syringe even though stability data is currently lacking for this combination. The purpose of this study was to determine whether furosemide and chlorothiazide are stable either alone or when mixed together. METHODS Chlorothiazide and furosemide were diluted in 5% dextrose USP to a final concentration of 10 mg/mL of chlorothiazide and 1 mg/mL of furosemide and combined. Samples of chlorothiazide in dextrose, furosemide in dextrose and dextrose alone were also prepared for control purposes. Compounds were detected using an Agilent 6460 Triple Quad LC/MS/MS equipped with an ESI source. RESULTS Chlorothiazide typically eluted from the chromatogram at 2.6 min and furosemide at 4.8 min. Mixtures and samples were diluted 10,000 fold prior to LC/MS/MS analysis to give 1,000 ng/mL chlorothiazide and 100 ng/mL furosemide so that both would be in the linear range of the assay. Each compound was degraded by exposure to strong UV light in a time-dependent manner. Both chlorothiazide and furosemide retained over 90% of the original concentration when stored separately or together for up to 96 h. CONCLUSIONS Chlorothiazide (10 mg/mL) and furosemide (1 mg/mL) are stable for up to 96 hours at room temperature when protected from light, either alone or together in dextrose 5%. PMID:26637518

  18. Effects of scapular stability exercise on shoulder stability and rehabilitative ultrasound images in office workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Seong-Uk; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To examine the clinical effectiveness of scapular stability exercise on shoulder stability and rehabilitative ultrasound images in office workers. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight subjects were randomly divided into a scapular stability exercise group (n=19) and a manual therapy group (n=19). Subjects in the scapular stability exercise group performed a scapular stability exercise designed to correct the abnormal location of the scapula, at 40 minutes per session, two times per week, for 6 weeks. Forward head horizontal distance, rounded shoulder posture, stability of the upper limb for the shoulder, and rehabilitative ultrasound images were evaluated before and after 6 weeks. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significantly decreased forward head horizontal distance and rounded shoulder posture, with significantly improved stability of the upper limb and rehabilitative ultrasound images. Forward head horizontal distance, rounded shoulder posture, stability of the upper limb, and rehabilitative ultrasound images showed greater improvements in the shoulder stability exercise group than in the manual therapy group. [Conclusion] Scapular stability exercise can improve shoulder stability and the thickness of the lower trapezius in rehabilitative ultrasound images of office workers, and could be useful in clinical rehabilitation. PMID:27942108

  19. Effects of scapular stability exercise on shoulder stability and rehabilitative ultrasound images in office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Seong-Uk; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] To examine the clinical effectiveness of scapular stability exercise on shoulder stability and rehabilitative ultrasound images in office workers. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight subjects were randomly divided into a scapular stability exercise group (n=19) and a manual therapy group (n=19). Subjects in the scapular stability exercise group performed a scapular stability exercise designed to correct the abnormal location of the scapula, at 40 minutes per session, two times per week, for 6 weeks. Forward head horizontal distance, rounded shoulder posture, stability of the upper limb for the shoulder, and rehabilitative ultrasound images were evaluated before and after 6 weeks. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significantly decreased forward head horizontal distance and rounded shoulder posture, with significantly improved stability of the upper limb and rehabilitative ultrasound images. Forward head horizontal distance, rounded shoulder posture, stability of the upper limb, and rehabilitative ultrasound images showed greater improvements in the shoulder stability exercise group than in the manual therapy group. [Conclusion] Scapular stability exercise can improve shoulder stability and the thickness of the lower trapezius in rehabilitative ultrasound images of office workers, and could be useful in clinical rehabilitation.

  20. SYNTHESIS OF PERFLUOROSULFONATE IONOMER-STABILIZED PLATINUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. JIANG

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Pt colloid was synthesized by the reduction of hexachloroplatinic acid with formaldehyde in the presence of a stabilizer (a cation-exchanged polymer – perfluorosulfonate ionomer (PFSI or Teflon or without any stabilizers. The average size of platinum particles with a stabilizer, characterized by a transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, is in a nanometer range in comparison with the particle agglomeration without any stabilizers. Highly dispersive 40 wt. % Pt/C catalyst obtained from the PFSI-stabilized Pt colloid shows much better performance than its counterpart with Teflon as a stabilizer or without any stabilizer according to the cyclic voltammetric (CV characterization and the single direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC performance testing. It is strongly suggested that the proton-conducting ionomer could smooth the reaction pathway by facilitating the proton transport, while Teflon inhibit the active sites, though both of them can inhibit the particle growth. The improved fuel cell performance is attributed to the small particles and the unhindered transport of protons/electrons ascribed to the intimate contact of Pt and proton-conducting ionomer.

  1. Sensitivity of system stability to model structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosack, G.R.; Li, H.W.; Rossignol, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    A community is stable, and resilient, if the levels of all community variables can return to the original steady state following a perturbation. The stability properties of a community depend on its structure, which is the network of direct effects (interactions) among the variables within the community. These direct effects form feedback cycles (loops) that determine community stability. Although feedback cycles have an intuitive interpretation, identifying how they form the feedback properties of a particular community can be intractable. Furthermore, determining the role that any specific direct effect plays in the stability of a system is even more daunting. Such information, however, would identify important direct effects for targeted experimental and management manipulation even in complex communities for which quantitative information is lacking. We therefore provide a method that determines the sensitivity of community stability to model structure, and identifies the relative role of particular direct effects, indirect effects, and feedback cycles in determining stability. Structural sensitivities summarize the degree to which each direct effect contributes to stabilizing feedback or destabilizing feedback or both. Structural sensitivities prove useful in identifying ecologically important feedback cycles within the community structure and for detecting direct effects that have strong, or weak, influences on community stability. The approach may guide the development of management intervention and research design. We demonstrate its value with two theoretical models and two empirical examples of different levels of complexity. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pickering emulsions stabilized by charged nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridel, Laure; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Gilon-Delepine, Nicole; Dugas, Pierre-Yves; Chevalier, Yves

    2016-09-28

    The stabilization of o/w Pickering emulsions in cases of weak adsorption of solid particles at the surface of oil droplets is addressed. Though the adsorption is usually very strong and irreversible when partial wetting conditions are fulfilled, electrostatic repulsions between charged solid particles act against the adsorption. The regime of weak adsorption was reached using charged silica nanoparticles at high pH and low ionic strength. O/w Pickering emulsions of the diisopropyl adipate oil were stabilized by colloidal nanoparticles of Ludox® AS40 consisting of non-aggregated particles of bare silica (hydrophilic). The combination of stability assessment, droplet size and electrokinetic potential measurements at various pH values, adsorption isotherms and cryo-SEM observations of the adsorbed layers disclosed the specificities of the stabilization of Pickering emulsions by adsorption of solid nanoparticles against strong electrostatic repulsions. Not only the long-term stability of emulsions was poor under strong electrostatic repulsions at high pH, but emulsification failed since full dispersion of oil could not be achieved. Emulsion stability was ensured by decreasing electrostatic repulsions by lowering the pH from 9 to 3. Stable emulsions were stabilized by a monolayer of silica particles at 54% coverage of the oil droplet surface at low silica content and an adsorption regime as multilayers was reached at higher concentrations of silica although there was no aggregation of silica in the bulk aqueous phase.

  3. Laser Stabilization with Laser Cooled Strontium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke Takashi Røjle

    The frequency stability of current state-of-the-art stabilized clock lasers are limited by thermal fluctuations of the ultra-stable optical reference cavities used for their frequency stabilization. In this work, we study the possibilities for surpassing this thermal limit by exploiting the nonli......The frequency stability of current state-of-the-art stabilized clock lasers are limited by thermal fluctuations of the ultra-stable optical reference cavities used for their frequency stabilization. In this work, we study the possibilities for surpassing this thermal limit by exploiting...... the nonlinear effects from coupling of an optical cavity to laser cooled atoms having a narrow transition linewidth. Here, we have realized such a system where a thermal sample of laser cooled strontium-88 atoms are coupled to an optical cavity. The strontium-88 atoms were probed on the narrow 1S0-3P1 inter......-combination line at 689 nm in a strongly saturated regime. The dynamics of the atomic induced phase shift and absorption of the probe light were experimentally studied in details with the purpose of applications to laser stabilization. The atomic sample temperature was in the mK range which brought this system out...

  4. A proposed new generation of intact stability criteria for assessment of ship stability in longitudinal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, C.

    2017-08-01

    Intact ship stability assessment to prevent stability failure in heavy weather conditions is of paramount importance on board vessel. The possibility of assessment the causes that can lead to loss of ship’s stability as well as the assessment of intact stability in heavy seas is a important problem and has attracted a huge interest of the national and international regulatory authorities. Despite the regulations in force, referring to intact ship stability, many ships continued to lose the stability and or capsize due to failure modes that presently are not covered by such regulations. Based on this aspect has been identified the necessity of modelling an updated criteria for assessment of ship’s stability taking into consideration actual possible situations for loss of stability in heavy seas as a measure of increasing she safety of ships. In this respect, the goal of this paper is to illustrate a possible criteria for assessment ship’s stability in heavy seas through a method of determination the possible problems in a form of dynamic stability criteria. A new intact stability criteria is proposed and developed based on separate levels for assessment of vulnerability and susceptibility of ships in situations of parametric rolling and pure loss of stability encountered in extreme sea conditions. Mathematical models correlated with ship’s construction particulars and weather conditions were developed for every separate level in order to assess the ship’s stability. The objective of the proposed criteria is to bring to officers on board ships the possibility of assessment the ship’s intact stability, as a measure of prevention and improvement of safety during the voyage.

  5. Predicting vegetation-stabilized dune morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchyn, T.; Hugenholtz, C.

    2012-04-01

    The morphology of vegetation-stabilized dune fields on the North American Great Plains mostly comprises parabolic dunes; stabilized barchan and transverse dunes are rare. One notable exception is the Nebraska Sand Hills (NSH), where massive grass-covered barchan and transverse dunes bear proof of former desert-like conditions. We present a hypothesis from a numerical dune field model to explain the vegetation-stabilized morphology of dunes. The model incorporates a growth curve that preferentially grows vegetation in regions of sediment deposition with a sharp drop in growth at the peak depositional tolerance of vegetation, qualitatively matching biological response to erosion and deposition. Simulations on a range of pre-stabilization dune morphologies, from large closely-spaced transverse dunes to small dispersed barchans, indicate that the stabilized morphology is largely determined by the ratio of slipface deposition rate to peak depositional tolerance of vegetation. Conceptually, slipface deposition rate is related to dune height and celerity. By keeping depositional tolerance constant (representing a constant vegetation type and climate) the model shows that large slow-moving dunes have low slipface deposition rates and essentially 'freeze' in place once vegetation is introduced, retaining their pre-vegetation morphology. Small fast-moving dunes have higher slipface deposition rates and evolve into parabolic dunes. We hypothesize that, when barchan and transverse dunes are subjected to a stabilizing climate shift that increases vegetation growth rate, they retain their pre-stabilization morphology if deposition rates are below the depositional tolerance of stabilizing vegetation, otherwise they become parabolic dunes. This could explain why NSH dunes are stabilized in barchan and transverse morphologies while elsewhere on the Great Plains dune fields are dominated by smaller parabolic dunes.

  6. Postural stability in young and old women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    , National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; 3Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense   INTRODUCTION: Poor postural balance control (stability) is one of the major risk factors for falling. If individuals at risk of falling are to be identified...... at an early stage, good knowledge and sensitive measurements of postural stability are essential. In addition, in order to develop effective intervention strategies such knowledge is of major importance. However, no single postural stability parameter has effectively been able to identify individuals at risk...... effectively demonstrate differences in postural balance control between physically active old and young women....

  7. Perturbing macroscopic magnetohydrodynamic stability for toroidal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Kathryn J.

    We have introduced a new perturbative technique to rapidly explore the dependence of long wavelength ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities on equilibrium profiles, shaping properties, and wall parameters. Traditionally, these relations are studied with numerical parameter scans using computationally intensive stability codes. Our perturbative technique first finds the equilibrium and stability using traditional methods. Subsequent small changes in the original equilibrium parameters change the stability. We quickly find the new stability with an expansion of the energy principle, rather than with another run of the stability codes. We first semi-analytically apply the technique to the screw pinch after eliminating compressional Alfven wave effects. The screw pinch results validate the approach, but also indicate that allowable perturbations to equilibria with certain features may be restricted. Next, we extend the approach to toroidal geometry using experimental equilibria and a simple constructed equilibrium, with the ideal MHD stability code GATO. Stability properties are successfully predicted from perturbed toroidal equilibria when only the vacuum beyond the plasma is perturbed (through wall parameter variations), rather than the plasma itself. Small plasma equilibrium perturbations to both experimental and simple equilibria result in very large errors to the predicted stability, and valid results are found only over a narrow range of most perturbations. Despite the large errors produced when changing plasma parameters, the wall perturbations revealed two useful applications of this technique. Because the calculations are non-iterative matrix multiplications, the convergence issues that can disrupt a full MHD stability code are absent. Marginal stability, therefore, is much easier to find with the perturbative technique. Also, the perturbed results can be input as the initial guess for the eigenvalue for a full stability code, and improve subsequent

  8. Modularity and stability in ecological communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Jacopo; Rogers, Tim; Allesina, Stefano

    2016-06-23

    Networks composed of distinct, densely connected subsystems are called modular. In ecology, it has been posited that a modular organization of species interactions would benefit the dynamical stability of communities, even though evidence supporting this hypothesis is mixed. Here we study the effect of modularity on the local stability of ecological dynamical systems, by presenting new results in random matrix theory, which are obtained using a quaternionic parameterization of the cavity method. Results show that modularity can have moderate stabilizing effects for particular parameter choices, while anti-modularity can greatly destabilize ecological networks.

  9. Stability Analysis of the Embankment Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Gopalakrishna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In analysis of embankment model affected by dynamic force, employment of shaking table is a scientific way in assessment of earthquake behavior. This work focused on saturated loose sandy foundation and enbankment. The results generated through the pore pressure sensors indicated pore water pressure playing main role in creation of liquefaction and stability of the system, and also revealed deformation, settlement, liquefaction intensity and time stability of system in direct correlation with the strength and characteristics of soil. One of the economical methods in stabilization of soil foundation is improvement of some part soil foundation.

  10. Stability analysis of free piston Stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégot, Sylvie; Layes, Guillaume; Lanzetta, François; Nika, Philippe

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a stability analysis of a free piston Stirling engine. The model and the detailed calculation of pressures losses are exposed. Stability of the machine is studied by the observation of the eigenvalues of the model matrix. Model validation based on the comparison with NASA experimental results is described. The influence of operational and construction parameters on performance and stability issues is exposed. The results show that most parameters that are beneficial for machine power seem to induce irregular mechanical characteristics with load, suggesting that self-sustained oscillations could be difficult to maintain and control.

  11. A Short History of Posterior Dynamic Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Gomleksiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interspinous spacers were developed to treat local deformities such as degenerative spondylolisthesis. To treat patients with chronic instability, posterior pedicle fixation and rod-based dynamic stabilization systems were developed as alternatives to fusion surgeries. Dynamic stabilization is the future of spinal surgery, and in the near future, we will be able to see the development of new devices and surgical techniques to stabilize the spine. It is important to follow the development of these technologies and to gain experience using them. In this paper, we review the literature and discuss the dynamic systems, both past and present, used in the market to treat lumbar degeneration.

  12. Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL; Liu, Jun [Naperville, IL; Vissers, Donald R [Naperville, IL; Lu, Wenquan [Darien, IL

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to non-aqueous electrolytes having electrode stabilizing additives, stabilized electrodes, and electrochemical devices containing the same. Thus the present invention provides electrolytes containing an alkali metal salt, a polar aprotic solvent, and an electrode stabilizing additive. In some embodiments the additives include a substituted or unsubstituted cyclic or spirocyclic hydrocarbon containing at least one oxygen atom and at least one alkenyl or alkynyl group. When used in electrochemical devices with, e.g., lithium manganese oxide spinel electrodes or olivine or carbon-coated olivine electrodes, the new electrolytes provide batteries with improved calendar and cycle life.

  13. Stability and integration over Bergman metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevtsov, Semyon; Zelditch, Steve

    2014-07-01

    We study partition functions of random Bergman metrics, with the actions defined by a class of geometric functionals known as `stability functions'. We introduce a new stability invariant — the critical value of the coupling constant — defined as the minimal coupling constant for which the partition function converges. It measures the minimal degree of stability of geodesic rays in the space the Bergman metrics, with respect to the action. We calculate this critical value when the action is the ν-balancing energy, and show that on a Riemann surface of genus h.

  14. Stability of quantum dots in live cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheng-Jiang; Yeh, Yi-Cheun; Tang, Rui; Yan, Bo; Tamayo, Joshua; Vachet, Richard W.; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2011-12-01

    Quantum dots are highly fluorescent and photostable, making them excellent tools for imaging. When using these quantum dots in cells and animals, however, intracellular biothiols (such as glutathione and cysteine) can degrade the quantum dot monolayer, compromising function. Here, we describe a label-free method to quantify the intracellular stability of monolayers on quantum dot surfaces that couples laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Using this new approach we have demonstrated that quantum dot monolayer stability is correlated with both quantum dot particle size and monolayer structure, with appropriate choice of both particle size and ligand structure required for intracellular stability.

  15. Stability analysis of zigzag boron nitride nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Hari Mohan, E-mail: rai.2208@gmail.com; Late, Ravikiran; Saxena, Shailendra K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Sagdeo, Pankaj R. [Indian Institute of Technology, Indore –452017 (India); Jaiswal, Neeraj K. [Discipline of Physics, PDPM- Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Jabalpur – 482005 (India); Srivastava, Pankaj [Computational Nanoscience and Technology Lab. (CNTL), ABV- Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Gwalior – 474015 (India)

    2015-05-15

    We have explored the structural stability of bare and hydrogenated zigzag boron nitride nanoribbons (ZBNNRs). In order to investigate the structural stability, we calculate the cohesive energy for bare, one-edge and both edges H-terminated ZBNNRs with different widths. It is found that the ZBNNRs with width Nz=8 are energetically more favorable than the lower-width counterparts (Nz<8). Bare ZBNNRs have been found energetically most stable as compared to the edge terminated ribbons. Our analysis reveals that the structural stability is a function of ribbon-width and it is not affected significantly by the type of edge-passivation (one-edge or both-edges)

  16. Stability of charged strange quark stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbañil, José D. V.; Malheiro, Manuel [Departamento de Física, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Centro Técnico Aeroespacial, 12228-900 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-12-17

    We investigate the hydrostatic equilibrium and the stability of charged stars made of a charged perfect fluid. The matter contained in the star follows the MIT bag model equation of state and the charge distribution to a power-law of the radial coordinate. The hydrostatic equilibrium and the stability of charged strange stars are analyzed using the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation and the Chandrasekhar’s equation pulsation, respectively. These two equation are modified from their original form to the inclusion of the electric charge. We found that the stability of the star decreases with the increment of the central energy density and with the increment of the amount of charge.

  17. The effects of cervical stabilization exercises on the electromyographic activity of shoulder stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jungseo; Lee, Daehee

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of cervical stabilization exercises on the electromyographic activity of the shoulder stabilizers in normal adults. [Subjects] In the present study, 20 normal adults were divided into an experimental group (EG, n=10) that performed cervical stabilization exercises and shoulder stabilization exercises and a control group (CG, n=10) that performed shoulder stabilization exercises. [Methods] The EG and CG performed their exercises three times per week for four weeks. The cervical stabilization exercises consisted of Craniocervical flexion exercises (CCFEs) that were performed using pressure biofeedback units (PBUs). The shoulder stabilization exercises consisted of scapula-setting exercises, wall stretching, and external rotation exercises. To examine the electromyographic activity of the upper trapezius (UT) muscle, lower trapezius (LT) muscle, and serratus anterior (SA) muscle, the electromyograms for these muscles were compared and analyzed. [Results] In comparisons within the groups, the EG showed statistically significant differences in the UT, the LT and the SA. The CG did not show any significant differences. [Conclusion] Cervical stabilization exercises and shoulder stabilization exercises are considered to be an effective intervention for the electromyographic activity of the shoulder stabilizers, the UT, LT, and SA.

  18. Neighborhood Stabilization Program Data NSP2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Neighborhood Stabilization Program (www.HUD.gov/nsp) provides emergency assistance to state and local governments to acquire and redevelop foreclosed...

  19. Surface stabilized electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kang, Sun-Ho; Johnson, Christopher S.

    2015-09-08

    A stabilized electrode comprising a metal oxide or lithium-metal-oxide electrode material is formed by contacting a surface of the electrode material, prior to cell assembly, with an aqueous or a non-aqueous acid solution having a pH greater than 4 but less than 7 and containing a stabilizing salt, to etch the surface of the electrode material and introduce stabilizing anions and cations from the salt into said surface. The structure of the bulk of the electrode material remains unchanged during the acid treatment. The stabilizing salt comprises fluoride and at least one cationic material selected from the group consisting of ammonium, phosphorus, titanium, silicon, zirconium, aluminum, and boron.

  20. Photochemical stability of electrochromic polymers and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    , AM 1.5G) under ambient conditions the majority of the polymers degraded within 4-5 hours. Three polymers showed increased stability with degradation rates from 0.44 to 1.58% per hour measured as loss of absorption. Application of oxygen and UV barrier foils was found to drastically slow......The stability of fully printed flexible organic electrochromics based on 11 different conjugated polymers is explored from the fundamental chemical degradation level to the operational device level. The photochemical stability of the electrochromic polymers (ECPs) is studied enabling an analysis...... of the influence that the chemical constitution of the conjugated polymer backbone has on the photochemical stability. Based on changes in the UV-visible absorption and IR spectra, the polymers were categorized into two distinct groups, each with a separate degradation mechanism. During irradiation (1000 W m -2...