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Sample records for vendiano cambrico uruguay

  1. Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Carril, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    El cine como expresión artística y creativa surge en Uruguay hace quince años. Pero la afirmación en el país de una creación cultural y artística (literaria, plástica, teatral, musical y crítica formativa) fue un proceso de mediados del siglo XX que se extinguió con la dictadura militar de 1971. Este artículo intenta demostrar cómo una acción de cultura cinematográfica, a través de Cinemateca Uruguaya, produjo desde 1993 lo que había sido imposible entre 1939 y los años sesenta en condiciones...

  2. Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Carril, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Le cinéma comme expression artistique et créative est apparu en Uruguay il y a quinze ans. Mais l’affirmation dans le pays d’une création culturelle et artistique (littéraire, plastique, théâtrale, musicale et critique) fut un processus du milieu du XXe siècle qui s’est éteint avec la dictature militaire de 1971. Cet article essaie de démontrer comment a été menée depuis 1993, une action culturelle cinématographique, à travers la Cinémathèque Uruguayenne, ce qui s’était avéré impossible entre...

  3. Uruguay in International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Sergeevich Andreev

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the foreign policy of the leftist government of Uruguay at the beginning of the XXI century. Latin America is an important actor in the process of creating a multipolar world, and Uruguay becomes one of the political and economic centers of the continent. One of the important political processes in South America is a regional integration which has many forms. This article shows the main areas of Uruguay diplomacy in various integration formations of the region. Based on ...

  4. Uruguay in International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sergeevich Andreev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the foreign policy of the leftist government of Uruguay at the beginning of the XXI century. Latin America is an important actor in the process of creating a multipolar world, and Uruguay becomes one of the political and economic centers of the continent. One of the important political processes in South America is a regional integration which has many forms. This article shows the main areas of Uruguay diplomacy in various integration formations of the region. Based on the analysis of the program of the third government of “Broad Front” article shows the goals and objectives of the country in the processes of regional integration, the problems and prospects of these processes. The author notes that the Government of Uruguay is looking for creating common political and economic institutions for the united Latin American continent. In the new political and economic conditions Uruguay becomes important partner for the BRICS countries as well as for the EU and the United States. The article shows the prospects for Uruguay in the BRICS in the context of changing the place of developing countries in the architecture of the global world, as well as in the context of the participation of ex-President Jose Mujica in the BRICS summit 2014. Currently, Uruguay is standing in front of a political choice, because the country has people who want the development of relations with the United States as economic partner and political center of the region. Also in Uruguay are supporters of the development of relations with the EU. The paper shows the tasks and objectives of Uruguay's foreign policy towards the US and the EU, as well as a place of Uruguay in the foreign policy of major actors of international relations. The article says the prospects for the foreign policy of Uruguay in the context of the presidential and parliamentary elections in 2014, a new government and the conservation status of Uruguay as a country of “left turn

  5. Uruguay - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface weather observation forms for 26 stations in Uruguay. Period of record 1896-2005, with two to eight observations per day. Files created through a...

  6. IDRC in Uruguay

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    up opportuni- ties to the promising initiatives they finance. □ Climate change in coastal areas. Funding for Uruguay: $207,000. Duration: 2011-2014. Grantee: Instituto Internacional de Medio. Ambiente y Desarrollo — América Latina,. Argentina.

  7. El IDRC en Uruguay

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    dictadura de los años 70 y comienzos de los 80. En efecto, con apoyo del IDRC, el. Centro de Informaciones y Estudios del. Uruguay contribuyó al debate de las políticas en las consultas multipartidarias durante la transición hacia la democracia a mediados de los años 80. También ayudó a elaborar la agenda política del.

  8. La democracia directa en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo González Rissoto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Describe la trayectoria de Uruguay como uno de los países del mundo con una larga y rica tradición en el uso de los institutos de democracia directa. En Uruguay plebiscito y referéndum son conceptos distintos. El plebiscito en el ordenamiento institucional uruguayo no constituye un instituto de democracia directa, sino simplemente una etapa, la última, en un proceso de reforma constitucional. En tanto el referéndum supone el ejercicio de un derecho previsto expresamente en la Constitución de la República, con la finalidad de intentar derogar o abrogar una norma de rango legal. Adiciona un cuadro o tabla donde se analiza el empleo de los institutos de democracia directa en Uruguay durante los últimos cincuenta y cinco años, que incluye también los plebiscitos.

  9. Sinopsis de Aristida (Poaceae para Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Lezama

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una sinopsis de Aristida para Uruguay, incluyendo una clave a nivel de especie. Se cita por primera vez para Uruguay Aristida flaccida Trin. & Rupr. a partir de material recolectado en pastizales de la zona de sierras del noroeste del departamento de Treinta y Tres.; esta especie es descripta e ilustrada.Synopsis of Aristida (Poaceae for Uruguay. A synopsis of Aristida for Uruguay is presented, including a key to its species. Aristida flaccida Trin. & Rupr. is reported for the first time for the flora of Uruguay from material collected in hilly grasslands in the northwestern of Treinta y Tres department; this species is described and illustrated.

  10. Rainwater composition in northeast Uruguay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zunckel, M

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this paper is threefold: firstly to gain an initial understanding of rainwater chemistry in the northeast of Uruguay; secondly to identify possible sources that contribute to its chemical composition; and thirdly to establish a baseline...

  11. Returns to schooling in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Graciela Sanromán

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the economic returns to schooling in Uruguay. Instrumental variables are used to estimate mean and quantile regressions. An indicator of whether an Internet connection is available at home is used as an instrument for the years of schooling of the household head. The evidence shows that the simple Mincer OLS estimates are downward biased. When estimates are controlled for measurement error in schooling reports the results indicate that an additional year of schooling ...

  12. How Immigrants. Have Shapped Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Arocena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto presenta un análisis comparativo de cómo nueve grupos de migrantes y un sector de población negra, llevados como esclavos, han conformado la cultura de Uruguay. La imagen más común de Uruguay, tanto en el propio país como en el extranjero, es la de una nación homogénea y europeizada construida por inmigrantes de España e Italia, sin la presencia de una gran población de ascendencia africana y sin nativos. Esta imagen, en el mejor de los casos, es una verdad a medias, porque también ha habido contribuciones de inmigrantes de Asia, de Rusia, de otros países europeos y también de esclavos africanos y sus descendientes. En particular analizaremos cómo personas de ascendencia africana, vascos, italianos, suizos, rusos, armenios, libaneses, judíos, musulmanes y peruanos han contribuido en la construcción de la nación uruguaya. Asimismo, examinaremos el impacto de esta migración en la sociedad y la cultura de Uruguay. Este texto presenta las conclusiones más importantes de una investigación fundamentada en casi cien entrevistas a profundidad con personas descendientes de dichas comunidades.

  13. Wind power assessment in Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, J. [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Instituto de Mecanica de los Fluidos e Ingenieria Ambiental; Nunes, V. [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Instituto de Ingeneria Electrica

    1996-09-01

    The wind power as a large alternative energy source appear in Uruguay. A nested method to obtain the mean wind velocity time series at complex terrain sites and describe the turbulence was developed. Sites with mean velocity over 9m/s and capacity factor over 40% were found. The aerodynamic interferences loss between wind generators using a numerical model were evaluated and a numerical model was developed to design an optimal cluster wind farm. As bulk result, an installed capacity of 300MW with a cost production less than 0.065U$S/kW.h can be estimated over the all studied Region. (author)

  14. Los caminos del patrimonio en Uruguay.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Alejandro Giménez

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo central es, mediante una retrospectiva, trazar un panorama general de lo que ha sido la evolución de las concepciones patrimoniales en el Uruguay desde sus orígenes. No como una mera enumeración de fechas y acontecimientos, sino como una visión del pasado que parece fundamental para entender lo que sucede en el presente y proyectar los desafíos del futuro.Palabras Clave: Historia; patrimonio; UruguayThe courses of cultural heritage in UruguayAbstractThe central objective is, throu...

  15. Las Veliidae y Gerridae del Uruguay (Hemiptera The Veliidae and Gerridae from Uruguay (Hemiptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia A. Mazzucconi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se citan por primera vez del Uruguay a Rhagovelia novana Drake, Microvelia mimula White (Veliidae, y Metrobates plaumanni plaumanni Hungerford (Gerridae; se agregan nuevos registros de las especies ya conocidas de este país. Con estas citas el número de especies conocidas del Uruguay es de tres de Veliidae y tres de Gerridae.Rhagovelia novana Drake, Microvelia mimula White (Veliidae, and Metrobates plaumanni plaumanni Hungerford (Gerridae are recorded for the first time from Uruguay; new records of the species already known from this country are added. Herewith the number of species known to occur in Uruguay is three of Veliidae and three of Gerridae.

  16. All projects related to Uruguay | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Brazil, South America, Chile, Costa Rica, North and Central America, Mexico, Uruguay. Program: ... Region: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, North and Central America, Uruguay. Program: ... Topic: SOCIAL PARTICIPATION, Civil society, HEALTH SYSTEM, Evaluation. Region: Argentina ...

  17. Uruguay valitsus hakkab riiki korrastama / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2005-01-01

    Esimest korda tuleb nii valitsuse kui parlamendi tasandil Uruguays võimule vasakpoolne koalitsioon, mis suutis eemale tõrjuda kokku 174 aastat võimul olnud kahte parteid. Uueks presidendiks sai Tabare Vazquez, kelle poolt hääletasid pooled valijad

  18. [Smoking during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althabe, Fernando; Colomar, Mercedes; Gibbons, Luz; Belizán, José M; Buekens, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries in which a large proportion of young women smoke. The rate of smokers during pregnancy in both countries is not well known, and data on the characteristics of women who quit smoking during pregnancy compared to those who continue smoking are not available. We conducted a survey including 1512 pregnant women > or = 18 years old (796 in Argentina; 716 in Uruguay), during antenatal visits in public hospitals of large urban regions; 44% of the women in Argentina and 53% in Uruguay had been or were regular smokers. 11% of the surveyed women in Argentina and 18% in Uruguay continued smoking during pregnancy. In both countries, the proportion of women who lived with smokers, allowed smoking at home, and were regularly or always exposed to tobacco smoke indoors, were 49%, 46% and 20% in the subgroup of women who never smoked, 67%, 60% and 32% in those who quit, and 78%, 75% and 52% in those who continued smoking, respectively. The study confirms a serious public health problem in both countries, and documents that environmental exposure persists in subgroups of women, even in those who quit smoking. It is important that the public health sector should provide access to effective programs for smoking cessation, to women who smoke during pregnancy. For the development of a new program, any intervention intending to have at least a moderate and sustainable success, it should seriously consider including components targeting the smoking environment of the pregnant women who smoke.

  19. Perspectives of the wind power generation in Uruguay; Perspectivas de la generacion eolica en Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Daniel Luis [Administracion Nacional de Usinas y Transmisiones Electricas (UTE), Montevideu (Uruguay)

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe, the journey for the development of power generation through source of wind, and to establish the elements that must be overcome to enable implementation of wind projects in Uruguay. For its achievement will be a descriptive framework that has been developing wind energy in the region, particularly as it relates to the Argentine case, as opposed to activities in the Uruguay in the same period. Carry out a review and interrelation between the greenhouse effect, the internalization of environmental costs and sustainable development concept, as well as analyzing the input of emissions to the environment by issuing sector. It will describe, briefly, the composition of the matrix of power generation in Uruguay. Subsequently analyzing the history of wind energy in Uruguay, the results of this experience and will be explored regarding the existence or absence of incentives within the existing legal framework. Finally, described the wind power perspectives in Uruguay and propound what will be the key steps and tools necessary to facilitate the development of this source of generation in the country.

  20. The international dimension of drug policy reform in Uruguay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    von Hoffmann, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    .... A growing body of research addresses drug policy reform in Uruguay. However, existing studies have almost completely elided its international dimension, treating the process as exclusively domestic phenomenon...

  1. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Irabedra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed.

  2. Area Handbook Series: Uruguay, A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    internacional : Resefia hist6rica," Geosur: Asociacidn Sudamericana de Estudios Geopol’ticos e Internacionales [Montevideo], 19, Nos. 111-12, July...cultura en el Rio de la Plata, 1. (XVII Cursos Internacionales de Verano.) Montevideo: Universidad de la Repiiblica, 1987. Visca, Carlos. Emilio Reusy...Universitaria de Buenos Aires, 1963. . Sociologia rural nacional. (2d ed.) Montevideo: Facultad de Derecho y Ciencias Sociales, 1958. . Uruguay en

  3. New records and checklist of corticioid Basidiomycota from Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinez; Karen K. Nakasone

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-eight corticioid basidiomycete species are reported from Uruguay for the first time. An annotated checklist with 110 species of corticioid Basidiomycota recorded from Uruguay is presented based on these new records and an intensive literature search. These species are distributed in 49 genera and 10 orders. The order Polyporales...

  4. The genus Phanerochaete (Corticiaceae, Basidiomycotina) sensu lato in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinez; Karen K. Nakasone

    2005-01-01

    Eight species of Phanerochaete are reported from Uruguay for the first time, including a new species, P. vesiculosa. Phanerochaete vesiculosa is characterized by thin-walled, clavate to cylindrical vesicles embedded in the subiculum. A key to the known species of Phanerochaete from Uruguay is provided.

  5. Uruguay : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Brazil, South America, Chile, Guatemala, North and Central America, Mexico, Uruguay ... Ce projet permettra de mener une analyse comparative des perceptions qu'ont les jeunes des pays du MERCOSUR (Argentine, Brésil, Paraguay et Uruguay) des droits, de la démocratie et de l'intégration régionale. Date de ...

  6. Asociacion de Bibliotecologos del Uruguay: apuntes de su historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Santestevan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Es una contribución que quiere ser un homenaje a todos los asociados y una arenga para los nuevoscolegas. En el análisis se menciona el comienzo de la enseñanza bibliotecológica en el país y el desarrollode la historia de la Asociación de Bibliotecólogos del Uruguay, que ha pasado por diversas etapas y hatenido las siguientes denominaciones: Asociación de Bibliotecarios Diplomados del Uruguay (1945,Asociación de Bibliotecarios del Uruguay (1962, Asociación de Bibliotecólogos y Afines del Uruguay(1978, Asociación de Bibliotecólogos del Uruguay (1990 a la fecha. Para finalizar se hace unaapreciación de la importancia de la entidad para la comunidad bibliotecológica y para la sociedad engeneral.

  7. Slates from Uruguay: a traditional natural stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Demarco, M.; Oyhantçabal, P.; Stein, K.-J.; Siegesmund, S.

    2012-04-01

    Slates were traditionally used as roofing material or for cladding worldwide and also in Uruguay. In regions where this resource was easily mined, the widespread application of slates in constructions resulted in the development of characteristic cultural landscapes. The application of slates in a wider sense is nowadays open for all uses of dimensional stone, compared to the restricted use as roofing or cladding material in the past. This has been achieved by the discovery and mining of new deposits within the last 25 years worldwide. Furthermore, the optimization of mining techniques that allows the excavation of larger blocks and the technical development for further handling of the blocks has contributed to an open spectrum of applications. The slate deposits from Uruguay are associated with the Neoproterozoic thrust and fold belt of the Dom Feliciano Belt. The slates are linked to calc-silicate strata in a greenschist facies volcano-sedimentary sequence and the deposits are located in the limb of a regional fold, where bedding and cleavage are parallel. The main lithotype is a layered and fine-grained calcareous phyllite with a quite diverse palette of colors: light green, grey, dark grey, reddish and black. The mined slate is split into slabs 0.5 - 2cm thick. The technical properties were investigated in a very systematic way with respect to the new European standards, showing values comparable to those registered for internationally known slates. In the past, the average production in Uruguay was around 4000 tons/year and a historical maximum of 13,000 tons was reached in 1993. The oscillations in the regional demand were the cause of several flourishing and decay cycles in the activity, but our investigation shows a considerable volume of indicated resources and therefore a very good potential. Exploration for colors and qualities and quantification of reserves is a prerequisite for the development of the sector.

  8. Los costos del crimen en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Aboal, Diego; Campanella, Jorge; Lanzilotta, Bibiana

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se estiman algunos de los costos asociados a la criminalidad y la violencia en Uruguay. El método utilizado es el de la contabilidad de costos. Entre los costos considerados se incluyen costos de seguridad y prevención del delito, de justicia, reclusión y rehabilitación de reclusos, costos de bienes robados, costos de salud y por pérdida de vidas a consecuencia de la violencia, y costos asociados a la pérdida de tiempo productivo en prisión de los reclusos. Para esto se ha uti...

  9. Domestic tourism in Uruguay: a matrix approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Domínguez Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper domestic tourism in Uruguay is analyzed by introducing an Origin-Destination matrix approach, and an attraction coefficient is calculated. We show that Montevideo is an attractive destination to every department except itself (even if it emits more trips than it receives, and the Southeast region is the main destination. Another important outcome is the importance of intra-regional patterns, associated to trips to bordering departments. Findings provide destination managers with practical knowledge, useful for reducing seasonality and attracting more domestic tourists throughout the year, as well as to deliver a better service offer, that attracts both usual visitors and new ones from competitive destinations.

  10. Developing medical geology in Uruguay: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañay, Nelly

    2010-05-01

    Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research teams and experts from different institutions to face environmental problems dealing with the population's exposure to metals and metalloids and their health impacts. Some of the Uruguayan Medical Geology examples are reviewed focusing on their multidisciplinary approach: Lead pollution and exposed children, selenium in critically ill patients, copper deficiency in cattle and arsenic risk assessment in ground water. Future actions are also presented.

  11. Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in freshwaters of Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Bonilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial blooms are a worldwide environmental problem. This phenomenon is typically associated with eutrophication (nutrient enrichment and changes in hydrology. In this study we analysed the distribution of planktonic cyanobacteria in Uruguay and their toxins (microcystin, saxitoxin and cylindrospermopsin, working with an interagency team (OSE, DINAMA, IM, University of the Republic and IIBCE. An historical data base (n = 3061 for 64 ecosystems, years 1980-2014 was generated. Differences between lotic and lentic ecosystems were found in terms of chlorophyll a and nutrient concentrations, usually indicating eutrophication. Two geo-referenced maps for the country were generated with cyanobacteria biomass indicators and the most relevant toxin (microcystin, according to risk levels suggested by the World Health Organization for recreational waters. The areas of greatest risk of exposure were the reservoirs of large rivers (Uruguay and Río Negro and Río de la Plata beaches. In the second part of the study, up to 20 mg L-1of microcystin was quantified in bloom (scum samples, as well as the presence of genes that suggest more microcystin varieties, potentially with greater toxicity. This study provides basic information about the distribution of cyanobacteria in Uruguayan freshwaters that will be useful for national monitoring programs and scientific research.

  12. Tabaquismo durante el embarazo en Argentina y Uruguay Smoking during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Althabe

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Argentina y Uruguay están entre los países con mayor proporción de mujeres jóvenes fumadoras. Se desconoce cuál es la proporción exacta de ellas que fuman durante el embarazo así como las características de las que dejan de fumar y las que continúan fumando durante el embarazo. Realizamos una encuesta administrada por un/a entrevistador/a a 1512 mujeres embarazadas de 18 años o mayores (796 en Argentina; 716 en Uruguay, que concurrían a control prenatal en hospitales públicos de grandes conglomerados urbanos. 44% de las mujeres en Argentina y 53% en Uruguay habían sido o eran fumadoras. Durante el embarazo, 11% de las mujeres en Argentina y 18% en Uruguay continuaron fumando. En ambos países, la proporción de mujeres que vive con fumadores, permite fumar en el hogar y regularmente o siempre se encuentra en lugares cerrados con personas que estén fumando fue 49%, 46% y 20% entre las mujeres que nunca fumaron, 67%, 60% y 32% entre las que dejaron, y 78%, 75% y 52% entre las que continuaron fumando respectivamente. El estudio confirma un importante problema de salud pública y documenta que la exposición ambiental persiste en subgrupos de mujeres, aun en aquéllas que dejaron de fumar. Es importante que el sector de salud pública provea acceso a programas efectivos para dejar de fumar durante el embarazo. Cualquier nueva intervención a desarrollar que intente tener un éxito al menos moderado y sostenible, debiera incluir componentes que actúen sobre el entorno fumador de la mujer embarazada que fuma.Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries in which a large proportion of young women smoke. The rate of smokers during pregnancy in both countries is not well known, and data on the characteristics of women who quit smoking during pregnancy compared to those who continue smoking are not available. We conducted a survey including 1512 pregnant women >18 years old (796 in Argentina; 716 in Uruguay, during antenatal visits in

  13. All projects related to uruguay | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: Biodiversity, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, ECOSYSTEMS, URUGUAY, Climate change, ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY, BRAZIL, COASTAL WATERS ... How can science, technology, and innovation contribute to poverty reduction and inclusive development, especially in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, ...

  14. OSMUNDACEAE EN ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY Y URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo D. Arana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se actualiza la taxonomía y distribución de las Osmundaceae, familia de helechos que habitan bosques y humedales subtropicales de la Argentina, Paraguay y Uruguay. Actualmente la familia comprende cuatro géneros, dos de ellos, con una especie cada uno, estan presentes en la región estudiada. Se acepta Osmunda spectabilis como una especie válida, diferente de O. regalis , la que no se encuentra presente en el área de estudio. Se reconoce a nivel de género a Osmundastrum con una única especie O. cinnamomeum var. cinnamomeum . Se incluyen una clave para los géneros, descripciones, la sinonimia relevante para América del Sur, distribuciones e ilustraciones de las especies. Se lectotipifica a Osmunda imbricata, Osmunda palustris y Osmunda spectabilis var. brasiliensis .

  15. Traditional application of slates in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Demarco, Manuela; Cardenes Van den Eynde, Víctor

    2017-04-01

    Commercial slates in Uruguay are represented by dolomitic and pelitic slates, which are known in the local market with the generic name of "piedra laja". The dolomitic slates, or more precisely the "slaty dolomitic semipelites" and "slaty dolomitic metacarbonate rocks" (following the nomenclature of the British Geological Survey for metamorphic rocks, Robertson 1999), dominates the production since 1960. The mining started in a quarry called "Libro Gigante", which means "giant book" in Spanish, as the slaty cleavage of these rocks is almost vertical, which resembles a book when looked from far away. These slates integrate the Lavalleja Group, a unit that comprises the schist belt of the Neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano Belt that crops out in south-eastern Uruguay. According to Morales Demarco et al (2013), there are two active slate mining districts in this region: the northern, called "Arroyo Minas Viejas Mining District", from where light grey, light and dark green and green-red slate varieties are mined, and the southern called "Arroyo Mataojo Mining District" and where only dark grey slates are extracted. Few kilometres eastern from these districts, and still in Lavalleja Group, a quarry of slaty dolomitic pelite is found with sporadic production. Far to the east, the slaty muscovitic pelites of Rocha Group are mined from one quarry in "Puntas del Chafalote". The traditional applications of these slates in the country are as façade cladding and floor slabs, both indoor and outdoor. The potential use of the dolomitic slates as roofing slates has been investigated and discarded by Morales Demarco et al (2013), as the slabs resulting from splitting are too thick (0.5 to 2 cm) and thus too heavy for this application. The parameter that controls the fissility of slates is the mass value (Bentz and Martini, 1968; DIN EN 12326-2, 2000) and is very important to determine their potential applications. It takes into account the number of mica layers per mm and the average

  16. Community-Associated MRSA in Uruguay

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-05

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an antibiotic-resistant bacterium that is typically associated with infections in healthcare settings. In the past couple of decades, MRSA has emerged in the community, most often causing skin infections in healthy people who haven't recently been hospitalized. After an increase in community cases in Uruguay in 2004, health officials investigated to learn more about what was happening and found some interesting trends. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Stephen Benoit discusses what they learned, the results of which are published in the August 2008 issue of CDC's journal, Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Created: 8/5/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/7/2008.

  17. Soomlased ajendasid Uruguay ja Argentina vahelise tselluloositüli / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Argentiinlased protestivad Uruguay jõe Uruguay-poolsel kaldal ehitavate tselluloositehaste vastu, ehitustööd mõistis hukka ka president Nestor Kirchner. Tehased rajab Soome kontsern Metsä-Botnia. Lisa: Argentinal endal keskkonnale ohtlikud tehased

  18. Spawning of migratory fish species between two reservoirs of the upper Uruguay River, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynalte-Tataje, David A; Nuñer, Alex P. O; Nunes, Michele C; Garcia, Valquíria; Lopes, Carolina A; Zaniboni-Filho, Evoy

    2012-01-01

    ... (upper Uruguay River, Brazil) and its relationship to environmental variables. Sampling was conducted in the lotic region of the river in two sites between the dams' reservoirs: Uruguay (main river) and Ligeiro (tributary...

  19. Birth defects monitoring in underdeveloped countries: an example from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, E E; Lopez-Camelo, J S; Dutra, G P; Paz, J E

    1991-01-01

    Medical authorities in developing countries are primarily interested in nutritional and infectious diseases. Therefore, activities directed to the prevention and control of low priority illnesses, such as birth defects, need to be particularly effective, simple, and economical. Monitoring of congenital anomalies is one of the preventive activities which can be efficiently performed at very low cost. Guidelines for this are given, and their application exemplified by the case of Uruguay. Uruguay has recently attained an infant mortality rate of 20/1,000, with the congenital anomalies ranking as its second cause. The government of Uruguay, through the Pan American Health Organisation/World Health Organisation (PARO/WHO) called the Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC) for advice in order to plan a program for the prevention of birth defects. The recommendations given were based on conclusions drawn from the analysis of data the ECLAMC program has been accumulating, from Uruguay and other Latin-American countries, since 1967. The case of Uruguay clearly indicates that sensible guidelines for birth defects prevention can be provided, after working with this "low priority and uninteresting" group of illnesses for more than twenty years.

  20. SOBRE LA PRESENCIA DE CONDALIA BUXIFOLIA (RHAMNACEAE Y MAYTENUS SPINOSA (CELASTRACEAE EN URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCHESI EDUARDO

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la revisión de muestras de herbarios y nuevos relevamientos florísticosconcluimos que Maytenus spinosa (Celastraceae, especie citada para la flora deUruguay, fue reiteradamente confundida con Condalia buxifolia (Rhamnaceae,cuya presencia en Uruguay pasó inadvertida durante casi un siglo. Maytenus spinosadebe ser excluida de la flora del Uruguay.

  1. Sobre la presencia de condalia buxifolia (rhamnaceae) y maytenus spinosa (celastraceae) en uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    MARCHESI, EDUARDO; GRELA, IVÁN A.

    2012-01-01

    A partir de la revisión de muestras de herbarios y nuevos relevamientos florísticosconcluimos que Maytenus spinosa (Celastraceae), especie citada para la flora deUruguay, fue reiteradamente confundida con Condalia buxifolia (Rhamnaceae),cuya presencia en Uruguay pasó inadvertida durante casi un siglo. Maytenus spinosadebe ser excluida de la flora del Uruguay.

  2. Matrimonio igualitario en Uruguay: disputas de sentido sobre Derechos Humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Ávila Mendina, Darío

    2017-01-01

    El trabajo busca desentramar, en el marco cultural/comunicacional de Uruguay, la disputa de sentido respecto a la familia, ciudadanía y filiación que se ponen en juego en el debate de la ley de matrimonio igualitario. La tesis intenta la elaboración reflexiva de un mapa del modo en que se relacionan los diferentes movimientos vinculados a la diversidad sexual y al género, pero también a otros colectivos vulnerados en los procesos históricos de Uruguay.

  3. The simbolic power of cattle raisers' associations in contemporary Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Riella, Alberto; Andrioli, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    En este artículo se buscará estudiar el amplio poder de influencia que los grandes estancieros y sus gremiales logran mantener desde hace más de un siglo en el Uruguay. Mediante el análisis de la dimensión simbólica del mundo social agrario estudiaremos las prácticas discursivas de las Gremiales Ganaderas - Asociación Rural del Uruguay y Federación Rural - como parte central de su estrategia simbólica para mantener su hegemonía en el campo social agrario. En este sentido, creemos que la const...

  4. The "e-green" revolution in Uruguay's classrooms | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-28

    Jan 28, 2011 ... Primary students attending public schools in Uruguay will soon be seeing green in their classrooms, thanks to a global pilot initiative to deliver millions of low-cost laptops to the world's poorest children within the next year. The distinctive green, textbook-size computers were developed by the non-profit ...

  5. All projects related to Uruguay | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Argentina, South America, Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, North and Central America. Program: Networked ... In the La Plata basin, production of industrial crops and biofuels is rapidly expanding - a phenomenon driven by international markets, energy prices and the desire to offset the use of fossil fuels. Start Date: ...

  6. All projects related to Uruguay | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, West Indies, North and Central America, South America, Mexico, Nicaragua, Uruguay. Program: Employment ... Project. Researchers are raising growing concerns over the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs in the alcohol industry. Topic: YOUTH ...

  7. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  8. Uruguay : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet s'attaquera au défi du chômage chez les jeunes de l'Amérique latine. Sujet: MOTIVATION. Région: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay ... Sujet: LATIN AMERICA, INNOVATIONS, LEARNING, Capacity building, POLICY MAKING, RESEARCH, EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES, YOUTH.

  9. All projects related to Uruguay | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: LATIN AMERICA, HEALTH SYSTEM, PRIMARY HEALTH CARE, HEALTH PROGRAMMES, MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH, Capacity building. Region: Americas, Chile, South America, Uruguay. Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 161,500.00. Research on Innovation Systems and Social ...

  10. Uruguay : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Date de début : 3 mars 2007. End Date: 3 mars 2008. Sujet: YOUTH, YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS, POLITICAL PARTICIPATION, REGIONAL INTEGRATION, PUBLIC OPINION POLLS. Région: Argentina, South America, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela, North and Central America. Financement total : CA$ ...

  11. Language Policies in Uruguay and Uruguayan Sign Language (LSU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behares, Luis Ernesto; Brovetto, Claudia; Crespi, Leonardo Peluso

    2012-01-01

    In the first part of this article the authors consider the policies that apply to Uruguayan Sign Language (Lengua de Senas Uruguaya; hereafter LSU) and the Uruguayan Deaf community within the general framework of language policies in Uruguay. By analyzing them succinctly and as a whole, the authors then explain twenty-first-century innovations.…

  12. Uruguay : tous les projets | Page 5 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, North and Central America, Uruguay. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total : CA$ 352,841.00. Participation sociale à la santé au sein du MERCOSUR. Projet. Avec l'aide du CRDI, l'Instituto de la Salud, Medio Ambiente, Economia y ...

  13. Husband and Wife Interaction and Family Regulation in Rural Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, A. M.

    Decision-making and family planning were studied in the rural city of Durazno, Uruguay, by means of answers to questions by both husbands and wives. A sample size of 268 couples in which at least one partner was between 21 and 50 years of age was used. Data were collected by means of a pretested and precoded interview schedule. Major conclusions…

  14. Autochthonous Outbreak and Expansion of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis, Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satragno, Dinora; Faral-Tello, Paula; Canneva, Bruno; Verger, Lorenzo; Lozano, Alejandra; Vitale, Edgardo; Greif, Gonzalo; Soto, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    We report an outbreak of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Uruguay. Blood specimens from 11/45 dogs tested positive for Leishmania spp. Specimens of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies were captured; typing revealed Leishmania infantum. Our findings document an expansion of visceral leishmaniasis to southern South America and risk for vectorborne transmission to humans. PMID:28221113

  15. Building Human Resource Capacity in Uruguay's Extractive Industry ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Properly managing and gaining maximum benefit from the extractive sectors in developing countries relies on skilled human resources. This project will help Uruguay navigate many of the challenges it faces in its shift from agriculture to a greater focus on extractive industries. It will provide funds to build research and ...

  16. uruguay : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Date de début : 27 juillet 2011. End Date: 27 septembre 2014. Sujet: Climate change, ADAPTATION TO CHANGE, RIVER BASINS, FLOODS, LAND USE, PLANNING, RISK MANAGEMENT. Région: Argentina, South America, Uruguay, North and Central America. Programme: Changements climatiques. Financement total ...

  17. Building Human Resource Capacity in Uruguay's Extractive Industry ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In small countries with relatively few (and mostly non-specialized) post-graduate educational options, training human resources needed for the extractive industries sector is especially challenging. This is also true for countries where the extractive industries are relatively new. This is Uruguay's reality, a small country with ...

  18. Molecular diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, L; Puentes, R; Reolón, E; Acuña, P; Riet, F; Rivero, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2016-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) affects bovine production and reproduction causing significant economic losses all over the world. Two viral species has been recognized: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, both distributed worldwide. Recently, novel specie of BVDV named HoBi-like pestivirus was discovered. The presence of BVDV was confirmed in 1996 in Uruguay, however, does not exist until today a schedule of compulsory vaccination along the country. Serological studies with samples from all Uruguayan herds were performed during 2000 and 2001 demonstrating that all of them were seropositive to BVDV with a mean prevalence of 69%. In addition, there have been no new studies done since those previously described and it is important to mention that the genetic diversity of BVD has never been described in Uruguay. Nowadays, there is strongly suspect that BVDV is one of the most important causes of reproductive failures in our herds. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time in Uruguay the genetic diversity of BVDV with samples collected from different regions along the country. Serological status of 390 non-vaccinated animals against BVDV with reproductive problems from farms of Rivera, Tacuarembó and Florida departments of Uruguay were studied. All herds were seropositive to BVDV and high proportion of animals were positive (298/390), while 4.1% (16/390) of the animals were positive to Antigen Capture ELISA test and Real Time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis performed with concatenated sequences from the 5'UTR and Npro genomic regions revealed that BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 are infecting our herds, being BVDV-1 the most frequently found. The major subtype was BVDV-1a, followed by BVDV-1i and BVDV-2b. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of BVDV in Uruguay and it will contribute to the elaboration of sanitization programs.

  19. Radiation Protection Education in Diagnostic Radiology in Uruguay; Educacion en proteccionr adiologica en Radiodiagnostico en Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotelo, E.; Paolini, G.

    2003-07-01

    In Uruguay the lack of Radiation Protection (RP) laws makes education in medical use of ionizing radiations at University, a decisive factor of changes. The six years experience in teaching technicians, radiologists, interventional cardiologists and anesthetists in curricular lectures, continuing education courses and workshops, show the importance of a close link between educators and occupationally exposed professionals. Regarding training and education in the optimization of the procedures, it is essential that both teacher and student comprehend the exact meaning of ALARA concept. This implies that although the educator is the one who manages the physical basis of RP, the student is who teaches the educator about the procedures. This turns RP education into a dynamic process in which at the same time, both educator and student learn and teach. After the theoretical lectures, it is essential that students show their ability in applying the acquired knowledge in their everyday practice. Last nut not least, in order to fulfill the first RP principle,all medicine students need to be educated in RP and quality image criteria before the get their medical doctor degree. Our experience shows that RP education in diagnostic radiology requires an expert with both medical physics and Image technology knowledge that allow an approach to students work, language and everyday problems. Despite the fact that the main result of the Education Program is the way professionals improve their practice, another consequence was that the Regulatory Authority of the country called the teacher team to coordinate the first RP national course. (Author) 14 refs.

  20. Biología, medicina y eugenesia en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrán, Juan Pedro

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work are analyzed the deep relationships between biology, medicine and society that were settled down in the Uruguay along the XIX century as well as the process of «medicalization» and «biologization» of the social thought that take place along the first decades of the XX century, and the role that played the eugenic ideas and defenders of eugenics in that process.

    En este trabajo se analizan las profundas relaciones entre biología, medicina y sociedad que se establecieron en el Uruguay a lo largo del siglo XIX así como el proceso de medicalización y biologización del pensamiento social que se produce a lo largo de las primeras décadas del siglo XX, y el papel que jugaron en ese proceso las ideas eugénicas y los defensores de la eugenesia.

  1. Acianthera hygrophila(Orchidaceae, nuevo registro para Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés J. Rossado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta por primera vez para la flora de Uruguay la orquídea epífita Acianthera hygrophila (Barb. Rodr. Pridgeon & M.W. Chase. La misma fue hallada en el bosque ribereño del Río Yaguarón en el este del departamento de Cerro Largo próximo al límite con Brasil. Este registro representa el límite sur de distribución de la especie. Se presenta una descripción ampliada, ilustración y mapa de distribución de A. hygrophila, así como una clave para la identificación de las especies de Acianthera presentes en Uruguay

  2. Inercias y tranformaciones en las relaciones laborales del Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pucci

    Full Text Available This work intends to analyze the evolution of the labor relations in Uruguay, at the cornerstone of the productive restructuring processes that began to be developed starting from the constitution of regional markets in the Southern Cone. The hypothesis we support is that the transformations in the world of labor ocurred in Uruguay cannot be attributed only to the application of an economical or social model specific to development, but are enrolled in long term structural modifications, associated to changes in the social relations ocurred worldwide. However, the concrete evolution verified in labor relations is explained by the specific characteristics of the processes of regional integration that are expressed in the conformation of MERCOSUL.

  3. ATLAS Virtual Visit Uruguay-19-05-2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    In this opportunity the 2nd virtual visit to the CERN from Uruguay has been inserted into the 2nd International Congress Online on Education and New Media "La Kamera en Red" (May 19, 20, 21 2014), since it is now expanding to other countries in Latin-American and Europe. It is an original open possibility for local, regional and global citizens to share, show and create in a collective way about the diffusion of Science.

  4. Genetic structure of honeybee populations from southern Brazil and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diniz Nilza Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera scutellata was introduced to Brazil in 1956 and Africanized honeybee populations have now spread from Argentina to the southwestern United States. Temperate climatic restrictions seem to be a natural limit to Africanized honeybee expansion around parallels 35° to 40° SL. We used allozyme loci (Mdh-1 and Hk-1 and mtDNA haplotypes to characterize honeybee populations in southern Brazil and Uruguay and define a possible transition area between Africanized and European bees. Samples of 194 bee colonies were collected from ten localities between 30°-35° SL and 52°-59° WL. The mtDNA restriction patterns of these colonies were obtained through digestion of the mitochondrial genome by Eco RI, or by digestion by Bgl II and Xba I of the cytochrome B locus and the COI-COII intergenic region, respectively. The distribution limit of African bee colonies, i.e., those populations with only the African mtDNA haplotype and with a high proportion of African genes as shown by allozyme analysis, is located in northern Uruguay, with a hybridization zone located farther south in Uruguay. A gradual cline from north to south was observed, confirmed by mtDNA, racial admixture, and genetic distance analyses. No evidence of either gametic disequilibrium between nuclear markers or cytonuclear disequilibrium among the nuclear and mtDNA genotypes was detected, suggesting that the hybridization process has been completed.

  5. The Impact of the Uruguay Round on World Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Sil Kim

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the impact of the Uruguay Round (UR implementation on world agriculture using a multi-regional general equilibrium model and the mapping function of the Geographic Information System (GIS. The results of this study show that the Uruguay Round has had a negative impact on world agriculture in the light of total food production and food distribution. For commodities such as grains, while grain production rises in exporting countries, the effect is not sufficient to cover the fall in production in importing countries. In particular, the impact is serious on food security in importing countries of agricultural products. The negative impact is almost concentrated in importing countries, particularly Japan, the European Union (EU and South Korea. As is clearly visible on the maps produced by the GIS function, the real state of world agriculture as well as the results evaluated by this Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model has changed negatively in major importing countries and particularly the Least Developed Countries (LDCs, Sub-Saharan Africa following the Uruguay Round.

  6. Odonata de Uruguay: lista de especies y nuevos registros Odonata from Uruguay: species list and new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Von Ellenrieder

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se proporciona una lista de las 70 especies citadas para Uruguay. Catorce de ellas constituyen nuevos registros para el país: Mnesarete pruinosa (Hagen en Selys [Calopterygidae, Acanthagrion lancea Selys, A. peruvianum Leonard, Argia serva Hagen en Selys y Oxyagrion chapadense Costa (Coenagrionidae, Neoneura ethela Williamson (Protoneuridae, Progomphus costalis Hagen en Selys (Gomphidae, Elasmothemis constricta (Calvert, Erythrodiplax basalis (Kirby, Erythrodiplax media Borror, Micrathyria hypodidyma Calvert, Micrathyria ringueleti Rodrigues Capitulo, Orthemis ambinigra Calvert y Perithemis icteroptera (Selys en Sagra (Libelullidae.A list of 70 species known to occur in Uruguay is given. Fourteen species are new country records: Mnesarete pruinosa (Hagen in Selys (Calopterygidae, Acanthagrion lancea Selys, A. peruvianum Leonard, Argia serva Hagen in Selys, and Oxyagrion chapadense Costa (Coenagrionidae, Neoneura ethela Williamson (Protoneuridae, Progomphus costalis Hagen in Selys (Gomphidae, Elasmothemis constricta (Calvert, Erythrodiplax basalis (Kirby, Erythrodiplax media Borror, Micrathyria hypodidyma Calvert, Micrathyria ringueleti Rodrigues Capitulo, Orthemis ambinigra Calvert, and Perithemis icteroptera (Selys in Sagra (Libelullidae.

  7. Controversias cientifico-publicas. El caso del conflicto por las "papeleras" entre Argentina y Uruguay y la participacion ciudadana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sannazzaro, Jorgelina

    2011-01-01

    En este articulo se aborda el conflicto que mantienen desde el 2002 Argentina y Uruguay, debido a la instalacion de plantas de celulosa en territorio uruguayo, sobre las aguas binacionales del Rio Uruguay...

  8. Currency Substitution in Argentina, Mexico, and Uruguay (Substitution de monnaie en Argentine, au Mexique et en Uruguay) (Sustitución de moneda en Argentina, México y Uruguay)

    OpenAIRE

    C. L. Ramirez-Rojas

    1985-01-01

    The paper analyzes currency substitution--the demand for foreign money--in Argentina, Mexico, and Uruguay. Domestic residents usually seek foreign currency because trade and tourism require the use of foreign exchange. In Argentina, Mexico, and Uruguay, however, the demand for foreign exchange by domestic residents has gone well beyond the requirements of international trade and tourism. These countries have witnessed a sharp decline in real money balances denominated in domestic currency dur...

  9. A survey of Senecio spp. affecting livestock in Uruguay and their associated pyrrolizidine alkaloid content

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Eastern Uruguay there has been a significant increase of seneciosis in grazing livestock with most affected localities related to counties neighboring the Brazilian border. A survey in 28 farms associated with poisoning outbreaks in grazing cattle in Eastern Uruguay was carried out. Fifty populat...

  10. 78 FR 8435 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus Hybrids and Fortunella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ..., and two species of the Citrus- related genus Fortunella (F. japonica Thunb. Swingle and F. margarita... Genus Fortunella (F. japonica (Thunb.) Swingle, F. margarita (Lour.) Swingle), from Uruguay into the..., Fortunella. japonica (Thunb.) Swingle, and F. margarita (Lour.) Swingle, from Uruguay that meet the...

  11. PRIMER REGISTRO DE LYCOPODIUM CLAVATUM (LYCOPODIACEAE PARA URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez para la flora uruguaya a Lycopodium clavatum (Lycopodiaceae, hallada en los departamentos de Durazno y Maldonado. Este nuevo registro extiende su área de distribución, es- tableciendo las localidades situadas en el centro y este del Uruguay como el límite distribucional austral de Lycopodium s. str. Se presenta una descripción diagnóstica, un mapa de distribución en el país, así como la ilustración de la especie y fotografías del hábitat.

  12. Institutional regime of public-private participation in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Schiavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently enacted legislation on Public Private Partnerships in Uruguay provides a new institutional framework for the designing, structuring and subscription of contracts in ppp projects. Among its provisions, the new statute allocates competences to different administrative bodies for the execution, regulation and control of PPP s. Later administrative regulations were also adopted to facilitate the implementation and execution of this type of contracts. The present article studies these reforms, in order to provide a better understanding of the role played by the Technical Commission of the PPP Unit.

  13. Uruguay: cómo nos cambia la vida

    OpenAIRE

    Schmal, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    La evolución política latinoamericana, particularmente en el cono sur –Uruguay, Chile y Argentina- en los últimos 50 años ha experimentado cambios significativos, desde los tiempos en que los formalismos democráticos eran puestos a prueba por crisis económicas y sociales que desembocaban en crisis políticas, las que por lo general terminaban “resolviéndose” por la vía militar. Agotada esta instancia, los países han tendido a retomar los cauces democráticos. Hoy nos encontramos inmersos en la ...

  14. Essential oils of Mentha pulegium and Mentha rotundifolia from Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lorenzo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L. Huds. from Uruguay were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Oxygen-containing monoterpenes were the main group of constituents in both oils. Pulegone, isomenthone and menthone were the major components in the oil of M. pulegium, whereas piperitenone oxide and (Z-sabinene hydrate were the major ones in M. rotundifolia. Enantiomerically pure (--menthone, (+-isomenthone, (+-isomenthol, (--menthol and (+-pulegone were detected by multidimensional gas chromatography in the case of M. pulegium oil.Óleos essenciais obtidos por hidrodestilação das folhas de Mentha pulegium L. e Mentha rotundifolia (L. Huds. do Uruguay foram analisados por GC-FID e GC-MS. O grupo de monoterpenes oxigenados foi o mais importante em ambos os óleos, sendo que a pulegona, isomenthona e menthona foram os constituintes maioritarios no óleo de Mentha pulegium, no entanto, o ôxido de piperitenona e (Z-hidrato de sabineno foram os maioritarios na Mentha rotundifolia. (--mentone, (+-isomentone, (+-isomenthol, (--menthol e (+-pulegone enantioméricamente puras foram detectadas por cromatografía gasosa multidimensional no caso do óleo de Mentha pulegium.

  15. Prevalence of type-specific HPV infection in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berois, Nora; Heard, Isabelle; Fort, Zoraida; Alonso, Rafael; Sica, Adela; Moerzinger, Patricia; Rodriguez, Guillermo; Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Osinaga, Eduardo; Favre, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the prevalence of type-specific Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women attending organized cervical cancer screening program in Uruguay. Nine hundred sixty-five liquid cervical cell samples obtained after collection of cervical smears for cytology were assessed for HPV DNA using the Papillocheck system (Greiner BioOne). The overall prevalence of High-Risk (HR) HPV infections was 20.8% and increased from 16.5% in women with normal cytology to 93.3% in HSIL. Prevalence of HPV 16 and/or 18 was 6.3% and HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype in normal cytology (3.6%). The five most prevalent genotypes were HPV 16, 31, 51, 56, and 39. The overall prevalence peaked below age 30. This study provides essential baseline information at national level on type-specific HPV prevalence in Uruguay before the introduction of HPV vaccination. It documents the current prevalence of each of the oncogenic genotypes in a population attending cervical cancer screening program, suggesting that at least 64.7% of high risk lesions are potentially preventable by available HPV vaccines, and possibly augmentable if cross-protection against non-vaccine HPV types 31, 33, and 45 is confirmed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Uruguay: el sur también existe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Morente Muñoz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La República Oriental del Uruguay resulta un país bastante desconocido. Creador del primer “Estado del Bienestar”, a principios del siglo XX, sus particularidades no lo hacen tan distinto al resto de países de América Latina. Padeció la dictadura más cruenta del Cono Sur y las inclemencias de las políticas neoliberales. En 2004, el Frente Amplio, conquista la mayoría parlamentaria y el gobierno, abriendo un camino de esperanzas y de reconstrucción económica y social. A través de sus políticas públicas, ahora desarrolladas por el segundo gobierno de la izquierda (2010, hace frente a la realidad heredada: más de un tercio de su población había sido condenada a la pobreza. Palabras-clave: Uruguay, dictadura, impunidad, derechos humanos.

  17. El Centro de Cardioestimuladores del Uruguay. CCC Medical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Darscht

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Estudio de caso del Centro de Cardioestimuladores del Uruguay - CCC Medical Devices preparado a solicitud de Ingenio en el marco del proyecto financiado por la Iniciativa para Incubadoras de InfoDev - Grupo Banco Mundial. Este estudio detalla los pasos seguidos por una empresa nacional con un fuerte factor de innovación y los cambios producidos en el entorno de los negocios de la empresa. El comienzo de una pequeña empresa de marcapasos que tras pasar por diferentes etapas hoy gana mercados en el área de ingeniería para dispositivos médicos para diferentes empresas de investigación biomédica a nivel internacional.AbstractCase study of the Centro de Cardioestimuladores del Uruguay - CCC Medical Devices prepared on behalf of Ingenio within the project financed by de Incubator Initiative of InfoDev-World Bank Group. This study refers to the steps followed by a highly innovative local company and to the changes in its business environment. The start up of a small pacemakers company that after going through different stages is presently increasing its market share in the area of engineering of medical devices for biomedic research companies worldwide.

  18. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by various towns in Uruguay

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Anilla Cultural Latinoamérica – Europa in Uruguay is a venture between ANEP, CES and UDELAR. In its line of action of scientific and technological culture they contact CERN for an open dialogue to divulge science, led to its teachers and students. The virtual "visit" of Uruguay at CERN is done from multiple video conferencing rooms in the country through the Uruguayan Academic Network. On 28th May six towns in Uruguay will be connected to the ATLAS Control Room: Montevideo, Maldonado, Rocha, Tacuarembó, Salto and Rivera.

  19. Uruguay vasakpoolne president tahab vaeses riigis korra majja lüüa / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2005-01-01

    Märtsikuus tuli Uruguays võimule vasakpoolne koalitsioon. President Tabare Vazquez peab kõige olulisemaks vaesusest jagusaamist riigis, välispoliitikas on tema eelistus sidemete arendamine teiste vasakpoolsete režiimidega

  20. LA FAMILIA APOCYNACEAE S. STR. (APOCYNOIDEAE, RAUVOLFIOIDEAE EN URUGUAY

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    J. Francisco Morales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un tratamiento de las Apocynaceae s. str. (Apocynoideae, Rauvolfioideae de Uruguay. Se reconocen diez especies de un total de siete géneros: Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Condylocarpon isthmicum, Forsteronia glabrescens, Mandevilla coccinea, M. emarginata, M. longiflora, M. petraea, Rhabdadenia madida, Tabernaemontana catharinensis, Vinca major. Se incluyen descripciones, claves, datos de distribución y especimenes examinados. Se seleccionan lectotipos para Dipladenia xanthosoma var. major, Echites emarginatus, E. erectus, E. grandiflorus var. minor, E. pinifolius, Laseguea erecta var. guilleminia f. griseo-olivacea , L. erecta var. obliquinervia f. ovata subf. griseofusca y subf. griseo-olivacea, L. guilleminiana, Macrosiphonia verticillata var. intermedia, M. verticillata var. peduncularis, M. pinifolia f. glabrata y M. pinifolia f. setosa Se designa un neotipo para Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco.

  1. An estimation of the wage curve for Uruguay

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    González Rodríguez-Villamil Cecilia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La existencia de la relación empírica entre salario y desempleo en Uruguay, se analizada en este trabajo. Se estiman varios modelos para el período 1986-2005 utilizando dos aproximaciones para medir el salario. Se obtiene una elasticidad de -0,09 entre desempleo y salarios. La elasticidad es mayor para los jóvenes, las mujeres y los menos educados. Los resultados indican que la elasticidad crece ante choques macroeconómicos adversos. Además, al desagregar por ocupación o formalidad e informalidad, los resultados sugieren que un aumento del desempleo produce un aumento de la informalidad y del cuentapropismo que lleva a una caída de los ingresos en estos sectores, que actúan como “amortiguador”.

  2. Abortion in Uruguay and Latin America: The position of citizens

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    Máximo Rossi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abortion is illegal in most Latin American countries, although there are some attenuating and exonerating causes in its practice. However, studies performed in countries with liberalizing processes for more than two decades, such as the United States, show the persistence of different attitudes towards abortion, which go from points of view that are pro-life to points of view that are pro-choice. Based on Latinobarómetro 2007, this paper analyzes the attitudinal patterns of individuals towards abortion, with emphasis on its degree of justification according to socio-economic features, faith and religion, as well as the countries’ own characteristics. Ordinary least squares estimates for 18 Latin American countries show that men under 40, agnostic, highly educated and with socioeconomic access are those that justify abortion the most; likewise, Uruguay —particularly its female population— is the country where it is most justified.

  3. La innovación en Uruguay. Problemas, instituciones, perspectivas

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    Judith Sutz

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se aborda la innovación en Uruguay desde dos puntos de vista: por una parte, se plantea la innovación como problema; por otra, se analiza el tejido institucional en el cual se desarrollan los procesos innovativos. La necesidad de esfuerzos en el marco del desarrollo científico-tecnológico mundial, la especificidad de un país pequeño, la inadecuación de las formas canónicas de la evaluación académica, el desconocimiento de los actores productivos acerca de la oferta local de soluciones, y la innovación como cuestión de Estado, constituyen el primer abordaje. El segundo presenta un mapa sintético de las diversas instituciones -incluyendo empresas- involucradas en procesos de innovación, señalando sus logros y limitaciones.

  4. AVANCE INSUFICIENTE: el caso del Ingreso Ciudadano en el Uruguay

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    Ximena Baráibar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Enmarcado en la tradición de intervención estatal en Uruguay y en el desarrollo en América Latina a partir de los 90 de políticas de transferencia de ingresos, este artículo analiza el Programa “Ingreso Ciudadano” implementado en el 2005, para responder a la situación de emergencia social. Luego de caracterizarlo, se señalan sus principales contribuciones y limitaciones. Se trata de un programa que ha permitido el acceso a cierto nivel de protección a familias que no lo tenían y ha contribuido a reducir la indigencia, pero es muy baja su incidencia en la reducción de la pobreza y la desigualdad.

  5. Los seguros ambientales en Uruguay - Validez de las cláusulas claims made

    OpenAIRE

    Ifrán, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    he document presented tackles the study of environmental insurance, from its own history through its environmental policy and mandatory character and spe- cifically locating its regulation in Uruguay. The environmental legislation is stu- died in-depht as well as practical aspects. Taking into account the claims made modality in environmental insurance, such coverage is analyzed drawing a con- clusion about its validity in Uruguay law. Key words author: Environmental civil liability insurance...

  6. Lead contamination in Uruguay: the "La Teja" neighborhood case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañay, Nelly; Cousillas, Adriana Z; Alvarez, Cristina; Heller, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Lead, ubiquitous in the environment as a result of mining and industrialization, is found as a contaminant in humans although it has no known physiological function there. Lead-exposed children are known to be the population with the highest potential health risks. The recommended biomarker to assess environmental lead exposure in animals is lead level in blood. Before 2001, the Department of Toxicology and Environmental Hygiene was the only team to produce human monitoring data on Uruguayan populations (Manay 2001a,b; Mañay et al. 1999). Lead pollution in Uruguay first received official attention during the 2001 La Teja poisoning episode. It was in the La Teja neighbourhood of Montevideo that high BLL were found in children (as high as 20 microg/dL), prompting corrective responses from Health and Environmental authorities. Growing awareness of environmental lead pollution and consequential human health effects from that event, resulted in public debate and demands for solutions from Health and Environmental authorities. Citizens demanded public disclosure of information concerning lead pollution and wanted action to address contaminated Uruguayan sites. In response, the Ministry of Health assembled an interinstitutional multidisciplinary committee, with delegates from health, environmental, labor, educational, and social security authorities, as well as community nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), among others. The University of the Republic was designated to serve as the main responsible entity for technical advice and support. After 2001, new research on lead pollution was undertaken and included multidisciplinary studies with communities in response to health risk alerts. The main emphasis was placed on children exposed to environmental lead. Major sources of Uruguayan lead contamination, similar to those in other developing countries, result from metallurgical industries, lead-acid battery processing, lead wire and pipe factories, metal foundries, metal

  7. Uruguay; Report on Observance of Standards and Codes-Data Module and the Response by the Authorities

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2001-01-01

    The paper provides a summary of Uruguay's practices with respect to the coverage, periodicity, and timeliness of the Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS) data categories, and an assessment of the quality of national accounts, prices, fiscal, monetary and financial, and external sector statistics. Uruguay has made good progress recently in improving the dissemination of statistical information. The Internet pages of the Central Bank of Uruguay (BCU) and the National Institute of Statisti...

  8. Organized factions and disorganized parties: electoral incentives in Uruguay Grupos organizados y partidos desorganizados: incentivos electorales en Uruguay

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    Scott MORGENSTERN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the study of party organization and legislative voting to factionalize party systems. After developing a typology of factional types, it argues that hierarchically organized factions respond to a competing incentive system. Factions have interests that push them to work together for the good of the party, but at the same time, they have interests in distinguishing themselves for electoral purposes. Further, the electoral cycle drives the weights of these competing pressures, leading factional cooperation to break down as elections near. These patterns and incentives are particularly evident in Uruguay, and the paper uses roll-call data from that country's legislature to test the propositionsEl presente artículo aplica el estudio de la organización de partidos y el voto legislativo a sistemas de partidos con facciones. Tras desarrollar una clasificación de los diferentes tipos de facciones, se argumenta que las facciones jerárquicamente organizadas responden a un sistema competitivo de incentivos. Pese a que las facciones tienen intereses que las empujan a trabajar juntas por el bien del partido, al mismo tiempo, tienen interés en diferenciarse unas de otras por propósitos electorales. Además, el ciclo electoral dirige los pesos de estas presiones competitivas provocando la ruptura en la cooperación entre las facciones conforme se aproximan las elecciones. Estas pautas e incentivos son particularmente evidentes en el caso de Uruguay, por lo que el artículo utiliza datos del voto nominal del Legislativo del país para probar estos argumentos.

  9. Antigenic and genetic characterization of rabies virus isolates from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Helena; Castilho, Juliana Galera; Souto, Juanita; Oliveira, Rafael de Novaes; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Kotait, Ivanete

    2013-05-01

    After 25 years without any reported cases of rabies in Uruguay, the northern region of the country experienced an epizootic of bovine paralytic rabies in October 2007. The outbreak affected bovines and equines, and the main source of infection was the bat Desmodus rotundus, the only hematophagous species in the country. From October 2007 to July 2008, 42 bovine, 3 equine and 120 chiropteran samples were submitted to the National Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for rabies testing. A total of 12 samples (7 bovine, 2 equine and 3 from D. rotundus) were positive by the fluorescent antibody test, and viruses were isolated by the mouse inoculation test. The objective of this study was to compare the antigenic and genetic characteristics of these isolates and three isolates from insectivorous bats from other regions. Antigenic typing using a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies identified all 12 viruses as variant 3 (AgV3), a variant associated with D. rotundus. Two isolates from insectivorous bats (Tadarida brasiliensis and Molossus sp.) were characterized as antigenic variant 4 (AgV4) while the third, from Myotis sp., could not be characterized using this panel as its reactivity pattern did not match that of any of the known antigenic variants. Partial N-gene sequences (nt 149-1420) of these isolates were aligned with homologous sequences derived from GenBank by the CLUSTAL/W method and used to build a neighbor-joining distance tree with the Kimura 2-parameter model. All 12 isolates were genetically grouped into the D. rotundus cluster as they shared 100% identity. In the phylogenetic analysis, the three isolates from insectivorous bats segregated into three clusters: one related to T. brasiliensis, one to Myotis sp. and the other to Lasiurus sp., although the isolate associated with the latter came from a Molossus sp. specimen. These results indicate that AgV3 was associated with the outbreak of bovine paralytic rabies in Uruguay. This is the first report of rabies

  10. CAIRNES Y VICHADEROS EN LAS TIERRAS ALTAS DE URUGUAY / Cairnes and vichaderos in the highlands of Uruguay

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    Moira Sotelo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se centra en el estudio de una manifestación arqueológica compuesta por estructuras de piedras, denominadas en Uruguay como cairnes y vichaderos. Estas estructuras fueron construidas con piedras mediante la agregación e imbricación de bloques, dando lugar a la formación de montículos y círculos, ubicados en cerros y sierras del centro-norte y este del país. En general se ha aceptado que fueron hechas por las poblaciones indígenas (Guenoa-minuanes y quizás Charrúas que habitaban la región en tiempos de la llegada de los europeos, y que su uso estaría relacionado a entierros humanos, a eventos rituales y al control territorial. Estudios actuales se encaminan a profundizar en la cronología y funcionalidad de cairnes y vichaderos, así como sobre los grupos humanos que los construyeron. En esta oportunidad se presentan los resultados obtenidos con la revisión de fuentes documentales históricas, con referencias a prácticas funerarias y entierros con piedras. Por otro lado, se reseñan los resultados obtenidos con una prospección diseñada a partir de esa información, en el norte del territorio uruguayo. Los trabajos señalan un correlato espacial entre las fuentes documentales y el registro arqueológico, a la vez que confirman la magnitud de este fenómeno. Palabras clave: Tierras altas, estructuras de piedras, entierros humanos, documentos históricos.    Abstract This paper focuses on the study of an archaeological manifestation, composed by stone structures, known in Uruguay as cairnes and vichaderos. These structures were built by aggregating stone blocks, forming mounds and circles, hills and mountains located in north-central and east of Uruguay. It is generally accepted these stone structures were used as part of burial practices among indigenous groups (Guenoa-minuanes and perhaps Charrúas who inhabited the region before and after the European arrival. The social practices of indigenous peoples led to the

  11. Freshwater gastropods diversity hotspots: three new species from the Uruguay River (South America

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    Diego E. Gutiérrez Gregoric

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Atlantic Forest is globally one of the priority ecoregions for biodiversity conservation. In Argentina, it is represented by the Paranense Forest, which covers a vast area of Misiones Province between the Paraná and Uruguay rivers. The Uruguay River is a global hotspot of freshwater gastropod diversity, here mainly represented by Tateidae (genus Potamolithus and to a lesser extent Chilinidae. The family Chilinidae (Gastropoda, Hygrophila includes 21 species currently recorded in Argentina, and three species in the Uruguay River. The species of Chilinidae occur in quite different types of habitats, but generally in clean oxygenated water recording variable temperature ranges. Highly oxygenated freshwater environments (waterfalls and rapids are the most vulnerable continental environments. We provide here novel information on three new species of Chilinidae from environments containing waterfalls and rapids in the Uruguay River malacological province of Argentina. Materials and Methods: The specimens were collected in 2010. We analyzed shell, radula, and nervous and reproductive systems, and determined the molecular genetics. The genetic distance was calculated for two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I–COI- and cytochrome b -Cyt b- for these three new species and the species recorded from the Misionerean, Uruguay River and Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata malacological provinces. In addition, the COI data were analyzed phylogenetically by the neighbor-joining and Bayesian inference techniques. Results: The species described here are different in terms of shell, radula and nervous and reproductive systems, mostly based on the sculpture of the penis sheath. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the three new species with those present in the Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata and Uruguay River malacological provinces. Discussion: Phylogenetic analyses confirm the separation between the Uruguay River and the Misionerean

  12. Species of Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae on native Myrtaceae in Uruguay: evidence of fungal host jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, C A; Wingfield, M J; Altier, N; Blanchette, R A

    2013-02-01

    Mycosphaerella species are well-known causal agents of leaf diseases on many economically and ecologically important plant species. In Uruguay, a relatively large number of Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae are found on Eucalyptus, but nothing is known of these fungi on native Myrtaceae. The aim of this study was to identify Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae species associated with leaf diseases on native Myrtaceae in Uruguay and to consider whether host jumps by the pathogen from introduced Eucalyptus to native Myrtaceae have occurred. Several native forests throughout the country were surveyed with special attention given to those located close to Eucalyptus plantations. Five species belonging to the Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae clades were found on native Myrtaceous trees and three of these had previously been reported on Eucalyptus in Uruguay. Those occurring both on Eucalyptus and native Myrtaceae included Pallidocercospora heimii, Pseudocercospora norchiensis, and Teratosphaeria aurantia. In addition, Mycosphaerella yunnanensis, a species known to occur on Eucalyptus but not previously recorded in Uruguay, was found on leaves of two native Myrtaceous hosts. Because most of these species occur on Eucalyptus in countries other than Uruguay, it appears that they were introduced in this country and have adapted to be able to infect native Myrtaceae. These apparent host jumps have the potential to result in serious disease problems and they should be carefully monitored. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Grupos organizados y partidos desorganizados: incentivos electorales en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott MORGENSTERN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aplica el estudio de la organización de partidos y el voto legislativo a sistemas de partidos con facciones. Tras desarrollar una clasificación de los diferentes tipos de facciones, se argumenta que las facciones jerárquicamente organizadas responden a un sistema competitivo de incentivos. Pese a que las facciones tienen intereses que las empujan a trabajar juntas por el bien del partido, al mismo tiempo, tienen interés en diferenciarse unas de otras por propósitos electorales. Además, el ciclo electoral dirige los pesos de estas presiones competitivas provocando la ruptura en la cooperación entre las facciones conforme se aproximan las elecciones. Estas pautas e incentivos son particularmente evidentes en el caso de Uruguay, por lo que el artículo utiliza datos del voto nominal del Legislativo del país para probar estos argumentos.

  14. La contribución de los inmigrantes en Uruguay

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    Felipe Arocena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este es un estudio comparativo acerca de cómo nueve comunidades inmigrantes y los afrodescendientes fueron conformando la cultura de Uruguay, un pequeño país en América del Sur. La imagen más común de este país, tanto a nivel nacional como internacional, es la de una sociedad homogénea y europeizada, construida sobre la base de inmigrantes provenientes de España e Italia, con una escasa población afro y sin nativos. Este panorama es cierto sólo a medias ya que también han sido fundamentales las contribuciones de inmigrantes provenientes de Asia, Rusia, otros países europeos y de esclavos africanos y sus descendientes libres. En particular analizaré cómo las personas de ascendencia africana, vascos, italianos, suizos, rusos, armenios, libaneses, judíos, musulmanes y peruanos, han contribuido en la construcción de la nación uruguaya. Este artículo presenta las conclusiones más relevantes de una investigación basada en casi un centenar de entrevistas en profundidad con integrantes de estas comunidades.

  15. La contribución de los inmigrantes en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Arocena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este es un estudio comparativo acerca de cómo nueve comunidades inmigrantes y los afrodescendientes fueron conformando la cultura de Uruguay, un pequeño país en América del Sur. La imagen más común de este país, tanto a nivel nacional como internacional, es la de una sociedad homogénea y europeizada, construida sobre la base de inmigrantes provenientes de España e Italia, con una escasa población afro y sin nativos. Este panorama es cierto sólo a medias ya que también han sido fundamentales las contribuciones de inmigrantes provenientes de Asia, Rusia, otros países europeos y de esclavos africanos y sus descendientes libres. En particular analizaré cómo las personas de ascendencia africana, vascos, italianos, suizos, rusos, armenios, libaneses, judíos, musulmanes y peruanos, han contribuido en la construcción de la nación uruguaya. Este artículo presenta las conclusiones más relevantes de una investigación basada en casi un centenar de entrevistas en profundidad con integrantes de estas comunidades.

  16. Detection of pesticides in active and depopulated beehives in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Niell, Silvina; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Besil, Natalia; Cesio, María Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio

    2011-10-01

    The influence of insecticides commonly used for agricultural purposes on beehive depopulation in Uruguay was investigated. Honeycombs, bees, honey and propolis from depopulated hives were analyzed for pesticide residues, whereas from active beehives only honey and propolis were evaluated. A total of 37 samples were analyzed, representing 14,800 beehives. In depopulated beehives only imidacloprid and fipronil were detected and in active beehives endosulfan, coumaphos, cypermethrin, ethion and chlorpyrifos were found. Coumaphos was present in the highest concentrations, around 1,000 μg/kg, in all the propolis samples from active beehives. Regarding depopulated beehives, the mean levels of imidacloprid found in honeycomb (377 μg/kg, Standard Deviation: 118) and propolis (60 μg/kg, Standard Deviation: 57) are higher than those described to produce bee disorientation and fipronil levels detected in bees (150 and 170 μg/kg) are toxic per se. The other insecticides found can affect the global fitness of the bees causing weakness and a decrease in their overall productivity. These preliminary results suggest that bees exposed to pesticides or its residues can lead them in different ways to the beehive.

  17. Detection of Pesticides in Active and Depopulated Beehives in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Heinzen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of insecticides commonly used for agricultural purposes on beehive depopulation in Uruguay was investigated. Honeycombs, bees, honey and propolis from depopulated hives were analyzed for pesticide residues, whereas from active beehives only honey and propolis were evaluated. A total of 37 samples were analyzed, representing 14,800 beehives. In depopulated beehives only imidacloprid and fipronil were detected and in active beehives endosulfan, coumaphos, cypermethrin, ethion and chlorpyrifos were found. Coumaphos was present in the highest concentrations, around 1,000 µg/kg, in all the propolis samples from active beehives. Regarding depopulated beehives, the mean levels of imidacloprid found in honeycomb (377 µg/kg, Standard Deviation: 118 and propolis (60 µg/kg, Standard Deviation: 57 are higher than those described to produce bee disorientation and fipronil levels detected in bees (150 and 170 µg/kg are toxic per se. The other insecticides found can affect the global fitness of the bees causing weakness and a decrease in their overall productivity. These preliminary results suggest that bees exposed to pesticides or its residues can lead them in different ways to the beehive.

  18. Cannabis consumption patterns among frequent consumers in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boidi, María Fernanda; Queirolo, Rosario; Cruz, José Miguel

    2016-08-01

    In 2013, Uruguay became the first country to fully regulate the cannabis market, which now operates under state control. Cannabis can be legally acquired in three ways: growing it for personal use (self-cultivation), cannabis club membership, and from pharmacies (not yet implemented). Users must be entered into a confidential official registry to gain access. This article presents findings of a Respondent Driven Sample survey of 294 high-frequency cannabis consumers in the Montevideo metropolitan area. Frequent consumers resort to more than one method for acquiring cannabis, with illegal means still predominating after 1 year of the new regulation law. Cannabis users overwhelmingly support the current regulation, but many of them are reluctant to register. Some of the attitudes and behaviors of the high-frequency consumers pose a challenge to the success of the cannabis law. Individuals relying on more than one method of access defy the single access clause, a prerequisite for legal use, while the maximum amount of cannabis individuals can access monthly seems too high even for most frequent consumers, which might promote the emergence of a grey market. Reluctance to register among a significant proportion of high-frequency consumers raises doubts about the law's ability to achieve its stated objectives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evolution in the use of antidumping mechanism after Uruguay round

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    Vinícius de Azevedo Couto Firme

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed how the main economies have used the antidumping measures (AD after the Uruguay round, between 1995 and 2012. Therefore, some techniques were employed in order to reveal the main AD users and the trend, of using this instrument, associated to each one of them. We also tested the hypothesis that countries could converge in terms of the number of AD cases and if spatial effects could be involved in this process. Finally, a criterion was established and a model was estimated in order to identify countries that usually favor the most competitive sectors through AD practice. The results revealed that Brazil was the only heavy AD user that was counter to the general downward trend verified on the AD cases. Meanwhile, China was not only the main target of this mechanism but the cases against this country showed a growth trend also. Furthermore, we found that the number of AD cases opened by traditional and nontraditional users is converging. Finally, both the index and the estimated model have indicated that Turkey and the EU seem to be favoring the most competitive industries through the AD practice.

  20. The Treatment of the Textile Sector in the Uruguay Round

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Jiménez

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The reintegration of the textile sector into the general regulatory framework of trade, which had previously been governed by an agreement aside from and against GATT directives, was one of the objectives put forward in the Uruguay Round. This was a priority issue for some states which, for more than twenty years, had been putting up with restrictions imposed on their exports by the developed countries under the pretext of carrying out an ordered and progressive liberalization in order not to provoke market distortions that could result from a sudden invasion from abroad and the lackof competitiveness of national products.This article intends to examine the mechanism finally adopted in order to carry out this process of reintegration which, in theory at least, should culminate in the year 2005 as well as the problems presented during the negotiations. Special emphasis is laid on the balance of the Community posture in relation to the results obtained from its position given the special impact that this has for Spanish interests.

  1. Evaluation Criteria for Participatory Research: Insights from Coastal Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

    2014-07-01

    Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.

  2. CONSORCIOS TECNOLÓGICOS EN ARGENTINA, CHILE, COLOMBIA Y URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Álvarez E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza un conjunto de consorcios tecnológicos apoyados con recursos públicos en Argentina, Chile, Colombia y Uruguay. Estos programas buscan facilitar la interacción entre empresas e instituciones dedicadas a la producción de ciencia y tecnología. Los resultados, basados en datos recabados para un subconjunto de los grupos apoyados, ponen en relieve las dificultades y los largos tiempos que se re-quieren para lograr resultados concretos, en particular, en innovación tecnológica. El trabajo cuantitativo muestra una evaluación relativamente baja de las empresas res-pecto al efecto de estos instrumentos en la generación de innovaciones de productos y procesos y la obtención de patentes, aunque existen aspectos relativamente mejor evaluados, como el mejoramiento del acceso a conocimiento tecnológico, en ámbitos como el mercadeo y los recursos humanos. Esto puede deberse a que varios de los consorcios llevan poco tiempo en funcionamiento y necesitan un plazo más largo para ser evaluados.

  3. Tierras estatales y desigualdad de género en Uruguay=State lands and gender inequality in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Florit O`Neill

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En Uruguay, el Instituto Nacional de Colonización (INC es la institución encargada de la adjudicación de tierra por parte del Estado, orientado a la distribución racional de la tierra y su acceso por parte de la población rural más vulnerable. A partir del año 2005, atravesó una reforma que jerarquizó su rol en las políticas de Estado y gestó un nuevo modelo de adjudicación de tierras: las experiencias asociativas. Ese mismo año, el nuevo gobierno impulsó la transversalización de género en el Estado, impulso que anclara en el INC a partir del 2013. Este artículo analiza desde una perspectiva de género la reforma refundacional y la nueva política de tierras, develando la ceguera de género de la reforma y evidenciando desafíos pendientes para la transversalización de género en el diseño de la principal modalidad de adjudicación de tierras públicas.      Abstract In Uruguay, the National Institute of Colonization is the institution resposible for the adjudication of land by the State, aimed at the rational distribution of land and its access by the most vulnerable rural population. Since 2005, the INC went through a reform that prioritized its role in the policies of the State and created a new model of land adjudication: associative experiences of colonization. In that same year, the new government promoted gender mainstreaming in the State, impulse that took roots in the INC from 2013 onwards. This article analyzes from a gender perspective the refounding reform and the new land policy, unveiling the gender blindness of the reform and highlighting pending challenges for gender mainstreaming in the design of the main public land adjudication modality.

  4. Pesticide survey in water and suspended solids from the Uruguay River Basin, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williman, Celia; Munitz, Martín S; Montti, María I T; Medina, María B; Navarro, Agustín F; Ronco, Alicia E

    2017-06-01

    The Uruguay River is receptor of pollutants, such as pesticides, from agriculture activities along its course. The present study reports concentration levels of organochlorinate, organophosphorus, and other pesticides in water and suspended solids in nine sampling sites of the Uruguay River. Data analyses included principal component analysis (PCA) to assess differences between sampling sites contamination. Most of the tested pesticides were ubiquitous due to the widely use in the chemical control of pests implemented in the region. Detected concentrations of aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, 4,4'-DDT, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, methyl-parathion, and malathion were found to be over regional and international concentration level guidelines, according to the European Union, the US Environmental Protection Agency, or the Argentinean Secretariat of Environment and Sustainable Development. For this reason, future studies in Uruguay River Basin are needed.

  5. A Chilling Example? Uruguay, Philip Morris International, and WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Mamudu, Hadii

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is the first international public health treaty to address the global spread of tobacco products. Ethnographic research at the fourth meeting of the FCTC's Conference of the Parties in Uruguay highlights the role of the FCTC in recalibrating the relationship between international trade and investment agreements and those of global public health. Specifically, we chart the origins and development of the Punta del Este Declaration, tabled by Uruguay at the conference, to counter a legal request by Philip Morris International, the world's largest tobacco transnational, for arbitration by the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes over Uruguay's alleged violations of several international trade and investment treaties. We argue that medical anthropologists should give greater consideration to global health governance and diplomacy as a potential counterweight to the 'politics of resignation' associated with corporate capitalism. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  6. Geographic distribution and conservation status of Caiman latirostris (Crocodylia, Alligatoridae in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Borteiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Caiman latirostris are known to occur in Uruguay but their geographic distribution remains uncertain. This work presents anupdate of the species distribution and conservation status in Uruguay. Surveys conducted by the authors confirmed the presence of this species in the previously known distribution range of northwestern Uruguay, where it seems to be widespread and relatively abundant in contrast to earlier reports. We report new localities for C. latirostris, most relevant being those of the Cebollatí and Tacuarí Rivers, and the Pelotas, India Muerta and San Miguel stream basins, which significantly expand its distribution through important wetlands in the eastern part of the country. The overall distribution is coincident with different landscape types, where lagoons, artificial impoundments, livestock waterholes, rivers, streams, creeks and marshes are inhabited by caiman. Illegal non-commercial hunting was detected all over the country.

  7. Mecanismos de determinación del salario en la actividad privada en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Babace; Rodolfo Becerra

    2014-01-01

    I. Introducción. II. Reseña histórica de los sistemas de reglamentación y de determinación del salario en Uruguay. III. Descripción y análisis del actual sistema de determinación de salarios en la actividad privada en Uruguay. Análisis de la ley Nº 18.566 sobre negociación colectiva. 1. La negociación colectiva y la determinación de salarios. a. Características del sistema de relaciones laborales de Uruguay. b. Procedimientos para el establecimiento de condiciones de trabajo y para la determi...

  8. Burnout en Uruguay: Unos aportes para los resultados de Añon et al. (2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Merino Soto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La presente carta pone de relieve algunas preguntas que podrían desafiar la validez de los resultados presentados por Añón et al. (2012, respecto a sus descripciones del nivel de burnout en un hospital público de Montevideo. Su estudio es importante para el aporte descriptivo local del burnout en trabajadores en Uruguay, y de la prevalencia del mismo en un plano internacional. Aparentemente, es uno de los pocos estudios publicados sobre el síndrome de burnout en Uruguay. Pero hay aspectos relacionados con la validez de las interpretaciones de sus resultados, que no han tomado en cuenta.

  9. Occurrence of metal ions in rice produced in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rivero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations General Assembly declared the year 2004 the International Year of Rice under the concept "Rice is Life". The largest nutritional problems occurring globally are protein-energy malnutrition, Ca, Fe, I, Zn and vitamin A deficiencies. Being rice the staple food more consumed worldwide, outstanding care is taken on its composition levels.Uruguay has emerged as medium-size rice producer and Latin America's major rice exporter, and is now amongst the world's top ten. Thus, the knowledge of toxic as well as micronutrient elements is very important. Here is reported the determination in forty nine samples of rice (Oryza sativa L. of As, Cd, Cr, and Pb by ET AAS in samples digested by dry ashing, and Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, Ni and Zn by FAAS and Hg by CV AAS using microwave-assisted decomposition.The amount of all the metal ions studied in this work fall within the range typical of rice around the world. All the rice samples tested showed lower levels of As, Cd, Hg and Pb than the maximum limit permitted by governmental and international organizations.Potassium was the most abundant mineral followed by Mg and Ca and amongst microelements the presence of Cu, Fe, Mo, Mn, Na and Zn was outstanding.The milling process highly affects the contents of K, Mg, Mn, Na and Zn while little influence has on Ca, Co, Cu and Fe concentrations.Unexpected loss of Ca, Fe and Mn during parboiling process was detected. 

  10. A perfect storm? Welfare, care, gender and generations in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Magdalena; Papadópulos, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article claims that welfare states modelled on a contributory basis and with a system of entitlements that assumes stable two-parent families, a traditional breadwinner model, full formal employment and a relatively young age structure are profoundly flawed in the context of present-day challenges. While this is true for affluent countries modelled on the Bismarckian type of welfare system, the costs of the status quo are even more devastating in middle-income economies with high levels of inequality. A gendered approach to welfare reform that introduces the political economy and the economy of care and unpaid work is becoming critical to confront what may very well become a perfect storm for the welfare of these nations and their peoples. Through an in-depth study of the Uruguayan case, the authors show how the decoupling of risk and protection has torn asunder the efficacy of welfare devices in the country. An ageing society that has seen a radical transformation of its family and labour market landscapes, Uruguay maintained during the 1980s and 1990s a welfare state that was essentially contributory, elderly and male-oriented, and centred on cash entitlements. This contributed to the infantilization of poverty, increased the vulnerability of women and exacerbated fiscal stress for the system as a whole. Furthermore, because of high levels of income and asset inequality, the redistribution of risk between upper- and lower-income groups presented a deeply regressive pattern. The political economy of care and welfare has begun to change in the last decade or so, bringing about mild reforms in the right direction; but these might prove to be too little and too late.

  11. Household demand elasticities for meat products in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno A. Lanfranco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzed the demand for meats at household level over the past decade in Uruguay, a country that exhibits a very high per capita consumption of these products. In particular, the consumption of beef is one of the highest in the world and only comparable to Argentina. The analysis involved a two-step estimation of an incomplete system of censored demand equations using household data from the last available national income and expenditure survey (2005/06. Thirteen meat products were included in the analysis: six broad beef products (deboned hindquarter cuts, bone-in hindquarter cuts, ground beef, rib plate, bone-in forequarter cuts, and other beef cuts, four products from other meats (sheep, pork, poultry, and fish, and three generic mixed-meat products. A complete set of short-term income, own-price and cross-price elasticities were computed and reported along with their 90% confidence intervals (CI. The results were consistent with both economic theory and empirical evidence as well as with the expected behavior, considering the relevance of these products, particularly beef, in the diet of Uruguayan consumers. All meat items were necessary goods and evidenced income-inelastic responses, which was expected given their high consumption level. All meats behaved as normal goods although exhibiting different reactions to changes in price. In general, beef cuts were more price elastic than other more broadly defined products. The more specific and disaggregated the meat product the higher its corresponding direct price elasticity. The complement/substitute relationships found in this study were highly depended on the specific product combinations.

  12. Household demand elasticities for meat products in Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanfranco, B. A.; Rava, C.

    2014-06-01

    This article analyzed the demand for meats at household level over the past decade in Uruguay, a country that exhibits a very high per capita consumption of these products. In particular, the consumption of beef is one of the highest in the world and only comparable to Argentina. The analysis involved a two-step estimation of an incomplete system of censored demand equations using household data from the last available national income and expenditure survey (2005/06). Thirteen meat products were included in the analysis: six broad beef products (de boned hindquarter cuts, bone-in hindquarter cuts, ground beef, rib plate, bone-in forequarter cuts, and other beef cuts), four products from other meats (sheep, pork, poultry, and fish), and three generic mixed-meat products. A complete set of short-term income, own-price and cross-price elasticities were computed and reported along with their 90% confidence intervals (CI). The results were consistent with both economic theory and empirical evidence as well as with the expected behavior, considering the relevance of these products, particularly beef, in the diet of Uruguayan consumers. All meat items were necessary goods and evidenced income-inelastic responses, which was expected given their high consumption level. All meats behaved as normal goods although exhibiting different reactions to changes in price. In general, beef cuts were more price elastic than other more broadly defined products. The more specific and dis aggregated the meat product the higher its corresponding direct price elasticity. The complement/substitute relationships found in this study were highly depended on the specific product combinations. (Author)

  13. Acerca de la "Cultura Física" en la revista Uruguay-Sport: Archivos de la CNEF, Uruguay (1918-1926

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Dogliotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone una indagación sobre lo que implicó la noción de "cultura física" en el proceso gestacional de la Comisión Nacional de Educación Física (CNEF del Uruguay, en las primeras dos décadas de su creación. Para esto se toma como fuente de indagación la revista oficial de esta institución, Uruguay-Sport. Entre los principales hallazgos se constata la fuerte incidencia de Estados Unidos en el proceso de conformación de la CNEF. La "cultura física" es entendida prioritariamente como sport. Se producen ciertos procesos de homogeneización deportiva a partir de modelos importados fundamentalmente de aquel país. Se presenta un cierto grado de lo que se puede llamar un optimismo deportivo.

  14. Algunos aspectos de la climatología solar del Uruguay Some aspects of the solar climatology of Uruguay

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    Hugo Grossi Gallegos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La cobertura espacial de las redes de medición en tierra no puede satisfacer todas las necesidades de los usuarios debido a su baja densidad esto es más notable en el caso de la radiación solar. La escasez de datos de irradiación global es la razón para utilizar la heliofanía para su estimación mediante el empleo de diferentes correlaciones que han probado tener un buen ajuste con las mediciones. Para trazar cartas de heliofanía (y a partir de ellas, de irradiación solar global en un territorio tan extenso como América del Sur es necesario estudiar la relación error-distancia entre estaciones en zonas homogéneas. Para ello, lo habitual es analizar el comportamiento espacial de algunos estadísticos de campos aleatorios, como por ejemplo, la función estructura. En este trabajo, se han utilizado datos medios mensuales de heliofanía de Uruguay y se analizó su variación con la distancia entre estaciones. Se presentan gráficos obtenidos para diferentes épocas del año, analizándose las condiciones de extrapolación espacial de la información. Además, se muestran los resultados del análisis estadístico de series temporales de valores medios anuales de la heliofanía diaria mediante la aplicación del test de Mann-Kendall. Finalmente, se presentan 12 cartas con la distribución espacial de la media mensual de la heliofanía diaria.The spatial coverage of land measurement networks cannot fulfill all the user's needs because their density is low; and this fact becomes more important in the case of solar radiation. The scarcity of global irradiation data is the reason for using sunshine hours in order to estimate them through different correlations which have shown a good fit with the measurements data. In order to draw charts with the spatial distribution of the sunshine-hours monthly averages (and from them, global solar radiation charts also on such a vast territory as South America, it is necessary to study the error

  15. Conservation status assessment of the amphibians and reptiles of Uruguay Evaluación del estado de conservación de los anfibios y reptiles del Uruguay

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    Andrés Canavero

    Full Text Available The native species of amphibians and reptiles of Uruguay were categorized according to the IUCN Red List criteria. Out of 47 amphibian species, seven are listed as Critically Endangered (CR, five as Endangered (EN, one as Vulnerable (VU, three as Near Threatened (NT, and two as Data Deficient (DD; the remaining species are considered to be Least Concern (LC. Among the 64 species of reptiles evaluated, one is listed as Critically Endangered (CR, seven as Endangered (EN, two as Vulnerable (VU, one as Near Threatened (NT and seven as Data Deficient (DD; the rest are considered to be Least Concern (LC. The use of these results as an additional criterion in the definition of protected areas in Uruguay will contribute towards the conservation of the aforementioned threatened species and their associated ecosystems.Las especies nativas de anfibios y reptiles de Uruguay fueron categorizadas de acuerdo a los criterios de la Lista Roja de UICN. De las 47 especies de anfibios, siete se encuentran En Peligro Crítico (CR, cinco En Peligro (EN, una Vulnerable (VU, tres Casi Amenazadas (NT, y dos con Datos Deficientes (DD; las especies restantes son consideradas como Preocupación Menor (LC. Entre las 64 especies de reptiles evaluados, una se encuentra en Peligro Crítico (CR, siete En Peligro (EN, dos como Vulnerables (VU, una Casi Amenazadas (NT y siete con Datos Deficientes (DD; las especies restantes son consideradas como Preocupación Menor (LC. El uso de estos resultados como un criterio adicional en la definición de áreas protegidas en Uruguay contribuirá hacia la conservación de dichas especies amenazadas y sus ecosistemas asociados.

  16. Historia de la gramatica espanola en America Uruguay. A proposito de Francisco Gamez Marin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zamorano Aguilar, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    ..., gramatica, Uruguay. *** LA CODIFICACION del espanol en America supone un reto y, a la vez, una fuente de investigacion muy importante para el historiador y para el historiografo de la linguistica, sobre todo, por la escasez de trabajos realizados, mas alla de los estudios de Sebeok (1968; especificamente, vol. IV), Rabanales (1978), Parodi (1981), Lope ...

  17. Exploring biophysical potential and sustainability of wheat cultivation in Uruguay at the national level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantel, S.; Engelen, van V.W.P.; Molfino, J.H.; Resink, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology is presented that explores soil survey information at the national level (1:1 M), generating sustainability indicators for wheat cultivation in Uruguay. Potential yields were calculated for simplified crop production situations under several constraints, such as limitation of water

  18. Mesoproterozoic evolution of the Rio de la Plata Craton in Uruguay: at the heart of Rodinia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaucher, Claudio; Frei, Robert; Chemale, Farid

    2011-01-01

    Mesoproterozoic volcanosedimentary units and tectonic events occurring in the Ri´o de la Plata Craton (RPC) are reviewed. A belt consisting of volcanosedimentary successions exhibiting greenschist-facies metamorphism is exposed in the eastern RPC (Nico Pe´rez Terrane) in Uruguay. The Parque UTE G...

  19. Practices to Reduce Milk Carbon Footprint on Grazing Dairy Farms in Southern Uruguay: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon footprint (CF) is an increasingly relevant indicator to estimate the impact of a product on climate change. This study followed international guidelines to quantify the CF of milk produced on 24 dairy farms in Uruguay. Cows were grazed all year and supplemented with concentrate feeds. These d...

  20. Mobbing in schools and hospitals in Uruguay : Prevalence and relation to loss of status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Franco, Silvia; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Zurriaga, Rosario

    2017-01-01

    In the present study in secondary schools and hospitals in Uruguay (N = 187), we examined the relationship between feeling the victim of mobbing and a perceived loss of status. Nearly all forms of mobbing were more prevalent among hospital employees than among school employees. Among hospital

  1. Women, feminism and social change in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, 1980-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimoar Dueñas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Asunción Lavrin. Women, feminism and social change in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, 1890-1940. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1995, 481 páginas. Tercer volúmen de la serie Engendering Latin America.

  2. Miscellaneous: Uruguay energy supply options study assessing the market for natural gas - executive summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-03-04

    Uruguay is in the midst of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system. Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions, including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country's membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay's energy supply system. The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries. The Government of Uruguay has contracted with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenarios with the support of several Uruguayan institutions. Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios.

  3. The "Tuteo" of Rocha, Uruguay: A Study of Pride and Language Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the tuteo in Rocha, Uruguay, a unique situation in a country that is mostly "voseante." The study draws on speakers' attitudes toward "tú" and "vos" in Rocha, taken from informal interviews and from a linguistic attitude survey. The survey was conducted with 58 informants, most of whom were…

  4. Validation of a self-administered FFQ in adults in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elorriaga, Natalia; Irazola, Vilma E; Defagó, María D; Britz, Mónica; Martínez-Oakley, Solange P; Witriw, Alicia M; Rubinstein, Adolfo L

    2015-01-01

    ... (Argentina, Chile and Uruguay) of a self-administered FFQ to be used in the CESCAS I Study, an ongoing observational prospective cohort study to detect and follow up CVD and their risk factors, as well as in other epidemiological studies...

  5. French Trade Policy During the GATT Uruguay Round: Between Domestic and International Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alons, G.C.

    2012-01-01

    During the GATT Uruguay Round (1986-1993) France was one of the most conservative European member states and succeeded in influencing European position taking on agricultural trade liberalization. France’s recalcitrant position is often considered an outcome of purely domestic political

  6. Quality of Life Satisfaction among Workers and Non-Workers in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandelman, Nestor; Piani, Giorgina

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use data from a population survey on quality of life dimensions conducted in Uruguay to analyze the self reported well-being among workers and non workers. Along with the literature, we find that the probability of being happy is greater for workers than non-workers. Specifically, we find evidence that workers tend to be more…

  7. Tributación del Sector Transporte de Carga en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Buonomo

    2004-01-01

    El objetivo general de este estudio es determinar la carga tributaria efectiva que incide sobre el transporte de cargas, en particular para los modos transporte terrestre (camión) y transporte aéreo, en la República Oriental del Uruguay.

  8. The great depression in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay : revisiting vulnerabilities and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerona Morales, Marcelo Esteban; Sosa Clavijo, Silvana Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis Marcelo Gerona and Silvana Sosa undertake an analysis of the Great Depression (1928-1934) in a sample of three highly interconnected South American countries: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay (ABU). The problem tackled in this work is the relative vulnerabilities of ABU, which

  9. Exploring options for sustainable development of vegetable farms in South Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogliotti Moro, S.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords:land use system, modeling, farming system, future-oriented studies, vegetables,

    The sustainable development of vegetable farms in South Uruguay requires the development of farming systems that contribute

  10. Farmers versus ideas: explaining the continuity in French agricultural trade policy during the GATT Uruguay Round

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alons, G.C.

    2014-01-01

    France's protectionist position regarding agricultural trade is often claimed to result from French farm lobby influence. This article challenges such established claims, based on an analysis of French decision-making on the agricultural chapter of the GATT Uruguay Round. Farm lobby pressure cannot

  11. LA LOCALIDAD HISTÓRICO ARQUEOLÓGICA DEL RÍO SAN SALVADOR (SORIANO, URUGUAY The historical archaeological town of Rio San Salvador (Soriano, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José López Mazz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los primeros cronistas de la conquista del Río de la Plata expusieron la diversidad cultural reinante en el área en el siglo XVI. Las investigaciones arqueológicas de los años 60 y 70 confirman, a nivel arqueológico, la intensa ocupación de la que fue objeto esta zona próxima a la confluencia del río Paraná con el río Uruguay. Este trabajo presenta información producida durante un trabajo de diagnóstico realizado en el marco de la llamada Arqueología Pública, en un sitio de ocupación española del siglo XVI ubicado al oriente de dicha confluencia. Los resultados muestran que la ocupación del sitio desde el año 1000 AP está caracterizada por una amplia diversidad de estilos cerámicos. El área constituyó un lugar estratégico para los asentamientos europeos en función de la presencia de redes de intercambio pre existente. La información producida permite afinar la secuencia cronológica prehistórica para el bajo río Uruguay, al tiempo que abre el debate  respecto de la dinámica etnohistórica regional y del rol jugado por este particular asentamiento humano.   Palabras claves: asentamientos europeos, Uruguay, río San Salvador, siglo XVI.    Abstract Early chroniclers of the conquest of the Río de la Plata exposed the cultural diversity prevailing in the area in the sixteenth century. Archaeological research during the 60’s and 70’s confirm an intense occupation of the confluence of the Paraná river and the Uruguay river area. This paper presents information recovered during a diagnostic fieldwork developed on a Spanish settlement from the sixteenth century. The results show an intense occupation of the site since 1000 AP, characterized by a wide variety of ceramic styles. The area was a strategic location for European occupation due to the presence of preexisting exchange networks. Information produced refines prehistoric chronological sequence for lower Uruguay river while opening the discussion about regional

  12. Epidemiological investigation of bovine tuberculosis outbreaks in Uruguay (2011-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picasso, Catalina; Alvarez, Julio; VanderWaal, Kimberly L; Fernandez, Federico; Gil, Andres; Wells, Scott J; Perez, Andres

    2017-03-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic disease of cattle caused by infection with the Mycobacterium bovis. While bTB prevalence in Uruguay has been low (<11 outbreaks/year) for the past 50 years as a consequence of a national control program, annual incidence increased in 2011 through 2013-15, 26 and 16 infected herds each year, raising concerns from livestock stakeholders and the government. The goal of this study was to assess the spatial dynamics of bTB in Uruguay from 2011 to 2013 and the association between bTB and potential demographic and movement risk factors at the herd level using data provided by the Uruguayan Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture, and Fisheries. Clustering of incident outbreaks was assessed using the Cuzick-Edwards' test and the Bernoulli model of the spatial scan statistic, and a conditional multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors associated with bTB in a subset of Uruguayan dairy farms. Significant (P<0.05) global clustering was detected in 2012, while high-risk local clusters were detected in southwestern (2011, 2012, 2013), northwestern (2012), and southeastern (2012) Uruguay. Increased risk of bTB in different regions of Uruguay suggests a potential role of animal movements in disease dissemination. Larger herds, higher numbers of animals purchased, and incoming steers to the farm were associated with increased odds of breaking with bTB, in agreement with previous studies but also suggesting other additional sources of risk. These results will contribute to enhanced effectiveness of bTB control programs in Uruguay with the ultimate objective of preventing or mitigating the impact of the disease in the human and animal populations of the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Competencias y entorno clinico de aprendizaje en enfermería: autopercepcion de estudiantes avanzados de Uruguay/Competencies and clinical learning environment in nursing: self perception of advanced students in Uruguay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    María Cecilia de-Souza-Cruz; María Isabel Mariscal-Crespo

    2016-01-01

    ... de Enfermería de la Universidad de la República and Universidad Católica del Uruguay. The data were collected during 2013 using two self-administered instruments, the Nurse Competence Scale (NCS...

  14. Competencias y entorno clinico de aprendizaje en enfermería: autopercepcion de estudiantes avanzados de Uruguay/Competencies and clinical learning environment in nursing: self perception of advanced students in Uruguay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    María Cecilia de-Souza-Cruz

    2016-01-01

    ... Enfermería de la Universidad de la República and Universidad Católica del Uruguay. The data were collected during 2013 using two self-administered instruments, the Nurse Competence Scale (NCS...

  15. Situacion de salud oral de ninos uruguayos portadores de coagulopatias hereditarias. Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell, Montevideo, Uruguay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Segovia, Adriana; Lewis, Willy; Rodriguez Grecco, Ismael; Boggia Tutaglio, Beatriz; Hermida Bruno, Maria Laura; Gabriel, Lucia; Alvarez Loureiro, Licet

    2011-01-01

    Proposito: describir la situacion de salud oral de los ninos portadores de coagulopatias atendidos en el Servicio de Hemoterapia del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell de Montevideo, Uruguay, entre febrero...

  16. A new species of Austrolebias Costa (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae from northeastern Uruguay, with comments on distribution patterns

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    Marcelo Loureiro

    Full Text Available A new species of Austrolebias is described based on individuals from the middle and upper río Negro (río Uruguay basin and río Yaguarón (Patos-Merín system. The new species can be differentiated from all other species of the genus by the unique presence in males of uniform bluish gray pigmentation on flanks (without vertical bands and unpaired fins. The new species is also distinguished by the combination of characters associated with a reduction of the squamation of the abdominal, preopercular, and opercular regions. The new species presents some morphological characteristics similar to A. gymnoventris and A. luteoflammulatus. The distribution of the new species is concordant with three other species of Austrolebias and may represent a case of drainage rearrangement of the río Negro upstream tributaries (río Uruguay basin and tributaries of laguna Merín system.

  17. La investigación y la enseñanza del periodismo en el Uruguay

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    Manuel Olarreaga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene actualidad e importancia, por ser Uruguay uno de los países de América Latina que aún no ha incorporado la Enseñanza Superior de las Ciencias de la Comunicación a nivel universitario. El autor hace un análisis de lo que hasta la presente fecha se ha realizado en el campo de la investigación de la comunicación colectiva y la enseñanza del periodismo en el Uruguay. Se describe las investigaciones efectuadas y la metodología empleada en cada una de ellas, lo que da una imagen cabal del desarrollo y esfuerzo por incorporar las disciplinas de la comunicación a la investigación y enseñanza universitarias.

  18. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE MOSS FLORA OF URUGUAY: THE GENUS POHLIA (BRYOPHYTA, BRYALES, A NEW RECORD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo M. Suárez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El género Pohlia se presenta como un nuevo registro para Uruguay, donde está representado por dos especies: P. wahlenbergii y P. humilis (=P. tenuifolia. Pohlia humilis también se registra por primera vez para Colombia. Se propone a P. loriformis, una especie poco conocida descrita para Bolivia, como un nuevo sinónimo de P. humilis. Se designan lectotipos para P. loriformis y Mielichhoferia brachycarpa. Se presenta una clave para las especies de Pohlia de Uruguay y se indican, para P. humilis, los sinónimos de América del Sur, comentarios breves, su distribución e ilustraciones.

  19. Culturas ciudadanas y partidos tradicionales: Argentina y Uruguay (1982-90

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    Susana MALLO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN:I .—En Argentina se da un rápido retorno a la democracia, democratización que no se consolida existiendo continuos desequilibrios económicos y políticos. La transición en Uruguay se diferencia considerablemente siendo mucho más lenta, pero logrando a largo plazo una consolidación mayor del sistema político democrático.2.—Argentina pese a todos sus vaivenes políticos a lo largo de su historia, logró reconstituir el sistema de partidos bipartidista (radicales y peronistas con una notoria ausencia de partidos de derecha y de izquierda. Uruguay en cambio tiene importantes transformaciones del sistema de partidos, pasando de un sistema bipartidista (blancos y colorados a uno multipartidario. Es notorio el crecimiento del peso relativo de los partidos de izquierda en el sistema político.3.—Las violaciones de los DD.HH. en Argentina llevaron al juzgamiento y condena de los culpables, siendo posteriormente amnistiados. Para el caso uruguayo se optó por una ley de amnistía general para los responsables de violaciones a los DD.HH., medida que fue plebiscitada a instancia de la sociedad civil. Se analizan las distintas repercusiones que tuvieron para la consolidación de los sistemas políticos.4.—Tanto en Uruguay como en Argentina se generalizaron procesos electorales de "voto castigo" y alta rotatividad entre los votantes de los partidos tradicionales. Pero mientras que en Argentina no se registra una pérdida relativa en el caudal electoral de los partidos tradicionales, en Uruguay la pérdida constante de votantes de los mismos en los últimos años es muy apreciable.ABSTRACT:1.—Although Argentina underwent a fast democratization process, consolidation was not achieved and waves and breaking kept appearing. Different from this case, the re-democratization process in Uruguay is much more slowly but could get a better consolidation in the long run.2.—Argentina presented continuous waves all along its political history

  20. Francisco Berra and the Posivist Education in Uruguay (1874-1882

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    Marcelo David Coll Cárdenas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The ideas of berra on education, that tended to make reign in the education a rigid naturalistic methodology, exerted their influence on the Argentine education, still before their performancein the scholastic government of the province of Buenos Aires. Through its documentary file it can know the river plate intellectual life in both borders, as well as the world strictly corresponding student and his pedagogical manifestations. In this work, we set out to study its performance in Uruguay between the years 1874 to 1882, whose election is not accidental. This period includes understands the beginning of its pedagogical activity in Uruguay, the elaboration of its main work ("The notes of pedagogia" and its participation in the pedagogical Congress of Buenos Aires in the heat of attack between liberal and clerical and the controversies untied by the advance of the positivismo.

  1. DIGITAL NARRATIVES AS MIGRATION HISTORICAL SOURCES: CASE STUDY ON ENGLISH-SPEAKING EXPATRIATES IN URUGUAY.

    OpenAIRE

    Bresciano, Juan Andrés; Universidad de la República, Uruguay

    2012-01-01

    En años recientes se ha incrementado la cifra de extranjeros en Uruguay. Algunos de ellos no responden al perfil tradicional del inmigrante, sino al del expatriado que, procedente del mundo desarrollado, se comporta como un nómade posmoderno. Dentro de ese complejo universo de extranjeros, los anglohablantes demuestran un notable dinamismo que se plasma en un espectro variado de registros. En este contexto, las narrativas digitales se constituyen en fuentes primarias para el estudio de la exp...

  2. More Time is Better : An Evaluation of the Full-time School Program in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdan-Infantes,Pedro; Vermeersch, Christel

    2007-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of the full-time school program in Uruguay on standardized test scores of 6th grade students. The program lengthened the school day from a half day to a full day, and provided additional inputs to schools to make this possible, such as additional teachers and construction of classrooms. The program was not randomly placed, but targeted poor urban schools. Us...

  3. More time is better : an evaluation of the fulltime school program in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdan-Infantes,Pedro; Vermeersch, Christel

    2007-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of the full-time school program in Uruguay on standardized test scores of 6th grade students. The program lengthened the school day from a half day to a full day, and provided additional inputs to schools to make this possible, such as additional teachers and construction of classrooms. The program was not randomly placed, but targeted poor urban schools. Using propensity score matching, the authors construct a comparable group of schools, and show that student...

  4. Phylodynamics of HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Forms 12_BF and 38_BF in Argentina and Uruguay

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    Mangano Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although HIV-1 CRF12_BF and CRF38_BF are two epidemiologically important recombinant lineages circulating in Argentina and Uruguay, little is known about their population dynamics. Methods A total of 120 "CRF12_BF-like" and 20 "CRF38_BF-like" pol recombinant sequences collected in Argentina and Uruguay from 1997 to 2009 were subjected to phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescent-based analyses to estimate evolutionary and demographic parameters. Results Phylogenetic analyses revealed that CRF12_BF viruses from Argentina and Uruguay constitute a single epidemic with multiple genetic exchanges among countries; whereas circulation of the CRF38_BF seems to be confined to Uruguay. The mean estimated substitution rate of CRF12_BF at pol gene (2.5 × 10-3 substitutions/site/year was similar to that previously described for subtype B. According to our estimates, CRF12_BF and CRF38_BF originated at 1983 (1978-1988 and 1986 (1981-1990, respectively. After their emergence, the CRF12_BF and CRF38_BF epidemics seem to have experienced a period of rapid expansion with initial growth rates of around 1.2 year-1 and 0.9 year-1, respectively. Later, the rate of spread of these CRFs_BF seems to have slowed down since the mid-1990s. Conclusions Our results suggest that CRF12_BF and CRF38_BF viruses were generated during the 1980s, shortly after the estimated introduction of subtype F1 in South America (~1975-1980. After an initial phase of fast exponential expansion, the rate of spread of both CRFs_BF epidemics seems to have slowed down, thereby following a demographic pattern that resembles those previously reported for the HIV-1 epidemics in Brazil, USA, and Western Europe.

  5. Hacia una Rehabilitación Psicosocial Integral en el Uruguay.

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    Mariana Villar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El artículo trata sobre la Rehabilitación Psicosocial para personas con trastorno mental severo en Uruguay. Se expone la concepción del modelo de Rehabilitación Psicosocial integral a nivel de política pública nacional. Se presentan datos sobre la situación actual de la atención en salud en este tipo de abordajes, así como perspectivas futuras.

  6. Political strike. Viability analysis in the legal system of the Republic of Uruguay

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    Eduardo Goldstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several motivations have led unionized workers to exercise this fundamental right recognized under Article 57 of the Constitution of the Republic of Uruguay. This right has been the subject doctrine discussions by legal scholars when strikes are considered atypical. In this paper, the viability of strikes when they are motivated by politics is discussed, as well as the response of the national legal system to this phenomenon.

  7. Two new species of Chaco Tullgren from the Atlantic coast of Uruguay (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae

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    Laura Montes de Oca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe two new species of the nemesiid spider genus Chaco from Rocha Province, Uruguay. These new species are diagnosed based on genital morphology, male tibial apophysis spination, and burrow entrance. We test cospecificity of one species, C. costai, via laboratory mating experiments. The new species are diagnosed and illustrated and habitat characteristics, and capture behavior are described. We conduct a cladistic analysis based on a previously published morphological character matrix that now includes the newly described species.

  8. Digenetic trematodes parasitic on Engraulis anchoita (Pisces: Engraulidae) from Argentina and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timi, J T; Martorelli, S R; Sardella, N H

    1999-01-01

    A total of 2,086 specimens of Engraulis anchoita Hubbs et Marini (Pisces: Engraulidae), from waters off Argentina and Uruguay were examined for parasitic digeneans. Four species of digeneans were found, Parahemiurus merus (Linton, 1910) (adult) in the stomach; Lecithochirium microstomum Chandler, 1935 (non-ovigerous and ovigerous juveniles) in the swimbladder; Cardiocephaloides sp. (metacercaria) in the eyes and Rhipidocotyle sp. (metacercaria) in the musculature. These four species are recorded for the first time as parasites of E. anchoita.

  9. Information skills in the National Reading Plan of Uruguay: Actions for social inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Ceretta,María Gladys

    2015-01-01

    It is described strategies that have been implemented to promote the development of information skills in the National Reading Plan of Uruguay that is under the responsability of the Ministry of Education and Culture, as a National Public Policy. They are aimed at vulnerable socio-economic contexts and help to the process of training reading promoters. We analyze and evaluate the experiences done with target populations that do not belong to the formal education area, especially those who are...

  10. Two new species of Chaco Tullgren from the Atlantic coast of Uruguay (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oca, Laura Montes; Pérez-Miles, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We describe two new species of the nemesiid spider genus Chaco from Rocha Province, Uruguay. These new species are diagnosed based on genital morphology, male tibial apophysis spination, and burrow entrance. We test cospecificity of one species, Chaco costai,via laboratory mating experiments. The new species are diagnosed and illustrated and habitat characteristics, and capture behavior are described. We conduct a cladistic analysis based on a previously published morphological character matrix that now includes the newly described species. PMID:24146579

  11. Labor Informality and the Incentive Effects of Social Security: Evidence from a Health Reform in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Bérgolo; Guillermo Cruces

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the incentive effects of social security benefits on labor market informality following a policy reform in Uruguay. The reform extended health benefits to dependent children of private sector salaried workers, and thus altered the incentive structure of holding formal jobs within the household. The identification strategy of the reform¿s effects relies on a comparison between workers with children (affected by the reform) and those without children (unaffected by the reform...

  12. Latin American special project: kidney health cooperation project between Uruguay and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Laura; Plata-Cornejo, Raúl; Fernández-Cean, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Uruguay and Bolivia are two countries that show heterogenicity of the Latin American region, including the national income, the expenditure on health and the services for renal care. In Bolivia, there is manpower shortage for renal care with only 5 nephrologists per million people (pmp) and the prevalence of patients on dialysis is only 200 pmp. This is much lower than the mean prevalence rate of renal replacement therapy for Latin America as a whole. Uruguay on the other hand has more dedicated renal resources with 50 nephrologists pmp, and renal replacement therapy is provided to ~ 1,000 dialysis patients pmp. In November 2012, a collaborative project financed by the Uruguayan International Cooperation Agency was signed by both the Uruguay and Bolivia Ministries of Health, and the goal was to develop a comprehensive program for the prevention and management of all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Bolivia. The specific objectives were to: a) promote renal healthcare in the primary healthcare setting, b) identify kidney disease in populations at risk, and c) optimize patient care at all stages of CKD, including dialysis and transplantation supported with a national ESRD registry in Bolivia. As a first step, delegates from the Bolivian Health Ministry, visited Uruguay in April 2014, primarily to strengthen the development of tools required for developing and maintaining a national registry. In addition, during this visit, a meeting with the president of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) culminated in designing a training program for peritoneal dialysis. This highly cooperative relationship is advancing the prevention and care of CKD in Bolivia and may serve as a model for international approaches to advance system level CKD care in countries with limited healthcare resources.

  13. A new genus and species of opisthogonimid (Digenea) of Liophis anomalus (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonterio, Odile; Baletta, Silvana; Meneghel, Melitta

    2006-10-01

    During a study on the helminth fauna of Liophis anomalus specimens deposited in the Reptile Collection of the Secci6n Zoología Vertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias, Uruguay, a new genus of Opisthogoniminae was found. Paracotyletrema n. gen. is described from the buccal cavity and esophagus of specimens from Departamento de Flores, Uruguay. This new genus differs from the other 2 Opisthogoniminae, Opisthogonimus and Westella, by having much smaller body size; maximum width at level of posterior end of oral sucker; oral sucker length more than one-fourth of body length; oral sucker and acetabulum separated by a distance of about the diameter of pharynx; cirrus pouch length more than half of body length; and testes in completely coincident zones. The type and only species, Paracotyletrema poncedeleoni n. gen., n. sp., is defined by the following diagnostic characters: mean oral sucker length one-third to one-half of body length; cirrus pouch of about body length, contorted, mainly acetabular; large, round testes in nearly adjacent fields, and an ovary nearly adjacent to right testis. Besides the type locality, Paracotyletrema poncedeleoni has been found in L. anomalus specimens from the Departamentos of Artigas and Treinta y Tres; therefore, it has a widespread distribution in Uruguay.

  14. Brief Counseling on Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Pregnant Women in Argentina and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Alicia; Morello, Paola; Colomar, Mercedes; Llambi, Laura; Berrueta, Mabel; Gibbons, Luz; Buekens, Pierre; Althabe, Fernando

    2016-12-29

    Argentina and Uruguay have a high prevalence of smoking during pregnancy, as well as of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. In this secondary analysis of a trial to implement brief smoking cessation counseling during antenatal care in Argentina and Uruguay, we aim to evaluate the effects of the intervention on the rates of self-reported SHS exposure at home and at work, and on attitudes recalled by non-smoker women enrolled in the intervention group compared with the control group. We randomly assigned (1:1) 20 antenatal care clusters in Argentina and Uruguay to receive a multifaceted intervention to implement brief smoking cessation counseling, which also included questions and counseling regarding SHS exposure, or to receive the standard of care. There was not a statistically significant difference between groups of the intervention's effect (reduction of exposure to SHS) on any of the three exposure outcome measures (exposure at home, work or other indoor areas) or on the attitudes of women regarding exposure (avoiding breathing SHS and having rooms where smoking is forbidden). This analysis shows that we should not expect reductions in SHS exposure with this modest intervention alone. To achieve such reductions, strategies engaging partners and other household members may be more effective.

  15. Defending strong tobacco packaging and labelling regulations in Uruguay: transnational tobacco control network versus Philip Morris International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Sosa, Particia; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-03-23

    Describe the process of enacting and defending strong tobacco packaging and labelling regulations in Uruguay amid Philip Morris International's (PMI) legal threats and challenges. Triangulated government legislation, news sources and interviews with policy-makers and health advocates in Uruguay. In 2008 and 2009, the Uruguayan government enacted at the time the world's largest pictorial health warning labels (80% of front and back of package) and prohibited different packaging or presentations for cigarettes sold under a given brand. PMI threatened to sue Uruguay in international courts if these policies were implemented. The Vazquez administration maintained the regulations, but a week prior to President Vazquez's successor, President Mujica, took office on 1 March 2010 PMI announced its intention to file an investment arbitration dispute against Uruguay in the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes. Initially, the Mujica administration announced it would weaken the regulations to avoid litigation. In response, local public health groups in Uruguay enlisted former President Vazquez and international health groups and served as brokers to develop a collaboration with the Mujica administration to defend the regulations. This united front between the Uruguayan government and the transnational tobacco control network paid off when Uruguay defeated PMI's investment dispute in July 2016. To replicate Uruguay's success, other countries need to recognise that strong political support, an actively engaged local civil society and financial and technical support are important factors in overcoming tobacco industry's legal threats to defend strong public health regulations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Assessing the impact of cigarette package health warning labels: a cross-country comparison in Brazil, Uruguay, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Villalobos, Victor; Szklo, André; Fong, Geoffrey T; Pérez, Cristina; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansone, Natalie; Figueiredo, Valeska; Boado, Marcelo; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of different health warning labels (HWL). Material and Methods Data from the International Tobacco Control Survey (ITC Survey) were analyzed from adult smokers in Brazil, Uruguay and Mexico, each of which used a different HWL strategy (pictures of human suffering and diseased organs; abstract pictorial representations of risk; and text-only messages, respectively). Main outcomes were HWL salience and cognitive impact. Results HWLs in Uruguay (which was the only country with a HWL on the front of the package) had higher salience than either Brazilian or Mexican packs. People at higher levels of educational attainment in Mexico were more likely to read the text-only HWLs whereas education was unassociated with salience in Brazil or Uruguay. Brazilian HWLs had greater cognitive impacts than HWLs in either Uruguay or Mexico. HWLs in Uruguay generated lower cognitive impacts than the text-only HWLs in Mexico. In Brazil, cognitive impacts were strongest among smokers with low educational attainment. Conclusions This study suggests that HWLs have the most impact when they are prominent (i.e., front and back of the package) and include emotionally engaging imagery that illustrates negative bodily impacts or human suffering due to smoking. PMID:21243191

  17. Hippidioll sp. (Mammalia, Perissodactyla. Equidae en sedimentos del Pleistoceno superior del Uruguay (Edad Mamífero Lujanense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberdi, M. T.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The most complete remains of Hippidion sp. to the Pleistocene of Uruguay are described. They agree with a robust form with fore limbs relatively short to the large skull. Cranial, mandibles and postcranial characters are analized and compared with respect to others «hippidiformes» of South America. The depositional environment belong to floodplain facies of meandering fluvial systems.Se describen los restos más completos de Hippidion sp. reportados hasta el momento para el Pleistoceno de Uruguay. Corresponden a una forma robusta con extremidades anteriores relativamente cortas respecto del cráneo grande. Se analizan sus caracteres cráneo-mandibulares y postcraneales comparados con otros «hippidiformes» de Sudamérica. El marco sedimentario corresponde a una planicie de inundación de un sistema fluvial meandriforme de la Fm. Sopas (Pleistoceno superior; Edad mamífero Lujanense del Uruguay.

  18. Detección de cepas de Neisseria meningitidis resistentes a rifampicina en el Uruguay Detection of rifampicin-resistant strains of Neisseria meningitidis in Uruguay

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    Gabriel Pérez Giffoni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar fenotípica y genotípicamente dos aislamientos de Neisseria meningitidis resistentes a rifampicina relacionados con dos eventos independientes de transmisión de enfermedad meningocócica grave que se presentaron en septiembre y octubre de 2010 en Montevideo, Uruguay. Se revisó también la base de datos de la vigilancia nacional de resistencia a los antimicrobianos de los últimos 10 años, para estimar la frecuencia de la particularidad de los meningococos caracterizados. La resistencia a rifampicina se estudió por el método epsilométrico. El serotipo y serosubtipo de los aislamientos se determinaron por ELISA y la caracterización genotípica se realizó por digestión del ADN con NheI y electroforesis en gel con campo pulsátil. Ambos aislamientos eran idénticos, B:2a:P1.5, y su fenotipo no figuraba en la colección de 408 cepas de N. meningitidis aisladas en el Uruguay en los últimos 10 años, con la excepción de dos aislamientos sensibles a rifampicina. Los dos aislamientos estudiados también compartían un pulsotipo único, diferente del de otros dos aislamientos resistentes a rifampicina obtenidos en 2003 y 2007. Por lo tanto, ambos eventos de transmisión fueron causados por una única cepa resistente a rifampicina, que podría haberse introducido al país desde otras regiones o haberse originado por un cambio del serogrupo C al B, como producto de la presión selectiva ejercida por vacunas administradas a la población. Es necesario mantener y extremar la vigilancia. No obstante, en vista de que hasta el momento este tipo de hallazgo ha sido esporádico, no se justifica cambiar el fármaco antimicrobiano que se administra a los contactos para la profilaxis, a menos que se identifique un caso secundario.The objective of this study was to characterize the phenotype and genotype of two isolates of rifampicin-resistant Neisseria meningitidis associated with two independent events

  19. El Poder Simbólico de las Gremiales Ganaderos en el Uruguay Contemporáneo The simbolic power of cattle raisers' associations in contemporary Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Riella

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se buscará estudiar el amplio poder de influencia que los grandes estancieros y sus gremiales logran mantener desde hace más de un siglo en el Uruguay. Mediante el análisis de la dimensión simbólica del mundo social agrario estudiaremos las prácticas discursivas de las Gremiales Ganaderas - Asociación Rural del Uruguay y Federación Rural - como parte central de su estrategia simbólica para mantener su hegemonía en el campo social agrario. En este sentido, creemos que la construcción social del territorio en nuestro país se asienta en la forma de percepción impuesta por el poder simbólico de este grupo que ha hecho de sus formas particulares de apropiación y uso de la tierra la única forma posible y legítima de utilización de los recursos naturales. Para el análisis de las prácticas discursivas partimos del supuesto de que las organizaciones sociales, gremiales y corporativas están siempre inmersas en luchas simbólicas, ya que en ellas está en juego la realización objetiva de sus intereses a largo plazo. Utilizando los términos de Merton, podríamos afirmar que, más allá de la función manifiesta de una organización - gremial, comercial, profesional -, siempre hay una función latente que procura imponer a sus adversarios y a la opinión pública la "visión del mundo" propia del grupo que representa. En consecuencia, en las prácticas discursivas de estos agentes podremos encontrar claramente expresado su poder, sus alianzas, sus conflictos, lo que nos permite acceder a la comprensión de su estrategia simbólica de reproducción social.This article will try to study the broad influence and power maintained by large landowners and their associations since over a century ago in Uruguay. Based on the analysis of the symbolic dimensions of the agrarian world, we will study discursive practices of Cattle Owners Associations - Asociación Rural del Uruguay and Federación Rural - as a core part of their

  20. Report of the procedure of voluntary interruption of pregnancy at a university hospital in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentancor, Ana; Hernández, Ana Laura; Godoy, Yamile; Dapueto, Juan J

    2016-07-04

    To describe the constitution and operation of a voluntary interruption of pregnancy team of a university hospital, from the outlook of the mental health team. In this case study, the following aspects were analyzed: 1) historical background; 2) implementation of Law 18,897 of October 22, 2012; and 3) functioning of the program at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Facultad de Medicina (Universidad de la República, Uruguay), taking into account three dimensions: structure, process, and results. Between December 2012 and November 2013, a total of 6,676 voluntary interruptions of pregnancy were reported in Uruguay; out of these, 80 were conducted at the Hospital de Clínicas. The patients' demographic data agreed with those reported at the national level: Of the total patients, 81.0% were aged over 19 years; 6.2% decided to continue with the pregnancy; and only 70.0% attended the subsequent control and received advice on contraception. In its implementation year in Uruguay, we can assess the experience as positive from the point of view of women's health. Our experience as a mental health team at the Hospital de Clínicas, inserted into the multidisciplinary voluntary interruption of pregnancy team, is in the process of assessment and reformulation of practices. Describir la conformación y funcionamiento de un equipo de interrupción voluntaria del embarazo de un hospital universitario, desde la mirada del equipo de salud mental. En este estudio de caso, se analizan los siguientes aspectos: 1) antecedentes históricos; 2) implementación de la Ley 18.897 de 22 de octubre de 2012; y 3) funcionamiento del programa en el Hospital de Clínicas de la Facultad de Medicina (Universidad de la República, Uruguay), teniendo en cuenta tres dimensiones (estructura, proceso y resultados). Entre diciembre de 2012 y noviembre de 2013, se reportaron en Uruguay un total de 6.676 interrupciones voluntarias del embarazo; de ellas, 80 se llevaron a cabo en el Hospital de Clínicas. Los

  1. Mecanismos de determinación del salario en la actividad privada en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Babace

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I. Introducción. II. Reseña histórica de los sistemas de reglamentación y de determinación del salario en Uruguay. III. Descripción y análisis del actual sistema de determinación de salarios en la actividad privada en Uruguay. Análisis de la ley Nº 18.566 sobre negociación colectiva. 1. La negociación colectiva y la determinación de salarios. a. Características del sistema de relaciones laborales de Uruguay. b. Procedimientos para el establecimiento de condiciones de trabajo y para la determinación de salarios mínimos. b1. Determinación de salarios por negociación colectiva. b2. Determinación de salarios en Consejos de Salarios. b3. Preferencia por la negociación colectiva sobre los Consejos de Salarios para la determinación de salarios mínimos. 3. Los nuevos Consejos de Salarios. 4 El Consejo Superior Tripartito. 5. Otras cuestiones expresamente reguladas. 6. Los niveles de negociación y su articulación. 6. Prevención y solución de conflictos. La determinación del salario constituye un tema central en la protección de la justa remuneración y especialmente contribuyen al referido propósito, los mecanismos que se instrumenten para establecer los salarios mínimos.

  2. El desarrollo profesional médico continuo en el Uruguay de cara al siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larre Borges Uruguay

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the evolution of the concept of continuing medical professional development in Uruguay, as that professional development has progressed from independent and varied efforts that were not coordinated or evaluated to a plan that is aimed at improving the quality of educational activities and programs and making them accessible to all the physicians in the country. In contrast to countries where scientific societies and medical associations preside over continuing professional development, in Uruguay the Graduate School of the School of Medicine of the University of the Republic has taken on managing and developing this process. The key objective of this process is for the Graduate School to work in conjunction with other leading players in professional development to create a national system of continuing medical professional development. This system should be interinstitutional and include both public and private entities. By having the key public institutions (the Graduate School and the Ministry of Public Health working with private entities (medical associations, scientific societies, and health care institutions, there should be an adequate balance of interests. The national professional development system should work in the most decentralized manner possible and should be based on a network of units distributed around the entire country, but with centralized coordination. The system's interinstitutional character should ensure high technical and ethical standards as well as a balance among the governmental, commercial, professional, and university components. This system should serve as the basis for extending this activity to all health personnel in Uruguay. While the national system is still being finalized, the Graduate School has implemented a process of accrediting institutions that are involved in continuing professional medical development. The aim of this accreditation process is to improve the educational

  3. Provenance and paleogeography of the Devonian Durazno Group, southern Parana Basin in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriz, N. J.; Cingolani, C. A.; Basei, M. A. S.; Blanco, G.; Abre, P.; Portillo, N. S.; Siccardi, A.

    2016-03-01

    A succession of Devonian cover rocks occurs in outcrop and in the subsurface of central-northern Uruguay where they were deposited in an intracratonic basin. This Durazno Group comprises three distinct stratigraphic units, namely the Cerrezuelo, Cordobés and La Paloma formations. The Durazno Group does not exceed 300 m of average thickness and preserves a transgressive-regressive cycle within a shallow-marine siliciclastic shelf platform, and is characterized by an assemblage of invertebrate fossils of Malvinokaffric affinity especially within the Lower Devonian Cordobés shales. The sedimentary provenance of the Durazno Group was determined using petrography, geochemistry, and morphological studies of detrital zircons as well as their U-Pb ages. Sandstone petrography of Cerrezuelo and La Paloma sequences shows that they have a dominantly quartz-feldspathic composition with a minor contribution of other minerals. Whole-rock geochemical data indicate that alteration was strong in each of the three formations studied; chondritic-normalized REE patterns essentially parallel to PAAS, the presence of a negative Eu-anomaly, and Th/Sc and La/Hf ratios point to an average source composition similar to UCC or slightly more felsic. Within the Cerrezuelo Formation, recycling of older volcano-metasedimentary sources is interpreted from Zr/Sc ratios and high Hf, Zr, and REE concentrations. U-Pb detrital zircon age populations of the Cerrezuelo and La Paloma formations indicate that the principal source terranes are of Neoproterozoic age, but include also minor populations derived from Mesoproterozoic and Archean-Paleoproterozoic rocks. A provenance from the Cuchilla Dionisio-Dom Feliciano, Nico Pérez and Piedra Alta terranes of Uruguay and southern Brazil is likely. This study establishes an intracratonic extensional tectonic setting during Durazno time. Considering provenance age sources, regional paleocurrent distributions and the established orogenic history recorded in SW

  4. First approach to exhaust emissions characterization of light vehicles in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Mauro; González, Alice Elizabeth; Rezzano Tizze, Nicolás

    2017-11-02

    According to Act No. 17283 of November 28th, 2000, air quality protection is a general concern in Uruguay. Road transport is the main emitter of nitrogen oxides (NOx), as the National Inventory of Air Emissions 2006 stated. Actually, it is responsible for the emissions of 59.8% of NOx and 28% of carbon monoxide (CO). The number of households owning a car in Uruguay increased from 29% in 2005 to 39% in 2013, enhancing the importance of characterizing the vehicular emissions of the national fleet. In this paper, a first approach for this characterization is presented. It was carried out on a sample of 11 light vehicles currently in use in Montevideo city, Uruguay. On-road emissions measurements of nitrogen monoxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were carried out for calculating the emission factors. The fitness of the set of calculated emission factors values to different probability distributions was tested. When possible, the 95% confidence intervals were obtained for the mean emission factors (CO: 2.0g/km±0.3g/km; NO: 0.05g/km±0.01g/km). This procedure was useful to obtaining accurate confidence intervals from a relatively small sample size. Finally, the link between atmospheric emissions and some other parameters of the tested vehicles was studied using a multivariate statistical tool, highlighting the strong increase in carbon monoxide emissions observed for low vehicles speeds and fuel efficiencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Les disparus politiques en Uruguay, entre l’histoire et la mémoire

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    Eugenia Allier Montaño

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Depuis un certain temps, les discussions sur les passés récents et violents, connus lors des années 1960-1980, sont l’un des enjeux majeurs des espaces publics dans plusieurs pays de l’Amérique du Sud. L’Uruguay, ayant vécu un régime civique militaire fortement répressif entre 1973 et 1985, n’a pas été l’exception. Pourtant, bien que les mémoires publiques sur ce passé aient traversé différentes périodes, c’est la disparition des personnes qui conduit presque toute l’histoire des luttes autour de la mémoire du pays. Dans ce texte, nous nous attelons à tracer l’histoire de la mémoire des disparus politiques dans l’arène publique en Uruguay pour connaître les motifs qu’ont faits des disparus de l’image du passé récent.Discussions on violence during the years 1960-1980 in South America have for some time been a central issue in the public space of many South American countries. Uruguay, having gone through a strongly repressive civic-military regime between 1973 and 1985, was no exception. While public memories on this period have gone through different phases, the forced disappearances have always been the main focus of the struggles for memory. This article attempts to trace the history of the remembering of these victims of forced disappearance in the Uruguayan public arena in order to determine memory patterns in the image of a recent past.

  6. El Poder Simbólico de las Gremiales Ganaderos en el Uruguay Contemporáneo

    OpenAIRE

    Riella,Alberto; Andrioli,Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    En este artículo se buscará estudiar el amplio poder de influencia que los grandes estancieros y sus gremiales logran mantener desde hace más de un siglo en el Uruguay. Mediante el análisis de la dimensión simbólica del mundo social agrario estudiaremos las prácticas discursivas de las Gremiales Ganaderas - Asociación Rural del Uruguay y Federación Rural - como parte central de su estrategia simbólica para mantener su hegemonía en el campo social agrario. En este sentido, creemos que la const...

  7. Mortalidad infantil en uruguay: un análisis de supervivencia

    OpenAIRE

    Jewell R. Todd; Triunfo Patricia

    2010-01-01

    A partir de todos los nacimientos ocurridos en el Uruguay entre 2002 y 2003 y las defunciones ocurridas en el primer año de vida, se estima la tasa de mortalidad infantil a través de modelos probit y hazard. Debido a que las muertes se concentran en los primeros días y semanas de vida, el modelo hazard es preferible al probit, encontrándose que la estimación probit sobreestima los efectos de las covariables. Los resultados muestran que las variables más importantes so...

  8. Estudio observacional sobre presencia y caracterización de hematomas en carcasas vacunas de Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Crosi, Gonzalo; Prado, Martín; Huertas, Stella; Imelio, Juan; Piaggio, José; Gil, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar y caracterizar los hematomas presentes en vacunos faenados en las plantas frigoríficas de Uruguay, habilitadas para exportación. Comparar datos obtenidos con investigaciones anteriores a nivel nacional. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio observacional de las carcasas bovinas luego de la faena, con el fin de evaluar la presencia de hematomas, teniendo en cuenta su localización, área, forma y profundidad. A su vez, se recabó información sobre el sexo y categoría de las tropas ...

  9. La reforma del proceso laboral en Uruguay. El regreso al proceso laboral autónomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Fernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reform of the labor process in Uruguay. The return to the autonomous labor processThe reform of the Uruguayan labor process and the return to an autonomous legal regime represent a radical and fundamental change in the national legislation. The simplicity of new procedural structures governed by principles and owns norms of labor discipline give the new regime a dogmatic autonomous space lost for many years. The procedural labor reform is built on the adjectival character of its nature prioritizing the substantive law and adjusting the procedural rule to its characteristics. The principles of Labor Law (substantive and procedural are the foundation of the new regime

  10. Argentina – Uruguay: Guerra mediática por las papeleras

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    Esteban Landau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo se intenta dilucidar qué rol cumplieron los principales diarios argentinos y uruguayos durante los meses de cobertura del conflicto por la siembra de eucaliptos para convertir la madera en celulosa. Relata la historia del conflicto entre Uruguay y Argentina donde se evidencia que frente a un mismo hecho hubo distintas miradas, la elección de las palabras fueron claves para editorializar, la jerarquización de la noticia, fue uno de los mecanismos de expresión de la opinión de los medios sobre el tema.

  11. Definition of a proper institutional and legal framweork to promote energy efficiency in Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Alfonso; Juarez, Maria

    2010-09-15

    There is no lower cost energy source than the avoided energy from unnecessary consumption either more expensive energy than scarce energy resources in a growing economy. Under this concept energy efficiency has been established as one of the main pillars of energy policy in Uruguay since 2005. A recently approved Law provides 4-axis of action to promote energy efficiency: building of institutional structure and long-term framework necessary for nationwide development, ensuring consumers access to adequate information, facilitating the access to finance and economic resources to encourage energy efficiency projects and, removing tax and administrative barriers to energy efficiency.

  12. CUIDAR EN LA VEJEZ: DESIGUALDADES DE GÉNERO EN URUGUAY

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Aguirre Cuns; Sol Scavino Solari

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo tiene como objetivo contribuir al desarrollo de una perspectiva latinoamericana de vejez y género y aportar conocimientos en torno a los cuidados en la vejez en Uruguay. Desde una perspectiva feminista del cuidado, realiza una breve reflexión sobre la construcción social de la vejez, el género y su vínculo con el cuidado. A partir de información empírica reciente, cuya fuente es la Encuesta de Uso del Tiempo 2013, se da cuenta de las desigualdades d...

  13. Cuidar y ser cuidado en la vejez: desigualdades de género en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Aguirre Cuns; Sol Scavino Solari

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo tiene como objetivo contribuir al desarrollo de una perspectiva latinoamericana de vejez y género y aportar conocimientos en torno a los cuidados en la vejez en Uruguay. Desde una perspectiva feminista del cuidado, realiza una breve reflexión sobre la construcción social de la vejez, el género y su vínculo con el cuidado. A partir de información empírica reciente, cuya fuente es la Encuesta de Uso del Tiempo 2013, se da cuenta de las desigualdades de género en la provisión de cu...

  14. The phantasmatic indian is recruited in the city. Neoshamanism, its origins and its arrival in Uruguay

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    Ismael Apud

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will analyze in first place how neoshamanic practices arise. We will see how the academic formulation of shamanic phenomena affects the emergency of neo-shamanism, and how their historical emergence is related to the counter-cultural movements of the sixties, and later with other movements related to New Age and Posmodernity. Last we will address the phenomenon in Uruguay, giving a short description of one of the groups identified the center of alternative therapies Ayariri, related to the Amazon vegetalista tradition.

  15. State of Law, Governmentality and Democracy in Uruguay: the present and perspectives

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    Carlos Moreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the functioning of democracy in Uruguay in three stages. In the first, briefly discusses some of the central issues of contemporary debate about the quality of democracy, while the second presents the first findings from an ongoing investigation into the situation of rule of law around five dimensions: public policy and security, judicial administrative, institutional and administrative capacity, transparency and civilian control over security forces. Finally, by way of conclusions, we provide a series of reflections on risk areas of rule of law in Uruguayan democracy.

  16. Brasil y Uruguay : dos procesos de independencia íntimamente relacionados

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Gómez, Julio

    2009-01-01

    Íntimamente relacionados y destacadamente anómalos en relación con los demás de la América ibérica. Brasil fue el único estado en adoptar a largo plazo la forma monárquica de gobierno, el único en el que la esclavitud fue el centro de su sistema productivo y el único que no se rompió en pedazos y consiguió, a duras penas, mantener la unidad territorial de todo el conjunto colonial. El de Uruguay fue el proceso más largo, complicado y zigzagueante de entre todos los ocurridos en territorios se...

  17. FY04 Inspection Results for Wet Uruguay Fuel in L-Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VORMELKER, PHILIP

    2005-09-01

    The 2004 visual inspection of four Uruguay nuclear fuel assemblies stored in L-Basin was completed. This was the third inspection of this wet stored fuel since its arrival in the summer of 1998. Visual inspection photographs of the fuel from the previous and the recent inspections were compared and no evidence of significant corrosion was found on the individual fuel plate photographs. Fuel plates that showed areas of pitting in the cladding during the original receipt inspection were also identified during the 2004 inspection. However, a few pits were found on the non-fuel aluminum clamping plates that were not visible during the original and 2001 inspections.

  18. Uruguay: a la espera del beso del príncipe

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    Enrique Roldós

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En Uruguay, la concentración de los medios llega a una situación extrema: la televisión abierta es dueña también del cable, como antes lo era de ls radios de mayor audiencia. El poder del oligopolio condiciona ahora al estrato político que favoreció su crecimiento; desde su posición de fuerza la televisión uruguaya "pone en su lugar al gobierno". Sin embargo, para algunos, este podría ser su último éxito

  19. Política pública de turismo en Uruguay (1986-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Quintana

    2016-01-01

    En el presente artículo se describe y analiza la evolución de la política pública de turismo en Uruguay de los últimos veinticinco años, desde la creación del Ministerio de Turismo en 1986 hasta el 2010. Se describen los diferentes instrumentos de la política pública de turismo utilizados en cada período de gobierno y se analizan las funciones que asumió el estado en el contexto del turismo. Finalmente se procede a una periodización de su evolución, establec...

  20. Elecciones 94 y coalición de Gobierno en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Mancebo, María Esther

    1996-01-01

    RESUMEN: Este artículo ofrece un análisis de los resultados de las elecciones generales realizadas en Uruguay en noviembre de 1994 y una perspectiva de los primeros meses del nuevo gobierno. En el primer aspecto se señala la configuración de un espectro de tres agrupaciones políticas: el Partido Colorado, el Nacional y el Encuentro Progresista que reúnen aproximadamente un tercio del electorado. En este contexto se analiza el fortalecimiento de los partidos de izquierda. También se estudia el...

  1. Actitudes lingüísticas en Uruguay. Tensiones entre la variedad y la identidad

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth García de los Santos

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de los hablantes nativos de español de la ciudad de Montevideo hacia al español de Uruguay y el de los otros países hispanohablantes. El artículo es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America), financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigaciones (RCN). La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando a una muest...

  2. Information skills in the National Reading Plan of Uruguay: Actions for social inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Ceretta,María Gladys

    2015-01-01

    Se describen las estrategias que se vienen implementando para promover el desarrollo de las competencias en información en el marco del Plan Nacional de Lectura de Uruguay que lleva adelante el Ministerio de Educación y Cultura, como política pública de alcance nacional. Las mismas están orientadas a contextos socio-económicos vulnerables y acompañan los procesos de formación de promotores y animadores de lectura. Se analizan y evalúan las experiencias llevadas cabo con poblaciones objetivo q...

  3. Determinación de carbono activo en suelos bajo diferentes situaciones productivas en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Gilsanz, Juan Carlos; Peralta, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    La materia orgánica del suelo es el indicador principal de la calidad de un suelo. La mayor parte de las producciones intensivas presentan valores de materia orgánica limitantes para la producción en Uruguay. Durante el año 2008-2009 se evaluaron muestras provenientes de 4 situaciones productivas con distintos suelos. El objetivo fue la determinación de carbono activo en diferentes situaciones productivas con diferentes manejos de suelo, a través de la oxidación del permanganato de potasio en...

  4. Indicadores de sustentabilidad para las cadenas de bioenergía en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Chiappe, Marta; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Primo, Patricia; Arbeletche, Pedro; Daniluk, Gustavo; Morás, Guillermo; Siri Prieto, Guillermo; Picasso, Valentín

    2015-01-01

    Un objetivo de la Agroecología es brindar información relevante para la toma de decisiones a nivel predial y nacional para la generación de políticas públicas. En Uruguay, el Ministerio de Industria, Energía y Minería está considerando promover la producción de energía alternativa a partir de biomasa de diferentes fuentes. Los indicadores de sostenibilidad definidos por GBEP (Global Bioenergy Partnership) para las cadenas de producción de bioenergía pueden ser una herramienta útil para fortal...

  5. Tentativa e ideación de suicidio en adultos mayores en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    María Cristina Heuguerot Fachola; Rossana Lucero; Viviana Porto; Elizabeth Díaz; María de los Angeles París

    2015-01-01

    Se presenta una investigación sobre Intentos de Suicidio en Adultos Mayores en Uruguay realizada en una institución de Salud Pública de Montevideo en 2014 vinculada a un proyecto de Claves/Fiocruz. A partir de un proyecto inicial se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a sujetos institucionalizados con historias de Intentos de Autoeliminación, una revisión bibliográfica, búsqueda de normativas y acciones preventivas de las autoridades de salud públi...

  6. Non-alcoholic beverages and risk of bladder cancer in Uruguay

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    Acosta Giselle

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bladder cancer is the fourth most frequent malignancy among Uruguayan men. A previous study from Uruguay suggested a high risk of bladder cancer associated with maté drinking. We conducted an additional case-control study in order to further explore the role of non-alcoholic beverages in bladder carcinogenesis. Methods In the time period 1996–2000, 255 incident cases with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and 501 patients treated in the same hospitals and in the same time period were frequency matched on age, sex, and residence. Both cases and controls were face-to-face interviewed on occupation, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and intake of maté, coffee, tea, and soft drinks. Statistical analysis was carried out by unconditional multiple logistic regression. Results Ever maté drinking was positively associated with bladder cancer (odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–3.9 and the risk increased for increasing duration and amount of maté drinking. Both coffee and tea were strongly associated with bladder cancer risk (OR for coffee drinking 1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.3; OR for tea drinking 2.3, 95% CI 1.5–3.4. These results were confirmed in a separate analysis of never-smokers. Conclusion Our results suggest that drinking of maté, coffee and tea may be risk factors for bladder carcinoma in Uruguay.

  7. Influence of sociodemographic characteristics on different dimensions of household food insecurity in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Máximo; Ferre, Zuleika; Curutchet, María Rosa; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2017-03-01

    To determine the factor structure of the Latin American & Caribbean Household Food Security Scale (ELCSA) and to study the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on each of the identified dimensions in Montevideo, Uruguay. Cross-sectional survey with a representative sample of urban households. Household food insecurity was measured using the ELCSA. The percentage of respondents who gave affirmative responses for each of the items of the ELCSA was determined. Exploratory factor analysis was carried out to determine the ELCSA's factor structure. A probit model was used to determine the impact of some individual and household sociodemographic characteristics on the identified dimensions of food insecurity. Metropolitan area centred on Montevideo, the capital city of Uruguay, April-September 2014. Adults aged between 18 and 93 years (n 742). The percentage of affirmative responses to the items of the ELCSA ranged from 4·4 to 31·7 %. Two factors were identified in the exploratory factor analysis performed on data from households without children under 18 years old, whereas three factors were identified for households with children. The identified factors were associated with different severity levels of food insecurity. Likelihood of experiencing different levels of food insecurity was affected by individual characteristics of the respondent as well as characteristics of the household. The influence of sociodemographic variables varied among the ELCSA dimensions. Household income had the largest influence on all dimensions, which indicates a strong relationship between income and food insecurity.

  8. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins contaminating wheat silage for dairy cattle feeding in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Palacio, Agustina; Bettucci, Lina; Pan, Dinorah

    Wheat is one of the most important cultivated cereals in Uruguay for human consumption; however, when harvest yields are low, wheat is usually used in ensiling for animal feeding. Ensiling is a forage preservation method that allows for storage during extended periods of time while maintaining nutritional values comparable to fresh pastures. Silage is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage molds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of the study was to identify the mycobiota composition and occurrence of aflatoxins and DON from wheat silage. A total of 220 samples of wheat were collected from four farms in the southwest region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The main fungi isolated were Fusarium (43%) and Aspergillus (36%), with Fusarium graminearum sensu lato and Aspergillus section Flavi being the most prevalent species. Aflatoxin concentrations in silo bags ranged from 6.1 to 23.3μg/kg, whereas DON levels ranged between 3000μg/kg and 12,400μg/kg. When evaluating aflatoxigenic capacity, 27.5% of Aspergillus section Flavi strains produced AFB1, 5% AFB2, 10% AFG1 and 17.5% AFG2. All isolates of F. graminearum sensu lato produced DON and 15-AcDON. The results from this study contribute to the knowledge of mycobiota and mycotoxins present in wheat silage. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of Reproductive Microhabitat by Melanophryniscus montevidensis (Anura: Bufonidae) from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gisela; Maneyro, Raúl

    2016-08-01

    This study describes the reproductive microhabitat of Melanophryniscus montevidensis and its use in two water bodies (WBs) in Barra de la Laguna de Rocha, Uruguay. Monthly field trips were performed between March 2012 and February 2013. Variables related to the WBs and vegetation, as well as parameters linked to the usage the amphibians make of the site (e.g: distance to the border of the pond, water depth and the vegetation use) were recorded. The behavior shown by the individuals during the breeding activity was recorded. This activity occurs in shallow temporary WBs with abundant hydrophilic vegetation. The individuals were found more frequently in areas near the edge of the pond, which has denser vegetation. The calling males were found closer to the border of the pond, and they showed better body condition than the non-calling males. In addition to calling activities, males used alternative tactics to find couples, such as active search of females, and aggressive behaviors, such as male displacing and physical combat. Such behaviors are common in anurans with explosive reproductive dynamics. The characterization of the reproductive microhabitats permits the proposal of strategies for the conservation of the species in Uruguay, given that the loss and fragmentation of habitats is one of the main causes considered for the decrease in their populations.

  10. [Proposals for health reform and equity in Uruguay: a redefinition of the Welfare State?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitjavila, Myriam; Fernandez, José; Moreira, Constanza

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews and analyzes health sector reform proposals in Uruguay and the possible effects of such reforms in terms of equity, the health sector's institutional structure, and the power relationship between the various actors in the process. The authors contend that a highly structured yet simultaneously fragmented system has conspired against any attempt to introduce major reforms into the system. Thus the only possibility for reform resides neither in the consolidation of the so-called Institutions for Collective Medical Care (IAMCs) nor in the move towards a residual model. Rather, Uruguay is witnessing the system's passive restructuring (i.e., reform by default). In this context and given the system's built-in inequities, the current trend is towards an even more regressive distribution of goods and services. The authors use qualitative and quantitative techniques to show that inequities in expenditure, access, and quality have resulted from long-term developments and adaptive movements of an IAMC system in fiscal stress and the public system's declining quality. Thus, in the absence of changes in state policy that redefine the actors' power or in the absence of system collapse, the country should expect this same regressive trend to deepen.

  11. A Study of public policies for the management of the intangible cultural heritage in Uruguay.

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    Andrea Anon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to perform a review of the evolution of the intangible cultural heritage, to understand the difficulties and limitations that this heritage faces in the present. In a first moment, will present in the role that the State has maintained with this intangible heritage when even the category did not exist as such and the Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Heritage of UNESCO (2003 had not been ratified by Uruguay. Counting with this background will be analyzed the current regulations and decrees governing the field of intangible heritage to understand how different intangible expressions are conceived and managed. Since 2009, Uruguay has two elements declared by UNESCO as Intangible Heritage, the Tango and the Candombe. The second manifestation will be the conducting wire through which will be seen how over the years the expression was worked by the State. Through interviews with authorities from different institutions of intangible heritage and a thorough study of academic texts, the article seeks to understand the framework and the dispute between the Candombe and his interests and the State structure and their possibilities to manage and safeguard this heritage.

  12. Cannabis policy reforms in the Americas: a comparative analysis of Colorado, Washington, and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Bryce

    2014-07-01

    Legal reforms in the Americas are influencing the public debate on cannabis policy. Uruguay and the two US states of Colorado and Washington have taken steps to regulate and legitimize the production, distribution, and use of cannabis and its derivatives. Earlier experiences with medical cannabis in the United States and limited access and production models in Europe have been insightful. However, these reforms are going further still, venturing into a new area of cannabis policy. A lack of empirical evidence regarding the effects of such reforms poses a challenge for policymakers. These examples will inform the design and implementation of any future cannabis policies. Therefore, a clear understanding of the details of each jurisdiction is necessary in developing future legal changes. Literature comparing the models of Uruguay, Colorado, and Washington is thin. This paper is based on an exhaustive examination of the laws, regulations, and discussions with regulators and functionaries of each jurisdiction. The research and analysis herein will provide policymakers with a greater understanding of the laws and regulations relevant to legal cannabis in these three jurisdictions, as well as draw to their attention some potential impacts and challenges of cannabis reform that require additional consideration to ensure public safety and health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Breast cancer risk and genetic ancestry: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Bertoni, Bernardo; Hidalgo, Pedro C; Artagaveytia, Nora; Ackermann, Elizabeth; Barreto, Isabel; Cancela, Paula; Cappetta, Mónica; Egaña, Ana; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Heinzen, Silvina; Hooker, Stanley; Román, Estela; Sans, Mónica; Kittles, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    Uruguay exhibits one of the highest rates of breast cancer in Latin America, similar to those of developed nations, the reasons for which are not completely understood. In this study we investigated the effect that ancestral background has on breast cancer susceptibility among Uruguayan women. We carried out a case-control study of 328 (164 cases, 164 controls) women enrolled in public hospitals and private clinics across the country. We estimated ancestral proportions using a panel of nuclear and mitochondrial ancestry informative markers (AIMs) and tested their association with breast cancer risk. Nuclear individual ancestry in cases was (mean ± SD) 9.8 ± 7.6% African, 13.2 ± 10.2% Native American and 77.1 ± 13.1% European, and in controls 9.1 ± 7.5% African, 14.7 ± 11.2% Native American and 76.2 ± 14.2% European. There was no evidence of a difference in nuclear or mitochondrial ancestry between cases and controls. However, European mitochondrial haplogroup H was associated with breast cancer (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.5). We have not found evidence that overall genetic ancestry differs between breast cancer patients and controls in Uruguay but we detected an association of the disease with a European mitochondrial lineage, which warrants further investigation.

  14. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins contaminating wheat silage for dairy cattle feeding in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina del Palacio

    Full Text Available Abstract Wheat is one of the most important cultivated cereals in Uruguay for human consumption; however, when harvest yields are low, wheat is usually used in ensiling for animal feeding. Ensiling is a forage preservation method that allows for storage during extended periods of time while maintaining nutritional values comparable to fresh pastures. Silage is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage molds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of the study was to identify the mycobiota composition and occurrence of aflatoxins and DON from wheat silage. A total of 220 samples of wheat were collected from four farms in the southwest region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The main fungi isolated were Fusarium (43% and Aspergillus (36%, with Fusarium graminearum sensu lato and Aspergillus section Flavi being the most prevalent species. Aflatoxin concentrations in silo bags ranged from 6.1 to 23.3 µg/kg, whereas DON levels ranged between 3000 µg/kg and 12,400 µg/kg. When evaluating aflatoxigenic capacity, 27.5% of Aspergillus section Flavi strains produced AFB1, 5% AFB2, 10% AFG1 and 17.5% AFG2. All isolates of F. graminearum sensu lato produced DON and 15-AcDON. The results from this study contribute to the knowledge of mycobiota and mycotoxins present in wheat silage.

  15. Aplicación del fideicomiso en Uruguay. Protección de derechos de acreedores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Garmendia Vázquez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The banking crisis of 2002 and the problems in the uruguayan capital market since 1998 ascribe importance to the theme of creditor´s rights protection. In adittion, the present context determines the necessity to develop diverse financial instruments to banking credit. It is in this framework that the Fideicomiso Law is approved in October 2003. Thus, the present article analizes the situation of creditor´s rights protection, an important element for an adequate utilization of Fideicomiso in Uruguay. We review the three elements that it includes: the normative precepts, the institutions that dictate and control them, and the efficiency of the Warranty´s System. The conclusion is that there are no particular problems with the precepts or with the efficiency of the Warranty´s System, a situation that is different with the institution that dictates and controls the normativity related to Fideicomiso, that is, the Central Bank of Uruguay.

  16. [Fiscal policy, affordability and cross effects in the demand for tobacco products: the case of Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajales, Alejandro Ramos; Curti, Dardo

    2010-01-01

    Uruguay, a country with a solid tobacco control policy since 2005 shows, contrary to expectations, an insignificant decrease in total tobacco products' sales in the last five years. The hypothesis is that on one side, changes in household income and the income elasticity of the demand for cigarettes were important countervailing factors in the demand of both products. The period 2005-2009 shows a large increase of 36% in household real income in Uruguay due to fast economic recovery after the 2002 crisis. The second factor is the interchangeability of roll your own and cigarettes and the impact on the demand of each product as a reaction to tax and price changes. The tax and price of roll your own tobacco remains substantially lower than that of cigarettes. This fact, and the increased substitution of roll your own for cigarettes seems to be the main reasons for the low impact of the policy of tobacco tax and price increases. This paper then consists of a revision of a 2004 study to estimate separate demands for both main tobacco products and obtain estimates for own price, cross price and income elasticities. Then, a simulation study was performed using the elasticities found and two scenarios of increases in household income: moderate (2.5% per year) and high (5% per year) confirming that countries where income is growing fast and with a potential for substitution towards cheaper products require substantial cigarette tax and price increases for a fiscal tobacco control policy to become effective.

  17. Spawning of migratory fish species between two reservoirs of the upper Uruguay River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Reynalte-Tataje

    Full Text Available This study investigated the migratory fish spawning within the reservoirs of the Machadinho and Itá dams (upper Uruguay River, Brazil and its relationship to environmental variables. Sampling was conducted in the lotic region of the river in two sites between the dams' reservoirs: Uruguay (main river and Ligeiro (tributary. Sampling included nine consecutive reproductive periods (RP spanning the period from 2001 to 2010 and was conducted at night on the water surface using cylindrical-conical plankton nets (0.5 mm mesh; environmental variables were also recorded. The spawning of the migratory species Salminus brasiliensis, Prochilodus lineatus, and Steindachneridion scriptum was registered: S. brasiliensis and P. lineatus spawned in the tributary river at the end of spring/beginning of summer, during flooding and during periods of high water temperature. Steindachneridion scriptum spawned in the main river at the beginning of spring. The study showed that S. brasiliensis, P. lineatus, and S. scriptum are able to spawn in small lotic river stretches within two reservoirs, but only under very specific and not common environmental conditions.

  18. Development and Climate Change in Uruguay. Focus on Coastal Zones, Agriculture and Forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawala, S.; Moehner, A.; Gagnon-Lebrun, F. [OECD Environment Directorate, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France); Van Aalst, M. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Smith, J.; Hagenstad, M. [Stratus Consulting, Boulder, CO (United States); Baethgen, W.E.; Martino, D.L. [Carbosur Consulting, Montevideo (Uruguay); Lorenzo, E. [Instituto de Mecanica de los Fluidos e Ingenieria Ambiental IMFIA, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2004-07-01

    This document is an output from the OECD Development and Climate Change project, an activity jointly overseen by the EPOC Working Party on Global and Structural Policies (WPGSP), and the DAC Network on Environment and Development Co-operation (ENVIRONET). The overall objective of the project is to provide guidance on how to mainstream responses to climate change within economic development planning and assistance policies, with natural resource management as an overarching theme. This report presents the integrated case study for Tanzania carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. This report presents the integrated case study for Uruguay carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. The report is structured around a three-tiered framework. First, recent climate trends and climate change scenarios for Uruguay are assessed and key sectoral impacts are identified and ranked along multiple indicators to establish priorities for adaptation. Second, donor portfolios are analyzed to examine the proportion of development assistance activities affected by climate risks. A desk analysis of donor strategies and project documents as well as national plans is conducted to assess the degree of attention to climate change concerns in development planning and assistance. Third, an in-depth analysis is conducted for adaptation in coastal zones as well as for mainstreaming carbonsequestration within the agriculture and forestry sectors.

  19. Documentation of subtype C HIV Type 1 strains in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, G; Eyzaguirre, L; Montano, S M; Laguna-Torres, V; Serra, M; Aguayo, N; Avila, M M; Ruchansky, D; Pando, M A; Vinoles, Jose; Perez, J; Barboza, A; Chauca, G; Romero, A; Galeano, A; Blair, P J; Weissenbacher, M; Birx, D L; Sanchez, J L; Olson, J G; Carr, J K

    2004-09-01

    HIV subtypes B, F, and BF recombinants have been previously reported in South America. This report describes the presence of HIV-1 subtype C infection in the countries of Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay dating back to at least 1999. Surveillance for uncommon non-B/non-F subtype viruses circulating in South America has been conducted in samples obtained from nine countries. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), dried filter paper (FP), and fresh blood (FB) samples were collected from HIV-positive patients from Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay. From a total of 2962 HIV seropositive samples examined during a 9-year period (1995-2003), only 11 (0.4%) were found to be infected with non-B/non-F HIV variants. Eight of these 11 strains were determined to be subtype C by heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA). Five of these 8 strains were further characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the protease (Pro) and reverse transcriptase (RT) region of the genome and two were sequenced full length. One of the strains was found to be a unique BC recombinant. The spread of a third subtype of HIV, subtype C, should raise the question of its potential future role in the HIV epidemic in this region.

  20. [Seroprevalence of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi in 13 departments of Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatella, R; Calegari, L; Casserone, S; Civila, E; Carbajal, S; Pérez, G; Somma, R; Sampaio, I; Llanes, M E; Conti, M

    1989-08-01

    In 1985 a study was undertaken of the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in 13 departments of Uruguay where transmission of the parasite by the vector Triatoma infestans persists. A total of 5,924 serum samples were selected using a probabilistic method--3,840 from individuals over the age of 12 (sample I) and 2,084 from subjects who were 12 years old (sample II). The population was classified according to place of residence (capital city, non-capital city, suburban area, and rural area). The percentage of positive sera detected by indirect immunofluorescence in the different departments ranged from 1 to 11%, and overall seroprevalence for the area was 3.4%. Based on the results obtained, it was possible to distinguish three areas: A, with seroprevalence from 6 to 11%; B, 2 to 3.2%, and C, 1 to 1.4%. In sample II from the Departments of Paysandú, Soriano, Flores, Florida, and Durazno, no cases of Chagas' disease were detected, which suggests that there is no active transmission of T. cruzi in this age group in the area studied. The number of persons estimated to have the disease was 36,952, or 1.3% of the total population of Uruguay and 4% of the population in the area surveyed. These seroprevalence figures are similar to those recorded in the province of Entre Ríos, Argentina, and in the neighboring municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  1. Genetic heterogeneity and subtyping of human Hepatitis E virus isolates from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirazo, Santiago; Ramos, Natalia; Russi, José Carlos; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-05-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an important public health concern in many developing countries causing waterborne outbreaks, as well as sporadic autochthonous hepatitis. It is transmitted primarily by the fecal-oral route. However, zoonotic transmission from animal reservoirs to human has also been suggested. Genotype 3 is the most frequent genotype found in South America and the HEV epidemiology in this region seems to be very complex. However, data about the molecular characterization of HEV isolates of the region is still lacking and further investigation is needed. Our study characterized human HEV strains detected in a 1-year period in Uruguay, by extensive sequence analysis of three regions of the HEV genome. Uruguayan strains were closely related to a set of European strains and in turn, were dissimilar to Brazilian, Argentinean and Bolivian isolates. Additionally, the co-circulation of viral subtypes 3i and 3h was observed. Circulation of subtype 3i had been reported in Argentina and Bolivia whereas sequences of subtype 3h are rare and had never been reported in Latin America. In order to contribute to shedding light over the molecular epidemiology of this emergent infection in the region, we thoroughly analyzed the genetic variability of HEV strains detected in Uruguay, providing the largest dataset of sequences of HEV ever reported in a country in South America. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Statute of Limitations in Uruguay and the ethical-political essence of the left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Buriano

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares parties and citizen behavior in the referendum and plebiscite of 1989 and 2009 in Uruguay, concerning the derogation or repeal of articles of the amnesty law, as well as the unfinished epilogue of this process. This will allow us to observe a change in the axis-force that drives citizens' initiatives in the matter. While in 1989 the Frente Amplio (FA assumed and promoted the derogatory referendum, in 2009 the social organizations won the centrality of the scene. In that last year the negative position and subsequent support for the plebiscite campaign by the partisan left. Its virtual absence from the coalition generates doubts about the management of the demands concerning human rights and the ethical-doctrinal nature of the partisan left. Although in 2010 the FA tried to resume leadership, it was weakened by an internal dispute that resulted in contempt towards the legislative debate to neutralize the effects of the act. The civic, identity and perhaps political configuration of the XXI century Uruguay will depend on the resolution of this gap.

  3. The Tale of Two Civil Societies: Comparing disability rights movements in Nicaragua and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Meyers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The UNCRPD is unique amongst international rights instruments because it empowers civil society organizations to represent the rights-bearers themselves—persons with disabilities. As such, DPOs in the Global South have become a major concern for UN agencies and international NGOs who believe that grassroots disability associations need political advocacy training in order to take up their role as rights advocates. These expectations contain implicit assumptions regarding civil society-state relations and the existence of governmental capacity. The authors, however, hypothesize that not all civil societies will fit the rights advocacy model due to the political culture and public resources available within their respective, local communities. Disability movements in Nicaragua and Uruguay are compared and contrasted. In Nicaragua, a disability rights coalition dismisses many international expectations in favor for continuing to follow traditional civil society expectations to provide services. In Uruguay, a long history of high levels of social spending and disability organizing enabled DPOs to successfully advocate for progressive laws. The deaf community, however, decided to implement their own, separate advocacy strategies to ensure a fairer distribution of public resources. The authors conclude that rather than top-down civil society training, the international movement should allow local organizations set their own priorities.

  4. La imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en Uruguay

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    José Manuel Sánchez Patrón

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La ratificación del Convenio sobre la imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes de guerra y de los crímenes de lesa humanidad por parte de Uruguay, constituye un primer paso dirigido a limitar la impunidad de los partícipes en la comisión de estas infracciones internacionales. Para la consecución de esta misma finalidad, el Estado Uruguayo ha dado un segundo paso, consistente en la ratificación del Estatuto de la Corte Penal Internacional, lo que ha llevado a efecto casi un año después del anterior. Ambas decisiones demuestran la intención de Uruguay de comprometerse Internacionalmente con el fin de evitar la impunidad de los responsables de la comisión de determinadas figuras delictivas, especialmente los crímenes de guerra y los crímenes contra la humanidad, ya que en tomo a estas dos infracciones internacionales gravitan los convenios internacionales a los que nos acabamos de referir.Contenido: imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en el pasado. Imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en el presente. Imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en el futuro. Conclusiones

  5. Impacto de advertencias sanitarias del empaquetado de cigarros: un análisis comparativo en Brasil, Uruguay y México Assessing the impact of cigarette package health warning labels: a cross-country comparison in Brazil, Uruguay and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Thrasher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el impacto de diferentes advertencias sanitarias (AS. Material y métodos. Se analizaron datos de la Encuesta Internacional para el Control del Tabaco (ITC Survey, un estudio de fumadores adultos en Brasil, Uruguay y México, tres países con distintas AS (con imágenes de sufrimiento humano y órganos enfermos; con imágenes abstractas del riesgo; mensajes de solo texto, respectivamente. Se analizó prominencia e impacto cognitivo de las AS. Resultados. Las AS de Uruguay (que era el único país con AS en la parte frontal del paquete tuvieron una mayor prominencia que en Brasil o México. En México, la gente que tenía un nivel de educación mayor eran mas propensos a leer mensajes de advertencia, mientras que educación no se asoció con prominencia en Brasil o Uruguay. Las AS de Brasil tuvieron un mayor impacto cognitivo y conductual que las AS de Uruguay o México. Las AS de Uruguay generaron un menor impacto cognitivo y conductual que las AS de sólo texto en México. En Brasil, los impactos cognitivos fueron los más fuertes entre fumadores con un bajo nivel educacional. Conclusiones. Este estudio sugiere que las AS tienen el mayor impacto cuando son prominentes (por ej. en el frente y la parte trasera del paquete e incluyen imágenes emocionalmente llamativas que muestran impactos negativos en el cuerpo o sufrimiento humano debido al fumar.Objective. To assess the impact of different health warning labels (HWL. Material and Methods. Data from the International Tobacco Control Survey (ITC Survey were analyzed from adult smokers in Brazil, Uruguay and Mexico, each of which used a different HWL strategy (pictures of human suffering and diseased organs; abstract pictorial representations of risk; and text-only messages, respectively. Main outcomes were HWL salience and cognitive impact. Results. HWLs in Uruguay (which was the only country with a HWL on the front of the package had higher salience than either Brazilian or

  6. Educación bilingüe de frontera y políticas lingüísticas en Uruguay Bilingual education at the Uruguayan-Brazilian border and language policies in Uruguay

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    Claudia Brovetto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El Uruguay no es una sociedad lingüísticamente homogénea hablante de español. El bilingüismo español-portugués que se consigna en una amplia zona del noreste de Uruguay es un ejemplo de esta realidad. Recientemente, y de un modo bastante innovador para la tradición de las políticas lingüísticas en el Uruguay (o para la falta de ellas, esta realidad sociolingüística ha sido tomada en cuenta con programas educativos específicos. Este artículo presenta un análisis de estos programas, sus antecedentes, objetivos y resultados preliminares, así como un análisis primario de dos documentos que constituyen actos de políticas lingüísticas en el Uruguay: la nueva Ley de Educación y el nuevo Programa de Educación Inicial y Primaria.Uruguayan society is not linguistically homogeneous in that not all its population speaks Spanish. The bilingualism present in the northeast of Uruguay is an example of this reality. Recently, in a quite innovative way for the Uruguayan traditions in language policies (or for the lack of them, this sociolinguistic reality has been considered through the implementation of specific educational programs. This paper presents an analysis of these programs, their antecedents, goals and preliminary results. It also presents an initial analysis of two documents that are events in Uruguayan language policies: the recently approved Law of Education and the new official Curriculum for Primary Schools.

  7. The utopia of democracy in Uruguay. Between the nostalgia about the past and the refutation of history La utopía de la democracia en uruguay. Entre la nostalgia del pasado y el desmentido de la historia

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    Fernando AÍNSA AMIGUES

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Uruguay has a long tradition of democracy that is associated to the Welfare State built at the beginning of the XX Century. In the sixties started a period of crisis and decadence, which had its worst moment during the period of the dictatorship (1973-1984. Uruguay lives since then with the nostalgia of what «has been», the impossible utopia of the past.

    RESUMEN: Uruguay tiene una larga tradición democrática unida a la del desarrollo de un Estado de bienestar instaurado a principios del siglo XX y prolongado hasta la década de 1960, cuando el sistema entró en crisis. En este ensayo se analiza el contenido utópico de esa democracia, sus carencias, la crisis, el proceso de su decadencia, el período de la dictadura (1973-1984 y la nostalgia del «país que fue» que ha marcado la política del restablecimiento de la institucionalidad en 1985 hasta nuestros días.

    ABSTRACT: Uruguay has a long tradition of democracy that is associated to the Welfare State built at the beginning of the XX Century. In the sixties started a period of crisis and decadence, which had its worst moment during the period of the dictatorship (1973-1984. Uruguay lives since then with the nostalgia of what «has been», the impossible utopia of the past.

  8. Sustainability of meat production beyond carbon footprint: a synthesis of case studies from grazing systems in Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picasso, V.D.; Modernel Hristoff, P.D.; Becona, G.; Salvo, L.; Gutierrez, L.; Astigarraga, L.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock production has been challenged as a large contributor to climate change, and carbon footprint has become a widely used measure of cattle environmental impact. This analysis of fifteen beef grazing systems in Uruguay quantifies the range of variation of carbon footprint, and the trade-offs

  9. Grain Yield Variation in Malting Barley Cultivars in Uruguay and Its Consequences for the Design of a Trials Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceretta, S.S.E.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of cultivar trial networks is an important subject in official cultivar testing. We investigated this efficiency for malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Uruguay, using data on 213 cultivars tested across an eight-year period at six locations. The variance-components approach was

  10. Exploring options for sustainable farming systems development for vegetable family farmers in Uruguay using a modeling toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, M.; Dogliotti, S.; Groot, J.C.J.; Aguerre, V.; Abbas, A.; Albin, A.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Chilibroste, P.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Economic and environmental sustainability of family-based vegetable production systems in south Uruguay are seriously compromised after two decades of net decreasing prices and strategies based on specialization and intensification. This paper presents a model-based exploration of alternative

  11. Situation Report--Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to pupulation and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Argentina, Colombia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Republic, Oman, Syrian Arab Republic, and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  12. "Let the "Orientales" Be as Enlightened as They Are Brave": The Digital Divide in the Context of Uruguay's Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurro, Rafael; Rodríguez Fleitas, Maximiliano

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present two recent information literacy and access initiatives in Uruguay and their necessary historical antecedents, and analyze them from a phenomenological perspective to provide commentary on current philosophical discussions about information and the digital divide. To provide historical context we present a brief history of…

  13. The Battle Era and Labor in Uruguay and U.S. Low-Intensity in Conflict Policy in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    change to satisfy the more 13 0 For a capitulation of the genesis of this legislation see Comision Departamental del Partido Nacional, Al Autor de la...Montevideo: Renacimiento, 1914-1918. Comision Departamental del Partido Nacional. El Autor de la Primera Legislacion Obrera en el Uruguay. Montevideo, 1928

  14. Rickettsia parkeri: a Rickettsial pathogen transmitted by ticks in endemic areas for spotted fever rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Venzal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available At first Rickettsia conorii was implicated as the causative agent of spotted fever in Uruguay diagnosed by serological assays. Later Rickettsia parkeri was detected in human-biting Amblyomma triste ticks using molecular tests. The natural vector of R. conorii, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has not been studied for the presence of rickettsial organisms in Uruguay. To address this question, 180 R. sanguineus from dogs and 245 A. triste from vegetation (flagging collected in three endemic localities were screened for spotted fever group (SFG rickettsiosis in southern Uruguay. Tick extracted DNA pools were subjected to PCR using primers which amplify a fragment of the rickettsial gltA gene. Positive tick DNA pools with these primers were subjected to a second PCR round with primers targeting a fragment of the ompA gene, which is only present in SFG rickettsiae. No rickettsial DNA was detected in R. sanguineus. However, DNA pools of A. triste were found to be positive for a rickettsial organism in two of the three localities, with prevalences of 11.8% to 37.5% positive pools. DNA sequences generated from these PCR-positive ticks corresponded to R. parkeri. These findings, joint with the aggressiveness shown by A. triste towards humans, support previous data on the involvement of A. triste as vector of human infections caused by R. parkeri in Uruguay.

  15. A method for exploring sustainable development options at farm scale: a case study for vegetable farms in South Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogliotti Moro, S.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2005-01-01

    The methodology presented in this paper aims at analysing whether there is room for improvement of vegetable farmers¿ income in Canelón Grande (Uruguay), while reducing soil erosion and improving physical and biological soil fertility, and to gain insight in the influence of farmers¿ resource

  16. Psicología, política y sociedad en Argentina y Uruguay : Simposio por invitación

    OpenAIRE

    Talak, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    El Simposio se propone analizar diferentes desarrollos de la psicología en dos países, Argentina y Uruguay, en relación con el orden social vigente y diferentes dimensiones políticas que se ponen en juego en forma explícita e implícita.

  17. Celebración de la independencia de 1825: los comerciantes británicos a través del "Libro del Centenario del Uruguay", de 1925

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani Pérez, Alba Amelia

    2014-01-01

    El Libro del Centenario del Uruguay 1825-1925, es una selección temática útil para conocer al Uruguay en asuntos socioeconómicos, políticos y culturales a fines del siglo XIX y hasta 1925. Su uso hace posible arribar a estudios profundos, no abordados por historiadores y crear una historiografía contemporánea del período. El repertorio documental es de jerarquía, aplicado con método se arriba a temas poco conocidos. The Centennial Book of Uruguay 1825-1925 is a useful thematic selection...

  18. The Teaching of Astronomy in Uruguay. (Spanish Title: La Enseñanza de la Astronomía en Uruguay.) O Ensino da Astronomia no Uruguai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintos Ganón, Reina; Fernández, Julio Angel

    2008-07-01

    We present in this work the development of astronomy in Uruguay since the colony times up to the present, stressing in particular those aspects related to the formal as well as informal teaching of astronomy. The first antecedents of astronomical studies in our country go back to the beginnings of the XVIIIth century related to the scientific expeditions from Europe coming to our shores. The teaching of astronomy was generalized at the high school level as soon as the end of the XIXth century, while itsintroduction at the university level happened much later, around the middle of the last century. We analyze the current situation of this subject, its problems, and some measures to strengthen its development. Se presenta en este trabajo el desarrollo de la astronomía en el Uruguay desde la época colonial hasta el presente, destacando en particular los aspectos vinculados a su enseñanza tanto formal como informal. Los primeros antecedentes de estudios astronómicos datan de la época colonial relacionados con las expediciones científicas del Viejo Mundo que llegaban a nuestras costas. La enseñanza de la Astronomía se generalizó en el ámbito de los estudios secundarios ya a fines del siglo XIX, mientras que en la Universidad su arribo fue mucho más tardío, a mediados del siglo pasado. Se analiza la situación actual de esta disciplina, sus problemas, y algunas medidas para fortalecer su desarrollo. Apresentamos, neste trabalho, o desenvolvimento da Astronomia no Uruguai desde a época colonial até o presente, destacando em particular os aspectos vinculados ao seu ensino tanto formal quanto informal. Os primeiros antecedentes de estudos astronômicos em nosso país datam da época colonial relacionados com as expedições científicas do Velho Mundo que chegavam às nossas costas. O ensino da Astronomia se generalizou no âmbito dos estudos secundários já no final do século XIX, enquanto que sua introdução na universidade foi muito mais tardia, em

  19. Modeling Electoral Coordination: Voters, Parties and Legislative Lists in Uruguay Modelando la Coordinación Electoral: Votantes, Partidos y Listas Legislativas en Uruguay

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    Ines Levin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During each electoral period, the strategic interaction between voters and political elites determines the number of viable candidates in a district. In this paper, we implement a hierarchical seemingly unrelated regression model to explain electoral coordination at the district level in Uruguay as a function of district magnitude, previous electoral outcomes and electoral regime. Elections in this country are particularly useful to test for institutional effects on the coordination process due to the large variations in district magnitude, to the simultaneity of presidential and legislative races held under different rules, and to the reforms implemented during the period under consideration. We find that district magnitude and electoral history heuristics have substantial effects on the number of competing and voted-for parties and lists. Our modeling approach uncovers important interaction-effects between the demand and supply side of the political market that were often overlooked in previous research.En cada período electoral, votantes y élites interactúan para determinar el número de agentes políticos postulados para la elección, así como el número de agentes políticos que reciben apoyo de los votantes. En este artículo, modelamos la interacción entre votantes y élites usando un modelo jerárquico de regresiones aparentemente no relacionadas, explicando la coordinación electoral a nivel de distrito en el Uruguay en función de la magnitud del distrito, resultados de elecciones anteriores, y régimen electoral. Las elecciones en este país son particularmente útiles para el estudio de los determinantes institucionales de la coordinación electoral debido a la amplia variación en la magnitud de los diferentes distritos, a la simultaneidad de las elecciones presidenciales y legislativas reguladas por normas electorales diversas, y a las reformas que tuvieron lugar durante el período bajo consideración. Encontramos que la

  20. The role of LATU as national metrology institute of Uruguay and its responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robatto, O.; Quagliata, E.; Santo, C.; Sica, A.; Sponton, M.

    2013-09-01

    Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay (LATU) is the National Metrology Institute of Uruguay and has the obligation to maintain the national standards stated by National Law 15298. At present LATU is acting as a secondary laboratory as well as a primary laboratory. LATU was ISO 17025:2005 DKD (Deutscher Kalibrierdienst) accredited from 2001 up to 2007. By that time LATU decided to support its Capabilities of Measurement and Calibration (CMCs) at CIPM-MRA (Mutual Recognition Arrangement between national metrology institutes (NMIs)) by peer assessment. A Peer Review has been done in 2008 in order to get the QSTF (Sistema Interamericano de Metrología, Quality System Task Force) approval. "New "CMCs for Industrial Thermometers have been approved by the JCRB on September 2010. CMCs claimed for Standard Resistance Platinum Thermometers (SPRTs) calibration at fixed points have not been approved yet because there were some requirements of traceability of employed cells that were not fulfilled but will be solved properly. The declared CMCs have been chosen by LATU in order to cover the increasing calibration services required by the industry and the secondary calibration laboratories. To demonstrate its technical competence an support its declared "CMCs" LATU has also participated at bilateral and regional comparisons. In recent years LATU, the National Accreditation Body (OUA), the Standards Institute, the National Institute of Quality and Compliance Bodies have become Members of a new Institution to strengthen the Quality Infrastructure of the country (SUNAMEC). As part of this new activities, LATU is giving training courses to the secondary laboratories performing calibrations in temperature that want to get accredited by the National Accreditation Body and to act as Technical Evaluators or Auditors when required by OUA. It is expected, that in the future and in the frame of new accredited and recognized temperature calibration laboratories, LATU could strengthen its

  1. Recent changes in frost days events characteristics in Uruguay-Southeastern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renom, Madeleine; De Mello, Santiago

    2015-04-01

    There are few studies about extreme temperature events in Southeastern South America as is it mentioned in the SREX report (2009), although these events generate human health impacts and big economical looses. Southeastern South America is one of the major agricultural production regions worldwide. Particularly in Uruguay, agricultural production represents a high percentage of the GDP and, in the last 15 years there has been a significant increase in the area used for that economic activity. Although frost is not always is considered as an extreme event it causes, in the case of Uruguay, an impact on society, energy consumption and agricultural losses. Previous studies have shown a negative trend in the occurrence of cold nights (TN10) during winter (June-July-August) and autumn (March-April-May) in Uruguay. This work try to determine if these trends affects the occurrences and characteristics of frost days (Tminpercentile based index (TN10) and a fixed index (FD). At monthly scale, May and September show a negative trend, although these months present a low number of cases that difficult the statistical treatment. It is noticeable that from a decadal point of view the last decade (2000-2009) was the decade with fewer occurrences comparing with the rest, while the 90's is the decade that presents more cases. We also analyzed changes in frost period (FP) which commonly extends from May to September. In general all the stations present a decrease in the FP in accordance with the negative trend detected at monthly scale, suggesting a warming in autumn and spring time. Although we detected different behaviour in two stations, one located inner land and the other located on the Atlantic coast of the country. The former presents a linear trend in the FP, while the other shows a decadal variability. Regarding the frost intensity we analysed the consecutive frost days (CFD) index, which shows that the usual length is around 2-4 days. The decadal analysis shows that during

  2. Breast cancer early detection and quality assurance in Uruguay; Deteccion precoz de cancer de mama e garantia de calidad en Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotelo, Elena D. [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Facultad de Medicina. Escuela Universitaria de Tecnologia Medica]. E-mail: elecote@adinet.com.uy

    2001-07-01

    In Uruguay, breast cancer incidence is 76.41 per 100.000, and death rate is 25.22 per 100.000. Since 1998, there is a National Programme of breast cancer early detection for females over forty years of age. We studied the state of the mammography facilities throughout the country. There are 657.000 female over forty and 51 mammography X-ray equipment. The Programme includes 2 mammography X-ray equipment in mobile units in the capital and 18 in hospitals all around the country. There are taken 120.000 mammographic exams per year, 15.000 of them belong to women who had participated in the Programme. We found that no mammography facility has established Quality Assurance Programmes. Despite the results of this study showed that is suitable the number and age of the mammography X-ray equipment, the lack of Quality Assurance Programmes will produce, in a short time, a negative cost-benefit balance. The consequences will be serious social, human an economical damages. (author)

  3. Legalizing a market for cannabis for pleasure: Colorado, Washington, Uruguay and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, Robin

    2014-03-01

    Colorado, Washington state and Uruguay are currently designing legal non-medical markets for cannabis. These clearly contravene the 1961 and 1988 drug conventions; options for what may happen next are discussed. The current provisions in the three regulatory schemes are summarized. From a public health perspective, the emphasis should be on holding down consumption with regulatory measures, but the public health agenda does not seem to be a strong consideration in the implementation of the US schemes, and they are paying little attention to what can be learned from the history of alcohol and tobacco regulation. While alternative paths to a cannabis market under the conventions are noted, the legalization initiatives underline the need to revise the drug conventions, making prohibition of domestic markets an optional matter. Such changes would also ease the path for including alcohol under the conventions, which would be an important step forward in global health. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Health professionals and abortion: transitions and disputes in Uruguay (2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra López Gomez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unsafe and illegal abortion is a critical issue in most countries at Latin America and the Caribbean region. The recognition of sexual and reproductive rights as human rights that is observed in the international, regional and national levels has not been exempt from conflicts. The Uruguayan case provides important evidence in this regard. The thesis examines health professionals’ perceptions and perspectives related to their care practices with women and abortion in a legal context that considered abortion as a crime, between 2002 and 2012 in Uruguay. The results allow us to understand the complex relationship between the different levels involved in the policy process. Health professionals’ practices are an analyzer of the covenants and conflicts that are recorded in the social field.

  5. Body and Psychiatric Discourse in the Early Twentieth Century in Uruguay: Insufficiency, Weakness and Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Craviotto Corbellini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the psychiatric medical discourse and experimental psychology during the twentieth century in Uruguay, as expert knowledge on children and as referents of the pedagogic discourse of that period. As an introduction some key elements of psychiatry in the country are presented; from them, it is stuyed how the dysfunction of the body became the focus of analysis that led to a series of school children´s classifications. The relationship of the dysfunctional body with school learning is at the core of the reflection, and indiscipline and mental weaknesses are taken as elements articulating the psychiatric and psychological discourses with the pedagogical one, through the notion of adjustment disorder.

  6. Catolicismo y Protestantismo en los inicios del Uruguay moderno (1876-1880

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    Sebastián Hernández Méndez

    Full Text Available Durante los años de gobierno del coronel Lorenzo Latorre (1876-1880, Uruguay vivió un intenso debate sobre la legitimidad de la religión, su función en la sociedad moderna, y el papel que hasta entonces venía desempeñando la Iglesia Católica como institución modeladora de cultura. El presente trabajo busca atender las principales notas de esa discusión que mantuvieron en particular católicos y metodistas, al tiempo que analiza las distintas respuestas ensayadas por la Iglesia Católica para enfrentar el proselitismo disidente.

  7. Characterization of home gardens in northern Uruguay and methodology for its diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Traversa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An ecological, productive and social diagnosis of homegardens in Northern Uruguay is displayed in this paper, as well as methodology to achieve it, that could be used in other similar systems. The fieldwork consisted of interactive surveys to producers and field inventories for gathering information on the social, technical, productive and ecologicalaspects of green orchards. . A map of the orchards was done by using a Geographic Information System (GIS. The homegarden is organic, aligned along the minor and major roads and forms cluster cores at the interface between the urban and peri-urban areas. The prospects of the orchards are limited for socio-cultural reasons. Species biodiversity reached a total amount of 187 and an average of 23 species per orchard. Policies are needed for rescueing inherited knowledge that will keep homegardens alive.

  8. Genetic characterization of the Neotropical catfish Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes) in the Upper Uruguay River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribolli, Josiane; de Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues; Zaniboni-Filho, Evoy

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater fish present unique challenges when one attempts to understand the factors that determine the structure of their populations. Habitat fragmentation is a leading cause of population decline that threatens ecosystems worldwide. In this study, we investigated the conservation status of genetic variability in the Neotropical catfish (Pimelodus maculatus). Specifically, we examined the structure and genetic diversity of this species in a region of the Upper Uruguay River fragmented by natural barriers and dams. There was no genetic structure among the four sites analyzed, indicating the existence of only one population group. A combination of environmental management and genetic monitoring should be used to minimize the impact of impoundment on panmitic populations of migratory fish species. PMID:23271936

  9. Experiencias de trabajo con varones que ejercen violencia hacia las mujeres en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Añón, Fernando Daniel

    2016-01-01

    En Uruguay, según estadísticas del Observatorio Nacional sobre Violencia y Criminalidad, cada 10 días una mujer o niña es asesinada. En la amplia mayoría de los casos, el crimen es cometido por varones de su propio entorno doméstico o familiar. En un país donde se han ratificado las convenciones internacionales para la erradicación de la violencia contra la mujer, se propone en su legislación, la prevención, atención y rehabilitación a las víctimas, así como la represión y rehabilitación a vi...

  10. Mortalidad infantil en Uruguay: un análisis de supervivencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewell R. Todd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de todos los nacimientos ocurridos en el Uruguay entre 2002 y 2003 y las defunciones ocurridas en el primer año de vida, se estima la tasa de mortalidad infantil a través de modelos probit y hazard. Debido a que las muertes se concentran en los primeros días y semanas de vida, el modelo hazard es preferible al probit, encontrándose que la estimación probit sobreestima los efectos de las covariables. Los resultados muestran que las variables más importantes son la edad y la educación de la madre, los cuidados prenatales y los denominados predictores de la mortalidad (bajo peso al nacer, semanas de gestación y APGAR.

  11. Art rupestre en Uruguay : De nouveaux programmes d'étude et de conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Man-Estier, Elena; Paillet, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    International audience; La préhistoire et l'art rupestre en Uruguay font l'objet depuis quelques années d'un regain d'intérêt. D'importants programmes de prospections, de recherches, de valorisation et de conservation ont été mis en oeuvre, notamment dans le nord du pays, et contribuent à faire connaître un patrimoine archéologique d'une exceptionnelle qualité et d'une grande densité, jusqu'alors ignoré ou inédit, que cet article propose de faire découvrir. D'importantes découvertes archéo-lo...

  12. Ecology of Triatoma rubrovaria (Hemiptera, Triatominae in wild and peridomestic environments of Uruguay

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    Roberto Salvatella

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes population structure, spatial distribution and habitat selection of wild and peridomestic populations of Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843. Field studies were carried out at Las Piedras and La Bolsa in the Northern Department of Artigas, Uruguay. A semicircular sampling area, divided in seven or eight triangular sectors was sequentially examined from October 1990 to November 1991. At Las Piedras (typical wild habitat 1063 T. rubrovaria bugs were collected from 84 of the rocky outcroops ("pedregales". Abundance varied by season peaking in October-November (spring. Throughout the year, most of the population was made up of third, fourth and fifth instar nymphs; adults were found from October to March. In the peridomestic environment of La Bolsa, however T. rubrovaria was less common and showed a more irregular instar distribution. Colonized ecotopes, were those close to houses. In both sites T. rubrovaria was mainly associated with the geckonid Homonota uruguayensis and the cockroach Blaptica dubia.

  13. Protecting Children and Adolescents in Uruguay: Civil Society’s Role in Policy Reform

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    Amy Risley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the advocacy efforts of civil societal actors in Uruguay who have sought to promote the rights of children. I discuss the strategies that members of non-governmental organizations (NGOs used to achieve a greater presence in debates leading to significant policy changes in the area of child protection. Child advocates achieved relatively high levels of political mobilization and influence throughout the 1990s and early 2000s. The analysis focuses on their multi-year campaign to reform the Children’s Code of 1934, which culminated in the adoption of a new Code of Childhood and Adolescence in 2004. I argue that two variables help explain their participation in policy making: effective issue framing and successful alliance building.

  14. Rural extension in Uruguay: problems and approaches from the point of view of their extensionists

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    Fernando Landini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the problems faced by rural extension in Uruguay as well as the conceptions used by the development agents to conduct their practices constitutes a contribution to both, the Uruguayan rural development policies and the wider space of the MERCOSUR. A quali-quantitative research was conducted, during which 32 Uruguayan extensionists replied to a questionnaire. Replies underwent content and statistic analysis. Results suggest that the Uruguayan rural extensionists posses a complex conception of their practice, which articulates productive and social dimensions and relates to a critical and participatory way of understanding rural extension. Nevertheless, a diffusionist conception of rural extension is also present in some cases. Finally, problems related to group dynamics are highlighted.

  15. Inclusión educativa en Uruguay: una revisión posible

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    Andrea Jimena Viera Gómez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo realizar una revisión crítica de algunos documentos nacionales y textos académicos sobre las políticas de inclusión educativa en Uruguay. Se parte de los diversos significados y acepciones que tiene el término inclusión educativa, entendiendo que la misma debe brindar apoyo a la población de estudiantes más vulnerables ya sea por razones culturales, sociales, económicas o por su condición de discapacidad. Considerar la diversidad como parte de lo humano conduce a pensar en una educación en y para la diversidad, esta concepción de educación debe constituir el centro de la política educativa y el Estado deberá garantizar los recursos necesarios para su implementación. Se analizan algunos documentos del marco normativo internacional sobre inclusión social y educativa. Considerando que estos documentos refieren a la educación inclusiva como un derecho humano fundamental. Aún existe una gran distancia entre los discursos y las posibilidades efectivas de ejercer el derecho a la educación por parte de los niños en general y con discapacidad en particular. Uruguay mantiene en la actualidad un sistema de educación segregada, donde la situación educativa de los jóvenes con discapacidad hace figura y representa un gran desafío. Para finalizar, se identifica a la formación docente como uno de los componentes primordiales para el desarrollo de una educación inclusiva. El desarrollo profesional de los docentes es en sí mismo una estrategia de cambio y un factor clave para los procesos de mejora e innovación educativa. // This article aims to make a critical review of some national documents and academic texts on educational policies for inclusion in Uruguay. It begins with the various meanings and connotations that educational inclusion has, understanding that it should provide support to the student population most vulnerable either for cultural, social, economic or their disability

  16. First sauropod (Dinosauria: Saurischia) remains from the Guichón Formation, Late Cretaceous of Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Matías; Perea, Daniel; Cambiaso, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    We report the first sauropod remains recorded in the Guichón Formation, western Uruguay. The materials belong to a middle-sized sauropod represented by more than one individual, and among other remains include more than fifty caudal centra. Close to the bones, several eggshell fragments resembling Sphaerovum erbeniMones, 1980 were found. We discuss the biostratigraphic implications of these findings, which for the first time allow us to confidently refer the Guichón Formation to the Late Cretaceous. The combination of several synapomorphies such as a biconvex first caudal centrum, strongly procoelous middle and distal caudal centra, and a pyramidal astragalus suggests that the sauropod remains belong to a derived lithostrotian, probably related to Pellegrinisaurus powelli, Baurutitan britoi and Alamosaurus sanjuanensis. A few isolated teeth (now lost) referred by Frederich von Huene in 1934 to ornithomimid theropods and ornithischians are herein reinterpreted as belonging to indeterminate theropods and basal iguanodontians.

  17. Intraspecific variation of Bothrops pubescens (cope, 1869 venom in Uruguay (serpentes: viperidae

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    V. Morais

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Uruguay, there was no information about the variations degree in Bothrops pubescens venoms until the present work, in which we investigated intraspecific venom variation using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. We found some differences in the venom protein profile; however, they were not related to the parameters studied (geographic distribution, weight, sex, and captivity time. Moreover, we distinguished two different groups in relation to band densities at 49 and 57 kDa. Specimens with predominant density in the 49kDa band tend to be predominantly females. Weight distribution in this group extended for all the range (150-1500 g with an average weight of 720 g. The other group (57kDa predominant band showed restricted weight range (150-400 g with an average weight of 280 g. Cluster analysis was also performed. The variability observed in the venom profile probably corresponds to genetic variations.

  18. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Report of a case in Uruguay

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    Matilde Boada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma belongs to the group of mature T-cell malignancies according to the WHO classification. It constitutes a rare entity and has a strong association with infection by human T-lymphotropic virus 1. In Uruguay, this viral infection is very infrequent and, to our knowledge, no case of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma has been previously reported. We describe the case of a woman, immigrant from Peru, who presented with persistent lymphocytosis, intestinal parasitic diseases, and skin involvement. The diagnosis was delayed and the patient died before initiating oncological treatment. We therefore emphasize the relevance of an early clinical suspicion and serology for this virus, especially in patients coming from endemic countries like Peru.

  19. Student Assessment as a Political Construction—: The Case of Uruguay

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    Luis Benveniste

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals the interplay between assessment policies in Uruguay and the nature of State-societal relations. The central State has been historically a staunch defender of public education and has championed the cause of equalizing opportunities for the most disadvantaged sectors of society. The national evaluation system of student performance has been constructed as an expression of this tradition. The Uruguayan government sought to build a wide level of consensus with respect to the assessment instruments by encouraging educators to participate and buy into the assessment initiative. Moreover, the national government shifted the focus of the national evaluation from measuring schooling outcomes to addressing the social wants that condition student learning. Hence, the national evaluation has come to symbolize an agreed-upon mechanism of social accountability by which the central government upholds its responsibility for educational provision as it intervenes on behalf of impoverished communities. (Note 1

  20. MESOZOIC MAGMATISM IN EAST URUGUAY: PETROLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS RELATED TO THE SIERRA SAN MIGUEL REGION

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    Conti Bruno

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents new results of a detailed geological and structural investigation focusing the easternmost Uruguayan Mesozoic magmatic occurrences related to the south Atlantic opening. Lithological descriptions, their stratigraphic relationships and complimentary lithochemical characterizations carried out in the San Miguel region (East Uruguay are presented. Three volcanic/sub-volcanic units have been recognized. The felsic volcanic association is composed by rhyolitic - dacitic flows, mainly with porphyritic textures and sub-alkalinenature and related pyroclastic rocks. The felsic sub-volcanic association is characterized by granophyres of about 25 km2 of exposed area, cross- cut by mafic and felsic dykes. Finally, a mafic association has been identified characterized by dykes and a small intrusion of gabbroic composition.All these units are Mesozoic in age (130 - 127 Ma and according to their chemical nature they correspond tosub-alkaline to weak peralkaline magmas.

  1. The South-American Connection Gaston Maspero, Egyptology and Americanist Archaeology at Montevideo (Uruguay, 1868

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    Daniel Schavelzon

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1867, young Gastón Máspero arrived in Montevideo, Uruguay, to translate a book written by the Argentine historian Vicente Fidel López, who, while during his exile conducted his campaign to run for office, also devoted himself to Quechua and the linguistics from Perú. The year he spent in Montevideo coincided with the presence of other travelers, antiquarians and pioneers of archaeology in South America, as well as with the exhibition of major Egyptian collections at Buenos Aires and Rio de Janeiro. He was in the right place at the right time. Eventually, in spite of having concentrated on Egyptology, would never lost contact with Americanism or with the South American countries.

  2. Uruguay's ambitious energy goals: Focus on biomass; Uruguayische Energie-Offensive. Ambitionierte Ziele sollen vor allem mit Biomasse erreicht werden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Dierk

    2012-07-01

    Pasture farming has a long-standing tradition in Uruguay, but it is threatened now as soy, rice, citrus fruit, sugar cane and especially forest wood are getting sought after as animal feed and power generation materials. While forests are growing, the country's energy policy is aiming at a 50 percent share of renewable energy sources in primary energy supply. This makes Uruguay a leading country in Latin America. (orig.)

  3. Burden of disease resulting from lead exposure at toxic waste sites in Argentina, Mexico and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravanos, Jack; Carrelli, Jonathan; Dowling, Russell; Pavilonis, Brian; Ericson, Bret; Fuller, Richard

    2016-06-23

    Though lead contaminated waste sites have been widely researched in many high-income countries, their prevalence and associated health outcomes have not been well documented in low- and middle-income countries. Using the well-established health metric disability-adjusted life year (DALY) and an exposure assessment method developed by Chatham-Stephens et al., we estimated the burden of disease resulting from exposure to lead at toxic waste sites in three Latin American countries in 2012: Argentina, Mexico and Uruguay. Toxic waste sites identified through Pure Earth's Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) were screened for lead in both biological and environmental sample media. Estimates of cardiovascular disease incidence and other outcomes resulting from exposure to lead were utilized to estimate DALYs for each population at risk. Approximately 316,703 persons in three countries were at risk of exposure to pollutants at 129 unique sites identified through the TSIP database. Exposure to lead was estimated to result in between 51,432 and 115,042 DALYs, depending on the weighting factor used. The estimated burden of disease caused by exposure to lead in this analysis is comparable to that estimated for Parkinson's disease and bladder cancer in these countries. Lead continues to pose a significant public health risk in Argentina, Mexico, and Uruguay. The burden of disease in these three countries is comparable with other widely recognized public health challenges. Knowledge of the relatively high number of DALYs associated with lead exposure may be used to generate support and funding for the remediation of toxic waste sites in these countries and others.

  4. Memoria del terrorismo de estado en la ciudad de Montevideo (Uruguay

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    Magdalena BROQUETAS SAN MARTÍN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Recientemente, en los países del Cono Sur de América Latina que han atravesado experiencias de terrorismo de Estado, ha comenzado a desarrollarse la discusión en torno a las marcas territoriales y los espacios físicos que aluden a ese pasado. En este contexto comenzó a pensarse la ciudad como escenario de las acciones del terrorismo de Estado, con el objetivo de reconocer en ella las huellas de esa experiencia y partiendo de la base de que esos rastros pueden transformarse en «vehículos de memoria». En esta ponencia, centrada en la ciudad de Montevideo (Uruguay, se repasarán las iniciativas de memoria desplegadas por agentes estatales y colectivos sociales para representar ese pasado de represión y violencia política y se reflexionará acerca del rol del historiador en esta contienda.ABSTRACT: Recently, in those countries of Southern America which have suffered experiences of the State terrorism, the discussion has begun to be developed concerning the territorial marks and the physical spaces that allude to this past. About this context the city begun to be thought as stage of the actions of the State terrorism, with the target to recognize on it the traces of this experience and departing from the base of which these tracks can be understood as «vehículos de la memoria» (places to recall past history. In this paper, focused on the city of Montevideo (Uruguay, there will be revised the initiatives of memory carried by state agents and social groups to represent this past of repression and political violence; the role of the historian in this process will be evalued at the same time.

  5. Seed softening patterns of forage legumes in a temperate/subtropical environment in Uruguay

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    Javier Do Canto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted in annual and perennial forage legumes to investigate the development of hardseededness and the subsequent pattern of seed softening in temperate and subtropical regions of South America. Experiments were conducted during 2007 and 2008 in central Uruguay to follow the pattern of seed softening in 35 annual and perennial forage legumes, including three native species of Uruguay and five commercial cultivars. Newly ripened seeds of each plant material were placed in mesh packets on the soil surface in mid-summer. Samples were recovered monthly for germination tests and the proportion of residual hard seeds determined. The native species Adesmia bicolor (Poir. DC., Adesmia securigerifolia Herter, and Ornithopus micranthus (Benth. Arechav., together with Ornithopus pinnatus (Mill. Druce cv. INIA Molles behaved similarly. They showed high levels of initial hard seed from 78% in A. bicolor to 99% in A. securigerifolia and O. pinnatus cv. INIA Molles in 2007; displayed pulses of seed softening, particularly in autumn, and retained moderate levels of residual hard seed for the development of a soil seed bank ranging from 15% in A. bicolor to 49% in O. micranthus. These appear to be desirable characteristics for persistence of forage legumes in subtropical grasslands, both for annual and perennial species. Trifolium repens L. and Lotus corniculatus L. produced few hard seeds, only 2% and 13% respectively were hard after 1-mo in the field and were completely soft by July placing extra reliance on their vegetative propagation for persistence. Materials of L. arenarius Brot. showed pronounced late autumn softening, while materials of L. ornithopodioides L. showed extremely high levels of hardseededness (between 96% and 100% and no softening during the evaluation period, apart from two materials that were completely soft seeded. Mediterranean forage legumes should be properly evaluated in temperate and subtropical regions as

  6. Dental anomalies in Didelphis albiventris (Mammalia, Marsupialia, Didelphidae from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay

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    M. Amelia Chemisquy

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dental anomalies have been investigated and reported for most orders of mammals, including marsupials. Previous works in Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840 only described one kind of malformation or just a few observations from some collections, thus the type and presence of anomalies for this species was underestimated. The aim of this contribution is to describe and analyze several dental anomalies found in specimens of Didelphis albiventris from Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. Dental anomalies were classified in three categories: supernumerary or missing teeth, morphological anomalies in size and shape, and teeth in unusual positions. We found 32 individuals of D. albiventris with anomalies out of 393 analyzed specimens (8.14%, some specimens with more than one anomaly. A similar proportion of specimens from Argentina and Uruguay presented anomalies, while in specimens from Brazil anomalies were less common. Anomalies were more commonly found in the upper toothrow and in molars, being supernumerary teeth and molars with unusual crown-shape the most common ones. The percentage of specimens with anomalies found for D. albiventris is higher than previously reported for the species, and other Didelphimorphia. Inbreeding and limited gene flow do not appear as possible explanations for the elevated percentage of anomalies, especially due to the ecological characteristics of Didelphis albiventris. Developmental instability and fluctuating asymmetry could be some of the causes for the anomalies found in this species, mostly since the habitat used by D. albiventris tends to be unstable and disturbed. Dental anomalies were mostly found in areas of the toothrow where occlusion is relaxed or does not prevent teeth from interlocking during mastication, and consequently have no functional value.

  7. Zoonotic Potential and Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli in Neonatal Calves in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umpiérrez, Ana; Bado, Inés; Oliver, Martín; Acquistapace, Sofía; Etcheverría, Analía; Padola, Nora Lía; Vignoli, Rafael; Zunino, Pablo

    2017-09-27

    Escherichia coli is one of the main etiological agents of neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD). The objective of this study was to assess the presence of virulence genes, genetic diversity, and antibiotic resistance mechanisms in E. coli associated with NCD in Uruguay. PCR was used to assess the presence of intimin, Shiga-like toxin, and stable and labile enterotoxin genes. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and oxyimino-cephalosporins was estimated on Müller-Hinton agar plates. Further antibiotic disc-diffusion tests were performed to assess bacterial multi-resistance. The presence of PMQR, ESBL, MCR-1, and integron genes was evaluated. Isolates were typed using ERIC-PCR, and 20 were selected for MLST, adhesion to Hep-2 cells, in vitro biofilm formation, and eukaryotic cytotoxicity. The prevalence of ETEC genes was lower than 3% in each case (estA and elt). Six isolates were EPEC (eae+) and 2 were EHEC/STEC (eae+/stx1+). The results of a diversity analysis showed high genetic heterogenicity among isolates. Additionally, different sequence types, including ST10, ST21, and ST69, were assigned to selected isolates. Thirty-six percent (96/264) of the isolates were fluoroquinolone-resistant, with 61/96 (63.5%) being multidrug-resistant. Additionally, 6 were oxyimino-cephalosporin-resistant. The qnrB, qnrS1, and bla CTX-M-14 genes were detected, whereas no isolates carried the mcr-1 gene. Isolates had the ability to adhere to Hep-2 cells and form biofilms. Only 1 isolate expressed toxins in vitro. E. coli from NCD cases in Uruguay are very diverse, potentially virulent, and may interact with eukaryotic cells. Zoonotic potential, together with resistance traits and the presence of horizontal transfer mechanisms, may play a significant role in infections caused by these microorganisms.

  8. Recreational Exposure during Algal Bloom in Carrasco Beach, Uruguay: A Liver Failure Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Flavia; Sedan, Daniela; D'Agostino, Daniel; Cavalieri, María Lorena; Mullen, Eduardo; Parot Varela, María Macarena; Flores, Cintia; Caixach, Josep; Andrinolo, Dario

    2017-08-31

    In January 2015, a 20-month-old child and her family took part in recreational activities at Carrasco and Malvín beaches (Montevideo, Uruguay). An intense harmful algae bloom (HAB) was developing along the coast at that time. A few hours after the last recreational exposure episode, the family suffered gastrointestinal symptoms which were self-limited except in the child's case, who was admitted to hospital in Uruguay with diarrhea, vomiting, fatigue, and jaundice. The patient had increased serum levels of liver enzymes and bilirubin and five days later presented acute liver failure. She was referred to the Italian Hospital in Buenos Aires, being admitted with grade II-III encephalopathy and hepatomegaly and requiring mechanical respiratory assistance. Serology tests for hepatitis A, B, and C, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus were negative. Laboratory features showed anemia, coagulopathy, and increased serum levels of ammonium, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and bilirubin. Autoimmune Hepatitis Type-II (AH-II) was the initial diagnosis based on a liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibodies (LKM-1) positive result, and twenty days later a liver transplant was performed. The liver histopathology had indicated hemorrhagic necrosis in zone 3, and cholestasis and nodular regeneration, which were not characteristic of AH-II. LC/ESI-HRMS (liquid chromatography electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry) analysis of MCs in the explanted liver revealed the presence of Microsytin-LR (MC-LR) (2.4 ng·gr(-1) tissue) and [D-Leu¹]MC-LR (75.4 ng·gr(-1) tissue), which constitute a toxicological nexus and indicate a preponderant role of microcystins in the development of fulminant hepatitis.

  9. Tobacco smoke exposure in public places and workplaces after smoke-free policy implementation: a longitudinal analysis of smoker cohorts in Mexico and Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Nayeli Abad-Vivero, Erika; Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Boado, Marcelo; Yong, Hua Hie; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Bianco, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, correlates and changes in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure over the period after comprehensive smoke-free policy implementation in two Latin American countries. Methods: Data were analysed from population-based representative samples of adult smokers and recent quitters from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico (n = 1766 and 1840, respectively) and Uruguay (n = 1379 and 1411, respectively). Prevalence of SHS exposure was estimated for regulated venues, and generalized estimating equations were used to determine correlates of SHS exposure. Results: Workplace SHS exposure in the last month was similar within and across countries (range: Mexico 20–25%; Uruguay 14–29%). At the most recent restaurant visit, SHS exposure was lower where comprehensive smoke-free policies were implemented (range: Uruguay 6–9%; Mexico City 5–7%) compared with Mexican cities with weaker policies, where exposure remained higher but decreased over time (32–17%). At the most recent bar visit, SHS exposure was common (range: Uruguay 8–36%; Mexico City 23–31%), although highest in jurisdictions with weaker policies (range in other Mexican cities: 74–86%). In Uruguay, males were more likely than females to be exposed to SHS across venues, as were younger compared with older smokers in Mexico. Conclusions: Comprehensive smoke-free policies are more effective than weaker policies, although compliance in Mexico and Uruguay is not as high as desired. PMID:23172895

  10. Impacto de estrategias colectivas en la sustentabilidad de sistemas familiares lecheros en Uruguay Impact of collective strategies on the sustainability of family dairy systems in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R García Ferreira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, los procesos de insustentabilidad que transitan los sistemas de producción familiares lecheros de pequeña escala han sido una importante preocupación para gremiales de productores y equipos de intervención e investigación. La Asociación de Productores Lecheros San José, Uruguay, y diversos equipos universitarios han desarrollado experiencias de desarrollo rural y apoyos a la producción, tendientes a mejorar los niveles de ingresos y la calidad de vida de estas familias, fortaleciendo los procesos colectivos como contratendencias a ese proceso central. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar el estado de sustentabilidad de los sistemas familiares lecheros del Departamento de San José, considerando sus dimensiones social, económica y agroecológica; se aplicó una metodología de evaluación a través de indicadores de sustentabilidad en 100 de estos sistemas y se analizó la influencia que tienen sobre ello el uso y la adopción de estrategias colectivas de apoyo a la producción. Entre los principales resultados, resalta que los sistemas que incorporaron más estrategias colectivas (tres o más presentaron mayores valores, en general, para varios de los indicadores productivos y económicos (un incremento de 66% en el ingreso predial per cápita, 39% en litros/ha y 73% en PB/ha en promedio que aquellos que las adoptaron de forma aislada (una sola estrategia. Se concluye que el análisis de estos 100 establecimientos orienta a seguir en el camino de la generación y estudio de este tipo de estrategias colectivas, que sirven fundamentalmente como alternativas en la generación de contratendencias que puedan disminuir, amortiguar o revertir la desaparición y degradación de los sistemas familiares lecheros como grupo social.In recent years, the unsustainability processes undergone by small scale family dairy systems have been an important concern for farmer guilds and intervention and research teams. The

  11. Indications of the Implementation in the Process of Educational Reform in Uruguay Indicadores de la implementación en procesos de reforma educativa en Uruguay

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    Marcos R. Sarasola

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author investigates, from a qualitative perspective, the problems associated with implementing educational innovations. He studies the recent case of the Basic Cycle reform in Uruguay. Based on the concepts of van der Vegt and Vandenberghe (1992, he analyzes the "functions guides" exercised by the director in order to be able to regulate the internal flow of the implementation. The first of these is "conceptual clarity", which has to do with providing the professors with a clear vision of what will take place within the implementation, and with specifying that vision in terms of the professional knowledge and abilities of the faculty as well. The second of these is "directional pressure," which refers to an operational level of the implementation; that is to say, how daily activities mesh with the objectives of the reform. Next, "function of support" refers to the support offered by the director for the management of resources (material, emotional, technical, and administrative resources, so that the resources may then effectively support the work in the center. Finally is "definition of latitude," that is, the degree of educational autonomy that the faculty have with respect to the external objectives of the reform. En este trabajo el autor estudia, desde una perspectiva cualitativa, la problemática de la implementación de innovaciones educativas. Toma por caso la reciente reforma del Ciclo Básico en Uruguay. Con base en los conceptos de van der Vegt y Vandenberghe (1992, analiza las "funciones guía" ejercidas por el director para poder regular el flujo interno de la implementación. La primera de ellas es la "claridad conceptual", que tiene que ver con las posibilidades de proveer a los profesores de una clara visión de lo que ha de lograrse con la implementación y con concretar esa visión en términos de saber profesional y habilidades de los docentes. La segunda es la "presión direccional" que refiere a un nivel

  12. Desarrollo y territorio en Uruguay. Una mirada desde la experiencia españona en L'Alcoià

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    Adrián Rodríguez Miranda

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En Uruguay las políticas macronacionales y sectoriales no han considerado suficientemente el impacto territorial ni a los actores locales para impulsar el desarrollo regional. No obstante, hay experiencias exitosas de desarrollo endógeno en diferentes latitudes del mundo que pueden servir de modelos para definir estrategias de desarrollo local y territorial. En este artículo se describe la experiencia L Alcoià, España, y se evalúan sus resultados desde la ótica del desarrollo endógeno. Asimismo, se aprecian las principales características de esta experiencia y se condieran para la integración de una estrategia de desarrollo en Uruguay que se estructure desde la perspectiva local de sus diferentes regiones.

  13. The challenge of implementation of preventive programs in a developing country: experiences, situations, and perspectives in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osimani, María Luz

    2003-12-15

    In recent years, Uruguay has seen an alarming increase in the percentage of persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who are injection drug users (IDUs) and their sex partners, which has consequently contributed to the rate of perinatal transmission. Development of preventive harm reduction and risk reduction strategies has become imperative. These strategies must be suitable for a developing country and focused on its population of IDUs. These strategies must include, as a preliminary step, a comprehensive analysis of the current local legal system and knowledge about the kinds of drugs used, the ways in which they are used, and their effects on public health. The conclusions of some studies and a pilot program that Institute of Social Research and Development, Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo Social, Uruguay, implemented in 2001 have pointed to new avenues for the control of the epidemic spread among IDUs and to their social environment.

  14. Relationships in international supply chain of a multinational: the case Marfrig in their units in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Troczinski Storti; Luciana Marques Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Studies aimed at understanding the characteristics of relationships that occur between companies involved in the supply chain are timely when the growing role of overseas companies. This article aims to understand and compare the presence and alignment of information on criteria analysis cooperation, involvement, trust, communication and coordination in supply chain relationships in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, of a multinational based in Brazil. It was developed an analytical model and, th...

  15. Hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction before and after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free policy in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrié, Ernesto Marcelo; Sandoya, Edgardo; Hyland, Andrew; Bianco, Eduardo; Glantz, Stanton A; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Stimulated by the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, many countries in Latin America adopted comprehensive smoke-free policies. In March 2006, Uruguay became the first Latin American country to adopt 100% smoke-free national legislation, which ended smoking in all indoor public places and workplaces, including restaurants and bars. The objective of this study was to evaluate trends in hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease 2 years before and 2 years after the policy was implemented in Uruguay. Methods Reports of hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (International Classification of Disease-10 I21) from 37 hospitals (79% of all hospital admissions in the country), representing the period 2 years before and 2 years after the adoption of a nationwide smoke-free policy in Uruguay (between 1 March 2004 and 29 February 2008), were reviewed. A time series analysis was undertaken to compare the average monthly number of events of hospital admission for AMI before and after the smoke-free law. Results A total of 7949 hospital admissions for AMI were identified during the 4-year study period. Two years after the smoke-free policy was enacted, hospital admissions for AMI fell by 22%. The same pattern and roughly the same magnitude of reduction in AMI admissions were observed for patients seen in public and private hospitals, men, women and people aged 40–65 years and older than 65 years. Conclusions The national smoke-free policy implemented in Uruguay in 2006 was associated with a significant reduction in hospital admissions for AMI. PMID:22337557

  16. Las relaciones entre autonomía colectiva y gobierno en Uruguay: crónica con final abierto

    OpenAIRE

    Barretto, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Relations between collective autonomy and government in Uruguay: chronic with open endingThe present article, after making a brief recount of the model of Uruguayan collective labor relations, analyzes the foundation and impact of heteronomous regulation on the protection of trade union freedom and collective bargaining released in the context of transformation model during periods from 2005 to 2009 and so far until 2012, with the purpose of determining whether the same meant a profound and d...

  17. TOURISM PUBLIC POLICY AND TERRITORY IN THE THERMAL REGION OF URUGUAY – CASE STUDY: GUAVIYU HOT SPRINGS (1957-2007

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    Claudio Quintana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the transformation of space in touristic territory (touristification and the stages of tourism through which Guaviyú Hot Springs (Paysandu, Uruguay went. The role of governmental tourism administration strongly conditioned the dynamics and evolution of Guaviyu Hot Springs. The intervention of Public Administration has been a key historical and spatial factor for the development of tourism in the hot springs center.

  18. Une révolution numérique dans les salles de classe de l'Uruguay ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 janv. 2011 ... Les élèves des écoles primaires publiques de l'Uruguay vont bientôt voir leurs salles de classe se colorer de vert. Grâce à une initiative pilote mondiale, des millions d'ordinateurs portables peu coûteux seront distribués aux enfants les plus pauvres de la planète au cours de l'an prochain.

  19. Diferencias entre los sexos en los procedimientos judiciales: Pruebas de campo de causas de vivienda en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Gandelman; Nestor Gandelman; Julie Rothschild

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo emplea dados de nivel micro de procedimientos judiciales en Uruguay para mostrar pruebas de que las acusadas reciben un tratamiento más favorable en los tribunales que los acusados. Esto se debe a procedimientos más prolongados de remate judicial y a que hay una mayor probabilidad de que se concedan prórrogas en los procesos de desalojo a las acusadas.

  20. Venezuela, Surinam, Jamaica y Uruguay: relevancia de los partidos políticos para la democracia, ayer y hoy

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    Natascha Adama

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El postulado de que los sistemas bipartidistas son más estables es negado por las crisis políticas habidas en Uruguay y Jamaica en las décadas de 1960 y 1970. Los sistemas multipartidistas de Venezuela y Uruguay, en cierto momento histórico, acomodaron la realización de pactos y alianzas políticas aparentemente improbables, que en tiempos de crisis llevaron a la fragmentación del panorama político y a profundas crisis de liderazgo que continúan determinando la sociedad de hoy. Este artículo sostiene la hipótesis de que los sistemas bipartidistas tienen mayor propensión a la estabilidad política debido a que la agregación de demandas se concentra entre dos contendientes principales y a que las posibilidades de pactos políticos se ven limitadas. La hipótesis mencionada será explorada mediante el examen de: 1 la relevancia de los sistemas de partidos para la democratización, en general y en los casos de Jamaica, Uruguay, Surinam y Venezuela; 2 el papel de los partidos en los países mencionados durante y después de las crisis políticas, y su capacidad para re-equilibrarse y ajustarse ante las presiones del cambio social.

  1. Prevalence and predictors of exposure to multiple metals in preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordas, Katarzyna, E-mail: Kxk48@psu.edu [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, 110 Chandlee Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Queirolo, Elena I. [Center for Research, Catholic University of Uruguay, Montevideo (Uruguay); Clinic for Environmental Contaminants, Pereira Rossell Hospital, Montevideo (Uruguay); Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Wright, Robert O. [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Stoltzfus, Rebecca J. [Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2010-09-15

    The extent of children's exposure to multiple toxic metals is not well described in many developing countries. We examined metal exposures in young children (6-37 months) from Montevideo, Uruguay and their mothers (15-47 years) participating in a community-based study. Hair samples collected from 180 children and their mothers were analyzed for: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), and arsenic (As) concentration using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Median metal levels ({mu}g/g) were: Pb 13.69, Mn 1.45, Cd 0.17, and As 0.09 for children and Pb 4.27, Mn 1.42, Cd 0.08, and As 0.02 for mothers. Of the child and maternal samples, 1.7% and 2.9% were below the limit of detection (LOD) for Cd, and 21.3% and 38.5% were below the LOD for As, respectively. Correlations between maternal and child levels ranged 0.38-0.55 (p < 0.01). Maternal hair metal levels were the strongest predictors of metal concentrations in children's hair. Girls had significantly lower As levels than boys (p < 0.01) but did not differ on other metals. In addition, in bivariate logistic regressions predicting the likelihood that the child would be exposed to multiple metals, hemoglobin < 10.5 g/dL (OR = 2.12, p < 0.05), blood lead (OR = 1.17, p < 0.01), and the mother being exposed to two or more metals (OR = 3.34, p < 0.01) were identified as significant predictors of increased likelihood of multiple metal exposure. Older child age (OR = 0.96, p < 0.05), higher maternal education (OR = 0.35, p < 0.01), and higher number of household possessions (OR = 0.83, p < 0.01) were significantly associated with decreased likelihood of multiple metal exposure. Preschool children in Uruguay are exposed to multiple metals at levels that in other studies have been associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits. Sources of exposure, as well as cognitive and behavioral consequences of multiple metal exposure, should be investigated in this population.

  2. Actitudes lingüísticas en Uruguay. Tensiones entre la variedad y la identidad

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    Elizabeth García de los Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de los hablantes nativos de español de la ciudad de Montevideo hacia al español de Uruguay y el de los otros países hispanohablantes. El artículo es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigaciones (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando a una muestra de 400 informantes previamente estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. Los resultados presentan el grado de identificación de los hablantes frente a su variedad del español (creencias, lealtad hacia la norma propia y las actitudes de los hablantes respecto a las variedades entendidas como de mayor o menor prestigio; se encuentran ciertas regularidades en las causas que determinan estas actitudes. El estudio analizar el grado de tolerancia a las diferencias lingüísticas de acuerdo a distintos géneros discursivos (noticias de radio y televisión, información telefónica, publicidades y los resultados muestran que el contexto y el medio de comunicación son importantes para la manera en la que el hablante reacciona al uso del lenguaje. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of native Spanish-speakers from Montevideo towards Spanish spoken in Uruguay and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital of the country, interviewing a stratified sample of 400 respondents, based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. The results describe the degree of identification of the speakers with their own variety of Spanish (beliefs, loyalty to the norm and their attitudes toward linguistic varieties of high or low prestige, and the findings

  3. Foraging strategies of Southern sea lion females in the La Plata River Estuary (Argentina-Uruguay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Diego H.; Dassis, Mariela; Ponce de León, Alberto; Barreiro, César; Farenga, Marcelo; Bastida, Ricardo O.; Davis, Randall W.

    2013-04-01

    The stocks of Southern sea lions (Otaria flavescens, SSL) and South American fur seals (SAFS) that breed on coastal islands of Uruguay constitute the most important focal concentration of pinnipeds in South America, with a significant increase in SAFS and a steady decrease of SSL over the past decades. Because females are a key element of population dynamics and no information exists on the post-breeding pup rearing period, we studied the foraging patterns of SSL females in the La Plata River Estuary (LPRE) during mid and late lactation (late austral autumn and winter), analyzing the foraging performance, geographic coverage and ontogenetic differences in foraging strategies for a period of 1-5 months. At-sea movements of 22 SSL females (6 subadults and 16 adults) from Isla de Lobos (IL, 35°01'28"S-54°52'59"W, Uruguay) were monitored using satellite transmitters (SPOT4, SPOT5 and STDR-S16, Wildlife Computers) in 2007 and 2010. An algorithm [McConnell, B.J., Chambers, C., Fedak, M.A., 1992. Foraging ecology of southern elephant seals in relation to the bathymetry and productivity of the Southern Ocean. Antarct. Sci. 4, 393-398.] with a maximum transit speed of 3 m s-1 was applied to the Argos information, resulting in a total of 2522 filtered locations. A daily mean of 3.5±1.74 filtered locations per animal was received. One hundred and eighty three foraging trips (FT) were recorded with no significant differences (plactating females decrease FT duration by increasing transit speed but maintain a similar spatial coverage compared with FT later in lactation. Although several aquatic areas of high priority for conservation in LPRE have been identified and proposed, only 15% of the foraging habitat of SSL females is currently included in these areas. This emphasizes the importance of the inclusion of the at-sea foraging distributions of central point foragers in marine protected areas. If conservation efforts focus only on coastal breeding concentrations, key

  4. La experiencia de Uruguay: el Proyecto de Ley de Defensa de la Salud Reproductiva The experience in Uruguay: the Bill for the Defense of Reproductive Health

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    Mónica Xavier

    2005-04-01

    ties that projected it beyond the country's borders. The article briefly reviews the background and basis for the bill, the research it entailed, and the international commitments assumed by Uruguay, before concluding with a summary of the bill itself and the challenges it poses in terms of sexual and reproductive rights, specifically with regard to voluntary interruption of pregnancy.

  5. Activation of shared identities on the Uruguayan and Brazilian frontier triggered by the construction of Uruguay as a consumption proposal

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    Roberta Brandalise

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudamos a participação do jornalismo brasileiro na articulação de representações sociais e de identidades culturais na fronteira Brasil-Uruguai, a partir das apropriações e usos que brasileiros e uruguaios fronteiriços fizeram de narrativas noticiosas sobre o Uruguai e que eles consideraram relevantes em seu cotidiano. Realizamos o estudo de caso sob a perspectiva dos Estudos Culturais Britânicos e Latino-Americanos, com entrevistas semiestruturadas junto a uma amostra de 12 fronteiriços. O Uruguai foi caracterizado no discurso jornalístico como uma proposta de consumo, como destino turístico ou em função de seus produtos e recursos naturais. As narrativas noticiosas colaboraram para reforçar a identificação entre uruguaios e brasileiros com respeito ao pertencimento regional e ao estilo de vida.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Comunicação; Consumo; Fronteiras; Uruguai; Brasil.     ABSTRACT We studied the participation of Brazilian journalism in the articulation of social representations and of cultural identities on the Brazilian and Uruguayan border based on the news narratives about Uruguay that frontier Brazilians and Uruguayans appropriated, made use of and considered relevant in their everyday lives. We conducted the study case from the perspective of British and Latin American social studies, using semi-structured interviews for questioning 12 frontier people. Uruguay was featured in newspaper discourse as a consumption proposal, a tourist destination, or a stand for its products and natural resources. The narrative news helped to reinforce the mutual identification of Uruguayans and Brazilians with respect to their belonging to the region and their life style.   KEYWORDS: Communication; Consumption; Frontiers; Uruguay; Brazil.     RESUMEN Estudiamos la participación del periodismo brasileño en la articulación de representaciones sociales y de identidades culturales en la frontera Brasil-Uruguay, a partir de las

  6. DNA multigene characterization of Fasciola hepatica and Lymnaea neotropica and its fascioliasis transmission capacity in Uruguay, with historical correlation, human report review and infection risk analysis

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    Gayo, Valeria; Sanchis, Jaime; Artigas, Patricio; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Birriel, Soledad; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Background Fascioliasis is a pathogenic disease transmitted by lymnaeid snails and recently emerging in humans, in part due to effects of climate changes, anthropogenic environment modifications, import/export and movements of livestock. South America is the continent presenting more human fascioliasis hyperendemic areas and the highest prevalences and intensities known. These scenarios appear mainly linked to altitude areas in Andean countries, whereas lowland areas of non-Andean countries, such as Uruguay, only show sporadic human cases or outbreaks. A study including DNA marker sequencing of fasciolids and lymnaeids, an experimental study of the life cycle in Uruguay, and a review of human fascioliasis in Uruguay, are performed. Methodology/Principal findings The characterization of Fasciola hepatica from cattle and horses of Uruguay included the complete sequences of the ribosomal DNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 and mitochondrial DNA cox1 and nad1. ITS-2, ITS-1, partial cox1 and rDNA 16S gene of mtDNA were used for lymnaeids. Results indicated that vectors belong to Lymnaea neotropica instead of to Lymnaea viator, as always reported from Uruguay. The life cycle and transmission features of F. hepatica by L. neotropica of Uruguay were studied under standardized experimental conditions to enable a comparison with the transmission capacity of F. hepatica by Galba truncatula at very high altitude in Bolivia. On this baseline, we reviewed the 95 human fascioliasis cases reported in Uruguay and analyzed the risk of human infection in front of future climate change estimations. Conclusions/Significance The correlation of fasciolid and lymnaeid haplotypes with historical data on the introduction and spread of livestock into Uruguay allowed to understand the molecular diversity detected. Although Uruguayan L. neotropica is a highly efficient vector, its transmission capacity is markedly lower than that of Bolivian G. truncatula. This allows to understand the transmission and

  7. DNA multigene characterization of Fasciola hepatica and Lymnaea neotropica and its fascioliasis transmission capacity in Uruguay, with historical correlation, human report review and infection risk analysis.

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    María Dolores Bargues

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is a pathogenic disease transmitted by lymnaeid snails and recently emerging in humans, in part due to effects of climate changes, anthropogenic environment modifications, import/export and movements of livestock. South America is the continent presenting more human fascioliasis hyperendemic areas and the highest prevalences and intensities known. These scenarios appear mainly linked to altitude areas in Andean countries, whereas lowland areas of non-Andean countries, such as Uruguay, only show sporadic human cases or outbreaks. A study including DNA marker sequencing of fasciolids and lymnaeids, an experimental study of the life cycle in Uruguay, and a review of human fascioliasis in Uruguay, are performed.The characterization of Fasciola hepatica from cattle and horses of Uruguay included the complete sequences of the ribosomal DNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 and mitochondrial DNA cox1 and nad1. ITS-2, ITS-1, partial cox1 and rDNA 16S gene of mtDNA were used for lymnaeids. Results indicated that vectors belong to Lymnaea neotropica instead of to Lymnaea viator, as always reported from Uruguay. The life cycle and transmission features of F. hepatica by L. neotropica of Uruguay were studied under standardized experimental conditions to enable a comparison with the transmission capacity of F. hepatica by Galba truncatula at very high altitude in Bolivia. On this baseline, we reviewed the 95 human fascioliasis cases reported in Uruguay and analyzed the risk of human infection in front of future climate change estimations.The correlation of fasciolid and lymnaeid haplotypes with historical data on the introduction and spread of livestock into Uruguay allowed to understand the molecular diversity detected. Although Uruguayan L. neotropica is a highly efficient vector, its transmission capacity is markedly lower than that of Bolivian G. truncatula. This allows to understand the transmission and epidemiological differences between Andean highlands

  8. Influencia de las descargas de los asentamientos urbanos sobre el Río Uruguay entre los años 1998 y 2004

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    Constanza Gabriela Llorente

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available El Río Uruguay integra junto con el Paraná y el Paraguay la Cuenca del Plata; recorriendo aproximadamente unos 1700 Km desde su naciente en la Sierra do Mar (Brasil hasta su desembocadura en el Río de la Plata. En el trayecto correspondiente a su cuenca baja (desde la línea imaginaria Bella Unión – Monte Caseros, sirve como límite internacional entre la República Argentina y la República Oriental del Uruguay, zona que es administrada por la Comisión Administradora del Río Uruguay (CARU. Sobre las márgenes del Río se encuentran asentamientos urbanos importantes como Concordia, Colón, Concepción del Uruguay y Gualeguaychú de la margen Argentino y Salto, Paysandú y Fray Bentos de la margen Uruguaya; estos asentamientos presentan importantes desarrollos agrícolas e industriales con descarga directa al río. En este trabajo analizaremos la influencia de estas descargas sobre el Río Uruguay en el periodo 1998-2004.

  9. Reform of abortion law in Uruguay: context, process and lessons learned.

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    Wood, Susan; Abracinskas, Lilián; Correa, Sonia; Pecheny, Mario

    2016-11-01

    In October 2012, a new law was approved in Uruguay that allows abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, 14 weeks in the case of rape, and without a time limit when the woman's health is at risk or in the case of foetal anomalies. This paper analyses this legal reform. It is based on 27 individual and group interviews with key informants, and on review of primary documents and the literature. The factors explaining the reform include: secular values in society, favourable public opinion, a persistent feminist movement, effective coalition building, particular party politics, and a vocal public health sector. The content of the new law reflects the tensions between a feminist perspective of women's rights and public health arguments that stop short of fully recognizing women's autonomy. The Uruguayan reform shows that, even in Latin America, abortion can be addressed politically without electoral cost to the parties that promote it. On the other hand, the prevailing public health rationale and conditionalities built into the law during the negotiation process resulted in a law that cannot be interpreted as a full recognition of women's rights, but rather as a modified protectionist approach that circumscribes women's autonomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Evaluation of the Charing Cross Venous Ulcer Questionnaire in patients with chronic venous ulcers in Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafernaberry, Gabriela; Otero, Gabriela; Agorio, Caroline; Dapueto, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic venous ulcers (CVU) represent a frequent condition, with difficult therapeutic approaches, that impact on patients’ quality of life, and generate an economic burden to patients and health systems. To perform the cultural adaptation and initial evaluation of the Charing Cross Venous Ulcer Questionnaire (CCVUQ) for Uruguay, and to study the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with CVU. The translated and culturally adapted version of the CCVUQ was applied to a convenience sample of 50 patients. In addition, the PROMIS Global Health Survey was included in the assessment. Both questionnaires showed good internal consistency (Cronbach alfa > 0.70). A statistically significant association was observed between the CCVUQ total scores, its subscales and both dimensions of the PROMIS: Global Physical (GPH) and Global Mental Health (GMH) (rho ≥ 0.40). The CCVUQ mean score was 54.9 ± 42 points while GPH and GMH mean scores were 37.9 ± 29 points, and 43.1 ± 35.1 points respectively. Simple linear regression showed that patients with higher income reported better emotional well-being, while in younger patients, ulcers had a higher impact on Emotional Status and Cosmetics. The translated and adapted version of the CCVUQ was easy to comprehend and apply, showing good psychometric properties. When used in association with the PROMIS Global Health Measure it provides complementary information. HRQL was severely affected in the study sample.

  11. Uruguay: cambios políticos recientes y su contexto socioeconómico

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    Gerónimo de Sierra

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo describe y analiza las significativas novedades que introdujo en el sistema de partidos y las relaciones políticas del Uruguay el resultado de las elecciones nacionales, a dos vueltas, de octubre y noviembre de 1999. En particular, el fin del bipartidismo tradicional; la constitución como partido claramente mayoritario a nivel nacional, y de algunos departamentos, del Frente Amlio/ Encuentro Progresista; la cuasi necesidad de gobiernos de coalición; los nuevos dilemas del pluralismo efectivo de partidos; la novedad de que el candidato del partido mayoritario no ocupe la presidencia del país. Al mismo tiempo, presenta resumidamente las transformaciones externas y las crisis socioeconómicas locales, fenómenos que enmarcan dicho proceso; así como su posible incidencia –-junto a los cambios de las reglas electorales— en los resultados electorales y en las perspectivas de gobernabilidad en el país. Finalmente, analiza el funcionamiento del gobierno y sus relaciones con la oposición política en el primer año del nuevo escenario post electoral.

  12. Package design and nutritional profile of foods targeted at children in supermarkets in Montevideo, Uruguay

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    Ana Giménez

    Full Text Available Abstract: Marketing of unhealthy products has been identified as one of the main characteristics of the food environment that negatively affects children’s eating patterns. Restrictions on advertising of unhealthy foods to children have already been imposed in different countries. However, marketing strategies are not limited to broadcast and digital advertising, but also include package design. In this context, the current study aimed to describe the food products targeted at children and sold in supermarkets in Montevideo, Uruguay, in terms of package design and nutrient profile. Two supermarkets in Montevideo were selected for data collection. In each supermarket, all products targeted at children were identified. Products were analyzed in terms of package design and nutritional profile, considering the Pan American Health Organization Nutrient Profile Model. A total of 180 unique products were identified, which included a wide range of product categories. The great majority of the products corresponded to ultra-processed products with excessive amounts of sodium, free sugars, total fat, saturated fat, and/or trans fat, which are not recommended for frequent consumption. Several marketing strategies were identified in the design of packages to attract children’s attention and drive their preferences. The most common strategies were the inclusion of cartoon characters, bright colors, childish lettering, and a wide range of claims related to health and nutrition, as well as the products’ sensory and hedonic characteristics. The study’s findings provide additional evidence on the need to regulate packaging of products targeted at children.

  13. Rh factor, family history and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay.

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    Ronco, Alvaro L; Stoll, Mario; De Stéfani, Eduardo; Maisonneuve, Juan E; Mendoza, Beatriz A; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    To explore possible relationships among blood factors, family history of breast cancer (BC) and the risk of the disease, a case-control study was carried out in Montevideo, Uruguay. Eight hundred and one patients were interviewed, including 252 certified cases of BC and 549 frequency-matched controls. Blood groups (ABO, Rh) were obtained from medical records. Multivariate analyses were performed, adjusting for age, selected menstrual and reproductive factors, and family history of BC as well as of other cancers. We found that the absence of Rh factor (Rh-) was positively associated with the risk of BC (adjusted Odds Ratio [OR]=1.49, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.05-2.11). Stratified analyses by family history of BC showed a strong association for Rh- with a positive history of first degree relatives (OR=3.17, 95% CI 1.06-9.47). Also stratified analyses by family history of other cancers showed a positive association for Rh- with a positive history of first degree relatives (OR=2.08, 95% CI 1.05-4.11). Regarding the implications of an inherited factor like Rh and its associations with the family history of BC, it might increase the probability to generate high-risk individuals if further studies confirm the present preliminary findings.

  14. Elite Framing of Inequality in the Press: Brazil and Uruguay Compared

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    Matias López

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Current elite studies argue that inequality produces negative externalities to elites, who may either promote democracy or adopt authoritarian measures in order to shield their interests from the actions of the rebellious poor. This article argues that elite framing of poverty and inequality in the press is a good thermometer of elite public response to such externalities. The press represents a communication tool shared by elites in the state, market, civil society, and, most evidently, the media itself. If inequality threatens elite rule, elites should share their concerns in order to move towards a solution. Since the literature links inequality and elite response, I propose undertaking a comparison of elite public responses to poverty and inequality in two South American cases with opposite records of inequality: Brazil and Uruguay. The article approaches elite framing of poverty and inequality in the press by analyzing opinion pieces and editorials in the main newspapers of both countries. Results invert the expected link between inequality and elite response. Elite framing of inequality in the Brazilian press did not suggest elite concern with externalities, neither an elite turn towards more democracy or authoritarianism. Contrastingly, a few Uruguayan elites did frame the poor as menacing.

  15. Turismo enológico en Uruguay: ¿qué quiere el visitante local?

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    Gianfranca María Camussi Calvi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El turismo enológico en Uruguay comienza a desarrollarse, con una demanda compuesta mayoritariamente por turistas extranjeros y visitantes locales en segundo plano. Con el objetivo de aportar conocimiento sobre el visitante doméstico y sus expectativas y aspiraciones, para el logro de un plan de marketing ajustado, se realizó una encuesta, a residentes de Montevideo de alto nivel socioeconómico. El 86% desea realizar enoturismo; los intereses específicos permiten separar grupos por afinidad. Respecto a las actividades propias del enoturismo, se diferencia un grupo que desea focalizarse en degustar y comprar vino, y otro que prefiere conocer el proceso productivo completo. Todos desean actividades complementarias, y se dicotomizan en - un grupo que prefiere gastronomía, cultura y arte, - mientras el otro, deportes o actividades al aire libre. Se ha identificado la amplitud de servicios para un turismo del vino exitoso que busque la satisfacción del cliente y la fidelización de los visitantes locales.

  16. Mobbing in Schools and Hospitals in Uruguay: Prevalence and Relation to Loss of Status.

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    Buunk, Abraham P; Franco, Silvia; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Zurriaga, Rosario

    2016-01-19

    In the present study in secondary schools and hospitals in Uruguay (N = 187), we examined the relationship between feeling the victim of mobbing and a perceived loss of status. Nearly all forms of mobbing were more prevalent among hospital employees than among school employees. Among hospital employees, 40.4%, and among school employees, 23.9% reported being the victim of mobbing at least once a week. Being the victim of mobbing was, in both hospitals and schools, more prevalent among older employees, and in hospitals, among employees who were more highly educated and who had been employed for a longer time. Men and women did not differ in reporting that one was a victim of mobbing, but men reported more perceived loss of status than women. However, among women, being the victim of mobbing was much more strongly related to experiencing a loss of status than among men. Several explanations for this gender difference and the practical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Uruguay y Alemania: negocios y negociaciones de la década del treinta

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    María Magdalena Camou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En las vísperas de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, en el marco del cerramiento de la economía como consecuencia de la crisis mundial de 1929, las relaciones económicas y comerciales entre Alemania y Uruguay se intensificaban a través de un mecanismo complejo y poco transparente de trueque. El relevamiento de las estadísticas de comercio exterior alemanas y uruguayas, y de la correspondencia diplomática permiten analizar las dimensiones y características del intercambio económico entre ambos países. El enfoque desde estas fuentes constituye una aproximación inédita para la historiografía a un tema que no ha sido abordado sistemáticamente pero que generó en aquel momento –y aún genera– muchas interrogantes. Las fuentes consultadas fueron diversos archivos históricos alemanes y la biblioteca del Instituto Ibero-Americano de Berlín. Lamentablemente la documentación de la cancillería uruguaya es muy escasa. La documentación alemana es mucho más abundante pero no completa debido a la destrucción voluntaria o involuntaria que sufrieron los documentos en el derrumbamiento del Tercer Reich. Todos los documentos alemanes utilizados en esta investigación fueron traducidos por la autora.

  18. Cabinet Appointment in Uruguay: Legislative Strategy, hierarchy of portfolio and party affiliation of ministers

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    Daniel CHASQUETTI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the formation and change of presidential cabinets in Uruguay during the period 1985-2010. In the first section we present the institutional and political features of the process of appointment and resignation of the ministers. The second section describes the cabinets formed in this period and shows that presidents have exchanged seats in cabinet by legislative support. The third section analyzes the political attributes of the ministers appointed (party affiliation, previous experience and the type of linkage that they keep with the president. The fourth analyze the relationship between the time survival of the individuals in office, the political responsibility in front of congress and the existence of a legislative majority that support the president. The last section describes the Uruguayan pattern of ministerial designation based in (i the establishment of an order of importance of portfolios, (ii the nomination of individuals with party affiliation (weather insider or adherent politicians and (iii the influence of the legislative support in defining the ministerial team.

  19. Una aproximación al PIB turístico departamental de Uruguay en 2010

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    María José Alonsoperez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se estima el PIB turístico (PIBT departamental de Uruguay, regionalizando los resultados obtenidos en el ejercicio piloto de Cuentas Satélite de Turismo en el año 2008, usando la metodología de (Geary y Stark, 2002. Se encuentra que los departamentos de Montevideo y Maldonado generan el 62,92% del PIBT cuando se consideran sólo las actividades Hoteles y Restaurantes en 2010. La distribución departamental parece no diferir estadísticamente de las últimas aproximaciones oficiales que datan de 2006. Se aprecia que más del 80% del PIBT se concentra en la costa sur del país. Cabe destacar el gran crecimiento, tanto en la producción como en participación, que presenta el departamento de Rocha y que puede estar relacionada al desarrollo turístico que ha tenido en los últimos años.

  20. Acceso y calidad del empleo de la inmigración reciente en Uruguay

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    Victoria Prieto

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las características de acceso y calidad de la inserción laboral de los inmigrantes extranjeros llegados a Uruguay entre 2007 y 2015. Los desempeños de los inmigrantes se comparan con los de la población nativa no migrante y retornada, primero de forma bivariada, luego mediante la inclusión de la condición migratoria en la estimación de modelos logísticos binomiales de la probabilidad de empleo, informalidad y sobrecalificación. La fuente empleada corresponde a las Encuestas Continuas de Hogares del período 2012 – 2015. Los resultados muestran una desventaja sistemática en el acceso al empleo de la población extranjera, y mayor riesgo de sobrecalificación y de informalidad entre los ocupados del mismo origen. Dentro de los extranjeros las mujeres tienen menores chances de insertarse en el mercado de trabajo pero no se encuentra un efecto negativo de la doble condición mujer-inmigrante en los indicadores de calidad del empleo. Si bien el tiempo de asentamiento mitiga el efecto adverso de la condición inmigratoria sobre el empleo, la informalidad y sobrecalificación, éste no desaparece entre los inmigrantes más antiguos.

  1. Políticas públicas de lectura: el caso de Uruguay

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    Magela Cabrera Castiglioni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available  Se presentan los programas y acciones desarrollados en Uruguay en torno a la lectura en los últimos años desde la perspectiva de las políticas públicas. Se realiza una aproximación a algunos conceptos generales de políticas públicas, los cuales permiten delimitar un enfoque del tema, presentando a la vez un estudio de caso, que contempla aspectos como ser el rol del Estado; los actores involucrados; el grado de articulación de las políticas; la introducción de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación y; el ejercicio de ciudadanía. Presenta la perspectiva de las competencias lectoras, superando la visión tradicional de la lectura asociada únicamente al placer y la recreación, demostrando su potencial de desarrollo e inclusión social. Finalmente se destaca el papel de los profesionales de la información en la injerencia de este tema, ya sea desde la academia, o desde el rol de dinamizadores y sensibilizadores respecto al mismo.

  2. Temporal and spatial changes in the diet of Hyla pulchella (Anura, Hylidae in southern Uruguay

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    Inés da Rosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report the diet of a population of the hylid frogHyla pulchella from southeastern Uruguay. We collected the specimens in ponds, where we identified microenvironments defined by the invertebrate assemblage, during one year divided into two seasons (warm and cold. We taxonomically determined 10365 invertebrates belonging to 21 categories in the digestive tracts of frogs. Weestimated the diversity of the diet and alimentary preference according to microenvironments and seasons. We estimated the expected richness of both diet and prey availability using a null model based on the hypergeometric distribution. We performed Discriminant Analyses and Kruskal-Wallis tests to detect changes in prey availability among microenvironments and between seasons. The overall diet in terms of frequencies was composed primarily of arthropods (mainly Araneae, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Coleoptera and in terms of volume, by larvae. The most relevantitems to study the microenvironmental and seasonal variation in the available preys were Araneae, Collembola, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and larvae. Based on the null model curves and preference indexes we inferred positive selection by larvae, Isopoda, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera, and negative selection by Collembola and Hymenoptera. The diversityof diet and the null model curves indicated that the diet changes among microenvironments and seasons. This frog may be considered as a middle generalist predator, with some selective behavior and a combined search strategy (active and sit-and-wait. We conclude that the knowledge about the availability of preys is a relevant tool for trophic studies.

  3. Presence of Political Parties and Deputies in Internet in Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay

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    Yanina Welp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Latinobarómetro, political parties are the institutions which less confidence receive from Latin Americans. This is not a particularity of Latin America, but a documented problem of Western consolidated democracies.In this context, in Europe and United States, among others, the use of digital media become a tool to overcome the crisis of representation, given their capacities to renovate politics, and because they allow the offering of more publicity of public matters as well as the opening up of new channels of participation and communication between citizens and representatives. But to what extent and with which features is this adoption happening in Latin America? Based on the study of the online presence of political parties and deputies of Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay (webs, blogs, Facebook and Twitter, this article explores the levels of digital media adoption and the influence of variables such as the internet diffusion in the country, the crisis of representation and the characteristics of political parties (institutionalization, ideology, size, role of leaders explaining the extension and characteristics of this adoption. 

  4. Bivalve molluscs of São Marcos locality, Medium Uruguay River Basin, Brazil

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    Édison Vicente Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available To verification of quali-quantitative it has been accomplished collected of bivalve molluscs during the period of twelve months, together with analysis of some abiotic variables in the middle care of Uruguay river, situated in São Marcos, Uruguaiana municipality. The place where the collects has been accomplished, were divided in three distinct spots, considerating the substract type predominant; sand, rock and mud. The individuals were collected using hands and with. The selection screen aid, of 0.8mm size net and were conserved in a dry environment. They had been collected a total of 1,022 units of bivalves, wich belong to 12 taxa, being that of these only specimens Cyanocyclas limosa and Diplodon parallelopipedon had been captured alive (tanatocenosis. It had great quantitative predominance of Corbicula fluminea and Diplodon uruguayensis. With exception of bivalves invading, the too much species had been collected only in the slimy substratum. Other species occurrence were Mycetopoda siliquosa and Anodontites trigonus, there two species a vulnerable to extinction in Rio Grande do Sul.

  5. CUIDAR EN LA VEJEZ: DESIGUALDADES DE GÉNERO EN URUGUAY

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    Rosario Aguirre Cuns

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo contribuir al desarrollo de una perspectiva latinoamericana de vejez y género y aportar conocimientos en torno a los cuidados en la vejez en Uruguay. Desde una perspectiva feminista del cuidado, realiza una breve reflexión sobre la construcción social de la vejez, el género y su vínculo con el cuidado. A partir de información empírica reciente, cuya fuente es la Encuesta de Uso del Tiempo 2013, se da cuenta de las desigualdades de género en la provisión de cuidados por parte de las personas mayores a través de las tasas de participación y el tiempo dedicado a estas actividades. Considerando la división sexual del trabajo durante todo el curso de vida de los varones y mujeres, se argumenta sobre la necesidad de cuestionar la idea de envejecimiento activo como fundamento de las políticas públicas. Se propone incorporaruna mirada sobre las personas mayores como realizadoras de cuidados y tareas domésticas que contribuyen al bienestar social y familiar y no sólo como dependientes que requieren de cuidados de provisión familiar y pública en la vejez avanzada.

  6. Cuidar y ser cuidado en la vejez: desigualdades de género en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Aguirre Cuns

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo contribuir al desarrollo de una perspectiva latinoamericana de vejez y género y aportar conocimientos en torno a los cuidados en la vejez en Uruguay. Desde una perspectiva feminista del cuidado, realiza una breve reflexión sobre la construcción social de la vejez, el género y su vínculo con el cuidado. A partir de información empírica reciente, cuya fuente es la Encuesta de Uso del Tiempo 2013, se da cuenta de las desigualdades de género en la provisión de cuidados por parte de las personas mayores a través de las tasas de participación y el tiempo dedicado a estas actividades. Considerando la división sexual del trabajo durante todo el curso de vida de los varones y mujeres, se argumenta sobre la necesidad de cuestionar la idea de envejecimiento activo como fundamento de las políticas públicas. Se propone incorporar una mirada sobre las personas mayores como realizadoras de cuidados y tareas domésticas que contribuyen al bienestar social y familiar y no sólo como dependientes que requieren de cuidados de provisión familiar y pública en la vejez avanzada.

  7. Colombia, España, Uruguay, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador: Seguridad Social para el adulto mayor

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    Oscar José Dueñas Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio de tres bloques de derechos necesarios para el adulto mayor: salud, pensiones y servicios sociales. Se analizan dentro de un marco conceptual jurídico e histórico, acudiéndose a un lenguaje sencillo y entendible. Este artículo es corolario de un proyecto investigativo ya terminado elaborado por la Universidad del Rosario y la Organización Iberoamericana de la Seguridad Social (OISS. Se estudiaron esos tres derechos en el escenario colombiano, con base en la normatividad, la jurisprudencia y la praxis. Para tener una visión del ámbito iberoamericano se investigó el tratamiento que se les da en otros países: España, Ecuador, Cuba, Costa Rica, Uruguay, destacándose los rasgos más importantes. Varios capítulos fueron desarrollados con base en el método holístico dialéctico configuracional. Las conclusiones se ubican preferencialmente en un espacio jurídico. La principal consiste en que sea cual fuere el modelo de seguridad social, es indispensable una visión humanista.

  8. Early archosauromorph remains from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of north-eastern Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, Martín D; Velozo, Pablo; Meneghel, Melitta; Piñeiro, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    The Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is crucial to understand the impact of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction on the early evolution of the group and its subsequent dominance in Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems. However, the Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is still very poor in most continents and hampers the identification of global macroevolutionary patterns. Here we describe cranial and postcranial bones from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of northeastern Uruguay that contribute to increase the meagre early archosauromorph record from South America. A basioccipital fused to both partial exoccipitals and three cervical vertebrae are assigned to Archosauromorpha based on apomorphies or a unique combination of characters. The archosauromorph remains of the Buena Vista Formation probably represent a multi-taxonomic assemblage composed of non-archosauriform archosauromorphs and a 'proterosuchid-grade' animal. This assemblage does not contribute in the discussion of a Late Permian or Early Triassic age for the Buena Vista Formation, but reinforces the broad palaeobiogeographic distribution of 'proterosuchid grade' diapsids in Permo-Triassic beds worldwide.

  9. A multivariate approach to environmental-zooplankton relationships in Maldonado Bay (Uruguay

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    Ana Milstein

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Environment-zooplankton relationships were analysed in Maldonado Bay (Uruguay, an estuarine area between the River Plate and the Atlantic Ocean. This was done through Principal Component Analysis. Most of the environment variability is accounted for, primarily, by the outflow of the River Plate and the inflow of coastal waters which change through the annual cycle, and in the second place by surface water conditions. On the other hand, most of the zooplankton variability is accounted for by 17 taxa abundant in April and February and by one dominant species present only from May to August. A second source of zooplanktonic variability is due to species which occurred in fall only The main observed variabili ty occurred on an annual scale. On it, variations on smaller scales overlap: from one day to another, between Maldonado Bay and the adjacent waters of the River Plate. The main factors involved were different at each scale. The Bay is relatively isolated from adjacent waters, but the degree of isolation varies throughout the year. The influence of coastal water is greater and occurs first outside the Bay. Biological processes may develop under different conditions in the Bay and in the adjacent waters of the River Plate.

  10. Information skills in the National Reading Plan of Uruguay: Actions for social inclusion

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    María Gladys Ceretta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is described strategies that have been implemented to promote the development of information skills in the National Reading Plan of Uruguay that is under the responsability of the Ministry of Education and Culture, as a National Public Policy. They are aimed at vulnerable socio-economic contexts and help to the process of training reading promoters. We analyze and evaluate the experiences done with target populations that do not belong to the formal education area, especially those who are responsible for reading spaces such as public, community and popular libraries, among others. There are considered new forms of reading in a digital environment in the process of acquiring and strengthening of information skills to ensure equity in access and democratization of information and the process of knowledge construction. It is established the essential elements for the development of a model of information literacy to integrate the National Reading Plan that can coordinate with other areas and institutions and it may contribute to the social inclusion of individuals.

  11. Social policies in Uruguay: a view from the political dimension of community psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ferreyra, Alicia

    2009-03-01

    This paper approaches social policy (SP) from the political perspective considered by Montero (Critical psychology: An introduction, Sage, London, pp 231-244, 1997; Community, Work and Family 1(1):65-78, 1998; Introducción a la Psicología Comunitaria. Desarrollo, conceptos y procesos, Paidos, Buenos Aires, pp 89-114, pp 255-284, 2004; Hacer para transformar. El método en la Psicología Comunitaria, Paidos, Buenos Aires, pp 229-256, 2004) as a paradigmatic dimension of community psychology. The field of SP, the characteristics of certain SPs and the role of SP in the production and reproduction of the subjectivities of those subject to them in Uruguay are described and an analysis given of the challenge posed by going from a compensatory or palliative to a transformative mode of SP. It is proposed that identification of, and understanding and intervention in, psychosocial processes in the field are the keys to maximising the likelihood of SPs assuming a transformative character. Psychosocial aspects and participatory processes implicit in the relationship between the State and civil society are discussed. Finally, some orientations for community psychological intervention in this field of action are proposed.

  12. Genetic variability of hepatitis B virus in Uruguay: D/F, A/F genotype recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, L; Flichman, D; Mojsiejczuk, L; Gonzalez, M V; Uriarte, R; Campos, R; Cristina, J; Garcia-Aguirre, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious global health problem. Approximately 2 billion people worldwide have been infected, and approximately 350 million individuals currently suffer from HBV-induced chronic liver infection, which causes 600,000 deaths annually from chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is classified in eight genotypes (A-H), and two more have been proposed (I-J). In this paper, complete genome sequences of nine Uruguayan HBV are reported. Five samples belong to genotype F1b and one to genotype A2. Three HBV recombinants were detected: A1/F1b, A2/F1b and D3/F1b. The following mutations were detected: a G1896A substitution, a 33-nucleotide deletion from position 2896 to 2928 in the Pre-S1 region involving Pre-S1 residues 3-13, a 33-nt deletion in the Pre-S1 region involving nt 2913-2945 and Pre-S1 residues 9-19. More F genotypes strains than expected were detected in this study, supporting the hypothesis that there are more people of indigenous origin than declared in our population. Also, one third of the samples analyzed were recombinants. This cannot be explained by the low HBV prevalence in Uruguay, but a high HBV infection rate in drug addicts and dialysis patients could act in favor of multiple-genotype HBV infections that could lead to recombination.

  13. Dietary patterns and risk of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract: a factor analysis in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Boffetta, Paolo; Correa, Pelayo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Acosta, Gisele; Mendilaharsu, María

    2013-01-01

    In the time period 1996-2004, we conducted a case-control study in Montevideo, Uruguay with the objective of exploring the role of foods and alcoholic beverages in the etiology of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). In brief, 563 male cases and 1099 male controls were frequency matched on age and residence using random sampling. All the participants were drawn from the 4 major public hospitals in Montevideo. We used exploratory factor analysis among controls. Through Scree plot test, the model retained 4 factors, which were labeled as prudent, starchy plants, Western, and drinker. These dietary patterns explained 34.8% of the total variance. Whereas the prudent pattern was inversely associated with UADT cancer [odds ratios (OR) for the upper tertile vs. the lowest one 0.52, 95% confidence intervals 0.32-0.76, P value for trend = 0.0005), the remaining patterns were significantly and positively associated with UADT cancers. We conclude that these patterns were similar among the oral and laryngeal cancers, both in the direction of the ORs and in the magnitude of the associations, suggesting that these cancer sites share the effect of dietary patterns in the etiology of cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract.

  14. Meat, fat and risk of laryngeal cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreggia, F; De Stefani, E; Boffetta, P; Brennan, P; Deneo-Pellegrini, H; Ronco, A L

    2001-02-01

    The effect of meat and fat in laryngeal carcinogenesis was examined in a case-control study carried out in Uruguay in the time period 1998-1999. One-hundred and forty patients with squamous cell laryngeal carcinoma and 420 hospitalized patients, afflicted with conditions not related with tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking or recent dietary changes comprised the cases and controls in this study. All patients were interviewed face-to-face in the hospitals with a detailed questionnaire which included queries on 64 food items. Red and total meat intakes were associated with strong increases in risk of laryngeal cancer (odds ratio [OR] for high total meat intake 3.32, 95% confidence interval [C.I.] 1.23-8.95). This effect disappeared after controlling for total fat intake. On the other hand, total fat intake displayed a strong association with risk of laryngeal cancer when red meat was included in the same model (OR for high fat intake 7.05, 95% C.I. 2.51-19.8). Total fat intake combines its effect multiplicatively with tobacco smoking.

  15. High frequency of multiresistant coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus found in slaughter pigs in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Cornelia; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Stüber, Elisabeth; Thiel, Susanne; Märtlbauer, Erwin

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus are a hazard to human health since they can cause infections and food poisoning. Antimicrobial resistant strains render the treatment of infections problematic and contribute to the spread of antimicrobial resistance. They are therefore of great public concern. This study determined the resistance pattern of coagulase-positive S. aureus (CPSA) isolated from nasal swabs of 100 slaughter pigs from one farm in Uruguay. Out of 69 animals, 71 CPSA were collected. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 20 antimicrobials were determined using the broth microdilution method in accordance with CLSI recommendations. No methicillin-resistant S. aureus were detected. All CPSA were resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobials (i.e., multiresistant), whereby all CPSA were resistant to spectinomycin. Most of the isolates (46%) were resistant to six classes of antimicrobials. Almost all isolates were resistant to penicillin (99%), ampicillin (99%), gentamicin (96%), tetracycline (90%), and tilmicosin (87%). Very high resistance rates were observed against erythromycin (77%) and clindamycin (70%). High resistance was observed against tiamulin (40%), enrofloxacin (31%), and florfenicol (23%) and low resistance was observed against amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (4%). All CPSA isolates were mecA negative. The results of the present study could be related to an overuse of antimicrobials in pig production and should encourage veterinarians and pig holders to practice a controlled administration of chemotherapeutics in pig husbandry.

  16. Epidemiología de las Enfermedades Periodontales en el Uruguay. Pasado y presente.

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    Ernesto Andrade

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo del artículo fue realizar una revisión sobre la Enfermedad Periodontal en Uruguay. Fueron consultadas bases de datos internacionales (PUBMED, SCOPUS, EBSCO, SciELO. Paralelamente la búsqueda abarcó fuentes nacionales (Biblioteca Nacional de Odontología, Centro de documentación de la Facultad de Odontología, Ministerio de Salud Pública, Dirección Nacional de Sanidad de las Fuerzas Armadas, complementado por búsqueda manual. Los estudios hallados aportaron información epidemiológica útil, además de permitir un repaso histórico sobre conceptos de epidemiología, etio-patogenía y corrientes hegemónicas de la periodoncia. La Enfermedad Gingival representa la patología más prevalente, mientras que los cuadros periodontales destructivos afectan fundamentalmente a los adultos. La edad, el origen geográfico, la clase social y el hábito de fumar son indicadores fuertemente asociados con dichos trastornos. De la lectura pormenorizada de los artículos recopilados se plantean sugerencias a ser consideradas en los próximos relevamientos epidemiológicos.

  17. Echinococcus granulosus infections of dogs in the Durazno region of Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, L; Cabrera, P; Burges, C; Acuña, A; Barcelona, C; Laurenson, M K; Gulland, F M; Agulla, J; Parietti, S; Paolillo, E

    1995-04-15

    The prevalence and distribution of Echinococcus granulosus in domestic dogs was examined in three dog populations in the Durazno region of Uruguay. The prevalence was 19.7 per cent in 704 dogs successfully purged with arecoline hydrobromide. Higher prevalences were detected in dogs from the rural area (30.0 per cent) and the village of La Paloma (25.9 per cent) than in the town of Sarandi del Yi (7.9 per cent). The frequency distribution of E granulosus was overdispersed (k, the negative binomial parameter = 0.08), with only a few animals harbouring heavy infections. The results of a questionnaire showed that the prevalence was greatest in male dogs, in dogs that were not kennelled, in dogs that had access to fields and in dogs that were not dosed with praziquantel. Dogs that were given raw sheep offal by their owners were no more likely to be parasitised than other dogs; this may reflect the inaccuracy of the owners' replies, or that the dogs were being infected outside their home.

  18. Immunological assessment of exposure to Echinococcus granulosus in a rural dog population in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, R B; Parada, L; Acuna, A; Burges, C; Laurenson, M K; Gulland, F M; Reichel, M P; Paolillo, E

    1994-12-01

    An ELISA was used to screen a dog population in Uruguay (Sarandi Del Yi, Durazno District) for the prevalence of specific serum antibodies (IgG, IgA and IgE) to Echinococcus granulosus. The sensitivity (61%) and specificity (97%) of the ELISA were determined using well-defined serum groups. A total of 408 dogs from Sarandi del Yi and environs were screened serologically, and 29.7% (8.6-13.8% for each antibody class) of dogs had positive levels of antibody to E. granulosus. This antibody prevalence (exposure) was significantly higher than the percentage of dogs found to be positive for E. granulosus worms by arecoline purgation (7.6%). This level of exposure to E. granulosus determined by ELISA is considered unacceptable from a public health perspective. Measures will now focus on obtaining data on the true prevalence of current infection in this dog population and on determining the transmission patterns of the disease in this endemic region.

  19. Improved dengue fever prevention through innovative intervention methods in the city of Salto, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, César; García da Rosa, Elsa; Romero, Sonnia; González, Cristina; Lairihoy, Rosario; Roche, Ingrid; Caffera, Ruben M; da Rosa, Ricardo; Calfani, Marisel; Alfonso-Sierra, Eduardo; Petzold, Max; Kroeger, Axel; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2015-02-01

    Uruguay is located at the southern border of Aedes aegypti distribution on the South American sub-continent. The reported dengue cases in the country are all imported from surrounding countries. One of the cities at higher risk of local dengue transmission is Salto, a border city with heavy traffic from dengue endemic areas. We completed an intervention study using a cluster randomized trial design in 20 randomly selected 'clusters' in Salto. The clusters were located in neighborhoods of differing geography and economic, cultural and social aspects. Entomological surveys were carried out to measure the impact of the intervention on vector densities. Through participatory processes of all stakeholders, an appropriate ecosystem management intervention was defined. Residents collected the abundant small water holding containers and the Ministry of Public Health and the Municipality of Salto were responsible for collecting and eliminating them. Additional vector breeding places were large water tanks; they were either altered so that they could not hold water any more or covered so that oviposition by mosquitoes could not take place. The response from the community and national programme managers was encouraging. The intervention evidenced opportunities for cost savings and reducing dengue vector densities (although not to statistically significant levels). The observed low vector density limits the potential reduction due to the intervention. A larger sample size is needed to obtain a statistically significant difference. © The author 2015. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  20. Mesozoic dykes and sills from Uruguay: Sr - Nd isotope and trace element geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzio, Rossana; Peel, Elena; Porta, Natalia; Scaglia, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    The Mesozoic mafic intrusions in Uruguay comprise dykes and sills grouped as the Cuaró Formation. They are mainly distributed along the southern portion of the Paraná basin, and they are considered part of the Paraná Magmatic Province. They crop out as typically grey moderately altered dykes and sills, characterized by glomero-porphyritic textures, with clusters of plagioclase and occasional clinopyroxene, set in a fine-grained groundmass composed by labradorite, augite and titaniferous magnetite. We present new lithogeochemical results particularly regarding Sr - Nd isotopes to discuss petrogenetic processes. All samples have high 87Sr/86Sr (0.71160-0.70781) and low 143Nd/144Nd ratios (0.512274-0.512585), with epsilon Nd(0) between -4.37 and -7.1. TDM model ages, calculated for 130 Ma, are composed of approximately 1.41-1.61 Ga, except for one dyke with 1.29 Ga. The isotopic data allow their classification as derived from the Gramado magma-type. Trace element geochemistry and isotopic data indicate that the primary magma would be a product of an enriched mantle source with a strong crustal signature, probably due to inherited subduction components and/or assimilation processes.

  1. Preferencias matrimoniales en el área de los Cerrillos Canelones–Uruguay

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    Abin, Emilia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación es estudiar las preferencias matrimoniales de la segunda y tercera generación de descendientes de inmigrantes canarios en el área de influencia de Los Cerrillos, Departamento de Canelones, Uruguay. A partir de 105 entrevistas realizadas a los descendientes canarios establecidos en la zona, se realizó la reconstrucción genealógica a través del programa GenoPro (2095 individuos en total, 67 ancestros fundadores, con el fin de estimar las preferencias matrimoniales de los mismos. Los resultados obtenidos muestran una tendencia a uniones dentro del grupo de pertenencia, encontrándose valores altos de endogamia y consanguinidad; los cuales se mantienen a través de varias generaciones. Se discute si las causas que contribuyen a mantener esta conducta en la elección del cónyuge, son de carácter cultural (la búsqueda de reafirmar la identidad como elemento unificador, geográfico (la existencia de barreras naturales que aislan a las familias o económicas (mantener dentro de la familia los bienes y la tierra adquiridas.

  2. Package design and nutritional profile of foods targeted at children in supermarkets in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Ana; Saldamando, Luis de; Curutchet, María Rosa; Ares, Gastón

    2017-06-12

    Marketing of unhealthy products has been identified as one of the main characteristics of the food environment that negatively affects children's eating patterns. Restrictions on advertising of unhealthy foods to children have already been imposed in different countries. However, marketing strategies are not limited to broadcast and digital advertising, but also include package design. In this context, the current study aimed to describe the food products targeted at children and sold in supermarkets in Montevideo, Uruguay, in terms of package design and nutrient profile. Two supermarkets in Montevideo were selected for data collection. In each supermarket, all products targeted at children were identified. Products were analyzed in terms of package design and nutritional profile, considering the Pan American Health Organization Nutrient Profile Model. A total of 180 unique products were identified, which included a wide range of product categories. The great majority of the products corresponded to ultra-processed products with excessive amounts of sodium, free sugars, total fat, saturated fat, and/or trans fat, which are not recommended for frequent consumption. Several marketing strategies were identified in the design of packages to attract children's attention and drive their preferences. The most common strategies were the inclusion of cartoon characters, bright colors, childish lettering, and a wide range of claims related to health and nutrition, as well as the products' sensory and hedonic characteristics. The study's findings provide additional evidence on the need to regulate packaging of products targeted at children.

  3. Tannat grape composition responses to spatial variability of temperature in an Uruguay's coastal wine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourment, Mercedes; Ferrer, Milka; González-Neves, Gustavo; Barbeau, Gérard; Bonnardot, Valérie; Quénol, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Spatial variability of temperature was studied in relation to the berry basic composition and secondary compounds of the Tannat cultivar at harvest from vineyards located in Canelones and Montevideo, the most important wine region of Uruguay. Monitoring of berries and recording of temperature were performed in 10 commercial vineyards of Tannat situated in the southern coastal wine region of the country for three vintages (2012, 2013, and 2014). Results from a multivariate correlation analysis between berry composition and temperature over the three vintages showed that (1) Tannat responses to spatial variability of temperature were different over the vintages, (2) correlations between secondary metabolites and temperature were higher than those between primary metabolites, and (3) correlation values between berry composition and climate variables increased when ripening occurred under dry conditions (below average rainfall). For a particular studied vintage (2013), temperatures explained 82.5% of the spatial variability of the berry composition. Daily thermal amplitude was found to be the most important spatial mode of variability with lower values recorded at plots nearest to the sea and more exposed to La Plata River. The highest levels in secondary compounds were found in berries issued from plots situated as far as 18.3 km from La Plata River. The increasing knowledge of temperature spatial variability and its impact on grape berry composition contributes to providing possible issues to adapt grapevine to climate change.

  4. Early archosauromorph remains from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of north-eastern Uruguay

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    Martín D. Ezcurra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is crucial to understand the impact of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction on the early evolution of the group and its subsequent dominance in Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems. However, the Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is still very poor in most continents and hampers the identification of global macroevolutionary patterns. Here we describe cranial and postcranial bones from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of northeastern Uruguay that contribute to increase the meagre early archosauromorph record from South America. A basioccipital fused to both partial exoccipitals and three cervical vertebrae are assigned to Archosauromorpha based on apomorphies or a unique combination of characters. The archosauromorph remains of the Buena Vista Formation probably represent a multi-taxonomic assemblage composed of non-archosauriform archosauromorphs and a ‘proterosuchid-grade’ animal. This assemblage does not contribute in the discussion of a Late Permian or Early Triassic age for the Buena Vista Formation, but reinforces the broad palaeobiogeographic distribution of ‘proterosuchid grade’ diapsids in Permo-Triassic beds worldwide.

  5. La detención policial de adolescentes en Uruguay: percepciones y experiencias

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    Gabriel Tenenbaum Ewig

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La detención policial de los adolescentes es un fenómeno social controversial. Como hecho social de riesgo en la ausencia de testigos (personas, registros tecnológicos, etc., las relaciones sociales entre la policía y los adolescentes, en la detención, se convierten en una caja negra de desconocimiento e incertidumbre. Por esta razón, la detención es un momento propicio para eludir la ley. Ello conlleva, en no pocas ocasiones, violaciones a los derechos humanos de los adolescentes: violencia física, detenciones arbitrarias, corrupción, etc. Tal problema ha sido escasamente examinado a nivel empírico en Uruguay. En este sentido, el artículo examina la experiencia de la detención e indaga sobre las representaciones sociales que tiene la policía desde el punto de vista de los adolescentes en conflicto con la ley.

  6. Tentativa e ideación de suicidio en adultos mayores en Uruguay

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    María Cristina Heuguerot Fachola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una investigación sobre Intentos de Suicidio en Adultos Mayores en Uruguay realizada en una institución de Salud Pública de Montevideo en 2014 vinculada a un proyecto de Claves/Fiocruz. A partir de un proyecto inicial se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a sujetos institucionalizados con historias de Intentos de Autoeliminación, una revisión bibliográfica, búsqueda de normativas y acciones preventivas de las autoridades de salud pública del país. Los resultados muestran: dificultades de los sujetos al hablar del IAE, vergüenza también asociada a la vejez, gran dificultad en los vínculos, confirma diferencias de género en el método de tentativas, una mayor ideación en mujeres, aunque la posibilidad de repetir el IAE no parece preocupante. El estudio permite reflexionar sobre la importancia del dispositivo de atención, el cuidado, la calidad de vida y los efectos de la vida institucionalizada en el adulto mayor.

  7. POSITIVE IDENTIFICATION OF HUMAN REMAINS BY SKULL-PHOTO COMPARISON IN URUGUAY: A REVIEW. Identificación positive de restos humanos por la comparación cráneo-foto en Uruguay: Una revisión

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    Horacio E Solla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta una revisión a través de un estudio cuantitativo de los casos antropológico-forenses ocurridos en Uruguay desde 1950 a 2013 inclusive. Los casos antropológico-forenses han crecido rápida-mente en Uruguay, desde un caso registrado en 1950 hasta 91 casos en 2013. Antes de 1992 cuando se realizaba un hallazgo de restos humanos eran examinados por el médico forense que no contaba con experiencia en éste tipo de casos ni en las técnicas antropológicas forenses. Por lo tanto, en la mayoría de los casos los restos humanos no eran identificados. Como necesidad para resolver ese problema en 1992 se creó el Laboratorio de Antropología Forense en la Morgue Judicial de Montevideo. El artículo estudia un total de 1391 casos antropológico-forenses analizados en la Morgue Judicial desde 1950 hasta 2013 inclusive. El estudio se divide en dos partes: la primera representa 225 casos ocurridos desde 1950 hasta 1991 y la segunda parte representa 1166 casos ocurridos desde 1992 hasta 2013. En cada caso los restos fueron analizados para determinar posible causa de la muerte, sexo, estatura y edad al momento de la muerte. También se analizaron los casos en que se llegó a obtener una identificación positiva. El propósito de este artículo es describir el rol de la antropología Forense en el sistema judicial uruguayo y cómo las técnicas de comparaciones cráneo-fotográficas han sido utilizadas con gran éxito para identificar restos humanos en Uruguay.    The article presents a review by a quantitative analysis of the forensic anthropology cases that occurred in Uruguay from 1950 to 2013. Forensic anthropology cases have rapidly increased in Uruguay over the years, from only one case in 1950 to 91 cases in 2013. Before 1992, when human remains were found, they were analyzed by the local medical examiner with lacked experience in these types of cases and in anthropological techniques. Therefore, in the majority of cases

  8. Consistencia de indicadores de especialización en el comercio internacional. Aplicación al caso de la mantequilla en Argentina y Uruguay // Consistency of Specialization Indicators. An Application to Argentina and Uruguay Butter International Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depetris Guiguet, Edith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo evaluar, en términos de su consistencia cardinal, ordinal y dicotómica, cinco indicadores alternativos de especialización comercial. Tres están basados en el enfoque de las ventajas comparativas reveladas: una versión simétrica del índice de Balassa, el chi-cuadrado y el índice de Ventajas Relativas del Comercio. Los otros dos están basados en el enfoque de la balanza comercial: una variante del índice de Michaely y otra del índice de Iapadre. Se aplica al caso particular del comercio mundial de mantequilla de Argentina y Uruguay en el período 1995-2006. Los resultados varían entre los dos países, habiéndose encontrado que algunos indicadores podrían utilizarse de manera sustitutiva mientras que otros deberían utilizarse de manera complementaria. En términos económicos, se detecta una especialización fluctuante según los años en Argentina y mucha estabilidad en Uruguay. // This study aims to evaluate, in terms of their cardinal, ordinal, and dichotomy consistency, five alternative comercial specialization indicators: a Balassa symmetric index version; a Chi-Squared Index; and the Relative Trade Advantage Index, all these three based on revealed comparative advantage theory; and two additional: Michaely Index variation, and Iapadre Index variation, based on trade balance flows. It is applied to the particular case of Argentina and Uruguay butter world trade during 1995-2006. The results vary for both countries. Some indicators are found to be useful as substitutes while other in a complementary manner. Economically, the indicators show that the Argentine specialization fluctuates among years while the Uruguayan is very stable.

  9. First record of Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester, 1880 (Hydrozoa, Limnomedusae in a natural freshwater lagoon of Uruguay, with notes on polyp stage in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Failla Siquier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The freshwater cnidarian Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester 1880, has invaded lakes and ponds as well as artificial water bodies throughout the world. The first record in Uruguay corresponding to the jellyfish was made in 1961 in two artificial fountains, with no mention of the polyp form. Although local reports of other related polyp species have been made, information on the benthic form of C. sowerbii is lacking. Here we report the finding of live frustules, solitary individuals, medusae and colonies from a natural lagoon in August 2010, allowing us to observe the morphology and behavior of the polyp stage in captivity. In addition, molecular identification and remarks on the potencial path of introduction are presented. This is the first record in Uruguay of both polyp and medusa stages of C. sowerbii in a natural water body, Del Medio Lagoon (Dpto. de Florida, Uruguay.

  10. El modelo actual de desarrollo turístico al oeste del balneario La Paloma, Rocha, Uruguay. Tendencias, riesgos y propuestas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gadino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the development model of the Atlantic coast of Uruguay and its capacity to preserve relevant ecosystem services. The chosen study area was Playa Solari – Barra, one of the most important touristic spots of Uruguay (located in Laguna de Rocha, Rocha, Uruguay. This coastal zone has experienced important territorial changes during the last decades, with conflicts arising among traditional urban development for beaches, the recent strategies of rural-coastal tourism and natural and cultural heritage conservation strategies. The results show that the strong process of urban consolidation is negatively affecting the most important economic resources and ecosystem services in the study area, particularly those that directly promote touristic activities. For the last five years, the trend of urban development seems to point out towards an increase of the observed negative effects. Based on that evidence, this paper proposes specific strategies, particularly a new land use model, to revert negative impacts.

  11. Modelos basados en grafos: una aplicación al estudio del gasto de cruceristas en Uruguay || Graph-Based Models: An Application to the Study of Cruise Passengers' Expenditure in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brida, Juan Gabriel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo introduce el uso de grafos en el análisis de los determinantes del gasto de los turistas y lo aplica al estudio del comportamiento de los pasajeros de cruceros que desembarcan en Uruguay en los puertos de Montevideo y Punta del Este. Este enfoque ofrece un abordaje alternativo a los usualmente empleados para analizar los determinantes del gasto turístico al introducir una representación gráfica que permite sintetizar y visualizar las relaciones entre el conjunto de variables que caracterizan a los turistas o grupos de turistas y los determinantes de su nivel de gasto. En particular, la metodología permite representar las relaciones de dependencia entre variables (entre nodos adyacentes e independencias condicionadas (entre nodos no adyacentes. Para su aplicación, se consideran datos individuales de las encuestas realizadas a cruceristas correspondientes a la temporada de cruceros comprendida entre noviembre de 2014 y abril de 2015, ambos incluidos, en Uruguay. Se estudia la existencia de dependencias de las variables relativas a registrar el gasto de los cruceristas con otras variables (sociodemográficas, de contexto, etc.. El estudio muestra que las variables que mejor explican el comportamiento de los visitantes son las vinculadas al puerto de desembarco y al gasto. Asimismo, los resultados muestran que las variables socioeconómicas no están vinculadas al gasto en forma directa. || This paper introduces the use of graphs in the analysis of the determinants of tourists' expenditure, providing an alternative approach to the methods usually employed. Graph-based analysis is applied to study the behavior of cruise passengers arriving at the ports of Montevideo and Punta del Este in Uruguay. The graphical representation allows to synthesize and visualize the relationships between the set of variables that characterize tourists or tourist groups and the determinants of their level of spending. The graph-based methodology is

  12. Perfil alimentario de Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843) (Hemiptera, Triatominae) en ámbitos peridomiciliarios, de una localidad rural de Uruguay Feeding patterns of Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843) (Hemiptera, Triatominae) in peridomestic habitats, in a rural area of Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Salvatella; Luis Calegari; Andrés Puime; Yester Basmadjian; Raquel Rosa; Jorge Guerrero; María Martinez; Gabriela Mendaro; Daniel Briano; Carlos Montero; Cristina Wisnivesky-Colli

    1994-01-01

    En una localidad con población rural dispersa ("La Bolsa", 3ª seccional, dpto. de Artigas, Uruguay) se estudió, en ámbitos peridomiciliarios, el perfil alimentario de T. rubrovaria (triatomíneo silvestre y potencial vector secundario de colonización intradomiciliaria), utilizándose la técnica de doble difusión en agar, enfrentando contenido promesentérico frente a un panel de 13 sueros. Se pudo detectar en 120 insectos 251 identificaciones de fuente hematofágica con alimentación predominante ...

  13. Towards a sustainable architecture: Learning of the constructed thing. The case of the residential sector I publish in Uruguay; Hacia una arquitectura sostenible: Aprendiendo de lo construido. El caso del sector residencial publico en Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccion, A.; Camacho, M.; Lopez, N.; Milicua, S.

    2008-07-01

    This article presents measure data and satisfaction question in dwellings which had been Safety financed in ninety decade, in two cities of Uruguay. It assess the design strategies which are essentially used by architects, using the collected interior and exterior temperature data, the comfort hour percentages and the user perception of thermal environment. In Montevideo we observe a good performance to the strategies (solar protection, window factor and high inertia) adapted for the warm period. In Salto we observe a poor thermal behaviour, focus on users comfort due to the architects applied design strategies with identical criteria as in Montevideo, forgetting the local climate. (Author)

  14. Acute Contact Toxicity Test of Oxalic Acid on Honeybees in the Southwestern Zone of Uruguay Prueba de Toxicidad Aguda por Contacto de Ácido Oxálico en Abejas de la Zona Sudoeste de Uruguay

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    Leonidas Carrasco-Letelier

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the acute contact toxicity of oxalic acid (OA on a honeybee polyhybrid subspecies (Apis mellifera, which is the dominant biotype in southwestern zone of Uruguay (SWZU and the country's most important honey-producing region. We determined the mean lethal dose (LD50, as well as the no observed effect level (NOEL and the lowest observed effect level (LOEL values. We also estimated the total number of honeybees per hive in the test area. The aim was to assess the relationship between the maximum OA dose used in Uruguay (3.1 g OA per hive and the toxicological parameters of honeybees from SWZU. The current dose of 3.1 g OA per hive corresponds to 132.8 OA per honeybee since determined NOEL is 400 OA per honeybee; our results indicate that the current dose could be increased to 9.3 g OA per hive. The results also highlight some differences between the LD50 value in SWZU honeybees (548.95 OA per honeybee and some published LD50 values for other honeybee subspecies.Este trabajo estudió la toxicidad aguda por contacto del ácido oxálico (AO sobre una subespecie poli-híbrida de abejas (Apis mellifera, la cual es el biotipo dominante en la zona sudoeste de Uruguay (SWZU, la región más importante para la producción de miel en este país. Este estudio determinó la dosis letal 50 (DL50, así como el nivel de efecto no observado (NOEL, el nivel de efecto mínimo observado (LOEL, y el número total de individuos por colmena. El propósito fue evaluar la relación entre la dosis máxima de AO usada en Uruguay (3.1 g AO por colmena y los parámetros toxicológicos de las abejas de la SWZU. Los resultados mostraron que es posible elevar la dosis actual de AO por colmena a 9.3 g, ya que la dosis actual de 3.1 g de AO corresponde a 132.8 AO por abeja, y el NOEL determinado es 400 AO por abeja. Los resultados también destacaron algunas diferencias entre la DL50 de las abejas del SWZU (548.95 AO por abeja y algunos valores de DL50 publicados

  15. Un análisis de las reformas judiciales de Argentina, Chile y Uruguay Judicial reform in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay

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    Elin SKAAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Este artículo trata sobre las reformas judiciales en Sudamérica, durante los años

    90. Muestra que tanto en el caso de la Argentina como en el de Chile, las reformas a los códigos de procedimiento estuvieron motivadas por tres factores centrales, vinculados con el doble pro­ceso de democratización y liberalización económica: i la preocupación con la violación de dere­chos humanos que provenía de los pasados regímenes autoritarios; ii el deseo de crear ambientes legales estables tanto para los derechos de propiedad como para la inversión extranjera; y iii la preocupación pública en torno a tasas de criminalidad cada vez más altas. Las reformas consti­tucionales que afectaron a las Cortes Supremas tanto en la Argentina como en Chile estuvieron vinculadas por razones estrictamente auto-interesadas. En última instancia, estas reformas fue­ron el resultado de compromisos políticos entre la izquierda y la derecha en respuesta a parti­culares eventos nacionales. En Uruguay, los frustrados intentos por desarrollar reformas en el código de procedimientos criminales y en el ámbito de la Corte Suprema pueden atribuirse a una combinación de falta de voluntad política, la carencia de apoyo a las mismas reformas judi­ciales, y una falta de recursos económicos. Notablemente, el análisis muestra que en ninguno de los tres países examinados las agencias internacionales han jugado un rol significativo a la hora de promover reformas u ofrecer asistencia financiera o técnica en favor de los cambios en los códigos de procedimiento o en la organización de las Cortes Supremas. Ello sugiere que estos dos tipos de reformas judiciales en el Cono Sur han sido motivados, ante todo, a partir de deman

  16. Profile of the Illegal Import of Products of Animal Origin to Brazilian Cities at the Border with Argentina and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J G; Soares, V M; Santos, E A R; Tadielo, L E; Pellegrini, D C P; Duval, E H; Silva, W P

    2017-10-01

    International food transit is a risk to public and animal health when not subject to legal importation sanitation procedures. Due to the extensive border area, illegal food import in Brazil is a common practice, especially in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), a state that borders with Argentina and Uruguay. The objective of this study was to evaluate the profile of Brazilians living in cities in RS that border with Argentina (BR-AR) or Uruguay (BR-UR) regarding the practice of illegal import of products of animal origin and to determine associations between the population characteristics and illegal import. A questionnaire with information related to the personal profile, habits of acquisition of imported food, and knowledge of health risks deriving from the consumption of the imported products was elaborated. The questionnaire was administered in six cities in RS (three cities bordering Argentina and three cities bordering Uruguay) and responses were obtained from 744 individuals. The variables city, sex, level of education, and knowledge were subjected to the chi-square test to verify the association between these variables and food import. Part of the interviewees admitted to illegally importing products of animal origin at both BR-AR (65.17%) and BR-UR (76.28%) borders. Dairy products were the main imported goods, followed by raw and processed meat. The study revealed that illegal import is common at the frontier region of RS, especially that of products of animal origin, dairy, and raw and processed meat. Although illegal importation occurs at all the cities under study, it was higher at the BR-UR border. Also, knowledge of the health risks influences the decision to import food or not.

  17. UN ESTUDIO DE LAS POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS PARA LA GESTIÓN DEL PATRIMONIO CULTURAL INMATERIAL EN URUGUAY

    OpenAIRE

    Anon, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo busca hacer una revisión de la evolución del patrimonio cultural inmaterial en Uruguay, para entender las dificultades y limitaciones que este patrimonio enfrenta en la actualidad. En un primer momento se presentará el rol que el Estado ha mantenido con este patrimonio inmaterial cuando aún la categoría no existía como tal y la Convención para la Salvaguarda del Patrimonio Inmaterial de UNESCO (2003) no había sido ratificada por Uruguay. Contando con estos antecedentes, se...

  18. Turismo náutico : Un recorrido por las márgenes del río Uruguay, cultura y naturaleza

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino, Gustavo Rafael

    2017-01-01

    El Turismo Náutico es un campo poco estudiado en Argentina y las publicaciones científicas son escasas. Pero todas coinciden en que en Argentina y en concreto en el corredor del Rio Uruguay en la Provincia de Corrientes se dan las condiciones idóneas para el desarrollo de esta actividad. La presente investigación se planteó con el objetivo central en indagar sobre la posibilidad del desarrollo de un turismo náutico en el corredor fluvial del Rio Uruguay en la Provincia de Corrientes, fundado ...

  19. La perspectiva de los docentes principiantes en educación media sobre la reforma educativa en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Zidán, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar algunas conclusiones provisorias que surgen de una investigación cuyo propósito principal es conocer cómo valoran los profesores principiantes en educación media, dos elementos significativos de la reforma educativa en Uruguay: la coordinación docente y el trabajo en proyectos de centro. Luego de aplicar un cuestionario autoadministrado bajo supervisión del investigador a una muestra por conveniencia de 304 profesores que se desempeñan en 24 centros e...

  20. Tendencias recientes de la participación femenina en el mercado de trabajo del Uruguay, 1986-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena García de Soria; Fernanda Rivas; Máximo Rossi; Mariana Taboada

    2002-01-01

    En este documento realizamos un análisis descriptivo de la evolución de la participación femenina encomparación con la masculina en el mercado laboral uruguayo entre 1986 y 2000. El análisis descriptivo sobre las tendencias de la participación realizado, de acuerdo a las variables relacionadas con el ciclo familiar tanto para los hombres como para las mujeres, nos sugiere que en el Uruguay se ha venido dando un proceso de similitud del comportamiento de actividad de hombres y mujeres. Según l...

  1. Determinantes de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de pacientes en diálisis de Uruguay.

    OpenAIRE

    Ana I Galain; Inés Olaizola; Laura Schwartzmann; Carlos Zúñiga; Juan J. Dapueto

    2014-01-01

    Existen pocos estudios sobre la percepción subjetiva de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en pacientes renales cursando su etapa terminal, que vivan en países no industrializados. El propósito de este estudio fue comprender las relaciones subyacentes entre los diferentes determinantes de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, en los pacientes en tratamiento sustitutivo renal en Uruguay. Se realizó un estudio transversal en una muestra de 243 pacientes de cinco centros de hemod...

  2. Regulación y desempeño comparado de dos subsistemas privados de salud en el Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Gaston J. Labadie

    1997-01-01

    Si bien las instituciones de salud de pre-pago no han sido tradicionalmente la modalidad predominante en América Latina, los casos de Uruguay y Argentina, con notables diferencias entre sí, se destacan porque ambos países las han tenido desde el siglo pasado. Dada la reciente atención que ha recibido este modelo de financiación, administración y provisión debido a las deficiencias de los sistemas de provisión estatales o de la seguridad social, resulta de particular interés estudiar y compara...

  3. Perfil alimentario de Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843) (Hemiptera, Triatominae) en ámbitos peridomiciliarios, de una localidad rural de Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatella, Roberto; Calegari, Luis; Puime, Andrés; Basmadjian, Yester; Rosa, Raquel; Guerrero, Jorge; Martinez, María; Mendaro, Gabriela; Briano, Daniel; Montero, Carlos; Wisnivesky-Colli, Cristina

    1994-01-01

    En una localidad con población rural dispersa ("La Bolsa", 3ª seccional, dpto. de Artigas, Uruguay) se estudió, en ámbitos peridomiciliarios, el perfil alimentario de T. rubrovaria (triatomíneo silvestre y potencial vector secundario de colonización intradomiciliaria), utilizándose la técnica de doble difusión en agar, enfrentando contenido promesentérico frente a un panel de 13 sueros. Se pudo detectar en 120 insectos 251 identificaciones de fuente hematofágica con alimentación predominante ...

  4. Debt, Labor and Coercion. The Experiences of Canary Colonization in the Estado Oriental del Uruguay (1830-1843

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Thul Charbonnier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the experiences of colonization from the Canary Islands driven by private entrepreneurs and backed by the Uruguayan State during the 1830s. This was a special type of immigration, close to indenture servitude, where individuals moving across the continents signed a contract that forced them to keep working in Uruguay until the debt they had incurred (the cost of their maritime passage was repaid. The Uruguayan State, through the police, was both the guarantor and enforcer of these contracts.

  5. Ricordi di famiglia: l’antifascismo dei padri immigrati e la militanza rivoluzionaria dei figli (Uruguay 1930-1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Scarzanella

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the author’s interviews to three informant born in Italian emigrants families in Uruguay. During the interviews they reflect on the family political tradition and its influence on their choices. Two of the informants have take part in the organizations of the armed left: the Uruguayan Communist Party and the MNL-Tupamaros. His/her fathers' antifascism, the myth of the Resistenza together with that of the Castro’s revolution has had an important role in their biography. The informants’ family has lived during the Uruguayan military dictatorship of the Seventies and has experienced the exile as an ideological and affective landmark.

  6. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Udder Pathogens Isolated from Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay

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    Franklin A

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 522 strains belonging to streptococci, enterococci and staphylococci isolated from sub-clinical and clinical cases of bovine mastitis from the west littoral region of Uruguay were analysed for their susceptibility to several antimicrobial agents. The susceptibility patterns were studied by agar disk diffusion methods (ADDM and broth micro-dilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The concentration that inhibits 90% (MIC90 of the analysed strains reported in micrograms per millilitre, for Staphylococcus aureus were > 8, 8, ≤ 0.5, ≤ 4, ≤ 1, ≤ 0.5, > 64, ≤ 0.25, 0.5, ≤ 1 and ≤ 1 to penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalotin, gentamicin, erythromycin, oxitetracycline, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, neomycin, and clindamycin, respectively. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS had different values for penicillin (4 and ampicillin (2, while the other antimicrobial agents had the same MIC90 values as reported for S. aureus. The MIC90 values for streptococci were 0.12, 0.25, ≤ 4, 16, ≤ 0.25, 0.5, 0.25 for penicillin, ampicillin, cephalotin, gentamicin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, whereas MIC90 for enterococci were 4, 4, 4, ≤ 0.5, 2, > 8 for penicillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Of 336 strains of S. aureus, 160 (47.6% were resistant to penicillin. For 41 CNS strains, 10 (27% presented penicillin-resistance. All the streptococcal strains were susceptible to penicillin, while 3 (7% of the 43 enteroccocal strains were resistant. Non significant statistical differences were found between the results obtained by ADDM and broth micro-dilution for classifying bacterial isolates as susceptible or resistant according to the National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standards.

  7. El acceso a la información pública y los archivos en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Ramos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la situación actual de los archivos en Uruguay en relación a las leyes de Acceso a la Información Pública y de Sistema Nacional de Archivos, normativas que surge cuando el Estado uruguayo inicia una fase de reordenación de su gestión promoviendo cambios que fomentan la democratización y la eficiencia, a la vez que anulan la opacidad y extrema reserva en su administración. Se analiza cómo los profesionales archivólogos estuvieron estrechamente involucrados en el proceso de gestación de ambas leyes, dando inicio a una etapa de consecución de fuertes voluntades políticas que apoyaran los proyectos, convencidos que la premisa evidente del Derecho de Acceso es que el documento al que se pretenda acceder exista y sea recuperable. Se estudia como la coexistencia de ambas normas implicaban un cambio cultural, una evolución en el comportamiento de las organizaciones que no acompañó a la puesta en marcha de los instrumentos legales. Se concluye que el Derecho de Acceso a la Información Pública está basado en el principio fundamental de transparencia de los Órganos del Estado, por lo que no es de extrañar que una ley que obliga a brindar información tenga el riesgo de devenir en letra muerta. El Archivo debe ser “condición” administrativa, lo que exige una nueva dimensión de ellos y de sus profesionales dentro de los organismos del Estado, de forma tal que se conviertan en una inmejorable herramienta para el cumplimiento de los objetivos de la Ley de Derecho de Acceso a la Información Pública.

  8. Participatory research towards co-management: lessons from artisanal fisheries in coastal Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Micaela; Berkes, Fikret

    2013-10-15

    Participatory research has become increasingly common in natural resources management. Even though participatory research is considered a strategy to facilitate co-management, there is little empirical evidence supporting this. The objective of the present paper is to analyze the contributions of participatory research to help encourage the emergence of co-management, based on a case study in Piriápolis artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay (where management has been top-down). We argue that participatory research involving artisanal fishers, government, and other stakeholders (university scientists and NGOs) can be a key stimulus towards co-management. We build this argument by considering "seven faces" by which co-management can be analyzed: (1) as power sharing; (2) as institution building; (3) as trust building; (4) as process; (5) as learning and knowledge co-production; (6) as problem solving; and (7) as governance. Our findings show that participatory research had an impact on these various faces: (1) power was shared when making research decisions; (2) a multi-stakeholder group (POPA), with a common vision and goals, was created; (3) trust among participants increased; (4) the process of group formation was valued by participants; (5) stakeholders learned skills for participation; (6) two problem-solving exercises were conducted; and (7) a diversity of stakeholders of the initial problem identified by fishers (sea lions' impact on long-line fishery) participated in the process. The case shows that participatory research functions as a platform which enhances learning and knowledge co-production among stakeholders, paving the way towards future co-management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Social wasps (Polistinae from Pampa Biome: South Brazil, Northeastern Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Somavilla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study aimed to determine social wasps’ species from Pampa Biome. Were examined samples of social wasps from south-central of Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil, parts of Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Cordoba, Santa Fé and La Pampa provinces (Argentina and in Uruguay maintained in the Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (Santa Cruz do Sul-Brazil, American Museum of Natural History (USA, Natural History Museum (London-United Kingdom and Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris-France. Thirty species were recorded: Agelaia (01, Brachygastra (01, Mischocyttarus (04, Polistes (15, Polybia (08 and Protonectarina (01. Vespas sociais do Bioma Pampa: sul do Brasil, nordeste da Argentina e Uruguai. Resumo. Este estudo objetivou determinar as espécies de vespas sociais provenientes do Bioma Pampa. Foram examinadas vespas sociais provenientes de coletas da região centro-sul do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil, parte das províncias de Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Cordoba, Santa Fé e La Pampa (Argentina e Uruguai depositadas na Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (Santa Cruz do Sul-Brasil, American Museum of Natural History (Nova Iorque-USA, Natural History Museum (Londres-Reino Unido e Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris-França. Trinta espécies foram registradas: Agelaia (01, Brachygastra (01, Mischocyttarus (04, Polistes (15, Polybia (08 e Protonectarina (01.

  10. Plant foods and risk of laryngeal cancer: A case-control study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefani, E; Boffetta, P; Oreggia, F; Brennan, P; Ronco, A; Deneo-Pellegrini, H; Mendilaharsu, M

    2000-07-01

    In order to examine the relationships between plant foods, defined as the grouping of vegetables, fruits, tubers and legumes, with the risk of developing laryngeal cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Uruguay between 1998-1999. The study included 148 cases with histologically verified squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, which were frequency matched on age, residence and urban/rural status with 444 hospitalized controls, afflicted by non-neoplastic conditions. Both series of patients were face-to-face interviewed in the hospitals shortly after admittance using a detailed questionnaire. This questionnaire included 62 queries on food items, representative of the usual diet of the Uruguayan population. Food items and food groups were adjusted for tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and total energy intake. High consumption of plant foods was associated with an OR of 0.42 (95% CI 0.21-0.84). Among subgroups of plant foods, fruits and raw vegetables were associated with a strong reduction in risk (OR for the highest quartile of raw vegetables 0.29, 95% CI 0.15-0.56). Also, legumes were associated with a protective effect (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.33-1.19). Among individual food items, tomatoes and oranges were associated with the stronger protective effects (OR for tomato intake 0.32, 95% CI 0. 17-0.58). The joint effect of heavy smoking and the low intake of vegetables and fruits displayed an increased risk of 19.2 (95% CI 5. 7-64.9). Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Virus in Groundwater: Characterization of transport mechanisms and impacts on an agricultural area in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamazo, P. A.; Colina, R.; Victoria, M.; Alvareda, E.; Burutaran, L.; Ramos, J.; Lopez, F.; Soler, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, due to the "natural filter" that occurs in porous media, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. In this area water is pumped from the "Salto Aquifer", a free sedimentary aquifer. Below this sedimentary deposit is the "Arapey" basaltic formation, which is also exploited for water productions on its fractured zones. A screening campaign has been performed searching for bacterial and viral contamination. Total and fecal coliforms have been found on several wells and Rotavirus and Adenovirus have been detected. A subgroup of the screening wells has been selected for an annual survey. On this subgroup, besides bacteria and viruses analysis, a standard physical and chemical characterization was performed. Results show a significant seasonal variation on microbiological contamination. In addition to field studies, rotavirus circulation experiments on columns are being performed. The objective of this experiments is to determinate the parameters that control virus transport in porous media. The results of the study are expected to provide an insight into the impacts of groundwater on Salto's viral gastroenterocolitis outbreaks.

  12. Análisis de la diversidad genética en el Uruguay

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    Álvarez, Inés

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue cuantificar el aporte génico diferencial en las diversas regiones del Uruguay. Con vista al objetivo planteado se analizó la distribución de 5 marcadores genéticos clásicos: ABO, RH, HLA-A, HLA-B y HLA-C en 840 uruguayos. La muestra fue estratificada en 4 regiones de acuerdo al lugar de nacimiento de cada individuo: Norte, Centro, Sur y Ciudad de Montevideo. El análisis de la variación de las frecuencias alélicas totales indicó que el nivel de diferenciación interregional es bajo (Gst = 0.0025, lo que señala un bajo nivel de divergencia genética entre las regiones consideradas. Los valores de distancia genética (DA entre las regiones fueron consistentemente bajos; siendo los valores más altos los encontrados entre Montevideo vs. Centro y Centro vs. Sur. Los dendogramas confeccionados sobre la base de las distancias genéticas indican una clara separación de la región Centro de las otras regiones. Los porcentajes de mezcla estimados revelan que el aporte predominante para todas las regiones es el de origen europeo, seguido del amerindio, y por último el africano. Se observó una cierta heterogeneidad en la distribución de los porcentajes de mezcla entre las regiones consideradas, en particular el aporte africano, el que presentó su valor más alto en la región Sur (7.9%, seguido de Montevideo (5.1%. Los resultados obtenidos reflejan un intenso proceso de mestizaje, con posibles variaciones regionales.

  13. Prevalencia de trastornos témporo mandibulares y bruxismo en Uruguay: PARTE I

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    Raúl Riva

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivos: Determinar el nivel de prevalencia de Bruxismo y Trastornos Témporo Mandibulares (TTM en dos poblaciones, Montevideo e Interior, en Uruguay. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal a nivel nacional. El muestreo fue estratifi cado polietápico. Resultados: Las variables seleccionadas y analizadas en este primer artículo fueron: grado de apertura bucal, dolor muscular, chasquido de ATM, facetas de desgaste parafuncional, dolor de cabeza, relato de ruidos articulares, sensación de haber dormido apretando los dientes y autopercepción del stress. Se han comprobando las siguientes prevalencias globales: para TTM: 55% con al menos un síntoma, siendo más prevalente en Montevideo (57% que en el Interior (53%. Con al menos un signo clínico: 44%, siendo también mas prevalente en Montevideo (47% que en el Interior (41%. En cuanto a Bruxismo activo, ante la pregunta de tener la sensación al despertar de haber dormido apretando los dientes, se encontró una prevalencia de 30,72% en Montevideo y 23,19% en el Interior, en tanto que de ser o haber sido bruxómano a través de la valoración de las facetas de desgaste parafuncional 71,95% en Montevideo y 62,17% en el Interior. Conclusiones: Con este relevamiento hemos constatado una elevada prevalencia de TTM y Bruxismo en la población uruguaya y recomendamos la elaboración de medidas de prevención y tratamiento a nivel colectivo

  14. Psicólogos en Uruguay; una aproximación

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    Luis Emilio Gimenez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una aproximación exploratoria a la situación de los psicólogos en el Uruguay. Realiza una estimación cuantitativa de alguna de sus características y problemas, a partir de fuentes de datos distintas y en especial el Censo Nacional en Psicología del año 2014 y las Bases de Recursos Humanos del Ministerio de Salud Pública. Se fundamenta la necesidad de mayores y mejores estudios, teniendo en cuenta la inserción profesional de los psicólogos en el contexto del cambio de modelo de atención, impulsado por la reforma de la salud. Observa el incremento de los inscritos y graduados de estudios de grado, en términos absolutos y relativos respecto a las otras carreras universitarias. La existencia de un alto número de psicólogos ubica al país posiblemente en el primer lugar, en relación a su población, con un porcentaje mayoritariamente femenino, alta presencia de egresados recientes, y residencia concentrada en zona metropolitana. Aún con mejoras en los últimos años, los datos muestran aún una débil inserción en el sistema de salud, lo que es consistente con la percepción de una respuesta insuficiente a las necesidades de atención psicológica. Se requieren por tanto, avanzar en las investigaciones que generen insumos para el diseño de políticas de recursos humanos en salud.

  15. Plastics and microplastics on recreational beaches in Punta del Este (Uruguay): Unseen critical residents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoya, J P; Teixeira de Mello, F; Carrizo, D; Weinstein, F; Olivera, Y; Cedrés, F; Pereira, M; Fossati, M

    2016-11-01

    Beaches are social-ecological systems that provide several services improving human well-being. However, as one of the major coastal interfaces they are subject to plastic pollution, one of the most significant global environmental threats at present. For the first time for Uruguayan beaches, this study assessed and quantified the accumulation of plastic and microplastic debris on sandy beaches of the major touristic destination Punta del Este during the austral spring of 2013. Aiming to provide valuable information for decision-making, we performed a detailed analysis of plastic debris, their eventual transport pathways to the coast (from land and sea), and the associated persistent pollutants. The results indicated that the smallest size fractions (plastic debris, and their levels did not differ from baseline values reported for similar locations. The abundance of plastic debris was significantly and positively correlated with both the presence of possible land-based sources (e.g. storm-water drains, beach bars, beach access, car parking, and roads), and dissipative beach conditions. The analysis of coastal currents suggested some potential deposition areas along Punta del Este, and particularly for resin pellets, although modeling was not conclusive. From a local management point of view, the development and use of indices that allow predicting trends in the accumulation of plastic debris would be critically useful. The time dimension (e.g. seasonal) should also be considered for this threat, being crucial for locations such as Uruguay, where the use of beaches increases significantly during the summer. This first diagnosis aims to generate scientific baseline, necessary for improved management of plastic litter on beaches and their watersheds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diet of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Poeciliidae and Jenynsia multidentata (Anablepidae in a hypertrophic shallow lake of Uruguay Dieta de Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Poeciliidae y Jenynsia multidentata (Anablepidae en un lago hipereutrófico de Uruguay

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    Federico Quintans

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las dietas de Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Jenyns, 1842 y Jenynsia multidentata (Jenyns, 1842 en el Lago Rodó, un lago urbano hipereutrófico de Montevideo, Uruguay. Ambas especies mostraron un comportamiento omnívoro. Los ítems más consumidos por C. decemmaculatus fueron zooplancton, perifiton, fitoplancton y detritos; la dieta de J. multidentata incluyó zooplancton, insectos, crustáceos y peces juveniles. Estos resultados sugieren que ambas especies pueden actuar como planctívoros facultativos. La comunidad de peces de este lago se caracteriza por la dominancia de C. decemmaculatus y J. multidentata. Bajo esta condición, la depredación sobre el zooplancton de gran tamaño podría indirectamente estar contribuyendo a una alta abundancia de fitoplancton y una baja transparencia del agua.Diet of Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Jenyns, 1842 and Jenynsia multidentata (Jenyns, 1842 were analysed in Lake Rodó, an urban hypertrophic lake from Montevideo, Uruguay. Both species displayed omnivory. The most consumed items for C. decemmaculatus were zooplankton, periphyton, phytoplankton and detritus; the diet of J. multidentata included zooplankton, insects, crustaceans and juvenile fish. Our results suggest that both species could be acting as facultative planktivores. The fish community of this lake is characterised by the dominance of C. decemmaculatus and J. multidentata. Under this condition, predation on large-bodied zooplankton could indirectly be contributing to maintain a high phytoplankton abundance and a low water transparency.

  17. Política fiscal, asequibilidad y efectos cruzados de precios en la demanda de productos de tabaco: el caso de Uruguay Fiscal policy, affordability and cross effects in the demand for tobacco products: the case of Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ramos Carbajales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Uruguay es un país que desde 2005 ha realizado una política activa de control del tabaco. Sin embargo, la evolución de la demanda del total de productos de tabaco muestra un descenso insignificante en los últimos cinco años, lo que es contrario a lo esperado. La hipótesis es que el fuerte crecimiento del ingreso de los hogares unido a una elasticidad-ingreso de la demanda de cigarrillos cercana a 1 fue uno de los factores que contrarrestó el aumento real en los precios vía impuestos. El aumento en el ingreso de los hogares fue de 36% en términos reales en el periodo 2005-2009 debido a la fuerte recuperación luego de la crisis del año 2002. Por otro lado, un segundo factor explicativo importante de la demanda de cigarrillos en el Uruguay es la sustituibilidad entre cigarrillos y tabaco de armar. El impuesto y precio del tabaco de armar sigue siendo sustancialmente más bajo que el del cigarrillo, de forma que en los últimos años la cantidad demandada de tabaco de armar ha subido. El trabajo consistió entonces en revisitar un estudio de demanda realizado en 2004 por los autores y volver a estimar una función demanda de los dos productos principales de tabaco en el Uruguay (cigarrillos y tabaco de armar, lo que permite estimar las elasticidades precio, ingreso y cruzadas. A partir de estas estimaciones se realiza un ejercicio de simular alternativas de incrementos de impuestos con lo que se evalúa qué aumentos son necesarios para realmente impactar sobre la demanda en un escenario de crecimiento del ingreso de los hogares moderado de 2.5% anual y alto de 5% anual. Se confirma que se necesitan aumentos de impuestos muy superiores a los verificados en el último quinquenio.Uruguay, a country with a solid tobacco control policy since 2005 shows, contrary to expectations, an insignificant decrease in total tobacco products' sales in the last five years. The hypothesis is that on one side, changes in household income and the income

  18. Susceptibility of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) to synthetic acaricides in Uruguay: Varroa mites' potential to develop acaricide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Matías Daniel; Ruffinengo, Sergio Roberto; Mendoza, Yamandú; Ojeda, Pilar; Ramallo, Gustavo; Floris, Iganazio; Eguaras, Martín Javier

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the acaricide susceptibility of Varroa destructor populations from Uruguay, which had never been exposed to synthetic acaricides. It was also to determine whether acaricide resistance to coumaphos occurred in apiaries in which acaricide rotation had been applied. Bioassays with acaricides against mite populations that had never been exposed to synthetic acaricides were performed, also against mite populations in which control failures with coumaphos had been reported. Additionally, coumaphos' effectiveness in honeybee colonies was experimentally tested. The lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed animals (LC(50)) for susceptible mite populations amounted to 0.15 μg/Petri dish for coumaphos and to less than 0.3 μg/Petri dish for the other acaricides. Coumaphos LC(50) was above 40 μg/Petri dish for resistant mites. The effectiveness of coumaphos in honeybee colonies parasitized by V. destructor ranged from 17.6% to 93.9%. LC(50) for mite populations susceptible to the most commonly applied miticides was determined, and the first case of coumaphos resistance recorded in Uruguay was established.

  19. Firearms in Uruguay. An exploratory review based on data from the survey of Access to Justice, 2013

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    Luis Eduardo Moras

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the role that firearms have in the continent, both in the proliferation of violence and crime and the lethality of conflicts that arise daily, empirical studies of this phenomenon are still scarce and methodologically weak. This reality is not foreign to Uruguay, a society that has been categorized by international organizations among those who maintain higher proportion of weapons among civilians, in spite of that the research in this area has serious limitations. This article aims to improve knowledge about the presence of firearms in homes. For this purpose is based on a survey conducted within the framework of a research project on Access to Justice that develops in the field of Facultad de Derecho (UdelaR. In order to contextualize the situation in Uruguay, recent regional and local studies are analyzed, while are listed some methodological limitations of current surveys. The results presented allow confirm some trends of previous studies, and accumulate new evidence on the prevalence of guns in homes, as well as know some characteristics and attitudes of their owners.

  20. Estado de conservación de la fauna de Sauria y Amphisbaenidae (Reptilia: Squamata de Uruguay

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    Carreira Vidal, Santiago

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúa el estado de conservación de la fauna de Sauria y Amphisbaenia del Uruguay, basado en el índice propuesto por Reca et al. (1994, y se aplican las categorías propuestas por Ávila et al. (2000. Se analizaron en total 17 especies, de las cuales se destacan como vulnerables (V Leposternon microcephalum, Anisolepis undulatus, Tropidurus torquatus y Stenocercus azureus, representando el 23,5% de los taxones investigados. La limitación principal detectada en la utilización del índice de Reca es que, dada la carencia de información básica sobre algunas especies, los resultados deben ser re-evaluados de forma constante ante la generación de nuevos conocimientos. Based on the index proposed by Reca et al. (1994, and the categories proposed by Ávila et al. (2000, the conservation status for Sauria and Amphisbaenia from Uruguay is evaluated. Seventeen species were analized, four of them stood out as vulnerable (V Leposternon microcephalum, Anisolepis undulatus, Tropidurus torquatus and Stenocercus azureus, representing the 23.5% of the taxa. The most important constraint detected using Reca's Index, is that due to the lack of basic information about some of the species, the results should be revisited any time new knowledge arises.

  1. Antropología y Turismo en “Los Países del Plata” (Argentina y Uruguay

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    Margarita Barretto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo presenta la creciente producción antropológica en el campo temático del turismo de Argentina y Uruguay. Desde comienzos de la década de noventa hasta el presente, el interés etnográfico de los investigadores sobre los distintos aspectos del turismo se ha incrementado sustancialmente, lo cual evidencia que la elaboración de trabajos académicos es cada vez más recurrente, así como diversa. En las próximas páginas intentaremos recorrer algunas de las investigaciones con las que hemos tenido contacto bibliográfico y aquellas que han sido presentadas en congresos de antropología social, especialmente en distintas instancias de la Reunión de Antropología del Mercosur (RAM y del Congreso Argentino de Antropología Social (CAAS, en las que hemos tenido lugar como coordinadores de grupos de trabajo sobre antropología y turismo. Podríamos decir que el campo del turismo en la antropología social y cultural de Argentina y Uruguay se halla instalado en el ámbito académico local, apuntando a nuevos paradigmas.

  2. Dinosaur ichnofauna of the Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous of the Paraná Basin (Brazil and Uruguay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischini, H.; Dentzien–Dias, P. C.; Fernandes, M. A.; Schultz, C. L.

    2015-11-01

    Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous sedimentary layers are represented in the Brazilian Paraná Basin by the fluvio-aeolian Guará Formation and the Botucatu Formation palaeoerg, respectively, overlapped by the volcanic Serra Geral Formation. In Uruguay, the corresponding sedimentary units are named Batoví and Rivera Members (both from the Tacuarembó Formation), and the lava flows constitute the Arapey Formation (also in Paraná Basin). Despite the lack of body fossils in the mentioned Brazilian formations, Guará/Batoví dinosaur fauna is composed of theropod, ornithopod and wide-gauge sauropod tracks and isolated footprints, as well as theropod teeth. In turn, the Botucatu/Rivera dinosaur fauna is represented by theropod and ornithopod ichnofossils smaller than those from the underlying units. The analysis of these dinosaur ichnological records and comparisons with other global Mesozoic ichnofauna indicates that there is a size reduction in dinosaur fauna in the more arid Botucatu/Rivera environment, which is dominated by aeolian dunes. The absence of sauropod trackways in the Botucatu Sandstone fits with the increasingly arid conditions because it is difficult for heavy animals to walk on sandy dunes, as well as to obtain the required amount of food resources. This comparison between the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous dinosaur fauna in south Brazil and Uruguay demonstrates the influence of aridization on the size of animals occupying each habitat.

  3. Addition of a spider family for Uruguay: First record of Iviraiva pachyura (Mello-Leitão, 1935 (Araneae: Hersiliidae, with notes on its natural history and distribution

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    Álvaro Laborda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This is the first record for the species Iviraiva pachyura and for the family Hersiliidae in Uruguay.  Data presented represent the southernmost record for the species.  Figures of living specimens, copulatory organs and a description of the egg sac are provided. The distribution of the species is shown and discussed. 

  4. Exploración de alternativas para el desarrollo sostenible de sistemas de producción hortícola-ganaderos familiares en el sur de Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguerre, V.; Chilibroste, P.; Casagrande, M.; Dogliotti, S.

    2014-01-01

    La sostenibilidad de la mayoría de los predios hortícolas familiares en el sur de Uruguay está amenazada por ingresosinsuficientes y por el deterioro de los recursos naturales. En este estudio se cuantificó el efecto de la inclusión de diferentesactividades de producción ganadera en la estructura y

  5. Systematic design and evaluation of crop rotations enhancing soil conservation, soil fertility and farm income: a case study for vegetable farms in South Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogliotti Moro, S.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2004-01-01

    Rapid changes in the social and economic environment in which agriculture is developing, together with the deterioration of the natural resource base threatens sustainability of farm systems in many areas of the world. For vegetable farms in South Uruguay, survival in the long term depends upon the

  6. Democracia y política exterior: Uruguay (1985-2006

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    Lilia FERRO CLÉRICO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Con un abordaje histórico-descriptivo, el artículo hace un análisis de la política exterior de Uruguay entre 1985 y 2006. El comienzo del período histórico estudiado está marcado por el retorno a la democracia al cabo de la dictadura militar más larga de la historia contemporánea del país. A través de los factores internos y externos que explican la formulación y ejecución de la política exterior el artículo analiza los principales lineamientos de las estrategias de inserción del país, los actores que intervienen en el proceso de toma de decisiones en materia de política externa así como los ejes temáticos a los que se dan distintas prioridades por parte de las sucesivas administraciones que determinan la agenda resultante. Se estudia igualmente el grado de continuidad de las políticas exteriores de cada período así como el de la autonomía de las mismas.ABSTRACT: With a historic-descriptive approach, the article makes an analysis of Uruguayan foreign policy between 1985 and 2006. The beginning of the period is marked by the return to democracy at the end of the longest period of military dictatorship in the contemporary history of the country. Through the internal and external factors that explain foreign policy, the article studies the country’s international insertion, the actors that take part of the decision-making process in foreign policy as well as the themes that are prioritized by each of the successive administrations, which determine the resulting agenda. The degree of continuity of the foreign policies of each period as well as their autonomy are also studied.

  7. Un análisis de las reformas judiciales de Argentina, Chile y Uruguay

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    Elin SKAAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata sobre las reformas judiciales en Sudamérica, durante los años 90. Muestra que tanto en el caso de la Argentina como en el de Chile, las reformas a los códigos de procedimiento estuvieron motivadas por tres factores centrales, vinculados con el doble pro­ceso de democratización y liberalización económica: i la preocupación con la violación de dere­chos humanos que provenía de los pasados regímenes autoritarios; ii el deseo de crear ambientes legales estables tanto para los derechos de propiedad como para la inversión extranjera; y iii la preocupación pública en torno a tasas de criminalidad cada vez más altas. Las reformas consti­tucionales que afectaron a las Cortes Supremas tanto en la Argentina como en Chile estuvieron vinculadas por razones estrictamente auto-interesadas. En última instancia, estas reformas fue­ron el resultado de compromisos políticos entre la izquierda y la derecha en respuesta a parti­culares eventos nacionales. En Uruguay, los frustrados intentos por desarrollar reformas en el código de procedimientos criminales y en el ámbito de la Corte Suprema pueden atribuirse a una combinación de falta de voluntad política, la carencia de apoyo a las mismas reformas judi­ciales, y una falta de recursos económicos. Notablemente, el análisis muestra que en ninguno de los tres países examinados las agencias internacionales han jugado un rol significativo a la hora de promover reformas u ofrecer asistencia financiera o técnica en favor de los cambios en los códigos de procedimiento o en la organización de las Cortes Supremas. Ello sugiere que estos dos tipos de reformas judiciales en el Cono Sur han sido motivados, ante todo, a partir de deman­das nacionales, y no a partir de una presión internacional –lo que muestra una diferencia impor­tante en el contexto de reformas que distinguió a estos tres países latinoamericanos–, y el que se dio en otros países de la región.

  8. Parasite meningomyelitis in cats in Uruguay Meningomielites parasitária em gatos no Uruguai

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    Rodolfo Rivero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two outbreaks of progressive hind limb paresis in cats (Felis catus caused by parasitic meningomyelitis in Uruguay are reported. The case studies occurred in 2008 and 2009 respectively, in the rural areas of Fray Bentos (33º 07' 40.39" S and were characterized by hindquarter paralysis. This paralysis was progressive and had a chronic progression of approximately 12 months until the death or euthanasia of the animals. Clinical symptoms started with ataxia of the hindquarters with lateral side-to-side swaying and culminated in total paralysis. Two animals were sent for necropsy in 2009. The main histopathological findings were severe myelitis in the lumbar spinal cord with perivascular cuffing and white matter necrosis, severe nonsuppurative meningitis with thrombi in subarachnoid blood vessels, and intravascular presence of multiple adult parasites. From the morphological characteristics of the parasites and location in the leptomeninges, the parasite was identified as the nematode Gurltia paralysans.São relatados dois surtos de paralisia progressiva dos membros posteriores em gatos (Felis catus, causada por meningomielite parasitária no Uruguai. Os estudos de casos ocorreram entre os anos 2008 e 2009, respectivamente, nas zonas rurais de Fray Bentos (33º 07' 40,39" S e foram caracterizados por paralisia dos membros posteriores. Esta paralisia era progressiva e tinha evolução crônica de aproximadamente 12 meses, até que os animais vinham a óbito ou eram eutanasiados. Os sintomas clínicos começaram com ataxia dos membros posteriores, com movimentos laterais, terminado em paralisia total. Em 2009, dois animais foram encaminhados para necropsia. Os achados histopatológicos foram caracterizados por severa mielite na medula espinhal lombar com manguitos perivasculares linfocitarios e necrose da substância branca, severa meningite não supurativa com trombos nos vasos sanguíneos subaracnóideos, e presença intravascular de m

  9. Propuestas de reforma en salud y equidad en Uruguay: ¿redefinición del Welfare State? Proposals for health reform and equity in Uruguay: a redefinition of the Welfare State?

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    Myriam Mitjavila

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se realizan una revisión y un análisis de las propuestas de reforma del sector Salud en Uruguay, y de los posibles efectos de estas reformas en términos de equidad, estructura institucional del sector y relaciones de poder entre los actores involucrados en el proceso. Encontramos que las características contradictorias del sistema de salud, por un lado altamente estructurado y, al mismo tiempo, fragmentado, conspiran contra los esfuerzos reformistas que intentan introducir cambios en el mismo. En función de lo expresado, las posibilidades de reforma no residen en la consolidación de las IAMC (Instituciones de Asistencia Médica Colectiva ni en la aplicación del modelo residual. Por el contrario, asistimos a un proceso de reestructuración pasiva del sistema. En este contexto, y teniendo en cuenta el nivel de inequidades existentes, la tendencia que se percibe es de profundización de una distribución regresiva de beneficios y servicios. A partir de técnicas cualitativas y cuantitativas, mostramos como las inequidades relacionadas con el gasto, el acceso y la calidad están relacionadas con procesos de desarrollo de largo tiempo del sistema IAMC y con los movimientos adaptativos frentes a su colapso fiscal, por una parte, y con la pérdida de calidad del sistema público, por otra.This article reviews and analyzes health sector reform proposals in Uruguay and the possible effects of such reforms in terms of equity, the health sector's institutional structure, and the power relationship between the various actors in the process. The authors contend that a highly structured yet simultaneously fragmented system has conspired against any attempt to introduce major reforms into the system. Thus the only possibility for reform resides neither in the consolidation of the so-called Institutions for Collective Medical Care (IAMCs nor in the move towards a residual model. Rather, Uruguay is witnessing the system's passive

  10. Sex-stratified and age-adjusted social gradients in tobacco in Argentina and Uruguay: evidence from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maio, F G; Konfino, J; Ondarsuhu, D; Goldberg, L; Linetzky, B; Ferrante, D

    2015-11-01

    To examine social gradients in tobacco use in Argentina and Uruguay, using newly available directly comparable data sets. Secondary analysis of Global Adult Tobacco Survey data from Argentina (N=6645) and Uruguay (N=5581). Social gradients in current tobacco use, exposure to secondhand smoke, and cessation attempt were examined with sex-stratified and age-adjusted logistic regression. Among men, there is evidence of higher odds of being a current smoker among respondents with lower levels of education, but the association is only statistically significant for respondents with less than primary education in Uruguay (OR=2.15, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.77). Similarly, women with lower levels of education have higher odds of being a current smoker in Uruguay. The association between education and exposure to secondhand smoke is broadly similar for both sexes in both countries, with generally higher odds among groups with low education, though the relationship is only statistically significant among men in Uruguay (OR=1.77, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.92). In both countries, respondents with lower levels of education in general have higher odds of having attempted to quit smoking in the past year, although these associations did not attain statistical significance. Social gradients in tobacco use, exposure to secondhand smoke and cessation attempts are broadly similar in both countries. Efforts to evaluate the long-term effects of tobacco control efforts in these countries should monitor how policies affect national averages, and the social gradients that are embedded in aggregate data. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Perennial grasses traits as functional markers of grazing intensity in basaltic grasslands of Uruguay Rasgos de gramíneas perennes como marcadores funcionales de la intensidad de pastoreo en pastizales de basalto en Uruguay

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    Martin Jaurena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural grasslands in the basaltic region of Uruguay are threatened by an increase in stocking rates and changes in land use. To assess the effect of grazing intensification, plant functional types are proposed as simple tools to aid the monitoring and management of vegetation. In the present study we evaluated the effect of stocking rate increase at community level taking into account plant traits of 23 dominant perennial grass species. In order to identify plant functional types, we determined the grazing response in an experiment with two wethers stocking rates (0.78 and 1.56 livestock units ha-1 quantifying species cover and traits values. Leaf dry matter content (LDMC and specific leaf area (SLA were the traits that best described the perennial grasses response to the stocking rate increase and therefore are suggested to be used as functional markers. Three functional types were identified. Low stocking rates were related to functional type A (tall, warm season species with low SLA and high LDMC and functional type B (tall, cool-season species, with intermediate levels of leaf traits. On the other hand, high stocking rate encouraged functional type C (prostrate, warm season species, with high SLA and low LDMC. The classification of a highly diverse community into three functional types and the selection of traits as functional markers candidates is an innovative approach to develop simple and general methods to diagnosis the state of basaltic grasslands in Uruguay and to advise on its management.Las praderas naturales de la region bas áltica de Uruguay están amenazadas por el incremento de la carga animal y cambios en el uso del suelo. Para evaluar el efecto del pastoreo se han propuesto los grupos funcionales como una herramienta simple para el monitoreo y manejo de la vegetación. El presente estudio evaluó el efecto del incremento de la carga animal considerando rasgos de 23 especies de gramineas perennes dominantes. Para identificar

  12. Economic impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay Impacto económico de la vacuna antineumocócica conjugada en Brasil, Chile y Uruguay

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    Dagna O. Constenla

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the economic impact of vaccination with the pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7 in Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. METHODS: A decision analytic model was constructed to compare pneumococcal vaccination of children 0-5 years old with no vaccination in Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Costs and health outcomes were analyzed from the societal perspective. Vaccine, demographic, epidemiologic, and cost data were incorporated into this economic analysis. RESULTS: At the rate of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP vaccine coverage and a vaccine price of US$ 53 per dose, PCV7 was projected to prevent 23 474 deaths per year in children under 5 years old in the three countries studied, thus averting 884 841 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs yearly. To vaccinate the entire birth cohort of the three countries, total vaccine costs would be US$ 613.9 million. At US$ 53 per dose, the cost per DALY averted from a societal perspective would range from US$ 664 (Brazil to US$ 2 019 (Chile. At a cost of US$ 10 per dose, vaccine cost is lower than the overall cost of illness averted (US$ 125 050 497 versus US$ 153 965 333, making it cost effective and cost-saving. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that the incorporation of PCV7 vaccine at US$ 53 per dose confers health benefits at extra costs. It is unclear whether vaccination at the current price is affordable to these countries.OBJETIVOS: Evaluar el impacto económico de la aplicación de la vacuna antineumocócica conjugada heptavalente (PCV7 en Brasil, Chile y Uruguay. MÉTODOS: Se elaboró un modelo analítico de decisiones para comparar la vacunación antineumocócica de los niños de 0-5 años de edad con la no vacunación, en Brasil, Chile y Uruguay. Los costos y los desenlaces para la salud se analizaron desde el punto de vista de la sociedad. Al análisis económico se incorporaron los costos y los datos demográficos, epidemiológicos y de la vacuna. RESULTADOS

  13. Entorno genético de CTX-M-2 en aislamientos de Klebsiella pneumoniae provenientes de pacientes hospitalizados en Uruguay Genetic environment of CTX-M-2 in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from hospitalized patients in Uruguay

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    R. Vignoli

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las cepas de Klebsiella pneumoniae K96005 y K13, productoras de la beta-lactamasa de espectro extendido CTX-M-2, aisladas durante 1996 y 2003, respectivamente, de pacientes hospitalizados en Uruguay. Se realizó la caracterización del entorno génico del gen blaCTX-M-2 mediante mapeo por PCR y secuenciación de los amplicones. Los resultados revelan que en ambos aislamientos el gen codificante de dicha enzima se encuentra en un integrón complejo de clase 1, asociado a la presencia de orf513. El integrón identificado, cuyo arreglo de genes es aac(6'-Ib, blaOXA-2, orfD, asociados a orf513-blaCTX-M-2, parece estar ampliamente diseminado en la región del Río de la Plata.We studied two CTX-M-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains, K96005 and K13, isolated from hospitalized patients in Uruguay, during 1996 and 2003, respectively. The genomic surroundings of blaCTX-M-2 were characterized by PCR-mapping and DNA sequencing. Our results show that blaCTX-M-2 is included in a complex class-1 integron (InK13, associated with an orf513 in both isolates. The genetic array of the integron, aac(6'-Ib, blaCTX-M-2, orfD (gene cassette region, associated with an orf513-blaCTX-M-2, seems to be widely disseminated over the Río de la Plata region.

  14. Ideas, pensamiento y política en Argentina, Brasil, Chile y Uruguay, entre los cincuenta y los sesenta Ideas, beliefs and politics in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay, between the fifties and sixties

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    Inés Nercesian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es analizar la relación ideas-pensamiento-política en Argentina, Brasil, Chile y Uruguay en el período que abarca las décadas de 1950 y 1960. En primer lugar, se reconstruyen los principales debates de la CEPAL de los tempranos años cincuenta y su repercusión en los distintos proyectos y alternativas políticas de la época. En segundo lugar, se analiza cómo el triunfo de la Revolución Cubana obligó a revisar esos mismos problemas latinoamericanos, abriendo un nuevo escenario de alternativas políticas para las izquierdas y para las derechas. El estudio propone reubicar "revolución" y "violencia", tópicos muy propios de la década de 1960, en un mapa integral de circulación de ideas que comenzó a conformarse en la coyuntura crítica de los 1950.This paper intends to analyze the relationship between politics, ideas and beliefs in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay during the period 1950-1960. First, we reconstruct the main debates at CEPAL in the early 1950s and their repercussion on the distinct projects and political alternatives at that time. Second, we analyze how the success of the Cuban Revolution made it necessary to revise these same problems in Latin America, opening the door to a new scenario of political alternatives for the left- and right-wing. The study proposes reconsidering the position of "revolution" and "violence", topics that were highly characteristic of the 1960s, on an integral map of ideas that began to take shape in the critical instance of the 1950s.

  15. Resistencia política y ciudadanía: plebiscitos y referéndums en el Uruguay de los ‘90 Political resistance and citizenship: plebiscites and referendums in Uruguay in the 1990’s

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    Constanza MOREIRA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia política al gobierno por parte del soberano, puede expresarse de varias formas. Éstas varían según el grado en que erosionan la legitimidad del sistema, aplican soluciones previstas constitucionalmente y se articulan con las instituciones políticas. Al mismo tiempo, pueden tener motivaciones u objetivos diferentes, que van desde el desacato a alguna medida de gobierno, hasta su remoción total. Este artículo analiza una de las formas más institucionalizadas de la resistencia a un gobierno por parte del soberano: el uso de medidas de democracia directa para alterar un curso de acción del mismo, que va contra las preferencias ciudadanas. En particular, el artículo analiza el uso del recurso de referéndum en Uruguay, desde la transición democrática al presente (1985-2003.The widespread political resistance to the government took several different ways. Such resistances may include legitimate or non-legitimate approaches, within or outside the Constitution, involving or not the representative political institutions. At the same time, these processes may pursue different objectives which include from civil disobedience up to the government ousting. This article examines the most common institutionalized ways of civil resistance to the government: the use of direct democracy to change the unpopular government’s policies. Specifically, this article examines the use of referendum in Uruguay, since the transition to democracy in 1985 to date.

  16. The effects of substitution and the evolution of the cost of living expenses within the Uruguay-Brazil border

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    Fernando Correa Alsina

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The consumers that live near the border Uruguay-Brazil have the possibility of buying goods on both sides of such border. They may replace purchases of one country to the other according to the evolution of prices. In this way, consumers have a lower cost of living compared to the consumers living in the rest of the country. Besides, if the real bilateral exchange rate undergoes important fluctuations, they may take significant advantage of their location. This paper deals with the issue from a theoretical and empirical point of view. On one hand, it presents an adaptation of the cost-of-living index theory to the situation, and on the other hand, the estimates show that the advantages of living on the border were really significant in the last decade.

  17. Comparison of motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among low medium income consumers in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Machín, Leandro; Girona, Alejandra; Curutchet, María Rosa; Giménez, Ana

    2017-05-18

    Interventions aimed at changing dietary patterns should be designed based on the main motives underlying the food choices of specific target populations. The aim of the present study was to identify motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among consumers in two socioeconomic levels in Uruguay. Eleven focus groups were carried out with a total of 76 participants. Six of the groups involved low income participants and the others were conducted with middle income participants. Discussions were held around frequently consumed products, motives underlying food choices and barriers to healthy eating. Results confirmed the strong influence of income level on motives underlying food choice and barriers to the adoption of healthy eating. Low income participants described their choices as mainly driven by economic factors and satiety, whereas convenience was the main determinant of food selection for middle income participants. Implications for the design of public policies targeted at each group are discussed.

  18. L'Accordo dell'Uruguay Round: una prima valutazione dei suoi effetti sull'UE e sui PSV

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    C. MASTROPASQUA

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available On December 15th of last year, seven years after its start, the Uruguay Round negotiations for the reform of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade came to a conclusion. This paper aims to provide a qualitative assessment of the results achieved in the fields of agriculture, market access, trade rules and intellectual property protection, leaving out services, given the limited results of liberalisation achieved in this area. In this limited context, the focus is on the European Union and developing countries. The authors describe the details of the agreement by sector before analysing the effects on the EU and developing countries. The effects of intellectual property protection both industrial countries and developing countries is then assessed.

  19. Sustainability of meat production beyond carbon footprint: a synthesis of case studies from grazing systems in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picasso, Valentín D; Modernel, Pablo D; Becoña, Gonzalo; Salvo, Lucía; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Astigarraga, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Livestock production has been challenged as a large contributor to climate change, and carbon footprint has become a widely used measure of cattle environmental impact. This analysis of fifteen beef grazing systems in Uruguay quantifies the range of variation of carbon footprint, and the trade-offs with other relevant environmental variables, using a partial life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Using carbon footprint as the primary environmental indicator has several limitations: different metrics (GWP vs. GTP) may lead to different conclusions, carbon sequestration from soils may drastically affect the results, and systems with lower carbon footprint may have higher energy use, soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, pesticide ecotoxicity, and impact on biodiversity. A multidimensional assessment of sustainability of meat production is therefore needed to inform decision makers. There is great potential to improve grazing livestock systems productivity while reducing carbon footprint and other environmental impacts, and conserving biodiversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oligosarcus jacuiensis (Characiformes: Characidae, a new species from the Uruguay and Jacuí River basins, southern Brazil

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    Naércio Aquino Menezes

    Full Text Available The new species herein described, collected in the Jacuí and Uruguay River basins, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, can be distinguished from the already known species of the genus, but Oligosarcus jenynsii, O. perdido, O. acutirostris, O. solitarius and O. hepsetus, by the number of perforated lateral line scales. It shares with the first two species the absence of a premaxillary foramen, present in the last three species and differs from O. jenynsii by having a smaller orbital diameter and the tip of the pectoral fin failing to reach the pelvic-fin origin, and from O. perdido by the presence of more horizontal scale rows around the caudal peduncle.

  1. Manejo de Biosólidos y su posible aplicación al suelo, caso Colombia y Uruguay

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    Alexander Rodrigo Melo Cerón

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se realiza un análisis del manejo de los biosólidos y su posible aplicación en los suelos en países como Colombia y Uruguay a partir de una revisión bibliográfica. Se pretende identificar las diferentes alternativas para la estabilización de los lodos residuales para obtener biosólidos, los cuales son caracterizados de acuerdo con las normas de cada país para su aplicación en usos como remediación y estabilización de suelos, así como en la agricultura, sin que representen peligros para los ecosistemas y el ser humano.Producto Asociado al Proyecto de Investigación INV ING 2127 de la Vicerrectoría de Investigaciones de la UMNG

  2. Partidos políticos, ideología y política exterior en Uruguay (2010-2014

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    Camilo López Burian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Uruguay has a party political system. The central actors play an important - though not exclusive - role in shaping the political agenda and in defining strategies for public policies. Within these parties there are a number of highly institutionalized factions. This paper presents an analysis of the positioning of parties and factions on Uruguayan foreign policy, showing inter and intra-party convergences and divergences on the subject. The information presented was obtained through a survey of Uruguayan legislators. The findings show similarities and differences of opinion with and between the parties, and lead us to believe that Uruguayan foreign policy is a party political matter, where ideology is a relevant factor in terms of explaining it.

  3. La violencia patriarcal nuestra de todos los días: el acoso sexual callejero en Uruguay.

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca Estévez, Agustina

    2015-01-01

    Trabajo de Conclusión de Curso presentado al Instituto Latino-Americano de Economía, Sociedad y Política de la Universidad Federal de Integración Latino-Americana (UNILA), como requisito parcial a la obtención del título de Licenciada en Ciencia Política y Sociología – Estado, Sociedad y Política en América Latina El presente trabajo de investigación estudia el acoso sexual callejero como una expresión de violencia, específicamente de violencia de género en Montevideo, Uruguay. El trabajo ...

  4. La información y la lectura para presas políticas durante la dictadura militar en Uruguay

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    Yanet Fúster

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del marco que provee la Bibliotecología/Ciencia de la Información se presenta un estudio sobre las vías de acceso a documentos de contenido recreativo e informativo y sobre el uso que de ellos se hacía en la Cárcel de Punta de Rieles para presas políticas, durante la dictadura civil-militar que vivió Uruguay entre 1973 y 1985. En un estudio de usuarios de carácter retrospectivo, se obtienen una serie de testimonios que revelan el significado de la lectura como medio para perforar los límites en un contexto de supresión de libertades.

  5. Chemical signature of two Permian volcanic ash deposits within a bentonite bed from Melo, Uruguay

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    Liane M. Calarge

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A Permian bentonite deposit at Melo, Uruguay is composed of a calcite-cemented sandstone containing clay pseudomorphs of glass shards (0-0.50 m overlying a pink massive clay deposit (0.50-2.10m. The massive bed is composed of two layers containing quartz and smectite or pure smectite respectively. The smectite is remarkably homogeneous throughout the profile: it is a complex mixed layer composed of three layer types whose expandability with ethylene glycol (2EG 1EG or 0EG sheets in the interlayer zone which correspond to low-, medium- and high-charge layers respectively varies with the cation saturating the interlayer zone. The smectite homogeneity through the profile is the signature of an early alteration process in a lagoonal water which was over saturated with respect to calcite. Compaction during burial has made the bentonite bed a K-depleted closed system in which diagenetic illitization was inhibited. Variations in major, REE and minor element abundances throughout the massive clay deposit suggest that it originated from two successive ash falls. The incompatible element abundances are consistent with that of a volcanic glass fractionated from a rhyolite magma formed in a subduction/collision geological context.Um depósito Permiano de bentonita em Melo, Uruguai,é composto por um arenito com cimento calcítico contendo pseudomorfos de argila sobre detritos vítreos(0-0.50 m superpostos a um deposito maciço de argila rosado (0.50-2.10 m. A camada maciça é composta por dois níveis contendo quartzo e esmectita ou esmectita pura, respectivamente. A homogeneidade de esmectita ao longo do perfil é notável: trata-se de um interestratificado composto de três tipos de camadas, cuja expansibilidade com etileno-glicol (folhas 2EG, 1EG ou 0EG na zona interfoliar correspondentes a camadas com baixa, média e alta carga, respectivamente variam com o tipo de cátion que satura a zona interfoliar. A homogeneidade da esmectita ao longo do perfil

  6. Los programas una computadora por niño en Brasil y Uruguay: estudio de casos

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    Gabriela Silva Piovani; Verónica

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tuvo como objetivo analizar cómo se está produciendo el proceso de inclusión de los programas Una computadora por niño en tres escuelas diferentes (una brasileña y dos uruguayas y evaluar algunas posibilidades pedagógico-metodológicas del uso de las laptops en la Educación Física (EF escolar. Fue realizado un estudio de caso, para esto, fue aplicado un cuestionario a la población estudiantil y fue realizada una propuesta metodológica de intervención pedagógica en la EF. A través de esta, fue creada una unidad didáctica sobre el contenido Juegos de la cultura popular, con apoyo de la laptop; integrada de forma paralela entre las escuelas uruguayas y la brasileña. Para el estudio de los resultados, fueron utilizados la estadística descriptiva y el análisis de contenido. Estos revelaron la necesidad de enfrentar los desafíos técnicos y de infraestructura relacionados con las escuelas y las laptops; así como de calificar el acceso a los computadores por parte del estudiantado, profundizando las acciones de formación docente vinculada a la práctica, de acuerdo con las realidades de las escuelas. También, es necesario modificar algunas prácticas curriculares que no favorecen el uso de las laptops en las propuestas pedagógicas de la disciplina EF y que existen posibilidades ofrecidas por las laptops que fomentan la participación, curiosidad y creación de los estudiantes en su aprendizaje. Se concluye que es preciso repensar y reelaborar las políticas públicas relacionadas con la inclusión de las tecnologías en la educación, desde una perspectiva que busque aprovecharlas para la consecución de fines sociales y educativos.The present article aimed to analyze how is happening the inclusion process of the “one laptop per child programs” in three different schools (one in Brazil and two in Uruguay and evaluate some of the methodological and pedagogical possibilities of using the laptops in the

  7. Efectos del aborto clandestino en la subjetividad de las mujeres: resultados de una investigación cualitativa en Uruguay

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    Alejandra López Gómez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La dimensión subjetiva implicada en el proceso de aborto voluntario en contextos de ilegalidad y penalización ha sido escasamente explorada. Cuando un aborto se produce en la clandestinidad es, por definición, un aborto inseguro, independientemente de las condiciones sanitarias en el cual éste tenga lugar. El contexto de ilegalidad y penalización se transforma en un texto que determina la experiencia y sus resultados médicos, psicológicos, familiares, sociales y jurídicos. El estudio se realizó en base a un diseño cualitativo con entrevistas en profundidad a mujeres que abortaron clandestinamente en los últimos 15 años en Uruguay. Los hallazgos permitieron conocer los factores subjetivos asociados a las experiencias de aborto en un contexto, como el uruguayo, donde la práctica es tipificada como delito por la ley vigente en el país. The subjective dimension involved in the process of voluntary abortion in contexts of illegality and criminalization hasn't been studied in depth. A clandestine abortion is, by definition, an unsafe abortion, regardless of the sanitary conditions under which it takes place. The context of illegality and criminalization turns into a text that determines the experience and the medical, psychological, family, social and legal outcome. The study was carried out on the basis of a qualitative design with in-depth interviews to women who underwent clandestine abortions in the past 15 years in Uruguay. The findings allowed for the discovery of the subjective factors associated to abortion experiences in a context, such as the Uruguayan, where the practice is defined as a crime by the law in force.

  8. New insights into the characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with apple diseases in southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velho, Aline Cristina; Alaniz, Sandra; Casanova, Leticia; Mondino, Pedro; Stadnik, Marciel J

    2015-04-01

    Colletotrichum species are associated with Apple bitter rot (ABR) and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS). Whereas both apple diseases occur frequently in Brazil, only the former has been reported in Uruguay. This work was aimed at identifying and comparing morpho-cultural characteristics and pathogenic variability of thirty-nine Colletotrichum isolates from both countries. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and β-tubulin (TUB2) allowed the identification of three species causing ABR and GLS in Brazil, i.e., Colletotrichum fructicola, Colletotrichum karstii, and Colletotrichum nymphaeae; and three species causing ABR in Uruguay, i.e., C. fructicola, Colletotrichum theobromicola, and Colletotrichum melonis. Six groups of colony colours were recorded with group 1 (mycelium white to pink and in reverse pinkish) and group 2 (mycelium white to grey and in reverse pinkish) the most frequent. Isolates of C. fructicola and C. theobromicola were sensitive to benomyl, while C. karstii, C. nymphaeae, and C. melonis were resistant. Conidia were predominantly cylindrical for C. fructicola and C. karstii, fusiform for C. nymphaeae and C. melonis, and obclavate for C. theobromicola. Brazilian isolates caused ABR in wounded fruits, but only five in non-wounded ones. Uruguayan isolates produced symptoms in fruits with or without previous wounding. All Brazilian isolates from GLS and twelve from ABR were able to cause GLS symptoms, while a sole Uruguayan ABR-isolate caused leaf spot symptoms. This study gives a better insight on the new species causing apple disease in both countries and discusses their pathogenic potential. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Los conceptos de transición y democracia en el pensamiento de las Ciencias Sociales. Uruguay 1985-1989

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    Cecilia Arias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo me propongo analizar los conceptos de transición y democracia en el pensamiento de las Ciencias Sociales en el Uruguay entre los años 1985-1989. El trabajo se enmarca en el proyecto “La construcción de la democracia en la transición. El pensamiento de las Ciencias Jurídicas, Políticas y Sociales: Uruguay 1985-1989” en el que participo junto a otros investigadores. Dicho proyecto tiene por objetivo investigar, desde una mirada interdisciplinaria pero con un marco teórico consensuado, los pensamientos expresados en los textos producidos desde la academia uruguaya en disciplinas como las ciencias políticas, jurídicas, históricas y sociales en los años señalados.El pensamiento se entiende en el proyecto como una de las dimensiones constitutivas y constituyentes de la realidad social. A partir de los pensamientos expresados en los textos producidos entre 1985 y 1989 desde la academia analizaré los conceptos de transición y democracia a la que adscriben los autores, que concepciones y caminos constataron, alentaron y cuales descartaron.El estudio de los conceptos me llevó a incursionar en la historia conceptual, en su método y criterios y a incorporar aspectos que anteriormente no eran objeto de nuestra atención.

  10. La Iglesia y el proceso de secularización en el Uruguay moderno (1859-1919

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    Sansón Corbo, Tomás

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Uruguay is characterized itself by, among other things, to be an eminent secular country. The Constitution of 1917 established the absolute separation of the Church and the State and it put an end to a long process of secularization initiated in 1859. The Church lost its socio-cultural preponderance, and from the State was articulated an imaginary collective devoid of any religious point of reference. In this article, I expect to analyze the unsuccessful fight of the Church to preserve its socio-cultural influence and the strategies structured in several fronts –pastoral, formative, journalistic, political, catechism educational– to avoid what in the time, was denominated the «Dechristianization». This approach leads to explain the original features of the uruguayan Church and the character of its relationships with the society and the State.

    Uruguay se caracteriza, entre otras cosas, por ser un país eminentemente laicista. La Constitución de 1917 consagró la separación absoluta de la Iglesia y el Estado y puso fin a un largo proceso de secularización iniciado en 1859. La Iglesia perdió su preponderancia sociocultural y desde el Estado se articuló un imaginario colectivo prescindente de referentes religiosos. En este artículo pretendo analizar la frustrada lucha de la Iglesia por conservar su influencia sociocultural y las estrategias articuladas en varios frentes (pastoral, educativo, periodístico, político, catequético para evitar lo que en la época se denominó la «descristianización». Este enfoque contribuye a explicar los rasgos originales de la Iglesia uruguaya y el carácter de sus relaciones con la sociedad y el Estado.

  11. Sociedad civil, Derecho y Política en Uruguay: un modelo desde la perspectiva de Habermas

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    Henry Trujillo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone un bosquejo de marco teórico que puede ser productivo para investigar el problema de la democracia y la ciudadanía en América Latina, y en particular algunas características del funcionamiento del sistema jurídico en Uruguay. Para ello, en primer lugar se describe un modelo presentado por Habermas que vincula sociedad civil, esfera de la opinión pública y sistema político administrativo. En especial, se discutirá la noción de sociedad civil, subrayando que su componente asociativo y de tradición liberal es el que resulta congruente con este modelo. A continuación, se exploran datos empíricos para América Latina. Luego se retoma el concepto de “partidocentrismo”, propuesta para describir el hecho de que Uruguay fueron las organizaciones de los partidos políticos los que gestionaron el acceso de las demandas sociales al sistema político administrativo. Esto permite comprender mejor algunos fenómenos relevantes para el Derecho y el sistema jurídico, como ser el carácter flexible de la Constitución uruguaya, el papel central que parece tomar la Constitución con relación a ciertas luchas políticas, y el fenómeno de judicialización o juridificación de ciertas áreas de la vida social y política. 

  12. Los argumentos de Uruguay ante la Corte Internacional de Justicia en la Ronda de Alegatos por el caso de las Plantas de Celulosa en el Río Uruguay - doi:10.5102/uri.v8i1.1076

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    Juan Manuel Rivero Godoy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo versará sobre los alegatos presentados por el Estado de Uruguay ante la CIJ a efectos de cumplir el rito procesal de las audiencias públicas en el marco del desarrollo del proceso trabado entre el Estado Argentino y el Uruguay llevadas a cabo del 21 al 24 de setiembre y del 1 al 2 de octubre de 2009 en la Haya, Holanda. Durante éste período se mostrará los argumentos jurídicos que Uruguay utilizó para contrarrestar la presentación Argentina. Esta etapa marca el final del proceso antes del dictado del fallo definitivo que dará fin o un nuevo comienzo al conflicto. En la primera ronda de alegatos de Uruguay se hace la defensa del caso desde sus inicios y sobre todo de los alegatos ya presentados por la Argentina, en la segunda ronda se realiza prácticamente una presentación abreviada de ésta etapa donde deja en claro cuál es la posición final del Gobierno Uruguayo de cara a la sentencia. Por tanto los alegatos expresan lo probado, lo argumentado y la defensa final de las diversas acciones tomadas por las partes durante todo el asunto a efectos de que la CIJ tome una decisión.

  13. Occurrence of Limnoperna fortunei (Mollusca, Mytilidae in the Uruguay River, municipality of Uruguaiana, western border of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazilian Pampa

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    Marcus V. M. Querol

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the occurrence of the golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857 in the natural environment in the city of Uruguaiana, in Rio Grande do Sul. The clusters were detected, photographed and collected on the left bank of the Uruguay River, in Brazilian territory. Two different locations were chosen: the first being near Ponte Internacional Getúlio Vargas-Agustín Justo, a bridge that connects the towns of Uruguaiana/Brazil and Paso de Los Libres/Argentina, and the second near the mouth of the Salso Stream, a tributary of the Uruguay River. The animals were captured and taken to the laboratory where they were identified and stored.

  14. Multiple Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the Southern Cone of Latin America: A Population-based Study in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinstein, Adolfo L.; Irazola, Vilma E.; Calandrelli, Matias; Elorriaga, Natalia; Gutierrez, Laura; Lanas, Fernando; Manfredi, Jose A.; Mores, Nora; Olivera, Hector; Poggio, Rosana; Ponzo, Jacqueline; Seron, Pamela; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Bazzano, Lydia A.; He, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death, and its mortality is increasing in Latin America. However, population-based data on cardiovascular disease risk factors are sparse in these countries. Methods A total of 7,524 men and women, aged 35 to 74 years old, were recruited between February 2010 and December 2011 from randomly selected samples in 4 cities (Bariloche and Marcos Paz, Argentina; Temuco, Chile; and Pando-Barros Blancos, Uruguay) in the Southern Cone of Latin Amer...

  15. First record of Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester, 1880 (Hydrozoa, Limnomedusae) in a natural freshwater lagoon of Uruguay, with notes on polyp stage in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Siquier, M. G. Failla; Alanis, W. S. Serra; Debat, C. Martinez

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The freshwater cnidarian Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester 1880, has invaded lakes and ponds as well as artificial water bodies throughout the world. The first record in Uruguay corresponding to the jellyfish was made in 1961 in two artificial fountains, with no mention of the polyp form. Although local reports of other related polyp species have been made, information on the benthic form of C. sowerbii is lacking. Here we report the finding of live frustules, solitary individuals, me...

  16. Propuesta metodológica para un diagnóstico del mercado de trabajo tradicional y emergente de los bibliotecólogos en Uruguay

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    Laura Bálsamo, Elena Campiotti, Graciela Darré

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo constituye una síntesis del Proyecto de Investigación "Mercado de Trabajo tradicional y emergente del bibliotecólogo en Uruguay: modelo diagnóstico y propuesta metodológica" presentado para la obtención del título de Licenciado en Bibliotecología.

  17. El Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud en Uruguay y los desafíos para la Atención Primaria The Integrated National Healthcare System in Uruguay and the challenges for Primary Healthcare

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    Ana Sollazzo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda resultados del análisis panorámico de la Atención Primaria en Salud (APS en Uruguay en Uruguay en 2009, en el marco de un estudio multicéntrico con objetivo de identificar posibilidades para reorientar la Atención Primaria en Salud (APS como estrategia para alcanzar sistemas de salud universales, considerando la segmentación del sistema y la fragmentación en la provisión. La metodología incluyó análisis documental, entrevistas con informantes clave y triangulación de fuentes de información. Los resultados se presentan en base al modelo analítico construido en cinco dimensiones: conducción, financiamiento, recursos, integralidad e intersectorialidad de la APS. A nivel macro se observa la reciente reforma sectorial con creación de un Sistema Nacional Integrado de Salud (SNIS que favorece el desarrollo de la APS desde una concepción integradora. Se han definido acciones que apuntan a superar la segmentación del sistema y la fragmentación de los cuidados. Sin embargo a nivel operativo la segmentación presente antes del SNIS, así como el bajo nivel de coordinación de los cuidados no se han modificado aún. Esto se relaciona con la capacidad de gestión y factores organizacionales. La falta de recursos humanos adecuados para la implementación de la estrategia de APS, se identifica como factor relevante.The article examines the results of the overview of PHC (Primary Healthcare in Uruguay in 2009, within the context of the multicentric study of PHC with a view to identifying possibilities of redefining PHC as a strategy to achieve universal healthcare systems, taking into account the healthcare system's segmentation and fragmentation. The methodology included document analysis, key informant interviews and triangulation of information sources. The results presented are based on the analytical model structured in five dimensions: delivery, financing, resources, and integrated and intersectoral PHC. At the macro

  18. Panorámica general de la educación pública de los sordos en Uruguay a nivel de Primaria

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    Leonardo Peluso Crespi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo pretendemos mostrar una panorámica de la educación de los sordos en Uruguay, con especial hincapié en Primaria. Para ello debatiremos en torno a los diferentes modelos educativos pensados para los sordos, mostraremos la situación actual en Uruguay a nivel de Primaria y señalaremos la realidad que enfrentan la comunidad sorda y el sistema educativo en torno a los implantes cocleares, en tanto nueva realidad que se impone. // In this paper we intend to present an overview of public education of the Deaf in Uruguay, especially in the Area of Primary School. We will discuss the various educational models thought for the Deaf, and we will show the current situation in Uruguay’s Primary Schools. We will also present the question of the cochlear implant as an issue for the Deaf Community and the Educational System facing a new imposed reality.

  19. Arreglos de convivencia en la vejez en Uruguay: perfiles específicos para una política de cuidados

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    Lucía MONTEIRO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone analizar los arreglos de convivencia en la vejez en Uruguay y las impli - caciones que presentan para el diseño e implementación de políticas de cuidado. Uruguay es uno de los países más envejecidos de la región y su configuración de arreglos familiares en la vejez presenta especificidades en relación a Latinoamérica dado que predominan los arreglos uniper - sonales y nucleares sin hijos. Los procesos de feminización y de envejecimiento convierten a las mujeres de edades muy avanzadas en población vulnerable. Paralelamente se está implementan - do en Uruguay un sistema de cuidados. Este artículo busca responder las siguientes preguntas ¿Qué implica para el sistema de cuidados pensar en clave de arreglos de convivencia? ¿En base a qué características un hogar integrado por adultos mayores se convierte en vulnerable?

  20. Golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia: Mytilidae distribution in the main hydrographical basins of Uruguay: update and predictions

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    Ernesto Brugnoli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Limnoperna fortunei, an Asiatic rivers bivalve has become a worldwide problematic invasive species causing several water quality and macrofouling problems. In the Neotropical region it was first recorded in 1991 in the Río de la Plata coast, Buenos Aires province. Since this, it showed a quick upstream invasion into the principals aquatic systems of the Plata Basin. Nevertheless, there is not a study about its invasion and distribution process in aquatic systems of Uruguay. We describe the new records of Limnoperna fortunei in Uruguayan coast of Río de la Plata, Santa Lucía, Negro and Uruguay Rivers. With these results we aim to estimate its distributional limits for Uruguay main hydrographical basins. We also deal with the role of salinity as the main abiotic factor in limiting the east distribution of this mussel in Uruguayan coast of Río de la Plata and as a potential determinant of the "new" colonization on the Atlantic and the Merín Lagoon Basins. Its presence in the ecosystems not only can cause changes at the ecosystem level but also endanger the associated community, favoring the displacement and the disappearance of endemic species.Limnoperna fortunei, é um bivalve invasor de origem asiática que ocasiona problemas na qualidade d'água e poluição em diversas parte do mundo. Na região Neotropical foi registrado pela primeira vez na costa do Rio de la Plata, província de Buenos Aires. Desde então mostrou uma rápida invasão águas acima nos principais sistemas aquáticos da Bacia del Plata. Porém, ainda não existem estudos acerca do processo de invasão e distribuição nos ecossistemas aquáticos do Uruguai. O presente trabalho descreve os novos registros de Limnoperna fortunei na costa uruguaia do Rio de la Plata e dos Rios Santa Lucia e Uruguai. Os presentes resultados permitem avaliar seus limites de distribuição nas principais bacias hidrográficas do Uruguai. Discute-se o papel da salinidade como o principal fator

  1. Globalización, cambios en la estructura de poder y nuevas elites empresariales: una mirada comparada de Uruguay

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    Miguel Serna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tiene como objetivo principal abordar la problemática de los cambios en la composición de las elites empresariales en el último ciclo de globalización económica neoliberal desde la literatura teórica comparada reciente y luego un análisis específico a partir de los estudios existentes en la temática sobre Uruguay. El trabajo desarrolla un análisis comparativo de enfoques y estudios sobre elites económicas que señalan cinco tipos de procesos de cambios en las últimas décadas de hegemonía del ciclo de desarrollo neoliberal. En primer término, procesos de convergencia y divergencia entre las trayectorias de las elites políticas y económicas. En segundo lugar, procesos de especialización funcional y diversificación de grupos dirigentes en las distintas fuentes de poder económico. Tercero, la existencia de mecanismos de reclutamiento y reproducción de las elites económicas que se relacionan con las formas de dominación en la sociedad. Cuarto, la producción nuevos y viejos mecanismos de legitimación del poder económico, que combinan formas de capital económico y simbólico. Por último, la creciente centralidad de las redes globales y modos de transnacionalización del capital en la conformación de los grupos de elites empresariales. El análisis de la literatura y estudios sobre elites empresariales en el Uruguay en las últimas décadas muestra tendencias similares (a escala de una economía y país pequeño donde se está asistiendo a cambios en las composición de las elites empresariales con una creciente importancia del capital transnacional, y de nuevos elencos ejecutivos que se apoyan más en una forma de control y gestión profesionalizada de las empresas, en redes globales y nuevas formas de capital social. Estas transformaciones contrastan con los perfiles clásicos de empresarios reclutados por medio del capital familiar y prestigio heredado y la pertenencia a gremiales tradicionales y c

  2. La perspectiva de los docentes principiantes en educación media sobre la reforma educativa en Uruguay

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    Rodríguez Zidán, Eduardo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es presentar algunas conclusiones provisorias que surgen de una investigación cuyo propósito principal es conocer cómo valoran los profesores principiantes en educación media, dos elementos significativos de la reforma educativa en Uruguay: la coordinación docente y el trabajo en proyectos de centro. Luego de aplicar un cuestionario autoadministrado bajo supervisión del investigador a una muestra por conveniencia de 304 profesores que se desempeñan en 24 centros educativos; de los departamentos de Jump, Artigas, Paysandú y Río Negro, en la costa norte del país. Se incluyen egresados de dos modelos diferentes de formación docente y no titulados. El estudio concluye sobre las dificultades de promover los cambios educativos desde una lógica racional burocrática que no contempla los intereses reales del profesorado ni las prácticas tradicionales hegemónicas de las instituciones escolares. The objective of this article is to present some provisional conclusions of the research of newly graduated middle school teachers’ evaluation of two of the most representative innovations of the curricular reform of middle education in Uruguay: teacher coordination, and the work in institutional projects. The selected method was the application of a self-administered survey, supervised by a researcher, taking a convenient sample (not at random of 304 professors which have less than 5 years of experience and carry out their labor in 24 schools in the departments of Jump, Artigas, Paysandú and Río Negro, located in the North coast of the country. Teachers graduated from two different models of teacher training and teachers who do not have a title are included. The study makes conclusions on the difficulties to promote the educative changes from a bureaucratic rational logic that does not contemplate the real interests of the teaching staff or the hegemonic traditional practices of the school institutions.

  3. Uruguay 1968: una nueva mirada histórica cuarenta años después

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    Ana María Buriano Castro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El movimiento contestatario latinoamericano de los 60 se inscribió en el ciclo planetario a partir de una pluralidad de configuraciones y motivos. Desde el muy sangriento 68 mexicano al norte hasta el extremo sur del continente, los movimientos populares ganaron la escena y fueron responsables de los intentos de transformar un mundo que sentían periclitado. ¿El 68 latinoamericano se subió, en un movimiento inercial, a la cresta de una ola cuyo centro estaba fuera del continente o, fue un componente orgánico de la misma? Convencidos tanto del potencial dinamizador de aquellas expresiones, como de su concurrencia con una crisis histórica del sistema predominante, el objetivo de este artículo es estudiar desde el presente el periodo 1968-1971 pasado, en Uruguay pasado, a nivel de relato y análisis de coyuntura, como expresión del carácter proteico de las propuestas manejadas en el marco de las luchas sociales latinoamericanas._________________ABSTRACT:The Latin American anti-establishment and ground-breaking movement of the 60s emerged and fed the global scene on the basis of a variety of configurations and reasons. From the very bloody Mexican 1968 in the north towards the south of the continent, popular movements gained presence and were responsible for the attempts of changing a world they viewed as falling into decline. So, did the year 68 in Latin America climb out of inertia on the crest of a wave whose inner forces were outside the continent or, it was a structural component of it? Convinced both of the energizing potential of those manifestations and their concurrence with a historical crisis of the ruling system, the purpose of this paper is to analyze from the present, the 1968-1971 period in Uruguay, at narration and conjuntural analysis level, as an expression of the dynamic character of the proposals made by then, in the framework of social struggles in Latin America.  

  4. Precarización laboral y revitalización sindical en Uruguay: los trabajadores de comercio y servicios

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    Nicolás Eduardo Marrero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda las transformaciones del mundo del trabajo y el sindicalismo en Uruguay, para ello se estudia el caso de la Federación de Empleados de Comercio y Servicios (Fuecys. El texto centra su atención en la percepción del actor sindical sobre los cambios vinculados a las formas de organización del trabajo. Se analizan las propuestas programáticas y las acciones sindicales vinculadas al mundo del trabajo. Con esto, se constata que los cambios del mundo del trabajo y la intervención del Estado en la relación capital-trabajo configuran escenarios que limitan y posibilitan la acción del sujeto sindical. La acción de la Fuecys se desarrolla en medio de dos tensiones: por una parte, se lleva a cabo en un mundo del trabajo cuya característica sobresaliente para el sector de comercio y servicios es la emergencia estructural de la precariedad laboral y su origen se ubica en los cambios de la organización del trabajo, que operan como una fuente de debilitamiento de la organización sindical. Por otra parte, a partir de las transformaciones político-institucionales que resultan del cambio de gobierno en Uruguay desde el 2005, se configura un nuevo marco de relaciones laborales que reinstala los Consejos de Salarios como un mecanismo fundamental para la regulación del conflicto entre capital y trabajo y deja al Estado la tarea de mediador en esta relación. El aprovechamiento continuo de las libertades sindicales y de los mecanismos de negociación colectiva por parte de la Fuecys ha significado un aumento del número de sus integrantes así como mayor capacidad de movilización y organización colectivas. La estrategia metodológica se basa en el estudio de caso y las técnicas de recolección y análisis de información corresponden a entrevistas en profundidad, revelamiento de documentos y de material de propaganda de los sindicatos, observación directa y análisis de datos secundarios. El estudio se enfoca en

  5. Anti capitalismo romántico y asistencia: una emancipación ilusoria en el Uruguay progresista = Romantic anti capitalism and assistance: an illusory emancipation in progressive Uruguay

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    Bentura Alonso, José Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se recoge parte de las conclusiones de la tesis doctoral del autor, en la cual se analiza la política asistencial del gobierno frenteamplista en Uruguay intentando, a partir de una construcción típico ideal, establecer qué perspectiva de cuestión social valiza la intervención del Ministerio de Desarrollo Social. El análisis desarrollado permite afirmar que la propuesta de intervención sobre “lo social” de la izquierda en el gobierno expresa una perspectiva que articula contenidos propios del pensamiento conservador y del pensamiento neoliberal. Tal articulación resulta, en principio, extraña a una propuesta de izquierda. Sin embargo, tal ajenidad se vuelve relativa si se reconoce que, el pensamiento conservador, conformado como “anticapitalismo romantico”, no es extraño a la formación del pensamiento de izquierda en Latinoamerica. La comunidad entonces es creada como una esfera desmercantilizada que funciona en paralelo al mercado, no interfiere con sus leyes y donde la práctica moralizante de los sectores neoconservadores opera con autorización del pensamiento neoliberal

  6. Las derechas de Argentina y Uruguay en tiempos de nazi fascismos: radicalización, redefiniciones e influencias = The right-wing in Argentina and Uruguay during times of nazi-fascism: radicalization, redefinitions andinfluences

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    Echeverría, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the first half of XX century, the right-wings of Argentina and Uruguay shared features and common strategies, but also had divergent projects, influences and views. Thus, the present article inquires into the repercussion of development of european nazi-fascist regimes (articulated with their national realities and previous performances on the redefinition and radicalization that those right-wings underwent at both shores of the Rio de la Plata over this period of time. The longed aristocratic character of Argentina's right-wing, strong presence of hispanic-catholic ideas and rejection to popular demonstrations in the political field are some of the most noticeable differences with Uruguayan right-wing practices, which is distinguished by state presence and polyclass parties. Nevertheless, similar evolution is found regarding some aspects derived of internationalization of disputes, accession to totalitarian regimes and constitution of, on one hand, a conservative, "moderate" right-wing with partnership capability and exercise of power and, on the other hand, a marginal, testimonial right-wing with corporatist trends

  7. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Uruguay: development of tissues quality control and quality management system in the National Multi-Tissue Bank of Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, I; Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Saldías, M C; Pérez Campos, H; Wodowóz, O; Acosta, María; Vicentino, W; Silva, W; Rodríguez, G; Machín, D; Alvarez, O

    2009-05-01

    BNOT was created and regulated in 1977 and started its operation in 1978 according to the Decree No. 86/1977. By the Decree 248/005 is transformed in the National Institute of Donation and Transplantation of Cells, Tissues and Organs (Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Células, Tejidos y Organos--INDT). The organisation has been operating within the State University Medical School and the Public Health Secretary and it is the governmental organisation responsible for the regulation, policy and management of donation and transplantation in Uruguay. By the Decree 160/2006 is responsible for human cells and tissues regulation too. The participation of the INDT in the IAEA program facilitated the introduction of the radiation sterilisation technique for the first time in the country. The radiation sterilisation of tissues processed by INDT (ex BNOT), was initially carried out in the 60 Cobalt Industrial Plant in the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina and now is carried out in INDT, using a Gamma Cell 220 Excel, which was provided by the IAEA through the national project URU/7/005. The results of the implementation of tissues, quality control and quality management system, are showed.

  8. Studies on the poisonous skin secretion of individual red bellied toads, Melanophryniscus montevidensis (Anura, Bufonidae), from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebs, Dietrich; Pogoda, Werner; Maneyro, Raul; Kwet, Axel

    2005-11-01

    Toads belonging to the genus Melanophryniscus contain toxic alkaloids in their skin. From six locations in south-eastern Uruguay 81 specimens of Melanophryniscusmontevidensis were collected. In whole animal methanolic extracts of individual specimens, alkaloids of the pumiliotoxin (PTX) group and indolizidines were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; the predominant component PTX 251D was assayed quantitatively. The PTX-content of the various toad populations was found to be highly variable among individual specimens as well as among the populations. Very high levels of PTX 251D were detected in toads of the western part of the collection area, whereas very low levels of this alkaloid were assayed in toads near the Brazilian border. Remarkably high concentrations of the non-alkaloid hydroquinone were found to be present in all toads. The analysis of extracts from 125 arthropod samples (Arachnida and Insecta, including termites, ants and beetles), which may represent a potential food source, revealed no alkaloids of the PTX group.

  9. Lack of bufadienolides in the skin secretion of red bellied toads, Melanophryniscus spp. (Anura, Bufonidae), from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebs, Dietrich; Wagner, Moritz G; Pogoda, Werner; Maneyro, Raul; Kwet, Axel; Kauert, Gerold

    2007-01-01

    The South-American red bellied toads (Melanophryniscus spp.) belonging to the Bufonidae family contain toxic alkaloids in their skin, predominantly of the pumiliotoxin group. Whole animal methanolic extracts of individual specimens of three species (Melanophryniscus atroluteus, M. devincenzii, and M. montevidensis) were analyzed for the presence of toad specific bufadienolides and indolalkylamines (serotonin derivatives) by HPLC-electrospray (ESI)-MS-TOF. No bufadienolides, but few bufotenines, mainly dehydrobufotenine, were detected in the extracts in variable amounts. The concentration of the dehydrobufotenine in the extracts seems to be species specific. Whereas M. atroluteus and M. montevidensis contain very low or trace amounts, M. devincenzii specimens exhibit high concentrations of this indolalkylamine. In comparison, analysis of extracts from Bufo arenarum (Uruguay) and from B. bufo (Germany) confirmed the presence of bufadienolides as well as of bufotenine derivatives. Tadpoles of both species exhibited a different pattern: extracts from B. arenarum tadpoles contained only dehydrobufotenine, but those from B. bufo tadpoles bufotoxin and two alkylamines. Melanophryniscus toads appear not to be able to compensate the high variability of toxic skin alkaloids by producing defensive bufadienolides.

  10. La perspectiva de los docentes principiantes en educación media sobre la reforma educativa en Uruguay

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    Eduardo Rodríguez Zidán

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es presentar algunas conclusiones provisorias que surgen de una investigación cuyo propósito principal es conocer cómo valoran los profesores principiantes en educación media, dos elementos significativos de la reforma educativa en Uruguay: la coordinación docente y el trabajo en proyectos de centro. Luego de aplicar un cuestionario autoadministrado bajo supervisión del investigador a una muestra por conveniencia de 304 profesores que se desempeñan en 24 centros educativos; de los departamentos de Jump, Artigas, Paysandú y Río Negro, en la costa norte del país. Se incluyen egresados de dos modelos diferentes de formación docente y no titulados. El estudio concluye sobre las dificultades de promover los cambios educativos desde una lógica racional burocrática que no contempla los intereses reales del profesorado ni las prácticas tradicionales hegemónicas de las instituciones escolares.

  11. Association between diabetes type 1 and DQB1 alleles in a case-control study conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbacas, Adriana; Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Hidalgo, Pedro C; Javiel, Gerardo; Pisciottano, Carmen; Grignola, Rosario; Jorge, Ana María; Gallino, Juan Pablo; Gasagoite, Jackeline; Cardoso, Horacio

    2003-03-31

    We studied HLA DQB1 allele frequencies and the relative risk (RR) of various genotypes in 72 type 1 diabetic patients and 40 control individuals in Uruguay. This is a tri-racial (Caucasian, Black and Indo-American) mixed population. The products of the polymerase chain reaction amplifications were hybridized with oligonucleotides by allele-specific oligonucleotide reverse or dot blot methods. Significant differences between these two groups were observed only for allele DQB1*0302 (35%, RR = 7.34, P<0.001). The frequency of the alleles carrying a non-aspartic acid residue at position 57 was significantly higher in the diabetic patients (85 vs 53%, P<0.001). In contrast, the frequency of Asp alleles was negatively associated with type 1 diabetes (RR = 0.20, P<0.001). The genotype DQB1*0302/DQB1*0201 (33%, RR = 5.41, P<0.05) was positively associated with this disease. The genotype frequencies associated with type 1 diabetes in our population were significantly different from what is known for Caucasian and Black populations as well as compared with another admixed population, from Chile.

  12. The status of support for cannabis regulation in Uruguay 4 years after reform: Evidence from public opinion surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, José Miguel; Boidi, Maria Fernanda; Queirolo, Rosario

    2017-12-12

    The objective of this study was to measure the public support for marijuana legalisation in Uruguay, both overall and in its provisions, in nearly 4 years after its implementation. Three separate cross-national surveys were conducted in early 2014, late 2015 and mid-2017 with national representative samples of adults. The first study was carried out during the initial months of implementation of the law and used face-to-face interviews (N = 1490); the second survey was conducted using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (N = 703); and the third study (N = 1515), using face-to-face interviews, was completed just before the implementation of pharmacy sales. About 60.7% of respondents in 2014 were against marijuana legalisation; in 2017, 54.1% remained opposed to the marijuana law. In 2015, half of the people interviewed (49.9%) supported access to marijuana through self-cultivation, while 38.6% favoured the provision of cannabis clubs and 33.1% agreed with the pharmacy retail provision. Support for medical cannabis was high in 2015, with 74.5% favouring it. This study shows a change in the public opinion toward legalisation of marijuana although most people still remain opposed to the law. However, the data do not provide indication of a significant change in its use. Results suggest that opposition to legalisation may be focused on the pharmacy retail provision. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  13. Jóvenes que no estudian ni trabajan en Uruguay. La experiencia del Programa Jóvenes en Red

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    Mónica De Martino Bermúdez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La situación de los jóvenes y las jóvenes “ni-ni” ha tomado cierta relevancia en Uruguay a partir de los resultados del sistema de educación formal y los impactos del desempleo en la juventud. Inserto en este campo temático, el presente trabajo parte de la sistematización de una práctica profesional en el Programa Jóvenes en Red, dependiente del Ministerio de Desarrollo Social, con un doble objetivo: por un lado, colectivizar las formas de intervención desarrolladas para aportar al trabajo con la juventud; por otro lado, analizar las construcciones simbólicas de estos jóvenes y estas jóvenes en torno a su propia condición. Esto arrojó al menos tres cuestiones a las que este artículo se dedica: las dificultades de objetivación, la dosis de angustia no canalizada y la fuerte domesticidad psicosocial que caracteriza a esta población.

  14. Diet composition and feeding habits of the eyespot skate, Atlantoraja cyclophora (Elasmobranchii: Arhynchobatidae, off Uruguay and northern Argentina

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    Santiago A. Barbini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The eyespot skate, Atlantoraja cyclophora, is an endemic species from the southwestern Atlantic, occurring from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to northern Patagonia, Argentina. The feeding habits of this species, from off Uruguay and north Argentina, were evaluated using a multiple hypothesis modelling approach. In general, the diet was composed mainly of decapod crustaceans, followed by teleost fishes. Molluscs, mysidaceans, amphipods, isopods, lancelets and elasmobranchs were consumed in lower proportion. The consumption of shrimps drecreased with increasing body size of A. cyclophora. On the other hand, the consumption of teleosts increased with body size. Mature individuals preyed more heavily on crabs than immature individuals. Teleosts were consumed more in the south region (34º - 38ºS and crabs in the north region (38º - 41ºS. Shrimps were eaten more in the warm season than in the cold season. Prey size increased with increasing body size of A. cyclophora , but large individuals also consumed small teleosts and crabs. Atlantoraja cyclophora has demersal-benthic feeding habits, shifts its diet with increasing body size and in response to seasonal and regional changes in prey availability and distribution.

  15. Conscientious objection as a barrier for implementing voluntary termination of pregnancy in Uruguay: Gynecologists' attitudes and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Francisco; Briozzo, Leonel; Nozar, Fernanda; Fiol, Verónica; Greif, Diego

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the attitudes and behavior of gynecologists in Uruguay with respect to the right to conscientious objection that is included in the law concerning voluntary termination of pregnancy. The relevant laws and decrees, academic articles, legal or administrative claims, and the positions published by the institutions representing physicians or by groups of gynecologists were analyzed. In general, the institutions positioned themselves in favor of correct application of conscientious objection and the immense majority of gynecologists followed this conduct. Small groups mounted a strong opposition and in one department (province) all gynecologists declared themselves to be objectors. Most gynecologists, whether or not they are objectors, proved to have a "loyalty to duty," fulfilling their primary obligation to abide by the ethical duty to give treatment to the persons who need it. A small group used conscientious objection to impede the provision of care to the women who needed the service, some group members being genuine objectors and others pseudo-objectors. © 2016 The Authors. Published by International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Occurrence of Clinical and Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianneechini, R; Concha, C; Rivero, R; Delucci, I; López, J Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-nine dairy farms were selected to determine the incidence of clinical mastitis, prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and bacterial aetiology in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay. In samples taken by the owner and frozen at -20°C during a week the incidence rate of clinical mastitis was determined as 1.2 cases per 100 cow-months at risk. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated pathogen in 37.5% of 40 milk samples from clinical cases obtained in 1 month. No bacteria grew in the 32.5% of the total samples. A sub-sample including 1077 dairy cows from randomly selected farms was used to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. These samples were taken on one visit to each farm. The prevalence was 52.4% on a cow basis and 26.7% on an udder quarter basis. In 55.1% of the quarters of the selected animals with more than 300 000 cells/ml there was no growth. The isolated pathogens from sub-clinical cases and their relative frequencies were: Staphylococcus aureus 62.8%, Streptococcus agalactiae 11.3%, Enterococcus sp. 8%, coagulase-negative staphylococci 7.4%, Streptococus uberis 6.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 1.8%, Escherichia coli 1.5% and Staphylococcus hyicus coagulase-positive 0.6%. PMID:12831175

  17. Zinc in plasma and breast milk in adolescents and adults in pregnancy and pospartum: a cohort study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severi, Cecilia; Hambidge, Michael; Krebs, Nancy; Alonso, Rafael; Atalah, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    To assess if age is a risk factor for low zinc nutritional status in pregnancy, postpartum and in breast milk concentration, and the association between mother zinc plasma level with zinc milk concentration. Cohort study comparing adolescents with adult women, with Milk zinc concentrations were also measured at 4 th month postpartum. Women were recruited from 16 public primary health care services in Uruguay Subjects: 151 adolescents and 161 adult women. Adolescent average plasma zinc at milk were similar for adolescents, 1.24 mg. /L (CI 1.06 to 1.44) and adult women, 1.27 mg./L (CI .1.0-1.46). There was no correlation between plasma zinc and breast milk zinc concentrations in adults and a weak correlation in adolescents (- 0.27, P consequences over postpartum plasma zinc, nor over breast milk zinc concentrations. No correlation was found between mother s plasma zinc and breast milk levels. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Occurrence of Clinical and Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region in Uruguay

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    Rivero R

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine dairy farms were selected to determine the incidence of clinical mastitis, prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and bacterial aetiology in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay. In samples taken by the owner and frozen at -20°C during a week the incidence rate of clinical mastitis was determined as 1.2 cases per 100 cow-months at risk. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated pathogen in 37.5% of 40 milk samples from clinical cases obtained in 1 month. No bacteria grew in the 32.5% of the total samples. A sub-sample including 1077 dairy cows from randomly selected farms was used to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. These samples were taken on one visit to each farm. The prevalence was 52.4% on a cow basis and 26.7% on an udder quarter basis. In 55.1% of the quarters of the selected animals with more than 300 000 cells/ml there was no growth. The isolated pathogens from sub-clinical cases and their relative frequencies were: Staphylococcus aureus 62.8%, Streptococcus agalactiae 11.3%, Enterococcus sp. 8%, coagulase-negative staphylococci 7.4%, Streptococus uberis 6.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 1.8%, Escherichia coli 1.5% and Staphylococcus hyicus coagulase-positive 0.6%.

  19. [Assessment of core capacities for enforcement of the International Health Regulations at points of entry in Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Lucía; Pujadas, Mónica; Rosa, Raquel

    2011-07-01

    To describe the characteristics and results of the assessment of core capacities for enforcement of the International Health Regulations (IHR) at points of entry in Uruguay through simultaneous application of the World Health Organization (WHO) and MERCOSUR instruments, and indicate the strengths and weaknesses identified in both instruments when applied in the field. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted through the application of the WHO and MERCOSUR instruments to assess core capacities for the enforcement of the IHR. Two points of entry (POE 1 and 2) were selected as a convenience sample because they had the highest volume of passenger and goods traffic in the country. Both instruments were characterized individually and qualitatively in terms of strengths and weaknesses. The average values for the implementation of core capacities were 69% (WHO) and 67.4% (MERCOSUR) for POE 1 and 68% (WHO) and 63.9% (MERCO-SUR) for POE 2. The average differences recorded between the instruments were 1.6% for POE 1 and 4.1% for POE 2. Both instruments examined nonmeasurable factors that are subject to the evaluator's judgment, without using operational definitions of the relevant variables. Simultaneous application of the WHO and MERCOSUR instruments yielded similar levels of implementation at the two points of entry assessed. The assessment processes of the two instruments would be enhanced by capitalizing on each other's strengths and addressing the weaknesses observed and recorded in this study.

  20. UN ENFOQUE MONETARIO DE LA INFLACIÓN EN EL LARGO PLAZO. El caso de Uruguay (1870-2010

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    Conrado Brum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es explicar el comportamiento de la inflación en Uruguay durante el largo plazo (1870-2010. Se utiliza un modelo de inflación monetaria, pues se entiende que la trayectoria de largo plazo de la inflación debería estar determinada por las condiciones de equilibrio en el mercado de dinero. Se estima una curva de Phillips del tipo forward-looking, que incluye como variable explicativa de las expectativas de inflación el crecimiento del núcleo monetario (definido como la tasa de crecimiento tendencial de la oferta nominal de dinero que excede al crecimiento de largo plazo de la demanda real de dinero, el que es guiado por la evolución del producto potencial (output adjusted core money, OACM. Se encuentra que el impacto del OACM en la inflación es positivo y significativo, aunque no se rechaza que en el corto plazo sea igual que otros efectos. Sin embargo, en el largo plazo, el OACM tiene un impacto unitario en la tasa de inflación. A partir de la comparación del OACM con la inflación, se construye un indicador de monetización que permite indagar sobre los procesos de desmonetización y remonetización que experimentó esta economía en los últimos 140 años.

  1. Propuestas de reforma en salud y equidad en Uruguay: ¿redefinición del Welfare State?

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    Mitjavila Myriam

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se realizan una revisión y un análisis de las propuestas de reforma del sector Salud en Uruguay, y de los posibles efectos de estas reformas en términos de equidad, estructura institucional del sector y relaciones de poder entre los actores involucrados en el proceso. Encontramos que las características contradictorias del sistema de salud, por un lado altamente estructurado y, al mismo tiempo, fragmentado, conspiran contra los esfuerzos reformistas que intentan introducir cambios en el mismo. En función de lo expresado, las posibilidades de reforma no residen en la consolidación de las IAMC (Instituciones de Asistencia Médica Colectiva ni en la aplicación del modelo residual. Por el contrario, asistimos a un proceso de reestructuración pasiva del sistema. En este contexto, y teniendo en cuenta el nivel de inequidades existentes, la tendencia que se percibe es de profundización de una distribución regresiva de beneficios y servicios. A partir de técnicas cualitativas y cuantitativas, mostramos como las inequidades relacionadas con el gasto, el acceso y la calidad están relacionadas con procesos de desarrollo de largo tiempo del sistema IAMC y con los movimientos adaptativos frentes a su colapso fiscal, por una parte, y con la pérdida de calidad del sistema público, por otra.

  2. Meat Consumption, Related Nutrients, Obesity and Risk of Prostate Cancer: a Case-Control Study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Eduardo De; Boffetta, Paolo L; Ronco, Alvaro; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the role of meat consumption and related nutrients in the etiology of prostate cancer we conducted a case-control study among Uruguayan men in the time period 1998-2007. The study included 464 cases and 472 controls, frequency matched for age and residence. Both series were drawn from the four major public hospitals in Montevideo. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of prostate cancer by quartiles of meat intake and related nutrients. The highest vs. the lowest quartile of intake of total meat (OR = 5.19, 95 % CI 3.46-7.81), red meat (OR = 4.64, 95 % CI 3.10-6.95), and processed meat (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.22-2.59) were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Meat nutrients were directly associated with the risk of prostate cancer (OR for cholesterol 5.61, 95 % CI 3.75-8.50). Moreover, both total meat and red meat displayed higher risks among obese patients. This study suggests that total and red meat and meat nutrients may play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer in Uruguay.

  3. Cd, Cu, and Mn from Uruguay River Basin in Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil, and their toxicological potential for human leukocyte

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    Gislaine Rezer Costa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the limnology from the Medium Uruguay River Basin in Uruguaiana, Brazil, with a focus on the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, and Mn, to assess the toxicological potential (cytotoxicity and genotoxicity for humans using as biological matrix of study human leukocyte cells. The conductivity, resistivity, and dissolved O2 levels exceeded the limits recommended by the National Environmental Council (Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente - CONAMA. The percentage of non-viable human leukocyte cells exposed to water samples was approximately 20% higher than that of the negative control (<3%, but similar to the positive control. The DNA damage index was high for all heavy metal concentrations assayed when compared to the negative control 12±2.96, p < 0.0001, with a range of 155.66±23.89 to 194.33±23.23, but similar to the positive control (210.62±27.48. Moreover, the leukocyte degeneration index was higher in all samples containing heavy metals than in the negative control (4%, which demonstrates to be due the presence of Cu (11.8-12.5%, Cd (13-15.6%, and Mn (15.6-22.5%. Taken together, our results show that the quality from water samples analyzed is below than recommended by CONAMA and offers risk of contamination by heavy metals for the general population.

  4. Viral and bacterial contamination in a sedimentary aquifer in Uruguay: evaluation of coliforms as regional indicators of viral contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamazo, Pablo; Colina, Rodney; Victoria, Matias; Alvareda, Elena; Burutatran, Luciana; Ramos, Julian; Olivera, María; Soler, Joan

    2015-04-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological (fecal) analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus and fecal bacteria in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. An initial screening campaign of 44 wells was performed in which, besides total and fecal coliforms, rotavirus and adenovirus were detected. A subgroup of the screening wells (15) where selected for bimonthly sampling during a year. In accordance with literature results, single well data analysis shows that coliform and viral contamination can be considered as independent variables. However, when spatial data is integrated, coliform and viral contamination show linear correlation. In this work we present the survey results, we analyse the temporal incidence of variables like precipitation, temperature and chemical composition in well contamination and we discuss the value of coliforms as global indicator of viral contamination for the Salto aquifer.

  5. Bioavailability, ecotoxicity, and geological characteristics of trace lead in sediments from two sites on Negro River, Uruguay, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez, Diana M; Huertas, Raquel; Carrara, María V; Carnikián, Agustín; Bouvier, María E; Martínez, María J; Keel, Karen; Pioda, Carolina; Darré, Elena; Pérez, Ramiro; Viera, Santiago; Massa, Enrique

    2012-04-01

    Bioassays of two sites along the Rio Negro in Uruguay indicate ecotoxicity, which could be attributable to trace concentrations of lead in river sediments. Monthly samples at two sites at Baygorria and Bonete locations were analyzed for both particle size and lead. Lead was determined by atomic spectrometry in river water and sediment and particle size by sieving and sedimentation. Data showed that Baygorria's sediments have greater percentage of clay than Bonete's (20.4 and 5.8%, respectively). Lead was measurable in Baygorria's sediments, meanwhile in Bonete's, it was always below the detection limit. In water samples, lead was below detection limit at both sites. Bioassays using sub-lethal growth and survival test with Hyalella curvispina amphipod, screening with bioluminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi, and acute toxicity bioassay with Pimephales promelas fish indicated toxicity at Baygorria, with much less effect at Bonete. Even though no lethal effects could be demonstrated, higher sub-lethal toxicity was found in samples from Baygorria site, showing a possible concentration of the contaminant in the clay fraction.

  6. Media framing of techno-environmental controversies: A case study of the 'Paper-Mills Conflict’ between Argentina and Uruguay

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    Carina Cortassa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article embraces the framing studies’ perspective to approach the media construction of the current techno-environmental controversy between Argentina and Uruguay, due to the location of an industrial plant to produce cellulose paper in the uruguayan community of Fray Bentos. The analysis is centered on the respective coverages developed by two argentinean print media –daily newspapers Clarín and Página 12– during three key stages in the evolution of the conflict. A sample composed of 1004 articles was examined using a protocol based in previously tested instruments, which was elaborated to quantify the incidence of five frames established a priori: a environmental; b scientific-technological; c political-juridical; d social; e of economic causes & consequences. The evidence collected indicates that the analyzed media represented the controversy mostly in political-juridical terms and drastically overshadowed its environmental origins and the discrepancies of scientific and technical nature involved in its roots and development. The article discusses some results of the research experience, as well as the limitations and posibilites to extend the framing typology rehearsed here to other media coverages of similar situations, independently of its specific object.

  7. The late Paleozoic palynological diversity in southernmost Paraná (Uruguay), Claromecó and Paganzo basins (Argentina), Western Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beri, Ángeles; Gutiérrez, Pedro R.; Balarino, M. Lucía

    2015-12-01

    This study explores the changes in palynoflora diversity of the late Paleozoic in boreholes DI.NA.MI.GE. 254 (26 samples) and DI.NA.MI.GE. 221 (14 samples) of the Paraná Basin in Uruguay and in 18 surface samples of the La Deheza Formation (Paganzo Basin) and 10 samples of borehole UTAL.CMM1.La Estrella.x-1 (Claromecó Basin) in Argentina. Possible relationships among biostratigraphic zones, diversity levels, facies and climatic evolution patterns in Western Gondwana are studied. Diversity curves of boreholes 221 and 254 and the La Deheza Formation outcrop exhibit similar diversity evolution patterns, i.e., an increase in lower strata diversity and a decrease in upper strata diversity. The disappearance events are determined to be more prominent in biozones of the Cisuralian to the Guadalupian age and less prominent in biozones of the early Cisuralian age. The number of genera raises from the glaciomarine facies, through the deltaic and the marine facies, up to the shallow marine or lagoon facies, in which the disappearance rates become more prominent. . The diversity of the lower part of the La Estrella borehole is lesser than that of the other sequences These diversity, disappearance and appearance behaviors may reflect post-glacial climatic amelioration patterns and the beginning of an arid phase.

  8. La institucionalización de la interdisciplina en la universidad latinoamericana: experiencias y lecciones de Uruguay y Argentina

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    Federico Vasen

    Full Text Available En este artículo nos ocupamos de dos iniciativas de creación de espacios institucionales para la investigación interdisciplinaria en el contexto de dos universidades latinoamericanas: la Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA en Argentina y la Universidad de la República (UdelaR en Uruguay. Se trató de iniciativas novedosas que rompían con la organización de la universidad en facultades y proponían espacios transversales en la estructura disciplinaria del campo académico. Se propone un análisis comparado de ambas experiencias, basado en un abordaje metodológico cualitativo que incluyó entrevistas y análisis documental a actores clave en ambos países. Se ofrece una comparación en función de tres ejes: (i objetivos y contexto de creación, (ii actividades y estrategias de integración a la estructura existente de la universidad y (iii dificultades para legitimarse. A partir del análisis realizado, se pudieron extraer cuatro factores asociados con un mejor desarrollo de los programas interdisciplinarios: (a buena integración con las estructuras preexistentes de la universidad, (b organización flexible y abierta a modificaciones frecuentes, (c apertura a actividades de docencia, extensión y transferencia y (d la existencia de un plan de desarrollo institucional claro.

  9. Fortalecimiento del sistema judicial del Uruguay por la capacitación del sector humano; de la organización e integración de las escuelas judiciales americanos

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    Mariella Leles Da Silva Orcoyen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Contenido: Introducción. Poder judicial. Ministerio Público y Fiscal. Estatuto de los jueces. Reforma procesal.  El fortalecimiento de la justicia por la reforma procesal. Centro de Estudios Judiciales del Uruguay. Capacitación.Capacitación para el ingreso a la magistratura. Resultados obtenidos. Estadísticas. Perspectivas futuras. Rol del Centro de Estudios Judiciales del Uruguay en la carrera judicial. Autoridades del Centro de Estudios Judiciales del Uruguay. Federación Americana de Escuelas de Formación y Perfeccionamiento de Magistrados y Centros de Estudios Judiciales

  10. PUBLIC-PRIVATE ALLIANCES FOR INNOVATION: THE CASE OF THE CONSORCIOS REGIONALES DE INNOVACIÓN (REGIONAL CONSORTIUM FOR INNOVATION LED BY THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF LIVESTOCK INVESTIGATION OF URUGUAY(INIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Saldías

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The public-private partnerships represent a strategy for improving the efficiency in the generation of innovations in a global context, where the increasing of competitiveness is crucial for companies. Although the public and business environment present different interests, it is possible to establish a common area for this type of alliance, oriented to the generation of knowledge in a further conscious environment of business and productive realities. As an example of this type of alliance, the National Institute of Livestock Investigation of Uruguay (INIA is in the process of implementing the Regional Consortium for Innovation (CRI in the production chain of milk in Uruguay, in order to facilitate the development of research and development activities oriented to innovation. Thus, this paper, through an exploratory and documentary survey, describes the example of the INIA and, based on the literature about public-private partnerships, discusses its importance in the development of Uruguay.

  11. VERTISOLES Y CERÁMICA INDÍGENA: UN ESTUDIO DE PROCEDENCIA BASADO EN DRX, SITIO GUAYACAS (PAYSANDÚ, URUGUAY / Vertisols and indigenous ceramics: a provenience study based on XRD from Guayacas site (Paysandú, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Capdepont

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El registro arqueológico más abundante de la región litoral del Uruguay para el Holoceno medio y tardío se encuentra conformado por material cerámico. La información existente sobre el mismo  proviene comúnmente de estudios macroscópicos en los que se aborda la reconstrucción de formas, tecnología y estilos decorativos. En este trabajo se exponen los resultados obtenidos mediante la aplicación de DRX sobre cerámicas de conjuntos arqueológicos del sitio Guayacas (Departamento de Paysandú. En este estudio se busca complementar el conocimiento de la primera etapa del proceso de manufactura: la selección de materia prima. Para ello, también se realizan estudios de DRX sobre sedimentos y afloramientos de la zona, así como sobre sedimentos de la excavación arqueológica. Entre los resultados obtenidos se destaca la homogeneidad entre las pastas y la ausencia de minerales de tipo illita; los suelos antropogénicos presentan esmectita, cuarzo, illita e interestratificados y los suelos naturales y afloramientos están dominados por arcillas esmectiticas más cuarzo, proponiéndose a uno de ellos como fuente potencial de abastecimiento de materia prima local. Los datos obtenidos aportan nueva información al conocimiento del área de ocupación sobre el río Daymán durante el Holoceno tardío. Palabras clave: alfarería; mineralogía; vertisoles; DRXAbstract The most abundant archaeological record in the middle and late Holocene in the litoral region of Uruguay is formed by ceramic materials. Previous information usually comes from macroscopic studies, oriented to the reconstruction of decorative styles, forms, and technology. This paper presents XRD analyses of archaeological ceramics from Guayacas site (Department of Paysandú . This study seeks to complement the knowledge about the first stage of the process of manufacture: the selection of raw materials. In order to do this, an XRD analysis is also carried out on sediments and

  12. Monitoring the effects of climate and agriculture intensity on nutrient fluxes in lowland streams: a comparison between temperate Denmark and subtropical Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyenola, Guillermo; Meerhof, Mariane; Teixeira de Mello, Franco; González-Bergonzoni, Ivan; Graeber, Daniel; Vidal, Nicolas; Mazzeo, Nestor; Ovesen, Niels; Jeppesen, Erik; Thodsen, Hans; Kronvang, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Climate is changing towards more extreme conditions all over the world. At the same time, land use is becoming more intensive worldwide and particularly in many developing countries, whereas several developed countries are trying to reduce the impacts of intensive agricultural production and lower the excessive nutrient loading and eutrophication symptoms in water bodies. In 2009, we initiated a comparative research project between the subtropical region (Uruguay) and the temperate region (Denmark) to compare the hydrology and nutrient fluxes in paired micro-catchments with extensive production or intensive agriculture. The four selected streams drained catchments of similar size (7 to 19 km2). We have established similarly equipped monitoring stations in the four micro-catchments in spring (November 2009, Uruguay; March 2010, Denmark) to monitor the effects of land use and agriculture intensity on stream hydrology and nutrient concentrations and fluxes under different climate conditions. We have conducted high frequency measurements in the four lowland streams with underwater probes (turbidity, pH, conductivity and oxygen measured every 15 minutes), fortnight grab sampling of water and automatic sampling of composite water samples for nutrient analysis (total and dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus; sampled every four hours and accumulated fortnightly). Moreover, water level and meteorological information (precipitation, air temperature, global radiation, humidity) has been recorded every 10 minutes and instantaneous flow measurements have been conducted at regular intervals, to facilitate the calculation of instantaneous discharge from continuous records of water level (stage-discharge relationships). We will show results of ca. 2 years from this comparative study between Uruguay and Denmark, and the importance of differences in climate and land use will be discussed.

  13. UN ESTUDIO DE LAS POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS PARA LA GESTIÓN DEL PATRIMONIO CULTURAL INMATERIAL EN URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Anon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo busca hacer una revisión de la evolución del patrimonio cultural inmaterial en Uruguay, para entender las dificultades y limitaciones que este patrimonio enfrenta en la actualidad. En un primer momento se presentará el rol que el Estado ha mantenido con este patrimonio inmaterial cuando aún la categoría no existía como tal y la Convención para la Salvaguarda del Patrimonio Inmaterial de UNESCO (2003 no había sido ratificada por Uruguay. Contando con estos antecedentes, se pasarán a analizar las actuales normativas y decretos que rigen el campo del patrimonio inmaterial para comprender cómo las diferentes expresiones inmateriales son concebidas y gestionadas. Desde el 2009, Uruguay cuenta con dos elementos declarados por la UNESCO como Patrimonio Inmaterial, el Tango y el Candombe. Esta segunda manifestación será el hilo conductor a través del cuál se verá cómo a lo largo de los años la expresión fue trabajada desde el Estado. A partir de entrevistas realizadas a las autoridades de diferentes instituciones de patrimonio inmaterial y un profundo estudio de textos académicos, el artículo busca entender el entramado y disputa entre el Candombe y sus intereses y la estructura del Estado y sus posibilidades para gestionar y salvaguardar este patrimonio.

  14. Riesgo de exposición a Fasciola hepática en ganado vacuno en extensivo de Uruguay y Portugal determinado mediante ELISA y un antígeno recombinante

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchís, J.; GV Hillyer; LM Madeira de Carvalho; MI Macchi; Gomes, C; Maldini, G; Stilwell, G.; JM Venzal; Paz-Silva, A.; R Sánchez-Andrade; MS Arias

    2015-01-01

    Para evaluar el riesgo de exposición a Fasciola hepatica del ganado vacuno en extensivo se tomaron muestras de sangre de dos zonas climáticas diferentes, Uruguay (clima subtropical húmedo, 1.192 muestras) y Portugal (clima mediterráneo, 473 muestras), que se analizaron con un ELISA y un antígeno recombinante de superficie de F. hepatica (FhrAPS). Los datos obtenidos se analizaron de acuerdo con la raza, edad sexo y aptitud. La seroprevalencia global en Uruguay resultó del 56% (Intervalo de Co...

  15. Análisis del genoma mitocondrial de dos individuos inhumados en el sitio arqueológico CG14E01 “Isla Larga” (Rocha, Uruguay)

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiro, Gonzalo; Cabrera Pérez, Leonel; Lindo, John; Mallott, Elizabeth K.; Owings, Amanda; Malhi, Ripan S; Sans, Mónica

    2017-01-01

    CG14E01 “Isla Larga” es un sitio con estructura monticular (“cerrito de indios”) localizado en el departamento de Rocha (Uruguay), con una cronología que se extiende de 3600 años AP al siglo XVII. En este sitio se registran evidencias vinculadas con diversos contactos interétnicos en la forma de dos urnas Tupiguaraní y cuentas de vidrio de origen europeo. Asociados a estas evidencias se recuperaron tres enterramientos primarios, uno masculino y dos femeninos. El objetivo de este trabajo consi...

  16. La agenda de derechos en Uruguay. Del movimiento social a las políticas públicas en el gobierno de José Mujica

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera-Vélez, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Durante el gobierno de José Mujica en Uruguay fueron aprobadas tres de las leyes más emblemáticas de la ampliación de derechos en el siglo xxi en América Latina : la despenalización del aborto, la adopción del matrimonio igualitario y la legalización de la marihuana. A pesar de la popular imagen progresista del presidente, este artículo argumenta que dichas leyes son el resultado de las demandas de movimientos sociales frente a la pasividad del gobierno de izquierda. Organizados en una agenda...

  17. ¿Actividad liberal o libertinaje? La práctica laboral en la arqueología de contrato en uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Caffa, Irina Capdepont

    2015-01-01

    El desarrollo económico y los procesos de modernización gestados en Uruguay, generan transformaciones afectando al patrimonio arqueológico mediante la jecución de obras. El aumento de estas, junto con la Ley de Impacto Ambiental forjó la ejecución de estudios de impacto arqueológico. Ello genero un crecimiento en el campo laboral que no ha sido acompañado de un cambio legal, administrativo y académico. La problemática originada por todo ello hacen abordar y reflexionar sobre la situación actu...

  18. Redes inter-organizacionales para implementación de políticas sociales : un estudio aplicado a cuatro barrios en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Galaso, Pablo; Goinheix, Sebastián; Rodríguez Miranda, Adrián

    2017-01-01

    Este artículo analiza las redes de organizaciones dedicadas a la política social en Uruguay. En particular, se centra en cuatro barrios con una alta concentración de hogares en situación de pobreza y analiza tres tipos de vínculos entre las organizaciones activas en el barrio: vínculos para desarrollar proyectos en conjunto, para solicitar información y vínculos para compartir infraestructuras. Se aplica la metodología del análisis de redes sociales con una visión global, grupal, e individual...

  19. Entre el pasado y el presente. Entre lo personal y lo político: Narrativas y apuestas de las ex presas políticas en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Laura de Giorgi

    2015-01-01

    El pasado reciente en el Cono Sur ha sido rememorado e interpretado desde diversos ejes de memoria. En el Uruguay de los últimos años, han emergido los relatos de las militantes, en dialogo y en disputa a la vez, con el relato hegemónico de los varones y su resistencia heroica. En general estas narrativas se han anclado en las “historias mínimas”, la cotidianeidad, el espacio privado (de la cárcel) y en el relato desde “lo femenino”, que osciló entre la presentación de un modo de resistencia ...

  20. The search for the mdr1-1Δ mutation of the MDR1 gene in four canine breeds in Uruguay (preliminary study)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Gagliardi B.; Diana Martínez A.; Beatriz Tellechea H.; Pedro Sitjar Q.; Silvia Llambí D.; María Arruga L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study is to analyze the frequency of mdr1-1Δ mutation in German Shepherd, Doberman, Border Collie and Greyhound dog breeds in Uruguay. Materials and methods. A total of 95 animals from the four breeds mentioned above were studied. DNA was isolated from blood using potassium acetate with a subsequent degradation from RNA with RNAsaH. The concentration and quality of the DNA obtained was evaluated with a Nanodrop, ND-1000 spectrophotometer. To determine the pres...

  1. Gobernabilidad y gestión de cuencas transfronterizas en Uruguay : Caso de la Laguna Merín y sus afluentes

    OpenAIRE

    Zappettini Torija, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    La cuenca de la Laguna Merín y sus afluentes es compartida entre Brasil y Uruguay, la cual por sus características geográficas, la convivencia de con el régimen jurídico de los Humedales y la actividad de producción agropecuaria propone interesantes desafíos para lograr la gobernabilidad y una eficaz gestión integrada de los recursos hídricos. A pesar de la apertura global de la Convención de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Derecho de Usos de los Cursos de Agua Internacionales no Navegables (...

  2. Ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Neospora caninum em pequenas propriedades leiteiras do Uruguai Occurrence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in small dairy farms in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Furtado

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Neosporose é uma doença de distribuição mundial causada por um protozoário (Apicomplexa, Sarcocystidae, denominado Neospora caninum (N. caninum. Na América Latina, o protozoário foi diagnosticado no Uruguai, Brasil, Argentina, Chile, Paraguai e Peru. No Uruguai a prevalência em rebanhos leiteiros não foi determinada, havendo somente levantamentos sorológicos de algumas regiões do país em propriedades rurais de médio e grande porte. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a presença de animais sorologicamente positivos contra N. caninum em bacias leiteiras de pequenas propriedades com baixos recursos socioeconômicos da zona central do Uruguai (Estados de Durazno e Tacuarembó. Utilizando um Kit de ELISA comercial, foram analisados 734 soros provenientes de vacas leiteiras adultas, obtendo-se 211 positivos (28,8%, 517 negativos (70,5% e seis animais com resultado não determinado (0,7%. Nossos resultados demonstram a exposição destes rebanhos ao parasito, sendo este o primeiro inquérito sorológico de N. caninum em bacias leiteiras de pequenas propriedades no Uruguai.Neosporosis is a worldwide disease caused by a protozoan (Apicomplexa, Sarcocystidae, called Neospora caninum (N. caninum. In Latin America was diagnosed in Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay and Peru. In Uruguay, the prevalence in dairy cattle is undetermined, with only a few reports in some areas from medium and large farmers. The main of this study was to determine the presence of serologically positive animals against N. caninum in small dairy farmers in critical context from central region of Uruguay (Departments of Durazno and Tacuarembó. Using a commercial ELISA kit, 734 sera of adult dairy cows were analyzed, resulting in 211 positive (28.8%, 517 negative (70.5% and six animals with uncertain outcome (0.7%. The results demonstrated the exposure of cattle to the parasite, which is the first serological survey of N. caninum in basins of small dairy

  3. El consumo de vinos en el Uruguay del Novecientos. El desarrollo de la industria vitivinícola vrs campañas antialcoholistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bouret

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alrededor de 1870 se sitúa el comienzo del proceso industrializador en Uruguay, al interior del cual nace y se desarrolla la industria vitivinícola. Este artículo pone en relación las estrategias empleadas por el sector vitivinícola para impulsar y generar hábitos de consumo en el mercado interno, frente a crecientes manifestaciones profilácticas –promovidas por las Legiones de Templanza y amparadas por el discurso médico- que concebían el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas como una enfermedad social.

  4. Regímenes de transición al primer empleo: Chile, México, Estados Unidos y Uruguay comparados

    OpenAIRE

    Tabaré FERNÁNDEZ; Soledad BONAPELCH; Vanessa ANFITTI

    2013-01-01

    Dentro de los estudios de cursos de vida, el ingreso al mercado de trabajo comprende el conjunto de eventos de transición que marcan el final de un status social de inactividad económica y el comienzo de un status de responsabilidades y posible acceso a una independencia económica. El propósito de este artículo es describir el calendario con que se produce el primer empleo cronológico en Chile, México, Uruguay y Estados Unidos, adaptando y contrastando hipótesis macrosociales e...

  5. TICs en la enseñanza de la química en Uruguay : ¿innovación didáctica?

    OpenAIRE

    Meroni, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo forma parte de una investigación que se propone localizar e investigar focos de innovación en la enseñanza de la química en Uruguay, analizando su significado, las dimensiones involucradas, los contextos en que se desarrollan, buscando nexos entre esos contextos y las posibilidades, dificultades e impedimentos para llevar adelante procesos de innovación didáctica. En esta comunicación se analiza la dimensión "usos de las TICs" que aparecen en la enseñanza realizada por un grupo d...

  6. La huelga política. Análisis de su viabilidad en el ordenamiento jurídico en la República Oriental del Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Goldstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Distintas motivaciones han llevado a los trabajadores agremiados a ejercer este derecho fun- damental reconocido por el Art. 57 de la Constitución de la República Oriental del Uruguay, los cuales han sido objeto de debates doctrinarios cuando las huelgas incursionan dentro de las de- nominadas atípicas. En el presente estudio analizamos su viabilidad cuando la misma tiene mo- tivaciones políticas y que respuesta da a ese fenómeno el ordenamiento jurídico patrio

  7. Application of geophysical methods to gold prospecting in Minas de Corrales, Uruguay; Aplicacao de metodos geofisicos a prospeccao de ouro. Teste nas minas de Corrales, Uruguai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Antonio Flavio U. [Companhia de Pesquisas de Recursos Minerais (CPRM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dias, Rogerio Aguirre; Barcelos, Andre B.B. de [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1993-07-01

    Geophysical methods were tested in San Gregorio gold mine, Minas de Corrales, north region of Uruguay. The ores are mainly stockworks, sheeted veinlet zones, ore shoot and disseminated sulfides types, situated in a silicated and carbonated shear zone structure, over granitic mylonites, quartz diorites, quartz-feldspathic breccia, basic rocks and quartz veins. Magnetic and radiometric methods were applied . VLF and EM34-3 detected the high resistivity silicated and carbonated zone and IP detected a weak PFE anomaly associated with pyrite/gold zone. (author)

  8. Sociedad y políticas sociales en Uruguay: desde la transición democrática al gobierno del frente amplio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo de ARMAS CURIEL

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Durante los últimos veinte años Uruguay ha experimentado diversas transformaciones en su economía y sociedad. Luego del crecimiento sostenido de la economía uruguaya entre 1984 y 1998, y de la consecuente reducción de la pobreza (de 46% a 15%, el país atravesó una de las peores crisis económicas de su historia: el Producto Bruto Interno (PBI disminuyó en más de 20% y el porcentaje de población pobre se duplicó, alcanzando entre los niños niveles similares a los de 1986. Durante este período, en Uruguay se han ido consolidando algunos fenómenos de exclusión social que obedecen a causas estructurales más profundas. Frente a este panorama, el gobierno del Frente Amplio elegido en el 2004 se propone desarrollar una serie de cambios en el campo de las políticas sociales. En este contexto, deberá enfrentar varios desafíos: entre otros, la transformación de la arquitectura del Estado de Bienestar uruguayo construido a comienzos del siglo XX y la reasignación del gasto público social.ABSTRACT: During the last twenty years Uruguay has experienced several economic and social changes. After a period of economic growth between 1984 and 1998, and the consequent reduction of poverty rates (from 46% to 15%, the country went through one of the worst economic crisis of its history: The GDP was reduced in a 20% and the poverty rate was increased from 15% to 33%, reaching the same levels of 1986 among children. During this period, Uruguay has consolidated several processes of social exclusion produced by structural causes. In this context, ?the new government elected in 2004, is developing a set of changes in social policies and will have to face several challenges: the transformation of the architecture of its traditional Welfare State, built in the beginnings of the 20th century, and the relocation of the social budget.

  9. Soil erosion and mitigation measures on rented and owned fields in Uruguay: the impact of transgenic soya and foreign investors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caon, Lucrezia; Kessler, Aad; Keesstra, Saskia; Cruze, Rick

    2014-05-01

    Governments, companies and individuals with financial capital to invest, are worldwide buying or renting land in developing or third world countries. Uruguay is a developing country whose economy is mainly based on agriculture. Since 2000 many foreigners started to invest in the Uruguayan agricultural sector and to practice intensive large-scale agriculture. The significant presence of foreigners in the country is proven by the fact that almost 360 000 ha out of the 500 000 ha forming the study area were managed by foreigners in 2012. Nowadays farmers have abandoned the traditional crop rotation plan that included pasture to produce grain for export, and transgenic soya (soya RR) became the main crop planted by both foreigners and locals. Besides the high soil erosion rates related to having soya as main crop, planting soya implies the use of glyphosate, a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide leading to important environmental impacts. It is commonly said that foreigners investing in poor countries are exploiting the local natural resources aiming to get the highest possible profit from them. Is this a valid assumption in Uruguay? The purpose of this study was to compare the land management style of foreign and local farmers and to relate it to the soil erosion occurring in the study area. The land tenure (rented or owned fields) and the type of farmer interviewed ("individual farmer" equivalent to L.L.C. or "anonymous society" equivalent to P.L.C.) were taken into consideration during the analysis. Based on what stated by the farmers interviewed, the soil erosion simulations considered the seven most popular crop rotation plans on rented and owned fields, three ideals crop rotation plans, the application of no mitigation measures, and the construction of terraces and conservation buffers. Depending on the crop rotation plan, soils characterized by slope gradients higher than 2 resulted in soil erosion rates higher than the 7 ton/ha/year allowed by law. The highest

  10. Isolation and characterization of alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia present in acidic soils of central argentina and uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Papa MF; Balague; Sowinski; Wegener; Segundo; Abarca; Toro; Niehaus; P hler A; Aguilar; Martinez-Drets; Lagares

    1999-04-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia from acid soils of different locations in Central Argentina and Uruguay. A collection of 465 isolates was assembled, and the rhizobia were characterized for acid tolerance. Growth tests revealed the existence of 15 acid-tolerant (AT) isolates which were able to grow at pH 5.0 and formed nodules in alfalfa with a low rate of nitrogen fixation. Analysis of those isolates, including partial sequencing of the genes encoding 16S rRNA and genomic PCR-fingerprinting with MBOREP1 and BOXC1 primers, demonstrated that the new isolates share a genetic background closely related to that of the previously reported Rhizobium sp. Or191 recovered from an acid soil in Oregon (B. D. Eardly, J. P. Young, and R. K. Selander, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:1809-1815, 1992). Growth curves, melanin production, temperature tolerance, and megaplasmid profiles of the AT isolates were all coincident with these characteristics in strain Or191. In addition to the ability of all of these strains to nodulate alfalfa (Medicago sativa) inefficiently, the AT isolates also nodulated the common bean and Leucaena leucocephala, showing an extended host range for nodulation of legumes. In alfalfa, the time course of nodule formation by the AT isolate LPU 83 showed a continued nodulation restricted to the emerging secondary roots, which was probably related to the low rate of nitrogen fixation by the largely ineffective nodules. Results demonstrate the complexity of the rhizobial populations present in the acidic soils represented by a main group of N2-fixing rhizobia and a second group of ineffective and less-predominant isolates related to the AT strain Or191.

  11. The World Court’s Ongoing Contribution to International Water Law: The Pulp Mills Case between Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen McIntyre

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The judgment of the International Court of Justice in the Pulp Mills (Argentina v. Uruguay case makes a very important contribution to international law relating to shared international water resources and to international environmental law more generally. It does much to clarify the relationship between procedural and substantive rules of international environmental law. The Court linked interstate notification of new projects to the satisfaction of the customary due diligence obligation to prevent significant transboundary harm. It found that environmental impact assessment (EIA is an essential requirement of customary international law in respect of activities having potential transboundary effects. The real significance of the judgment is that it held that the duty to notify, and the related duty to conduct an EIA taking account of transboundary impacts, exist in customary international law and thus apply to all states, not just those that have concluded international agreements containing such obligations. The Court confirmed that for shared international water resources, the principle of equitable and reasonable utilisation, universally accepted as the cardinal rule of international water law, is virtually synonymous with the concept of sustainable development, and suggests that considerations of environmental protection are absolutely integral to the equitable balancing of interests involved. The judgment makes it clear that the principle of equitable utilisation ought to be understood as a process, rather than a normatively determinative rule. This ought to help to address widespread confusion about the nature of the key rules and principles of international water resources law and its role in the resolution of water resources disputes and in environmental diplomacy more generally.

  12. Prevalence of Salmonella enterica in poultry and eggs in Uruguay during an epidemic due to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, L; Pereira, M; Martinez, A; Giossa, G; Fookes, M; Flores, K; Barrios, P; Repiso, V; Vignoli, R; Cordeiro, N; Algorta, G; Thomson, N; Maskell, D; Schelotto, F; Chabalgoity, J A

    2010-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is frequently associated with food-borne disease worldwide. Poultry-derived products are a major source. An epidemic of human infection with S. Enteritidis occurred in Uruguay, and to evaluate the extent of poultry contamination, we conducted a nationwide survey over 2 years that included the analysis of sera from 5,751 birds and 12,400 eggs. Serological evidence of infection with Salmonella group O:9 was found in 24.4% of the birds. All positive sera were retested with a gm flagellum-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and based on these results, the national prevalence of S. Enteritidis infection was estimated to be 6.3%. Salmonellae were recovered from 58 of 620 pools made up of 20 eggs each, demonstrating a prevalence of at least 1 in every 214 eggs. Surprisingly, the majority of the isolates were not S. Enteritidis. Thirty-nine isolates were typed as S. Derby, 9 as S. Gallinarum, 8 as S. Enteritidis, and 2 as S. Panama. Despite the highest prevalence in eggs, S. Derby was not isolated from humans in the period of analysis, suggesting a low capacity to infect humans. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis of S. Derby and S. Enteritidis revealed more than 350 genetic differences. S. Derby lacked pathogenicity islands 13 and 14, the fimbrial lpf operon, and other regions encoding metabolic functions. Several of these regions are present not only in serovar Enteritidis but also in all sequenced strains of S. Typhimurium, suggesting that these regions might be related to the capacity of Salmonella to cause food-borne disease.

  13. International human rights law: a limiting or constituent element of democracy? About the Uruguay an transition to democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rincón-Covelli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The idea of the will of the people as an expression of sovereignty is typical of the political theory that seeks to explain the origin of the modern liberal state. The compatibility between the individual freedom of subjects considered equal and the exercise of political power needs to think of citizens as free subjects, and this is achieved when the power exercised over them is seen as a power that comes only from the citizens themselves. In the individualist conception of democracy, the rights of individuals are older and have precedence over membership in the society. However, it is not necessary to commit to this conception to defend the primacy of the rights. It can be defended only on the decisions of the society. From this position a potential conflict between popular sovereignty and human rights is conceivable. The Uruguayan political transition exemplifies this possibility. Through both a referendum and a plebiscite called by the civil society, the majority endorsed the Law of Caducity of the Punitive Claim of the State that prevents prosecution of serious crimes committed during the dictatorship. The ichr declared in 2011 that this decision violated the achr and that popular sovereignty is subject to the limits imposed by human rights. The analyses of the decision have focused on the obligation of the State of Uruguay to fulfill it, but not on what it means to the contemporary understanding of democracy. This is what I intend to do in this article, through two theses: i the conflict remains if the concept of democracy is a procedural concept, and ii the ichr offers a concept that opens a path to the resolution of the conflict.

  14. Identification of fish nursery areas in a free tributary of an impoundment region, upper Uruguay River, Brazil

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    Patrícia Alves da Silva

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the importance of different environments of the Ligeiro River (upper Uruguay River, Brazil in fish reproduction. For this purpose, three environments (sampling sites were selected: rapids, a pool, and the mouth of the Ligeiro River. Ichthyoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos were sampled six times per month from September, 2006 to March, 2007. Zooplankton and ichthyoplankton samples were collected early in the evening with plankton nets (64 µm and 500 µm, respectively. Benthos samples were also collected early in the evening with a Van Veen dredge. Local abiotic variables (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, water speed, alkalinity, water hardness, and water transparency were measured simultaneously with the biotic data sampling and were complemented by regional variables (water flow and precipitation. A total of 43,475 eggs and 2,269 larvae were captured. Of these larvae, 80.1% were in the pre-flexion and larval yolk stages. Digestive tract content showed that the greatest degree of repletion among the larvae in more advanced phases occurred in the pool environment. Water speed was the main characteristic used to differentiate the river's rapids and mouth from the pool. The abundance of zooplankton and benthos was not related to the distribution of densities among the different components of the ichthyoplankton. A greater abundance of eggs and larvae with yolk was found in the rapids and river mouth. Ordination analyses showed a connection between the advanced stage larvae and the pool environment. In conclusion, the rapids and river mouth of the Ligeiro River's are important locations for fish reproduction, particularly in regard to spawning and drifting of the ichthyoplankton's initial stages, whereas the pool represents a nursery place for larval growth.

  15. Analysis of fishing activity in the Itá reservoir, Upper Uruguay River, in the period 2004-2009

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    . Schork

    Full Text Available This study characterized fishing activity in the reservoir of the Hydroelectric Power Plant of Itá in Brazil. The reservoir is located in the Upper Uruguay River, which forms the border between the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. To analyze fishing activity and the composition of ichthyofauna in the reservoir after damming, questionnaires were administered to fishermen in the region between 2004 and 2009. The results showed that fishing in the Itá reservoir can be classified as a subsistence activity performed on small vessels and usually involving the use of drift nets and handlines. Between 2004 and 2009, 292,780.10 kg worth of fish were captured, with an average annual productivity of 3.46 kg ha−1 yr−1. We recorded the highest values of catch per unit effort in 2006, with an annual average of 9.69 kg fisherman−1 day−1. A total of 27 morphospecies were captured during the sample period; carp, traíra, mandi and jundiá together accounted for almost 60% of the catch. This finding indicates that fishing is centered on the capture of sedentary and short-distance migratory species. Despite their lower abundance, long-distance migratory species continue to be captured. The case of the piracanjuba, a long-distance migratory species reintroduced to the region in 2004 and still present in the catches, is particularly noteworthy. Regarding the fishermen's socioeconomic profile, all were men, most of who have engaged in the activity for more than eleven years, have a low educational level, fish with the aid of family members and list agriculture as their main economic activity.

  16. Pregnant women's secondhand smoke exposure and receipt of screening and brief advice by prenatal care providers in Argentina and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Van T; Morello, Paola; Alemán, Alicia; Johnson, Carolyn; Dietz, Patricia M; Farr, Sherry L; Mazzoni, Agustina; Berrueta, Mabel; Colomar, Mercedes; Ciganda, Alvaro; Becú, Ana; Bittar Gonzalez, Maria G; Llambi, Laura; Gibbons, Luz; Smith, Ruben A; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José M; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure has negative effects on maternal and infant health. SHS exposure among pregnant women in Argentina and Uruguay has not been previously described, nor has the proportion of those who have received screening and advice to avoid SHS during prenatal care. Women who attended one of 21 clusters of publicly-funded prenatal care clinics were interviewed regarding SHS exposure during pregnancy at their delivery hospitalization during 2011-2012. Analyses were conducted using SURVEYFREQ procedure in SAS version 9.3 to account for prenatal clinic clusters. Of 3,427 pregnant women, 43.4 % had a partner who smoked, 52.3 % lived with household members who smoked cigarettes, and 34.4 % had no or partial smoke-free home rule. Of 528 pregnant women who worked outside of the home, 21.6 % reported past month SHS exposure at work and 38.1 % reported no or partial smoke-free work policy. Overall, 35.9 % of women were exposed to SHS at home or work. In at least one prenatal care visit, 67.2 % of women were screened for SHS exposure, and 56.6 % received advice to avoid SHS. Also, 52.6 % of women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. In summary, a third of pregnant women attending publicly-funded prenatal clinics were exposed to SHS, and only half of pregnant women always avoided SHS for their unborn baby's health. Provider screening and advice rates can be improved in these prenatal care settings, as all pregnant women should be screened and advised of the harms of SHS and how to avoid it.

  17. EL PLAN CEIBAL DEL URUGUAY: DISCURSOS DOCENTES Y FACTORES QUE INCIDEN EN SU PROCESO DE APROPIACIÓN Y SOSTENIBILIDAD

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    GUILLERMO PÉREZ GOMAR BRESCIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se basa en algunos hallazgos de la investigación "Impactos del Plan Ceibal en las prácticas de enseñanza en las aulas de Primaria", que tuvo como propósito general describir y comprender las formas de apropiación y el uso didáctico de las computadoras portátiles XO en las aulas de las escuelas públicas del Uruguay en el marco del Plan Ceibal. Uno de los supuestos de partida fue que el Plan Ceibal tiene un efecto casi inmediato en términos de inclusión digital de los niños y familias de sectores populares, pero que, al mismo tiempo, su apropiación por parte de los maestros y su incorporación a la práctica docente cotidiana es el aspecto más complejo y a más largo plazo. Desde un enfoque cualitativo y a través de la realización de entrevistas en profundidad, se abordan los discursos docentes sobre el Plan y los factores que inciden en su apropiación por parte de las maestras involucradas. Los resultados evidencian cuáles son los factores clave en su proceso de implementación, así como los que influyen en su apropiación por parte de los docentes y en su sostenibilidad en los centros, a partir del carácter cultural que poseen las prácticas educativas y el sentido del cambio propuesto.

  18. Estructura poblacional y descenso de población: causas y consecuencias en una zona rural del Uruguay

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    Barreto, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La localidad de Villa Soriano, en el departamento de Soriano, Uruguay, posee en la actualidad 803 habitantes. Ubicada desde su fundación en el siglo XVII en una zona principalmente ganadera, es actualmente una de las regiones que más se ve afectada por el proceso migratorio. Se ha podido constatar que distintos eventos ocurridos en la región en el pasado, contribuyeron directamente en la fluctuación de su población, la que apenas habrá de superar los 2000 habitantes a comienzos del siglo XX. El objetivo de la presente investigación es analizar la estructura por edad y sexo de la población de Villa Soriano en distintos períodos. Para la población pasada se utilizan los datos que brindan censos, padrones y archivos parroquiales; en el análisis de la población actual, se consideran: censos de población del último siglo (1975, 1985 y 1996, archivos civiles, registros de la Municipalidad y la información surgida a partir del relevamiento realizado a los pobladores de la localidad. La elevada mortalidad, la fundación de pueblos y los traslados forzados de sus pobladores en el pasado; el abrupto descenso de la natalidad y la migración masiva de sectores en edad reproductiva en el presente; son parte de los fenómenos que se intenta medir para explicar el marcado descenso poblacional que en la actualidad afecta a esta población.

  19. La verificación de los datos en biodemografía: El ejemplo de Villa Soriano, Uruguay

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    Barreto, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La población de Villa Soriano (Departamento de Soriano, Uruguay, fue fundada como una reducción indígena en el siglo XVII. En la misma se analizaron desde el año 2000 distintos aspectos de la población, determinándose, a pesar del descenso demográfico que ha tenido la población, la presencia de descendientes indígenas. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo discutir a partir de un caso concreto, la verificación de la información en Biodemografía. Los estudios realizados en Villa Soriano permitieron la reconstrucción genealógica de 265 familias, ubicándose a partir de la información familiar y la de archivos hasta 13 generaciones a partir del presente. La reconstrucción de genealogías, utilizando GenePro, permitió detectar nueve linajes indígenas, muchos de los cuales provienen de los fundadores de la antigua reducción; es escasa la presencia de linajes de origen africano. Los análisis de ADNmt realizados en los 2 casos que tenían ancestría materna indígena, corroboraron la reconstrucción genealógica realizada: charrúa en un caso, guaraní en otra. A partir de los resultados, se discute la metodología empleada y su aplicación en estudios poblacionales.

  20. The civil-military dictatorship in Uruguay (1973-1985: an approach to its periodization and characterization in the light of some theorizing on authoritarianism

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    José Miguel Busquets

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a periodization and characterization of the civil-military dictatorship in Uruguay (1973-1985, combining history and theory. The approach intended in this paper is neither historical nor theoretical specifically, but stands in the middle ground of both perspectives. Having set the objectives, undemocratic political regimes is conceptualized in the first place, the concept of dictatorship is then analyzed. In addition, the so-called "new authoritarianism" in Latin America is discussed. Secondly, the analytical framework proposed by Chilean Social Scientist Manuel A. Garretón (1983, 1984 is used to study the authoritarian regimes in the Southern Cone. Then, under such scheme, a chronology of the dictatorship in Uruguay is traced, in dialogue with other periodizations raised by the academy. Finally, based on the theoretical concepts outlined first, and with the contributions of authors who have studied the topic, a reflection on the characteristics of the Uruguayan dictatorship is made. 

  1. Overall and abortion-related maternal mortality rates in Uruguay over the past 25years and their association with policies and actions aimed at protecting women's rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briozzo, Leonel; Gómez Ponce de León, Rodolfo; Tomasso, Giselle; Faúndes, Anibal

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate changes in maternal mortality rates in Uruguay over the past 25years, as well as their distribution by cause, and their temporal relationship with social changes and Human Development Index (HDI) indicators. Data on maternal mortality obtained directly from the Uruguayan Ministry of Public Health for the 2001 to 2015 period were analyzed together with data from the United Nations Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation for the 1990 to 2015 period. The swiftness of the decrease in maternal mortality per five-year period, the variation in the percentage of abortion-related deaths, and the correlation with HDI indicators were evaluated. Maternal mortality decreased significantly, basically due to a reduction in the number of deaths from unsafe abortion, which was the principal cause of maternal mortality in the 1990s. The reduction in maternal mortality over the past 10years also coincides with a reduction in poverty and an improvement in the HDI. A rapid reduction occurred in maternal mortality in Uruguay, particularly in maternal mortality resulting from unsafe abortion. This coincided with the application of a model for reducing the risk and harm of unsafe abortions, which finally led to the decriminalization of abortion. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Elusive Justice, Changing Memories and the Recent Past of Dictatorship and Violence in Uruguay: An Analysis of the 2012 Public Act in the Gelman Case

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    Francesca Lessa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Public Act of Acknowledgment of International Responsibility and Recovery of the Memory of María Claudia García de Gelman held in the Uruguayan parliament on 21 March 2012 through a theoretical framework of memory narratives. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights ordered Uruguay to hold the Public Act as part of its February 2011 ruling in the Gelman v. Uruguaycase, which condemned its failure to investigate and prosecute individuals responsible for disappearing María Claudia García de Gelman and illegally adopting her baby daughter Macarena, while denying her knowledge of her true identity for over two decades. The Public Act was a memorialising event intended as an act of reparation, which also triggered irruptions of memory in Uruguay, resurfacing memory debates and discussions about the recent past of dictatorship and violence. The Public Act exposed once again the continued antagonisms between memory narratives of violence and justice that have existed in the Uruguayan political and social landscape since 1985. While the Act was an expression of the “state terrorism” narrative, its unfolding resulted in the resurfacing of narratives of “war” and “two demons” in the social and political arenas and of new interpretations of these narratives in light of events and politics in 2012.

  3. Matrimonios consanguíneos en Uruguay (1800-1994: subestructuración y su relación con marcadores uniparentales

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    Sans, Mónica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En Uruguay existen escasos estudios sobre consanguinidad, todos éstos referidos a la segunda mitad del siglo XX. El objetivo de esta presentación es analizar las características de los matrimonios consanguíneos en dos regiones del Uruguay (sur y nordeste durante casi dos siglos (1800-1994, y los tipos de matrimonies consanguíneos con relación a la herencia de marcadores uniparentales. Se analizaron 28393 matrimonios registrados en archivos parroquiales de las ciudades de Montevideo y Melo, y las 633 (2,23% dispensas por consanguinidad otorgadas. Se estimó el índice medio de consanguinidad α, la frecuencia de los distintos grados de matrimonios consanguíneos, y la frecuencia de subtipos clasificados según relación y sexo de los ancestros para matrimonios entre primos hermano. El subtipo A (las madres de los contrayentes eran hermanas fue el más frecuente, y especialmente, las uniones paralelas (A+D con relación a las uniones cruzadas (B+C. Se discute cómo éstas preferencias afectan la consanguinidad y la transmisión del ADN mitocondrial , el cromosoma Y, y los genes ligados al cromosoma X.

  4. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo de las lesiones de la mucosa oral en la población urbana del Uruguay

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    Beatriz Casnati

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de las lesiones de la mucosa bucal e identificar los factores de riesgo en el desarrollo de las mismas en una muestra representativa de la población adulta urbana del Uruguay. Metodología: Se trata de un estudio transversal que registró 922 personas (537 F/385M, edades de 15-24, 35-44 y 65-74 años basado en un diseño muestral estratificado por conglomerado polietápico. A partir de los datos de la muestra se estimaron las prevalencias de cada entidad así como los intervalos de confianza al 95%. Resultados: La candidosis y las lesiones proliferativas se observaron en 26% y en 17% de las personas y se presentaron significativamente asociadas al género femenino. La prevalencia de la leucoplasia fue del 7% y en el análisis multivariado presentó una asociación significativa con el consumo de mate. Conclusiones: Las lesiones orales se presentan de manera prevalente en los adultos mayores en el Uruguay, lo que sugiere que se deberían implementar programas de prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento adecuado de las mismas

  5. Renovación historiográfica en el Uruguay de la dictadura y de la reinstitucionalización democrática (1973-1995

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    Zubillaga, Carlos

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The author provides an overview of the historical research done in Uruguay in the period from the eve of the military coup of June, 1973 to the present a period of the systematic renewal in this area of scholarship. Over these 25 years there have been significant changes in theoretical criteria, research interests, patterns of cooperation among historians, diffusions of their work, and professionalism in the field.

    Se ofrece un panorama de la situación historiográfica en Uruguay desde los prolegómenos del golpe de Estado (junio de 1973 hasta la actualidad, advirtiendo la renovación sistemática operada en este campo del conocimiento. La indagatoria supone develar los cambios registrados en los criterios teóricos, los intereses temáticos, las modalidades de articulación del colectivo de historiadores, la difusibilidad de la producción historiográfica y la profesionalización de la disciplina.

  6. El asociacionismo inmigratorio español en Uruguay en la mira del franquismo: entre la oposición y el disciplinamiento

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    Zubillaga, Carlos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the emergence of Spanish associationism in Uruguay and the evolution of its relations with the peninsular government, specially within the context of the civil war and the Franco regime. The information yielded by the Spanish diplomatic representation in Montevideo is complemented with the «hispanist» discourse in books and journals published within the immigrated community, tending to the setting-up of political and ideological discipline structures.

    Se analiza la emergencia del asociacionismo español en Uruguay y la evolución de sus relaciones con el gobierno peninsular, particularmente en el contexto de la guerra civil y del régimen franquista. La información producida por la representación diplomática española en Montevideo se complementa con la prédica «hispanista» en libros y revistas editados en el seno de la colectividad inmigrada, tendente a la constitución de estructuras de disciplinamiento político e ideológico.

  7. Economic and accounting evaluation of rice milled production chains in Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil and Uruguay with application of the Policy Analysis Matrix

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    Ângela Rozane Leal de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Rice is the basis of diet for almost half of the world population, and its culture is one of the strategic agroindustrial production chains in the agribusiness environment, in both economic and social levels. Thus, the comparative analysis between the production chains of rice milled in Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil, and Uruguay was mainly motivated by the interest in knowing the differences in the business environment and public policies that impact the competitiveness of this chain in both study regions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the economic efficiency, competitiveness, and effects of public policies of the rice production chain of milled rice in RS (Brazil relative to Uruguay. The data collected in this study are from the 2011-2012 harvests and indicators were calculated by applying the concepts of the policy analysis matrix (PAM. Results showed that the chains in both study regions were competitive under the existing market and policy conditions, revealed comparative advantage, transferred a high load of resources to other sectors of the economy, and satisfactorily remuneration of the domestic production factors. However, the competitiveness and comparative advantage shown in this study were not due to the encouraging intervention policies, as both production systems pay high taxes.

  8. Los gonfotéridos (Mammalia, Proboscidea de Uruguay: taxonomía, estratigrafía y cronología

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    Perea, D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A large sample composed of relatively fragmentary remains of Gomphotheriidae was found in Uruguay. Belonging to this family there are materials assigned to Camacho Formation (Late Miocene, and to Pleistocene to Early Holocene units (Sopas, Libertad and Dolores formations. The Camacho and Sopas formations contain remains of indeterminate Gomphotheriidae, and the species Stegomastodon platensis is identified for the Libertad and Dolores formations. We think taxonomically suitable to support the opinion that all gomphotherids inhabitants of South American plains pertain to the genus Stegomastodon and to consider that species as the only representative of the genus in South America.En Uruguay se han hallado numerosos aunque relativamente fragmentarios restos de Gomphotheriidae. Pertenecientes a esta familia existen materiales asignados a la Formación Camacho (Mioceno tardío, y a unidades del Pleistoceno y Holoceno temprano (formaciones Sopas, Libertad y Dolores. Las formaciones Camacho y Sopas contienen restos de Gomphotheridae indeterminados, mientras que la especie Stegomastodon platensis está identificada para las formaciones Libertad y Dolores. Entendemos taxonómicamente adecuado el criterio de mantener a los gonfotéridos habitantes de las planicies sudamericanas bajo el género Stegomastodon y considerar dicha especie como única representante del género en Sudamérica.

  9. Servicios legales de interrupción voluntaria del embarazo en Uruguay. Estrategias de los servicios públicos del primer nivel de atención

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    Alejandra López-Gómez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar las estrategias desarrolladas por los centros de salud para implementar la ley de interrupción voluntaria del embarazo (IVE en los servicios públicos del primer nivel de atención en Montevideo, Uruguay. Material y métodos. Investigación cualitativa, que combinó técnicas de análisis documental y cuestionarios autoadministrados a informantes clave y entrevistas semidirigidas a directores de centros de salud. Se construyó un índice sumatorio simple de accesibilidad a las prestaciones de IVE en el centro de salud. Resultados. La ley aprobada en Uruguay en 2012 exigió el desarrollo de una estrategia para favorecer la accesibilidad de las mujeres a la IVE en el primer nivel de atención público. Los servicios no lograron implementar cabalmente la estrategia por dificultades institucionales. Conclusión. Pese a la amplia disponibilidad de servicios públicos de IVE en el primer nivel de atención y a que forman parte de las prestaciones en salud sexual y reproductiva, lo que favorece integralidad en la atención, persiste una barrera importante en el alto porcentaje de ginecólogos objetores de conciencia.

  10. First record of Smilodon fatalis Leidy, 1868 (Felidae, Machairodontinae) in the extra-Andean region of South America (late Pleistocene, Sopas Formation), Uruguay: Taxonomic and paleobiogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzuetti, Aldo; Perea, Daniel; Ubilla, Martín; Rinderknecht, Andrés

    2018-01-01

    The Felidae are known in South America from the Ensenadan Stage/Age onwards. Among them, machairodonts of the genus Smilodon stand out. Three species are recognized, and all three are present on the continent: S. gracilis from the early-middle Pleistocene in north-east Venezuela; S. fatalis, found only in Lujanian sediments on the west side of the Andes (north-west of Peru and south-west of Ecuador); and S. populator, which inhabited the eastern part of the Andes during the Ensenadan and Lujanian. This distribution has led to the suggestion that the last two felids were allopatric during the Lujanian. Here, we report the first evidence of S. fatalis in the eastern part of the continent (Sopas Formation, late Pleistocene of Uruguay), based on an almost complete skull. This finding not only enlarges its distribution in South America but questions the idea of allopatric distribution. It also adds a new component to the mammalian predator trophic level of Uruguay, with the capacity to predate large South American herbivores and megaherbivores. A revision of materials previously assigned to S. populator in the extra-Andean zone of South America will be required.

  11. Aborto y Parlamento: un estudio sobre Brasil, Uruguay y Argentina Aborto e Parlamento: um estudo sobre Brasil, Uruguai e Argentina Abortion and Parliament: a study on Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina

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    Maria Isabel Baltar da Rocha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo desarrolla un estudio comparativo entre Brasil, Argentina y Uruguay sobre las legislaciones y las acciones de diversos actores en relación a la despenalización y/o legalización del aborto. El tema se instala en la agenda pública en los tres países a partir del proceso de democratización iniciado en la década de los 80 produciéndose diversas intervenciones tanto del movimiento de mujeres, como de las corporaciones médicas y otros actores sociales en el transcurso de la década del 90 y los primeros años del Siglo XXI. En ese sentido se han trabajado las distintas intervenciones en el ámbito legislativo (tanto Cámara de Senadores como de Diputados, así como estrategias de políticas públicas implementadas desde los estados, con el monitoreo y seguimiento del movimiento de mujeres, para paliar una situación gravísima de violación de derechos humanos. El incumplimiento de los derechos, consagrados en los cuerpos constitucionales, afecta a las mujeres, especialmente las más vulnerables, en relación al derecho a la salud y la equidad. Se analizaron además los avances y retrocesos visualizados en el transcurso del período a estudiar, así como la importancia de mantener el tema en la agenda pública y en los medios masivos de comunicación que han cumplido un papel importante, tanto promoviendo, como deslegitimando el logro del derecho al aborto.O presente trabalho é um estudo comparativo entre Brasil, Argentina e Uruguai em torno das legislações e ações de diversos atores em relação à descriminalização e/ou legalização do aborto. Este tema entrou na agenda pública dos três países a partir do processo de democratização, iniciado na década de 1980, e de diversas intervenções, tanto do movimento de mulheres, como da classe médica e outros atores sociais, ao longo da década de 1990 e dos primeiros anos do século XXI. Nesse sentido, foram estudadas as diversas intervenções no

  12. Gestión integrada de recursos hídricos en el Uruguay en el contexto internacional

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    Diana Margarita Míguez Caramés

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de proteger el medio ambiente y en especial la cantidad y la calidad de las fuentes de agua dulce contra los efectos de las presiones naturales y antrópicas se ha vuelto cada vez más importante a nivel mundial. Para ello, no basta con aplicar tecnologías de extracción de agua y de depuración efectivas, sino que también se debería implementar sistemas de gestión participativos para alinear las actividades humanas hacia el desarrollo sostenible. La herramienta más idónea para realizarlo es la Gestión Integrada de Recursos Hídricos (GIRH mediante la cual se genera información sobre la que basar políticas de gestión ambiental y de provisión de agua potable y saneamiento equitativas, que contemplen las opiniones de todos los grupos de interés. En el caso de Uruguay, la Constitución de la República consagra el derecho de todos los habitantes del país al acceso al agua y al saneamiento. El proceso de implementación del sistema de GIRH se inició dándole participación a la ciudadanía a través de un referéndum, luego del cual los referentes en el tema de todos los sectores de la sociedad aconsejaron a nivel parlamentario, y el procesó derivó en la reglamentación de la ley del agua. Se consolidó así una estructura de gestión por cuencas hidrográficas basada en el ciclo hidrológico que se encuentra hoy en un grado de desarrollo que refleja la mejora continua de la institucionalidad de la gobernanza del agua. En esta revisión se releva el desarrollo de estos procesos tanto a nivel nacional como mundial y se propone una serie de herramientas y estrategias para hacer cada vez más eficiente la gobernanza.

  13. Determinantes de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de pacientes en diálisis de Uruguay.

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    Ana I Galain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Existen pocos estudios sobre la percepción subjetiva de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en pacientes renales cursando su etapa terminal, que vivan en países no industrializados. El propósito de este estudio fue comprender las relaciones subyacentes entre los diferentes determinantes de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, en los pacientes en tratamiento sustitutivo renal en Uruguay. Se realizó un estudio transversal en una muestra de 243 pacientes de cinco centros de hemodiálisis y diálisis peritoneal de la ciudad de Montevideo (edad media de 56,6 años, SD 16,2; 58% hombres. Se realizó un análisis de regresión lineal univariado para cada variable independiente. Se incluyó un total de 61 variables independientes biológicas/clínicas, sociodemográficas y psicosociales. La CVRS fue evaluada utilizando el cuestionario SF-36, que consta de ocho subescalas, más el Componente de Resumen Físico (PCS y el Componente de Resumen Mental (MCS. Aquellas variables que mostraron una asociación significativa en el análisis univariado (p< 0,10 fueron incluidas en un análisis de regresión multivariado. Fueron estudiados diez modelos de regresión, para las 8 subescalas del SF-36, el PCS y MCS. Quince variables fueron significativas en los modelos multivariados: tiempo en tratamiento sustitutivo renal, urea, creatinina, hemoglobina, hierro hospitalizaciones, enfermedades agudas, ceguera, edad, género, vivir con alguien, situación laboral, administración de antidepresivos o de antipsicóticos y mantenimiento de la vida sexual; explicando el 43% de la varianza de PCS y el 35% de MCS. El tipo y relevancia de las variables explicativas difieren a lo largo de las diversas dimensiones de la CVRS. Destacamos como conclusión el entrelazamiento de factores biológicos, sociodemográficos y psicosociales como determinantes de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en los pacientes renales cursando su etapa terminal, lo que

  14. Factores de riesgo de trastornos conductuales y emocionales en la niñez: estudio comunitario en el Uruguay

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    Kohn Robert

    2001-01-01

    Uruguay.

  15. An optimized clarithromycin-free 14-day triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication achieves high cure rates in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacoll, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Balter, Henia; Pazos, Ximena; Di Pace, María; Sandoya, Gabriela; Cohen, Henry; Calvet, Xavier

    Strong acid inhibition increases cure rates with triple therapy and 14-day are more effective than 7-day treatments. The combination of amoxicillin plus metronidazole at full doses has been shown to overcome metronidazole resistance and to achieve good eradication rates even in patients harboring resistant strains. No previous studies have been reported in Latin-America with this optimized triple-therapy scheme. The aim of the present study was to assess the eradication rate and tolerance of a new first-line treatment regimen associating strong acid inhibition, amoxicillin and metronidazole. Patients from the Clínica de Gastroenterología of the Hospital de Clínicas (Montevideo, Uruguay) were included. Hp status was mainly assessed by at least one of the following: histologyor urea breath test (UBT). A 14-day treatment was prescribed comprising esomeprazole 40mg twice a day plus amoxicillin 1g and metronidazole 500mg, both three times a day. H. pylori cure was assessed by UBT. Forty-one patients were enrolled. Mean age was 53.3±13 years and 17.1% of patients were male. Main indications for treatment were: functional dyspepsia (27.5%), gastritis (45%), gastric or duodenal erosions (20%), gastric ulcer (5%) and intestinal metaplasia (2.5%). H. pylori eradication was achieved in 33 of the 37 patients who returned for follow-up. Eradication rates were 80.5% (95% CI: 68.4-92.6) by intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis and 89.2% (95% CI; 79.2-99.2) per protocol (PP). No major side effects were reported; 26 patients (65.8%) complained of mild side effects (nausea, diarrhea and headache). Cure rates of this triple therapy including esomeprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole were 81% per ITT and the treatment was well tolerated. These optimal results with a simple clarithromycin-free triple therapy are better than described for standard triple therapy but there is still room for improvement to reach the desired target of 90% per ITT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S

  16. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Yoana; Gere, José; Briano, Carolina; Manetti, Martin; Juliarena, Paula; Picasso, Valentin; Gratton, Roberto; Astigarraga, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary GHGs emissions are relevant in evaluating environmental impact of farming systems. Methane (CH4) produced by enteric fermentation accounts for half of all anthropogenic emissions of GHGs in Uruguay, where ruminant production is based on year round grazing of forages. Here we compared milk production and CH4 emissions by dairy cows grazing two contrasting mixed pastures (rich in legumes or rich in grasses) using the SF6 tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-days periods. There were no differences in milk or CH4 production between the contrasting pastures, probably because of the high herbage allowance that enabled selective grazing by cows. Abstract Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH4 emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM) basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH4 emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI) was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD) was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71) and HOMI (15.7 kg OM) were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d), milk fat yield (742 g/d) and milk protein yield (667 g/d) were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow) which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d) or expressed as

  17. Las sociedades locales en el contexto de la globalización: estudio de casos en Uruguay

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    Danilo Veiga

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan hipótesis de trabajo y resultados de investigaciones que se vienen desarrollando en el Area de Estudios Urbano Regionales del Departamento de Sociología de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales***. El objetivo central propuesto es colocar un conjunto de temas emergentes de investigación y análisis en un campo de creciente relevancia para las Ciencias Sociales. En dicho contexto, se ilustran tomando dos "estudios de caso" -Colonia y Maldonado- las características socioeconómicas y pautas de desarrollo local, de sociedades dinámicas que por su inserción privilegiada en el contexto de la reestructuración y globalización, están sujetas a impactos de diferente magnitud. En tal sentido, se espera contribuir a la comprensión de los procesos locales de diferenciación del desarrollo socioeconómico, particularmente con relación a los componentes de la globalización e integración regional. En primer lugar, se analizan las transformaciones socioeconómicas y territoriales en el contexto de globalización e integración regional. En segundo término, se plantean los escenarios prospectivos de crecimiento y globalización, en que se insertan Colonia y Maldonado. En tercer término, se recogen las imágenes y percepciones de la población sobre la integración regional. Finalmente, se resumen los "temas sociales emergentes" en el contexto de globalización e integración regionalThis paper presents hypotheses and research findings from projects developed at the Sociology Department at the University of the Republic of Uruguay. Its main objective is to introduce some emerging research topics in a relevant field of analysis for the Social Sciences. Based on two case studies -Colonia and Maldonado-, the author analyses the socioeconomic characteristics and local development patterns of these dynamic communities, which given its insertion in the context of reestructuring and globalization, are subject to different impacts

  18. ¿Hacia un modelo sudamericano de política cultural? Singularidades y convergencias en Uruguay, Paraguay y Chile en el siglo XXI

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    Mariano M. Zamorano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Toward a South American Model of Cultural Policy? Singularities and Convergences in Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile in the Twenty-First CenturySince the beginnings of research in the field of cultural policy during the eighties, the comparative international dimension has been one of its lines of analysis. This has revealed the diversity of approaches and the existence of national and regional models, differences that have been explained by historical and political restraints. Likewise a tendency to the international diffusion of these models has been diagnosed. In the Latin American case in recent years some compilations of national studies have been produced, but rarely have these studies developed a comparative analysis. In this article, we will respond to the question about the existence of a South American model of cultural policy. Based on the study of three different countries (Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay we will defend the hypothesis that, although we cannot speak of a model of cultural policy for this part of the continent, we have been able to identify some shared elements and a tendency to convergence that prefigure a regional pattern.Resumen:Desde los inicios del estudio de la política cultural en los años ochenta, la dimensión comparativa internacional ha sido uno de sus ejes de análisis. Esto ha revelado la diversidad de enfoques y la existencia de modelos nacionales y regionales, unas diferencias que han sido explicadas por condicionantes históricos y políticos. Asimismo se ha diagnosticado una tendencia a la difusión internacional de estos modelos. En el caso Latinoamericano, se han realizado en los últimos años algunas compilaciones de estudios nacionales, pero raramente estos estudios abordan la tarea comparativa. En este artículo, intentaremos responder a la pregunta de si existe un modelo sudamericano de política cultural. A partir del estudio de tres países (Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay defenderemos la hipótesis de que

  19. Perfil alimentario de Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843 (Hemiptera, Triatominae en ámbitos peridomiciliarios, de una localidad rural de Uruguay Feeding patterns of Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843 (Hemiptera, Triatominae in peridomestic habitats, in a rural area of Uruguay

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    Roberto Salvatella

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available En una localidad con población rural dispersa ("La Bolsa", 3ª seccional, dpto. de Artigas, Uruguay se estudió, en ámbitos peridomiciliarios, el perfil alimentario de T. rubrovaria (triatomíneo silvestre y potencial vector secundario de colonización intradomiciliaria, utilizándose la técnica de doble difusión en agar, enfrentando contenido promesentérico frente a un panel de 13 sueros. Se pudo detectar en 120 insectos 251 identificaciones de fuente hematofágica con alimentación predominante en mamíferos (73%, pero marcado eclectismo alimentario (mamíferos, aves, reptiles y cucarachas, incluyendo hematofagia sobre seres humanos en un 8% de las identificaciones totales. La micropredación de hemolinfa lo ubicaría en una situación evolutiva primitiva, intermedia entre predator/entomófago y triatomineo/hematófago, que comparte con T. circunmaculata. Los mamíferos detectados con mayor frecuencia fueron dasipódidos y bóvidos, aunque la fuente hematofágica, salvo en los adultos alados, se constituye en un fenómeno de proximidad ocasional por cohabitación de un mismo habitat. La frecuencia de alimentación sobre hombre, hallada en un ambiente peridomiciliario, aporta un importante elemento a su capacidad vectorial potencial. En el análisis espacial de las dietas se muestra al peridomicilio como un área de interacción de hospederos domésticos, silvestres y sinantrópicos. La infección tripanosómica fue mínima comparada con las altas tasas de infección de ámbitos silvestres.It has been studied the feeding patterns of Triatoma rubrovaria (wild triatominae bug, and intradomiciliary secondary vector of T. cruzi in a rural area of "La Bolsa" (Department of Artigas. Agar double diffusion test were used for analyze the blood meal, from 120 insects, which were confronted to 13 antisera. It has 251 identify blood meals, and the most frequently was mamalian host (73%, but it has a variable source of feeding (mammals, birds, reptils

  20. Recepción de la Teoría Pura del Derecho en Uruguay. Con especial referencia a la revista de la Facultad de Derecho

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    Oscar Sarlo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es un intento de documentar e interpretar la recepción en Uruguay de la teoría pura del derecho de Hans Kelsen, la renovación teórica más importante e impactante ocurrida en el campo del derecho durante el siglo XX a nivel mundial. Esto supone el examen de un complejo sistema donde deben articularse autor, mediadores, receptores y transformadores de la obra, poniendo la actividad del receptor en el centro de la comprensión de estos fenómenos. Ello nos permitirá registrar el papel jugado por las revistas especializadas en derecho, y entre ellas la Revista de la Facultad de Derecho, a cuyo homenaje está destinado este trabajo en su 80º aniversario.

  1. Consumption of tea and coffee and the risk of lung cancer in cigarette-smoking men: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendilaharsu, M; De Stefani, E; Deneo-Pellegrini, H; Carzoglio, J C; Ronco, A

    1998-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of drinking tea or coffee on the lung cancer risk of male cigarette smokers in a case-control in Uruguay. Four hundred and twenty-seven lung cancer cases were frequency matched on age and residence with 428 hospitalized controls suffering from conditions unrelated to tobacco smoking and diet. Whereas coffee drinking had no effect on the lung cancer risk of the cigarette-smoking men in this study, black tea consumption decreased this risk. Heavy drinkers of tea (two or more cups of tea per day) were associated with a reduced risk of 0.34 (95% CI 0.14-0.84). This protective effect was more evident among Kreyberg I tumors (squamous cell and small cell) and among light smokers. Possible sources of bias and mechanisms of action are discussed.

  2. Mosquito-producing containers, spatial distribution, and relationship between Aedes aegypti population indices on the southern boundary of its distribution in South America (Salto, Uruguay).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, César; Caffera, Ruben M; García da Rosa, Elsa; Lairihoy, Rosario; González, Cristina; Norbis, Walter; Roche, Ingrid

    2012-12-01

    A study was conducted in the city of Salto, Uruguay, to identify mosquito-producing containers, the spatial distribution of mosquitoes and the relationship between the different population indices of Aedes aegypti. On each of 312 premises visited, water-filled containers and immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were identified. The containers were counted and classified into six categories. Pupae per person and Stegomyia indices were calculated. Pupae per person were represented spatially. The number of each type of container and number of mosquitoes in each were analyzed and compared, and their spatial distribution was analyzed. No significant differences in the number of the different types of containers with mosquitoes or in the number of mosquitoes in each were found. The distribution of the containers with mosquito was random and the distribution of mosquitoes by type of container was aggregated or highly aggregated.

  3. El caso de las plantas de celulosa sobre el río Uruguay: Sentencia de la Corte Internacional de Justicia de 20 de abril 2010

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    José Juste Ruiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Judgement on the merits in the case concerning the Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay focuses on the dilemma of sustainable development, opposing the requirements of the economic development of a State versus the rights of protection of human and environmental health of another State facing the risks of transboundary harm resulting from industrial activities that, in addition, affect a shared natural resource like an international water course used for aims other than navigation. Although it is true that this Judgement contains statements of great environmental importance, at the same time it generates preoccupation due to the proactive attitude adopted by the International Court of Justice related to the industrial projects that give rise to potential environmental risks, settling all the disputed points in the most favourable way to the State promoting its execution

  4. Film criticism as a field of political dispute in Uruguay: the repercussion of the documentary Elecciones (Mario Handler / Ugo Ulive, 1967.

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    Mariana Martins Villaça

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the production and the impact of the Uruguayan documentary Eleccione (Mario Handler/ Hugo Ulive, 1967 at the weekly newspaper Marcha. This journal played an important role as agent of leftist cultural policy, in a context of increasing authoritarianism. We demonstrated that the controversy on the documentary triggered a series of debates and criticism in the press that extrapolated the cinema universe, and shifting the crucial role of the Marcha in the cultural scene. The film Elecciones is an important historical source for understanding the political dilemmas and debates in that moment. He revealed the impasse experienced by the staff of the newspaper, from the unconditional defense of democracy and the lack of trust in institutional channels as real possibility to overcome the political crisis in the Uruguay.

  5. Mosquito-Producing Containers, Spatial Distribution, and Relationship between Aedes aegypti Population Indices on the Southern Boundary of its Distribution in South America (Salto, Uruguay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, César; Caffera, Ruben M.; García da Rosa, Elsa; Lairihoy, Rosario; González, Cristina; Norbis, Walter; Roche, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted in the city of Salto, Uruguay, to identify mosquito-producing containers, the spatial distribution of mosquitoes and the relationship between the different population indices of Aedes aegypti. On each of 312 premises visited, water-filled containers and immature Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were identified. The containers were counted and classified into six categories. Pupae per person and Stegomyia indices were calculated. Pupae per person were represented spatially. The number of each type of container and number of mosquitoes in each were analyzed and compared, and their spatial distribution was analyzed. No significant differences in the number of the different types of containers with mosquitoes or in the number of mosquitoes in each were found. The distribution of the containers with mosquito was random and the distribution of mosquitoes by type of container was aggregated or highly aggregated. PMID:23128295

  6. Parasitism by larval tapeworms genus Spirometra in South American amphibians and reptiles: new records from Brazil and Uruguay, and a review of current knowledge in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Fabrício H; Borteiro, Claudio; da Graça, Rodrigo J; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo R; Crampet, Alejandro; Guerra, Vinicius; Lima, Flávia S; Bellay, Sybelle; Karling, Letícia C; Castro, Oscar; Takemoto, Ricardo M; Pavanelli, Gilberto C

    2016-12-01

    Spargana are plerocercoid larvae of cestode tapeworms of the genus Spirometra, Family Diphyllobothriidae, parasitic to frogs, reptiles, birds and mammals. This parasitic disease in humans can be transmitted through the use and consumption of amphibians and reptiles. The available knowledge about Spirometra in South America is scarce, and there are only a few reports on the occurrence of sparganum in amphibians and reptiles, many of them published in old papers not easily available to researchers. In this work we present a review on this topic, provide new records in two species of amphibians and 7 species of reptiles from Brazil and Uruguay respectively. We also summarize current knowledge of Spirometra in the continent, along with an updated of host taxonomy. We could gather from the literature a total of 15 studies about amphibian and reptile hosts, published between 1850 and 2016, corresponding to 43 case reports, mostly from Brazil (29) and Uruguay (8), Argentina (3), Peru (2), and Venezuela (1); the majority of them related to reptiles (five lizards and 26 snake species), and 14 corresponded to amphibians (9 anurans). Plerocercoid larvae were located in different organs of the hosts, such as subcutaneous tissue, coelomic cavity, peritoneum, and musculature. The importance of amphibians and reptiles in the transmission of the disease to humans in South America is discussed. Relevant issues to be studied in the near future are the taxonomic characterization of Spirometra in the region and the biological risk of reptile meat for aboriginal and other rural communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. REASONS FOR MEDICAL CONSULTATION AND CAUSES OF EUTHANASIA OF DOGS IN MONTEVIDEO CITY (URUGUAY: A SURVEY OF VETERINARY PRACTITIONERS. IMPLICATIONS OF BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS

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    J. P. Damián

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En América Latina existe poca información acerca de los motivos frecuentes de consulta médica y eutanasia en perros, así como de las implicaciones de los problemas de com - portamiento. e specialmente en Uruguay no hay información al respecto. e l objetivo de este estudio fue conocer las causas más frecuentes de consulta médica y eutanasia de los perros en la ciudad de Montevideo a través de una encuesta a los médicos veterinarios, y la implicancia de los problemas de comportamiento. s e realizó una encuesta a una muestra aleatoria (n = 100 de médicos veterinarios de clínicas de Montevideo. Las causas más frecuentes de consulta médica por dueños de perros son las afecciones de la piel, seguido de afecciones digestivas y respiratorias, y menos frecuentemente las infecciones, los accidentes y los neoplasias (p < 0,0001. Los problemas de conducta ocupan solo el 1% de los motivos de consulta. Las razones más frecuentes para la eutanasia de perros fueron por edad (ancianos y por neoplasias, seguidas por afecciones renales, infecciones y accidentes (p < 0,0001. s olo el 35% de los veterinarios ha llevado a cabo eutanasias en sus clínicas; entre ellas, la eutanasia por los problemas de conducta representó apenas el 2%. a unque en Uruguay se realizan eutanasias por problemas de comportamiento, las mismas se dan en un muy bajo porcentaje.

  8. La reducción de la mortalidad infantil en Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay. Entre intenciones, logros y desafíos

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    Eleonora Soledad Rojas-Cabrera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La importancia de la reducción de la mortalidad infantil es reconocida internacionalmente en distintos tratados de Derechos Humanos, entre ellos la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño (CDN y se refuerza con metas cuantificables en los planes de acción de las conferencias basadas en los mismos, a los que Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay adhieren. A veinte años de ratificada la CDN, nos preguntamos en qué medida la reducción de la mortalidad infantil en estos países ha sido suficiente para alcanzar las metas establecidas. Nos interesa conocer cuáles son los logros alcanzados y los temas pendientes para dar cumplimiento a los compromisos asumidos ante la comunidad internacional. En base a información publicada por los institutos nacionales de estadísticas y por el Centro Latinoamericano y Caribeño de Demografía (CEPAL/CELADE, se concluye que Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay han realizado importantes logros en la reducción de la mortalidad infantil, de manera que habrían logrado la meta de reducción en un tercio el nivel de la mortalidad infantil entre los años 1990 y 2000. Sin embargo, a pesar de haber continuado el descenso en años posteriores, el ritmo no sería suficiente para alcanzar las metas planteadas para el año 2010 ni para el año 2015. En cuanto a las metas relacionadas a la disminución de las brechas entre sectores sociales, la situación es más preocupante ya que las diferencias se mantienen en valores inaceptables. Por estos motivos, los países deberían redoblar los esfuerzos para dar cumplimiento a dichos compromisos.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of group A rotavirus among children admitted to hospital in Salto, Uruguay, 2011-2012: first detection of the emerging genotype G12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tort, Luis Fernando López; Victoria, Matías; Lizasoain A, Andrés; Castells, Matías; Maya, Leticia; Gómez, Mariela Martínez; Arreseigor, Edit; López, Patricia; Cristina, Juan; Leite, Jose Paulo Gagliardi; Colina, Rodney

    2015-05-01

    Group A rotavirus (RVA) is the most important etiologic agent of infant acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. Detection and molecular characterization of RVA in Salto department, Northwestern region of Uruguay, was conducted on 175 clinical samples, being 153 stool and 22 vomit samples, collected from hospitalized children with AGE, between 0-15 years old, from two hospitals of Salto city during 2011 and 2012. RVA was detected and genotyped by seminested multiplex RT-PCR in order to determine G- and P-genotypes. Positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were carried out in order to determine lineages and sub-lineages. RVA were detected in 64 (37%) of the samples and the G and P genotypes observed were: 6% G1P[8], 23% G2P[4]/G2P[X]/GXP[4], 23% G3P[8]/G3P[X], 14% G12P[8]/G12P[X], 16% GXP[8], 1,5% G12P[9], 3% G2P[4]/[8], and 16% non-typeable. VP7 and VP4 genotypes related to DS-1 like gene constellation were prevalent during 2011 and those VP7 and VP4 genotypes related to Wa-like constellation were prevalent during 2012 (mainly represented by G3P[8]). Interestingly, RVA was detected in vomit samples in a high prevalence (41%). RVA was observed mainly in the age group between 1 and 5 years old (75% of the cases), and seasonality with a high detection rate in winter season was observed for the two consecutive years of surveillance. To our knowledge, this study represents the first detection and molecular characterization of RVA in Salto department, Northwestern region of Uruguay; and the first identification of the emerging genotype G12 in the country. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Smoke-free policies and the social acceptability of smoking in Uruguay and Mexico: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Boado, Marcelo; Sebrié, Ernesto M; Bianco, Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    Little research has been conducted to determine the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of smoke-free policies in middle-income countries. Cross-sectional data were analyzed from the 2006 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation. Survey comparing adult smokers in Mexico (n = 1,080), where smoke-free legislation at that time was weak, and Uruguay (n = 1,002), where comprehensive smoke-free legislation was implemented. Analyses aimed to determine whether exposure to smoke-free policies and perceived antismoking social norms were associated with smokers' receiving cues about the bothersome nature of secondhand smoke (SHS), with smokers' reactance against such cues, and with smokers' level of support for smoke-free policies in different venues. In bivariate analyses, Uruguayan smokers were more likely than Mexican smokers to experience verbal anti-SHS cues, lower reactance against anti-SHS cues, stronger antismoking societal norms, and stronger support for 100% smoke-free policies in enclosed workplaces, restaurants, and bars. In multivariate models for both countries, the strength of voluntary smoke-free policies at home was independently associated with support for smoke-free policies across all venues queried, except for in bars among Uruguayans. Perceived strength of familial antismoking norms was consistently associated with all indicators of the social acceptability of smoking in Uruguay but only with the frequency of receiving anti-SHS verbal cues in Mexico. These results are generally consistent with previous research indicating that comprehensive smoke-free policies are likely to increase the social unacceptability of smoking and that resistance against such policies is likely to diminish once such policies are in place.

  11. Alfabetización informacional en Uruguay: ¿dónde estábamos y dónde estamos?

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    Natalia Olascoaga Pérez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La investigación “Alfabetización en información: ¿qué habilidades tienen los niños uruguayos?”(Abeiro,et.al. 2007fue pionera en el ámbito de la alfabetización informacional (ALFIN en Uruguay. En ese entonces se presentaba como un tema nuevo, casi inexplorado en nuestro país. Este artículo plantea un recorrido por la evolución de la alfabetización informacional en Uruguay desde esa fecha hasta el presente. La importancia de la ALFIN en la educación y en la formación de ciudadanos activos es sustancial en la sociedad de la información en la que vivimos. Se define qué es ALFIN y se mencionan las principales normas y modelos existentes, así como valiosos recursos relacionados. Se analizan además los resultados más relevantes de la investigación de 2007 que evaluó qué tan competentes en información son los niños uruguayos al finalizar su educación primaria. La premisa subyacente a lo largo de todo el artículo es que la ALFINes un objetivo que debe concebirse a largo plazo e integrada al currículo y no debería de depender del carácter personal de cada docente o bibliotecólogo. El Plan Ceibal es una herramienta que no puede ser desaprovechada por maestros y bibliotecólogos. Para lograrlo, las políticas y estrategias a nivel nacional son la clave.

  12. Los grupos del magisterio racionalista en Argentina y Uruguay hacia 1910 y sus actitudes ante la enseñanza laica oficial

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    Pere SOLÀ I GUSSINYER

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este trabajo versa sobre los grupos del magisterio racionalista en Argentina, y sobre todo Uruguay, a principios de la segunda década de este siglo, y su actitud frente a la enseñanza básica público-estatal, de carácter más o menos laico. Se sabe que el movimiento docente racionalista, según el modelo de Bakunin, Robin y Francisco Ferrer, y sobre una base libertaria y laicista radical, suponía un modelo alternativo de educación popular hacia 1910, de carácter público no estatal. En este estudio vamos a ver qué planteamientos ofrece este movimiento en algunos de los países más avanzados social y culturalmente de América Latina por aquellas fechas. También intentaremos evaluar algunas de las razones del relativo o total fracaso de proyectos significativos de educación laico-racionalista e integral del tipo del de la Liga Popular para la educación razonada de la infancia (L.P.E.R.I. en Uruguay. Muchos son los interrogantes que un propósito como el que anima este estudio plantea. Nos permitimos hacer un inventario de ellos en la conclusión. Pero ni que decir tiene que sólo investigaciones posteriores y mucho acopio de material documental in situ permitirán darles cumplida respuesta. Aquí y ahora, sólo se trata de poner un granito de arena al esclarecimiento del racionalismo educativo en América Latina.

  13. IDRC in Uruguay

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    K. R. IDRC support is helping: I Health authorities increase access to care. I Coastal communities adapt to climate change. I Isolated farmers gain better access to markets. I Women waste-recyclers improve their working conditions. I Latin American countries support rebuilding in Haiti. Total IDRC support. 133 activities.

  14. IDRC in Uruguay

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    and the Universidad de la República's. Economy Department — and 10 others from neighbouring countries. Among many issues, researchers have analyzed how ... Mexico, and Chile support their countries' efforts to help Haiti strengthen democracy and rebuild. They are coming together with public institutions, civil society ...

  15. Competitive and innovation factors in wine tourism clusters: A comparative study between consolidated and emerging regions in Brazil and Uruguay / Factores de competitividad e innovación en clusters enoturísticos: Un estudio comparativo entre las regiones consolidadas y emergentes en Brasil y Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Shana Sabbado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to establish a cross-country analysis of the structure and organization of wine tourism clusters in consolidated and emerging wine regions in Brazil and Uruguay, looking for identifying the key factors for competitiveness and innovation. The regions chosen for analysis are: Vale dos Vinhedos, Campanha and Vale do São Francisco, in Brazil, and sites on Montevideo and Canelones, in Uruguay. The study analyze competitive factors in each region, including: the structure and density, support institutions at national and regional level, educational and research institutions, organization process for the geographical indication and the relationship between wine tourism and the promotion of wine and region. Further than comparing the two countries, the research also puts stop regions according to their stage of development in each assessed factor. Thus, the study suggests strategies that can be adopted at regional level or in cooperation between regions (in the country or bi-national cooperation to strengthen and develop the tourist areas of the wine as a whole.

  16. Atención de la salud en niños de muy bajo peso al nacer en Montevideo,Uruguay: comparación entre los sectores publico y privado Health care of very low birth weight infants in Montevideo, Uruguay: a comparison between public and private sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Matijasevich

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar morbilidad y mortalidad de los niños de muy bajo peso al nacer de Montevideo, Uruguay, atendidos en unidades intensivas del sector público y privado. METODOLOGIA: delineamiento longitudinal. Se incluyeron los recién nacidos de muy bajo peso al nacer del sector público de la ciudad de Montevideo, Uruguay, nacidos desde el 1/5 al 31/10/1999, siguiéndose hasta su alta o muerte. Se comparó atención recibida, morbilidad y mortalidad entre los trasladados inmediatamente al nacimiento a unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales privadas con los que permanecieron en unidades públicas sin haber sido nunca trasladados. RESULTADOS: nacieron 141 niños de muy bajo peso al nacer. Se excluyeron del estudio 19 niños (13 murieron en sala de partos y 6 nacidos en el sector público trasladados a unidades intensivas públicas. De los 122 niños incluidos, 61 quedaron en la unidad del hospital público en que nacieron y 61 fueron referidos a unidades privadas. Los atendidos en el sector privado resultaron más prematuros y con mayor frecuencia de depresión neonatal. Sin embargo, la mortalidad en el sector público fue casi dos veces mayor (Hazard Ratio 1.8, IC 95% 1.1-3.4, p=0,04, fundamentalmente en los menores de 1000 gramos (Hazard Ratio 2.4, IC 95% 1.1-5.5, p=0,04. CONCLUSIÓN: se realizó una evaluación de la atención de los niños de muy bajo peso atendidos en unidades intensivas públicas y privadas de Montevideo, Uruguay. Hubo menor mortalidad en los niños atendidos en el sector privado y algunas evidencias de que la calidad de atención es mejor en éste sector.OBJECTIVE: to compare morbidity and mortality in very low birthweight infants admitted to public and private intensive care units in Montevideo, Uruguay. METHODS: longitudinal design. All very low birth weight infants born in public hospitals of Montevideo between May 1st and October 31st, 1999, were included in the study and followed up until they were discharged

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori and mechanisms of clarithromycin resistance in strains isolated from patients in Uruguay Susceptibilidad a los antomicrobianos Helicobacter pylori y mecanismo de resistencia a claritromicina en cepas aisladas de pacientes uruguayos

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Torres-Debat; Pérez-Pérez, G; Olivares, A.; Fernández, L.; K. Raisler; Gonzalez, N; Stein, S; M. C. Bazet; W. Alallón; Cohen, H.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori have not yet been investigated in Uruguay. The objective of this study was to assess the susceptibility of H. pylori to the most frequently used antibiotics and to determine the mechanism of resistance to clarithromycin. Seventy-nine isolates were obtained from gastric biopsies of 50 adult patients during two periods, 2001 and 2006. The former group enrolled the general population (GP), the latter group Afro-descend...

  18. Identification of fish nursery areas in a free tributary of an impoundment region, upper Uruguay River, Brazil

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    Patrícia Alves da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the importance of different environments of the Ligeiro River (upper Uruguay River, Brazil in fish reproduction. For this purpose, three environments (sampling sites were selected: rapids, a pool, and the mouth of the Ligeiro River. Ichthyoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos were sampled six times per month from September, 2006 to March, 2007. Zooplankton and ichthyoplankton samples were collected early in the evening with plankton nets (64 µm and 500 µm, respectively. Benthos samples were also collected early in the evening with a Van Veen dredge. Local abiotic variables (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, water speed, alkalinity, water hardness, and water transparency were measured simultaneously with the biotic data sampling and were complemented by regional variables (water flow and precipitation. A total of 43,475 eggs and 2,269 larvae were captured. Of these larvae, 80.1% were in the pre-flexion and larval yolk stages. Digestive tract content showed that the greatest degree of repletion among the larvae in more advanced phases occurred in the pool environment. Water speed was the main characteristic used to differentiate the river's rapids and mouth from the pool. The abundance of zooplankton and benthos was not related to the distribution of densities among the different components of the ichthyoplankton. A greater abundance of eggs and larvae with yolk was found in the rapids and river mouth. Ordination analyses showed a connection between the advanced stage larvae and the pool environment. In conclusion, the rapids and river mouth of the Ligeiro River's are important locations for fish reproduction, particularly in regard to spawning and drifting of the ichthyoplankton's initial stages, whereas the pool represents a nursery place for larval growth.O presente estudo visa determinar a importância de diferentes ambientes do rio Ligeiro (alto rio Uruguai/Brasil na reprodução dos

  19. Institutional effectiveness of energy efficiency national programs: Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay cases; Eficacia institucional de los programas nacionales de eficiencia energetica: los casos del Brasil, Chile, Mexico y el Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruchansky, Beno [Division de Recursos Naturales e Infraestructura de la CEPAL (Chile); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Energia, Tecnologia y Educacion, S.C., ENTE, S.C. (Mexico); Januzzi, Gilberto; Romero, Andres

    2011-05-15

    This work describes the experience of four Latin American countries in the area of energy efficiency (EE), with particular emphasis on the creation and effectiveness of institutional systems needed to develop policies, programs and mechanisms to promote EE. The wide variety of situations presented in the study of national cases in Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay, as well as the wealth of their experiences may provide significant contributions to the promotion of EE in the region. Brazil stands out because of its long and rich history in the field of promoting EE, in particular, for work conducted in 1985 by PORCEL, a federal program with its base of operations at ELETROBRAS, which served as the national coordinator of EE activities in the electric sector during a large part of the period and was responsible for the successful implementation of activities to foster EE in various areas. While PROCEL and CONPET continue to fulfill an important role, other actors have become involved over time in the activities related to EE, with a gradual transfer over recent years of the activities of these programs to the primary agencies in the sector, particularly MME, ANEEL, ANP and EPE. Currently, Brazil has an extensive network of public and private institutions involved in the area of EE, as well as norms that encourage EE with sufficient resources and regulatory mechanisms to finance and guide these activities. Although a large variety of initiatives have been implemented, they do not yet constitute a national EE policy. Thus, the need is seen for greater institutional coordination that allows for improving the convergence of results, utilizing economies of scale and creating opportunities to develop a national EE policy. Along the lines of the perspective described, the development is underway of a National Energy Efficiency Plan (PNEf, Spanish acronym), coordinated by the MME, that should include the basic elements needed to define an EE policy. Chile has relatively

  20. La designación de gabinetes en Uruguay: estrategia legislativa, jerarquía de los ministerios y afiliación partidaria de los ministros Cabinet Appointment in Uruguay: Legislative Strategy, hierarchy of portfolio and party affiliation of ministers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel CHASQUETTI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la formación y cambio de gabinetes presidenciales en Uruguay durante el período 1985-2010. La primera sección presenta los rasgos institucionales y políticos del proceso de designación y renuncia de los ministros. La segunda describe los gabinetes formados en el período, mostrando que en general los presidentes ceden carteras a cambio de apoyo legislativo. La tercera sección analiza los atributos políticos de los ministros designados (filiación partidaria, experiencia previa y el tipo de vínculo que desarrollan con el presidente. La cuarta analiza la relación entre la supervivencia de los ministros en su cargo, la responsabilidad política ante el Congreso y la existencia de mayorías legislativas favorables al gobierno. En la última sección se describe la existencia en Uruguay de un patrón de designación del gabinete cuyos atributos principales serían (i el establecimiento de un orden jerárquico de las carteras, (ii la nominación de individuos con filiación partidaria (ya sean políticos insiders o adherentes y (iii la influencia de los apoyos legislativos en la definición del elenco ministerial.The article analyzes the formation and change of presidential cabinets in Uruguay during the period 1985-2010. In the first section we present the institutional and political features of the process of appointment and resignation of the ministers. The second section describes the cabinets formed in this period and shows that presidents have exchanged seats in cabinet by legislative support. The third section analyzes the political attributes of the ministers appointed (party affiliation, previous experience and the type of linkage that they keep with the president. The fourth analyze the relationship between the time survival of the individuals in office, the political responsibility in front of congress and the existence of a legislative majority that support the president. The last section describes the

  1. Post-collisional, Late Neoproterozoic, high-Ba-Sr granitic magmatism from the Dom Feliciano Belt and its cratonic foreland, Uruguay: Petrography, geochemistry, geochronology, and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Pablo; Oyhantçabal, Pedro; Dadd, Kelsie

    2017-04-01

    Post-collisional, granitic magmatism with high-barium-strontium (HiBaSr) content and shoshonitic affinity has been recently recognized both in the southern section of the Dom Feliciano Belt of Uruguay and its cratonic foreland. This group of granitic rocks has a distinctive age, mineralogy, chemistry and field characteristics. New zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS data for three of the plutons confirm their Late Neoproterozoic age; 634 ± 7.3 (Sierra de los Caracoles), 604 ± 3.0 Ma (Cortez Blanco) and 597 ± 3.6 Ma (Guayabo). Similar ages were published previously for the Solis de Mataojo Granitic Complex (584 ± 13 Ma) as well as Las Flores (586 ± 2.7 Ma) and Sobresaliente plutons (585 ± 2.5 Ma). Mineral assemblages of the studied quartz-monzonites, granodiorites and monzogranites comprise quartz, orthoclase and microcline, plagioclase (Ab10-30), hornblende, green biotite, apatite, titanite and allanite. They plot predominantly in the high-K calc-alkaline field with the exception of a few that plot in the shoshonitic field; characteristically they are relatively high in Na2O (normally > 4.5%) in acid varieties (SiO2 > 65%) decreasing to between 3 and 4% for more basic types; K2O normally exceeds 3.5% but can be as low as 700 ppm), Sr (> 500 ppm) and light REEs alongside low Nb, Ta and heavy REEs. The Eu anomalies are negligible to slightly positive. Intermediate initial 87Sr/86Sr values (0.7077 to 0.7090) and very low initial epsilon Nd values (- 15.8 to - 19.3) at 600 Ma with high Nd TDM (2.2-2.8 Ga) suggest a recycling of ancient Paleoproterozoic to Late Archaean sources. Late Neoproterozoic granitoids of Uruguay have been emplaced within a post-collisional tectonic setting controlled by major shear zones and strike-slip fault zones. Current field and analytical data suggest that these granitoids could have been mostly generated through the partial melting of an intermediate to lower mafic continental crust and/or ;enriched; crustal sources (in the presence of garnet

  2. Nueva luz sobre viejos problemas: incidencia de la cuantificación en la historiografía sobre la industria temprana en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier E. Rodríguez Weber

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo analiza la influencia que la introducción de métodos cuantitativos ha tenido en la historiografía de la industria temprana en Uruguay. Se distinguen dos etapas articuladas por un periodo transicional. Sostenemos que la difusión entre historiadores económicos de métodos cuantitativos y, en particular, la estimación de series de producto total e industrial, provocó un viraje en la forma de abordar la industria anterior a 1930. Si bien permanecen los antiguos problemas -como la importancia del proteccionismo-, se modifica el tipo de evidencia utilizada, y se cuestiona la tesis central y la periodización de la historiografía anterior. Según esta, la industria temprana creció al amparo de las leyes proteccionistas y en el entorno de las crisis internacionales. La historiografía cuantitativa sostiene que esto no se constata en las estimaciones de producto y destaca la importancia de la economía en su conjunto y los encadenamientos provenientes del sector exportador.In this paper we analyze the impact of quantitative research on the historiography of early industry in Uruguay. We distinguish two phases that are connected by a transitional period. We maintain that the diffusion of quantitative methods among economic historians, and in particular their estimates of GDP, made for a change in the way they approached industry before 1930. Although the traditional problems remain -like the role of protectionism- the kind of evidence used to support the arguments changed. Also, the key role off protectionism in the explanation of industrial growth has been challenged. The new evidence suggests that the factors behind early industrial growth were protectionist laws and the effects of international crises. Quantitative historiography maintains that this is not accounted for in estimations of product, and stresses the importance of the economy as a whole and the linkages between the export and domestic sectors.

  3. Mecanismo de inserción del Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay en el Parque Tecnológico Industrial del Cerro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Márquez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay, LATU, teniendo en cuenta su misión: "Impulsar el desarrollo sustentable del país y su inserción internacional a través de la innovación y transferencia de soluciones de valor, en servicios analíticos, metrológicos, tecnológicos, de gestión y evaluación de la conformidad de a cuerdo a la normativa aplicable", está trabajando en el apoyo a las micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas del país. Como estrategia para contribuir al logro de la misión, se ha iniciado una política de descentralización, eligiendo zonas de actividad con requerimientos similares, en cuanto a las necesidades de mejora de la competitividad de las empresas. En la zona de Montevideo llamada el Cerro, el gobierno municipal gestiona un Parque Tecnológico Industrial, PTIC, apoyando y alojando en su predio, 58 empresas. Este Parque se puede ver como un conglomerado de empresas, en una misma zona, con necesidades similares. El mecanismo de inserción del LATU en el PTIC, ha contado con una herramienta fundamental que es la instalación de una oficina en el propio Parque, cuyo objetivo principal es facilitar y asegurar la contribución del LATU al desarrollo y competitividad de las mipymes allí agrupadas.AbstractAttending to the Technological Laboratory of Uruguay (LATU's mission, to promote the sustainable development of the country and its international insertion through innovation and transfer of valuable solutions, it is working on support for micro, small and medium companies. As a management strategy to achieve the mission, a policy of decentralization, approaching to the enterprises, it's being implemented. In this context, it has been developed a methodology for insertion in the Industrial Technological Park of Cerro, PTIC. This park, which is managed by the municipal government, agglomerates a group of companies, in the same area with similar needs. The LATU's mechanism of insertion in the PTIC, has counted on with a

  4. La formación de maestros de educación física en el Uruguay (1921-1930: Julio R. Rodríguez - The physical education teachers training in Uruguay (1921-1930: Julio J. Rodriguez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Dogliotti Moro, Uruguay.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available FORMAÇÃO DE PROFESSORES DE EDUCAÇÃO FÍSICA NO URUGUAI (1921-1930: JULIO J. RODRIGUEZ Resumo Este trabalho é parte de um conjunto mais amplo de indagações sobre as discursividades da formação, nas diversas formas que adquiriram a preparação de docentes de educação física no Uruguai, entre o final do século 19 e na primeira metade do século 20. São analisadas, especificamente, as formas de educação do corpo e a educação física no projeto de formação de professores de educação física ou de praças de esporte nos anos 1920, no âmbito da Comissão Nacional de Educação Física, por seu diretor técnico, Julio J. Rodriguez. Descreve-se as tensões e as ligações entre discursividades normalista, tecnicista e profissionalista. Palavras-chave: discursividades, formação, corpo, educação física.   THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS TRAINING IN URUGUAY (1921-1930: JULIO J. RODRIGUEZ Abstract This work is part of a broader set of inquiries about training discursivities in the various forms which acquired the preparation of physical education teachers in Uruguay between the late nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. Here we analyze specifically the ways of body education and especially the physical education in the proyect for the training of physical education teachers or plazas de deporte in the 20s, in the framework of the Physical Education National Commission, by its Technical Director, Julio J. Rodriguez. We describe the tensions and links between normalist, technicist and professionalist discursivities. Key-words: discursivities, training, body, physical education.   LA FORMACIÓN DE MAESTROS DE EDUCACIÓN FÍSICA EN EL URUGUAY (1921-1930: JULIO J. RODRÍGUEZ Resumen Este trabajo forma parte de un conjunto de indagaciones más amplias sobre las discursividades de la formación en las diversas modalidades que adquirió la preparación de docentes de educación física en Uruguay entre fines

  5. On the mammals collected by Friedrich Sellow in Brazil and Uruguay (1814-1831), with special reference to the types and their provenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbino, Guilherme S T; Nogueira, Marcelo R

    2017-01-17

    From 1814 to 1831, the Prussian naturalist Friedrich Sellow collected 263 mammals in Brazil and Uruguay. Upon receiving the specimens, the curator of the Berlin Zoological Museum, Martin Lichtenstein, removed the original labels and replaced with ones containing more generalized locations. As a consequence, several type specimens have now dubious type localities. We examined these types as well as geographically restricted mammals collected by Sellow. In some cases, there are inconsistencies between the specimen label and the collection catalog regarding the collecting locality. We conclude that the locality information on the lectotype of the tent-making bat Uroderma bilobatum is mistakenly identified, and therefore, we restrict it to "eastern Brazil". We designate a lectoype for Azara's agouti, Dasyprocta azarae, and restrict its type locality to the region travelled by Sellow in São Paulo. Although there are no recent records of the woolly giant rat, Kunsia tomentosus, from its type locality, the species may have been recently extirpated from the area. Two primate specimens supposedly collected by Sellow, a silvery marmoset, Mico argentatus, and a black tamarin, Saguinus niger, occur only in the Amazonia of northern Brazil, outside the route travelled by the naturalist, and are more likely to have been collected by Sieber. Our investigations stress the importance of collecting vouchers for verifying species occurrence records and establishing a solid taxonomy.

  6. Stenurus globicephalae Baylis et Daubney, 1925 (Nematoda: Pseudaliidae from a False Killer Whale, Pseudorca crassidens (Cetacea: Delphinidae, Stranded on the Coast of Uruguay

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    Zylber María Inés

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Stenurus globicephalae Baylis et Daubney, 1925 (Nematoda: Pseudaliidae was found in the cranial air sinuses of a false killer whale, Pseudorca crassidens (Owen, stranded on the coast of Uruguay in 1999. Although this species has been reported once in P. crassidens from the North Atlantic, this is the first record for South America. A total of 920 specimens were obtained, of which 663 were females (body length: 4.34 ± 0.45 cm and 257 were males (2.99 ± 0.18 cm. Morphometric details are presented for S. globicephalae in this host, which do not show significant differences from those parasitizing Globicephala melas (Traill, but are distinct from those parasitizing Peponocephala electra (Gray. The host's skull revealed loss of osseous mass with the disappearance of the left zygomatic arch, and the left jaw had three osseous fenestrations in the region related to the organ of acoustic reception. These lesions support the hypothesis that this infection, known as stenurosis, was related to the stranding.

  7. Stenurus globicephalae Baylis et Daubney, 1925 (Nematoda: Pseudaliidae) from a false killer whale, Pseudorca crassidens (Cetacea: Delphinidae), stranded on the coast of Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylber, María Inés; Failla, Gabriela; Le Bas, Alfredo

    2002-03-01

    Stenurus globicephalae Baylis et Daubney, 1925 (Nematoda: Pseudaliidae) was found in the cranial air sinuses of a false killer whale, Pseudorca crassidens (Owen), stranded on the coast of Uruguay in 1999. Although this species has been reported once in P. crassidens from the North Atlantic, this is the first record for South America. A total of 920 specimens were obtained, of which 663 were females (body length: 4.34 +/- 0.45 cm) and 257 were males (2.99 +/- 0.18 cm). Morphometric details are presented for S. globicephalae in this host, which do not show significant differences from those parasitizing Globicephala melas (Traill), but are distinct from those parasitizing Peponocephala electra (Gray). The host's skull revealed loss of osseous mass with the disappearance of the left zygomatic arch, and the left jaw had three osseous fenestrations in the region related to the organ of acoustic reception. These lesions support the hypothesis that this infection, known as stenurosis, was related to the stranding.

  8. El entorno local como objeto de estudio y de aplicación del saber geoambiental. Una experiencia práctica en Colonia del Sacramento, Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ethel Benítez Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto presenta la importancia de los métodos de aprendizaje, tanto para la enseñanza de la geografía, como para la prevención y atención de problemas socioambientales concretos. Para este propósito, se expondrá el análisis de una experiencia pedagógica llevada a cabo con estudiantes de secundaria, en torno al impacto de las acciones humanas avaladas, en forma directa e indirecta, por las autoridades gubernamentales locales y nacionales sobre el sistema de humedales que forman parte de la franja costera de la ciudad de Colonia del Sacramento, Uruguay. Se espera demostrar cómo la enseñanza de la geografía en la secundaria, desde una postura reflexiva, crítica y activa, favorece el desarrollo de capacidades cognitivas en los educandos que redundan en la formación de individuos responsables, autónomos y con capacidad crítica, capaces de dar soluciones y tomar decisiones con respecto a problemas concretos como el arriba enunciado.

  9. The search for the mdr1-1Δ mutation of the MDR1 gene in four canine breeds in Uruguay (preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Gagliardi B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study is to analyze the frequency of mdr1-1Δ mutation in German Shepherd, Doberman, Border Collie and Greyhound dog breeds in Uruguay. Materials and methods. A total of 95 animals from the four breeds mentioned above were studied. DNA was isolated from blood using potassium acetate with a subsequent degradation from RNA with RNAsaH. The concentration and quality of the DNA obtained was evaluated with a Nanodrop, ND-1000 spectrophotometer. To determine the presence or absence of the mdr1-1Δ mutation, DNA samples were sent to Gene Seek, Neogen Corporation of Chicago, United States, for genotyping. Results. In all 95 animals studied, the mdr1-1Δ mutation was not present. Conclusions. Based on the preliminary results obtained, other elements that may cause adverse drug reactions must be considered: unidentified mutations in other regions of the MDR1 gene; mutations in other genes involved in the transport of drugs from the same subfamily or another; mutations in enzymes involved in drug metabolism (e.g. Cytochrome P450. Moreover, especially with Border Collies and Greyhounds, it is advisable to increase the number of animals in the study.

  10. ¿Por qué la Gente Vota a la Izquierda? Clivajes, Ideología y Voto Retrospectivo en Bolivia y Uruguay en Perspectiva Comparada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Došek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es explicar las razones del voto de los ciudadanos hacia Evo Morales y José Mujica en las elecciones presidenciales de 2009 y evaluar en qué medida los determinantes del voto permiten distinguir las supuestas "dos izquierdas" en América Latina. Utilizando datos de encuestas de opinión pública para los dos casos representativos este trabajo muestra cómo las razones son diferentes, ya que en Uruguay pesa relativamente más la ideología y los elementos programáticos y en Bolivia más el voto retrospectivo, cruzado cada uno por distintos clivajes estructurales. Discutiendo los resultados con la literatura secundaria sobre los demás casos sudamericanos, se argumenta que la clásica clasificación en dos izquierdas no se sostiene a partir del análisis de los determinantes del voto. Metodológicamente, se recurre al análisis de regresión logística binomial y a la comparación de una serie de modelos estadísticos.

  11. Adultos mayores y monitoreo de derechos. Alcances y limitaciones de las fuentes de información en Argentina y Uruguay

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    Bruno Ribotta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de envejecimiento en los países de la región ha configurado una demanda de investigación que representa nuevos desafíos teóricos y metodológicos; entre ellos, la posibilidad de realizar un seguimiento basado en el enfoque de los derechos humanos.En este marco, se plantea cuáles son las posibilidades de avanzar en el conocimiento de la problemática de los adultos mayores con base en la información disponible en Argentina y Uruguay. El trabajo pretende explorar las fuentes de datos producidas en ambos países durante la última década al tomar como referencia la propuesta de indicadores de CELADE (2006, con mirada desde los derechos humanos.Los resultados indican que existe la posibilidad de construir el sistema de indicadores sugerido, aunque con ciertas limitaciones en lo que hace al Enfoque Basado en los Derechos Humanos (EBDH. También evidencian la necesidad de generar nuevas fuentes de datos, que permitan captar información orientada al seguimiento de los derechos humanos de los adultos mayores, en todos sus ámbitos (y mejorar, particularmente, la recolección de datos sobre salud y sobre entornos favorables.

  12. Prospección química y microbiológica del bosque de galería del Río Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Barneche

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La bioprospección es la búsqueda de información a partir de especies biológicas para su uso posterior en procesos de producción en diversos sectores. Ejemplos de esa información es la contenida en el material genético de todos los seres vivos, en los compuestos químicos que producen, en sus interacciones o en el conocimiento de las personas que de una manera u otra han estudiado a esos seres vivos. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la prospección botánica, química y microbiológica del bosque de galería del río Uruguay en la zona del rio Queguay, ecosistema con gran biodiversidad (comprende unas 200 especies y de características poco comunes en el país dado su carácter subtropical. Se estudiaron 75 extractos provenientes de 31 especies pertenecientes a quince familias cubriendo de esa forma una gran biodiversidad.

  13. Background of the implementation of the Protocol the Convention against Torture: Monitoring places of detention and prevention of torture in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Garcé García y Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ratification of the Optional Protocol of the Convention against Torture had for our country, the significance of an ethical and juridical commitment of giving priority to the prevention of abuses for all the people deprived from liberty who are in jails or in other places of detention, as a consequence of a judicial decision or by virtue of an administrative mandate. Among the obligations established by the said Protocol it is found the one of setting up a National Mechanism of Prevention, technically and economically independent, in charge of the systematic monitoring of the detention centers. The creation of the National Institution of Human Rights, together with the legal mandate the same bears to coordinate its duties with the pre-existing Parliamentary Commissioner, finally brings the certain possibility of fulfilling with the obligations arising from the Protocol. At the same time, the original national solution, unparalleled in the region, implies a series of juridical complexities approached in this work. The cooperation between the two State Institutions involved in the matter, so as to avoid a useless overlapping of duties, brings up a promising future in relation to the prevention of torture in Uruguay.

  14. Prevalencia de maloclusiones en adolescentes y adultos jóvenes del interior del Uruguay. Relevamiento nacional de salud bucal 2010-2011

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    Mariana Ourens

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de maloclusiones, su severidad y necesidad de tratamiento en adolescentes y adultos jóvenes entre 15 y 24 años del interior del Uruguay, así como su asociación con variables sociodemográficas, de calidad de vida e indicadores de riesgo. Método: Se realizó un estudio transversal utilizando datos originados del “Primer Relevamiento Nacional de Salud Bucal en población joven y adulta uruguaya”, realizado entre 2010 y 2012. Análisis estadístico: Las diferencias de prevalencias entre categorías de covariables fueron testadas con test chi-quadrado para heterogeneidad con linearización de Taylor. Resultados: La prevalencia de maloclusiones en la población de estudio fue de 33,8% en el periodo 2010-2012. Las maloclusiones presentaron asociación con la calidad de vida. Conclusiones: Estos resultados son los primeros con una muestra representativa en esta población, siendo de interés para gestores de salud pública y útiles para otros investigadores del área en futuros estudios

  15. Adultos mayores y monitoreo de derechos. Alcances y limitaciones de las fuentes de información en Argentina y Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ribotta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de envejecimiento en los países de la región ha configurado una demanda de investigación que representa nuevos desafíos teóricos y metodológicos; entre ellos, la posibilidad de realizar un seguimiento basado en el enfoque de los derechos humanos. En este marco, se plantea cuáles son las posibilidades de avanzar en el conocimiento de la problemática de los adultos mayores con base en la información disponible en Argentina y Uruguay. El trabajo pretende explorar las fuentes de datos producidas en ambos países durante la última década al tomar como referencia la propuesta de indicadores de CELADE (2006, con mirada desde los derechos humanos. Los resultados indican que existe la posibilidad de construir el sistema de indicadores sugerido, aunque con ciertas limitaciones en lo que hace al Enfoque Basado en los Derechos Humanos (EBDH. También evidencian la necesidad de generar nuevas fuentes de datos, que permitan captar información orientada al seguimiento de los derechos humanos de los adultos mayores, en todos sus ámbitos (y mejorar, particularmente, la recolección de datos sobre salud y sobre entornos favorables.

  16. Adultos mayores y monitoreo de derechos. Alcances y limitaciones de las fuentes de información en Argentina y Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ribotta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de envejecimiento en los países de la región ha configurado una demanda de investigación que representa nuevos desafíos teóricos y metodológicos; entre ellos, la posibilidad de realizar un seguimiento basado en el enfoque de los derechos humanos . En este marco, se plantea cuáles son las posibilidades de avanzar en el conocimiento de la problemática de los adultos mayores con base en la información disponible en Argentina y Uruguay. El trabajo pretende explorar las fuentes de datos producidas en ambos países durante la última década al tomar como referencia la propuesta de indicadores de CELADE (2006, con mirada desde los derechos humanos. Los resultados indican que existe la posibilidad de construir el sistema de indicadores sugerido , aunque co n ciertas limitaciones en lo que hace al Enfoque Basado en los Derechos Humanos (EBDH. También evidencian la necesidad de generar nuevas fuentes de datos, que permitan captar información orientada al seguimiento de los derechos humanos de los adultos mayo res, en todos sus ámbitos ( y mejorar , particularmente, la recolección de datos sobre salud y sobre entornos favorables.

  17. Prospección química del bosque de galería del río Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bertucci

    Full Text Available Prospecção da biodiversidade é a exploração de um ecossistema para se obter informações sobre possíveis utilizações inovadoras em diferentes processos de produção humanos. Exemplos do tipo de informação pretendida são os dados científicos contidos no material genético dos organismos vivos, os compostos químicos produzidos por eles e suas interações ou no conhecimento das pessoas que já interagiram com eles de várias maneiras. Uma das ferramentas de prospecção da biodiversidade é a procura por informações químicas. Esta informação está contida nos compostos produzidos por muitos seres vivos para comunicar-se, defender-se e trocar informações, e eles são conhecidos como metabólitos secundários. Neste projeto, nós propomos a prospecção botânica, química e biológica da biodiversidade da mata ciliar da Bacia do Rio Uruguay próxima ao riacho Guaviyú. Este ecossistema particular apresenta uma substancial biodiversidade de aproximadamente 200 espécies com um perfil subtropical incomum.

  18. Implementation of the risk and harm reduction strategy against unsafe abortion in Uruguay: From a university hospital to the entire country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labandera, Ana; Gorgoroso, Monica; Briozzo, Leonel

    2016-08-01

    The history of the creation of the risk and harm reduction model applied to unsafe abortion is reviewed, from its initial implementation by a small group of gynecologists at the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center in Uruguay to its spread to the rest of the country. Its ethical rationale, its successful application in the hospital, the decision to disseminate it with the cooperation of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), and the intervention procedures are explained. It was evaluated from the epidemiological and anthropological viewpoints, from the changes in professionals' and users' perception of the care offered and its impact on complications and maternal deaths. A very favorable change was seen in the number and quality of the services, the providers' attitude, and maternal morbidity and mortality were reduced. It also brought visibility to women with unplanned and unwanted pregnancies and an improved understanding of their problems, which contributed to the legislative changes that were made subsequently. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Quality of the blood pressure phenotype in the GEnotipo, Fenotipo y Ambiente de la hipertensión arterial en UruguaY (GEFA-HT-UY) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Leonella; Sottolano, Mariana; Lujambio, Inés; Robaina, Sebastián; Thijs, Lutgarde; da Rosa, Alicia; Krul, Nadia; Carusso, Florencia; Ríos, Ana C; Olascoaga, Alicia; Noboa, Oscar; Staessen, Jan A; Boggia, José

    2014-12-01

    In the ongoing GEnotipo, Fenotipo y Ambiente de la HiperTensión Arterial en UruguaY (GEFA-HT-UY) study, we applied standardized epidemiological methods to determine complex phenotypes including blood pressure (BP). In this report, we present the quality control of the conventionally measured BP. Three trained observers measured BP five times consecutively in the seated position at each of two home visits and one clinic visit according to the guidelines of the European Society of Hypertension. On 1 December 2013, 4379 single BP readings in 170 participants were available for analysis. Fewer BP readings than the five planned per contact occurred only at one home visit. Among observers, the frequency of identical consecutive readings for systolic or diastolic BP varied from 0 to 4.2%. The occurrence of odd readings ranged from 0.1 to 0.6%. Only 21.6% of the systolic and diastolic BP readings ended on zero (expected 20%). At home visits, there was a progressive decline in BP from the first to the fifth reading. The average of the five BP readings also decreased from the first to the second home visit (-5.63/-2.34 mmHg). Our study highlighted the necessity to implement a stringent quality control of the conventionally measured BP. The procedures set up in the GEFA-HT-UY study are resulting in a well-defined BP phenotype, which is consistent with that in other population studies.

  20. Rio de La Plata study: a multicenter, cross-sectional study on cardiovascular risk factors and heart failure prevalence in peritoneal dialysis patients in Argentina and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretta, G; Locatelli, A J; Gadola, L; De Arteaga, J; Solá, L; Caporale, N; Schargorodsky, J; Ducasse, E; Pastorino, G; Marchetta, N; Espeche, W; Ortiz, Z

    2008-04-01

    A multicenter cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of heart failure (HF) and the associated cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in 298 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients from Argentina and Uruguay, representing almost 30% of the total number of PD patients in the two countries. Bidimensional echocardiography, electrocardiography, and biochemical analysis were performed. Systolic HF was defined as an ejection fraction 5.5 mg per 100 ml, 42.3% parathyroid hormone>300 pg ml(-1), and 29.6% calcium phosphate product >55. The prevalence of systolic HF was 9.9%, being significantly associated with diabetes: odds ratio (OR)=4.11 (P<0.006) and hypoalbuminemia: OR=3.45 (P<0.011). Forty percent of patients with a diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction at the time of the study were asymptomatic. Variables associated with LVH in the multivariate analysis were anemia (OR=4.06; P<0.001) and previous hemodialysis (OR=1.99; P<0.031). The identification of reversible risk factors associated to HF and the diagnosis of asymptomatic ventricular dysfunction in this PD population will lead our efforts to establish guidelines for prevention and early treatment of congestive HF in patients on PD.