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Sample records for velvetleaf abutilon theophrasti

  1. Correlation of leaf damage with uptake and translocation of glyphosate in velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, P.C.C.; Ryerse, J.S.; Sammons, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    Uptake and translocation of glyphosate in three commercial formulations were examined in velvetleaf, a dicotyledonous weed that is commonly treated with glyphosate. The formulations included Roundup(R) (MON35085), Roundup Ultra, and Touchdown(R) as sold in Canada. A minimal amount of 14C-glyphosate was spiked into a lethal rate of each formulation, and the short-term (3 to 72 h) uptake into the treated leaf and subsequent translocation into the plant were measured. Time-course studies showed very rapid uptake and translocation of glyphosate in the Ultra formulation. In comparison, the uptake and translocation of glyphosate in Touchdown was much slower but continued throughout the 72-h period. Glyphosate in the Roundup formulation showed intermediate uptake and translocation. Tissue necrosis at the application sites of Ultra and Roundup was visible within 24 h after treatment. Examinations using stereo and fluorescence microscopy revealed extensive cell death and tissue disruption. Tissue necrosis from Ultra and Roundup was also observed in blank formulations containing no glyphosate and therefore was likely caused by the surfactants. In contrast, the application sites of Touchdown produced little to no leaf damage. Our results demonstrated a direct correlation between tissue necrosis and rapid rates of glyphosate uptake and translocation. (author)

  2. Anthocyanin indexes, quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin concentration in leaves and fruit of Abutilon theophrasti Medik. genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthocyanin indexes, quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin may provide industry with potential new medicines or nutraceuticals. Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik) leaves from 42 accessions were analyzed for anthocyanin indexes while both leaves and fruit were used for quercetin, kaempferol, and ...

  3. Optimization of Ionic Liquid Based Simultaneous Ultrasonic- and Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Rutin and Quercetin from Leaves of Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti by Response Surface Methodology

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    Chunjian Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction (ILs-UMAE method has been proposed for the extraction of rutin (RU, quercetin (QU, from velvetleaf leaves. The influential parameters of the ILs-UMAE were optimized by the single factor and the central composite design (CCD experiments. A 2.00 M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C4mim]Br was used as the experimental ionic liquid, extraction temperature 60°C, extraction time 12 min, liquid-solid ratio 32 mL/g, microwave power of 534 W, and a fixed ultrasonic power of 50 W. Compared to conventional heating reflux extraction (HRE, the RU and QU extraction yields obtained by ILs-UMAE were, respectively, 5.49 mg/g and 0.27 mg/g, which increased, respectively, 2.01-fold and 2.34-fold with the recoveries that were in the range of 97.62–102.36% for RU and 97.33–102.21% for QU with RSDs lower than 3.2% under the optimized UMAE conditions. In addition, the shorter extraction time was used in ILs-UMAE, compared with HRE. Therefore, ILs-UMAE was a rapid and an efficient method for the extraction of RU and QU from the leaves of velvetleaf.

  4. Mycorrhizal symbiosis increases growth, reproduction and recruitment of Abutilon theophrasti Medic. in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Margot R; Koide, Roger T; Shumway, Durland L

    1993-05-01

    We examined in the field the effect of the vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorhizal symbiosis on the reproductive success of Abutilon theophrasti Medic., an early successional annual member of the Malvaceae. Mycorrhizal infection greatly enhanced vegetative growth, and flower, fruit and seed production, resulting in significantly greater recruitment the following year. In addition, the seeds produced by mycorrhizal plants were significantly larger and contained significantly more phosphorus than seeds from non-mycorrhizal plants, an effect which may improve offspring vigor. Infection by mycorrhizal fungi may thus contribute to the overall fitness of a host plant and strongly influence long-term plant population dynamics.

  5. The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on Datura stramonium L., Abutilon theophrasti Med., Onopordon acanthium L. and Verbascum thapsus L. seed germination

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    Dragana Božić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of several bacterial media [Bacillus licheniformis population 1 (MO1; B. licheniformis population 2 (MO2; B. subtilis (MO3; B. megatherium (MO4; humates (MO5] on seed germination of Datura stramonium L., Abutilon theophrasti Med., Onopordon acanthium L. and Verbascum thapsus L. were tested. Seeds were germinated in Petri dishes containing solutions with different bacterial media. The highest germination percentage in all treatments was recorded for V. thapsus seeds (100.0%. Different treatments had diverse effects (stimulative or inhibitory on seed germination of D. stramonium [from 5% (MO1 to 13.3% (MO3, with 10.0 % in H20], A. theophrasti [from 28.3% (MO3 to 65.0% (MO5, with 43.3 % in H20] and O. acanthium [from 10.0% (MO2 to 13.3% (MO1 and MO3, with 6.7% in H20], depending on the type of media and weed species.

  6. Allelopathic Effect of Essential Oil of Sweet Bay (Laurus nobilis L. on Germination and Seedling Vigor of Velvetleaf (Abutilon theopharasti L. and Field Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.

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    Bahram Mirshekari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To study allelopatic effect of sweet bay essence concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 ppm on germination and early establishment of velvetleaf and field bindweed an experiment was conducted at Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Iran, during 2013. Results indicated that germination percentage of non-treated seeds was 73.3%, and that of treated seeds 64.7%. Plant height at 400 ppm concentration was shorter than other treatments. Mean leaf area per plant of weeds ranged from 13.5 cm2 in control up to 9.7 cm2 in 300 ppm and 400 ppm concertrations. Dry weight per weed plant of the seeds treated with 300 and 400 ppm concentrations was twice lower than of untreated seeds. Vigor index of seedling from seeds treated with 100 and 200 ppm essence and control were 1.5, 1.5 and 2.6 times higher than those treated with 300-400 ppm, respectively. Regression analysis showed that germination percentage, leaf area and dry weight per plant did have higher effect on seedling vigor index. It can be concluded that essential oil of sweet-bay may have potential in controlling weeds, especially in the higher concentrations. Therefor, it could be used in the synthesis of bioherbicides compounds to control weeds.

  7. The Investigation of pH Variation of Water in Spray Tank on Glyphosate and Nicosulfuron Performance on Barnyardgrass and Velvetleaf Control

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    K. Hajmohammadnia Ghalibaf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many factors affect the absorption, transport and performance of herbicides, include; physical factors (such as the orientation, shape, size, cuticle thickness, and its amount downy of the plant leaves, physiological factors (such as the growth stage and its succulence, environmental factors (like rainfall after spraying, relative humidity, wind, and temperature, as well as water quality in spray tank (32. The quality of natural water resources is very important, because the water passes through soil and rocks and dissolve natural salts and transfer them to groundwater reserves (12. pH is a chemical scale for measuring the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+ in the water (21. When pH of solution is less than herbicides pKa (ionic dissociation constant, increasing pH can increase the solubility of herbicides, especially when the absorption limitation of herbicide is because of its solubility (14. To investigate the effect of water pH in herbicide spray tank, testing the effectiveness of weed control is appropriate method. The different species of weeds may have different amounts of ions in the tissue that showed different responses to herbicide solution (14. Accordingly, these basic experiment conducted to study the pH variation of water in spray tank on glyphosate (Roundup® and nicosulfuron (Cruse® performance on barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. Beauv.] and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medicus. control in the greenhouse condition. Materials and Methods: Two separate experiments were performed as factorial arrangement of treatments 2×7 based on completely randomized design with six replications at Research Greenhouse of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2010. Factors included were: pH at 7 levels (4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 obtained by using buffer prepared solutions (+3 control pots for each pH level, and two weeds (barnyardgrass and velvetleaf. Glyphosate and nicosulfuron herbicides were applied post emergent

  8. Review of traditional and non-traditional medicinal genetic resources in the USDA, ARS, PGRCU collection evaluated for flavonoid concentrations and anthocyanin indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-traditional medicinal species include velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.), Desmodium species, Termanus labialis (L.f.) Spreng. and the traditional species consists of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). There is a need to identify plant sources of flavonoids and anthocyanins since they have s...

  9. Abutilon ornamental (Abutilon sp. - Malvaceae mostrando pústulas de Synchytrium australe Pustules on stems, leaves and pods of ornamental abutilon (Abutilon sp. caused by Synchytrium australe

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    Mário Barreto Figueiredo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de abutilon recebidas para análise fitopatológica pelo Instituto Biológico, São Paulo, Brasil mostrando como sintomas pústulas semelhantes a ferrugem (Uredinales sobre folhas e caule foram estudadas para determinar o agente causal. Numerosos esporângios amarelos característicos de fungos zoospóricos pertencentes à Ordem Chytridiales foram encontrados no interior de galhas superficiais. Com base no estudo de KARLING (1955, o patógeno foi identificado como Synchytrium australe Speg. O material foi herborizado e armazenado no Herbário Micológico do Instituto Biológico sob o número IBI/SP 11975. Esta foi a primeira constatação desta espécie no Brasil.The genus Abutilon includes a large number of ornamental species with nice foliage and flowers. The different species are known under several common names as Indian mallow, China jute, butterprint, etc. Plants of abutilon received for phytopathological analysis by the Instituto Biologico, São Paulo, Brazil showing curious rust like symptoms (pustules on leaves, stems and pods were studied to determine the causal agent. Numerous yellow sporangia characteristic of zoosporic fungi belonging to the Order Chytridiales were found within the superficial intact galls. Based on KARLING (1955 paper the pathogen was identified as Synchytrium australe Speg. The voucher material was saved and settled in the Mycological Herbarium of the Institution under the number IBI/SP 11975. This was the first report of the occurrence of this species in Brazil.

  10. Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn

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    Naveen Goyal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called ′Country Mallow′ is a perennial plant up to 3 m in height. It is abundantly found as a weed in the sub-Himalayan tract and in the hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles, leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhea, and so on. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive, and antidiarrheal activities. The present study was done to evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. Materials and Methods : The powdered root (900 g was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely, petroleum ether (60 - 80΀C, methanol, and ethanol, using the soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for 72 hours, to obtain a water-soluble extract. The peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice (20 - 30 g, while the central analgesic activity was evaluated by the tail flick method and the tail immersion method. Results : Results indicated that all the tested extracts, except the methanol extract, exhibited significant analgesic activity in both animals′ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity may be related to the central mechanism or may be due to the peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Conclusion : The present study authenticates the traditional use.

  11. Analgesic Effects of Various Extracts of Root of Abutilon indicum linn.

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    Sumitra Singh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called “Country Mallow” is a perennial plant up to 3m in
    height. It is abundantly found as weed in sub-Himalayan tract and in hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally
    used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles,
    leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhoea etc. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective,
    hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities. The present study was done to
    evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of root of Abutilon indicum Linn. The powdered root (900 g
    was subjected to successive solvent extraction with solvents in increasing order of polarity viz. petroleum ether
    (60-80 C°, methanol and ethanol by soxhlet apparatus for 72 hrs. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for
    72 hrs. to obtain water soluble extract. Peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid induced writhing
    method in Swiss albino mice (20-30 g while central analgesic activity was evaluated by tail flick method and
    tail immersion method. Results indicated that all the tested extracts except methanol extract exhibited significant
    analgesic activity in both animals’ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity
    may be related with central mechanism or due to peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Thus the present study authenticates
    the traditional use.

  12. Structural determination of abutilins A and B, new flavonoids from Abutilon pakistanicum, by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy.

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    Ali, Bakhat; Imran, Muhammad; Hussain, Riaz; Ahmed, Zaheer; Malik, Abdul

    2010-02-01

    Two new flavonoids, abutilin A and B, were isolated from the chloroform soluble fraction of Abutilon pakistanicum and their structures assigned from (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra, DEPT and by 2D COSY, HMQC and HMBC experiments. Ferulic acid (3), (E)-cinnamic acid (4), 5-hydroxy-4',6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone (5), kaempferol (6), luteolin (7) and luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8) have also been reported from this species. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Pharmacognostic and phytochemical analyses of leaves and seed storage of abutilon pakistanicum jafri and ali an endemic plant of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, H.; Munir, U.

    2014-01-01

    There are vast varieties of medicinal plant in the world having therapeutical importance. With increasing popularity of herbal medicine as a curative measure, the need for correct identification and standardization of the plant is also increased. Present work was performed to study the pharmacognostic and phytochemical characters of leaves and exsitu seed conservation by seed storage of Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri and Ali. It is an endemic plant, found in the sub tropical regions of Pakistan and is used in traditional medicine for treating rheumatism. The leaves of Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri andAli were investigated for pharmacognostic parameters. Phytochemical screening, macroscopic characters, physiochemical attributes and fluorescence analysis. The results revealed the presence of pharmacologically active compounds like alkaloids, flavonoids, terpinoids, saponins and phenolic compounds, leaf constant values and the extractive values obtained were found close to the values reported for other Abutilon species, while high ash value indicated presence of impurities in the crude drug. The investigation provides information for correct identification and authentication of plant species for further studies and medicinal evaluation of the species. (author)

  14. Early function of the Abutilon mosaic virus AC2 gene as a replication brake.

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    Krenz, Björn; Deuschle, Kathrin; Deigner, Tobias; Unseld, Sigrid; Kepp, Gabi; Wege, Christina; Kleinow, Tatjana; Jeske, Holger

    2015-04-01

    The C2/AC2 genes of monopartite/bipartite geminiviruses of the genera Begomovirus and Curtovirus encode important pathogenicity factors with multiple functions described so far. A novel function of Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) AC2 as a replication brake is described, utilizing transgenic plants with dimeric inserts of DNA B or with a reporter construct to express green fluorescent protein (GFP). Their replicational release upon AbMV superinfection or the individual and combined expression of epitope-tagged AbMV AC1, AC2, and AC3 was studied. In addition, the effects were compared in the presence and in the absence of an unrelated tombusvirus suppressor of silencing (P19). The results show that AC2 suppresses replication reproducibly in all assays and that AC3 counteracts this effect. Examination of the topoisomer distribution of supercoiled DNA, which indicates changes in the viral minichromosome structure, did not support any influence of AC2 on transcriptional gene silencing and DNA methylation. The geminiviral AC2 protein has been detected here for the first time in plants. The experiments revealed an extremely low level of AC2, which was slightly increased if constructs with an intron and a hemagglutinin (HA) tag in addition to P19 expression were used. AbMV AC2 properties are discussed with reference to those of other geminiviruses with respect to charge, modification, and size in order to delimit possible reasons for the different behaviors. The (A)C2 genes encode a key pathogenicity factor of begomoviruses and curtoviruses in the plant virus family Geminiviridae. This factor has been implicated in the resistance breaking observed in agricultural cotton production. AC2 is a multifunctional protein involved in transcriptional control, gene silencing, and regulation of basal biosynthesis. Here, a new function of Abutilon mosaic virus AC2 in replication control is added as a feature of this protein in viral multiplication, providing a novel finding on

  15. Phytochemical Analysis of Leaf Extract of Abutilon hirtum (Lam. Sweet by GC-MS Method

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    Vivekraj P.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abutilon hirtum (Lam. Sweet (Malvaceae commonly known as Vadathuthi. It is used as one of the most important drugs in traditional system of medicine to treat various ailments. The plant is used for to its various properties as demulcent, diuretics, anti-diabetics, anthelmintic, laxative, wound healing properties, antibacterial and antifungal properties. The present study revealed the presence of phytochemicals like Diethyl Phthalate (19.171%,Benzaldehyde 4-propyl (5.219%,Methoxyacetic acid 3-tridecyl ester (5.196%,Sulfurous acid dodecyl 2-propyl ester (0.455%,Sulfurous acid, butyl dodecyl ester (0.442%etc., from the chloroform extracts of leaves in A. hirtum. In the present study an attempt was made to investigate the phytochemical present in the extracts in the preliminary level by using Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The study will provide information for the correct identification of the crude drug. This will be further considered for pharmacological activities and isolation of individual components would however, help to find new drugs.The results are reported for the first time in A. hirtum.

  16. The Influence of Ammonium Sulphate added to the Spray Solution of Calcium Carbonate-Containing Glyphosate and Nicosulfuron on Barnyardgrass and Velvetleaf Control

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    kamal hajmohamadnia

    2016-09-01

    the above, basic experiments carried out as the influence of adding ammonium sulphate to spray solution of calcium carbonate-containing glyphosate and nicosulfuron on barnyardgrass and velvetleaf control. Materials and Methods: Four experiments were performed as factorial arrangement of treatments 6×2 based on completely randomized design with six replications (+six control pots for each weed species at Research Greenhouse of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2010. Factors were included different concentrations of calcium carbonate (CaCO3; Merck, Germany of water in spray tank at six levels 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm in deionized water (w/v in combination with 0 (-AMS or 3 kg/ha (+AMS ammonium sulphate (Merck, Germany as adjuster the hardness. Glyphosate (Roundup® and nicosulfuron (Cruse® herbicides were applied post emergent at 385 and 550 mL ha-1 as commercial products (158 and 22 g ai ha-1; based on ED50 outcome preliminary test (12, recpectively at the 3-4 leaf stage of the weeds (barnyardgrass and velvetleaf in a spray volume of 250 L ha-1. Four weeks after treatment, survival, plant height, leaf area, and shoot dry weight of weeds (% control were calculated. The data of experiment were subjected to ANOVA using MSTATC software. Means of the treatments were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test at α = 0.05. Also, based on the distribution of data, regression analysis was used as linear, two, and third-degree polynomial by EXCEL 2007. Results and Discussion: The results showed a significant reduction (p≤0.01 for survival, plant height, leaf area, and shoot dry weight of weeds (% control with addition of calcium carbonate in spray tank of glyphosate and nicosulfuron herbicides, but this effect was not similar. So that, 500 ppm Ca2+ to the nicosulfuron spray solution compared with its absence increased barnyardgrass and velvetleaf biomass (% control 16 and 50%, respectively. The corresponding values for glyphosate were 78 and 51

  17. Khellin and Visnagin, Furanochromones from Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam., as Potential Bioherbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaini, Maria L; Sosa, Gustavo M; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A; Walter, Helmut; Cantrell, Charles L; Carrillo, Nestor J; Dayan, Franck E; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Duke, Stephen O

    2016-12-21

    Plants constitute a source of novel phytotoxic compounds to be explored in searching for effective and environmentally safe herbicides. From a previous screening of plant extracts for their phytotoxicity, a dichloromethane extract of Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. was selected for further study. Phytotoxicity-guided fractionation of this extract yielded two furanochromones, khellin and visnagin, for which herbicidal activity had not been described before. Khellin and visnagin were phytotoxic to model species lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and duckweed (Lemna paucicostata), with IC 50 values ranging from 110 to 175 μM. These compounds also inhibited the growth and germination of a diverse group of weeds at 0.5 and 1 mM. These weeds included five grasses [ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyardgrass (Echinocloa crus-galli), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), foxtail (Setaria italica), and millet (Panicum sp.)] and two broadleaf species [morningglory (Ipomea sp.) and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti)]. During greenhouse studies visnagin was the most active and showed significant contact postemergence herbicidal activity on velvetleaf and crabgrass at 2 kg active ingredient (ai) ha -1 . Moreover, its effect at 4 kg ai ha -1 was comparable to the bioherbicide pelargonic acid at the same rate. The mode of action of khellin and visnagin was not a light-dependent process. Both compounds caused membrane destabilization, photosynthetic efficiency reduction, inhibition of cell division, and cell death. These results support the potential of visnagin and, possibly, khellin as bioherbicides or lead molecules for the development of new herbicides.

  18. Natural products phytotoxicity A bioassay suitable for small quantities of slightly water-soluble compounds.

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    Dornbos, D L; Spencer, G F

    1990-02-01

    A large variety of secondary metabolites that can inhibit germination and/or seedling growth are produced by plants in low quantities. The objective of this study was to develop a bioassay capable of reliably assessing reductions in germination percentage and seedling length of small-seeded plant species caused by exposure to minute quantities of these compounds. The germination and growth of alfalfa (Medicago saliva), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) were evaluated against six known phytotoxins from five chemical classes; cinmethylin (a herbicidal cineole derivative) was selected as a comparison standard. Each phytotoxin, dissolved in a suitable organic solvent, was placed on water-agar in small tissue culture wells. After the solvent evaporated, imbibed seeds were placed on the agar; after three days, germination percentages and seedling lengths were measured. Compared to a commonly used filter paper procedure, this modified agar bioassay required smaller quantities of compound per seed for comparable bioassay results. This bioassay also readily permitted the measurement of seedling length, a more sensitive indicator of phytotoxicity than germination. Seedling length decreased sigmoidally as the toxin concentration increased logarithmically. Phytotoxicity was a function of both compound and plant species. Cinmethylin, a grass herbicide, reduced the length of annual ryegrass seedlings by 90-100%, whereas that of alfalfa and velvetleaf was inhibited slightly. The agar bioassay facilitated the rapid and reliable testing of slightly water-soluble compounds, requiring only minute quantities of each compound to give reproducible results.

  19. Validation of the method for the simultaneous estimation of bioactive marker gallic acid and quercetin in Abutilon indicum by HPTLC

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    Md. Sarfaraj Hussain

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish and validate an simultaneous estimation of the two biomarker compounds gallic acid (GA and quercetin (QE from methanolic extract of Abutilon indicum (AI. Methods: Chromatography was performed on aluminium foil-backed silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates with the binary mobile phase toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid (5:4:1, v/v/v. Ultraviolet detection was performed densitometrically at the maximum absorbance wavelength, 270nm. The method was validated for precision, recovery, robustness, specificity, and detection and quantification limits, in accordance with ICH guidelines. Results: The system was found to give compact spots for GA and QE (Rf value of 0.31 and 0.50, respectively. The limit of detection (23 and 41 ng band-1 limit of quantification (69 and 123 ng band-1, recovery (99.4-99.9 and 98.7-99.4%, and precision (≤ 1.98 and 1.97 were satisfactory for gallic acid and quercetin respectively. Linearity range for GA and QE were 100-1000 (r2= 0.9991 and 150-900 ng band-1 (r2= 0.9956 and the contents estimated as 0.69% ± 0.01% and 0.57% ± 0.01% w/w respectively. Conclusions: This simple, precise and accurate method gave good resolution from other constituents present in the extract. The method has been successfully applied in the analysis and routine quality control of herbal material and formulations containing AI.

  20. Phytochemical investigation and simultaneous estimation of bioactive lupeol and stigmasterol in Abutilon indicum by validated HPTLC method

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    Md. Sarfaraj Hussain

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To perform a simultaneous quantitative estimation of two biologically active triterpenoid compounds lupeol and a steroid compound, stigmasterol, in Abutilon indicum (A. indicum using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC. Methods: TLC aluminum plates precoated with silica-gel 60 F254 (20 cm×10 cm were used with a mobile phase of toluene-methanol-formic acid (7.0:2.7:0.3, v/v/v and densitometric determination of these compounds was carried out at 530 nm in reflectance/absorbance mode. Results: Compact bands for lupeol and stigmasterol were obtained at Rf 0.52±0.02 and 0.28±0.05. The limit of detection (45 and 18 ng/band, limit of quantification (135 and 54 ng/band, recovery (98.2%-99.7% and 97.2%-99.6% and precision (≤2.18 and 1.91 were satisfactory for lupeol and stigmasterol respectively. Linearity range for lupeol and stigmasterol were 100-1000 (r 2 =0.999 4 and 50-500 ng/band (r 2 =0.994 1 and the contents were estimated as (0.59±0.10% and (0.83±0.10% w/ w respectively. The total phenolic, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, alkaloidal and saponin contents of methanolic extract of A. indicum were also measured in this work. According to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH guidelines, the method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, and recovery, limit of detection, limit of quantification, specificity, and robustness. Conclusions: The HPTLC method was found to be reproducible, accurate, and precise and could detect these two compounds at nanogram level from the A. indicum.

  1. Optimization of foramsulfuron doses for post-emergence weed control in maize (Zea mays L.)

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    Pannacci, E.

    2016-11-01

    Four field experiments were carried out from 2011 to 2014 in order to evaluate the effects of foramsulfuron, applied at the recommended (60.8 g a.i./ha) and reduced doses (1/3 and 2/3), on the efficacy against several of the most important weeds in maize. For each “year-weed” combination, dose-response curves were applied to estimate the dose of foramsulfuron required to obtain 90% and 95% weed control (ED90 and ED95). Foramsulfuron phytotoxicity on maize and crop yield were assessed. Foramsulfuron at 1/3 of the recommended dose (20.3 g a.i./ha) provided 95% efficacy against redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.), wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.). Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.), common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.) were satisfactorily controlled (95% weed efficacy) with ED95 ranged from 20 to 50 g/ha of foramsulfuron (about from 1/3 to 5/6 of the recommended dose) depending on growth stage. The recommended dose was effective against pale smartweed (Polygonum lapathifolium L.) at 2-4 true leaves (12-14 BBCH scale), but this dose did not kill plants larger than 2-4 true leaves. The ranking among weed species based on their susceptibility to foramsulfuron was: redroot pigweed = green foxtail = wild mustard = black nightshade > velvetleaf = common lambsquarters = barnyardgrass > pale smartweed. Dose of foramsulfuron can be reduced below recommended dose depending on weed species and growth stage. Foramsulfuron showed a good crop selectivity and had no negative effect on maize yield. (Author)

  2. Allelopathic potential of segetal and ruderal invasive alien plants

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    Nenad Novak

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available At the global level, the invasion of alien organisms is considered the second largest threat to biodiversity. The assumption is that the high allelopathic potential is one of the features that helps invasive plant species to spread to new areas. Allelopathic potential of 8 invasive plant species (donor species and their impact on test-species was determined in the study. Donor species were velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Med., ragweed (Ambrosia elatior L., jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L., common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L., tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle, indigo bush (Amorpha fruticosa L., Japanese knotweed (Reynoutria japonica Houtt. and giant goldenrod (Solidago gigantea Aiton. Three cultivated plant species from 3 different plant families were used as test-species. Test-species were: oat (Avena sativa L., oilseed rape (Brassica napus subsp. oleifera and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.. Water extracts made of whole plants of donor species were applied to the seeds of the test-species. High allelopathic potential was proven for all species included in experiment. Allelopathic effects were exclusively negative. Impact on germination for all species was much lower in relation to the impact on the radicle and shoot length of the test-species. Perennial donor species had a stronger allelopathic potential than annual donor species. Tree of heaven was the species with the strongest allelopathic potential. Its extracts inhibited germination, radicle and shoot length of oilseed rape by 19%, 94.88% and 98.91% respectively.

  3. Effects of petroleum oil and soybean oil in adjuvants for postemergence herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    Soybean oil is an abundant and renewable resource through annual crop production. The replacement of paraffin oil with soybean oil in agricultural adjuvants would create an additional market for surplus soybeans and help alleviate dependence on non-renewable petroleum oil. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to compare effects of a petroleum oil-emulsifier blend (POC) and a soybean oil-emulsifier blend (SBOC) as adjuvants for postemergence herbicides. In field experiments, little difference was observed between POC and SBOC in the ability to enhance control of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.) with 0.6 or 1.1 kg/ha bentazon [3-(1-methylethyl)-(1H)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide]. Control of giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm.) with 0.1 kg/ha sethoxydim {2-[1-(ethoxyimino)butyl]-5-[2-(ethylthio)propyl]-3-hydroxy-2-cyclohexen-1-one} was enhanced more by POC than by SBOC. The effects of adjuvants and relative humidity (RH) on absorption, translocation, and metabolism of the methyl ester of 14 C-haloxyfop {2-[4-[[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenoxy]propanoic acid} in corn (Zea mays L.) were investigated. Addition of 1.0% (v/v) POC to the treatment solution resulted in greater foliar absorption and translocation of 14 C than addition of 1.0% (v/v) SBOC

  4. Expression dynamics and ultrastructural localization of epitope-tagged Abutilon mosaic virus nuclear shuttle and movement proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinow, Tatjana; Tanwir, Fariha; Kocher, Cornelia; Krenz, Bjoern; Wege, Christina; Jeske, Holger

    2009-01-01

    The geminivirus Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) encodes two proteins which are essential for viral spread within plants. The nuclear shuttle protein (NSP) transfers viral DNA between the nucleus and cytoplasm, whereas the movement protein (MP) facilitates transport between cells through plasmodesmata and long-distance via phloem. An inducible overexpression system for epitope-tagged NSP and MP in plants yielded unprecedented amounts of both proteins. Western blots revealed extensive posttranslational modification and truncation for MP, but not for NSP. Ultrastructural examination of Nicotiana benthamiana tissues showed characteristic nucleopathic alterations, including fibrillar rings, when epitope-tagged NSP and MP were simultaneously expressed in leaves locally infected with an AbMV DNA A in which the coat protein gene was replaced by a green fluorescent protein encoding gene. Immunogold labelling localized NSP in the nucleoplasm and in the fibrillar rings. MP appeared at the cell periphery, probably the plasma membrane, and plasmodesmata.

  5. In vivo bio-distribution, clearance and toxicity assessment of biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles synthesized from Abutilon indicum in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Rani; Nakkala, Jayachandra Reddy; Chandra, Varshney Khub; Raja, Kumar; Sadras, Sudha Rani

    2018-07-01

    This study reports the bio-distribution and clearance of Abutilon indicum silver and gold nanoparticles (AIAgNPs and AIAuNPs) in Wistar rats. Rats in different groups were orally administered with 5 and 10 mg/Kg BW of AIAgNPs and AIAuNPs (size 1-25 nm) for 28 days and few were maintained until 58 days of washout period. Serum biochemical parameters were not changed significantly at both doses of AIAuNPs and at lower concentration of AIAgNPs. But, with 10 mg/Kg BW of AIAgNPs rats showed elevated levels of AST, ALP and ALT on day 29, however, these levels were restored to normal after washout period. Liver oxidative stress markers were not altered with the treatment of AIAgNPs and AIAuNPs. ICP-OES analysis indicated bio-distribution of Ag and Au more in liver, kidney and spleen on day 29 and was found cleared on day 59. Histological analysis of nine vital organs indicated normal tissue architecture at both doses of AIAuNPs and lower dose of AIAgNPs. While the rats treated with higher dose of AIAgNPs showed mild liver sinusoid cell swelling on day 29, which also was recovered on day 59. Findings of this preclinical study indicate biocompatible nature of biogenic nanoparticles supporting their future biomedical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. The stress granule component G3BP is a novel interaction partner for the nuclear shuttle proteins of the nanovirus pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus and geminivirus abutilon mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, Susanna; Greiner, Eva; Amin, Bushra; Sonnewald, Uwe; Krenz, Björn

    2017-01-02

    Stress granules (SGs) are structures within cells that regulate gene expression during stress response, e.g. viral infection. In mammalian cells assembly of SGs is dependent on the Ras-GAP SH3-domain-binding protein (G3BP). The C-terminal domain of the viral nonstructural protein 3 (nsP3) of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) forms a complex with mammalian G3BP and sequesters it into viral RNA replication complexes in a manner that inhibits the formation of SGs. The binding domain of nsP3 to HsG3BP was mapped to two tandem 'FGDF' repeat motifs close to the C-terminus of the viral proteins. It was speculated that plant viruses employ a similar strategy to inhibit SG function. This study identifies an Arabidopsis thaliana NTF2-RRM domain-containing protein as a G3BP-like protein (AtG3BP), which localizes to plant SGs. Moreover, the nuclear shuttle protein (NSP) of the begomovirus abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV), which harbors a 'FVSF'-motif at its C-terminal end, interacts with the AtG3BP-like protein, as does the 'FNGSF'-motif containing NSP of pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV), a member of the Nanoviridae family. We therefore propose that SG formation upon stress is conserved between mammalian and plant cells and that plant viruses may follow a similar strategy to inhibit plant SG function as it has been shown for their mammalian counterparts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of Weed Emergence Time for the Relative Seed Production in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Benvenuti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Trials were carried out in 2000 and 2001 to investigate the effect of weed emergence time on weed seed production in a maize field. Datura stramonium L., Solanum nigrum L. and Abutilon theophrasti Medicus were selected for their importance as summer weeds. Emergence time was found to be crucial since delay would involve an unfavourable light environment determined by crop canopy elongation and resulting shade production. Only the early emergence of D. stramonium and A. theophrasti showed the capacity to exposing their leaves over the crop canopy. Generally the weed seed production under shade conditions decreased for the reduction of the fruit per plant since the number of seed per plant showed only a light reduction. However, while D. stramonium and A. theophrasti compete with the crop by increasing height, Solanum nigrum tends to adjust to shade without excessive reduction in number of seeds produced. Thus in D. stramonium and A. theophrasti late emergence reduced seed production to only 15%, while S. nigrum maintained 25% of the seed production level generally observed with greater light exposure. This environmental adaptation was confirmed by the less marked decrease in S. nigrum harvest index. Agroecological involvements are discussed.

  8. Application of electrical capacitance measurement for in situ monitoring of competitive interactions between maize and weed plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cseresnyés, I.; Takács, T.; Füzy, A.; Végh, K.R.; Lehoczky, E.

    2016-11-01

    Applicability of root electrical capacitance (EC) measurement for monitoring of crop–weed competition was studied in a pot experiment. Maize (Zea mays L.) was grown both alone and with Echinochloa crus-galli or Abutilon theophrasti in different densities with regular measurement of root EC. Plants were harvested 42 days after planting to determine above- and belowground biomass. Depending on weed density, E. crus-galli-A. theophrasti interaction reduced the root EC of maize by 22–66% and 3–57%, respectively. Competitive effect of crop on weeds and intraspecific competition among weeds could also be detected by EC values: E. crus-galli was less sensitive both to the presence of maize and to intraspecific competition than A. theophrasti. Strong linear correlations between root dry mass and root EC for crop and weeds (with R2 from 0.901 to 0.956) were obtained by regression analyses at the end of the experiment. EC monitoring informed us on the emergence time of competition: E. crus-galli interfered with maize root growth a week earlier then A. theophrasti, and increasing weed densities accelerated the emergence of competition. In conclusion, the simple, non-destructive EC method should be considered a potential in situ technique for pot studies on crop–weed competition, which may partially substitute the intrusive techniques commonly used in agricultural researches. (Author)

  9. Role of Weed Emergence Time for the Relative Seed Production in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Benvenuti

    Full Text Available Trials were carried out in 2000 and 2001 to investigate the effect of weed emergence time on weed seed production in a maize field. Datura stramonium L., Solanum nigrum L. and Abutilon theophrasti Medicus were selected for their importance as summer weeds. Emergence time was found to be crucial since delay would involve an unfavourable light environment determined by crop canopy elongation and resulting shade production. Only the early emergence of D. stramonium and A. theophrasti showed the capacity to exposing their leaves over the crop canopy. Generally the weed seed production under shade conditions decreased for the reduction of the fruit per plant since the number of seed per plant showed only a light reduction. However, while D. stramonium and A. theophrasti compete with the crop by increasing height, Solanum nigrum tends to adjust to shade without excessive reduction in number of seeds produced. Thus in D. stramonium and A. theophrasti late emergence reduced seed production to only 15%, while S. nigrum maintained 25% of the seed production level generally observed with greater light exposure. This environmental adaptation was confirmed by the less marked decrease in S. nigrum harvest index. Agroecological involvements are discussed.

  10. Density and Seasonal Dynamics of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Mediterranean on Common Crops and Weeds around Cotton Fields in Northern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiao-ming; Yang, Nian-wan; Wan, Fang-hao

    2014-01-01

    theophrasti Medicus), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), and maize (Zea mays L.). The whitefly species identity was repeatedly tested and confirmed; seasonal dynamics on the various host plants was standardized by the quartile method. B. tabaci MED......The density seasonal dynamics of Bemisia tabaci MED were evaluated over two-years in a cotton-growing area in Langfang, Hebei Province, northern China on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and six other, co-occurring common plants: common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.), piemarker (Abutilon...

  11. In vitro regenerative potentials of the medicinal plant Abutilon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nissar Reshi

    2016-03-23

    Mar 23, 2016 ... ... Hodiyala Vasanaika. Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Studies in Botany, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, ... explants like shoot tip, axillary buds, stem cuttings and .... strand at the base of the embryoid.

  12. In vitro regenerative potentials of the medicinal plant Abutilon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nissar Reshi

    2016-03-23

    Mar 23, 2016 ... Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Studies in Botany, University of ... Since the plant has a lot of medicinal importance, it was subjected to culture in vitro. ..... (3%) as compared to the cultures of tomato (van den.

  13. Effect of Soybean and Wheat as Cover Crops on Corn Yield and Weed Control using Different Fertilizer Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dadashi

    2016-02-01

    . The dominant weed species were velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic., johnson grass (Sorghum halepense (L. Pers., wild melon (Cucumis melo var. agrestis and giant foxtail (Setaria glauca L. in the field. In order to determine the dry weight and density of weeds, three-stage sampling was performed from the middle rows of corn. Corn yield was also measured by mechanical harvesting in middle rows and adjusting to 14% moisture. A week before the final harvest, ten plants of corn were selected randomly from the three middle rows of each plot and yield components including the number of rows in corn, number of kernels per row, weight of 1000 grains was measured. Results and Discussion: The results showed that soybean cover crop reduced weed density compared to control in weed infestated plots, but wheat was not successful in suppressing weeds and reducing their density due to poor biomass and dying at the end of growing season . So, the lowest dry matter of velvetleaf, wild melon and other weeds were related to planted corn with soybean and compost and the maximum was related to monoculture of corn with weed infestation. Results of analysis of variance indicated treatments had significant effect on grain yield. The lowest yield of corn (2733.3 Kg ha-1 was in weed-infestation control while the highest one (12124.0 and 8351.3 Kg ha-1 respectively was in weed-free control and soybean’ cover crop plus compost. For both cover crops between fertilizer treatments, compost and chemical fertilizer had more corn biological yield than no fertilizer and differences between this two fertilizer treatments wasn’t significant. Reduction of yield under no fertilizer treatments was due to competition for nutrients, light between weed and corn. The maximum and minimum number of rows in corn and number of kernels per row respectively was obtained with monoculture of corn in weed free and weed infestation, while the maximum weight of 1000 grains was observed in soybean with applying

  14. Elevated CO[sub 2] alters deployment of roots in small growth containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntson, G M; McConnaughay, K D.M.; Bazzaz, F A [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology

    1993-07-01

    Previously the authors examined how limited rooting space and nutrient supply influenced plant growth under elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentrations. To gain insight into how elevated CO[sub 2] atmospheres affect how plants utilize available belowground space, when rooting space and nutrient supply are limited, they measured the deployment of roots within pots through time. Contrary to aboveground responses, patterns of belowground deployment were most strongly influenced by elevated CO[sub 2] in pots of different volume and shape. Further, elevated CO[sub 2] conditions interacted differently with limited belowground space for the two species studied, Abutilon theophrasti, a C[sub 3] dicot with a deep taproot, and Setaria faberii, a C4 monocot with a shallow fibrous root system. For Setaria, elevated CO[sub 2] increased the size of the largest region of low root density at the pot surface in larger rooting volumes independent of nutrient content, thereby decreasing their efficiency of deployment. For Abutilon, plants responded to elevated CO[sub 2] concentrations by equalizing the pattern of deployment in all the pots. Nutrient concentration, and not pot size or shape, greatly influenced the density of root growth. Root densities for Abutilon and Setaria were similar to those observed in field conditions, for annual dicots and monocots respectively, suggesting that studies using pots may successfully mimic natural conditions.

  15. VEGETATIVE COMPATIBILITY OF Fusarium oxysporum ISOLATED FROM WEEDS IN EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ilić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum are the main causal agent of Fusarium wilts. In 2008 and 2009 we collected F. oxysporum samples from symptomless Abutilon theophrasti, Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium album, Matricaria perforata, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Polygonum lapathifolium, Sonchus arvensis, Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Sorghum halepense and Hibiscus trionum. Only 16 out of 41 isolates of F. oxysporum yielded nit mutants. The frequency of nit3 mutants was higher (43% than the frequency of nit1 (35% and NitM (22% mutants. Two vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs of F. oxysporum were determined in the complementation tests. These results stress out the problem with isolation of nit mutants and show a high genetic diversity of F. oxysporum isolated from weeds.

  16. Synthesis and biological evaluations of a series of thaxtomin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Qingpeng; Ning, Xin; Hang, Hang; Ma, Jing; Yang, Xiande; Lu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Jiabao; Li, Yonghong; Niu, Congwei; Song, Haoran; Wang, Xin; Wang, Peng George

    2015-04-15

    Thaxtomins are a unique family of phytotoxins with unique 4-nitroindole and diketopiperazine fragments possessing potential herbicidal activities. This work presents the total synthesis of natural product thaxtomin C and its analogues. The extensive structure-activity relationship study screens four effective compounds, including thaxtomin A and thaxtomin C. It is indicated that 4-nitro indole fragment is essential for phytotoxicity, while benzyl and m-hydroxybenzyl substituents on the diketopiperazine ring are favorable for the efficacy. The N-methylations on indole and diketopiperazine show weak influence on the herbicidal activities. The four selected compounds show effective herbicidal activities against Brassica campestris, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Abutilon theophrasti, which are comparable or better than dichlobenil, even at a dosage of 187.5 g ha(-1). Moreover, these four compounds show good crop-selective properties to different crops and exhibit moderate protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) enzyme inhibition. The antifungal results indicate that thaxtomin C displays inhibition to a wide range of fungi.

  17. Phytotoxicity of sorgoleone found in grain Sorghum root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhellig, F A; Souza, I F

    1992-01-01

    Root exudates ofSorghum bicolor consist primarily of a dihydroquinone that is quickly oxidized to ap-benzoquinone named sorgoleone. The aim of this investigation was to determine the potential activity of sorgoleone as an inhibitor of weed growth. Bioassays showed 125μM sorgoleone reduced radicle elongation ofEragrostis tef. In liquid culture, 50-μM sorgoleone treatments stunted the growth ofLemna minor. Over a 10-day treatment period, 10μM sorgoleone in the nutrient medium reduced the growth of all weed seedlings tested:Abutilon theophrasti, Datura stramonium, Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, andEchinochloa crusgalli. These data show sorgoleone has biological activity at extremely low concentrations, suggesting a strong contribution toSorghum allelopathy.

  18. PATHOGENICITY OF FUSARIUM SPP. ISOLATED FROM WEEDS AND PLANT DEBRIS IN EASTERN CROATIA TO WHEAT AND MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ilić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity of thirty isolates representing 14 Fusarium species isolated from weeds and plant debris in eastern Croatia was investigated in the laboratory. Pathogenicity tests were performed on wheat and maize seedlings. The most pathogenic Fusarium spp. was F. graminearum isolated from Amaranthus retroflexus, Abutilon theophrasti and Chenopodium album. There was a noticeable inter- and intraspecies variability in pathogenicity towards wheat and maize. Isolates of F. solani from Sonchus arvensis and F. verticillioides from C. album were highly pathogenic to wheat seedlings and apathogenic to maize seedlings. Isolates of F. venenatum were very pathogenic to wheat and maize being the first report about pathogenicity of this species. This experiment proves that weeds and plant debris can serve as alternate hosts and source of inoculum of plant pathogens.

  19. TAXONOMY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ISOLATED FROM CULTIVATED PLANTS, WEEDS AND THEIR PATHOGENICITY FOR WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Ćosić

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium species are wide-spread and known to be pathogenic agents to cultivated plants in various agroclimatic areas. During a four year investigation 10 Fusarium species and Microdochium nivale were isolated from wheat, barley, maize and soybean as well as from 10 weeds collected from 10 locations in Slavonia and Baranya. Fusarium graminearum was dominant on wheat and barley, F. moniliforme on maize and F. oxysporum on soybean. Regarding weeds, the presence of the following Fusarium species was established: F. graminearum on Amaranthus hybridus, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Lamium purpureum, Sorghum halepense and Urtica dioica, F. moniliforme on Abutilon theophrasti, F. subglutinans on Polygonum aviculare, F. avenaceum on Capsella bursa-pastoris, Rumex crispus and Matricaria sp., F. culmorum on Abutilon theophrasti, F. sporotrichioides on Polygonum aviculare, F. proliferatum and F. poae on Artemisia vulgaris. Pathogenicity test to wheat seedlings was done in our laboratory on winter wheat cultivars Slavonija and Demetra (totally 146 isolates. The most pathogenic species to wheat seedilings were F. graminearum, F. culmorum and F. sporotrichioides and the least pathogenic F. moniliforme, F. solani, F. oxysporum and F. poae. Pathogenicity test for wheat ears was done on genotypes Osk.8c9/3-94 and Osk.6.11/2 (totally 25 isolates. The results obtained by our investigation showed that there were no significant differences in pathogenicity of Fusarium species isolated from both cultivated plants and weeds. Weeds represent a constant source of inoculum of F. species for cultivated plants and they serve as epidemiologic bridges among vegetations.

  20. CO2 and temperature effects on leaf area production in two annual plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerly, D.D.; Coleman, J.S.; Morse, S.R.; Bazzaz, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    The authors studied leaf area production in two annual plant species, Abutilon theophrasti and Amaranthus retroflexus, under three day/night temperature regimes and two concentrations of carbon dioxide. The production of whole-plant leaf area during the first 30 d of growth was analyzed in terms of the leaf initiation rate, leaf expansion, individual leaf area, and, in Amaranthus, production of branch leaves. Temperature and CO 2 influenced leaf area production through effects on the rate of development, determined by the production of nodes on the main stem, and through shifts in the relationship between whole-plant leaf area and the number of main stem nodes. In Abutilon, leaf initiation rate was highest at 38 degree, but area of individual leaves was greatest at 28 degree. Total leaf area was greatly reduced at 18 degree due to slow leaf initiation rates. Elevated CO 2 concentration increased leaf initiation rate at 28 degree, resulting in an increase in whole-part leaf area. In Amaranthus, leaf initiation rate increased with temperature, and was increased by elevated CO 2 at 28 degree. Individual leaf area was greatest at 28 degree, and was increased by elevated CO 2 at 28 degree but decreased at 38 degree. Branch leaf area displayed a similar response to CO 2 , butt was greater at 38 degree. Overall, wholeplant leaf area was slightly increased at 38 degree relative to 28 degree, and elevated CO 2 levels resulted in increased leaf area at 28 degree but decreased leaf area at 38 degree

  1. Estimation of cancerolytic properties of thionine from plants seeds by inclusion of C14-thymidine in tumoral cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pshenichnov, E.A.; Sultanova, E.M.; Kuznetsova, N.N.; Khashimova, Z.S.; Veshkurova, O.N.; Sadikov, A.A.; Salikhov, Sh.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: It has been earlier shown that cysteine rich peptides - thionine from seeds of various plants possess expressed fungitoxic activity. It is connected to influence of thionine on cellular membranes of fungi. It was possible to assume that the substances showing cytotoxic activity will be active in relation to tumoral cells. We isolated peptide fractions from seeds bamia (Hibiscus esculentus), kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), abutilon (Abutilon theophrasti), euphorbia (Euphorbia virgata), palma Christi (Ricinus communis) and horse sorrel (Rumex confertus) and studied their antineoplastic and fungitoxic activity. Antiproliferative action of peptides to melanoma cells of mice was estimated in cytotoxic test by inclusion of C 14 -thymidine to DNA. This researches have shown that peptides from seeds of horse sorrel and palma Christi did not change a level of synthesis of DNA while peptides from euphorbia and bamia considerably reduced inclusion of labeled nucleotide to DNA and suppressed growth of tumoral cells on 14 and 39 % accordingly. Parallel tests of these peptides on fungitoxic activity in relation to virulent strains of Verticillium dahliae have shown suppression of conidial growth on 17 and 26 % accordingly. Thus, peptides from seeds of bamia and euphorbia possess the expressed property to suppress growth of tumoral cells and can be used at creation a new cancerolytic preparations for treatment of human cancer. Work is executed under the financial support of fundamental grants F - 4.19 and F-4.1.44

  2. Uranium uptake and accumulation in plants from soil contaminated with uranium in different concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Luxue; Tang Yongjin; Luo Xuegang

    2014-01-01

    The plants of Medicago sativa L., Hibiscus esulentus L, Waterspinach, Amaranthus retroflexus and Abutilon theophrasti Medic were employed as the indicator to investigate the uranium uptake and accumulation from soils contaminated with uranium (UO_2 (CH_3COO)_2 · 2H_2O) of 25 mg · kg"-"l, 75 mg · kg"-"1, 125 mg · kg"-"l, 175 mg · kg"-"l respectively, in a pot experiment. The result shows that, U concentration in the aerial part and underground part of the whole plant increased with the rise of uranium concentration in the soils. In the contaminated soils with 25∼125 mg · kg"-"l concentrations of uranium, U content of Medicago sativa L is the highset (6.78 mg · kg"-"l, 61.53 mg · kg"-"l, 74.06 mg · kg"-"l separately). While in the 175 mg · kg"-"l concentration of uranium contaminated soils, U content of Hibiscus esulentus L is the highest (86.72 mg · kg"-"1), which is mainly because of U concentration in its roots have higher level of uranium (388.16 mg · kg"-"l). Comprehensive analysis shows that Medicago sativa L. is a good plant for phytoextraction and Hibiscus esulentus L is a good immobilizing plant for phytoremediation. The results can provide some theoretical basis and technical support for remedying U-contaminated soils in different areas of our country. (authors)

  3. Transforming a NEP1 toxin gene into two Fusarium spp. to enhance mycoherbicide activity on Orobanche--failure and success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Sagit; Amsellem, Ziva; Al-Ahmad, Hani; Safran, Einat; Gressel, Jonathan

    2009-05-01

    The NEP1 gene encoding a fungal toxin that successfully conferred hypervirulence when transformed into Colletotrichum coccodes (Wallr.) Hughes attacking Abutilon theophrasti (L.) Medic. was tested to ascertain if it would enhance pathogenicity of Fusarium species to Orobanche aegyptiaca Pers. parasitising crops. None of the Fusarium oxysporum (#CNCM I-1622) NEP1 transformants was hypervirulent. NEP1 transformants of a new but unnamed Fusarium sp. (#CNCM I-1621--previously identified as F. arthrosporioides) killed Orobanche more rapidly than the wild type. Transformed lines of both species were NEP1 PCR positive, as was the wild type of F. oxysporum #CNCM I-1622 and five other formae speciales of F. oxysporum. All six wild-type formae speciales of F. oxysporum tested excrete minute amounts of immunologically and bioassay-detectable NEP1-like protein. NEP1 expression of most F. oxysporum transformants was suppressed, suggesting that the native gene and the transgene silence each other. The sequence of the putative NEP1 gene in Fusarium oxysporum #CNCM I-1622 differs from the sequence in the toxin-overproducing strain of F. oxysporum f. sp. erythroxyli in four or five amino acids in the first exon. Wild-type Fusarium sp. #CNCM I-1621 does not contain a NEP1-like gene, explaining why it seemed amenable to transformation with high expression, and its virulence was probably enhanced by not cosuppressing the endogenous gene as occurred with Fusarium oxysporum #CNCM I-1622.

  4. Allelopathic cover crop of rye for integrated weed control in sustainable agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Tabaglio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic potential of rye (Secale cereale L. is mainly due to phytotoxic benzoxazinones, compounds that are produced and accumulated in young tissues to different degrees depending on cultivar and environmental influences. Living rye plants exude low levels of benzoxazinones, while cover crop residues can release from 12 to 20 kg ha–1. This paper summarizes the results obtained from several experiments performed in both controlled and field environments, in which rye was used as a cover crop to control summer weeds in a following maize crop. Significant differences in benzoxazinoid content were detected between rye cultivars. In controlled environments, rye mulches significantly reduced germination of some broadleaf weeds. Germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus and Portulaca oleracea were particularly affected by the application of rye mulches, while Chenopodium album was hardly influenced and Abutilon theophrasti was advantaged by the presence of the mulch. With reference to the influence of agronomic factors on the production of benzoxazinoids, nitrogen fertilization increased the content of allelochemicals, although proportionally less than dry matter. The field trial established on no-till maize confirmed the significant weed suppressiveness of rye mulch, both for grass and broadleaf weeds. A significant positive interaction between nitrogen (N fertilization and notillage resulting in the suppression of broadleaf weeds was observed. The different behavior of the weeds in the presence of allelochemicals was explained in terms of differential uptake and translocation capabilities. The four summer weeds tested were able to grow in the presence of low amounts of benzoxazolin-2(3H-one (BOA, between 0.3 and 20 mmol g–1 fresh weight. Although there were considerable differences in their sensitivity to higher BOA concentrations, P. oleracea, A. retroflexus, and Ch. album represented a group of species with a consistent

  5. Limitations to CO2-induced growth enhancement in pot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughay, K D M; Berntson, G M; Bazzaz, F A

    1993-07-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that small pots may reduce or eliminate plant responses to enriched CO 2 atmospheres due to root restriction. While smaller pot volumes provide less physical space available for root growth, they also provide less nutrients. Reduced nutrient availability alone may reduce growth enhancement under elevated CO 2 . To investigate the relative importance of limited physical rooting space separate from and in conjunction with soil nutrients, we grew plants at ambient and double-ambient CO 2 levels in growth containers of varied volume, shape, nutrient concentration, and total nutrient content. Two species (Abutilon theophrasti, a C 3 dicot with a deep tap root andSetaria faberii, a C 4 monocot with a shallow diffuse root system) were selected for their contrasting physiology and root architecture. Shoot demography was determined weekly and biomass was determined after eight and ten weeks of growth. Increasing total nutrients, either by increasing nutrient concentration or by increasing pot size, increased plant growth. Further, increasing pot size while maintaining equal total nutrients per pot resulted in increased total biomass for both species. CO 2 -induced growth and reproductive yield enhancements were greatest in pots with high nutrient concentrations, regardless of total nutrient content or pot size, and were also mediated by the shape of the pot. CO 2 -induced growth and reproductive yield enhancements were unaffected by pot size (growth) or were greater in small pots (reproductive yield), regardless of total nutrient content, contrary to predictions based on earlier studies. These results suggest that several aspects of growth conditions within pots may influence the CO 2 responses of plants; pot size, pot shape, the concentration and total amount of nutrient additions to pots may lead to over-or underestimates of the CO 2 responses of real-world plants.

  6. Changes in weed infestations on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris cultivated on black soil near Wrocław in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Domaradzki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were carried out in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012 on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris. During this period, 542 phytosociological relevés were made using the Braun-Blanquet method. In total, 46 weed species were found. In 1989–1995, the occurrence of 36 segetal species was reported. The highest cover indices were determined for Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus. Galium aparine, Echinochloa crus-galli, and Elymus repens were the dominant species, as well. Analysis of the frequency of occurrence revealed one constant species (Chenopodium album, two frequent species (Amaranthus retroflexus and Galium aparine, and two medium-frequent species (Echinochloa crus-galli and Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora. In 2006–2012, the occurrence of 40 weed species on the sugar beet plantations was recorded. The plantations were clearly dominated by Chenopodium album, accompanied by Polygonum persicaria and Polygonum lapathifolium ssp. lapathifolium. Other dominant species comprised Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, and Fallopia convolvulus. The Chenopodium album was a constant component of the sugar beet plantations. In turn, no frequent species were observed and six medium-frequent species were found (Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, Echinochloa crus-galli, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Capsella bursa-pastoris. Noteworthy, the presence of previously unreported species, e.g., Abutilon theophrasti, Hyoscyamus niger, or Artemisia vulgaris, was revealed. These species are rare components in sugar beet crops. A reverse phenomenon, i.e., the disappearance of some species such as Euphorbia helioscopia, Malva neglecta, Rumex acetosella, Sinapis arvensis, or Sisymbrium officinale, was also observed.

  7. Carboxylesterase activities toward pesticide esters in crops and weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershater, Markus; Sharples, Kate; Edwards, Robert

    2006-12-01

    Proteins were extracted from maize, rice, sorghum, soybean, flax and lucerne; the weeds Abutilon theophrasti, Echinochloa crus-galli, Phalaris canariensis, Setaria faberii, Setaria viridis, Sorghum halepense and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and assayed for carboxylesterase activity toward a range of xenobiotics. These included the pro-herbicidal esters clodinafop-propargyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl, fenthioprop-ethyl, methyl-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d-methyl), bromoxynil-octanoate, the herbicide-safener cloquintocet-mexyl and the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin. Highest activities were recorded with alpha-naphthyl acetate and methylumbelliferyl acetate. Esters of p-nitrophenol were also readily hydrolysed, with turnover declining as the chain length of the acyl component increased. Activities determined with model substrates were much higher than those observed with pesticide esters and were of limited value in predicting the relative rates of hydrolysis of the crop protection agents. Substrate preferences with the herbicides were typically 2,4-d-methyl>clodinafop-propargyl>fenthioprop-ethyl, fenoxaprop-ethyl and bromoxynil-octanoate. Isoelectric focussing in conjunction with staining for esterase activity using alpha-naphthyl acetate as substrate confirmed the presence of multiple carboxylesterase isoenzymes in each plant, with major qualitative differences observed between species. The presence of serine hydrolases among the resolved isoenzymes was confirmed through their selective inhibition by the organophosphate insecticide paraoxon. Our studies identify potentially exploitable differences between crops and weeds in their ability to bioactivate herbicides by enzymic hydrolysis and also highlight the usefulness of Arabidopsis as a plant model to study xenobiotic biotransformation.

  8. Evolutionary relationships in Vaccinium section Cyanococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The North American Vaccinium section Cyanococcus includes the ecologically and economically important blueberry species, Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry), Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry), Vaccinium myrtilloides (velvet-leaf blueberry), and Vaccinium virgatum (rabbiteye blueberry...

  9. Predicting Emergence of the Most Important Weed Species in Soybean (Glycine max L. under Different Management Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Khakzad

    2017-12-01

    the soil temperatures by using the formula: where Tmax and Tmin are the daily maximum and minimum temperature, respectively, and Tb is the base temperature. Base temperatures used in the calculations of GDD were: 9.0ºC for A. theophrasti, 12.0ºC for S. halepense, 22.3ºC for A. retroflexus, 8.1ºC for E. maculate, 7.5ºC for P. oleracea, 4.0ºC for B. napus. From the emergence count data, mean emergence time (MET and emergence rate index (ERI were calculated as follows: where N1, ..., Nn is the number of newly emerged seedlings since the time of the previous count, t1, ..., tn are the GDD after sowing, and n is the number of sampling occasions. These two indices give us a simple indication of the emergence process, providing a useful tool to compare the progress of seedling emergence of each species in the two sites. However, they cannot provide more detailed information on emergence duration and speed. Results and Discussion: The results showed that except sorghum that in tillage treatment had the lowest cumulative emergence, other species in no-tillage treatment had the lowest cumulative emergence. At the end of the sampling patterns of emergence has been specified, all species of weeds, in the density of 40 plants per square meter of soybean and dose of 1.25 liter per hectare of herbicide Pursuit had the lowest cumulative emergence and in the density of 20 plants per square meter of soybean and dose of 0 liters per hectare of herbicide Pursuit had the maximum cumulative emergence. Among other species, Amaranthus retroflexus needed the lowest mean emergence time (MET and the lowest growing degree days (GDD to reach 50% emergence. Whereas, among the species, Abutilon theophrasti needed maximum mean emergence time (MET and maximum growing degree days (GDD to reach 50% emergence. On this basis, growth stage suitable for controlling pigweed, when the main wave of seedlings of other species still have not found growing. The best management practice used to manage weeds

  10. A new species of Hesperis (Brassicaceae) from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, G.; Tan, Kit

    2006-01-01

    Hesperis kuerschneri, from the vilayet of Denizli in the Western Taurus is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities are with H. theophrasti, which has several infraspecific taxa in the Balkans and Anatolia. The new species occurs on steep serpentine scree slopes...... together with other serpentine plants of the Western Taurus and is rather local in distribution....

  11. Laboratory and field evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, chemical extracts of Jatropha curcas, Hyptis suaveolens, Abutilon indicum, and Leucas aspera were tested for toxicity to larvae of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Respective median lethal concentrations (LC50) for hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts...

  12. Analysis of bacterial community in uranium contaminated soil by DGGE of 16S rDNA V3 fragment PCR products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Fangfang; Luo Xuegang

    2014-01-01

    Using the modified gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis method, the structure diversity of the soil microbial in the tested soils was investigated after the remediation of Broken rice sedges, Broussonetia papyrifera, and Abutilon for the simulated uranium tailings contaminated soils. The results showed that 52.2% of all the sequences information belong to proteobacteria. Additionally, compared with the contrast, the decrease in Shannon-Wiener Index (H) was observed ranging from 14.7 to 31.3% in the Broussonetia papyrifera group while the decrease ranging from 38.8 to 56.9% in the abutilon group. However, the Broken rice sedge group was different from the other two groups. The dominant microorganisms that have a strong tolerance to uranium belong to Acidobacteria and the microbial groups that was difficult to determine its classification. This study provided a basic information for the development and the application of microorganism resources resistant to stress. (authors)

  13. Effects of CO2 and temperature on growth and resource use of co-occurring C3 and C4 annuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.S.; Bazzaz, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    The authors examined how CO 2 concentrations and temperature interacted to affect growth, resource acquisition, and resource allocation of two annual plants that were supplied with a single pulse of nutrients. Physiological and growth measurements were made on individuals of Abutilon throphrasti (C 3 ) and Amaranthus retroflexus (C 4 ) grown in environments with atmospheric CO 2 levels of 400 or 700 μL/L and with light/dark temperatures of 28 degree/22 degree or 38 degree/31 degree C. Elevated CO 2 and temperature treatments had significant independent and interactive effects on plant growth, resource allocation, and resource acquisition, and the strength and direction of these effects were often dependent on plant species. For example, final biomass of Amaranthus was enhanced by elevated CO 2 at 28 degree but was depressed at 38 degree. For Abutilon, elevated CO 2 increased initial plant relative growth rates at 28 degree but not at 38 degree, and had no significant effects on final biomass at either temperature. These results are interpreted in light of the interactive effects of CO 2 and temperature on the rates of net leaf area production and loss, and on net whole-plant nitrogen retention. At 28 degree C, elevated CO 2 stimulated the initial production of leaf area in both species, which led to an initial stimulation of biomass accumulation at the higher CO 2 level. However, in elevated CO 2 at 28 degree, the rate of net leaf area loss for Abutilon increased while that of Amaranthus decreased. Furthermore, high CO 2 apparently enhanced the ability of Amaranthus to retain nitrogen at this temperature, which may have helped to enhance photosynthesis, whereas nitrogen retention was unaffected in Abutilon

  14. MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF Fusarium SPECIES AND THEIR PATHOGENICITY FOR WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Poštić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available From the root and lower stem parts of weeds and plant debris of maize, wheat, oat and sunflower we isolated 300 isolates of Fusarium spp. and performed morphological and molecular identification. With molecular identification using AFLP method we determined 14 Fusarium species: F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. concolor, F. crookwellense, F. equiseti, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, F. semitectum, F. solani, F. sporotrichioides, F. subglutinans, F. venenatum and F. verticillioides.By comparing results of morphological and molecular identification we found out that determination of 16,7% isolates was incorrect. Out of 300 isolates identified with molecular methods, 50 did not belong to the species determined with morphological determination.With pathogenicity tests of 30 chosen Fusarium isolates we determined that many of them were pathogenic to wheat and maize seedlings and to wheat heads. The most pathogenic were isolates of F. graminearum from A. retroflexus, A. theophrasti and C. album, F. venenatum from maize debris and and A. theophrasti, F. crookwellense from A. lappa. Antifungal influence of 11 essential oils on mycelia growth and sporulation of chosen Fusarium isolates determined that essential oils of T. vulgaris, P. anisum and E. caryophyllus had the strongest effect on mycelial growth. Influence of essential oils on sporulation was not statistically significant.

  15. Occurence, spread and possibilities of invasive weeds control in sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Branko I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristically rich and diverse weed comunity of sugar beet is in our country represented by 150 weed species. They are not all equaly significant in weediness of this crop. Only a limited number of them participate in weed comunity composition. These are: Abuthilon theophrasti Medic., Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon (L Pers. Digitaria sanguinalis (L Scop., Hibiscus trionum L., Rubus caesius L. Echinochloa crus-gall L., Polygonum aviculare L., P. lapathifolium L., P. persicaria L., Setaria glauca (L P. B., S. viridis (L P. B., Solanum nigrum L. and Sorghum halepense (L Pers. In shooting period up to 4-8 weeks upon emergence, sugar beet is under the haviest harmfull inluence of weeds, especially invasive ones such as: Abuthilon theophrasti Medic. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Cirsium arvense (L Scop., Iva xanthifolia L. Sorghum halepense (L Pers. and Xanthium strumarium L. Sugar beet growing requires intensive cultural practices, i.e. basic and additional tillage and cultivation. Due to the widening of weed problems, frequent herbicide use in several applications is needed in the longer time period.

  16. New contributions to the knowledge of the alien flora in Baix Llobregat county (Catalonia, Spain

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    H. Álvarez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We provide new records of 17 exotic plants in the Baix Llobregat region observed between the years 2011 and 2014. Two species are the first records for Europe: Acacia rostellifera Benth. and Trichloris crinita (Lag. Parodi; two are new plants for the Iberian Peninsula: Bouteloua dactyloides (Nutt. Columbus and Nassella tenuissima (Trin. Barkworth; three are recorded by their first time in Catalonia: Atriplex semibaccata R. Br., Oenothera speciosa Nutt. and Verbena incompta P. W. Michael; five correspond to first records in Baix Llobregat: Parkinsonia aculeata L., Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth., Physalis peruviana L., Salpichroa origanifolia (Lam. Baill. and Verbena brasiliensis Vell. The remaining species are very rare in the studied area: Abutilon grandifolium (Willd. Sweet, Asperugo procumbens L., Eclipta prostrata (L. L. and Oenothera indecora Cambess.

  17. MUCILAGINOUS PLANTS IN THE CLARIFICATION OF SUGAR CANE JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Francisco Quezada Moreno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to incorporate mucilaginous solutions in the juice clarification process as an alternative for improving the final products that are produced in the agribusiness panela in Ecuador. The study was conducted with 14 mucilaginous plants properties, five plant species: Mallow wild (Malva peruviana L., Yausabara (Pavonia sepium A. St-Hil Yausa (Abutilon famous Planch, black Cadillo (Triumfetta Lappula L and False Joaquín (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, it was obtained excellent results as clarifying agents. Three factors were assayed experimentally such as solution concentration, amount of solution added to the juice and incorporation temperature on two levels, judged by turbidity variable as a response. The results indicated that the factors tested affect significantly the juice clarification (clear and bright and the best results were achieved with turbidity (Yausabara and Yausa Malva silvestre, Falso Joaquín y Cadillo negro and with the combinations obtaining juices.

  18. Physico-chemical properties, fatty acid and tocopherol composition of oils from some Sudanese oil bearing sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthäus, Bertrand

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven oils, obtained from seven Sudanese oil bearing sources that are Albizia lebbek Oil (ALO, Cassia obtusifolia Oil (COO, Cassia occidentalis Oil (CCO, Abutilon pannosum Oil (APO, Mitracarpus villous Oil (MVO, Ipomea indica Oil (IIO and Sesamum alatum Oil (SAO, were investigated. The seeds were collected in Sudan from Ghibaish, North Kordofan state. In addition to the oil content, the fatty acid was determined by capillary gas chromatography and the tocopherols were evaluated by highperformance liquid chromatography. The oil content of the seven seeds amounted to 12.8, 7.0, 3.2, 7.1, 11.5, 8.8, and 21.3%, respectively.The oils contained 16.4, 20.0, 14.3, 16.8, 19.4, 19.9 and 10.9 % palmitic acid and 21.0, 24.4, 22.1, 10.9, 27.7, 34.0, 45.1 % oleic acid, and 43.8, 38.2, 45.0, 63.9, 34.6, 33.5, 36.3 % linoleic acid and traces of linolenic acid, respectively.The tocopherol content of these oils amounted to 85.6, 48.2, 32.7, 163.5, 52.5, 30.9, and 26.4 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Alpha-tocopherol was the predominant tocopherol in the oil of Albizia lebbek, Cassia obtusifolia, Cassia occidentalis, and Abutilon pannosum, while gamma-tocopherol was the predominant tocopherol in the oil of Mitracarpus villous, Ipomea indica and Sesamum alatum.Se analizan siete aceites procedentes de plantas y semillas de Sudán: Albizia lebbek Oil (ALO, Cassia obtusifolia Oil (COO, Cassia occidentalis Oil (CCO, Abutilon pannosum Oil (APO, Mitracarpus villous Oil (MVO, Ipomea indica Oil (IIO y Sesamum alatum Oil (SAO. Las semillas se recolectaron en el estado de Ghibaish, North Kordofan. Además del contenido en aceite (12.8, 7.0, 3.2, 7.1, 11.5, 8.8, y 21.3 %, respectivamente, se determinaron los ácidos grasos mediante cromatografía de gases y los tocoferoles mediante HPLC. Los aceites contenían, respectivamente, 16.4, 20.0, 14.3, 16.8, 19.4, 19.9 y 10.9 % de ácido palmitito, 21.0, 24.4, 22.1, 10.9, 27.7, 34.0, 45.1 % de ácido oleico, 43.8, 38.2, 45.0, 63.9, 34

  19. Allelopathy in two species of Chenopodium -inhibition of germination and seedling growth of certain weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash C. Datta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of washed leaf and inflorescence material of Chenopodium ambrosioides and C. murale, decaying leaves and inflorescences, and field soils collected beneath Chenopodium plants were examined in terms of the inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth of five weeds, viz. Abutilon indicum, Cassia sophera var. purpurea, C. tora, Evolvulus numularius and Tephrosia hamiltonii. The allelopathic pattern varied in each of the two test species and this depended on the type of test matter. However, the germination as well as the root and hypocotyl growth of A. indicum and E. nummularius were more hampered by phytotoxins or inhibitors from Chenopodium than were the other weeds. Since the leaf and inflorescence of Chenopodium formed the source of inhibitors, the respective plant-parts from the two species were chemically analysed and the presence of three terpenes (p-cymene, ascaridole and aritazone from C. ambrosioides and an organic acid (oxalic acid from C. murale were implicated in the allelopathic effect.

  20. Phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with heavy metals and TNT using four plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Insook; Baek, Kyunghwa; Kim, Hyunhee; Kim, Sunghyun; Kim, Jaisoo; Kwon, Youngseok; Chang, Yoontoung; Bae, Bumhan

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the germination, growth rates and uptake of contaminants of four plant species, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), Indian mallow (Abutilon avicennae) and Indian jointvetch (Aeschynomene indica), grown in soil contaminated with cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). These contaminants are typically found at shooting ranges. Experiments were carried out over 180 days using both single plant cultures and cultures containing an equal mix of the 4 plant species. Germination rates differed among the species in single culture (92% for H. annuus, 84% for E. crusgalli, 48% for A. avicennae and 38% Ae. indica). In the 4-plant mix culture, phytoremediation for the removal of heavy metals and TNT from contaminated soils should use a single plant species rather than a mixture of several plants.

  1. Vegetation pattern and soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, M.; Iqbal, M.Z.; Farooqi, M.Z.; Shafiq, M.

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative phyto sociological survey was conducted around the industrial areas of Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (S.I.T.E.) of Karachi. The herbaceous, shrubs vegetation was predominantly disturbed in nature. Fifteen plant communities based on Importance Value Index (IVI) of species were recognized. Eighty plant species were recorded in industrial areas. Abutilon fruticosum L., attained the highest importance value index (823.25) followed by Prosopis juliflora DC. (662.62), Corchorus trilocularis L. (467.20), Aerva javanica Burm.f. (419.97), Amaranthus viridis L. (397.65) and Senna holosericea L. (387.22), respectively. P. juliflora and A. fruticosum showed leading first dominant in five and four stands, respectively. Whereas, A. javanica, A. viridis, S. holosericea, Launaea nudicaulis L., Crochorus depressus L. and Salvadora L., attained the presence class III. Zygophyllum simplex L., Suaeda fruticosa L., Convolvulus glomeratus Choisky, Cressa cretica L., Cleome viscosa L., Calotropis procera Willd, Blepharis sindica T. Anderson, Rhynchosia pulverulenta L., Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri and Ali, Chenopodium album L., Capparis decidua Forssk and Digera muricata L. Mart showed the presence of class II. Whereas, rest of 58 species showed presence of class I. The soil characteristics of the polluted industrial area were also analyzed and related with the vegetation of the polluted areas. The Industrial area soil was coarse in texture and ranged from sandy clay loam to sandy loam. The soil was acidic to alkaline in nature. Maximum water holding capacity, bulk density, porosity, CaCO/sub 3/, pH, organic matter, total organic carbon, chloride, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salt, available sulphur contents, exchangeable sodium and potassium were recorded in wide range. It was concluded that certain edaphic factors due to industrial activities and induction of pollutants were responsible for variation in vegetation composition of the study area. (author)

  2. Molecular characterization and experimental host range of an isolate of Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A M; Mujaddad-ur-Rehman, Malik; Brown, J K; Reddy, C; Wang, A; Fondong, V; Roye, M E

    2009-12-01

    Partial genome segments of a begomovirus were previously amplified from Wissadula amplissima exhibiting yellow-mosaic and leaf-curl symptoms in the parish of St. Thomas, Jamaica and this isolate assigned to a tentative begomovirus species, Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus. To clone the complete genome of this isolate of Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus, abutting primers were designed to PCR amplify its full-length DNA-A and DNA-B components. Sequence analysis of the complete begomovirus genome obtained, confirmed that it belongs to a distinct begomovirus species and this isolate was named Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus-[Jamaica:Albion:2005] (WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05]). The genome of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] is organized similar to that of other bipartite Western Hemisphere begomoviruses. Phylogenetic analyses placed the genome components of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] in the Abutilon mosaic virus clade and showed that the DNA-A component is most closely related to four begomovirus species from Cuba, Tobacco leaf curl Cuba virus, Tobacco leaf rugose virus, Tobacco mottle leaf curl virus, and Tomato yellow distortion leaf virus. The putative Rep-binding-site motif in the common region of WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] was observed to be identical to that of Chino del tomate virus-Tomato [Mexico:Sinaloa:1983], Sida yellow mosaic Yucatan virus-[Mexico:Yucatan:2005], and Tomato leaf curl Sinaloa virus-[Nicaragua:Santa Lucia], suggesting that WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] is capable of forming viable pseudo-recombinants with these begomoviruses, but not with other members of the Abutilon mosaic virus clade. Biolistic inoculation of test plant species with partial dimers of the WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05] DNA-A and DNA-B components showed that the virus was infectious to Nicotiana benthamiana and W. amplissima and the cultivated species Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). Infected W. amplissima plants developed symptoms similar to symptoms observed under field

  3. Sarmentine, a natural herbicide from Piper species with multiple herbicide mechanisms of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Emmanuel Dayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarmentine, 1-(1-pyrrolidinyl-(2E,4E-2,4-decadien-1-one, is a natural amide isolated from the fruits of Piper species. The compound has a number of interesting biological properties, including its broad-spectrum activity on weeds as a contact herbicide. Initial studies highlighted a similarity in response between plants treated with sarmentine and herbicidal soaps such as pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid. However, little was known about the mechanism of action leading to the rapid desiccation of foliage treated by sarmentine. In cucumber cotyledon disc-assays, sarmentine induced rapid light-independent loss of membrane integrity at 100 µM or higher concentration, whereas 3 mM pelargonic acid was required for a similar effect. Sarmentine was between 10 and 30 times more active than pelargonic acid on wild mustard, velvetleaf, redroot pigweed and crabgrass. Additionally, the potency of 30 µM sarmentine was greatly stimulated by light, suggesting that this natural product may also interfere with photosynthetic processes. This was confirmed by observing a complete inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport at that concentration. Sarmentine also acted as an inhibitor of photosystem II on isolated thylakoid membranes by competing for the binding site of plastoquinone. This can be attributed in part to structural similarities between herbicides like sarmentine and diuron. While this mechanism of action accounts for the light stimulation of the activity of sarmentine, it does not account for its ability to destabilize membranes in darkness. In this respect, sarmentine has some structural similarity to crotonoyl-CoA, the substrate of enoyl-ACP reductase, a key enzyme in the early steps of fatty acid synthesis. Inhibitors of this enzyme, such as triclosan, cause rapid loss of membrane integrity in the dark. Sarmentine inhibited the activity of enoyl-ACP reductase, with an I50app of 18.3 µM. Therefore, the herbicidal activity of sarmentine appears to

  4. The genomes of four novel begomoviruses and a new Sida micrantha mosaic virus strain from Bolivian weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyant, Patrícia Soares; Gotthardt, Diether; Schäfer, Benjamin; Krenz, Björn; Jeske, Holger

    2011-02-01

    Begomovirus is the largest genus within the family Geminiviridae and includes economically important plant DNA viruses infecting a broad range of plant species and causing devastating crop diseases, mainly in subtropical and tropical countries. Besides cultivated plants, many weeds act as virus reservoirs. Eight begomovirus isolates from Bolivian weeds were examined using rolling-circle amplification (RCA) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). An efficient, novel cloning strategy using limited Sau3A digestion to obtain tandem-repeat inserts allowed the sequencing of the complete genomes. The viruses were classified by phylogenetic analysis as typical bipartite New World begomoviruses. Four of them represented distinct new virus species, for which the names Solanum mosaic Bolivia virus, Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 1, Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2, and Abutilon mosaic Bolivia virus are proposed. Three were variants of a new strain of Sida micrantha mosaic virus (SimMV), SimMV-rho[BoVi07], SimMV-rho[Bo:CF1:07] and SimMV-rho[Bo:CF2:07], and one was a new variant of a previously described SimMV, SimMV-MGS2:07-Bo.

  5. Begomoviruses infecting weeds in Cuba: increased host range and a novel virus infecting Sida rhombifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique; Martínez-Zubiaur, Yamila

    2012-01-01

    As a result of surveys conducted during the last few years to search for wild reservoirs of begomoviruses in Cuba, we detected a novel bipartite begomovirus, sida yellow mottle virus (SiYMoV), infecting Sida rhombifolia plants. The complete genome sequence was obtained, showing that DNA-A was 2622 nucleotides (nt) in length and that it was most closely related (87.6% nucleotide identity) to DNA-A of an isolate of sida golden mosaic virus (SiGMV) that infects snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Florida. The DNA-B sequence was 2600 nt in length and shared the highest nucleotide identity (75.1%) with corchorus yellow spot virus (CoYSV). Phylogenetic relationship analysis showed that both DNA components of SiYMoV were grouped in the Abutilon clade, along with begomoviruses from Florida and the Caribbean islands. We also present here the complete nucleotide sequence of a novel strain of sida yellow vein virus found infecting Malvastrum coromandelianum and an isolate of euphorbia mosaic virus that was found for the first time infecting Euphorbia heterophylla in Cuba.

  6. Preventing establishment: an inventory of introduced plants in Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island, Galapagos.

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    Anne Guézou

    Full Text Available As part of an island-wide project to identify and eradicate potentially invasive plant species before they become established, a program of inventories is being carried out in the urban and agricultural zones of the four inhabited islands in Galapagos. This study reports the results of the inventory from Puerto Villamil, a coastal village representing the urban zone of Isabela Island. We visited all 1193 village properties to record the presence of the introduced plants. In addition, information was collected from half of the properties to determine evidence for potential invasiveness of the plant species. We recorded 261 vascular taxa, 13 of which were new records for Galapagos. Most of the species were intentionally grown (cultivated (73.3% and used principally as ornamentals. The most frequent taxa we encountered were Cocos nucifera (coconut tree (22.1% as a cultivated plant and Paspalum vaginatum (salt water couch (13.2% as a non cultivated plant. In addition 39 taxa were naturalized. On the basis of the invasiveness study, we recommend five species for eradication (Abutilon dianthum, Datura inoxia, Datura metel, Senna alata and Solanum capsicoides, one species for hybridization studies (Opuntia ficus-indica and three species for control (Furcraea hexapetala, Leucaena leucocephala and Paspalum vaginatum.

  7. Pollen grains in quaternary sediments from the Campos Basin, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Core BU-91-GL-05

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    Aline Gonçalves de Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe pollen grains extracted from a Pleistocene-Holocene sediment core (BU-91-GL-05; 22°48'45"S; 41°54'13"W taken from the Albacora Slope (22°48'45"S; 41°54'13"W, located in the Campos Basin of the northern region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The analysis resulted in the identification and morphological description of 46 types of pollen: one of a gymnosperm genus (Podocarpus; and 45 of angiosperm taxa across 27 families-one family of monocotyledons (Poaceae and 26 families (30 types of dicotyledons. The most common angiosperm families were Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium, Amaranthus and Gomphrena; Fabaceae (Fabaceae type, Bauhinia, Inga and Canavalia; Malpighiaceae (Tetrapteris, Heteropteris and Peixotoa; Malvaceae (Sida, Abutilon, Hibiscus and Pseudobombax; Rubiaceae (Faramea, Borreria and Psychotria; Asteraceae (Eupatorium and tribe Vernonieae; Bignoniaceae (Bignoniaceae type, Adenocalymma and Tabebuia; and Onagraceae (Fuchsia and Ludwigia. The palynoflora in this study are associated with dense montane and submontane Atlantic Forest, semideciduous forest and restinga (coastal woodland, all of which are present in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Palynological analysis can provide important data about paleovegetation and paleoclimatic changes in the studied area during the Quaternary, specifically in the last 145,000 years.

  8. Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemical and Ethnopharmacological Aspects of Four Medicinal Plants of Malvaceae Used in Indian Traditional Medicines: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, Jasmeet Kaur; Kumar, Sanjay; Mohanty, Aparajita

    2017-10-18

    The ethnomedicinal values of plants form the basis of the herbal drug industry. India has contributed its knowledge of traditional system medicines (Ayurveda and Siddha) to develop herbal medicines with negligible side effects. The World Health Organization has also recognized the benefits of drugs developed from natural products. Abutilon indicum, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Sida acuta and Sida rhombifolia are ethnomedicinal plants of Malvaceae, commonly used in Indian traditional system of medicines. Traditionally these plants were used in the form of extracts/powder/paste by tribal populations of India for treating common ailments like cough and cold, fever, stomach, kidney and liver disorders, pains, inflammations, wounds, etc. The present review is an overview of phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological studies that support many of the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of these plants. Many phytoconstituents have been isolated from the four ethnomedicinal plants and some of them have shown pharmacological activities that have been demonstrated by in vivo and/or in vitro experiments. Ethnomedicinal uses, supported by scientific evidences is essential for ensuring safe and effective utilization of herbal medicines.

  9. Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemical and Ethnopharmacological Aspects of Four Medicinal Plants of Malvaceae Used in Indian Traditional Medicines: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmeet Kaur Abat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ethnomedicinal values of plants form the basis of the herbal drug industry. India has contributed its knowledge of traditional system medicines (Ayurveda and Siddha to develop herbal medicines with negligible side effects. The World Health Organization has also recognized the benefits of drugs developed from natural products. Abutilon indicum, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Sida acuta and Sida rhombifolia are ethnomedicinal plants of Malvaceae, commonly used in Indian traditional system of medicines. Traditionally these plants were used in the form of extracts/powder/paste by tribal populations of India for treating common ailments like cough and cold, fever, stomach, kidney and liver disorders, pains, inflammations, wounds, etc. The present review is an overview of phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological studies that support many of the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of these plants. Many phytoconstituents have been isolated from the four ethnomedicinal plants and some of them have shown pharmacological activities that have been demonstrated by in vivo and/or in vitro experiments. Ethnomedicinal uses, supported by scientific evidences is essential for ensuring safe and effective utilization of herbal medicines.

  10. Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemical and Ethnopharmacological Aspects of Four Medicinal Plants of Malvaceae Used in Indian Traditional Medicines: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, Jasmeet Kaur; Kumar, Sanjay; Mohanty, Aparajita

    2017-01-01

    The ethnomedicinal values of plants form the basis of the herbal drug industry. India has contributed its knowledge of traditional system medicines (Ayurveda and Siddha) to develop herbal medicines with negligible side effects. The World Health Organization has also recognized the benefits of drugs developed from natural products. Abutilon indicum, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Sida acuta and Sida rhombifolia are ethnomedicinal plants of Malvaceae, commonly used in Indian traditional system of medicines. Traditionally these plants were used in the form of extracts/powder/paste by tribal populations of India for treating common ailments like cough and cold, fever, stomach, kidney and liver disorders, pains, inflammations, wounds, etc. The present review is an overview of phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological studies that support many of the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of these plants. Many phytoconstituents have been isolated from the four ethnomedicinal plants and some of them have shown pharmacological activities that have been demonstrated by in vivo and/or in vitro experiments. Ethnomedicinal uses, supported by scientific evidences is essential for ensuring safe and effective utilization of herbal medicines. PMID:29057840

  11. SPECIFICITY OF THE PRECIPITIN REACTION IN TOBACCO MOSAIC DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, H P

    1931-09-30

    1. Leaf extracts of Sudan grass, Hippeastrum equestre Herb., lily, and Abutilon striatum Dicks. (A. Thompsoni hort.), each affected with its respective mosaic disease, and peach affected with yellows disease, were tested for their ability to precipitate antiserum for virus extract of tobacco mosaic disease. No precipitate occurred. 2. Nicotiana glutinosa L., N. rustica L., and Martynia louisiana Mill. were added to the list of hosts of tobacco mosaic virus which have been tested with antiserum for the same virus in N. tabacum L. var. Turkish. The object was to determine the presence or absence of material reacting with the specific precipitins such as that already demonstrated in extracts of tomato, pepper, and petunia affected with the same virus. The presence of specific substances was demonstrated in every case. 3. The viruses of ringspot and cucumber mosaic diseases were multiplied in Turkish tobacco and leaf extracts of the affected plants were used in turn as antigens in precipitin tests with antiserum for tobacco mosaic virus extract of Turkish tobacco. A slight precipitation resulted in the tubes containing undiluted antiserum and virus extract such as occurs when juice from normal tobacco is used with undiluted antiserum. No precipitate was demonstrable that was specific for virus extracts of tobacco affected with either ringspot or cucumber mosaic disease. 4. The results favor the interpretation that the specific antigenic substance in virus extract of tobacco mosaic disease is foreign antigenic material, possibly virus itself, not altered host protein.

  12. Baseline data on wild flora of crop field boundaries in the agro-ecosystem of pothwar plateau, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Hussain, I.; Anwar, M.; Ashraf, N.; Mirza, S.N.

    2017-01-01

    Wild flora along crop field boundaries in farmlands not only increases habitat heterogeneity but also serves multiple beneficial functions. We collected baseline data on wild flora bordering the crop fields of Pothwar plateau. Overall we selected four study sites including two sites of wheat-maize/millet and two of wheat-groundnut cropping system. We recorded 51 species of plants including 12 species of trees, 14 species of shrubs and 25 species of grasses/herbs. Two tree species namely Acacia modesta and Zizyphus mauritiana and two shrub species namely Calotropis procera and Ziziphus nummularia were common indicating their widespread presence in the area. Among herbs/grasses Abutilon indicum, Amaranthus spp., Cyperus rotundus and Erogrostis poroles were common at sites with wheat-maize/millet cropping pattern while Chenopodium album, Datura stramonium and Tribulus terrestris were common at sites with wheat-groundnut cropping system. The tree and shrub densities did not differ significantly among the study sites. Wheat-groundnut cropping system had higher populations/diversity/species of shrubs as compared to wheat-maize/millet cropping system. Density of grasses/herbs significantly differed across the study sites but there was no association of herb/grass density with cropping practice. (author)

  13. Dieta de murciélagos nectarívoros del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, Tumbes

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    Edith Arias

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En el Perú se reporta la presencia de 18 especies de murciélagos nectarívoros, sin embargo se cuenta con poca información sobre la dieta de estas especies. En este estudio se reporta por primera vez la dieta de los nectarívoros Glossophaga soricina, Lonchophylla hesperia y Anoura geoffroyi en el bosque seco ecuatorial y del bosque tropical del Pacífico del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, Tumbes. Analizamos 21 contenidos gastrointestinales e identificamos ocho morfotipos de polen pertenecientes a las familias Bombacaceae, Cactaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Myrtaceae, Malvaceae y Rosaceae. Encontramos evidencia del síndrome de quiropterofilia en Bombacaceae, Cactaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae y Rubiaceae. Observamos que A. geoffroyi consume polen de Ceiba trichistandra, Solanaceae y Rubiacea; G. soricina consume de Abutilon reflexum, Armathocereus cartwrightianus, C. trichistandra y Rubiaceae; y L. hesperia de A. cartwrightianus, Eriobotrya japonica, Fabaceae y Psidium sp.; sugiriendo una dieta generalista en estas especies. Los murciélagos G. soricina y A. geoffroyi comparten el consumo del ceibo C. trichistandra y de la Rubiaceae, mientras que G. soricina comparte con L. hesperia el consumo del cactus A. cartwrightianus. Los otros morfotipos de polen no fueron compartidos entre murciélagos. Se encuentra además que el ceibo C. trichistandra fue la especie más consumida, especialmente por G. soricina.

  14. Preventing Establishment: An Inventory of Introduced Plants in Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island, Galapagos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guézou, Anne; Pozo, Paola; Buddenhagen, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    As part of an island-wide project to identify and eradicate potentially invasive plant species before they become established, a program of inventories is being carried out in the urban and agricultural zones of the four inhabited islands in Galapagos. This study reports the results of the inventory from Puerto Villamil, a coastal village representing the urban zone of Isabela Island. We visited all 1193 village properties to record the presence of the introduced plants. In addition, information was collected from half of the properties to determine evidence for potential invasiveness of the plant species. We recorded 261 vascular taxa, 13 of which were new records for Galapagos. Most of the species were intentionally grown (cultivated) (73.3%) and used principally as ornamentals. The most frequent taxa we encountered were Cocos nucifera (coconut tree) (22.1%) as a cultivated plant and Paspalum vaginatum (salt water couch) (13.2%) as a non cultivated plant. In addition 39 taxa were naturalized. On the basis of the invasiveness study, we recommend five species for eradication (Abutilon dianthum, Datura inoxia, Datura metel, Senna alata and Solanum capsicoides), one species for hybridization studies (Opuntia ficus-indica) and three species for control (Furcraea hexapetala, Leucaena leucocephala and Paspalum vaginatum). PMID:17940606

  15. The chloroplast DNA locus psbZ-trnfM as a potential barcode marker in Phoenix L. (Arecaceae

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    Marco Ballardini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Phoenix (Arecaceae comprises 14 species distributed from Cape Verde Islands to SE Asia. It includes the economically important species Phoenix dactylifera. The paucity of differential morphological and anatomical useful characters, and interspecific hybridization, make identification of Phoenix species difficult. In this context, the development of reliable DNA markers for species and hybrid identification would be of great utility. Previous studies identified a 12 bp polymorphic chloroplast minisatellite in the trnG(GCC-trnfM(CAU spacer, and showed its potential for species identification in Phoenix. In this work, in order to develop an efficient DNA barcode marker for Phoenix, a longer cpDNA region (700 bp comprising the mentioned minisatellite, and located between the psbZ and trnfM(CAU genes, was sequenced. One hundred and thirty-six individuals, representing all Phoenix species except P. andamanensis, were analysed. The minisatellite showed 2-7 repetitions of the 12 bp motif, with 1-3 out of seven haplotypes per species. Phoenix reclinata and P. canariensis had species-specific haplotypes. Additional polymorphisms were found in the flanking regions of the minisatellite, including substitutions, indels and homopolymers. All this information allowed us to identify unambiguously eight out of the 13 species, and overall 80% of the individuals sampled. Phoenix rupicola and P. theophrasti had the same haplotype, and so had P. atlantica, P. dactylifera, and P. sylvestris (the “date palm complex” sensu Pintaud et al. 2013. For these species, additional molecular markers will be required for their unambiguous identification. The psbZ-trnfM(CAU region therefore could be considered as a good basis for the establishment of a DNA barcoding system in Phoenix, and is potentially useful for the identification of the female parent in Phoenix hybrids.

  16. Survey of weed composition befor maize sowing in long-term fertilization experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismányoky, A; Lehoczky, E

    2007-01-01

    The study was carried out in a long-term fertilization field experiment of the Experimental Station of University of Pannonia, Department of Crop Science and Soil Science in 2006. The Long-term fertilization experiment was set up in 1983. In the experiment, the success of the weeds ability to grow under the influence of NPK, NPK + FYM* and NPK + straw treatments was compared, and the effect of increasing Nitrogen dosing on weediness was studied. The bifactorial test was arranged in split plot design with three replications. Treatment A: nutrient: NPK, NPK + 35 t/ha FYM* and NPK + straw manure. Treatment B: N kg/ha(-1) N0-N4 (0, 70, 140, 210, 280), and 100 kg P2O5 ha(-1) & 100 kg K20. The weed survey was made on 2nd of May 2006. There were spraying no herbicide until the survey. For the weed survey the Balázs-Ujvárosi coenological method was applied. Altogether, we have found 23 weed species in the trial. In the NPK treatment there were 20 species, in the treatment NPK+organic manure there were 17 species and in the NPK+ stalk rest treatment there were 16 weed species. The most dominant of the weeds on the NPK and NPK+straw manure treatments was Veronica hederifolia while on the fertilizer + FYM, the A. theophrasti was most dominant. The average weed covering value of the treatment NPK + FYM was 1.36 times higher (10.87%) than that of treatment NPK only (7.97%) and 3.65 times higher than on the NPK + straw manure treatment.

  17. Eksplorasi dan Karakterisasi Tanaman Genjer (Limnocharis flava (L. Buch di Kabupaten Pangandaran Berdasarkan Karakter Morfologi dan Agronomi

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    Liberty Chaidir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Genjer merupakan tanaman yang tumbuh liar di area persawahan, rawa, atau sungai yang keberadaannya sering dianggap sebagai gulma. Tanaman genjer memiliki banyak manfaat, diantaranya sebagai bahan penyerap logam berat dalam tanah dan sebagai obat yang memiliki banyak kandungan gizi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui variasi karakter morfologi dan karakter agronomi untuk mengetahui hubungan kekerabatan tanaman genjer antar daerah di Kabupaten Pangandaran. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kabupaten Pangandaran pada Mei sampai Oktober 2015. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode eksplorasi purposive sampling pada 77 aksesi genjer yang diambil dari Kabupaten Pangandaran. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat keragaman fenotipik yang luas pada karakter morfologi ujung daun, warna batang, tekstur daun, warna daun, panjang lekukan bawah daun, warna kelopak bunga dan warna bunga. Karakter agronomi yang mempunyai keragaman yang luas ialah tinggi tanaman, jumlah batang per rumpun, panjang daun, lebar daun, jumlah daun, jumlah bunga dan diameter batang. Tanaman genjer di Kabupaten Pangandaran memiliki kekerabatan yang jauh dengan rentang jarak Euclidian 0,48 sampai 10,17. Aksesi yang memiliki hubungan kekerabatan paling jauh yaitu Ciakar (001 dengan jarak Euclidian 10,17, sedangkan yang memiliki hubungan kekerabatan paling dekat yaitu Cikalong (003 dan Cikalong (004 dengan jarak Euclidian 0,48. Genjer or Yellow velvetleaf is a plant that grows wild in lowland area, swamp or river which existence is considered as a weed. Genjer has a lot of benefits, such as material absorbent for heavy metals in the soil and medicine that has a lot of nutrition. This study aimed to determine the variety of morphological and agronomic characters of Genjer in Pangandaran Regency and to determine the genetic relationship of genjer between regions in Pangandaran. The research was conducted in the Pangandaran Regency on May to October 2015. The method used purposive sampling

  18. DNA barcoding for species identification from dried and powdered plant parts: a case study with authentication of the raw drug market samples of Sida cordifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Kusuma, G; Parani, Madasamy

    2015-03-15

    The majority of the plant materials used in herbal medicine is procured from the markets in the form of dried or powdered plant parts. It is essential to use authentic plant materials to derive the benefits of herbal medicine. However, establishing the identity of these plant materials by conventional taxonomy is extremely difficult. Here we report a case study in which the species identification of the market samples of Sida cordifolia was done by DNA barcoding. As a prelude to species identification by DNA barcoding, 13 species of Sida were collected, and a reference DNA barcode library was developed using rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH and ITS2 markers. Based on the intra-species and inter-species divergence observed, psbA-trnH and ITS2 were found to be the best two-marker combination for species identification of the market samples. The study showed that none of the market samples belonged to the authentic species, S. cordifolia. Seventy-six per cent of the market samples belonged to other species of Sida. The predominant one was Sida acuta (36%) followed by S. spinosa (20%), S. alnifolia (12%), S. scabrida (4%) and S. ravii (4%). Such substitutions may not only fail to give the expected therapeutic effect, but may also give undesirable effects as in case of S. acuta which contains a 6-fold higher amount of ephedrine compared to the roots of S. cordifolia. The remaining 24% of the samples were from other genera such as Abutilon sp. (8%), Ixonanthes sp., Terminalia sp., Fagonia sp., and Tephrosia sp. (4% each). This observation is in contrast to the belief that medicinal plants are generally substituted or adulterated with closely related species. The current study strongly suggests that the raw drug market samples of herbal medicines need to be properly authenticated before use, and DNA barcoding has been found to be suitable for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro evaluation of novel antiviral activities of 60 medicinal plants extracts against hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Ahmed Hassan; Parvez, Mohammad Khalid; Al-Dosari, Mohammed Salem; Al-Rehaily, Adnan Jathlan

    2017-07-01

    Currently, >35 Saudi Arabian medicinal plants are traditionally used for various liver disorders without a scientific rationale. This is the first experimental evaluation of the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) potential of the total ethanolic and sequential organic extracts of 60 candidate medicinal plants. The extracts were tested for toxicity on HepG2.2.15 cells and cytotoxicity concentration (CC 50 ) values were determined. The extracts were further investigated on HepG2.2.15 cells for anti-HBV activities by analyzing the inhibition of HBsAg and HBeAg production in the culture supernatants, and their half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) and therapeutic index (TI) values were determined. Of the screened plants, Guiera senegalensis (dichloromethane extract, IC 50 =10.65), Pulicaria crispa (ethyl acetate extract, IC 50 =14.45), Coccinea grandis (total ethanol extract, IC 50 =31.57), Fumaria parviflora (hexane extract, IC 50 =35.44), Capparis decidua (aqueous extract, IC 50 =66.82), Corallocarpus epigeus (total ethanol extract, IC 50 =71.9), Indigofera caerulea (methanol extract, IC 50 =73.21), Abutilon figarianum (dichloromethane extract, IC 50 =99.76) and Acacia oerfota (total ethanol extract, IC 50 =101.46) demonstrated novel anti-HBV activities in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further qualitative phytochemical analysis of the active extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins, which are attributed to antiviral efficacies. In conclusion, P. crispa, G. senegalensis and F. parviflora had the most promising anti-HBV potentials, including those of C. decidua , C. epigeus, A. figarianum , A. oerfota and I. caerulea with marked activities. However, a detailed phytochemical study of these extracts is essential to isolate the active principle(s) responsible for their novel anti-HBV potential.

  20. The induction of stromule formation by a plant DNA-virus in epidermal leaf tissues suggests a novel intra- and intercellular macromolecular trafficking route

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    Björn eKrenz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stromules are dynamic thin protrusions of membrane envelope from plant cell plastids. Despite considerable progress in understanding the importance of certain cytoskeleton elements and motor proteins for stromule maintenance, their function within the cell has yet to be unraveled. Several viruses cause a remodulation of plastid structures and stromule biogenesis within their host plants. For RNA-viruses these interactions were demonstrated to be relevant to the infection process. An involvement of plastids and stromules is assumed in the DNA-virus life cycle as well, but their functional role needs to be determined. Recent findings support a participation of heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein (cpHSC70-1-containing stromules induced by a DNA-virus infection (Abutilon mosaic virus, AbMV, Geminiviridae in intra- and intercellular molecule exchange. The chaperone cpHSC70-1 was shown to interact with the AbMV movement protein (MP. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation confirmed the interaction of cpHSC70-1 and MP, and showed a homo-oligomerization of either protein in planta. The complexes were detected at the cellular margin and co-localized with plastids. In healthy plant tissues cpHSC70-1-oligomers occurred in distinct spots at chloroplasts and in small filaments extending from plastids to the cell periphery. AbMV-infection induced a cpHSC70-1-containing stromule network that exhibits elliptical dilations and transverses whole cells. Silencing of the cpHSC70-gene revealed an impact of cpHSC70 on chloroplast stability and restricted AbMV movement, but not viral DNA accumulation. Based on these data, a model is suggested in which these stromules function in molecule exchange between plastids and other organelles and perhaps other cells. AbMV may utilize cpHSC70-1 for trafficking along plastids and stromules into a neighboring cell or from plastids into the nucleus. Experimental approaches to investigate this hypothesis are discussed.

  1. Quantitative ethnobotany of traditional Siddha medical practitioners from Radhapuram taluk of Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellappandian, M; Mutheeswaran, S; Pandikumar, P; Duraipandiyan, V; Ignacimuthu, S

    2012-09-28

    The aim of the present study was to document the knowledge of traditional Siddha medical practitioners from Radhapuram taluk of Tirunelveli district in Tamil Nadu, India, and to quantitatively analyze the data to identify some useful leads for further studies. Successive free listing was the method adopted for the interview. In this study, 84 traditional Siddha medical practitioners were included and their knowledge on medicinal plants was gathered. The data were assessed with the help of two indices viz., Informant Consensus Factor (F(ic)) and Informant Agreement on Remedies (IAR). The present survey is in accordance with some of the aspects of our previous surveys. Regarding the demography of the informants, it exhibited unevenness in male-female ratio and majority of the informants were poorly educated. Practicing this system of medicine as part time job by majority of the informants might indicate the reduced social status of this medicinal system. The present study had recorded the usage of 217 species which were used to prepare 448 formulations, which in turn yielded 812 use reports. Conversion of use reports had yielded a total of 625 claims and 84.16% of the claims were 'singletons'. The illness category 'adjuvants' holds a high F(ic) value. Among the other illness categories, kapha ailments and dermatological ailments have a high percentage of use-reports. Ailments of blood, jaundice and fever were the other illness categories with high F(ic) values. Some of the claims viz., Mukia madarasepatana (kapha ailments), Mollugo nudicaulis (febrifuge), Indigofera asphalathoides (dermatological ailments), Aerva lanata (urinary ailments), Abutilon indicum (hemorrhoids) and Hybanthus enneaspermus (aphrodisiac), which have relatively high consensus can be taken up for further biomedical studies, since no substantial studies have been conducted on them. One of the major aims of National Rural Health Mission is to implement traditional Indian system of medicines into

  2. Флористические находки в бассейне Верхнего Енисея (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Shaulo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available В результате экспедиционных исследований, анализа ранее опубликованных работ и просмотра материалов, хранящихся в гербариях ЦСБС (NS, NSK и государственного природного заповедника «Азас», уточнены сведения о видовом составе флоры бассейна Верхнего Енисея. Впервые во флоре Тывы отмечены Humulus lupulus, Atriplex hortensis, Saponaria officinalis, Raphanus sativus, Abutilon theophrastii, Cichorium intybus, Elodea canadensis, Cypripedium × ventricosum, Poa sergievskajae; во флоре Хакасии – Microcerasus tomentosa, Cypripedium × ventricosum, S. viridis subsp. pycnocoma; во флоре южной части Красноярского края – Microcerasus tomentosa, Cypripedium × ventricosum. Уточнено распростране- ние и обнаружены новые местонахождения редких на этой территории видов – Asterothamnus heteropappoides, Ulmus pumila, Saxifraga nivalis, Euphorbia caesia.