Sample records for velocity oxygen-fuel hvof

  1. Production of Babbitt Coatings by High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) Spraying (United States)

    Nascimento, A. R. C.; Ettouil, F. B.; Moreau, C.; Savoie, S.; Schulz, R.


    This work presents HVOF as an alternative means to produce dense Babbitt coatings by thermal spray. A radial injection setup and low fuel flow rates were used to minimize heat transfer to the low melting point alloy. In-flight particle diagnostic systems were used to correlate spray parameters with the changes in particle velocity and thermal radiation intensity. The use of particles with larger diameters resulted in higher deposition efficiencies. It was shown that HVOF Babbitt coatings combine a dense structure and a fine distribution of intermetallic phases when compared to more traditional babbitting techniques.

  2. Application of High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF Spraying to the Fabrication of Yb-Silicate Environmental Barrier Coatings

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    Emine Bakan


    Full Text Available From the literature, it is known that due to their glass formation tendency, it is not possible to deposit fully-crystalline silicate coatings when the conventional atmospheric plasma spraying (APS process is employed. In APS, rapid quenching of the sprayed material on the substrate facilitates the amorphous deposit formation, which shrinks when exposed to heat and forms pores and/or cracks. This paper explores the feasibility of using a high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF process for the cost-effective fabrication of dense, stoichiometric, and crystalline Yb2Si2O7 environmental barrier coatings. We report our findings on the HVOF process optimization and its resultant influence on the microstructure development and crystallinity of the Yb2Si2O7 coatings. The results reveal that partially crystalline, dense, and vertical crack-free EBCs can be produced by the HVOF technique. However, the furnace thermal cycling results revealed that the bonding of the Yb2Si2O7 layer to the Silicon bond coat needs to be improved.

  3. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a wire-feed, high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spray torch (United States)

    Lopez, A. R.; Hassan, B.; Oberkampf, W. L.; Neiser, R. A.; Roemer, T. J.


    The fluid and particle dynamics of a high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spray torch are analyzed using computational and experimental techniques. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results are presented for a curved aircap used for coating interior surfaces such as engine cylinder bores. The device analyzed is similar to the Metco diamond jet rotating wire (DJRW) torch. The feed gases are injected through an axisymmetric nozzle into the curved aircap. Premixed propylene and oxygen are introduced from an annulus in the nozzle, while cooling air is injected between the nozzle and the interior wall of the aircap. The combustion process is modeled using a single-step, finite-rate chemistry model with a total of nine gas species which includes dissociation of combustion products. A continually fed steel wire passes through the center of the nozzle, and melting occurs at a conical tip near the exit of the aircap. Wire melting is simulated computationally by injecting liquid steel particles into the flow field near the tip of the wire. Experimental particle velocity measurements during wire feed were also taken using a laser two-focus (L2F) velocimeter system. Flow fields inside and outside the aircap are presented, and particle velocity predictions are compared with experimental measurements outside of the aircap.

  4. Possibilities of utilization high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF coatings in conditions of thermal cyclic loading

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    J. Brezinová


    Full Text Available The item deals with the possibilities of utilization HVOF coatings in thermal cyclic loading conditions. There were evaluated three types of coatings based on WC-Co, WC-Co-Cr and Cr3C2-25NiCr. The quality of coatings was evaluated in terms of their adhesion as sprayed and also during the cyclic thermal loading, EDX analysis and evaluation of microhardness. Construction and structure of coatings were studied using optical and electron microscopy. There was also evaluated resistance of the coatings against erosive wear.

  5. A Comprehensive Review on Fluid Dynamics and Transport of Suspension/Liquid Droplets and Particles in High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF Thermal Spray

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    Mehdi Jadidi


    Full Text Available In thermal spraying processes, molten, semi-molten, or solid particles, which are sufficiently fast in a stream of gas, are deposited on a substrate. These particles can plastically deform while impacting on the substrate, which results in the formation of well-adhered and dense coatings. Clearly, particles in flight conditions, such as velocity, trajectory, temperature, and melting state, have enormous influence on the coating properties and should be well understood to control and improve the coating quality. The focus of this study is on the high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF spraying and high velocity suspension flame spraying (HVSFS techniques, which are widely used in academia and industry to generate different types of coatings. Extensive numerical and experimental studies were carried out and are still in progress to estimate the particle in-flight behavior in thermal spray processes. In this review paper, the fundamental phenomena involved in the mentioned thermal spray techniques, such as shock diamonds, combustion, primary atomization, secondary atomization, etc., are discussed comprehensively. In addition, the basic aspects and emerging trends in simulation of thermal spray processes are reviewed. The numerical approaches such as Eulerian-Lagrangian and volume of fluid along with their advantages and disadvantages are explained in detail. Furthermore, this article provides a detailed review on simulation studies published to date.

  6. WC-CoCr coatings sprayed by high velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF flame on AA7050 aluminum alloy: electrochemical behavior in 3.5% NaCl solution

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    Marina Magnani


    Full Text Available In the present work, the electrochemical behavior of WC-CoCr coatings with 10 (W10, 15 (W15 and 20 (W20 torch passes sprayed by High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF flame on AA7050 aluminum alloy substrate, evaluated in 3.5% NaCl solution, were compared using open-circuit potential (E OC measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and polarization curves. The coating surfaces and their cross sections were characterized by X ray diffraction and the Rockwell-C hardness test, and also by optical (OM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM before and after the corrosion tests. The electrochemical data showed that sample W10 presented higher corrosion resistance than the others in chloride solutions. In some tests, aluminum salts on the coating surface were identified by EDS, indicating the corrosion of the substrate. And using aluminon, aluminum ions were detected and analyzing the surface via stereomicroscopy, hydrogen bubbles were observed, both showing that the electrolyte reached the substrate and galvanic corrosion possibly occurred. The physical characterization showed that sample W10 presented a lower number of cracks and pores, justifying its higher corrosion resistance.

  7. Effect of heat treatment on the wear and corrosion behaviors of a gray cast iron coated with a COLMONOY 88 alloy deposited by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF thermal spray

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    A. Öz


    Full Text Available The present work has been conducted in order to determine the influence of heat treatment on the wear and corrosion behaviours of a gray cast iron substrate coated with a Ni base coating deposited by HVOF thermal spray. The wear resistance of the coatings was obtained using a reciprocating wear tester by rubbing a 10 mm diameter steel ball on the coatings at normal atmospheric conditions. Corrosion tests were performed using potentiodynamic polarization measurements in a 3,5 % NaCl solution. It was observed that the corrosion and wear resistance of the coatings increased along with the reduction of porosity and roughness by the heat treatment.

  8. Microstructure Characterization of WCCo-Mo Based Coatings Produced Using High Velocity Oxygen Fuel

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    Serkan Islak


    Full Text Available The present study has been carried out in order to investigate the microstructural properties of WCCo-Mo composite coatings deposited onto a SAE 4140 steel substrate by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF thermal spray. For this purpose, the Mo quantity added to the WCCo was changed as 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt. % percents. The coatings are compared in terms of their phase composition, microstructure and hardness. Phase compound and microstructure of coating layers were examined using X-ray diffractometer (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM. XRD results showed that WCCo-Mo composite coatings were mainly composed of WC, W2C, Co3W3C, Mo2C, MoO2, Mo and Co phases. The average hardness of the coatings increased with increasing Mo content.

  9. Particle velocity measurements in HVOF and APS systems

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    Knight, R.; Smith, R.W.; Xiao, Z. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hoffman, T.T. [Control Vision, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Production of reliable, repeatable coatings requires precise control of the process used to deposit them. Significant advances have recently been made in controlling the inputs to thermal spray processes, however, much work remains to be done to control process outputs and to correlate these with coatings characteristics. Thermal spray processes comprise the heating/melting, acceleration, impact, rapid solidification and incremental build-up of a large number of individual particles. Particle velocity is a key process parameter in determining coating properties such as density/porosity, bond strength and residual stress. Laser Stroboscopy and optical image analysis techniques have been used to image particles traveling in high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and air plasma spray (APS) jets. Results indicate that these techniques can be used to measure particle velocity, trajectory and velocity distribution(s) in thermal spray jets. mean particle velocities of {approximately}400 m/s and {approximately}100 m/s have been measured for HVOF and APS respectively.

  10. Microstructure Characteristics and Properties of HVOF Sprayed Ni-Based Alloy Nano-h-BN Self-Lubricating Composite Coatings


    Xiaofeng Zhang; Long Zhang; Zhenyi Huang


    A Ni-based alloy/nano-h-BN self-lubricating composite coating was produced on medium carbon steel by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying technique. The powder feedstocks for HVOF spraying were prepared by ball milling and agglomerated the nano-h-BN with Ni-based alloy powders. The microstructure and mechanical properties of coatings have been investigated. With the increasing of h-BN contents, some delaminations appeared gradually in the coatings and a continuous network with h-BN phase...

  11. Microstructure Characteristics and Properties of HVOF Sprayed Ni-Based Alloy Nano-h-BN Self-Lubricating Composite Coatings

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    Xiaofeng Zhang


    Full Text Available A Ni-based alloy/nano-h-BN self-lubricating composite coating was produced on medium carbon steel by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF spraying technique. The powder feedstocks for HVOF spraying were prepared by ball milling and agglomerated the nano-h-BN with Ni-based alloy powders. The microstructure and mechanical properties of coatings have been investigated. With the increasing of h-BN contents, some delaminations appeared gradually in the coatings and a continuous network with h-BN phase embedded formed in the metallic matrix. The average microhardness of the self-lubricating coating was a little lower for the addition of soft solid lubricant. The friction coefficient of coatings is in the ranges of 0.38–0.48 and 0.38–0.52 at ambient temperature and 400°C, respectively. The maximum bonding strength of coatings reached 23.83 MPa.

  12. Feature of high velocity oxygen-fuel flame spraying; Kosoku flame yoshaho no tokucho to sono oyo

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    Shimizu, Y.; Sakaki, K. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A description is given about the high velocity flame spraying method. In this method, fuel and oxygen under high pressure are supplied to a spraying gun, a supersonic stream of flame is jetted out of a fine nozzle, and spray particles are injected into the flame to impinge on the substrate surface at a very high speed for the formation of a coating. This method is advantageous in that the spray particles are higher in flying speed than in other spraying methods, that the produced coating is dense and close and excellent in adhesion, that the flame temperature is relatively low, and that the spray material is suppressed in terms of phase transformation, oxidation, and decomposition. This spraying technique is disadvantageous in that the spray materials that it can use are limited in variety because this method meets difficulties in spraying upon high melting-point metal or ceramics. This paper also outlines the spraying devices (chamber combustion type and throat combustion type) and the characteristics of produced coatings, and spray materials and their application (centering about carbide thermit spraying) are mentioned. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Evaluation of HVOF coatings

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    Mariana Landová


    Full Text Available Attention in this paper is devoted to the evaluation of wear coatings deposited using HVOF technology (high velocity oxy-fuel. There were evaluated three types of coatings based on WC-Co (next only 1343, WC-Co-Cr (next only 1350 and Cr3C2-25NiCr (next only 1375. There was assessed adherence of coatings, micro hardness, porosity and the tribological properties of erosive, abrasive, adhesive and wear resistance of coatings in terms of cyclic thermal load. Thanks to wide variety of suitable materials and their combinations, the area of utilization thermally sprayed coatings is very broad. It is possible to deposit coatings of various materials from pure metals to special alloys. The best results in the evaluated properties were achieved at the coating with the label 1375.

  14. Microstructural Characteristics and Tribological Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed Novel Fe-Based Alloy Coatings

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    Andrea Milanti


    Full Text Available Thermally-sprayed Fe-based coatings have shown their potential for use in wear applications due to their good tribological properties. In addition, these kinds of coatings have other advantages, e.g., cost efficiency and positive environmental aspects. In this study, the microstructural details and tribological performances of Fe-based coatings (Fe-Cr-Ni-B-C and Fe-Cr-Ni-B-Mo-C manufactured by High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF thermal spray process are evaluated. Traditional Ni-based (Ni-Cr-Fe-Si-B-C and hard-metal (WC-CoCr coatings were chosen as references. Microstructural investigation (field-emission scanning electron microscope FESEM and X-Ray diffractometry XRD reveals a high density and low oxide content for HVOF Fe-based coatings. Particle melting and rapid solidification resulted in a metastable austenitic phase with precipitates of mixed carbides and borides of chromium and iron which lead to remarkably high nanohardness. Tribological performances were evaluated by means of the ball on-disk dry sliding wear test, the rubber-wheel dry particle abrasion test, and the cavitation erosion wear test. A higher wear resistance validates Fe-based coatings as a future alternative to the more expensive and less environmentally friendly Ni-based alloys.

  15. Improvement of Surface Properties of Inconel718 by HVOF Coating with WC-Metal Powder and by Laser Heat Treatment of the Coating

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    Hui Gon Chun


    Full Text Available High-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF thermal spray coating with WC-metal powder was carried out by using optimal coating process on an Inconel718 surface for improvement of the surface properties, friction, wear, and corrosion resistance. Binder metals such as Cr and Ni were completely melted and WC was decomposed partially to W2C and graphite during the high temperature (up to 3500°C thermal spraying. The melted metals were bonded with WC and other carbides and were formed as WC-metal coating. The graphite and excessively sprayed oxygen formed carbon oxide gases, and these gases formed porous coating by evolution of the gases. The surface properties were improved by HVOF coating and were improved further by CO2 laser heat treatment (LH. Wear resistance of In718 surface was improved by coating and LH at 25°C and an elevated temperature of 450°C, resulting in reduction of wear trace traces, and was further improved by LH of the coating in reducing wear depth. Corrosion resistance due to coating in sea water was improved by LH. HVOF coating of WC-metal powder on a metal surface and a LH of the coating were highly recommended for the improvement of In718 surface properties, the friction behavior, and wear resistance.

  16. Electrochemical Study of Ni20Cr Coatings Applied by HVOF Process in ZnCl2-KCl at High Temperatures (United States)

    Porcayo-Calderón, J.; Sotelo-Mazón, O.; Casales-Diaz, M.; Ascencio-Gutierrez, J. A.; Salinas-Bravo, V. M.; Martinez-Gomez, L.


    Corrosion behavior of Ni20Cr coatings deposited by HVOF (high velocity oxygen-fuel) process was evaluated in ZnCl2-KCl (1 : 1 mole ratio) molten salts. Electrochemical techniques employed were potentiodynamic polarization curves, open circuit potential, and linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements. Experimental conditions included static air and temperatures of 350, 400, and 450°C. 304-type SS was evaluated in the same conditions as the Ni20Cr coatings and it was used as a reference material to assess the coatings corrosion resistance. Coatings were evaluated as-deposited and with a grinded surface finished condition. Results showed that Ni20Cr coatings have a better corrosion performance than 304-type SS. Analysis showed that Ni content of the coatings improved its corrosion resistance, and the low corrosion resistance of 304 stainless steel was attributed to the low stability of Fe and Cr and their oxides in the corrosive media used. PMID:25210645

  17. HVOF particle flow field characteristics

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    Swank, W.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Haggard, D.C. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Irons, G.; Bullock, R. [Hobart Tafa Technologies Inc., Concord, NH (United States)


    The effect of varying fuel/oxygen mixture ratio and combustion chamber pressure on the sprayed particle temperature and velocity in the supersonic, high pressure HVOF process is examined. Particle temperature is shown to correlate to the fuel/oxygen mixture and particle velocity is a function of combustion chamber pressure. inconel 718 coatings were fabricated at the same conditions as the particle measurements. High particle velocities resulted in high micro hardness. Deposition efficiency is a function of both particle temperature and velocity. The optimal deposition efficiency occurs at an average particle temperature which is below the melting point of Inconel 718 and the lowest velocity investigated. Oxide content is a function of substrate temperature and not entrained air or excess combustion oxygen.

  18. Deposition Mechanisms and Oxidation Behaviors of Ti-Ni Coatings Deposited in Low-Temperature HVOF Spraying Process (United States)

    Lin, Q. S.; Zhou, K. S.; Deng, C. M.; Liu, M.; Xu, L. P.; Deng, C. G.


    Three kinds of Ti-Ni powders were deposited on 316L stainless steel by low-temperature high-velocity oxygen fuel (LT-HVOF) spraying process, respectively. Deposition mechanisms and oxidation behaviors of the coatings were researched in this paper. The coating deposited from TiNi intermetallic powder had obvious laminar structure and the oxygen content was the highest among the three kinds of coatings. The oxygen content of the coating deposited from small-sized Ni-clad Ti powder was still high due to the melting of parts of particles. However, most of the coarse Ni-clad Ti powder was deposited in solid states without changes of chemical compositions and phase compositions. The oxygen content of the coating deposited from coarse Ni-clad Ti powder was the lowest among the three kinds of coatings. It indicated that the deposition behavior of the coating could effectively preserve the inner titanium from oxidation. The results of the present research demonstrated that it is entirely feasible to deposit active metal materials such as titanium and titanium alloy through the optimizing selection of powder in the LT-HVOF process.

  19. HVOF and HVAF Coatings of Agglomerated Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt Powders for Water Droplet Erosion Application (United States)

    Tarasi, F.; Mahdipoor, M. S.; Dolatabadi, A.; Medraj, M.; Moreau, C.


    Water droplet erosion (WDE) is a phenomenon caused by impingement of water droplets of several hundred microns to a few millimeters diameter at velocities of hundreds of meters per second on the edges and surfaces of the parts used in such services. The solution to this problem is sought especially for the moving compressor blades in gas turbines and those operating at the low-pressure end of steam turbines. Thermal-sprayed tungsten carbide-based coatings have been the focus of many studies and are industrially accepted for a multitude of wear and erosion resistance applications. In the present work, the microstructure, phase analysis and mechanical properties (micro-hardness and fracture toughness) of WC-Co coatings are studied in relation with their influence on the WDE resistance of such coatings. The coatings are deposited by high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) and high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) processes. The agglomerated tungsten carbide-cobalt powders were in either sintered or non-sintered conditions. The WDE tests were performed using 0.4 mm water droplets at 300 m/s impact velocity. The study shows promising results for this cermet as WDE-resistant coating when the coating can reach its optimum quality using the right thermal spray process and parameters.

  20. Performance characterization of metallic substrates coated by HVOF WC–Co

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    Venter, Andrew M., E-mail: [Research and Development Division, Necsa Limited, Pretoria (South Africa); School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa); DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa); Oladijo, O. Philip [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa); DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa); Luzin, Vladimir [ANSTO (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation), Lucas Height (Australia); Cornish, Lesley A.; Sacks, Natasha [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa); DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)


    Integral to the performance of high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) coatings is the thermo-mechanical interaction associated with the thermal misfit, or differences in thermal expansion coefficients (CTEs), between coating and substrate. This investigation reports results on the microstructures, chemical phase content, coating–substrate misfit residual stress, and wear resistance. For this purpose a systematic characterization of WC–Co sprayed coatings on a number of substrates covering a range of CTE values were pursued for both the as-coated and heat-treated conditions. The neutron diffraction technique in conjunction with sub-millimeter sized gauge volumes enabled depth-resolved studies of the stress in the coatings and substrates by paying special attention to the determination of the stress contribution attributed by the final spray process. In the as-coated condition the stress values in the coatings were compressive for CTEs larger than that of WC–Co and tensile for CTE lower than WC–Co. Wear resistance increased for increased compressive stress and macrohardness. In the heat-treated condition, this trend became enhanced due to increased compressive stress in the coatings. - Highlights: • Four different substrate systems coated with HVOF WC-Co has been investigated. • Each substrate set encompassed the grit-blast surface and as-coated conditions, as well as their heat-treated counterparts. • Microstructural, macrohardness, wear performance and depth-resolved residual stress characterised. • Successful application of neutron strain scanning to investigating the combined systems, coatings and substrates. • Link observed between macrohardness, residual stress and wear performance.

  1. HVOF gas flow field characteristics

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    Swank, W.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Haggard, D.C. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Irons, G. [Hobart Tafa Technologies Inc., Concord, NH (United States)


    The effects of combustion chamber pressure and fuel/oxygen mixture ratio on the characteristics of a high pressure, supersonic HVOF gun are examined experimentally and theoretically. The measured temperature, velocity and entrained air fraction are obtained from an enthalpy probe/mass spectrometer system. Predictions of combustion chamber flame temperature and composition are calculated with an equilibrium combustion model. Nozzle and barrel exit conditions are calculated using a one-dimensional rocket performance model. The calculations are bounded by the assumption of frozen and equilibrium compositions. Comparisons between measurements and the predictions indicate that the flow field is far from chemical equilibrium. The aerodynamic force available for accelerating a particle is primarily controlled by the chamber pressure while the composition and temperature of the gas surrounding the particles is controlled by the mixture ratio.

  2. Messier-Dowty/HVOF Implementation (United States)


    minimum: HVOF, grind, inspect & NDT 10 Direction / Reference / Date HVOF – SUPPLIERS REQUIREMENTS QUALIFICATION PROCESS • Supplier to present a plan with...material and machined to round axial specimens ( ASTM -E-466) • Supplier to spray the test samples • Supplier to sub-contract samples testing to approved M

  3. Corrosion behavior of HVOF sprayed hard face coatings in alkaline-sulfide solution (United States)

    Li, Shenhou; Guo, Zhixing; Xiong, Ji; Lei, Yong; Li, Yuxi; Tang, Jun; Liu, Junbo; Ye, Junliu


    The paper focuses on the corrosion behavior of high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed WC-17Co, WC-10Co-4Cr, Cr3C2-25NiCr coatings in alkaline-sulfide solution (S2-, 0.2 ml/L, pH = 10). Eighteen days of immersion test is carried out and corrosion rate analysis shows that the Cr3C2-NiCr coating of low porosity exhibits the best corrosion resistance. In alkaline-sulfide solutions, porosity, passive film and microgalvanic between hard phase and binder phase have significant effect on the corrosion behavior of coatings. The corrosion mainly occurs in binder phase from SEM, though WO3, WS2, Cr2S3 are detected in XPS. In WC-17Co coating, the binder phase Co transforms to Co oxides and serious corrosion can be observed in binder phase. WC-10Co-4Cr coatings suffer localized corrosion since galvanic corrosion occurs between locations with different solubilities of W in Co binder. Cr3C2-25NiCr coating shows slight corrosion with the formation of NiS/Ni2O3/Cr2O3from the binder and Cr2S3 from the hard phase. The results are verified by the polarization curves, which show the longest passive region and lowest Icorrosion of Cr3C2-25NiCr coating.

  4. Thermal Conductivity and Wear Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed Fe-Based Amorphous Coatings

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    Haihua Yao


    Full Text Available To protect aluminum parts in vehicle engines, metal-based thermal barrier coatings in the form of Fe59Cr12Nb5B20Si4 amorphous coatings were prepared by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF spraying under two different conditions. The microstructure, thermal transport behavior, and wear behavior of the coatings were characterized simultaneously. As a result, this alloy shows high process robustness during spraying. Both Fe-based coatings present dense, layered structure with porosities below 0.9%. Due to higher amorphous phase content, the coating H-1 exhibits a relatively low thermal conductivity, reaching 2.66 W/(m·K, two times lower than the reference stainless steel coating (5.85 W/(m·K, indicating a good thermal barrier property. Meanwhile, the thermal diffusivity of amorphous coatings display a limited increase with temperature up to 500 °C, which guarantees a steady and wide usage on aluminum alloy. Furthermore, the amorphous coating shows better wear resistance compared to high carbon martensitic GCr15 steel at different temperatures. The increased temperature accelerating the tribological reaction, leads to the friction coefficient and wear rate of coating increasing at 200 °C and decreasing at 400 °C.

  5. Wear behaviors of HVOF sprayed WC-12Co coatings by laser remelting under lubricated condition (United States)

    Dejun, Kong; Tianyuan, Sheng


    A HVOF (high velocity oxygen fuel) sprayed WC-12Co coating was remelted with a CO2 laser. The surface-interface morphologies and phases were analyzed by means of SEM (scanning electron microscopy), and XRD (X-ray diffraction), respectively. The friction and wear behaviors of WC-12Co coating under the dry and lubricated conditions were investigated with a wear test. The morphologies and distributions of chemical elements on worn scar were analyzed with a SEM, and its configured EDS (energy diffusive spectrometer), respectively, and the effects of lubricated condition on COFs (coefficient of friction) and wear performance were also discussed. The results show that the adhesion between the coating and the substrate is stronger after laser remetling (LR), in which mechanical bonding, accompanying with metallurgical bonding, was found. At the load of 80 N, the average COF under the dry and lubricated friction conditions is 0.069, and 0.052, respectively, the latter lowers by 23.3% than the former, and the wear rate under the lubricated condition decreases by 302.3% than that under the dry condition. The wear mechanism under the dry and lubrication conditions is primarily composed of abrasive wear, cracking, and fatigue failure.

  6. Numerical Study of Suspension HVOF Spray and Particle Behavior Near Flat and Cylindrical Substrates (United States)

    Jadidi, M.; Yeganeh, A. Zabihi; Dolatabadi, A.


    In thermal spray processes, it is demonstrated that substrate shape and location have significant effects on particle in-flight behavior and coatings quality. In the present work, the suspension high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying process is modeled using a three-dimensional two-way coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. Flat and cylindrical substrates are placed at different standoff distances, and particles characteristics near the substrates and upon impact are studied. Suspension is a mixture of ethanol, ethylene glycol, and mullite solid powder (3Al2O3·2SiO2) in this study. Suspension droplets with predefined size distribution are injected into the combustion chamber, and the droplet breakup phenomenon is simulated using Taylor analogy breakup model. Furthermore, the eddy dissipation model is used to model the premixed combustion of oxygen-propylene, and non-premixed combustion of oxygen-ethanol and oxygen-ethylene glycol. To simulate the gas phase turbulence, the realizable k-ɛ model is applied. In addition, as soon as the breakup and combustion phenomena are completed, the solid/molten mullite particles are tracked through the domain. It is shown that as the standoff distance increases the particle temperature and velocity decrease and the particle trajectory deviation becomes more significant. The effect of stagnation region on the particle velocity and temperature is also discussed in detail. The catch rate, which is defined as the ratio of the mass of landed particles to injected particles, is calculated for different substrate shapes and standoff distances in this study. The numerical results presented here is consistent with the experimental data in the literature for the same operating conditions.

  7. Numerical Study of Suspension HVOF Spray and Particle Behavior Near Flat and Cylindrical Substrates (United States)

    Jadidi, M.; Yeganeh, A. Zabihi; Dolatabadi, A.


    In thermal spray processes, it is demonstrated that substrate shape and location have significant effects on particle in-flight behavior and coatings quality. In the present work, the suspension high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying process is modeled using a three-dimensional two-way coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. Flat and cylindrical substrates are placed at different standoff distances, and particles characteristics near the substrates and upon impact are studied. Suspension is a mixture of ethanol, ethylene glycol, and mullite solid powder (3Al2O3·2SiO2) in this study. Suspension droplets with predefined size distribution are injected into the combustion chamber, and the droplet breakup phenomenon is simulated using Taylor analogy breakup model. Furthermore, the eddy dissipation model is used to model the premixed combustion of oxygen-propylene, and non-premixed combustion of oxygen-ethanol and oxygen-ethylene glycol. To simulate the gas phase turbulence, the realizable k-ɛ model is applied. In addition, as soon as the breakup and combustion phenomena are completed, the solid/molten mullite particles are tracked through the domain. It is shown that as the standoff distance increases the particle temperature and velocity decrease and the particle trajectory deviation becomes more significant. The effect of stagnation region on the particle velocity and temperature is also discussed in detail. The catch rate, which is defined as the ratio of the mass of landed particles to injected particles, is calculated for different substrate shapes and standoff distances in this study. The numerical results presented here is consistent with the experimental data in the literature for the same operating conditions.

  8. Oxygenated fuels mandate: marketers ponder additive strategy

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    Anderson, E.V.


    When Colorado created its mandatory oxygenated fuels program to combat cold-weather carbon monoxide pollution it did more than just take a giant step toward a cleaner environment. It created a training ground where refiners and producers of oxygenated fuel additives can sharpen their marketing skills for the time when other states and metropolitan areas also might decide to go the oxygenated fuels route. The Colorado oxygenated fuels program was a major reason why officials from more than a dozen states and cities, as well as scores of representatives from concerned companies, were attracted to last month's Conference on New Fuels for Cleaner Air, held in Arlington, VA. Although no one went away with definitive answers to all their questions it became apparent that the Colorado oxygenated fuels market will develop into a one-on-one battle between ethanol and MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether). The oxygen level of the fuel set by Colorado's new program probably gives MTBE the edge. The advantages of using MTBE are discussed.

  9. Electrochemical Study of Ni20Cr Coatings Applied by HVOF Process in ZnCl2-KCl at High Temperatures

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    J. Porcayo-Calderón


    Full Text Available Corrosion behavior of Ni20Cr coatings deposited by HVOF (high velocity oxygen-fuel process was evaluated in ZnCl2-KCl (1 : 1 mole ratio molten salts. Electrochemical techniques employed were potentiodynamic polarization curves, open circuit potential, and linear polarization resistance (LPR measurements. Experimental conditions included static air and temperatures of 350, 400, and 450°C. 304-type SS was evaluated in the same conditions as the Ni20Cr coatings and it was used as a reference material to assess the coatings corrosion resistance. Coatings were evaluated as-deposited and with a grinded surface finished condition. Results showed that Ni20Cr coatings have a better corrosion performance than 304-type SS. Analysis showed that Ni content of the coatings improved its corrosion resistance, and the low corrosion resistance of 304 stainless steel was attributed to the low stability of Fe and Cr and their oxides in the corrosive media used.

  10. Relationships between spray parameters, microstructures and ultrasonic cavitation erosion behavior of HVOF sprayed Fe-based amorphous/nanocrystalline coatings. (United States)

    Qiao, Lei; Wu, Yuping; Hong, Sheng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Shi, Wei; Zheng, Yugui


    Fe-based amorphous/nanocrystalline coatings were prepared on the AISI 321 steel substrate by the high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying technology. The effect of selected parameters (oxygen flow, kerosene flow and spray distance) on the cavitation erosion resistance (denoted as Rc) of the coating were investigated by using the Taguchi method. Statistical tools such as design of experiments (DOE), signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to meet the expected objective. It was concluded that the kerosene flow had greater influence on the Rc of the coating and followed by the spray distance and the oxygen flow, respectively. The optimum spray parameters (OSP) were 963L/min for the oxygen flow, 28L/h for the kerosene flow, and 330mm for the spray distance. The Rc of the coating increased with the increase of hardness or the decrease of porosity, and the hardness had a greater influence on Rc than the porosity. The Fe-based coating deposited under the OSP exhibited the best cavitation erosion resistance in distilled water. The cracks initiated at the edge of the pores and the interfaces between the un-melted or half-melted particles, and finally leaded to the delamination of the coating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Properties of Plasma and HVOF Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Żórawski


    Full Text Available The work compares the properties of plasma and HVOF thermally sprayed coatings obtained by blending the NiCrBSi and Fe2O3 powders. The deposition was performed by means of the Plancer PN-120 and the Diamond Jet guns for plasma spraying and HVOF spraying respectively. The SEM (EDS method was employed to study the microstructure of the produced coatings. Although the blended powders differ in particle size, shape, and distribution, it is possible to obtain composite coatings with an NiCrBSi matrix containing iron oxides. Except for a different microstructure, plasma and HVOF coatings have a different phase composition, which was examined using the Bruker D-8 Advance diffractometer. Studies of the coatings wear and scuffing resistance showed that an optimal content of Fe2O3 is about 26 % for plasma sprayed coatings and 22.5 % for HVOF deposited coatings.

  12. Evaluation of the CR{sub 3}C{sub 2}(NICR) coating deposited on S4400 with the HVOF process for PEM fuel flow plates; Evaluacion del recubrimiento CR{sub 3}C{sub 2}(NICR) depositado sobre S4400 por el proceso HVOF para placas de flujo de celdas de combustible PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon Belmonte, M.; Perez Quiroz, J.T. [Instituto Mexicano del Transporte, Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Porcayo Calderon, J. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Orozco, G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica S. C., Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)


    This research studied the behavior of Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}(NiCr) coating deposited on S4400 with the HVOF (High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel) thermal projection process. Coating was applied after the surface of the plate was prepared with ceramic granulated metal burst according to norm NACE No. 1/ SSPC-SP 5 and cleaned with acetone. The electrolyte used was an H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0,5 M + 2 ppm F{sup -} solution at ambient temperature. Mercury sulfate (Hg{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) electrode was used as the reference electrode and the counter electrode used was a graphite bar. To study the electrochemical behavior, polarization curves were generated with a sweep speed of 0.15 mV/s, according to norms ASTM G5 and ASTM G59. Before testing, the Ecorr was measured with a high impedance multimeter (10{sup 6}). The morphological aspect of the coating evaluated was analyzed with SEM (sweep electron microscopy). Based on the obtained icorr values of 1.7*10{sup -4} mA/cm{sup 2} for a period of 576 hours, we can state that this coating meets the criteria for resistance to corrosion required by the DOE (U.S. Department of Energy) for consideration of its use in PEM fuel cell flow plates. [Spanish] En esta investigacion se estudio el comportamiento del recubrimiento Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}(NiCr), depositado sobre S4400 mediante el proceso de proyeccion termica HVOF (High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel). Previo a la aplicacion del recubrimiento, la placa fue preparada superficialmente mediante rafaga de granalla ceramica de acuerdo con la norma NACE No. 1/ SSPC-SP 5, limpiada con acetona y en esta condicion se procedio a la aplicacion del recubrimiento. El electrolito empleado fue una solucion de H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0,5 M + 2 ppm F{sup -} a temperatura ambiente, como electrodo de referencia se empleo un electrodo de sulfato mercuroso (Hg{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) y como contraelectrodo una barra de grafito. Para estudiar el comportamiento electroquimico se realizaron curvas de polarizacion con una velocidad de barrido de 0

  13. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of VPS and HVOF CoNiCrAlY Coatings (United States)

    Saeidi, S.; Voisey, K. T.; McCartney, D. G.


    In this study, high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) coatings were sprayed using a Praxair (CO-210-24) CoNiCrAlY powder. Free-standing coatings underwent vacuum annealing at different temperatures for times of up to 840 h. Feedstock powder, and as-sprayed and annealed coatings, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The hardness and Young's modulus of the as-sprayed and the annealed HVOF and VPS coatings were measured, including the determination of Young's moduli of the individual phases via nanoindentation and measurements of Young's moduli of coatings at temperatures up to 500 °C. The Eshelby inclusion model was employed to investigate the effect of microstructure on the coatings' mechanical properties. The sensitivity of the mechanical properties to microstructural details was confirmed. Young's modulus was constant up to ~200 °C, and then decreased with increasing measurement temperature. The annealing process increased Young's modulus because of a combination of decreased porosity and β volume fraction. Oxide stringers in the HVOF coating maintained its higher hardness than the VPS coating, even after annealing.

  14. Efecto del tratamiento térmico posterior sobre la resistencia al desgaste por deslizamiento de un recubrimiento base níquel depositado por HVOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadenas, P.


    Full Text Available In the present research, a nickel base coating was deposited on an AISI 1020 substrate by using high velocity oxy-fuel technique (HVOF. The coating was subsequently post heat -treated by means of an oxyacetylene flame. For the conditions evaluated in the present study, it was found that the CTT coating has 1,15 better wear resistance for the smaller level of the applied load and nearly 50 times for the highest level of the applied load when compared to the STT coatings. These results have been attributed to a better distribution of the hard phases, better cohesion between particles and an increase in hardness, as consequence of the post heat treatment process. A severe wear regime was found for all the samples since the wear rates presented values which were higher than 1·10-5 mm3/m. For the CTT coatings, the wear mechanism was mainly due to the adhesion and oxidation phenomena, meanwhile for the steel counterpart mechanisms such oxidation, grooving and three body abrasion were observed.

    En el presente trabajo, se depositó un recubrimiento base níquel sobre un acero AISI 1020 por la técnica de termorrociado de alta velocidad que utiliza oxígeno como combustible (High Velocity Oxygen Fuel - HVOF y, posteriormente, fue tratado térmicamente mediante llama oxiacetilénica. Para las condiciones evaluadas en este estudio, se encontró que el recubrimiento CTT tiene desde 1,15 veces más resistencia al desgaste, para el menor nivel de carga aplicada y mayor velocidad de deslizamiento y, hasta 50 veces más resistencia al desgaste para el mayor nivel carga aplicada y mayor velocidad de deslizamiento, comparado con el recubrimiento STT. Estos resultados se atribuyeron a una mejor distribución de las fases endurecedoras, una mejor cohesión entre partículas y un aumento en la microdureza del recubrimiento, como consecuencia del tratamiento térmico posterior. El régimen de desgaste presente en todas las muestras fue severo, ya que las

  15. Nd:YOV4 laser polishing on WC-Co HVOF coating (United States)

    Giorleo, L.; Ceretti, E.; Montesano, L.; La Vecchia, G. M.


    WC/Co coatings are widely applied to different types of components due to their extraordinary performance properties including high hardness and wear properties. In industrial applications High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) technique is extensively used to deposit hard metal coatings. The main advantage of HVOF compared to other thermal spray techniques is the ability to accelerate the melted powder particles of the feedstock material at a relatively high velocity, leading to obtain good adhesion and low porosity level. However, despite the mentioned benefits, the surface finish quality of WC-Co HVOF coatings results to be poor (Ra higher than 5 µm) thus a mechanical polishing process is often needed. The main problem is that the high hardness of coating leads the polishing process expensive in terms of time and tool wear; moreover polishing becomes difficult and not always possible in case of limited accessibility of a part, micro dimensions or undercuts. Nowadays a different technique available to improve surface roughness is the laser polishing process. The polishing principle is based on focused radiation of a laser beam that melts a microscopic layer of surface material. Compared to conventional polishing process (as grinding) it ensures the possibility of avoiding tool wear, less pollution (no abrasive or liquids), no debris, less machining time and coupled with a galvo system it results to be more suitable in case of 3D complex workpieces. In this paper laser polishing process executed with a Nd:YOV4 Laser was investigated: the effect of different process parameters as initial coating morphology, laser scan speed and loop cycles were tested. Results were compared by a statistical approach in terms of average roughness along with a morphological analysis carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) investigation coupled with EDS spectra.

  16. Thermally regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell power cycles (United States)

    Morehouse, J. H.


    Two innovative thermodynamic power cycles are analytically examined for future engineering feasibility. The power cycles use a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell for electrical energy production and use the thermal dissociation of water for regeneration of the hydrogen and oxygen. The TDS (thermal dissociation system) uses a thermal energy input at over 2000 K to thermally dissociate the water. The other cycle, the HTE (high temperature electrolyzer) system, dissociates the water using an electrolyzer operating at high temperature (1300 K) which receives its electrical energy from the fuel cell. The primary advantages of these cycles is that they are basically a no moving parts system, thus having the potential for long life and high reliability, and they have the potential for high thermal efficiency. Both cycles are shown to be classical heat engines with ideal efficiency close to Carnot cycle efficiency. The feasibility of constructing actual cycles is investigated by examining process irreversibilities and device efficiencies for the two types of cycles. The results show that while the processes and devices of the 2000 K TDS exceed current technology limits, the high temperature electrolyzer system appears to be a state-of-the-art technology development. The requirements for very high electrolyzer and fuel cell efficiencies are seen as determining the feasbility of the HTE system, and these high efficiency devices are currently being developed. It is concluded that a proof-of-concept HTE system experiment can and should be conducted.

  17. Tribaloy alloy reinforced tin-bronze composite coating for journal bearing applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, F; Liu, R; Wu, X.J


    .... The improved-ductility Tribaloy alloy (T-401) particles are selected as the reinforcement. This coating is made on the bushing of planet journals used in aerospace engines, deposited with the high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF...

  18. [Effects of oxygenated fuels on emissions and carbon composition of fine particles from diesel engine]. (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Yan; He, Ke-Bin; Zhang, Jie; Ge, Yun-Shan; Tan, Jian-Wei


    Acetal (1,1-diethoxyethane) is considered as an alternative to ethanol as bio-derived additive for diesel fuel, which is miscible in diesel fuel. Biodiesel can improve the oxygen content and flash point of the fuel blend of acetal and diesel fuel. Two oxygenated fuels were prepared: a blend of 10% acetal + 90% diesel fuel and 10% acetal + 10% biodiesel + 80% diesel fuel. The emissions of NO(x), HC and PM2.5 from oxygenated fuels were investigated on a diesel engine bench at five modes according to various loads at two steady speeds and compared with base diesel fuel. Additionally, the carbon compositions of PM2.5 were analyzed by DRI thermal/optical carbon analyzer. Oxygenated fuels have unconspicuous effect on NO(x) emission rate but HC emission rate is observed significantly increased at some modes. The emission rate of PM2.5 is decreased by using oxygenated fuels and it decreases with the increase of fuel oxygen content. The emission rates of TC (total carbon) and EC (elemental carbon) in PM2.5 are also decreased by oxygenated fuels. The emission rate of organic carbon (OC) is greatly decreased at modes of higher engine speed. The OC/EC ratios of PM2.5 from oxygenated fuels are higher than that from base diesel fuel at most modes. The carbon compositions fractions of PM2.5 from the three test fuels are similar, and OC1 and EC1 are contributed to the most fractions of OC and EC, respectively. Compared with base diesel fuel, oxygenated fuels decrease emission rate of PM2.5, and have more OC contribution to PM2.5 but have little effect on carbon composition fractions.

  19. Comparison of the characteristics of HVOF and plasma thermal spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fincke, J.R.; Swank, W.D.; Haggard, D.C. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    In spraying oxygen sensitive materials, such as WC:Co it is often observed that the carbide fraction present in the deposit is significantly less than in the original particles. This lowers the hardness of the coating, resulting in inferior wear resistance. The cause is the in-flight, high temperature decomposition of carbides by reaction with entrained oxygen. The degree of decomposition is determined by a combination of particle temperature, residence time and entrainment characteristics of the jet. The fundamental differences between HVOF and plasma thermal spray are examined in this context. Even though the HVOF process may actually subject a particle to greater oxygen exposure than plasma spraying, the lower particle temperatures experienced lead to coatings which exhibit less carbide loss than plasma sprayed coatings fabricated in air.

  20. Durability of multi layered plasma and HVOF coatings


    Al-Mutairi, Sultan A.


    The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of variable compositional coating layers on their mechanical and chemical behaviour under certain environments typically experienced in the Oil and Gas Industry. The research centers on using thermal spray coating techniques such as the HVOF and plasma spray equipment. The coating was applied onto selected carbon steel substrates (API-5L, Schedule-40, Grade-B) to simulate the material application used in oil and gas components that subjec...

  1. Fireside Corrosion Behavior of HVOF and Plasma-Sprayed Coatings in Advanced Coal/Biomass Co-Fired Power Plants (United States)

    Hussain, T.; Dudziak, T.; Simms, N. J.; Nicholls, J. R.


    This article presents a systematic evaluation of coatings for advanced fossil fuel plants and addresses fireside corrosion in coal/biomass-derived flue gases. A selection of four candidate coatings: alloy 625, NiCr, FeCrAl and NiCrAlY were deposited onto superheaters/reheaters alloy (T91) using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and plasma spraying. A series of laboratory-based fireside corrosion exposures were carried out on these coated samples in furnaces under controlled atmosphere for 1000 h at 650 °C. The tests were carried out using the "deposit-recoat" test method to simulate the environment that was anticipated from air-firing 20 wt.% cereal co-product mixed with a UK coal. The exposures were carried out using a deposit containing Na2SO4, K2SO4, and Fe2O3 to produce alkali-iron tri-sulfates, which had been identified as the principal cause of fireside corrosion on superheaters/reheaters in pulverized coal-fired power plants. The exposed samples were examined in an ESEM with EDX analysis to characterize the damage. Pre- and post-exposure dimensional metrologies were used to quantify the metal damage in terms of metal loss distributions. The thermally sprayed coatings suffered significant corrosion attack from a combination of aggressive combustion gases and deposit mixtures. In this study, all the four plasma-sprayed coatings studied performed better than the HVOF-sprayed coatings because of a lower level of porosity. NiCr was found to be the best performing coating material with a median metal loss of ~87 μm (HVOF sprayed) and ~13 μm (plasma sprayed). In general, the median metal damage for coatings had the following ranking (in the descending order: most to the least damage): NiCrAlY > alloy 625 > FeCrAl > NiCr.

  2. SPE (tm) regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications (United States)

    Mcelroy, J. F.


    Viewgraphs on SPE regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells for extraterrestrial surface and microgravity applications are presented. Topics covered include: hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system; electrochemical cell reactions; SPE cell voltage stability; passive water removal SPE fuel cell; fuel cell performance; SPE water electrolyzers; hydrophobic oxygen phase separator; hydrophilic/electrochemical hydrogen phase separator; and unitized regenerative fuel cell.

  3. Design Optimization of Liquid Fueled High Velocity Oxy- Fuel Thermal Spraying Technique for Durable Coating for Fossil Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Love, Norman [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)


    High-velocity oxy–fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying was developed in 1930 and has been commercially available for twenty-five years. HVOF thermal spraying has several benefits over the more conventional plasma spray technique including a faster deposition rate which leads to quicker turn-around, with more durable coatings and higher bond strength, hardness and wear resistance due to a homogeneous distribution of the sprayed particles. HVOF thermal spraying is frequently used in engineering to deposit cermets, metallic alloys, composites and polymers, to enhance product life and performance. HVOF thermal spraying system is a highly promising technique for applying durable coatings on structural materials for corrosive and high temperature environments in advanced ultra-supercritical coal- fired (AUSC) boilers, steam turbines and gas turbines. HVOF thermal spraying is the preferred method for producing coatings with low porosity and high adhesion. HVOF thermal spray process has been shown to be one of the most efficient techniques to deposit high performance coatings at moderate cost. Variables affecting the deposit formation and coating properties include hardware characteristics such as nozzle geometry and spraying distance and process parameters such as equivalence ratio, gas flow density, and powder feedstock. In the spray process, the powder particles experience very high speeds combined with fast heating to the powder material melting point or above. This high temperature causes evaporation of the powder, dissolution, and phase transformations. Due to the complex nature of the HVOF technique, the control and optimization of the process is difficult. In general, good coating quality with suitable properties and required performance for specific applications is the goal in producing thermal spray coatings. In order to reach this goal, a deeper understanding of the spray process as a whole is needed. Although many researchers studied commercial HVOF thermal spray

  4. Mechanical Property of HVOF Inconel 718 Coating for Aeronautic Repair (United States)

    Lyphout, Christophe; Fasth, Angelica; Nylen, Per


    The module of elasticity is one of the most important mechanical properties defining the strength of a material which is a prerequisite to design a component from its early stage of conception to its field of application. When a material is to be thermally sprayed, mechanical properties of the deposited layers differ from the bulk material, mainly due to the anisotropy of the highly textured coating microstructure. The mechanical response of the deposited layers significantly influences the overall performance of the coated component. It is, therefore, of importance to evaluate the effective module of elasticity of the coating. Conventional experimental methods such as microindentation, nanoindentation and four-point bending tests have been investigated and their results vary significantly, mainly due to inhomogeneous characteristics of the coating microstructure. Synchrotron radiation coupled with a tensile test rig has been proposed as an alternative method to determine the coating anisotropic elastic behavior dependence on crystallographic orientations. The investigation was performed on Inconel 718 (IN718) HVOF coatings sprayed on IN718 substrates. Combining these experimental techniques yield a deeper understanding of the nature of the HVOF coating Young's modulus and thus a tool for Design Practice for repair applications.

  5. Study and development of a hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell in solid polymer electrolyte technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosdale, R.


    The hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell appears today as the best candidate to the replacing of the internal combustion engine for automobile traction. This system uses the non explosive electrochemical recombination of hydrogen and oxygen. It is a clean generator whom only reactive product is water. This thesis shows a theoretical study of this system, the synthesis of different kinds of used electrodes and finally an analysis of water movements in polymer electrolyte by different original technologies. 70 refs., 73 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. Erosion behaviour of WC–10Co–4Cr coating on 23-8-N nitronic steel by HVOF thermal spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Avnish, E-mail: [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302017 (India); Sharma, Ashok, E-mail: [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302017 (India); Goel, S.K., E-mail: [Star Wire India Ltd., Ballabgarh, Haryana 121404 (India)


    Highlights: • WC–10Co–4Cr powder was HVOF sprayed on cast and solution treated 23-8-N nitronic steel. • Coated solution treated 23-8-N steel shows homogeneous microstructure, less decarburization and high fracture toughness as compared to coated cast steel. • Erosion behaviour of both coated steels was evaluated at two different impact angles. • Coated solution treated 23-8-N nitronic steel exhibits higher erosion resistance as compared to coated cast steel. • Key erosion resistance factors: homogeneous and well-bonded structure, high fracture toughness, optimum substrate properties. - Abstract: WC–10Co–4Cr coating was deposited by high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process on cast and solution treated (1220 °C/150 min) 23-8-N nitronic steel substrates. Solution treated substrate has shown higher toughness, ductility and impact energy with a marginal reduction in hardness as compared to cast substrate. This influence the coating deposition efficiency and erosion behaviour. Erosion resistance of coatings was evaluated by air jet erosion tester on two different impact angles (30° and 90°). Phases, microstructure and eroded surface of the coating were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) respectively. It is observed that coating on solution treated substrate was superior to cast substrate. The reason being that coating has dense and well-bonded structure with low porosity, less decarburization and inter-splat oxidation. Higher erosion resistance of coated solution treated 23-8-N nitronic steel was attributed to combination of high fracture toughness and hardness of coating including optimum mechanical properties of the substrate. FESEM analysis reveals that erosion response of WC–10Co–4Cr coating also dependent on the relative size of the impact crater with respect to the WC grain size. Coating is removed by combined mode of ductile and brittle erosion.

  7. Mejora de la resistencia al desgaste de aleaciones de aluminio mediante recubrimientos obtenidos por proyección térmica HVOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picas, J. A.


    Full Text Available This project is concerned with the investigation of the capability of HVOF thermal spraying to improve wear properties of aluminium alloys. CCr-NiCr and WC-Co-Cr were tested as coating materials. The adherence and coating microstructure were characterized by optical and SEM microscopy. The ultra-microindentation technique was applied to measure the mechanical properties of the coating. Experiments using a tribometer (pin on disc configuration under lubricated and dry conditions have been performed in order to evaluate the friction and wear properties of the different coatings.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es investigar la posibilidad de mejorar la resistencia al desgaste de las aleaciones de aluminio mediante la utilización de recubrimientos de CCr-NiCr y WC-Co-Cr depositados por proyección térmica, HVOF (High velocity oxγ-fuel. La microestructura y adherencia de los recubrimientos se ha analizado por microscopía óptica y electrónica (SEM. Las características mecánicas de los recubrimientos se han determinado mediante ensayos de ultra-microdureza y el análisis tribológico (coeficiente de fricción y resistencia al desgaste se ha realizado empleando un tribómetro Pin on disc (con y sin lubricación.

  8. Tribología de recubrimientos Cermet/NiCrBSi depositados mediante HVOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilemany, J. M.


    Full Text Available This work consists on a deep tribological study of the WX system composed by a mechanical blend in different compositions of NiCrBSi and WC-12Co powders: 20% NiCrBSi (W2, 40% NiCrBSi (W4 y 60% NiCrBSi (W6. The coatings have been obtained by high velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF. The measurements made by Ball-On-Disk test are: the friction coefficient is lower than 0.5 and the exchanged energy between the counterparts is under 10 KJ. To quantify the friction wear rate, the volume loss and the track depth, Scanning White Light Interferometry and SEM have been used. The track depth is proportional to the amount of NiCrBSi. A higher percentage of WC-12Co increases the friction wear resistance and decreases the abrasion wear rate (Rubber Wheel test. In all the coatings studied, no diffusion processes are found between the mixed phases, the adhesion between the coatings and the substrate is excellent, the porosity level is below 2% and an increase of microhardness of the coating due to a strengthening of the matrix produced by impacts of solid particles, takes place.

    El trabajo consta de un completo estudio tribológico del sistema WX que consiste en la mezcla mecánica de WC-12Co y NiCrBSi en diferentes proporciones: 20% NiCrBSi (W2, 40% NiCrBSi (W4 y 60% NiCrBSi (W6. Los recubrimientos se han obtenido por proyección térmica de alta velocidad (HVOF. Para todos los sistemas, el coeficiente de fricción es menor que 0.5 y la energía intercambiada entre el par friccionante y el recubrimiento es inferior a 10 KJ. Para cuantificar el desgaste por fricción se han utilizado la profundidad de la huella y el volumen perdido durante el ensayo, obtenidos mediante Interferometría de Barrido de Luz Blanca (SLWI y SEM. La profundidad de la huella sigue una evolución directamente proporcional al contenido en NiCrBSi. Un mayor contenido en WC-12Co aumenta la resistencia al desgaste por fricción y disminuye la velocidad de desgaste por abrasión (ensayo

  9. Final Report: Cathode Catalysis in Hydrogen/Oxygen Fuel Cells: New Catalysts, Mechanism, and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gewirth, Andrew A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Kenis, Paul J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Nuzzo, Ralph G. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Rauchfuss, Thomas B. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    In this research, we prosecuted a comprehensive plan of research directed at developing new catalysts and new understandings relevant to the operation of low temperature hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. The focal point of this work was one centered on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR), the electrochemical process that most fundamentally limits the technological utility of these environmentally benign energy conversion devices. Over the period of grant support, we developed new ORR catalysts, based on Cu dimers and multimers. In this area, we developed substantial new insight into design rules required to establish better ORR materials, inspired by the three-Cu active site in laccase which has the highest ORR onset potential of any material known. We also developed new methods of characterization for the ORR on conventional (metal-based) catalysts. Finally, we developed a new platform to study the rate of proton transfer relevant to proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions, of which the ORR is an exemplar. Other aspects of work involved theory and prototype catalyst testing.

  10. Co-combustion of biodiesel with oxygenated fuels in direct injection diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutak Wojciech


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental investigation of cocombustion process of biodiesel (B100 blended with oxygenated fuels with 20% in volume. As the alternative fuels ware used hydrated ethanol, methanol, 1-butanol and 2-propanol. It was investigated the influence of used blends on operating parameters of the test engine and exhaust emission (NOx, CO, THC, CO2. It is observed that used blends are characterized by different impact on engine output power and its efficiency. Using biodiesel/alcohol blend it is possible to improve engine efficiency with small drop in indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP. Due to combustion characteristic of biodiesel/alcohol obtained a slightly larger specific NOx emission. It was also observed some differences in combustion phases due to various values of latent heat of evaporation of used alcohols and various oxygen contents. Test results confirmed that the combustion process occurring in the diesel engine powered by blend takes place in a shorter time than in the typical diesel engine.

  11. Comparative of the Tribological Performance of Hydraulic Cylinders Coated by the Process of Thermal Spray HVOF and Hard Chrome Plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Castro


    Full Text Available Due to the necessity of obtaining a surface that is resistant to wear and oxidation, hydraulic cylinders are typically coated with hard chrome through the process of electroplating process. However, this type of coating shows an increase of the area to support sealing elements, which interferes directly in the lubrication of the rod, causing damage to the seal components and bringing oil leakage. Another disadvantage in using the electroplated hard chromium process is the presence of high level hexavalent chromium Cr+6 which is not only carcinogenic, but also extremely contaminating to the environment. Currently, the alternative process of high-speed thermal spraying (HVOF - High Velocity Oxy-Fuel, uses composite materials (metal-ceramic possessing low wear rates. Research has shown that some mechanical properties are changed positively with the thermal spray process in industrial applications. It is evident that a coating based on WC has upper characteristics as: wear resistance, low friction coefficient, with respect to hard chrome coatings. These characteristics were analyzed by optical microscopy, roughness measurements and wear test.

  12. Performance of vacuum plasma spray and HVOF bond coatings at 900° and 1100 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance, Michael J. [ORNL; Haynes, James A. [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A. [ORNL


    The effects of Ti and B additions to a vacuum plasma sprayed (VPS) NiCoCrAlYHfSi bond coating on thermal barrier coating (TBC) performance were studied at 1100 °C and 900 °C and compared to high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) bond coatings. Using alloy 247 substrates and air plasma sprayed Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 top coatings, additions of B or Ti + B did not improve the average TBC lifetime in 1-h cycles at 1100 °C in air with 10% H2O. The addition of Ti resulted in a decrease in lifetime. Photo-stimulated luminescence spectroscopy was used to map residual stresses in the thermally-grown Al2O3 scale. At 900 °C, closer to a typical land based turbine operating bond coating temperature, specimens were examined after ten 500-h cycles in laboratory air and air with 10%H2O to study the effect of H2O. The addition of water vapor had little effect on the measured parabolic rate constants at 900 °C and a comparison of the oxide microstructures in both environments is reported.

  13. Physicochemical Characteristics of Dust Particles in HVOF Spraying and Occupational Hazards: Case Study in a Chinese Company (United States)

    Huang, Haihong; Li, Haijun; Li, Xinyu


    Dust particles generated in thermal spray process can cause serious health problems to the workers. Dust particles generated in high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spraying WC-Co coatings were characterized in terms of mass concentrations, particle size distribution, micro morphologies, and composition. Results show that the highest instantaneous exposure concentration of dust particles in the investigated thermal spray workshop is 140 mg/m3 and the time-weighted average concentration is 34.2 mg/m3, which are approximately 8 and 4 times higher than the occupational exposure limits in China, respectively. The large dust particles above 10 μm in size present a unique morphology of polygonal or irregular block of crushed powder, and smaller dust particles mainly exist in the form of irregular or flocculent agglomerates. Some heavy metals, such as chromium, cobalt, and nickel, are also found in the air of the workshop and their concentrations are higher than the limits. Potential occupational hazards of the dust particles in the thermal spray process are further analyzed based on their characteristics and the workers' exposure to the nanoparticles is assessed using a control banding tool.

  14. Corrosion resistance of Ni-50Cr HVOF coatings on 310S alloy substrates in a metal dusting atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saaedi, J. [Centre for Advanced Coating Technologies, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada); Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arabi, H.; Mirdamadi, S.; Ghorbani, H. [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Coyle, T.W. [Centre for Advanced Coating Technologies, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada)


    Metal dusting attack has been examined after three 168 h cycles on two Ni-50Cr coatings with different microstructures deposited on 310S alloy substrates by the high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal-spray process. Metal dusting in uncoated 310S alloy specimens was found to be still in the initiation stage after 504 h of exposure in the 50H{sub 2}:50CO gas environment at 620 C. Dense Ni-50Cr coatings offered suitable resistance to metal dusting. Metal dusting was observed in the 310S substrates adjacent to pores at the interface between the substrate and a porous Ni-50Cr coating. The porosity present in the as-deposited coatings was shown to introduce a large variability into coating performance. Carbon formed by decomposition of the gaseous species accumulated in the surface pores and resulted in the dislodgement of surface splats due to stresses generated by the volume changes. When the corrosive gas atmosphere was able to penetrate through the interconnected pores and reach the coating-substrate interface, the 310S substrate was carburized, metal dusting attack occurred, and the resulting formation of coke in the pores led to local failure of the coating. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Modelizacion de la formación de recubrimientos de WC-Co por proyección HVOF sobre sustratos de cobre

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    Sobolev, V. V.


    Full Text Available Present paper deals with the mathematical simulation of the heat transfer between a WC-Co coating and a copper substrate during HVOF spraying. This modelling includes the investigation of temperature variation, coating solidification, melting and subsequent solidification in the substrate interfacial region and specific features of the substrate-coating thermal interaction. The results obtained are used for modelling of the development of the coating structure and adhesion during HVOF spraying of the WC-Co powder on a copper substrate. Two types of substrate were considered: smooth (polished and rough. Variations of solidification times, solidification velocity, thermal gradient and cooling velocity in the coating and substrate interfacial region are studied. Development of the amorphous and crystalline structures in the coating and of the crystalline structure in the substrate interfacial region is discussed. Behaviour of the crystal size and intercrystalline distance with respect to the thermal spray parameters and morphology of the substrate surface is analyzed. Optimal conditions for the formation of fine and dense crystalline structure are determined. Structural changes in the solid state of the substrate occurring because of heating and rapid cooling are considered. Mechanical and thermal mechanisms of development of the substrate-coating adhesion are discussed. Results obtained agree well with experimental data.

    En el presente trabajo se ha investigado la simulación matemática de la transferencia de calor entre un recubrimiento de WC-Co y un sustrato de cobre durante la proyección HVOF. Este modelo incluye el estudio de la variación de termperatura, solidificación del recubrimiento, la fusión y posterior solidificación en la región interfacial del sustrato, y caracerísticas especiales de la interacción térmica sustrato- recubrimiento. Los resultados obtenidos han sido utilizados en la modelización del desarrollo de la

  16. The Cold Gas-Dynamic Spray and Characterization of Microcrystalline and Nanocrystalline Copper Alloys (United States)


    Velocity Oxygen Fuel [HVOF] Spray, Plasma Spray and Wire Arc Spray) and classic welding have potentially serious shortcomings, either from a mechanical...equiaxed particle formation, random welding of powder particles, and steady state deformation, during which a balance between fracture and cold...process are well understood, the effects of feedstock powder microstructure and composition on the deposition process remain largely unknown. In

  17. The Effect of Heat Treatment on the Oxidation Behavior of HVOF and VPS CoNiCrAlY Coatings (United States)

    Saeidi, S.; Voisey, K. T.; McCartney, D. G.


    Free-standing VPS and HVOF CoNiCrAlY coatings were produced. The as-sprayed HVOF coating retained the γ/β microstructure of the feedstock powder, and the VPS coating consisted of a single (γ) phase. A 3-h, 1100 °C heat treatment in vacuum converted the single-phase VPS coating to a two-phase γ/β microstructure and coarsened the γ/β microstructure of the HVOF coating. Oxidation of free-standing as-sprayed and heat-treated coatings of each type was carried out in air at 1100 °C for a duration of 100 h. Parabolic rate constant(s), K p, were determined for free-standing, as-sprayed VPS and HVOF coatings as well as for free-standing coatings that were heat treated prior to oxidation. The observed increase in K p following heat treatment is attributed to a sintering effect eliminating porosity from the coating during heat treatment. The lower K p values determined for both HVOF coatings compared to the VPS coatings is attributed to the presence of oxides in the HVOF coatings, which act as the barrier to diffusion. Oxidation of the as-sprayed coatings produced a dual-layer oxide consisting of an inner α-Al2O3 layer and outer spinel layer. Oxidation of the heat-treated samples resulted in a single-layer oxide, α-Al2O3. The formation of a thin α-Al2O3 layer during heat treatment appeared to prevent nucleation and growth of spinel oxides during subsequent oxidation.

  18. Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Resistance of HVOF Sprayed Coatings Using Nanostructured Carbide Powders

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    Żórawski W.


    Full Text Available Nanostructured and composite WC-12Co coatings were prepared by means of the supersonic spray process (HVOF. The microstructure and composition of WC-12Co nanostructured powder were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. Investigations revealed nano grains of WC with the size in the range of 50-500 nm. The nanostructured sprayed coating was analysed by SEM and phase composition was investigated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD. A denser coating structure with higher hardness was observed compared to conventional coating with a small amount of W2C, WC1−x, W and some amorphous phase. Young’s modulus and hardness were determined by depth sensing indentation in HVOF sprayed WC-12Co nanostructured coatings. Results were compared to conventional coatings and the relevance of the nanostructure was analyzed. An indentation size effect was observed on the polished surface and cross-section of both coatings. Data provided by indentation tests at maximum load allow to estimate hardness and elastic modulus. Enhanced nanomechanical properties of conventional coating in comparison to nanostructured one were observed. Nanostructured coatings WC-12Co (N revealed significantly better corrosion resistance.

  19. Tribo-Mechanical Properties of HVOF Deposited Fe3Al Coatings Reinforced with TiB2 Particles for Wear-Resistant Applications

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    Mahdi Amiriyan


    Full Text Available This study reveals the effect of TiB2 particles on the mechanical and tribological properties of Fe3Al-TiB2 composite coatings against an alumina counterpart. The feedstock was produced by milling Fe3Al and TiB2 powders in a high energy ball mill. The high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF technique was used to deposit the feedstock powder on a steel substrate. The effect of TiB2 addition on mechanical properties and dry sliding wear rates of the coatings at sliding speeds ranging from 0.04 to 0.8 m·s−1 and loads of 3, 5 and 7 N was studied. Coatings made from unreinforced Fe3Al exhibited a relatively high wear rate. The Vickers hardness, elastic modulus and wear resistance of the coatings increased with increasing TiB2 content in the Fe3Al matrix. The wear mechanisms strongly depended on the sliding speed and the presence of TiB2 particles but were less dependent on the applied load.

  20. Microstructure and Wear Behavior of FeCoCrNiMo0.2 High Entropy Coatings Prepared by Air Plasma Spray and the High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Spray Processes

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    Tianchen Li


    Full Text Available In the present research, the spherical FeCoCrNiMo0.2 high entropy alloy (HEA powders with a single FCC solid solution structure were prepared by gas atomization. Subsequently, the FeCoCrNiMo0.2 coatings with a different content of oxide inclusions were prepared by air plasma spraying (APS and high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying (HVOF, respectively. The microstructure, phase composition, mechanical properties, and tribological behaviors of these HEA coatings were investigated. The results showed that both HEA coatings showed a typical lamellar structure with low porosity. Besides the primary FCC phase, a mixture of Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and AB2O4 (A = Fe, Co, Ni, and B = Fe, Cr was identified as the oxide inclusions. The oxide content of the APS coating and HVOF coating was calculated to be 47.0% and 12.7%, respectively. The wear resistance of the APS coating was approximately one order of magnitude higher than that of the HVOF coating. It was mainly attributed to the self-lubricated effect caused by the oxide films. The mass loss of the APS coating was mainly ascribed to the breakaway of the oxide film, while the main wear mechanism of the HVOF coating was the abrasive wear.

  1. Cavitation resistance of surface composition "Steel-Ni-TiNi-TiNiZr-cBNCo", formed by High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel spraying (United States)

    Blednova, Zh. M.; Dmitrenko, D. V.; Balaev, E. U. O.


    The object of the study is a multilayered surface composition "Steel - a Multicomponent material with Shape Memory Effect - a wear-resistant layer" under conditions of cavitation effects in sea water. Multicomponent TiNi-based coatings with addition of alloying elements such as Zr in an amount up to 10% mass, allow to create a composite material with a gradient of properties at the interface of layers, which gives new properties to coatings and improves their performance significantly. The use of materials with shape memory effect (SME) as surface layers or in the composition of surface layered compositions allows to provide an effective reaction of materials to the influence of external factors and adaptation to external influences. The surface composite layer cBN-10%Co has high hardness and strength, which ensures its resistance to shock cyclic influences of collapsing caverns. The increased roughness of the surface of a solid surface composite in the form of strong columnar structures ensures the crushing of vacuum voids, redistributing their effect on the entire surface, and not concentrating them in certain zones. In addition, the gradient structure of the multilayer composite coating TiNi–Ti33Ni49Zr18–cBN-10%Co Co makes it possible to create conditions for the relaxation of stresses created by the variable impact load of cavitation caverns and the manifestation of compensating internal forces due to thermo-elastic martensitic transformations of SME materials. The cavitation resistance of the coating TiNi–Ti33Ni49Zr18–cBN-10%Co according to the criterion of mass wear is 15-20 times higher than that of the base material without coating and 10-12 times higher than that of the TiNi-TiNiZr coating. The proposed architecture of the multifunctional gradient composition, "steel-Ni-TiNi– Ti33Ni49Zr18–cBN-10%Co", each layer of which has its functional purpose, allows to increase the service life of parts operating under conditions of cavitation-fatigue loading in corrosive environments.

  2. Ceramic Matrix Characterization Under a Gas Turbine Combustion and Loading Environment (United States)


    fatigue testing was accomplished using a vertically actuated, servo -hydraulic MTS 858 Table Top System test stand. This MTS is rated for a used during the course of this research consisted of a material test stand ( MTS ), a high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) flame system, a forward... MTS is controlled through a computer workstation with an MTS TestStar™ IIs digital controller and MTS Multi-Purpose Testware software. The digital

  3. The High-Temperature Wear and Oxidation Behavior of CrC-Based HVOF Coatings (United States)

    Houdková, Šárka; Česánek, Zdeněk; Smazalová, Eva; Lukáč, František


    Three commercially available chromium carbide-based powders with different kinds of matrix (Cr3C2-25%NiCr; Cr3C2-25%CoNiCrAlY and Cr3C2-50%NiCrMoNb) were deposited by an HVOF JP-5000 spraying gun, evaluated and compared. The influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and properties, as well as the oxidation resistance in a hot steam environment ( p = 24 MPa; T = 609 °C), was evaluated by SEM and XRD with respect to their potential application in the steam power industry. The sliding wear resistance measured at room and elevated ( T = 600 °C) temperatures according to ASTM G-133. For all three kinds of chromium carbide-based coatings, the precipitation of secondary carbides from the supersaturated matrix was observed during the heat treatment. For Cr3C2-25%NiCr coating annealed in hot steam environment as well as for Cr3C2-25%CoNiCrAlY coating in both environments, the inner carbide oxidation was recorded. The sliding wear resistance was found equal at room temperature, regardless of the matrix composition and content, while at elevated temperatures, the higher wear was measured, varying in dependence on the matrix composition and content. The chromium carbide-based coating with modified matrix composition Cr3C2-50%NiCrMoNb is suitable to replace the Cr3C2-25%NiCr coating in a hot steam environment to eliminate the risk of failure caused by inner carbide oxidation.

  4. Escape Velocity

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    Nikola Vlacic


    Full Text Available In this project, we investigated if it is feasible for a single staged rocket with constant thrust to attain escape velocity. We derived an equation for the velocity and position of a single staged rocket that launches vertically. From this equation, we determined if an ideal model of a rocket is able to reach escape velocity.

  5. HVOF- and HVAF-Sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings Deposited from Feedstock Powders of Spherical Morphology: Microstructure Formation and High-Stress Abrasive Wear Resistance Up to 800 °C (United States)

    Janka, L.; Norpoth, J.; Trache, R.; Thiele, S.; Berger, L.-M.


    Chromium carbide-based coatings are commonly applied to protect surfaces against wear at high temperatures. This work discusses the influence of feedstock powder and spray torch selection on the microstructure and high-stress abrasion resistance of thermally sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr coatings. Four commercial feedstock powders with spherical morphology and different microstructures were deposited by different high-velocity spray processes, namely third-generation gas- and liquid-fueled HVOF torches and by the latest generation HVAF torch. The microstructures of the coatings were studied in the as-sprayed state and after various heat treatments. The high-stress abrasion resistance of as-sprayed and heat-treated coatings was tested at room temperature and at 800 °C. The study reveals that the selection of the spray torch mainly affects the room temperature abrasion resistance of the as-sprayed coatings, which is due to differences in the embrittlement of the binder phase generated by carbide dissolution. At elevated temperatures, precipitation and growth of secondary carbides yields a fast equalization of the various coatings microstructures and wear properties.

  6. Cr3C2-NiCr HVOF-Sprayed Coatings: Microstructure and Properties Versus Powder Characteristics and Process Parameters (United States)

    Prudenziati, Maria; Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Medici, Marcello; Dalbagni, Gregorio; Caliari, Marco


    Two 75%Cr3C2-25%NiCr feedstock powders with the same size distribution but different production process were characterized and found quite different in terms of morphology and phase composition. The powders were sprayed in a HVOF Diamond Jet (Sulzer Metco DJ-2600) torch with five different values of the oxygen-to-hydrogen ratio in order to assess the influence of this parameter on the microstructure and properties of the coatings. The results show that the closed and dense microstructure of one powder (Woka 7302) results in coatings with lower amount of decarburization, less oxide formation and higher toughness compared to coatings from the other powder (Praxair 1375). It was found that the O2/H2 ratio impacts mainly on the Young’s modulus, which almost doubled by changing the ratio from 0.40 to 0.50, and on toughness, but does not notably affect the Vickers hardness.

  7. Characterization of High-Velocity Solution Precursor Flame-Sprayed Manganese Cobalt Oxide Spinel Coatings for Metallic SOFC Interconnectors (United States)

    Puranen, Jouni; Laakso, Jarmo; Kylmälahti, Mikko; Vuoristo, Petri


    A modified high-velocity oxy-fuel spray (HVOF) thermal spray torch equipped with liquid feeding hardware was used to spray manganese-cobalt solutions on ferritic stainless steel grade Crofer 22 APU substrates. The HVOF torch was modified in such a way that the solution could be fed axially into the combustion chamber through 250- and 300-μm-diameter liquid injector nozzles. The solution used in this study was prepared by diluting nitrates of manganese and cobalt, i.e., Mn(NO3)2·4H2O and Co(NO3)2·6H2O, respectively, in deionized water. The as-sprayed coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy operating in secondary electron mode. Chemical analyses were performed on an energy dispersive spectrometer. Coatings with remarkable density could be prepared by the novel high-velocity solution precursor flame spray (HVSPFS) process. Due to finely sized droplet formation in the HVSPFS process and the use of as delivered Crofer 22 APU substrate material having very low substrate roughness ( R a MnCo2O4 spinel with addition of Co-oxide phases. Crystallographic structure was restored back to single-phase spinel structure by heat treatment.

  8. Microstructural Characteristics and Performances of Cr2O3 and Cr2O3 -15%TiO2 S-HVOF Coatings Obtained from Water-Based Suspensions (United States)

    Toma, Filofteia-Laura; Potthoff, Annegret; Barbosa, Maria


    Cr2O3-based coatings offer high hardness, excellent sliding wear performance, and corrosion resistance. Therefore, they are widely applied in the paper industry, as well as for pumps and mechanical sealing systems. Compared to the conventional spray processes, the technology of suspension-HVOF spraying (S-HVOF) allows the production of dense, finely structured coatings with smoother surfaces and improved mechanical properties by using submicron-scaled raw materials. This work investigates the microstructure and performances of Cr2O3 and Cr2O3-15%TiO2 coatings obtained by S-HVOF starting from water-based suspensions. For the development of the suspensions with binary composition, two routes were used to produce ready-to-spray suspensions: (a) mixture of two stable suspensions in the desired ratio, and (b) dispersion of an appropriate alloyed material in the solvent. In order to evaluate the potential of suspension spraying over the conventional APS and HVOF processes, the mechanical properties, corrosion, and sliding wear resistances of the S-HVOF coatings were compared with those of the coatings produced from feedstock spray powders. From the experimental results, it was observed that, in most of the cases, the suspension-sprayed coatings showed denser microstructures, enhanced mechanical properties, wear resistance, and superior corrosion performances.

  9. Orbital velocity


    Modestino, Giuseppina


    The trajectory and the orbital velocity are determined for an object moving in a gravitational system, in terms of fundamental and independent variables. In particular, considering a path on equipotential line, the elliptical orbit is naturally traced, verifying evidently the keplerian laws. The case of the planets of the solar system is presented.

  10. Influence of Oxidation Treatments and Surface Finishing on the Electrochemical Behavior of Ni-20Cr HVOF Coatings (United States)

    Ruiz-Luna, H.; Porcayo-Calderon, J.; Alvarado-Orozco, J. M.; Mora-García, A. G.; Martinez-Gomez, L.; Trápaga-Martínez, L. G.; Muñoz-Saldaña, J.


    The low-temperature electrochemical behavior of HVOF Ni-20Cr coatings was assessed. The coatings were evaluated in different conditions including as-sprayed, as-ground, and heat-treated in air and argon atmospheres. A detailed analysis of the coatings was carried out by means of XRD, SEM, and EPMA, prior and after the corrosion test. The corrosion rate was analyzed in a NaCl solution saturated with CO2. Results demonstrate that the use of a low-oxygen partial pressure favors the formation of a Cr2O3 layer on the surface of the coatings. According to the electrochemical results, the lower corrosion rates were obtained for the heat-treated coatings irrespective of the surface finishing, being the ground and argon heat-treated condition that shows the best corrosion performance. This behavior is due to the synergistic effect of the low-pressure heat treatment and the grinding processes. The grinding promotes a more homogeneous reaction area without surface heterogeneities such as voids, and the pre-oxidation treatment decreases the porosity content of the coating and also allows the growing of a Cr-rich oxide scale which acts as a barrier against the ions of the aqueous solution.

  11. A Study on Wear Resistance of HVOF-Sprayed Ni-MoS2 Self-Lubricating Composite Coatings (United States)

    Liu, Y. L.; Jeng, M. C.; Hwang, J. R.; Chang, C. H.


    Composite coating techniques are becoming increasingly popular owing to their peculiar performances. In this study, the wear resistance of thermally sprayed Ni-MoS2 composite coatings on an AISI 1020 steel substrate was investigated. Ni-MoS2 composite powder (size: 60-90 μm) containing 25 wt.% of dispersed MoS2 was prepared by electroless plating. Ni-MoS2 composite coatings were then prepared by HVOF thermal spraying. The coatings were characterized by structural, surface morphological, and compositional analyses by means of microhardness tests, SEM/EDS, XRD, and ICP-AES. For the evaluation of their anti-wear properties, the composites were subjected to ball-on-disk dry wear tests based on the ASTM G99 standard at room temperature. Experimental results showed that some of the MoS2 content dispersed in the Ni-based composite coating burnt away during the high-temperature spraying process, thereby reducing the MoS2 concentration in the coating. In the wear test, the weight loss in the Ni-MoS2 composite coating was minimal under a low load (30 N). The average wear rate of the coatings was found to be ~1/40 times that of a Ni coating, showing that the wear resistance of the composite coatings was significantly improved by MoS2 addition.

  12. The Effects of Particle Size on the Surface Properties of an HVOF Coating of WC-Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Tong Yul; Yoon, Jae Hong; Yoon, Sang Hwan; Joo, Yun Kon [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Ho; Son, Young Bok [Xinix Metallizing Co., Ltd, Gyungnam (Korea, Republic of)


    The effects of particle size on the surface properties of HVOF spray coating were studied to improve of the durability of metal components. Micro and nano sized WC-12Co powders were coated on the surface of Inconel718, and the effects of particle size on surface properties were studied. Surface hardness was reduced when the particle sizes of the powder were decreased, because the larger specific surface area of the smaller particles caused greater heat absorption and decomposition of the hard WC to less hard W{sub 2}C and graphite. Porosity was increased by decreasing the particle size, because the larger specific surface area of the smaller particles caused a greater decomposition of WC to W{sub 2}C and free carbon. The free carbon formed carbon oxide gases which created the porous surface. The friction coefficient was reduced by decreasing the particle size because the larger specific surface area of the smaller particles produced more free carbon free Co and Co oxide which acted as solid lubricants. The friction coefficient increased when the surface temperature was increased from 25 to 500 ℃, due to local cold welding. To improve the durability of metal mechanical components, WC-Co coating with the proper particle size is recommended.

  13. Influence of Oxidation Treatments and Surface Finishing on the Electrochemical Behavior of Ni-20Cr HVOF Coatings (United States)

    Ruiz-Luna, H.; Porcayo-Calderon, J.; Alvarado-Orozco, J. M.; Mora-García, A. G.; Martinez-Gomez, L.; Trápaga-Martínez, L. G.; Muñoz-Saldaña, J.


    The low-temperature electrochemical behavior of HVOF Ni-20Cr coatings was assessed. The coatings were evaluated in different conditions including as-sprayed, as-ground, and heat-treated in air and argon atmospheres. A detailed analysis of the coatings was carried out by means of XRD, SEM, and EPMA, prior and after the corrosion test. The corrosion rate was analyzed in a NaCl solution saturated with CO2. Results demonstrate that the use of a low-oxygen partial pressure favors the formation of a Cr2O3 layer on the surface of the coatings. According to the electrochemical results, the lower corrosion rates were obtained for the heat-treated coatings irrespective of the surface finishing, being the ground and argon heat-treated condition that shows the best corrosion performance. This behavior is due to the synergistic effect of the low-pressure heat treatment and the grinding processes. The grinding promotes a more homogeneous reaction area without surface heterogeneities such as voids, and the pre-oxidation treatment decreases the porosity content of the coating and also allows the growing of a Cr-rich oxide scale which acts as a barrier against the ions of the aqueous solution.

  14. Comportement des pots catalytiques en présence de carburants oxygénés Behavior of Catalytic Mufflers in the Presence of Oxygenated Fuels

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    Degobert P.


    Full Text Available A partir d'un examen critique de la bibliographie disponible, et après un rappel des répercussions sur les émissions de la présence d'alcools dans les carburants, sont successivement examinées les performances d'épurateurs catalytiques multifonctionnels ou d'oxydation appliqués à des véhicules alimentés avec des carburants dont les teneurs en produits oxygénés varient entre 10 et 100 %. Les performances des catalyseurs s'écartent peu de celles constatées dans le cas de l'essence. Elles restent très bonnes vis-à-vis des polluants non réglementés. Par ailleurs, le pot catalytique n'engendre pas, dans ses conditions normales de fonctionnement, de polluants supplémentaires caractéristiques des combustibles oxygènes utilisés. Based on a critical examination of the literature available and after a review of the effects of the presence of alcools in fuels on emissions, this article successively examines the performances of multifunctional or oxidation catalytic scrubbers applied to vehicles fed with fuels containing between 10 and 100% oxygenated products. The performances of catalysts are not very different from those found with gasoline. They remain very good with regard to pollutants not covered by regulations. Furthermore, under normal operating conditions, a catalytic muffler does not produce any supplementary pollutants characteristic of the oxygenated fuels used.

  15. Comportamiento tribológico de los recubrimientos nanocristalinos de CrC-NiCr obtenidos por proyección térmica HVOF

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    Igartua, A.


    Full Text Available One of the most important uses of HVOF thermal plasma spray coatings is for wear resistance. In this work, the characteristics of nanocristalline CCr-NiCr coating and their effect on the mechanical properties and tribological behaviour of the material have been investigated. The objective of this study is the replacement of hazardous hard chromium plating technology used today in industry for an efficient and clean HVOF technology, using micro and nanocristalline CCr-NiCr coatings. Commercially available CCr-NiCr powder was mechanically treated, in order to obtain nano powders. Later the HVOF thermal spray process was used to produce conventional and nanocrystalline CCr-NiCr coatings. The ultra-microindentation technique was applied to evaluate the grain size effect in the hardness and the elasto-plastic properties of the coating. Difference in roughness has been determined by profilometry. The coating microstructures were characterised by SEM and optical microscopy and the porosity percentage was determined by Image Analysis technique. In order to evaluate the friction and wear properties of different substrate materials a reciprocating sliding motion has been used. CrC-NiCr standard coatings shows better tribological properties than WC-CoCr coatings.

    Una de las características más importantes de los recubrimientos de proyección térmica HVOF es su resistencia al desgaste. En este proyecto, se han investigado las características del recubrimiento nanocristalinos de CrC-NiCr y su efecto en las propiedades mecánicas y tribológicas del material. De acuerdo con los ensayos realizados, los recubrimientos nanocristalinos CrC-NiCr proporcionan una rugosidad un 66% menor, que los recubrimientos estándar, lo que produce una importante mejora en las propiedades de fricción (reducción coeficiente de fricción del 38% y desgaste (reducción del desgaste del 84%.

  16. Comportamiento Tribológico y Microestructural en Recubrimientos Aplicados por GTAW y HVOF (Proceso Térmico de Espreado y Usado en Recuperación de Aceros Grado Herramienta AISI/SAE D2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Guevara Chávez

    Full Text Available Resumen Las aleaciones de Fe-Cr-Mo se utilizan en recubrimientos para proteger componentes que están sometidos a condiciones de desgaste y corrosión. La alta velocidad de deposición del metalizado térmico (HVOF (High Velocity Oxi-Fuel aplicado en aleaciones de acero grado herramienta para trabajo en frío con la aplicación de sustratos Fe-Cr-Mo ha mostrado buenos resultados en los campos de proyección. El HOVF es un método atractivo para aplicar revestimientos y recuperar diámetros que fueron desgastados durante el proceso de operación. Nuevas superficies y materiales pueden ser provistos sin la distorsión causada por los procesos convencionales de soldadura. Para aquellos materiales que son susceptibles a agrietarse gracias a la formación de fases fuera de equilibrio duras con composiciones con altos contenidos de carbono y de cromo, debido a las condiciones del proceso que combinan una temperatura de la flama relativamente baja y con un tiempo de baja exposición. La microestructura las características del recubrimiento son determinadas por las propiedades físicas y químicas de las partículas impregnadas en el sustrato que a su vez dependen de una gran cantidad de parámetros como el diseño de pistola, la relación de oxígeno / combustible, método de inyección, tamaño de partícula y forma, entre otros La presente investigación estudia la influencia de los parámetros de procesamiento sobre las propiedades mecánicas y microestructurales del recubrimiento Diamalloy 1008 (aleación en mezcla de Fe-Cr-Mo revestimiento aplicado con Oxí-combustible de alta velocidad (HVOF y cinco diferentes tipos de electrodos aplicados por soldadura, TIG (GTAW en un acero grado herramienta para trabajo en frio. El objetivo de estos recubrimientos se utiliza habitualmente como una protección contra la corrosión y el desgaste, pero también tienen la capacidad de recuperar las zonas dañadas como es el caso de los dados de estampado de la

  17. Effect of Shot Peening on Tribological Behaviors of Molybdenum-Thermal Spray Coating using HVOF Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mohassel


    Full Text Available We have investigated the influence of post-shot peening on Mo-coating as compared to substrate steel 16MnCr5 (according to ZFN-413 A. Shot peening of carburized steel discs with and without Mo-coating was performed by using Shot size S230, Almen intensity 0.42 mm ’A’ and exposure time 96 sec. Tribological properties were analyzed, using pin-on-disc tribometer apparatus, under dry sliding conditions at different specific applied loads, sliding velocities and distance. Typical standardized methods were used for studying of surface integrity parameters (micro-hardness, topography and surface roughness. Surface morphology of the Mo-coating specimens with and without Shot Peening before and after wear was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results showed that shot peening after Mo-coating has considerable effect on improving wear resistance and because of having low friction coefficient has showed better wear behavior and tribologi cal properties over that of the un-peened Mo-coating.

  18. Bond Strength of Multicomponent White Cast Iron Coatings Applied by HVOF Thermal Spray Process (United States)

    Maranho, Ossimar; Rodrigues, Daniel; Boccalini, Mario; Sinatora, Amilton


    Multicomponent white cast iron is a new alloy that belongs to system Fe-C-Cr-W-Mo-V, and because of its excellent wear resistance it is used in the manufacture of hot rolling mills rolls. To date, this alloy has been processed by casting, powder metallurgy, and spray forming. The high-velocity oxyfuel process is now also considered for the manufacture of components with this alloy. The effects of substrate, preheating temperature, and coating thickness on bond strength of coatings have been determined. Substrates of AISI 1020 steel and of cast iron with preheating of 150 °C and at room temperature were used to apply coatings with 200 and 400 μm nominal thickness. The bond strength of coatings was measured with the pull-off test method and the failure mode by scanning electron microscopic analysis. Coatings with thickness of 200 μm and applied on substrates of AISI 1020 steel with preheating presented bond strength of 87 ± 4 MPa.

  19. Development and Application of HVOF Sprayed Spinel Protective Coating for SOFC Interconnects (United States)

    Thomann, O.; Pihlatie, M.; Rautanen, M.; Himanen, O.; Lagerbom, J.; Mäkinen, M.; Varis, T.; Suhonen, T.; Kiviaho, J.


    Protective coatings are needed for metallic interconnects used in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks to prevent excessive high-temperature oxidation and evaporation of chromium species. These phenomena affect the lifetime of the stacks by increasing the area-specific resistance (ASR) and poisoning of the cathode. Protective MnCo2O4 and MnCo1.8Fe0.2O4 coatings were applied on ferritic steel interconnect material (Crofer 22 APU) by high velocity oxy fuel spraying. The substrate-coating systems were tested in long-term exposure tests to investigate their high-temperature oxidation behavior. Additionally, the ASRs were measured at 700 °C for 1000 h. Finally, a real coated interconnect was used in a SOFC single-cell stack for 6000 h. Post-mortem analysis was carried out with scanning electron microscopy. The deposited coatings reduced significantly the oxidation of the metal, exhibited low and stable ASR and reduced effectively the migration of chromium.

  20. Wear and corrosion performances of new friction materials for automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Samur


    Full Text Available In this study, after a NiCr bond layer was deposited on a pearlitic, grey cast iron rotor disc of the kind used in a production passenger car (Toyota Corolla 1600 cc, Cr3C2-NiCr and Al2O3-TiO2powders were sprayed using High Velocity Oxygen Fuel(HVOF and plasma spray processes, respectively. The discs were subjected to cosmetic corrosion test according to SAE J2334 test standard. Additionally, wear tests were carried out using a reciprocating wear tester by rubbing a 10 mm diameter Al2O3 ball on the specimens machined from rotor discs in salt solution. It was found that the Cr3C2-NiCr coating (HSCN sprayed using HVOF method exhibited highest hardness and highest corrosion and wear resistances.

  1. Investigation of mechanical characteristics of composite surface layers using materials with thermoelastic properties (United States)

    Rusinov, P. O.; Blednova, Zh. M.; Borovets, O. I.


    We developed the formation technology of the steel-layer with elastic phase transformations-ceramic wear-resistant layer composition by means of high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF) in the protective medium of mechanically activated powders TiNiCu and cBN-Co-Mo. We also determined optimal processing parameters. We revealed regularities in the formation of the nanoscale state of the composition on the basis of complex X-ray diffraction and electron-microscopic studies. We carried out tests of steel 1045 with surface-modified layers TiNiCu + cBN-Co-Mo on friction wear, which showed an increase in wear resistance.

  2. Potential of New-Generation Electron Beam Technology in Interface Modification of Cold and HVOF Sprayed MCrAlY Bond Coats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cizek


    Full Text Available Electron beam (EB technology treatment was carried out on CoNiCrAlY bond coats deposited on Inconel substrates via cold spray and HVOF techniques in dissimilar thicknesses. Such treatment was carried out with regard to the final materials microstructure, composition, surface roughness, and the quality of the coating-substrate interface. Following a multiple-step optimization of the processing parameters (such as beam pattern configuration, accelerating voltage, longitudinal speed, and multiple beam incidence, two final EB modifications were carried out on both coating types. It was found that the optimized EB treatment could lead to a significant alteration of the interface from a distinctive divide into smooth chemical and structural transition between the materials, significant decrease in surface roughness and porosity, and changes in mechanical properties (increase in Young’s modulus and decrease in hardness of the coating.

  3. Microstructure and high temperature cyclic oxidation in atmospheres with variable oxygen contents of plasma and HVOF NiCrBSiFe sprayed coatings; Microestructura y oxidacion ciclica en atmosferas con contenidos de oxigeno variables de un recubrimiento NiCrBSiFe proyectado termicamente por plasma y HVOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuera-Hidalgo, V.; Belzunce-Varela, F. J.; Riba-Lopez, J.


    The influence of thermal spraying procedure (plasma and HVOF) on the microstructure, high temperature oxidation resistance and adherence of NiCrSiFe coatings has been examined. Two different series of oxidation tests have been carried out in air (21% oxygen) at 800 and 1,000 degree centigree (1,073 y 1,273 K) and in a simulated gas turbine environment (10% oxygen) representative of a combined-cycle power generation plant, at the same temperatures. Coating microstructure, porosity, oxide content and microhardness are highly dependent on the spraying procedure and coating hardness also significantly decreases after long maintenance at high temperature (1,000 degree centigree). Finally, the oxidation weight gain and the adherence of NiCrBSiFe coatings are also dependent on the morphology of the coating but, nevertheless, the oxidation behaviour of these coatings was very good as protective chromium and silicon oxides were always formed. (Author) 14 refs.

  4. The effect of post-treatment of a high-velocity oxy-fuel Ni-Cr-Mo-Si-B coating Part I: Microstructure/corrosion behavior relationships (United States)

    Shrestha, S.; Hodgkiess, T.; Neville, A.


    The microstructure and aqueous corrosion characteristics of a Ni-Cr-Mo-Si-B high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coating have been assessed. It has been shown that postprocessing by vacuum fusion has a significant effect on the coating microstructure by increasing the type and concentration of hard phase particles. The principal hard phases in the as-sprayed condition and vacuum-sealed condition are chromium carbides, whereas molybdenum-containing boride phases are also present after vacuum fusion. Vacuumfusion post-treatment eliminates splat boundaries, which can act as sites, where preferential corrosion can occur and, hence, the dominant corrosion mechanisms change. In as-sprayed and vacuum-sealed coatings, localized attack at splat particle boundaries and crevice corrosion dominate, whereas in vacuum-fused coating, the principal mechanism of corrosion is “micropitting” as a result of the hard phase loss.

  5. Estimation of vector velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...... estimator automatically compensates for the axial velocity, when determining the transverse velocity by using fourth order moments rather than second order moments. The estimation is optimized by using a lag different from one in the estimation process, and noise artifacts are reduced by using averaging...... of RF samples. Further, compensation for the axial velocity can be introduced, and the velocity estimation is done at a fixed depth in tissue to reduce spatial velocity dispersion....

  6. Effect of Carbide Dissolution on Chlorine Induced High Temperature Corrosion of HVOF and HVAF Sprayed Cr3C2-NiCrMoNb Coatings (United States)

    Fantozzi, D.; Matikainen, V.; Uusitalo, M.; Koivuluoto, H.; Vuoristo, P.


    Highly corrosion- and wear-resistant thermally sprayed chromium carbide (Cr3C2)-based cermet coatings are nowadays a potential highly durable solution to allow traditional fluidized bed combustors (FBC) to be operated with ecological waste and biomass fuels. However, the heat input of thermal spray causes carbide dissolution in the metal binder. This results in the formation of carbon saturated metastable phases, which can affect the behavior of the materials during exposure. This study analyses the effect of carbide dissolution in the metal matrix of Cr3C2-50NiCrMoNb coatings and its effect on chlorine-induced high-temperature corrosion. Four coatings were thermally sprayed with HVAF and HVOF techniques in order to obtain microstructures with increasing amount of carbide dissolution in the metal matrix. The coatings were heat-treated in an inert argon atmosphere to induce secondary carbide precipitation. As-sprayed and heat-treated self-standing coatings were covered with KCl, and their corrosion resistance was investigated with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and ordinary high-temperature corrosion test at 550 °C for 4 and 72 h, respectively. High carbon dissolution in the metal matrix appeared to be detrimental against chlorine-induced high-temperature corrosion. The microstructural changes induced by the heat treatment hindered the corrosion onset in the coatings.

  7. High-Velocity Clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, Bart P.; Woerden, Hugo van; Oswalt, Terry D.; Gilmore, Gerard


    The high-velocity clouds (HVCs) are gaseous objects that do not partake in differential galactic rotation, but instead have anomalous velocities. They trace energetic processes on the interface between the interstellar material in the Galactic disk and intergalactic space. Three different processes

  8. Robot based deposition of WC-Co HVOF coatings on HSS cutting tools as a substitution for solid cemented carbide cutting tools (United States)

    Tillmann, W.; Schaak, C.; Biermann, D.; Aßmuth, R.; Goeke, S.


    Cemented carbide (hard metal) cutting tools are the first choice to machine hard materials or to conduct high performance cutting processes. Main advantages of cemented carbide cutting tools are their high wear resistance (hardness) and good high temperature strength. In contrast, cemented carbide cutting tools are characterized by a low toughness and generate higher production costs, especially due to limited resources. Usually, cemented carbide cutting tools are produced by means of powder metallurgical processes. Compared to conventional manufacturing routes, these processes are more expensive and only a limited number of geometries can be realized. Furthermore, post-processing and preparing the cutting edges in order to achieve high performance tools is often required. In the present paper, an alternative method to substitute solid cemented carbide cutting tools is presented. Cutting tools made of conventional high speed steels (HSS) were coated with thick WC-Co (88/12) layers by means of thermal spraying (HVOF). The challenge is to obtain a dense, homogenous, and near-net-shape coating on the flanks and the cutting edge. For this purpose, different coating strategies were realized using an industrial robot. The coating properties were subsequently investigated. After this initial step, the surfaces of the cutting tools were ground and selected cutting edges were prepared by means of wet abrasive jet machining to achieve a smooth and round micro shape. Machining tests were conducted with these coated, ground and prepared cutting tools. The occurring wear phenomena were analyzed and compared to conventional HSS cutting tools. Overall, the results of the experiments proved that the coating withstands mechanical stresses during machining. In the conducted experiments, the coated cutting tools showed less wear than conventional HSS cutting tools. With respect to the initial wear resistance, additional benefits can be obtained by preparing the cutting edge by means

  9. Antarctic Ice Velocity Data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This compilation of recent ice velocity data of the Antarctic ice sheet is intended for use by the polar scientific community. The data are presented in tabular form...

  10. Transverse spectral velocity estimation. (United States)

    Jensen, Jørgen


    A transverse oscillation (TO)-based method for calculating the velocity spectrum for fully transverse flow is described. Current methods yield the mean velocity at one position, whereas the new method reveals the transverse velocity spectrum as a function of time at one spatial location. A convex array probe is used along with two different estimators based on the correlation of the received signal. They can estimate the velocity spectrum as a function of time as for ordinary spectrograms, but they also work at a beam-to-flow angle of 90°. The approach is validated using simulations of pulsatile flow using the Womersly-Evans flow model. The relative bias of the mean estimated frequency is 13.6% and the mean relative standard deviation is 14.3% at 90°, where a traditional estimator yields zero velocity. Measurements have been conducted with an experimental scanner and a convex array transducer. A pump generated artificial femoral and carotid artery flow in the phantom. The estimated spectra degrade when the angle is different from 90°, but are usable down to 60° to 70°. Below this angle the traditional spectrum is best and should be used. The conventional approach can automatically be corrected for angles from 0° to 70° to give fully quantitative velocity spectra without operator intervention.

  11. Effects of WC-17Co Coating Combined with Shot Peening Treatment on Fatigue Behaviors of TC21 Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxing Du


    Full Text Available The improvement and mechanism of the fatigue resistance of TC21 high-strength titanium alloy with a high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF sprayed WC-17Co coating was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD and the corresponding stress measurement instrument, a surface roughness tester, a micro-hardness tester, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM were used to determine the properties of the HVOF WC-17Co coating with or without shot peening. The fatigue behavior of the TC21 titanium alloy with or without the WC-17Co coating was determined by using a rotating bending fatigue testing machine. The results revealed that the polished HVOF sprayed WC-17Co coating had almost the same fatigue resistance as the TC21 titanium alloy substrate. This resulted from the polishing-induced residual surface compressive stress and a decrease in the stress concentration on the surface of the coating. Moderate-intensity shot peening of the polished WC-17Co coatings resulted in significant improvement of the fatigue resistance of the alloy. Furthermore, the fatigue life was substantially higher than that of the substrate, owing to the deep distribution of residual stress and high compressive stress induced by shot peening. The improved surface toughness of the coating can effectively delay the initiation of fatigue crack propagation.

  12. High-velocity penetrators (United States)

    Lundgren, Ronald G.

    This paper summarizes the results of studies, coupled with a series of tests, that investigated rigid-body projectiles (penetrators) at high (up to 5500 ft/sec) velocities. Before these studies, it had been hypothesized that a velocity limit would be reached at which increasing the velocity would not commensurately increase depth of penetration into a target. It was further inferred that a given velocity/ penetration depth curve would avalanche into the hydrodynamic regime; that is, increasing the velocity past a certain point would decrease penetration performance. The test series utilized 1/2-in., 3-in., and 5 1/2-in. diameter, ogive-nose steel projectiles and grout and concrete targets. The tests confirmed that penetration depth increased as striking velocity increased to 4000 ft/sec. However, beyond striking velocities of 4000 ft/sec, asymmetric erosion and indentation of the projectile nose from the aggregate caused the projectile trajectories to deviate severely from the target centerline. These trajectory deviations caused the projectile to exit the side of the target, severely bend, break, or exhibit decreased penetration performance, confirming the hypothesis. Clearly, these results were dependent on the specific material and geometric parameters. The projectiles had 3.0 and 4.25 CRH (Caliber-Radius-Head) nose shapes and were heat-treated to R(sub c) 38-40. The grout targets had a maximum aggregate diameter of 3/16 in. and a nominal unconfined compressive strength of 2.5 ksi. The concrete targets had a maximum aggregate diameter of 3/4 in. and unconfined compressive strength of 5.5 ksi.

  13. Velocities in Solar Pores (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Keil, S. L.; Smaldone, L. A.


    We investigate the three dimensional structure of solar pores and their surroundings using high spatial and spectral resolution data. We present evidence that surface velocities decrease around pores with a corresponding increase in the line-of-sight (LOS) velocities. LOS velocities in pores increase with the strength of the magnetic field. Surface velocities show convergence toward a weak downflow which appear to trace boundaries resembling meso-granular and super granular flows. The observed magnetic fields in the pores appear near these boundaries. We analyze the vertical velocity structure in pores and show that they generally have downflows decreasing exponentially with height, with a scale height of about 90 km. Evidence is also presented for the expanding nature of flux tubes. Finally we describe a phenomenological model for pores. This work was supported by AFOSR Task 2311G3. LAS was partially supported by the Progetto Nazionale Astrofisica e Fisica Cosmica of MURST and Scambi Internazionali of the Universita degli Studi di Napoli Frederico II. National Solar Observatory, NOAO, is operated for the National Science Foundation by AURA, Inc.

  14. Velocity pump reaction turbine (United States)

    House, P.A.

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  15. HVOF Thermal Spray TiC/TiB2 Coatings for AUSC Boiler/Turbine Components for Enhanced Corrosion Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Kanchan [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes; Koc, Rasit [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes; Fan, Chinbay [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)


    The high temperatures of operations still pose significant risk of degradation and fatigue from oxidizing, corroding and eroding environment. In addition to unused O2, water from combustion and SOx from the coal sulfur oxidation that result in highly corrosive environment, acid gases such as HCl and other sulfur compounds may also be present. These adverse effects are further accelerated due to the elevated temperatures. In addition, ash particulates and unburnt carbon and pyritic sulfur can cause erosion of the surface and thus loss of material. Unburnt carbon and pyritic sulfur may also cause localized reduction sites. Thus, fireside corrosion protection and steam oxidation protection alternatives to currently used Ni-Cr overlays need to be identified and evaluated. Titanium carbide (TiC) is a suitable alternative on account of the material features such as the high hardness, the high melting point, the high strength and the low density for the substitution or to be used in conjunction with NiCr for enhancing the fireside corrosion and erosion of the materials. Another alternative is the use of titanium boride as a coating for chemical stability required for long-term service and high erosion resistance over the state-of-the-art, high fracture toughness (K1C ~12 MPam1/2) and excellent corrosion resistance (kp~1.9X10-11 g2/cm4/s at 800°C in air). The overarching aim of the research endeavor was to synthesize oxidation, corrosion and wear resistant TiC and TiB2 coating powders, apply thermal spray coating on existing boiler materials and characterize the coated substrates for corrosion resistance for applications at high temperatures (500 -750 °C) and high pressures (~350 bars) using the HVOF process and to demonstrate the feasibility of these coating to be used in AUSC boilers and turbines.

  16. The Prescribed Velocity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The- velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...

  17. Wave propagation and group velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Brillouin, Léon


    Wave Propagation and Group Velocity contains papers on group velocity which were published during the First World War and are missing in many libraries. It introduces three different definitions of velocities: the group velocity of Lord Rayleigh, the signal velocity of Sommerfeld, and the velocity of energy transfer, which yields the rate of energy flow through a continuous wave and is strongly related to the characteristic impedance. These three velocities are identical for nonabsorbing media, but they differ considerably in an absorption band. Some examples are discussed in the last chapter

  18. Improving the Surface Properties of Inconel 718 BY Applying a CO2 Laser Heat Treatment to a High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Coating of WC-CrCo Powder (United States)

    Cho, T. Y.; Yoon, J. H.; Joo, Y. K.; Zhang, S. H.; Cho, J. Y.; Kang, J. H.; Chun, H. G.; Kwon, S. C.; Li, Ming-Xi

    A micron-sized WC-CrCo powder was coated onto an IN718 substrate using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying. To further improve the surface properties, the HVOF coating was heat-treated by a CO2 laser. The surface properties of both the coating and the laser-heated coating were then compared. The HVOF optimal coating process (OCP) for a coating with the highest surface hardness was determined with the Taguchi program. The friction and wear behaviors of the coating, an electrolytic hard chrome (EHC)-plated coating and IN718, were comparatively investigated via a reciprocating sliding wear test at both 25 and 450°C. The friction coefficient (FC) for all three samples decreased when the sliding surface temperature increased from 25 to 450°C. The FC of the coating decreased with increasing surface temperature: 0.33 ± 0.02 at 25°C to 0.26 ± 0.02 at 450°C the coating had the lowest FC among the three samples. At both temperatures, the coating wear depth (WD) was smaller than those of the EHC sample and IN718. At room temperature, WC-CrCo and the EHC coatings had good wear resistance and had only a shallow WD. IN718, however, had poor wear resistance with 50 μm deep grooves created from fretting corrosion that arose during the 1500 reciprocating slides (2.5 Hz, 10 min sliding wear test). At 450°C, the coating WDs were much shallower than those for the EHC coating and IN718: 0.5-μm deep grooves compared to 60-70-μm deep grooves. These results proved that the coating provided a protective coating for IN718 and other metal components. With the OCP coating fabricated from the powders on the IN718 surface, the surface hardness increased 316% from 399 Hv to 1260 Hv. Furthermore, by laser heating the coating surface for 0.6 s, the hardness increased 44% from 1260 ±30 Hv to 1820 ±100 Hv, porosity decreased more than five times from 2.2 ± 0.3% to 0.4 ± 0.1%, and the coating thickness decreased 17% from 300 to 250 μm. These results showed that both the WC

  19. Transverse Spectral Velocity Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    array probe is used along with two different estimators based on the correlation of the received signal. They can estimate the velocity spectrum as a function of time as for ordinary spectrograms, but they also work at a beam-to-flow angle of 90°. The approach is validated using simulations of pulsatile...... flow using the Womersly–Evans flow model. The relative bias of the mean estimated frequency is 13.6% and the mean relative standard deviation is 14.3% at 90°, where a traditional estimator yields zero velocity. Measurements have been conducted with an experimental scanner and a convex array transducer....... A pump generated artificial femoral and carotid artery flow in the phantom. The estimated spectra degrade when the angle is different from 90°, but are usable down to 60° to 70°. Below this angle the traditional spectrum is best and should be used. The conventional approach can automatically be corrected...

  20. High-Velocity Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Woerden, Hugo; Schwarz, Ulrich J; Boer, Klaas S


    This book contains 17 chapters reviewing our knowledge of the high-velocity clouds (HVCs) as of 2004, bringing this together in one place for the first time. Each of the many different aspects of HVC research is addressed by one of the experts in that subfield. These include a historical overview of HVC research and analyses of the structure and kinematics of HVCs. Separate chapters address the intermediate-velocity clouds, the Magellanic Stream, and neutral hydrogen HVCs discovered in external galaxies. Reviews are presented of the Ha emission and of optical and UV absorption-line studies, followed by discussions of the hot Galactic Halo and of the interactions between HVCs and their surroundings. Four chapters summarize the ideas about the origin of the high-velocity gas, with detailed discussions of connections between HVCs and the Galactic Fountain, tidally-stripped material, and remnants of the Milky Way's formation. A chapter outlining what we do not know completes the book. The book comes at a time whe...

  1. Examples of Vector Velocity Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter M.; Pedersen, Mads M.; Hansen, Kristoffer L.


    To measure blood flow velocity in vessels with conventional ultrasound, the velocity is estimated along the direction of the emitted ultrasound wave. It is therefore impossible to obtain accurate information on blood flow velocity and direction, when the angle between blood flow and ultrasound wa...

  2. Development of an optimal velocity selection method with velocity obstacle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Geuk; Oh, Jun Ho [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The Velocity obstacle (VO) method is one of the most well-known methods for local path planning, allowing consideration of dynamic obstacles and unexpected obstacles. Typical VO methods separate a velocity map into a collision area and a collision-free area. A robot can avoid collisions by selecting its velocity from within the collision-free area. However, if there are numerous obstacles near a robot, the robot will have very few velocity candidates. In this paper, a method for choosing optimal velocity components using the concept of pass-time and vertical clearance is proposed for the efficient movement of a robot. The pass-time is the time required for a robot to pass by an obstacle. By generating a latticized available velocity map for a robot, each velocity component can be evaluated using a cost function that considers the pass-time and other aspects. From the output of the cost function, even a velocity component that will cause a collision in the future can be chosen as a final velocity if the pass-time is sufficiently long enough.

  3. Microestructura y oxidación cíclica en atmósferas con contenidos de oxígeno variables de un recubrimiento NiCrBSiFe proyectado térmicamente por plasma y HVOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higuera-Hidalgo, V.


    Full Text Available The influence of thermal spraying procedure (plasma and HVOF on the microstructure, high temperature oxidation resistance and adherence of NiCrBSiFe coatings has been examined. Two different series of oxidation tests have been carried out, in air (21% oxygen at 800 and 1,000 ºC (1,073 y 1,273 K and in a simulated gas turbine environment (10% oxygen representative of a combined-cycle power generation plant, at the same temperatures.
    Coating microstructure, porosity, oxide content and microhardness are highly dependent on the spraying procedure and coating hardness also significantly decreases after long maintenances at high temperature (1,000 ºC. Finally, the oxidation weight gain and the adherence of NiCrBSiFe coatings are also dependent on the morphology of the coating but, nevertheless, the oxidation behaviour of these coatings was very good as protective chromium and silicon oxides were always formed.

    Se ha llevado a cabo un estudio experimental sobre la influencia del proceso de proyección en la microestructura, resistencia a la oxidación y adherencia de los recubrimientos NiCrBSiFe proyectados térmicamente por plasma y llama a alta velocidad (HVOF, para lo que se han realizado ensayos en dos ambientes diferentes: en una atmósfera convencional (21 % de O2, a 800 y 1000 ºC (1.073 y 1.273 K, respectivamente, y en un ambiente simulativo de una turbina de gas y del generador de vapor de una central eléctrica de ciclo combinado (10-11 % de O2, a las mismas temperaturas. Se ha puesto de manifiesto que la microestructura, porosidad, contenido de óxidos y microdureza de estas capas varían significativamente con el sistema de proyección utilizado y que la microdureza de estas capas disminuye apreciablemente tras largos mantenimientos a alta temperatura (1.000 ºC. También, la ganancia de peso por oxidación de los recubrimientos NiCrBSiFe y la adherencia entre la capa y el sustrato dependen de la morfología del recubrimiento

  4. Interacción térmica recubrimiento-sustrato en la proyección a alta velocidad (HVOF de partículas (polvo de WC-Co

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobolev, V. V.


    Full Text Available The mathematical simulation of the thermal interaction between a 34CrMo4 (UNS-G41350 steel substrate and a coating formed by the droplets of WC-12 % Co powder particles during HVOF spraying is undertaken. Analysis of the heat transfer processes permitted the investigation of the temperature evolution, coating solidification, substrate fusion and solidification, particular features of the thermal interactions between the substrate and the coating as well as between the successive coating layers. The analysis has also permitted to estimate the optimal conditions of the substrate and the coating structure formation. The obtained results were used in subsequent articles to predict the structure parameters, which agree with the experimental data.

    Se utiliza la simulación matemática para establecer la interacción térmica entre un substrato y un recubrimiento obtenido mediante proyección térmica de alta velocidad, HVOF. El substrato es un acero 34CrMo4(UNS-G41350 y el recubrimiento está formado por la solidificación de gotas semifundidas de partículas de polvo de WC-12 % Co. El análisis del proceso de transferencia de calor permite la investigación de la evolución de la temperatura, la solidificación del recubrimiento, la fusión y posterior solidificación del substrato, las características peculiares de la interacción térmica entre el substrato y la primera capa de recubrimiento, así como con las diferentes capas sucesivas, y la estimación de las condiciones óptimas para la formación de la estructura del substrato y del recubrimiento. Los resultados obtenidos se han utilizado en posteriores artículos para predecir parámetros estructurales que están, por su parte, en concordancia con los datos experimentales.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanostructured WC-Co/Al Powder Prepared by Mechanical Alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ma


    Full Text Available Nanostructured WC-Co/Al powder was synthesized from WC-12Co powder and pure Al powder by mechanical alloying (MA. The morphology and microstructural evolution of WC-Co/Al powder were investigated by a series of characterization methods. The results showed that the β-Co phase in the initial WC-12Co powder was replaced by the AlxCo phases (such as Al9Co2 and Al13Co4. As the ball milling time increased, the average grain size of WC in the WC-Co/Al powder decreased firstly and then remained at a constant value of around 40 nm. The deposition behavior of powders sprayed by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF spraying was investigated. During spraying, the WC-Co/Al powder had a better flattening than the WC-12Co powder without ball milling, which is beneficial to fabricate compact coatings with lower porosity.

  6. Investigation of Fecraly Coating on Corrosion Behaviour of Mild Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B. AGBOOLA


    Full Text Available Steel has found wide application in hot rolling equipments in the steel industry and the oil rig structures in sea water. These equipments are frequently subjected to corrosive and temperature condition which causes severe damage to them, hence the need to develop steel suitable to withstand these conditions in terms of surface treatment. This research work investigates the effect of FeCrAlY coating on mild steel under high temperature and aggressive environment. Iron based coatings are used due to low cost among other properties such as good corrosion resistance, ease of machining and high ductility when compared to hard metals.Thermal spraying of the specimens was carried out using high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF. Corrosion test was carried out on both coated and uncoated samples. All samples were subjected to the same high temperature treatment for oxidation test.

  7. Selected Parameters of Micro-Jet Cooling Gases in Hybrid Spraying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczucka-Lasota B.


    Full Text Available The innovative technology, like thermal spraying with a micro-jet cooling is one of the important modification of classical ultrasonic spraying methods. Using of micro-stream with gases like argon or nitrogen allows to cool the coating immediately after spraying, and thereby reduce the time of transition during the injection of each layer. As a result of the process, the fine dispersive structure of coatings is obtained during the shorter time in comparable to the classical high velocity oxygen fuel process (HVOF. The parameter of process and the type of stream equipment determine the quality of the obtained structure and thermal stress in the coating. The article presents the relationship between selected parameters of hybrid process and properties of the coatings. The presented technology should be adapted to the actual production of protective coating for machines and construction working in wear conditions.

  8. Investigation of the coatings applied onto brake discs on disc-brake pad pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kiliçaslan


    Full Text Available While braking, according to the severity of it, thermal, metallurgical, constructive and tribological occurrences emerge on the brake disc-pad interface. In this study, NiCr was sprayed as bonding layer onto the discs, one ofwhich was coated with Al2O3-TiO2 by plasma spray and the other was coated with NiCr-Cr3C2 by High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF. In addition, the discs were tested with inertia dynamometer according to SAE’s J2522 testing procedure. The measurements showed that although the pads of the coated discs were exposed to higher braking temperatures, friction coefficient of the disc coated with NiCr- Cr3C2 was obtained 6 % higher compared to the original disc.

  9. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.


    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  10. Kaleidoscopic motion and velocity illusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helm, P.A. van der


    A novel class of vivid motion and velocity illusions for contrast-defined shapes is presented and discussed. The illusions concern a starlike wheel that, physically, rotates with constant velocity between stationary starlike inner and outer shapes but that, perceptually, shows pulsations, jolts

  11. Comparison of in vitro behavior of as-sprayed, alkaline-treated and collagen-treated bioceramic coatings obtained by high velocity oxy-fuel spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melero, H., E-mail: [Thermal Spray Centre, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franqués, 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia-Giralt, N. [URFOA, IMIM (Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques), RETICEF, Doctor Aiguader, 80, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Fernández, J. [Thermal Spray Centre, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franqués, 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Díez-Pérez, A. [URFOA, IMIM (Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques), RETICEF, Doctor Aiguader, 80, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Servei de Medicina Interna, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona (Spain); Guilemany, J.M. [Thermal Spray Centre, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franqués, 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)


    Hydroxyapatite (HAp)–TiO{sub 2} samples obtained using high velocity oxy-fuel spray (HVOF), that had previously shown excellent mechanical behaviour, were innovatively surface treated in order to improve their biological performance. The chosen treatments were an alkaline treatment to increase –OH radicals density on the surface (especially on TiO{sub 2} zones), and a collagen treatment to bond collagen fibrils to the –OH radicals present in hydroxyapatite. These coatings were analysed using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy, and tested for human osteoblast biocompatibility and functionality. In the case of the alkaline treatment, although the –OH radicals density did not increase compared to the as-sprayed coatings, a nanostructured layer of sodium hydroxycarbonate precipitated on the surface, thus improving biological behaviour due to the nanoroughness effect. For the collagen-treated samples, collagen fibrils appeared well-adhered to the surface, and in vitro cell culture tests showed that these surfaces were much more conducive to cell adhesion and differentiation than the as-sprayed and alkaline-treated samples. These results pointed to collagen treatment as a very promising method to improve bioactivity of HAp–TiO{sub 2} thermal-sprayed coatings.

  12. Improvement in wear and corrosion resistance of AISI 1020 steel by high velocity oxy-fuel spray coating containing Ni-Cr-B-Si-Fe-C (United States)

    Prince, M.; Thanu, A. Justin; Gopalakrishnan, P.


    In this investigation, AISI 1020 low carbon steel has been selected as the base material. The Ni based super alloy powder NiCrBSiFeC was sprayed on the base material using high velocity oxy-fuel spraying (HVOF) technique. The thickness of the coating was approximately 0.5 mm (500 μm). The coating was characterized using optical microscopy, Vickers microhardness testing, X-ray diffraction technique and scanning electron microscopy. Dry sliding wear tests were carried out at 3 m/s sliding speed under the load of 10 N for 1000 m sliding distance at various temperatures i.e., 35° C, 250° C and 350° C. The corrosion test was carried out in 1 M copper chloride in acetic acid solution. The polarization studies were also conducted for both base material and coating. The improvement in microhardness from 1.72 GPa (175 HV0.05) to 10.54 GPa (1075 HV0.05) was observed. The coatings exhibited 3-6 times improved wear resistance as compared with base material. Also, the corrosion rate was reduced by 3.5 times due to the presence of coatings.

  13. Diffraction imaging and velocity analysis using oriented velocity continuation

    KAUST Repository

    Decker, Luke


    We perform seismic diffraction imaging and velocity analysis by separating diffractions from specular reflections and decomposing them into slope components. We image slope components using extrapolation in migration velocity in time-space-slope coordinates. The extrapolation is described by a convection-type partial differential equation and implemented efficiently in the Fourier domain. Synthetic and field data experiments show that the proposed algorithm is able to detect accurate time-migration velocities by automatically measuring the flatness of events in dip-angle gathers.

  14. New GNSS velocity field and preliminary velocity model for Ecuador (United States)

    Luna-Ludeña, Marco P.; Staller, Alejandra; Gaspar-Escribano, Jorge M.; Belén Benito, M.


    In this work, we present a new preliminary velocity model of Ecuador based on the GNSS data of the REGME network (continuous monitoring GNSS network). To date, there is no velocity model available for the country. The only existing model in the zone is the regional model VEMOS2009 for South America and Caribbean (Drewes and Heidbach, 2012). This model was developed from the SIRGAS station positions, the velocities of the SIRGAS-CON stations, and several geodynamics projects performed in the region. Just two continuous GNSS (cGNSS) stations of Ecuador were taking into account in the VEMOS2009 model. The first continuous station of the REGME network was established in 2008. At present, it is composed by 32 continuous GNSS stations, covering the country. All the stations provided data during at least two years. We processed the data of the 32 GNSS stations of REGME for the 2008-2014 period, as well as 20 IGS stations in order to link to the global reference frame IGb08 (ITRF2008). GPS data were processed using Bernese 5.0 software (Dach et al., 2007). We obtained and analyzed the GNSS coordinate time series of the 32 REGME stations and we calculated the GPS-derived horizontal velocity field of the country. Velocities in ITRF2008 were transformed into a South American fixed reference frame, using the Euler pole calculated from 8 cGNSS stations throughout this plate. Our velocity field is consistent with the tectonics of the country and contributes to a better understanding of it. From the horizontal velocity field, we determined a preliminary model using the kriging geostatistical technique. To check the results we use the cross-validation method. The differences between the observed and estimated values range from ± 5 mm. This is a new velocity model obtained from GNSS data for Ecuador.

  15. Introduction to vector velocity imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Udesen, Jesper; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov

    over the full region of interest and a real time image at a frame rate of 20 Hz can be displayed. Real time videos have been obtained from both our research systems and from commercial BK Medical scanners. The vector velocity images reveal the full complexity of the human blood flow. It is easy to see...... direction and the correct velocity magnitude for any orientation of the vessels. At complex geometries like bifurcations, branching and for valves the approach reveals how the velocity changes magnitude and direction over the cardiac cycle. Vector velocity reveals a wealth of new information that now...... is accessible to the ultrasound community. The displaying and studying of this information is challenging as complex flow changes rapidly over the cardiac cycle....

  16. Kriging interpolating cosmic velocity field (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Jing, Yipeng; Zhang, Pengjie


    Volume-weighted statistics of large-scale peculiar velocity is preferred by peculiar velocity cosmology, since it is free of the uncertainties of galaxy density bias entangled in observed number density-weighted statistics. However, measuring the volume-weighted velocity statistics from galaxy (halo/simulation particle) velocity data is challenging. Therefore, the exploration of velocity assignment methods with well-controlled sampling artifacts is of great importance. For the first time, we apply the Kriging interpolation to obtain the volume-weighted velocity field. Kriging is a minimum variance estimator. It predicts the most likely velocity for each place based on the velocity at other places. We test the performance of Kriging quantified by the E-mode velocity power spectrum from simulations. Dependences on the variogram prior used in Kriging, the number nk of the nearby particles to interpolate, and the density nP of the observed sample are investigated. First, we find that Kriging induces 1% and 3% systematics at k ˜0.1 h Mpc-1 when nP˜6 ×1 0-2(h-1 Mpc )-3 and nP˜6 ×1 0-3(h-1 Mpc )-3 , respectively. The deviation increases for decreasing nP and increasing k . When nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 , a smoothing effect dominates small scales, causing significant underestimation of the velocity power spectrum. Second, increasing nk helps to recover small-scale power. However, for nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 cases, the recovery is limited. Finally, Kriging is more sensitive to the variogram prior for a lower sample density. The most straightforward application of Kriging on the cosmic velocity field does not show obvious advantages over the nearest-particle method [Y. Zheng, P. Zhang, Y. Jing, W. Lin, and J. Pan, Phys. Rev. D 88, 103510 (2013)] and could not be directly applied to cosmology so far. However, whether potential improvements may be achieved by more delicate versions of Kriging is worth further investigation.

  17. Online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator. (United States)

    Righettini, Paolo; Strada, Roberto; KhademOlama, Ehsan; Valilou, Shirin


    In this paper, we have proposed a new online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator (WCE) over position and acceleration data gathered from an electro hydraulic servo shaking table. This is a batch estimator type that is based on the wavelet filter banks which extract the high and low resolution of data. The proposed complementary estimator combines these two resolutions of velocities which acquired from numerical differentiation and integration of the position and acceleration sensors by considering a fixed moving horizon window as input to wavelet filter. Because of using wavelet filters, it can be implemented in a parallel procedure. By this method the numerical velocity is estimated without having high noise of differentiators, integration drifting bias and with less delay which is suitable for active vibration control in high precision Mechatronics systems by Direct Velocity Feedback (DVF) methods. This method allows us to make velocity sensors with less mechanically moving parts which makes it suitable for fast miniature structures. We have compared this method with Kalman and Butterworth filters over stability, delay and benchmarked them by their long time velocity integration for getting back the initial position data. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gait phase varies over velocities. (United States)

    Liu, Yancheng; Lu, Kun; Yan, Songhua; Sun, Ming; Lester, D Kevin; Zhang, Kuan


    We sought to characterize the percent (PT) of the phases of a gait cycle (GC) as velocity changes to establish norms for pathological gait characteristics with higher resolution technology. Ninety five healthy subjects (49 males and 46 females with age 34.9 ± 11.8 yrs, body weight 64.0 ± 11.7 kg and BMI 23.5 ± 3.6) were enrolled and walked comfortably on a 10-m walkway at self-selected slower, normal, and faster velocities. Walking was recorded with a high speed camera (250 frames per second) and the eight phases of a GC were determined by examination of individual frames for each subject. The correlation coefficients between the mean PT of the phases of the three velocities gaits and PT defined by previous publications were all greater than 0.99. The correlation coefficient between velocity and PT of gait phases is -0.83 for loading response (LR), -0.75 for mid stance (MSt), and -0.84 for pre-swing (PSw). While the PT of the phases of three velocities from this study are highly correlated with PT described by Dr. Jacquenlin Perry decades ago, actual PT of each phase varied amongst these individuals with the largest coefficient variation of 24.31% for IC with slower velocity. From slower to faster walk, the mean PT of MSt diminished from 35.30% to 25.33%. High resolution recording revealed ambiguity of some gait phase definitions, and these data may benefit GC characterization of normal and pathological gait in clinical practice. The study results indicate that one should consider individual variations and walking velocity when evaluating gaits of subjects using standard gait phase classification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Abrasion, Erosion and Cavitation Erosion Wear Properties of Thermally Sprayed Alumina Based Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Matikainen


    Full Text Available Thermally-sprayed alumina based materials, e.g., alumina-titania (Al2O3-TiO2, are commonly applied as wear resistant coatings in industrial applications. Properties of the coatings depend on the spray process, powder morphology, and chemical composition of the powder. In this study, wear resistant coatings from Al2O3 and Al2O3-13TiO2 powders were sprayed with plasma and high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF spray processes. Both, fused and crushed, and agglomerated and sintered Al2O3-13TiO2 powders were studied and compared to pure Al2O3. The coatings were tested for abrasion, erosion, and cavitation resistances in order to study the effect of the coating structure on the wear behavior. Improved coating properties were achieved when agglomerated and sintered nanostructured Al2O3-13TiO2 powder was used in plasma spraying. Coatings with the highest wear resistance in all tests were produced by HVOF spraying from fused and crushed powders.

  20. Thermal Fatigue Behavior of Air-Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coating with Bond Coat Species in Cyclic Thermal Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungyu Paik


    Full Text Available The effects of the bond coat species on the delamination or fracture behavior in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs was investigated using the yclic thermal fatigue and thermal-shock tests. The interface microstructures of each TBC showed a good condition without cracking or delamination after flame thermal fatigue (FTF for 1429 cycles. The TBC with the bond coat prepared by the air-plasma spray (APS method showed a good condition at the interface between the top and bond coats after cyclic furnace thermal fatigue (CFTF for 1429 cycles, whereas the TBCs with the bond coats prepared by the high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF and low-pressure plasma spray (LPPS methods showed a partial cracking (and/or delamination and a delamination after 780 cycles, respectively. The TBCs with the bond coats prepared by the APS, HVOF and LPPS methods were fully delaminated (>50% after 159, 36, and 46 cycles, respectively, during the thermal-shock tests. The TGO thickness in the TBCs was strongly dependent on the both exposure time and temperature difference tested. The hardness values were found to be increased only after the CFTF, and the TBC with the bond coat prepared by the APS showed the highest adhesive strength before and after the FTF.

  1. Structure characterization and wear performance of NiTi thermal sprayed coatings (United States)

    Cinca, N.; Isalgué, A.; Fernández, J.; Guilemany, J. M.


    NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) has been studied for many years for its shape memory and pseudoelastic properties, as well as its biocompatibility, which make it suitable for many biomedical applications. However, SMA NiTi is also interesting for relevant wear resistance near the transition temperature which, along with its high oxidation and corrosion resistance, suggests its use as a coating to increase the lifetime of some components. Also, whereas bulk material properties have been characterized in respect of the nominal composition, manufacturing methods and thermo-mechanical treatments, NiTi overlays have been investigated much less. Most existent works in this field specifically deal with magnetron sputtering technology for thin films and its use in micro-devices (micro-electro-mechanical systems, MEMS), just some works refer to vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) for thicker coatings. The present paper explores and compares the microstructure and wear-related properties of coatings obtained from atomized NiTi powders, by VPS as well as by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) techniques. In the present case, the wear behaviour of the NiTi deposits has been studied by rubber-wheel equipment and ball-on-disk tests. The results obtained at room temperature show that the APS-quenched coatings exhibit a preferential dry sliding wear mechanism, while the VPS and HVOF coatings show an abrasive mechanism.

  2. Signal velocity in oscillator arrays (United States)

    Cantos, C. E.; Veerman, J. J. P.; Hammond, D. K.


    We investigate a system of coupled oscillators on the circle, which arises from a simple model for behavior of large numbers of autonomous vehicles where the acceleration of each vehicle depends on the relative positions and velocities between itself and a set of local neighbors. After describing necessary and sufficient conditions for asymptotic stability, we derive expressions for the phase velocity of propagation of disturbances in velocity through this system. We show that the high frequencies exhibit damping, which implies existence of well-defined signal velocitiesc+ > 0 and c- < 0 such that low frequency disturbances travel through the flock as f+(x - c+t) in the direction of increasing agent numbers and f-(x - c-t) in the other.

  3. Angle independent velocity spectrum determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    An ultrasound imaging system (100) includes a transducer array (102) that emits an ultrasound beam and produces at least one transverse pulse-echo field that oscillates in a direction transverse to the emitted ultrasound beam and that receive echoes produced in response thereto and a spectral vel...... velocity estimator (110) that determines a velocity spectrum for flowing structure, which flows at an angle of 90 degrees and flows at angles less than 90 degrees with respect to the emitted ultrasound beam, based on the received echoes....

  4. Critical velocity experiments in space (United States)

    Torbert, R. B.


    Published data from active space experiments designed to demonstrate the Alfven critical-velocity effect are compiled in graphs and compared with the predictions of numerical simulations. It is found that the discrepancies in the ionization yields obtained in shaped-charge releases of alkali metals are related to the macroscopic limits of time and energy in such releases. It is argued that the total ionization yield is an inadequate measure of the critical-velocity effect, and a new criterion based on eta, the efficiency of energy transfer from the recently ionized neutrals to a heated electron population, is proposed: the effect would be verified if eta values of 10 percent or greater were observed.

  5. Role of Oxides and Porosity on High-Temperature Oxidation of Liquid-Fueled HVOF Thermal-Sprayed Ni50Cr Coatings (United States)

    Song, B.; Bai, M.; Voisey, K. T.; Hussain, T.


    High chromium content in Ni50Cr thermally sprayed coatings can generate a dense and protective scale at the surface of coating. Thus, the Ni50Cr coating is widely used in high-temperature oxidation and corrosion applications. A commercially available gas atomized Ni50Cr powder was sprayed onto a power plant steel (ASME P92) using a liquid-fueled high velocity oxy-fuel thermal spray with three processing parameters in this study. Microstructure of as-sprayed coatings was examined using oxygen content analysis, mercury intrusion porosimetry, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Short-term air oxidation tests (4 h) of freestanding coatings (without boiler steel substrate) in a thermogravimetric analyzer at 700 °C were performed to obtain the kinetics of oxidation of the as-sprayed coating. Long-term air oxidation tests (100 h) of the coated substrates were performed at same temperature to obtain the oxidation products for further characterization in detail using SEM/EDX and XRD. In all samples, oxides of various morphologies developed on top of the Ni50Cr coatings. Cr2O3 was the main oxidation product on the surface of all three coatings. The coating with medium porosity and medium oxygen content has the best high-temperature oxidation performance in this study.

  6. Tribological properties of B{sub 4}C-TiB{sub 2}-TiC-Ni cermet coating produced by HVOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiei, Mahdi [Islamic Azad Univ., Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Isfahan Univ. of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Depr. of Materials Engineering; Shamanian, Morteza; Salehi, Mehdi [Isfahan Univ. of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Depr. of Materials Engineering; Mostaan, Hossein [Arak Univ., Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering


    In this study, B{sub 4}C-TiB{sub 2}-TiC-Ni coating was sprayed on the surface of 4130 steel by high velocity oxy-fuel torch. The tribological behavior of samples was studied by ball on disk wear testing. Structural evolution of the coating was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry. The microstructure of the coating, wear track and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ball was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. Elemental analysis of the wear track was done by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was found that a cermet coating containing B{sub 4}C, TiB{sub 2}, TiC and Ni phases with good bonding to the 4130 steel substrate with no sign of any cracking or pores was formed. The wear mechanism of the composite coating was delamination. The friction coefficient of samples was decreased with increasing load because of higher frictional heat and creation of more oxide islands.

  7. Movement velocity vs. strength training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário C. Marques


    practice in strength training, but increasing evidence (Sanborn et al., 2000; Folland et al., 2002; Izquierdo et al., 2006; Drinkwater et al., 2007 shows that training to repetition failure does not necessarily produce better strength gains and that may even be counterproductive by inducing excessive fatigue, mechanical and metabolic strain (Fry, 2004. In fact, fatigue associated with training to failure not only significantly reduces the force that a muscle can generate, but also the nervous system’s ability to voluntarily activate the muscles (Häkkinen, 1993. Consequently, this approach, besides being very tiring and having shown no advantage over other lower effort types of training, it is unrealistic because it is practically impossible to know exactly how many repetitions can be done with a given absolute load without any initial reference. In addition, if in the first set the subject has completed the maximum number of repetitions, it will be very difficult or even impossible to perform properly the same number of reps in the following sets. Movement velocity is another variable which could be of great interest for monitoring exercise intensity, but surprisingly it has been vaguely mentioned in most studies to date. The importance that monitoring movement velocity for strength training programming have already been noticed in 1991 (González-Badillo, 1991. More recently, González-Badillo and Sánchez-Medina (2010, 2011 studied this hypothesis and confirmed that movement velocity provides as a determinant of the level of effort during resistance training as well as an indicator of the degree of fatigue. Unfortunately, the lack of use of this variable is likely because until recently it was not possible to accurately measure velocity in isoinertial strength training exercises/movements.  Indeed, most research that has addressed movement velocity in strength training was basically conducted using isokinetic apparatus which, unfortunately, is not an ideal or common

  8. Cavity Enhanced Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy (United States)

    Siller, Brian; Mills, Andrew; Porambo, Michael; McCall, Benjamin


    Over the past several decades, velocity modulation spectroscopy has been used to study dozens of molecular ions of astronomical importance. This technique has been so productive because it provides the advantage of ion-neutral discrimination, which is critically important when interfering neutral molecules are many orders of magnitude more abundant, and when combined with heterodyne techniques, its sensitivity can approach the shot noise limit. Traditionally, velocity modulation experiments have utilized unidirectional multipass White cells to achieve up to about 8 passes through a positive column discharge cell. But by positioning the cell within an optical cavity, it is possible to obtain an effective path length orders of magnitude longer than was previously possible. We have demonstrated this novel technique using a Ti:Sapp laser in the near-IR to observe rovibronic transitions of N2+. By demodulating at twice the modulation frequency, 2nd derivative-like lineshapes are observed for ions that are velocity-modulated, while Gaussian lineshapes are observed for excited neutral that are concentration-modulated. The signals for N2+ and N2+* have been observed to be 78° out of phase with one another, so ion-neutral discrimination is retained. And due to the laser power enhancement and geometry of the optical cavity, Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy is now possible. Observed Lamb dips have widths of 50 MHz, and when combined with calibration by an optical frequency comb, this allows for determination of line centers to within 1 MHz. In our original demonstration of this technique, our sensitivity was limited by noise in the laser-cavity lock. Since then, we have integrated Noise Immune Cavity Enhanced Optical Heterodyne Molecular Spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS) by adding sidebands to the laser at an exact multiple of the cavity free spectral range, and demodulating at the sideband frequency before sending the signal to a lock-in amplifier for demodulating at twice the

  9. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon


    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Intrinsic velocity anisotropy, Niger Delta, Thomsen's parameters, vertical i transverse isotropy (VT!) Introduction. In seismology, a layer is anisotropic if seismic waves propagate through it at different velocities in different directions. Sedimentary rocks possess some degree of intrinsic velocity anisotropy (Jones and.

  11. Fe-Al Weld Overlay and High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Thermal Spray Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Waterwalls in Fossil Fired Plants with Low NOx Burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regina, J.R.


    Iron-aluminum-chromium coatings were investigated to determine the best candidates for coatings of boiler tubes in Low NOx fossil fueled power plants. Ten iron-aluminum-chromium weld claddings with aluminum concentrations up to 10wt% were tested in a variety of environments to evaluate their high temperature corrosion resistance. The weld overlay claddings also contained titanium additions to investigate any beneficial effects from these ternary and quaternary alloying additions. Several High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings with higher aluminum concentrations were investigated as well. Gaseous corrosion testing revealed that at least 10wt%Al is required for protection in the range of environments examined. Chromium additions were beneficial in all of the environments, but additions of titanium were beneficial only in sulfur rich atmospheres. Similar results were observed when weld claddings were in contact with corrosive slag while simultaneously, exposed to the corrosive environments. An aluminum concentration of 10wt% was required to prevent large amounts of corrosion to take place. Again chromium additions were beneficial with the greatest corrosion protection occurring for welds containing both 10wt%Al and 5wt%Cr. The exposed thermal spray coatings showed either significant cracking within the coating, considerable thickness loss, or corrosion products at the coating substrate interface. Therefore, the thermal spray coatings provided the substrate very little protection. Overall, it was concluded that of the coatings studied weld overlay coatings provide superior protection in these Low NOx environments; specifically, the ternary weld composition of 10wt%Al and 5wt%Cr provided the best corrosion protection in all of the environments tested.

  12. Laminar Burning Velocities of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) Gasoline and Gasoline Surrogates with and without Ethanol Blending Associated with Octane Rating

    KAUST Repository

    Mannaa, Ossama


    Laminar burning velocities of fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) C gasoline and of several blends of surrogate toluene reference fuels (TRFs) (n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene mixtures) of the same research octane number are presented. Effects of ethanol addition on laminar flame speed of FACE-C and its surrogate are addressed. Measurements were conducted using a constant volume spherical combustion vessel in the constant pressure, stable flame regime at an initial temperature of 358 K and initial pressures up to 0.6 MPa with the equivalence ratios ranging from 0.8 to 1.6. Comparable values in the laminar burning velocities were measured for the FACE-C gasoline and the proposed surrogate fuel (17.60% n-heptane + 77.40% iso-octane + 5% toluene) over the range of experimental conditions. Sensitivity of flame propagation to total stretch rate effects and thermo-diffusive instability was quantified by determining Markstein length. Two percentages of an oxygenated fuel of ethanol as an additive, namely, 60 vol% and 85 vol% were investigated. The addition of ethanol to FACE-C and its surrogate TRF-1 (17.60% n-heptane + 77.40% iso-octane + 5% toluene) resulted in a relatively similar increase in the laminar burning velocities. The high-pressure measured values of Markstein length for the studied fuels blended with ethanol showed minimal influence of ethanol addition on the flame’s response to stretch rate and thermo-diffusive instability. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

  13. Vector blood velocity estimation in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gran, Fredrik; Udesen, Jesper


    Two methods for making vector velocity estimation in medical ultrasound are presented. All of the techniques can find both the axial and transverse velocity in the image and can be used for displaying both the correct velocity magnitude and direction. The first method uses a transverse oscillation...... in the ultrasound field to find the transverse velocity. In-vivo examples from the carotid artery are shown, where complex turbulent flow is found in certain parts of the cardiac cycle. The second approach uses directional beam forming along the flow direction to estimate the velocity magnitude. Using a correlation...

  14. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms for Combustion of Oxygenated Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, E.M.; Pitz, W.J.; Curran, H.J.; Westbrook, C.K.


    Thermodynamic properties and detailed chemical kinetic models have been developed for the combustion of two oxygenates: methyl butanoate, a model compound for biodiesel fuels, and methyl formate, a related simpler molecule. Bond additivity methods and rules for estimating kinetic parameters were adopted from hydrocarbon combustion and extended. The resulting mechanisms have been tested against the limited combustion data available in the literature, which was obtained at low temperature, subatmospheric conditions in closed vessels, using pressure measurements as the main diagnostic. Some qualitative agreement was obtained, but the experimental data consistently indicated lower overall reactivities than the model, differing by factors of 10 to 50. This discrepancy, which occurs for species with well-established kinetic mechanisms as well as for methyl esters, is tentatively ascribed to the presence of wall reactions in the experiments. The model predicts a region of weak or negative dependence of overall reaction rate on temperature for each methyl ester. Examination of the reaction fluxes provides an explanation of this behavior, involving a temperature-dependent competition between chain-propagating unimolecular decomposition processes and chain-branching processes, similar to that accepted for hydrocarbons. There is an urgent need to obtain more complete experimental data under well-characterized conditions for thorough testing of the model.

  15. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Diesel Combustion with Oxygenated Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curran, H J; Fisher, E M; Glaude, P-A; Marinov, N M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Flynn, P F; Durrett, R P; zur Loye, A O; Akinyemi, O C; Dryer, F L


    Emission standards for diesel engines in vehicles have been steadily reduced in recent years, and a great deal of research and development effort has been focused on reducing particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions. One promising approach to reducing emissions involves the addition of oxygen to the fuel, generally by adding an oxygenated compound to the normal diesel fuel. Miyamoto et al. [1] showed experimentally that particulate levels can be significantly reduced by adding oxygenated species to the fuel. They found the Bosch smoke number (a measure of the particulate or soot levels in diesel exhaust) falls from about 55% for conventional diesel fuel to less than 1% when the oxygen content of the fuel is above about 25% by mass, as shown in Figure 1. It has been well established that addition of oxygenates to automotive fuel, including both diesel fuel as well as gasoline, reduces NOx and CO emissions by reducing flame temperatures. This is the basis for addition of oxygenates to produce reformulated gasoline in selected portions of the country. Of course, this is also accompanied by a slight reduction in fuel economy. A new overall picture of diesel combustion has been developed by Dec [2], in which laser diagnostic studies identified stages in diesel combustion that had not previously been recognized. These stages are summarized in Figure 2. The evolution of the diesel spray is shown, starting as a liquid jet that vaporizes and entrains hot air from the combustion chamber. This relatively steady process continues as long as fuel is being injected. In particular, Dec showed that the fuel spray vaporizes and mixes with air and products of earlier combustion to provide a region in which a gas phase, premixed fuel-rich ignition and burn occurs. The products of this ignition are then observed experimentally to lead rapidly to formation of soot particles, which subsequently are consumed in a diffusion flame. Recently, Flynn et al. [3] used a chemical kinetic and mixing model to study the premixed, rich ignition process. Using n-heptane as a representative diesel fuel, they showed that addition of an oxygenated additive, methanol, to the fuel reduced the concentrations of a number of hydrocarbon species in the products of the rich ignition. Specifically, methanol addition reduced the total concentrations of acetylene, ethylene and 1,3-butadiene, as well as propargyl and vinyl radicals, in the ignition products. These are the same species shown in a number of studies [4-6] to be responsible for formation of aromatic and polycyclic aromatic species in flames, species which lead eventually to production of soot. Flynn et al. did not, however, examine the kinetic processes responsible for the computed reduction in production of soot precursor species. At least two hypotheses have been advanced to explain the role that oxygenated species play in diesel ignition and the reduction in the concentrations of these species. The first is that the additive, methanol in the case of Flynn et al., does not contain any C-C bonds and cannot then produce significant levels of the species such as acetylene, ethylene or the unsaturated radicals which are known to lead to aromatic species. The second hypothesis is that the product distribution changes very naturally as oxygen is added and the overall equivalence ratio is reduced. In the present study, we repeat the ignition calculations of Flynn et al. and include a number of other oxygenated species to determine which of these theories is more applicable to this model.

  16. Performance optimization of a PEM hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. [Fuel Cell Research Center, International Energy and Environment Foundation, Al-Najaf, P.O.Box 39 (Iraq)


    The objective was to develop a semi-empirical model that would simulate the performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells without extensive calculations. A fuel cell mathematical module has been designed and constructed to determine the performance of a PEM fuel cell. The influence of some operating parameters on the performance of PEM fuel cell has been investigated using pure hydrogen on the anode side and oxygen on the cathode side. The present model can be used to investigate the influence of process variables for design optimization of fuel cells, stacks, and complete fuel cell power system. The possible mechanisms of the parameter effects and their interrelationships are discussed. In order to assess the validity of the developed model a real PEM fuel cell system has been used to generate experimental data. The comparison shows good agreements between the modelling results and the experimental data. The model is shown a very useful for estimating the performance of PEM fuel cell stacks and optimization of fuel cell system integration and operation.

  17. Measurement of the velocity of a quantum object: A role of phase and group velocities (United States)

    Lapinski, Mikaila; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.


    We consider the motion of a quantum particle in a free space. Introducing an explicit measurement procedure for velocity, we demonstrate that the measured velocity is related to the group and phase velocities of the corresponding matter waves. We show that for long distances the measured velocity coincides with the matter wave group velocity. We discuss the possibilities to demonstrate these effects for the optical pulses in coherently driven media or for radiation propagating in waveguides.

  18. The soil moisture velocity equation (United States)

    Ogden, Fred L.; Allen, Myron B.; Lai, Wencong; Zhu, Jianting; Seo, Mookwon; Douglas, Craig C.; Talbot, Cary A.


    Numerical solution of the one-dimensional Richards' equation is the recommended method for coupling groundwater to the atmosphere through the vadose zone in hyperresolution Earth system models, but requires fine spatial discretization, is computationally expensive, and may not converge due to mathematical degeneracy or when sharp wetting fronts occur. We transformed the one-dimensional Richards' equation into a new equation that describes the velocity of moisture content values in an unsaturated soil under the actions of capillarity and gravity. We call this new equation the Soil Moisture Velocity Equation (SMVE). The SMVE consists of two terms: an advection-like term that accounts for gravity and the integrated capillary drive of the wetting front, and a diffusion-like term that describes the flux due to the shape of the wetting front capillarity profile divided by the vertical gradient of the capillary pressure head. The SMVE advection-like term can be converted to a relatively easy to solve ordinary differential equation (ODE) using the method of lines and solved using a finite moisture-content discretization. Comparing against analytical solutions of Richards' equation shows that the SMVE advection-like term is >99% accurate for calculating infiltration fluxes neglecting the diffusion-like term. The ODE solution of the SMVE advection-like term is accurate, computationally efficient and reliable for calculating one-dimensional vadose zone fluxes in Earth system and large-scale coupled models of land-atmosphere interaction. It is also well suited for use in inverse problems such as when repeat remote sensing observations are used to infer soil hydraulic properties or soil moisture.Plain Language SummarySince its original publication in 1922, the so-called Richards' equation has been the only rigorous way to couple groundwater to the land surface through the unsaturated zone that lies between the water table and land surface. The soil moisture distribution and

  19. Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles

    KAUST Repository

    Giese, Andrew


    © 2014 IEEE. Modern multi-agent systems frequently use highlevel planners to extract basic paths for agents, and then rely on local collision avoidance to ensure that the agents reach their destinations without colliding with one another or dynamic obstacles. One state-of-the-art local collision avoidance technique is Optimal Reciprocal Collision Avoidance (ORCA). Despite being fast and efficient for circular-shaped agents, ORCA may deadlock when polygonal shapes are used. To address this shortcoming, we introduce Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles (RRVO). RRVO generalizes ORCA by introducing a notion of rotation for polygonally-shaped agents. This generalization permits more realistic motion than ORCA and does not suffer from as much deadlock. In this paper, we present the theory of RRVO and show empirically that it does not suffer from the deadlock issue ORCA has, permits agents to reach goals faster, and has a comparable collision rate at the cost of performance overhead quadratic in the (typically small) user-defined parameter δ.

  20. High velocity impact experiment (HVIE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toor, A.; Donich, T.; Carter, P.


    The HVIE space project was conceived as a way to measure the absolute EOS for approximately 10 materials at pressures up to {approximately}30 Mb with order-of-magnitude higher accuracy than obtainable in any comparable experiment conducted on earth. The experiment configuration is such that each of the 10 materials interacts with all of the others thereby producing one-hundred independent, simultaneous EOS experiments The materials will be selected to provide critical information to weapons designers, National Ignition Facility target designers and planetary and geophysical scientists. In addition, HVIE will provide important scientific information to other communities, including the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization and the lethality and vulnerability community. The basic HVIE concept is to place two probes in counter rotating, highly elliptical orbits and collide them at high velocity (20 km/s) at 100 km altitude above the earth. The low altitude of the experiment will provide quick debris strip-out of orbit due to atmospheric drag. The preliminary conceptual evaluation of the HVIE has found no show stoppers. The design has been very easy to keep within the lift capabilities of commonly available rides to low earth orbit including the space shuttle. The cost of approximately 69 million dollars for 100 EOS experiment that will yield the much needed high accuracy, absolute measurement data is a bargain!

  1. Geotail observations of FTE velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Korotova


    Full Text Available We discuss the plasma velocity signatures expected in association with flux transfer events (FTEs. Events moving faster than or opposite the ambient media should generate bipolar inward/outward (outward/inward flow perturbations normal to the nominal magnetopause in the magnetosphere (magnetosheath. Flow perturbations directly upstream and downstream from the events should be in the direction of event motion. Flows on the flanks should be in the direction opposite the motion of events moving at subsonic and subAlfvénic speeds relative to the ambient plasma. Events moving with the ambient flow should generate no flow perturbations in the ambient plasma. Alfvén waves propagating parallel (antiparallel to the axial magnetic field of FTEs may generate anticorrelated (correlated magnetic field and flow perturbations within the core region of FTEs. We present case studies illustrating many of these signatures. In the examples considered, Alfvén waves propagate along event axes away from the inferred reconnection site. A statistical study of FTEs observed by Geotail over a 3.5-year period reveals that FTEs within the magnetosphere invariably move faster than the ambient flow, while those in the magnetosheath move both faster and slower than the ambient flow.

  2. Computing discharge using the index velocity method (United States)

    Levesque, Victor A.; Oberg, Kevin A.


    Application of the index velocity method for computing continuous records of discharge has become increasingly common, especially since the introduction of low-cost acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) in 1997. Presently (2011), the index velocity method is being used to compute discharge records for approximately 470 gaging stations operated and maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of this report is to document and describe techniques for computing discharge records using the index velocity method. Computing discharge using the index velocity method differs from the traditional stage-discharge method by separating velocity and area into two ratings—the index velocity rating and the stage-area rating. The outputs from each of these ratings, mean channel velocity (V) and cross-sectional area (A), are then multiplied together to compute a discharge. For the index velocity method, V is a function of such parameters as streamwise velocity, stage, cross-stream velocity, and velocity head, and A is a function of stage and cross-section shape. The index velocity method can be used at locations where stage-discharge methods are used, but it is especially appropriate when more than one specific discharge can be measured for a specific stage. After the ADVM is selected, installed, and configured, the stage-area rating and the index velocity rating must be developed. A standard cross section is identified and surveyed in order to develop the stage-area rating. The standard cross section should be surveyed every year for the first 3 years of operation and thereafter at a lesser frequency, depending on the susceptibility of the cross section to change. Periodic measurements of discharge are used to calibrate and validate the index rating for the range of conditions experienced at the gaging station. Data from discharge measurements, ADVMs, and stage sensors are compiled for index-rating analysis. Index ratings are developed by means of regression

  3. Snapshot wavefield decomposition for heterogeneous velocity media


    Holicki, M.E.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.


    We propose a novel directional decomposition operator for wavefield snapshots in heterogeneous-velocity media. The proposed operator demonstrates the link between the amplitude of pressure and particlevelocity plane waves in the wavenumber domain. The proposed operator requires two spatial Fourier transforms (one forward and one backward) per spatial dimension and time slice. To illustrate the operator we demonstrate its applicability to heterogeneous velocity models using a simple velocity-b...

  4. Conduction velocity of antigravity muscle action potentials. (United States)

    Christova, L; Kosarov, D; Christova, P


    The conduction velocity of the impulses along the muscle fibers is one of the parameters of the extraterritorial potentials of the motor units allowing for the evaluation of the functional state of the muscles. There are no data about the conduction velocities of antigravity muscleaction potentials. In this paper we offer a method for measuring conduction velocity of potentials of single MUs and the averaged potentials of the interference electromiogram (IEMG) lead-off by surface electrodes from mm. sternocleidomastoideus, trapezius, deltoideus (caput laterale) and vastus medialis. The measured mean values of the conduction velocity of antigravity muscles potentials can be used for testing the functional state of the muscles.

  5. Magnetogenesis through Relativistic Velocity Shear (United States)

    Miller, Evan

    Magnetic fields at all scales are prevalent in our universe. However, current cosmological models predict that initially the universe was bereft of large-scale fields. Standard magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) does not permit magnetogenesis; in the MHD Faraday's law, the change in magnetic field B depends on B itself. Thus if B is initially zero, it will remain zero for all time. A more accurate physical model is needed to explain the origins of the galactic-scale magnetic fields observed today. In this thesis, I explore two velocity-driven mechanisms for magnetogenesis in 2-fluid plasma. The first is a novel kinematic 'battery' arising from convection of vorticity. A coupling between thermal and plasma oscillations, this non-relativistic mechanism can operate in flows that are incompressible, quasi-neutral and barotropic. The second mechanism results from inclusion of thermal effects in relativistic shear flow instabilities. In such flows, parallel perturbations are ubiquitously unstable at small scales, with growth rates of order with the plasma frequency over a defined range of parameter-space. Of these two processes, instabilities seem far more likely to account for galactic magnetic fields. Stable kinematic effects will, at best, be comparable to an ideal Biermann battery, which is suspected to be orders of magnitude too weak to produce the observed galactic fields. On the other hand, instabilities grow until saturation is reached, a topic that has yet to be explored in detail on cosmological scales. In addition to investigating these magnetogenesis sources, I derive a general dispersion relation for three dimensional, warm, two species plasma with discontinuous shear flow. The mathematics of relativistic plasma, sheared-flow instability and the Biermann battery are also discussed.

  6. Intranasal triamcinolone and growth velocity. (United States)

    Skoner, David P; Berger, William E; Gawchik, Sandra M; Akbary, Akbar; Qiu, Chunfu


    Inadequate designs and conflicting results from previous studies prompted the US Food and Drug Administration to publish guidelines for the design of clinical trials evaluating the effects of orally inhaled and intranasal corticosteroids on the growth of children. This study conformed to these guidelines to evaluate the effect of triamcinolone acetonide aqueous nasal spray (TAA-AQ) on the growth of children with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter study evaluated the effect of once-daily TAA-AQ (110 μg) on the growth velocity (GV) of children aged 3-9 years with PAR by using stadiometry at baseline (4-6 months), during treatment (12 months), and at follow-up (2 months). Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function was assessed by measuring urinary cortisol levels. Details of adverse events were recorded. Of 1078 subjects screened, 299 were randomized, and 216 completed the study (placebo, 107; TAA-AQ, 109). In the primary analysis (modified intent-to-treat: placebo, 133; TAA-AQ, 134), least-squares mean GV during treatment was lower in the TAA-AQ group (5.65 cm/year) versus placebo (6.09 cm/year). The difference (-0.45 cm/year; 95% confidence interval: -0.78 to -0.11; P = .01), although clinically nonsignificant, was evident within 2 months of treatment and stabilized thereafter. At follow-up, the GV approached baseline (6.70 cm/year) in the TAA-AQ group (6.59 cm/year) and decreased slightly in the placebo group (5.89 cm/year vs 6.06 cm/year at baseline). No HPA axis suppression was observed. By using rigorous Food and Drug Administration-recommended design elements, this study detected a small, statistically significant effect of TAA-AQ on the GV of children with PAR. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Photoelectric Radial Velocities, Paper XIX Additional Spectroscopic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for about 35 years, the radial velocity of HD 3345 began to decline in the new century, and in seven years it had fallen by 6 km s. −1 . The observations are listed in Table 2, with the phases and residuals that correspond to the adopted orbital parameters. The descending (minimum-velocity) node was passed early in 2009, a.

  8. Asymmetric Drift and the Stellar Velocity Ellipsoid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.


    We present the decomposition of the stellar velocity ellipsoid using stellar velocity dispersions within a 40° wedge about the major-axis (smaj), the epicycle approximation, and the asymmetric drift equation. Thus, we employ no fitted forms for smaj and escape interpolation errors resulting from

  9. Critical Landau Velocity in Helium Nanodroplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, N.B.; Smolarek, S.; Loginov, E.; Mateo, D.; Hernando, A.; Pi, M.; Barranco, M.; Buma, W.J.; Drabbels, M.


    The best-known property of superfluid helium is the vanishing viscosity that objects experience while moving through the liquid with speeds below the so-called critical Landau velocity. This critical velocity is generally considered a macroscopic property as it is related to the collective


    The widespread application of incompressible flow theory dominates low-velocity fluid dynamics, virtually preventing research into compressible low-velocity flow dynamics. Yet, compressible solutions to simple and well-defined flow problems and a series of contradictions in incom...

  11. Velocity spectrum for the Iranian plateau (United States)

    Bastami, Morteza; Soghrat, M. R.


    Peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration values have been proposed in most building codes/guidelines, unlike spectral velocity (SV) and peak ground velocity (PGV). Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of spectral velocity and peak ground velocity in the design of long period structures (e.g., pipelines, tunnels, tanks, and high-rise buildings) and evaluation of seismic vulnerability in underground structures. The current study was undertaken to develop a velocity spectrum and for estimation of PGV. In order to determine these parameters, 398 three-component accelerograms recorded by the Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC) were used. The moment magnitude (Mw) in the selected database was 4.1 to 7.3, and the events occurred after 1977. In the database, the average shear-wave velocity at 0 to 30 m in depth (Vs30) was available for only 217 records; thus, the site class for the remaining was estimated using empirical methods. Because of the importance of the velocity spectrum at low frequencies, the signal-to-noise ratio of 2 was chosen for determination of the low and high frequency to include a wider range of frequency content. This value can produce conservative results. After estimation of the shape of the velocity design spectrum, the PGV was also estimated for the region under study by finding the correlation between PGV and spectral acceleration at the period of 1 s.

  12. Algorithms for estimating blood velocities using ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    have been developed for performing the estimation, and the various approaches are described. The current systems only display the velocity along the ultrasound beam direction and a velocity transverse to the beam is not detected. This is a major problem in these systems, since most blood vessels...

  13. Postprocessing of velocity distributions in real-time ultrasonic color velocity imaging. (United States)

    Collaris, R J; Hoeks, A P


    A robust processing scheme is proposed that improves the presentation of 2-dimensional velocity distributions in real-time ultrasonic color velocity images. Essentially, the algorithm is a modification of a first order recursive filter, processing each velocity signal in the spatial distribution separately from the others. It restores the sudden holes and notches in the velocity profiles that occur whenever the observed blood velocity is incidentally close to zero. At the same time, unlike conventional persistence filters, it does not influence any of the true velocity information that is measured. The result is a consistent sequence of color velocity images with smooth transitions between the borders of the consecutive velocity profiles and with an improved definition of the regions containing blood.

  14. Ultrasound systems for blood velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    Medical ultrasound scanners can be used both for displayinggray-scale images of the anatomy and for visualizing theblood flow dynamically in the body.The systems can interrogate the flow at a single position in the bodyand there find the velocity distribution over time. They can also show adynamic...... color image of velocity at up to 20 to 60 frames a second. Both measurements are performedby repeatedly pulsing in the same direction and then usethe correlation from pulse to pulse to determine the velocity.The paper gives a simple model for the interactionbetween the ultrasound and the moving blood....... The calculation of the velocity distribution is then explainedalong with the different physical effects influencing the estimation.The estimation of mean velocities using auto- andcross-correlation for color flow mapping is also described....

  15. Range/velocity limitations for time-domain blood velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    The traditional range/velocity limitation for blood velocity estimation systems using ultrasound is elucidated. It is stated that the equation is a property of the estimator used, not the actual physical measurement situation, as higher velocities can be estimated by the time domain cross...

  16. Kinematic Synthesis for Linkages with Velocity Targets (United States)

    de-Juan, Ana; Sancibrian, Ramon; García, Pablo; Viadero, Fernando; Iglesias, Miguel; Fernández, Alfonso

    A gradient-based optimization method for designing linkages with velocity targets is described. Two theoretical application cases are established for four-bar linkage. In the first, a constant-velocity module is proposed for a point on the coupler. In the second, the goal is the velocity components. These cases are studied with and without coordination with the input link. The results obtained are compared with another gradient-based approach, and show that the method works efficiently for these types of target.

  17. Shuttlecock Velocity of a Badminton Drop Shot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampharin Ongvises


    Full Text Available In a badminton ‘drop shot’, the shuttlecock is struck by a non-rotating racquet at low speed. In this investigation, a shuttlecock was hit by a badminton racquet in a linear collision, simulating a drop shot. The collision was recorded with high-speed video and the velocities of the racquet and shuttlecock determined. The relationship between the impact velocity of the racquet and the velocity of the shuttlecock as it leaves the badminton racquet after collision was found to be proportional over the range tested.

  18. Shuttlecock Velocity of a Badminton Drop Shot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampharin Ongvises


    Full Text Available In a badminton ‘drop shot’, the shuttlecock is struck by a non-rotating racquet at low speed. In this investigation, a shuttlecock was hit by a badminton racquet in a linear collision, simulating a drop shot. The collision was recorded with high-speed video and the velocities of the racquet and shuttlecock determined. The relationship between the impact velocity of the racquet and the velocity of the shuttlecock as it leaves the badminton racquet after collision was found to be proportional over the range tested.

  19. Velocity Segregation and Systematic Biases In Velocity Dispersion Estimates with the SPT-GMOS Spectroscopic Survey (United States)

    Bayliss, Matthew. B.; Zengo, Kyle; Ruel, Jonathan; Benson, Bradford A.; Bleem, Lindsey E.; Bocquet, Sebastian; Bulbul, Esra; Brodwin, Mark; Capasso, Raffaella; Chiu, I.-non; McDonald, Michael; Rapetti, David; Saro, Alex; Stalder, Brian; Stark, Antony A.; Strazzullo, Veronica; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Zenteno, Alfredo


    The velocity distribution of galaxies in clusters is not universal; rather, galaxies are segregated according to their spectral type and relative luminosity. We examine the velocity distributions of different populations of galaxies within 89 Sunyaev Zel’dovich (SZ) selected galaxy clusters spanning 0.28GMOS spectroscopic survey, supplemented by additional published spectroscopy, resulting in a final spectroscopic sample of 4148 galaxy spectra—2868 cluster members. The velocity dispersion of star-forming cluster galaxies is 17 ± 4% greater than that of passive cluster galaxies, and the velocity dispersion of bright (m< {m}* -0.5) cluster galaxies is 11 ± 4% lower than the velocity dispersion of our total member population. We find good agreement with simulations regarding the shape of the relationship between the measured velocity dispersion and the fraction of passive versus star-forming galaxies used to measure it, but we find a small offset between this relationship as measured in data and simulations, which suggests that our dispersions are systematically low by as much as 3% relative to simulations. We argue that this offset could be interpreted as a measurement of the effective velocity bias that describes the ratio of our observed velocity dispersions and the intrinsic velocity dispersion of dark matter particles in a published simulation result. Measuring velocity bias in this way suggests that large spectroscopic surveys can improve dispersion-based mass-observable scaling relations for cosmology even in the face of velocity biases, by quantifying and ultimately calibrating them out.

  20. New principle of magnetophoretic velocity mass analysis. (United States)

    Watanabe, Katsuya; Suwa, Masayori; Watarai, Hitoshi


    We propose a novel principle of velocity mass analysis of a micro-particle using magnetophoretic force. The new method can determine the mass of a particle from its magnetophoretic velocity change in a high magnetic field gradient in a low viscous medium such as air. In the present study, the new principle was demonstrated by the magnetophoretic acceleration of an aqueous manganese(II) chloride micro-droplet and the deceleration of a water micro-droplet in the atmosphere. The observed velocity change was analyzed taking into account the mass of the droplet through the acceleration term of the equation of motion. The experimental results proved that the inertia force in the magnetophoretic velocity of a micro-particle could be detected in air. The present method provided an innovative mass analysis method without any ionization of the sample.

  1. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngeraa, Tobias; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Mantoni, T


    Running induces characteristic fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) of unknown consequence for organ blood flow. We hypothesized that running-induced BP oscillations are transferred to the cerebral vasculature. In 15 healthy volunteers, transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery (MCA......) blood flow velocity, photoplethysmographic finger BP, and step frequency were measured continuously during three consecutive 5-min intervals of treadmill running at increasing running intensities. Data were analysed in the time and frequency domains. BP data for seven subjects and MCA velocity data....... During running, rhythmic oscillations in arterial BP induced by interference between HR and step frequency impact on cerebral blood velocity. For the exercise as a whole, average MCA velocity becomes elevated. These results suggest that running not only induces an increase in regional cerebral blood flow...

  2. Instrumented impact testing at high velocities (United States)

    Delfosse, Daniel; Pageau, Gilles; Bennett, Roger; Poursartip, Anoush

    Impact loading of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic CFRP) aircraft parts is a major concern. Birds or hailstones striking an aircraft generally have a low mass and a high velocity, whereas typically instrumented impact experiments are performed with a high mass and a low velocity. Our aim has been to build an instrumented impact facility with a low-mass projectile capable of simulating these impact events, since there is evidence that a low-velocity impact will not always result in the same amount or even type of damage as a high-velocity impact. This paper provides a detailed description of the instrumented low-mass impact facility at The University of British Columbia (UBC). A gas gun is used to accelerate the instrumented projectile to impact velocities as high as 50 m/s, corresponding to an energy level of 350 J. The contact force during the impact event is measured by an incorporated load cell. The necessary mathematical operations to determine the real load-displacement curves are outlined, and the results of some impact events at different velocities are shown.

  3. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity. (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén


    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  4. Referencing geostrophic velocities using ADCP data Referencing geostrophic velocities using ADCP data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Comas-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs have proven to be a useful oceanographic tool in the study of ocean dynamics. Data from D279, a transatlantic hydrographic cruise carried out in spring 2004 along 24.5°N, were processed, and lowered ADCP (LADCP bottom track data were used to assess the choice of reference velocity for geostrophic calculations. The reference velocities from different combinations of ADCP data were compared to one another and a reference velocity was chosen based on the LADCP data. The barotropic tidal component was subtracted to provide a final reference velocity estimated by LADCP data. The results of the velocity fields are also shown. Further studies involving inverse solutions will include the reference velocity calculated here.

  5. Direct measurement of superluminal group velocity and signal velocity in an optical fiber. (United States)

    Brunner, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio; Wegmüller, Mark; Legré, Matthieu; Gisin, Nicolas


    We present an easy way of observing superluminal group velocities using a birefringent optical fiber and other standard devices. In the theoretical analysis, we show that the optical properties of the setup can be described using the notion of "weak value." The experiment shows that the group velocity can indeed exceed c in the fiber; and we report the first direct observation of the so-called "signal velocity," the speed at which information propagates and that cannot exceed c.

  6. Auditory velocity discrimination in the horizontal plane at very high velocities. (United States)

    Frissen, Ilja; Féron, François-Xavier; Guastavino, Catherine


    We determined velocity discrimination thresholds and Weber fractions for sounds revolving around the listener at very high velocities. Sounds used were a broadband white noise and two harmonic sounds with fundamental frequencies of 330 Hz and 1760 Hz. Experiment 1 used velocities ranging between 288°/s and 720°/s in an acoustically treated room and Experiment 2 used velocities between 288°/s and 576°/s in a highly reverberant hall. A third experiment addressed potential confounds in the first two experiments. The results show that people can reliably discriminate velocity at very high velocities and that both thresholds and Weber fractions decrease as velocity increases. These results violate Weber's law but are consistent with the empirical trend observed in the literature. While thresholds for the noise and 330 Hz harmonic stimulus were similar, those for the 1760 Hz harmonic stimulus were substantially higher. There were no reliable differences in velocity discrimination between the two acoustical environments, suggesting that auditory motion perception at high velocities is robust against the effects of reverberation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Seismic velocity estimation from time migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, Maria Kourkina [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    reliable as the earth becomes horizontally nonconstant. Even mild lateral velocity variations can significantly distort subsurface structures on the time migrated images. Conversely, depth migration provides the potential for more accurate reconstructions, since it can handle significant lateral variations. However, this approach requires good input data, known as a 'velocity model'. We address the problem of estimating seismic velocities inside the earth, i.e., the problem of constructing a velocity model, which is necessary for obtaining seismic images in regular Cartesian coordinates. The main goals are to develop algorithms to convert time-migration velocities to true seismic velocities, and to convert time-migrated images to depth images in regular Cartesian coordinates. Our main results are three-fold. First, we establish a theoretical relation between the true seismic velocities and the 'time migration velocities' using the paraxial ray tracing. Second, we formulate an appropriate inverse problem describing the relation between time migration velocities and depth velocities, and show that this problem is mathematically ill-posed, i.e., unstable to small perturbations. Third, we develop numerical algorithms to solve regularized versions of these equations which can be used to recover smoothed velocity variations. Our algorithms consist of efficient time-to-depth conversion algorithms, based on Dijkstra-like Fast Marching Methods, as well as level set and ray tracing algorithms for transforming Dix velocities into seismic velocities. Our algorithms are applied to both two-dimensional and three-dimensional problems, and we test them on a collection of both synthetic examples and field data.

  8. Factors Affecting Seismic Velocity in Alluvium (United States)

    Huckins-Gang, H.; Mercadante, J.; Prothro, L.


    Yucca Flat at the Nevada National Security Site has been selected as the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Dry Alluvium Geology Phase II site. The alluvium in this part of Yucca Flat is typical of desert basin fill, with discontinuous beds that are highly variable in clast size and provenance. Detailed understanding of the subsurface geology will be needed for interpretation of the SPE seismic data. A 3D seismic velocity model, created for Yucca Flat using interval seismic velocity data, shows variations in velocity within alluvium near the SPE Phase II site beyond the usual gradual increase of density with depth due to compaction. In this study we examined borehole lithologic logs, geophysical logs, downhole videos, and laboratory analyses of sidewall core samples to understand which characteristics of the alluvium are related to these variations in seismic velocity. Seismic velocity of alluvium is generally related to its density, which can be affected by sediment provenance, clast size, gravel percentage, and matrix properties, in addition to compaction. This study presents a preliminary subdivision of the alluvial strata in the SPE Phase II area into mappable units expected to be significant to seismic modeling. Further refinements of the alluvial units may be possible when seismic data are obtained from SPE Phase II tests. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. A method to deconvolve stellar rotational velocities (United States)

    Curé, Michel; Rial, Diego F.; Christen, Alejandra; Cassetti, Julia


    Aims: Rotational speed is an important physical parameter of stars, and knowing the distribution of stellar rotational velocities is essential for understanding stellar evolution. However, rotational speed cannot be measured directly and is instead the convolution between the rotational speed and the sine of the inclination angle v sin i. Methods: We developed a method to deconvolve this inverse problem and obtain the cumulative distribution function for stellar rotational velocities extending the work of Chandrasekhar & Münch (1950, ApJ, 111, 142) Results: This method is applied: a) to theoretical synthetic data recovering the original velocity distribution with a very small error; and b) to a sample of about 12.000 field main-sequence stars, corroborating that the velocity distribution function is non-Maxwellian, but is better described by distributions based on the concept of maximum entropy, such as Tsallis or Kaniadakis distribution functions. Conclusions: This is a very robust and novel method that deconvolves the rotational velocity cumulative distribution function from a sample of v sin i data in a single step without needing any convergence criteria.

  10. Performance of a vector velocity estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    It is a well-known limitation of all commercially available scanners that only the velocity component along the propagation direction of the emitted pulse is measured, when evaluating blood velocities with ultrasound. Proposals for solving this limitation using several transducers or speckle...... tracking can be found in the literature, but no method with a satisfactory performance has been found that can be used in a commercial implementation. A method for estimation of the velocity vector is presented. Here an oscillation transverse to the ultrasound beam is generated, so that a transverse motion...... yields a change in the received signals. The method uses two ultrasound beams for sampling the in-phase and quadrature component of the lateral field, and a set of samples (in-phase and quadrature in both time and space) are taken for each pulse-echo line. These four samples are then used...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vječislav Bohanek


    Full Text Available Shaped explosive charges with one dimension significantly larger than the other are called linear shaped charges. Linear shaped charges are used in various industries and are applied within specific technologies for metal cutting, such as demolition of steel structures, separating spent rocket fuel tanks, demining, cutting holes in the barriers for fire service, etc. According to existing theories and models efficiency of linear shaped charges depends on the kinetic energy of the jet which is proportional to square of jet velocity. The original method for measuring velocity of linear shaped charge jet is applied in the aforementioned research. Measurements were carried out for two different linear materials, and the results are graphically presented, analysed and compared. Measurement results show a discrepancy in the measured velocity of the jet for different materials with the same ratio between linear and explosive mass (M/C per unit of surface, which is not described by presented models (the paper is published in Croatian.

  12. Critical Landau velocity in helium nanodroplets. (United States)

    Brauer, Nils B; Smolarek, Szymon; Loginov, Evgeniy; Mateo, David; Hernando, Alberto; Pi, Marti; Barranco, Manuel; Buma, Wybren J; Drabbels, Marcel


    The best-known property of superfluid helium is the vanishing viscosity that objects experience while moving through the liquid with speeds below the so-called critical Landau velocity. This critical velocity is generally considered a macroscopic property as it is related to the collective excitations of the helium atoms in the liquid. In the present work we determine to what extent this concept can still be applied to nanometer-scale, finite size helium systems. To this end, atoms and molecules embedded in helium nanodroplets of various sizes are accelerated out of the droplets by means of optical excitation, and the speed distributions of the ejected particles are determined. The measurements reveal the existence of a critical velocity in these systems, even for nanodroplets consisting of only a thousand helium atoms. Accompanying theoretical simulations based on a time-dependent density functional description of the helium confirm and further elucidate this experimental finding.

  13. Velocity Controller for a Class of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Przemyslaw


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of velocity tracking control for various fully-actuated robotic vehicles. The presented method, which is based on transformation of equations of motion allows one to use, in the control gain matrix, the dynamical couplings existing in the system. Consequently, the dynamics of the vehicle is incorporated into the control process what leads to fast velocity error convergence. The stability of the system under the controller is derived based on Lyapunov argument. Moreover, the robustness of the proposed controller is shown too. The general approach is valid for 6 DOF models as well as other reduced models of vehicles. Simulation results on a 6 DOF indoor airship validate the described velocity tracking methodology.

  14. Velocity and Magnetic Compressions in FEL Drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Serafini, L


    We will compare merits and issues of these two techniques suitable for increasing the peak current of high brightness electron beams. The typical range of applicability is low energy for the velocity bunching and middle to high energy for magnetic compression. Velocity bunching is free from CSR effects but requires very high RF stability (time jitters), as well as a dedicated additional focusing and great cure in the beam transport: it is very well understood theoretically and numerical simulations are pretty straightforward. Several experiments of velocity bunching have been performed in the past few years: none of them, nevertheless, used a photoinjector designed and optimized for that purpose. Magnetic compression is a much more consolidated technique: CSR effects and micro-bunch instabilities are its main drawbacks. There is a large operational experience with chicanes used as magnetic compressors and their theoretical understanding is quite deep, though numerical simulations of real devices are still cha...

  15. Seismic Velocity Gradients Across the Transition Zone (United States)

    Escalante, C.; Cammarano, F.; de Koker, N.; Piazzoni, A.; Wang, Y.; Marone, F.; Dalton, C.; Romanowicz, B.


    One-D elastic velocity models derived from mineral physics do a notoriously poor job at predicting the velocity gradients in the upper mantle transition zone, as well as some other features of models derived from seismological data. During the 2006 CIDER summer program, we computed Vs and Vp velocity profiles in the upper mantle based on three different mineral physics approaches: two approaches based on the minimization of Gibbs Free Energy (Stixrude and Lithgow-Bertelloni, 2005; Piazzoni et al., 2006) and one obtained by using experimentally determined phase diagrams (Weidner and Wang, 1998). The profiles were compared by assuming a vertical temperature profile and two end-member compositional models, the pyrolite model of Ringwood (1979) and the piclogite model of Anderson and Bass (1984). The predicted seismic profiles, which are significantly different from each other, primarily due to different choices of properties of single minerals and their extrapolation with temperature, are tested against a global dataset of P and S travel times and spheroidal and toroidal normal mode eigenfrequencies. All the models derived using a potential temperature of 1600K predict seismic velocities that are too slow in the upper mantle, suggesting the need to use a colder geotherm. The velocity gradient in the transition zone is somewhat better for piclogite than for pyrolite, possibly indicating the need to increase Ca content. The presence of stagnant slabs in the transition zone is a possible explanation for the need for 1) colder temperature and 2) increased Ca content. Future improvements in seismic profiles obtained from mineral physics will arise from better knowledge of elastic properties of upper mantle constituents and aggregates at high temperature and pressure, a better understanding of differences between thermodynamic models, and possibly the effect of water through and on Q. High resolution seismic constraints on velocity jumps at 400 and 660 km also need to be

  16. Decorrelation-based blood flow velocity estimation: effect of spread of flow velocity, linear flow velocity gradients, and parabolic flow.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupotti, F.A.; Steen, A.F.W. van der; Mastik, F.; Korte, C.L. de


    In recent years, a new method to measure transverse blood flow, based on the decorrelation of the radio frequency (RF) signals has been developed. In this paper, we investigated the influence of nonuniform flow on the velocity estimation. The decorrelation characteristics of transverse blood flow

  17. Radial velocity observations of VB10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodler F.


    Full Text Available VB 10 is the smallest star known to harbor a planet according to the recent astrometric study of Pravdo & Shaklan [1]. Here we present near-infrared (J-band radial velocity of VB 10 performed from high resolution (R~20,000 spectroscopy (NIRSPEC/KECK II. Our results [2] suggest radial velocity variability with amplitude of ~1 km/s, a result that is consistent with the presence of a massive planet companion around VB10 as found via long-term astrometric monitoring of the star by Pravdo & Shaklan. Employing an entirely different technique we verify the results of Pravdo & Shaklan.

  18. Analyses of hydraulic performance of velocity caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Degn Eskesen, Mark Chr.; Buhrkall, Jeppe


    The hydraulic performance of a velocity cap has been investigated. Velocity caps are often used in connection with offshore intakes. CFD (computational fluid dynamics) examined the flow through the cap openings and further down into the intake pipes. This was combined with dimension analyses...... in order to analyse the effect of different layouts on the flow characteristics. In particular, flow configurations going all the way through the structure were revealed. A couple of suggestions to minimize the risk for flow through have been tested....

  19. Velocity autocorrelation functions in model liquid metals (United States)

    Tsang, T.; Maclin, A. P.


    Starting from interatomic potentials and static radial distribution functions, a self-consistent iteration scheme has been used to calculate velocity autocorrelation functions in liquid metals. The interatomic forces are treated directly. The calculation bypasses the details of the many-body dynamics and it is not necessary to introduce any additional parameters. Several simplifications may be used without introducing appreciable deviations. The results are in good agreement with computer experiments on liquid sodium at 383 K, suggesting that the velocity autocorrelation function may be a simpler quantity than previously supposed.

  20. Momentum limiting velocity controls for robotic manipulators (United States)

    Mcinroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.; Bryan, Tom


    Robotic tasks in space require manipulating massive objects capable of attaining large momentum. The momentum can pose hazardous conditions and introduce destabilizing effects on a space platform. Consequently, a technique for limiting the momentum applied to objects under manipulation subject to arbitrary velocity input commands is proposed. The algorithm does not require mass position or inertia information about the object, and it takes actuator limitations into account in forming the momentum limits. To evaluate the probability that a velocity trajectory will fall within the momentum bounds, reliability theory is employed. This enables autonomously generated trajectories to be validated for compliance with momentum limits.

  1. STARE velocities: 2. Evening westward electron flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Uspensky


    Full Text Available Four evening events and one morning event of joint EISCAT/STARE observations during ~22h are considered and the differences between observed STARE line-of-sight (l-o-s velocities and EISCAT electron drift velocities projected onto the STARE beams are studied. We demonstrate that the double-pulse technique, which is currently in use in the STARE routine data handling, typically underestimates the true phase velocity as inferred from the multi-pulse STARE data. We show that the STARE velocities are persistently smaller (1.5–2 times than the EISCAT velocities, even for the multi-pulse data. The effect seems to be more pronounced in the evening sector when the Finland radar observes at large flow angles. We evaluate the performance of the ion-acoustic approach (IAA, Nielsen and Schlegel, 1985 and the off-orthogonal fluid approach (OOFA, Uspensky et al., 2003 techniques to predict the true electron drift velocity for the base event of 12 February 1999. The IAA technique predicts the convection reasonably well for enhanced flows of >~1000m/s, but not so well for slower ones. By considering the EISCAT N(h profiles, we derive the effective aspect angle and effective altitude of backscatter, and use this information for application of the OOFA technique. We demonstrate that the OOFA predictions for the base event are superior over the IAA predictions and thus, we confirm that OOFA predicts the electron velocities reasonably well in the evening sector, in addition to the morning sector, as concluded by Uspensky et al. (2003. To check how "robust" the OOFA model is and how successful it is for convection estimates without the EISCAT support, we analysed three additional evening events and one additional morning event for which information on N(h profiles was intentionally ignored. By accepting the mean STARE/EISCAT velocity ratio of 0.55 and the mean azimuth rotation of 9° (derived for the basic event, we show that the OOFA performs

  2. Sound velocity bound and neutron stars. (United States)

    Bedaque, Paulo; Steiner, Andrew W


    It has been conjectured that the velocity of sound in any medium is smaller than the velocity of light in vacuum divided by sqrt[3]. Simple arguments support this bound in nonrelativistic and/or weakly coupled theories. The bound has been demonstrated in several classes of strongly coupled theories with gravity duals and is saturated only in conformal theories. We point out that the existence of neutron stars with masses around two solar masses combined with the knowledge of the equation of state of hadronic matter at "low" densities is in strong tension with this bound.

  3. Passive system with tunable group velocity for propagating electrical pulses from sub- to superluminal velocities. (United States)

    Haché, Alain; Essiambre, Sophie


    We report an observation of tunable group velocity from sub-luminal to superluminal in a completely passive system. Electric pulses are sent along a spatially periodic conducting medium containing a punctual nonlinearity, and the resulting amplitude-dependent phase shift allows us to control dispersion and the propagation velocity at the stop band frequency.

  4. Optical Refraction in Silver: Counterposition, Negative Phase Velocity and Orthogonal Phase Velocity (United States)

    Naqvi, Qaisar A.; Mackay, Tom G.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh


    Complex behaviour associated with metamaterials can arise even in commonplace isotropic dielectric materials. We demonstrate how silver, for example, can support negative phase velocity and counterposition, but not negative refraction, at optical frequencies. The transition from positive to negative phase velocity is not accompanied by remarkable…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinko Škrlec


    Full Text Available Blasting operations in built-up areas, at short distances from structures, impose new requirements on blasting techniques and properties of explosives in order to mitigate seismic effect of blasting. Explosives for civil uses are mixtures of different chemical composition of explosive and/or non-explosive substances. Chemical and physical properties, along with means of initiation, environment and the terms of application define detonation and blasting parameters of a particular type of the explosive for civil uses. Velocity of detonation is one of the most important measurable characteristics of detonation parameters which indirectly provide information about the liberated energy, quality of explosives and applicability for certain purposes. The level of shock effect of detonated charge on the rock, and therefore the level of seismic effect in the area, depends on the velocity of detonation. Since the velocity of detonation is proportional to the density of an explosive, the described research is carried out in order to determine the borderline density of the mixture of an emulsion explosive with expanded polystyrene while achieving stable detonation, and to determine the dependency between the velocity of detonation and the density of mixture (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Photoelectric Radial Velocities, Paper XIX Additional Spectroscopic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Orbits have already been published for 18 of the stars. Presented here (and summarized in Table 9) are the results on six more; all are single-lined. One of them (HD 191046, a star which has a literature coverage about ten times as rich as that of any of the others, probably on account of its high space velocity which ...

  7. Wave measurements using GPS velocity signals. (United States)

    Doong, Dong-Jiing; Lee, Beng-Chun; Kao, Chia Chuen


    This study presents the idea of using GPS-output velocity signals to obtain wave measurement data. The application of the transformation from a velocity spectrum to a displacement spectrum in conjunction with the directional wave spectral theory are the core concepts in this study. Laboratory experiments were conducted to verify the accuracy of the inversed displacement of the surface of the sea. A GPS device was installed on a moored accelerometer buoy to verify the GPS-derived wave parameters. It was determined that loss or drifting of the GPS signal, as well as energy spikes occurring in the low frequency band led to erroneous measurements. Through the application of moving average skill and a process of frequency cut-off to the GPS output velocity, correlations between GPS-derived, and accelerometer buoy-measured significant wave heights and periods were both improved to 0.95. The GPS-derived one-dimensional and directional wave spectra were in agreement with the measurements. Despite the direction verification showing a 10° bias, this exercise still provided useful information with sufficient accuracy for a number of specific purposes. The results presented in this study indicate that using GPS output velocity is a reasonable alternative for the measurement of ocean waves.

  8. Molecular beams with a tunable velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiner, C.E.; Bethlem, H.L.; Meijer, G.


    The merging of molecular beam methods with those of accelerator physics has yielded new tools to manipulate the motion of molecules. Over the last few years, decelerators, lenses, bunchers, traps, and storage rings for neutral molecules have been demonstrated. Molecular beams with a tunable velocity

  9. Splash of a waterdrop at terminal velocity. (United States)

    Mutchler, C K; Hansen, L M


    High-speed movies of splash formation caused by waterdrop impact at terminal velocity in thin water layers show that splash size increases with drop size. For increasing water depth, splash size increases to a maximum at a depth of one-third drop diameter; splash size then decreases to a constant size for depths greater than three drop diameters.

  10. Steel Spheres and Skydiver--Terminal Velocity (United States)

    Costa Leme, J.; Moura, C.; Costa, Cintia


    This paper describes the use of open source video analysis software in the study of the relationship between the velocity of falling objects and time. We discuss an experiment in which a steel sphere falls in a container filled with two immiscible liquids. The motion is similar to that of a skydiver falling through air.

  11. The Microflown, an acoustic particle velocity sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bree, H.E.


    The Microflown is an acoustic sensor directly measuring particle velocity instead of sound pressure, which is usually measured by conventional microphones. Since its invention in 1994 it is mostly used for measurement purposes (broadband1D and 3D-sound intensity measurement and acoustic impedance).

  12. High velocity missile injuries of the liver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exsanguination six hours after surgery. The second patient died of septicaemia on the fifth postoperative clay (Table 111). TABLE Ill Outcome of treatment of patients with high velocity missile injuries of the liver. Discussion. The diagnosis of penetrating abdominal injury is usually straightforward. Injury to the liver m:ly be.

  13. (ajst) on the pressure velocity and temperature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we examine the effects of viscosity on the blood pressure, velocity and temperature distributions in the arterial blood flow in the absence of outflows. The governing continuity, momentum and energy equations are solved analytically by method of characteristics. Using the wavefront expansions, ...

  14. Snapshot wavefield decomposition for heterogeneous velocity media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holicki, M.E.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.


    We propose a novel directional decomposition operator for wavefield snapshots in heterogeneous-velocity media. The proposed operator demonstrates the link between the amplitude of pressure and particlevelocity plane waves in the wavenumber domain. The proposed operator requires two spatial Fourier

  15. Adaptive blood velocity estimation in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    This paper investigates the use of data-adaptive spectral estimation techniques for blood velocity estimation in medical ultrasound. Current commercial systems are based on the averaged periodogram, which requires a large observation window to give sufficient spectral resolution. Herein, we propose...

  16. Spectral Velocity Estimation in the Transverse Direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    estimation scheme can reliably find the spectrum at 90, where a traditional estimator yields zero velocity. Measurements have been conducted with the SARUS experimental scanner and a BK 8820e convex array transducer (BK Medical, Herlev, Denmark). A CompuFlow 1000 (Shelley Automation, Inc, Toronto, Canada...

  17. Velocity Estimation in Medical Ultrasound [Life Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Holbek, Simon


    This article describes the application of signal processing in medical ultrasound velocity estimation. Special emphasis is on the relation among acquisition methods, signal processing, and estimators employed. The description spans from current clinical systems for one-and two-dimensional (1-D...

  18. Wave Velocity Estimation in Heterogeneous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.


    In this paper, modulating functions-based method is proposed for estimating space-time dependent unknown velocity in the wave equation. The proposed method simplifies the identification problem into a system of linear algebraic equations. Numerical simulations on noise-free and noisy cases are provided in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Absolute Plate Velocities from Seismic Anisotropy (United States)

    Kreemer, Corné; Zheng, Lin; Gordon, Richard


    The orientation of seismic anisotropy inferred beneath plate interiors may provide a means to estimate the motions of the plate relative to the sub-asthenospheric mantle. Here we analyze two global sets of shear-wave splitting data, that of Kreemer [2009] and an updated and expanded data set, to estimate plate motions and to better understand the dispersion of the data, correlations in the errors, and their relation to plate speed. We also explore the effect of using geologically current plate velocities (i.e., the MORVEL set of angular velocities [DeMets et al. 2010]) compared with geodetically current plate velocities (i.e., the GSRM v1.2 angular velocities [Kreemer et al. 2014]). We demonstrate that the errors in plate motion azimuths inferred from shear-wave splitting beneath any one tectonic plate are correlated with the errors of other azimuths from the same plate. To account for these correlations, we adopt a two-tier analysis: First, find the pole of rotation and confidence limits for each plate individually. Second, solve for the best fit to these poles while constraining relative plate angular velocities to consistency with the MORVEL relative plate angular velocities. The SKS-MORVEL absolute plate angular velocities (based on the Kreemer [2009] data set) are determined from the poles from eight plates weighted proportionally to the root-mean-square velocity of each plate. SKS-MORVEL indicates that eight plates (Amur, Antarctica, Caribbean, Eurasia, Lwandle, Somalia, Sundaland, and Yangtze) have angular velocities that differ insignificantly from zero. The net rotation of the lithosphere is 0.25±0.11° Ma-1 (95% confidence limits) right-handed about 57.1°S, 68.6°E. The within-plate dispersion of seismic anisotropy for oceanic lithosphere (σ=19.2° ) differs insignificantly from that for continental lithosphere (σ=21.6° ). The between-plate dispersion, however, is significantly smaller for oceanic lithosphere (σ=7.4° ) than for continental

  20. Velocity measurement by vibro-acoustic Doppler. (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Alireza; Urban, Matthew W; Kinnick, Randall R; Fatemi, Mostafa


    We describe the theoretical principles of a new Doppler method, which uses the acoustic response of a moving object to a highly localized dynamic radiation force of the ultrasound field to calculate the velocity of the moving object according to Doppler frequency shift. This method, named vibro-acoustic Doppler (VAD), employs two ultrasound beams separated by a slight frequency difference, Δf, transmitting in an X-focal configuration. Both ultrasound beams experience a frequency shift because of the moving objects and their interaction at the joint focal zone produces an acoustic frequency shift occurring around the low-frequency (Δf) acoustic emission signal. The acoustic emission field resulting from the vibration of the moving object is detected and used to calculate its velocity. We report the formula that describes the relation between Doppler frequency shift of the emitted acoustic field and the velocity of the moving object. To verify the theory, we used a string phantom. We also tested our method by measuring fluid velocity in a tube. The results show that the error calculated for both string and fluid velocities is less than 9.1%. Our theory shows that in the worst case, the error is 0.54% for a 25° angle variation for the VAD method compared with an error of -82.6% for a 25° angle variation for a conventional continuous wave Doppler method. An advantage of this method is that, unlike conventional Doppler, it is not sensitive to angles between the ultrasound beams and direction of motion.

  1. Reenvisioning velocity reversal as a diversity of hydraulic patch behaviours


    Strom, MA; Pasternack, GB; Wyrick, JR


    Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Past research investigated the surpassing of mean velocity at riffle cross sections by that at pool cross sections for flows up to bankfull, termed ‘velocity reversals’, to understand one mechanism by which riffle–pool relief is maintained. This study reenvisioned the classic velocity reversal by documenting stage-dependent changes to the locations of peak velocity without cross sections. Instead, the dynamics of peak velocity patches were considered...

  2. Measurement of velocity and velocity derivatives based on pattern tracking in 3D LIF images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deusch, S.; Merava, H.; Rys, P. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technol., Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Chem. Eng.; Dracos, T. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Untergasse 14, 8126 Zumikon (Switzerland)


    Pattern tracking in consecutive 3D LIF images based on least squares matching (LSM) of grey levels has been developed recently for velocity and velocity gradient measurements. The shortcomings of this method are clearly shown. The present article presents an improvement on this method by introducing a local multi-patch (LMP) technique through the LSM approach. The method is validated using the flow field of a turbulent channel flow obtained by direct numerical simulation (DNS) and a synthetic image with grey-level patterns. The results show that LMP matching allows the determination of the velocity and the velocity gradient fields with high accuracy including the second derivatives. Measurements of a round non-buoyant jet are presented which demonstrate the good performance of the method when applied under laboratory conditions. This method can also be applied on two-dimensional images provided that the flow is strictly two-dimensional. (orig.)

  3. Measurement of velocity and velocity derivatives based on pattern tracking in 3D LIF images (United States)

    Deusch, S.; Merava, H.; Dracos, T.; Rys, P.

    Pattern tracking in consecutive 3D LIF images based on least squares matching (LSM) of grey levels has been developed recently for velocity and velocity gradient measurements. The shortcomings of this method are clearly shown. The present article presents an improvement on this method by introducing a local multi-patch (LMP) technique through the LSM approach. The method is validated using the flow field of a turbulent channel flow obtained by direct numerical simulation (DNS) and a synthetic image with grey-level patterns. The results show that LMP matching allows the determination of the velocity and the velocity gradient fields with high accuracy including the second derivatives. Measurements of a round non-buoyant jet are presented which demonstrate the good performance of the method when applied under laboratory conditions. This method can also be applied on two-dimensional images provided that the flow is strictly two-dimensional.

  4. Surface Velocities and Hydrology at Engabreen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messerli, Alexandra

    Recent studies have likened the seasonal observations of ice flow at the marginal regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) to those found on smaller alpine and valley counterparts. These similarities highlight the need for further small scale studies of seasonal evolution in the hydrological...... and dynamic structure of valley glaciers, to aid interpretation of observations from the margins of the GrIS. This thesis aims to collate a large suit of glacio-hydrological data from the outlet glacier Engabreen, Norway, in order to better understand the role the subglacial drainage configuration has...... on surface velocities recorded at the site. The Svartisen Subglacial Laboratory (SSL) under Engabreen, augmented by additional subglacial pressure and hydrological measurements, provides a invaluable observations for detailed process-oriented studies. However, the lack of complementary surface velocity data...

  5. Butterfly velocity bound and reverse isoperimetric inequality (United States)

    Feng, Xing-Hui; Lü, H.


    We study the butterfly effect of the AdS planar black holes in the framework of Einstein's general relativity. We find that the butterfly velocities can be expressed by a universal formula vB2=T S /(2 VthP ). In doing so, we come upon a near-horizon geometrical formula for the thermodynamical volume Vth . We verify the volume formula by examining a variety of AdS black holes. We also show that the volume formula implies that the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality follows straightforwardly from the null-energy condition, for static AdS black holes. The inequality is thus related to an upper bound of the butterfly velocities.

  6. Seismicity and Improved Velocity Structure in Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gok, R M; Rodgers, A J; Al-Enezi, A


    The Kuwait National Seismic Network (KNSN) began operation in 1997 and consists of nine three-component stations (eight short-period and one broadband) and is operated by the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. Although the region is largely believed to be aseismic, considerable local seismicity is recorded by KNSN. Seismic events in Kuwait are clustered in two main groups, one in the south and another in the north. The KNSN station distribution is able to capture the southern cluster within the footprint of the network but the northern cluster is poorly covered. Events tend to occur at depths ranging from the free surface to about 20 km. Events in the northern cluster tend to be deeper than those in south, however this might be an artifact of the station coverage. We analyzed KNSN recordings of nearly 200 local events to improve understanding of seismic events and crustal structure in Kuwait, performing several analyses with increasing complexity. First, we obtained an optimized one-dimensional (1D) velocity model for the entire region using the reported KNSN arrival times and routine locations. The resulting model is consistent with a recently obtained model from the joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocities. Crustal structure is capped by the thick ({approx} 7 km) sedimentary rocks of the Arabian Platform underlain by normal velocities for stable continental crust. Our new model has a crustal thickness of 44 km, constrained by an independent study of receiver functions and surface wave group velocities by Pasyanos et al (2006). Locations and depths of events after relocation with the new model are broadly consistent with those reported by KISR, although a few events move more than a few kilometers. We then used a double-difference tomography technique (tomoDD) to jointly locate the events and estimate three-dimensional (3D) velocity structure. TomoDD is based on hypoDD relocation algorithm and it makes use of both absolute and

  7. Plasma electron hole oscillatory velocity instability (United States)

    Zhou, Chuteng; Hutchinson, Ian H.


    In this paper, we report a new type of instability of electron holes (EHs) interacting with passing ions. The nonlinear interaction of EHs and ions is investigated using a new theory of hole kinematics. It is shown that the oscillation in the velocity of the EH parallel to the magnetic field direction becomes unstable when the hole velocity in the ion frame is slower than a few times the cold ion sound speed. This instability leads to the emission of ion-acoustic waves from the solitary hole and decay in its magnitude. The instability mechanism can drive significant perturbations in the ion density. The instability threshold, oscillation frequency and instability growth rate derived from the theory yield quantitative agreement with the observations from a novel high-fidelity hole-tracking particle-in-cell code.

  8. Group Velocity Engineering of Confined Ultrafast Magnons (United States)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Zakeri, Kh.; Ernst, A.; Qin, H. J.; Meng, Y.; Kirschner, J.


    Quantum confinement permits the existence of multiple terahertz magnon modes in atomically engineered ultrathin magnetic films and multilayers. By means of spin-polarized high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we report on the direct experimental detection of all exchange-dominated terahertz confined magnon modes in a 3 ML Co film. We demonstrate that, by tuning the structural and magnetic properties of the Co film, through its epitaxial growth on different surfaces, e.g., Ir(001), Cu(001), and Pt(111), one can achieve entirely different in-plane magnon dispersions, characterized by positive and negative group velocities. Our first-principles calculations show that spin-dependent many-body correlation effects in Co films play an important role in the determination of the energies of confined magnon modes. Our results suggest a pathway towards the engineering of the group velocity of confined ultrafast magnons.

  9. Estimation of blood velocities using ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    Ultrasound systems are especially useful in estimating blood velocities in the human body because they are noninvasive and can display an estimate in real time. This book offers a comprehensive treatment of this relatively new, important technology. The book begins with an introduction to ultraso......Ultrasound systems are especially useful in estimating blood velocities in the human body because they are noninvasive and can display an estimate in real time. This book offers a comprehensive treatment of this relatively new, important technology. The book begins with an introduction...... to ultrasound, flow physics, and the circulatory system. Next, the interaction of ultrasound with blood is discussed. The special contribution of the book lies in the remaining chapters, which offer a lucid, thorough description of continuous and pulsed wave systems, the latest systems for doing color flow...

  10. Velocity and strain-rate analyses of the SCEC 3.0 velocity field (United States)

    Wdowinski, S.; Bock, Y.


    The pre-released SCEC 3.0 velocity field consists of 845 velocity vectors, covering the entire Southern California region. It is about 3 times larger than the SCEC 2.0 field, which was released in 1998 and contains 343 velocity vectors. We analyze the new SCEC 3.0 velocity field following and improving the quasi-two-dimensional analyses developed by Wdowinski et al. [2001] for the 2.0 velocity field. The new analyses include the following steps: (1) Pole of Deformation (PoD) calculation; the PoD is a point on the Earth’s surface, in which small circles about this point are best, aligned with the velocity vectors of the deforming zone. (2) Transforming the velocity field into the PoD reference frame. (3) Characterization of the velocity field by segments of similar velocity transition between the Pacific and North American plates and orthogonal profiles along the plate boundary region. (4) Calculating velocity and velocity gradient for all segments and profiles using zero-phase digital filters and numerical derivation, respectively. (5) Calculation of regional strain-rate maps, and (6) back-transformation of the strain-rate maps into the regular north-pole reference frame. The results of our analyses show that shear deformation with high strain-rate is detected along a dozen narrow belts, which coincide with active geologic fault segments and high level of seismicity along the San Andreas Fault System. In the highly populated Los Angeles area, our analyses detected high strain-rate localization along the Newport-Inglewood fault and across the Ventura Basin. In the regional scale, our analyses show that the interseismic deformation of the wide diffused deforming NA-PA plate boundary region is localized along a finite number of narrow belts. Because no prior assumptions were made regarding the geology, tectonics, or seismicity of the region, our analysis demonstrates that geodetic observations alone can be used to detect active fault segments.

  11. Variable velocity in solar external receivers (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, M. R.; Sánchez-González, A.; Acosta-Iborra, A.; Santana, D.


    One of the major problems in solar external receivers is tube overheating, which accelerates the risk of receiver failure. It can be solved implementing receivers with high number of panels. However, it exponentially increases the pressure drop in the receiver and the parasitic power consumption of the Solar Power Tower (SPT), reducing the global efficiency of the SPT. A new concept of solar external receiver, named variable velocity receiver, is able to adapt their configuration to the different flux density distributions. A set of valves allows splitting in several independent panels those panels in which the wall temperature is over the limit. It increases the velocity of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and its cooling capacity. This receiver does not only reduce the wall temperature of the tubes, but also simplifies the control of the heliostat field and allows to employ more efficient aiming strategies. In this study, it has been shown that variable velocity receiver presents high advantages with respect to traditional receiver. Nevertheless, more than two divisions per panels are not recommendable, due to the increment of the pressure drop over 70 bars. In the design point (12 h of the Spring Equinox), the use of a variable number of panels between 18 and 36 (two divisions per panel), in a SPT similar to Gemasolar, improves the power capacity of the SPT in 5.7%, with a pressure drop increment of 10 bars. Off-design, when the flux distribution is high and not symmetric (e.g. 10-11 h), the power generated by the variable velocity receiver is 18% higher than the generated by the traditional receiver, at these hours the pressure drop increases almost 20 bars.

  12. Density - Velocity Relationships in Explosive Volcanic Plumes (United States)

    Fisher, M. A.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.


    Positively buoyant volcanic plumes rise until the bulk density of the plume is equal to the density of the ambient atmosphere. As ambient air mixes with the plume, it lowers the plume bulk density; thus, the plume is diluted enough to reach neutral density in a naturally stratified atmospheric environment. We produced scaled plumes in analogue laboratory experiments by injecting a saline solution with a tracer dye into distilled water, using a high-pressure injection system. We recorded each eruption with a CASIO HD digital camera and used ImageJ's FeatureJ Edge toolbox to identify individual eddies. We used an optical flow software based off the ImageJ toolbox FlowJ to determine the velocities along the edge of each eddy. Eddy densities were calculated by mapping the dye concentration to the RGB digital color value. We overlaid the eddy velocities over the densities in order to track the behavioral relationship between the two variables with regard to plume motion. As an eddy's bulk density decreases, the vertical velocity decreases; this is a result of decreased mass, and therefore momentum, in the eddy. Furthermore as the density rate of change increases, the eddy deceleration increases. Eddies are most dense at their top and least dense at their bottom. The less dense sections of the eddies have lower vertical velocities than the sections of the eddies with the higher densities, relating to the expanding radial size of an eddy as it rises and the preferential ingestion of ambient air at the base of eddies. Thus the mixing rate in volcanic plumes fluctuates not only as a function of height as described by the classic 1D entrainment hypothesis, but also as a function of position in an eddy itself.

  13. Coronary flow velocity reserve by echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Snoer, Martin


    BACKGROUND: Coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) measured by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography of the LAD is used to assess microvascular function but validation studies in clinical settings are lacking. We aimed to assess feasibility, reproducibility and agreement with myocardial flow...... with a good reproducibility on par with other contemporary measures applied in cardiology. Agreement with MFR was acceptable, though discrepancy related to prior MI has to be considered. CFVR of LAD is a valid tool in overweight and obese patients....

  14. Anomalous Resistance in Critical Ionization Velocity Phenomena


    Badin, V. I.


    To describe the generation of the electric field by a discontinuity of the Hall current, an equation of the third order is obtained using the electric charge conservation and Ohm laws. The solutions of this equation are used to model the electric impulses detected in experiments aimed to verify Alfven's hypothesis on the critical ionization velocity at collisions of neutral gas with magnetized plasma. A quantitative agreement with experiment is attained and the main features of measured signa...

  15. Universality of the turbulent velocity profile


    Luchini, Paolo


    For nearly a century the universal logarithmic behaviour of the mean velocity profile in a parallel flow was a mainstay of turbulent fluid mechanics and its teaching. Yet many experiments and numerical simulations are not fit exceedingly well by it, and the question whether the logarithmic law is indeed universal keeps turning up in discussion and in writing. Large experiments have been set up in different parts of the world to confirm or deny the logarithmic law and accurately estimate von K...

  16. The Average Velocity in a Queue (United States)

    Frette, Vidar


    A number of cars drive along a narrow road that does not allow overtaking. Each driver has a certain maximum speed at which he or she will drive if alone on the road. As a result of slower cars ahead, many cars are forced to drive at speeds lower than their maximum ones. The average velocity in the queue offers a non-trivial example of a mean…

  17. Velocity Gradient Power Functional for Brownian Dynamics. (United States)

    de Las Heras, Daniel; Schmidt, Matthias


    We present an explicit and simple approximation for the superadiabatic excess (over ideal gas) free power functional, admitting the study of the nonequilibrium dynamics of overdamped Brownian many-body systems. The functional depends on the local velocity gradient and is systematically obtained from treating the microscopic stress distribution as a conjugate field. The resulting superadiabatic forces are beyond dynamical density functional theory and are of a viscous nature. Their high accuracy is demonstrated by comparison to simulation results.

  18. Analytical Ultracentrifugation: Sedimentation Velocity and Sedimentation Equilibrium (United States)

    Cole, James L.; Lary, Jeffrey W.; Moody, Thomas; Laue, Thomas M.


    Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a versatile and powerful method for the quantitative analysis of macromolecules in solution. AUC has broad applications for the study of biomacromolecules in a wide range of solvents and over a wide range of solute concentrations. Three optical systems are available for the analytical ultracentrifuge (absorbance, interference and fluorescence) that permit precise and selective observation of sedimentation in real time. In particular, the fluorescence system provides a new way to extend the scope of AUC to probe the behavior of biological molecules in complex mixtures and at high solute concentrations. In sedimentation velocity, the movement of solutes in high centrifugal fields is interpreted using hydrodynamic theory to define the size, shape and interactions of macromolecules. Sedimentation equilibrium is a thermodynamic method where equilibrium concentration gradients at lower centrifugal fields are analyzed to define molecule mass, assembly stoichiometry, association constants and solution nonideality. Using specialized sample cells and modern analysis software, researchers can use sedimentation velocity to determine the homogeneity of a sample and define whether it undergoes concentration-dependent association reactions. Subsequently, more thorough model-dependent analysis of velocity and equilibrium experiments can provide a detailed picture of the nature of the species present in solution and their interactions. PMID:17964931

  19. Critical velocity in swimmers of different ages. (United States)

    Rizzato, Alex; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Rubini, Alessandro; Olivato, Nicola; Fava, Simone; Paoli, Antonio; Bosco, Gerardo


    In swimming one of the most employed training speed among coaches is the non-invasive Theoretical Critical Velocity (TCV) defined as the velocity that can be maintained continuously without exhaustion. We calculated the 4mmol/L lactate Critical Velocity (MCV) in a group of swimmers of different ages (Young, Elite and Master), and compared results to the predicted TCV defined starting from the 200 and 400 m freestyle best seasonal performances. A steady-state test consisted in 20 repetitions of 100 m each was performed to study the effect of the imposed MCV in the three athletes' categories. TCV mean values resulted slightly higher than MCV mean values. A strong correlation between TCV and MCV was found considering the whole sample (r= 0.96, p test was 4.2 mmol/l, 3.3 mmol/l and 4.9 mmol/l respectively for Young, Elite and Master groups. TCV is a reliable, practical and quick parameter that well approximate the anaerobic threshold pace. MCV underestimated the fixed 4mmol/L lactate threshold pace in the elite swimmers and overestimate it in the master swimmers. Further investigation is needed to understand more in detail TCV applicability for athletes of different ages.

  20. Simultaneous Velocity and Vorticity Measurement in Turbulence (United States)

    Wu, Huixuan; Xu, Haitao; Bodenschatz, Eberhard


    A new paradigm of simultaneous velocity and vorticity measurement is developed to study turbulence. Instead of deducing vorticity from velocities measured at neighboring points, this innovative approach detects the translations and rotations of micro-sized particles directly. These hydrogel particles are spherical, transparent, and encapsulate micro-mirrors. This method outstands conventional ones, e.g., hotwire arrays or PIV because its spatial resolution is much higher. It does not require a non-zero mean flow, and it can provide all three vorticity components, which is not available from planar PIV data. Its principle is to illuminate the mirror and utilize the variation of the reflection directions to deduce the local flow vorticity. Meanwhile, the particle position is recorded as in normal particle tracking. Therefore, the velocity and vorticity of a particle can be obtained simultaneously in Lagrangian framework. The authors have made benchmark experiments to evaluate this novel method in Taylor Couette flows. The results show that the instantaneous vorticity measurement is as accurate as 3%. We are now setting up a von Karman disk pair device to study the turbulent flow. This novel technique will provide unprecedented information of high Reynolds number turbulence. The first author thanks the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  1. Solvable Optimal Velocity Models and Asymptotic Trajectory

    CERN Document Server

    Nakanishi, K; Igarashi, Y; Bando, M


    In the Optimal Velocity Model proposed as a new version of Car Following Model, it has been found that a congested flow is generated spontaneously from a homogeneous flow for a certain range of the traffic density. A well-established congested flow obtained in a numerical simulation shows a remarkable repetitive property such that the velocity of a vehicle evolves exactly in the same way as that of its preceding one except a time delay $T$. This leads to a global pattern formation in time development of vehicles' motion, and gives rise to a closed trajectory on $\\Delta x$-$v$ (headway-velocity) plane connecting congested and free flow points. To obtain the closed trajectory analytically, we propose a new approach to the pattern formation, which makes it possible to reduce the coupled car following equations to a single difference-differential equation (Rondo equation). To demonstrate our approach, we employ a class of linear models which are exactly solvable. We also introduce the concept of ``asymptotic traj...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolov, Nikolay; Sainsbury-Martinez, Felix, E-mail: [Astrophysics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)


    Planetary rotation rates and obliquities provide information regarding the history of planet formation, but have not yet been measured for evolved extrasolar planets. Here we investigate the theoretical and observational perspective of the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect during secondary eclipse (RMse) ingress and egress for transiting exoplanets. Near secondary eclipse, when the planet passes behind the parent star, the star sequentially obscures light from the approaching and receding parts of the rotating planetary surface. The temporal block of light emerging from the approaching (blueshifted) or receding (redshifted) parts of the planet causes a temporal distortion in the planet’s spectral line profiles resulting in an anomaly in the planet’s radial velocity curve. We demonstrate that the shape and the ratio of the ingress-to-egress radial velocity amplitudes depends on the planetary rotational rate, axial tilt, and impact factor (i.e., sky-projected planet spin–orbital alignment). In addition, line asymmetries originating from different layers in the atmosphere of the planet could provide information regarding zonal atmospheric winds and constraints on the hot spot shape for giant irradiated exoplanets. The effect is expected to be most-pronounced at near-infrared wavelengths, where the planet-to-star contrasts are large. We create synthetic near-infrared, high-dispersion spectroscopic data and demonstrate how the sky-projected spin axis orientation and equatorial velocity of the planet can be estimated. We conclude that the RMse effect could be a powerful method to measure exoplanet spins.

  3. Transport velocity of droplets on ratchet conveyors. (United States)

    Holmes, Hal R; Böhringer, Karl F


    Anisotropic ratchet conveyors (ARC) are a type of digital microfluidic system. Unlike electrowetting based systems, ARCs transport droplets through a passive, micro-patterned surface and applied orthogonal vibrations. The mechanics of droplet transport on ARC devices has yet to be as well characterized and understood as on electrowetting systems. In this work, we investigate how the design of the ARC substrate affects the droplet response to vibrations and perform the first characterization of transport velocity on ARC devices. We discovered that the design of the ARC device has a significant effect on both the transport efficiency and velocity of actuated droplets, and that the amplitude of the applied vibration can modulate the velocity of transported droplets. Finally, we show that the movement of droplet edges is not continuous but rather the sum of quantized steps between features of the ARC device. These results provide new insights into the behavior of droplets vibrated on asymmetric surface patterns and will serve as the foundation for the design and development of future lab-on-a-chip systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A neural circuit for angular velocity computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel B Snider


    Full Text Available In one of the most remarkable feats of motor control in the animal world, some Diptera, such as the housefly, can accurately execute corrective flight maneuvers in tens of milliseconds. These reflexive movements are achieved by the halteres, gyroscopic force sensors, in conjunction with rapidly-tunable wing-steering muscles. Specifically, the mechanosensory campaniform sensilla located at the base of the halteres transduce and transform rotation-induced gyroscopic forces into information about the angular velocity of the fly's body. But how exactly does the fly's neural architecture generate the angular velocity from the lateral strain forces on the left and right halteres? To explore potential algorithms, we built a neuro-mechanical model of the rotation detection circuit. We propose a neurobiologically plausible method by which the fly could accurately separate and measure the three-dimensional components of an imposed angular velocity. Our model assumes a single sign-inverting synapse and formally resembles some models of directional selectivity by the retina. Using multidimensional error analysis, we demonstrate the robustness of our model under a variety of input conditions. Our analysis reveals the maximum information available to the fly given its physical architecture and the mathematics governing the rotation-induced forces at the haltere's end knob.

  5. A neural circuit for angular velocity computation. (United States)

    Snider, Samuel B; Yuste, Rafael; Packer, Adam M


    In one of the most remarkable feats of motor control in the animal world, some Diptera, such as the housefly, can accurately execute corrective flight maneuvers in tens of milliseconds. These reflexive movements are achieved by the halteres, gyroscopic force sensors, in conjunction with rapidly tunable wing steering muscles. Specifically, the mechanosensory campaniform sensilla located at the base of the halteres transduce and transform rotation-induced gyroscopic forces into information about the angular velocity of the fly's body. But how exactly does the fly's neural architecture generate the angular velocity from the lateral strain forces on the left and right halteres? To explore potential algorithms, we built a neuromechanical model of the rotation detection circuit. We propose a neurobiologically plausible method by which the fly could accurately separate and measure the three-dimensional components of an imposed angular velocity. Our model assumes a single sign-inverting synapse and formally resembles some models of directional selectivity by the retina. Using multidimensional error analysis, we demonstrate the robustness of our model under a variety of input conditions. Our analysis reveals the maximum information available to the fly given its physical architecture and the mathematics governing the rotation-induced forces at the haltere's end knob.

  6. Conventional Point-Velocity Records and Surface Velocity Observations for Estimating High Flow Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corato


    Full Text Available Flow velocity measurements using point-velocity meters are normally obtained by sampling one, two or three velocity points per vertical profile. During high floods their use is inhibited due to the difficulty of sampling in lower portions of the flow area. Nevertheless, the application of standard methods allows estimation of a parameter, α, which depends on the energy slope and the Manning roughness coefficient. During high floods, monitoring of velocity can be accomplished by sampling the maximum velocity, umax, only, which can be used to estimate the mean flow velocity, um, by applying the linear entropy relationship depending on the parameter, M, estimated on the basis of historical observed pairs (um, umax. In this context, this work attempts to analyze if a correlation between α and M holds, so that the monitoring for high flows can be addressed by exploiting information from standard methods. A methodology is proposed to estimate M from α, by coupling the “historical” information derived by standard methods, and “new” information from the measurement of umax surmised at later times. Results from four gauged river sites of different hydraulic and geometric characteristics have shown the robust estimation of M based on α.

  7. Velocities of Subducted Sediments and Continents (United States)

    Hacker, B. R.; van Keken, P. E.; Abers, G. A.; Seward, G.


    The growing capability to measure seismic velocities in subduction zones has led to unusual observations. For example, although most minerals have VP/ VS ratios around 1.77, ratios 1.8 have been observed. Here we explore the velocities of subducted sediments and continental crust from trench to sub-arc depths using two methods. (1) Mineralogy was calculated as a function of P & T for a range of subducted sediment compositions using Perple_X, and rock velocities were calculated using the methodology of Hacker & Abers [2004]. Calculated slab-top temperatures have 3 distinct depth intervals with different dP/dT gradients that are determined by how coupling between the slab and mantle wedge is modeled. These three depth intervals show concomitant changes in VP and VS: velocities initially increase with depth, then decrease beyond the modeled decoupling depth where induced flow in the wedge causes rapid heating, and increase again at depth. Subducted limestones, composed chiefly of aragonite, show monotonic increases in VP/ VS from 1.63 to 1.72. Cherts show large jumps in VP/ VS from 1.55-1.65 to 1.75 associated with the quartz-coesite transition. Terrigenous sediments dominated by quartz and mica show similar, but more-subdued, transitions from ~1.67 to 1.78. Pelagic sediments dominated by mica and clinopyroxene show near-monotonic increases in VP/ VS from 1.74 to 1.80. Subducted continental crust that is too dry to transform to high-pressure minerals has a VP/ VS ratio of 1.68-1.70. (2) Velocity anisotropy calculations were made for the same P-T dependent mineralogies using the Christoffel equation and crystal preferred orientations measured via electron-backscatter diffraction for typical constituent phases. The calculated velocity anisotropies range from 5-30%. For quartz-rich rocks, the calculated velocities show a distinct depth dependence because crystal slip systems and CPOs change with temperature. In such rocks, the fast VP direction varies from slab-normal at

  8. The Use of Velocity Information in Movement Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Chieffi


    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies suggested that movement velocity influence space perception.Aim and Objectives: We examined whether healthy participants used velocity information when they were asked to reproduce a previously performed movement. Two experiments were carried out.Methods: In Experiment 1, blindfolded participants actively performed an arm movement (criterion movement, CM at a natural velocity, or quickly, or slowly. After a brief delay, participants were asked to reproduce (reproduction movement, RM CM-amplitude. No velocity constraints were imposed in making RM. In Experiment 2, CM was performed quickly or slowly. After a brief delay, the participants were asked to reproduce not only CM-amplitude but also CM-velocity.Results: Experiment 1: in Natural condition, RM-velocity did not differ from CM-velocity and the participants accurately reproduced CM-amplitude. Conversely, in Fast and Slow condition, RM-velocities differed from CM-velocities and in Slow condition RM-amplitude was greater than CM-amplitude. Experiment 2: both RM-amplitude and -velocity did not differ from CM-amplitude and -velocity.Conclusion: The present study confirms the view that movement velocity influences selectively space perception and suggests that this influence is stronger for slow than fast movements. Furthermore, although velocity information is crucial in accurately reproducing CM-amplitude, it was not used spontaneously when movements were performed at unnatural velocities.

  9. Parameter Studies on High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Spraying of CoNiCrAlY Coatings Used in the Aeronautical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Cabral-Miramontes


    Full Text Available The thermal spraying process is a surface treatment which does not adversely affect the base metal on which it is performed. The coatings obtained by HVOF thermal spray are employed in aeronautics, aerospace, and power generation industries. Alloys and coatings designed to resist oxidizing environments at high temperatures should be able to develop a surface oxide layer, which is thermodynamically stable, slowly growing, and adherent. MCrAlY type (M = Co, Ni or combination of both coatings are used in wear and corrosion applications but also provide protection against high temperature oxidation and corrosion attack in molten salts. In this investigation, CoNiCrAlY coatings were produced employing a HVOF DJH 2700 gun. The work presented here focuses on the influences of process parameters of a gas-drive HVOF system on the microstructure, adherence, wear, and oxygen content of CoNiCrAlY. The results showed that spray distance significantly affects the properties of CoNiCrAlY coatings.

  10. Net electron energy gain induced by superluminal phase velocity and subluminal group velocity of a laser in a plasma channel (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Hong; Yao, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Xue, Ju-Kui


    We examine electron dynamics induced by laser-plasma interaction in a two-dimensional plasma channel, taking into action the laser phase velocity as well as the group velocity. The coupled effects of phase velocity, group velocity, and plasma channel on electron dynamics are discussed in detail. The superluminal phase velocity and the corresponding subluminal group velocity of the laser result in rich and complex electron dynamics, which are depicted in the plane of the phase velocity and plasma charge density. For weak superluminosity of the phase velocity, the effects of the phase velocity and the group velocity can be neglected. For moderate superluminosity of the phase velocity, a cross-over region can exist, where the highly energetic electron could be found and the net energy gain is several times greater than the energy gain in vacuum. For strong superluminosity of the phase velocity, the dephasing rate increases and thus limits the electron energy gain from the laser. However, the asymmetric laser pulse, attributed by the superluminal phase velocity and the subluminal group velocity, results in the electron getting adjustable net energy gain from the laser. The electron oscillations are no longer limited by the charge density threshold and the electron can always get net energy from the laser. These electron dynamics can also be modified by adjusting the polarization of the laser.

  11. Hot Corrosion of Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia Coatings Deposited by Air Plasma Spray on a Nickel-Based Superalloy (United States)

    Vallejo, N. Diaz; Sanchez, O.; Caicedo, J. C.; Aperador, W.; Zambrano, G.

    In this research, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel analysis were utilized to study the hot corrosion performance at 700∘C of air plasma-sprayed (APS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings with a NiCrAlY bond coat grown by high velocity oxygen fuel spraying (HVOF), deposited on an INCONEL 625 substrate, in contact with corrosive solids salts as vanadium pentoxide V2O5 and sodium sulfate Na2SO4. The EIS data were interpreted based on proposed equivalent electrical circuits using a suitable fitting procedure performed with Echem AnalystTM Software. Phase transformations and microstructural development were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), with Rietveld refinement for quantitative phase analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determinate the coating morphology and corrosion products. The XRD analysis indicated that the reaction between sodium vanadate (NaVO3) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3) produces yttrium vanadate (YVO4) and leads to the transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic zirconia phase.

  12. Plasma immersion ion implantation on 15-5PH stainless steel: influence on fatigue strength and wear resistance (United States)

    Bonora, R.; Cioffi, M. O. H.; Voorwald, H. J. C.


    Surface improvement in steels is of great interest for applications in industry. The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the axial fatigue strength and wear resistance of 15-5 PH stainless steel. It is well know that electroplated coatings, which are used to improve abrasive wear and corrosion properties, affects negatively the fatigue strength. It is also important to consider requirements to reduce the use of coated materials with electroplated chromium and cadmium, that produce waste, which is harmful to health and environment. The HVOF (High velocity oxygen fuel) process provides hardness, wear strength and higher fatigue resistance in comparison to electroplated chromium. Plasma immersion ion implantation has been used to enhance the hardness, wear, fatigue and corrosion properties of metals and alloys. In the present research the fatigue life increased twice for 15-5 PH three hours PIII treated in comparison to base material. From the abrasive wear tests a lower pin mass reduction was observed, associated to the superficial treatments. The improvement of fatigue and mechanical performance is attributed to a combination of nitrides phase structure and compressive residual stresses during the PIII treatment.

  13. Fabrication of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Bond Coats with Low Al2O3 Content (United States)

    Bergholz, Jan; Pint, Bruce A.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Vaßen, Robert


    Nanoscale oxide dispersions have long been used to increase the oxidation and wear resistance of alloys used as bond coatings in thermal barrier coatings. Their manufacturing via mechanical alloying is often accompanied by difficulties regarding their particle size, homogeneous distribution of the oxide dispersions inside the powder, involving considerable costs, due to cold welding of the powder during milling. A significant improvement in this process can be achieved by the use of process control agent (PCA) to achieve the critical balance between cold welding and fracturing, thereby enhancing the process efficiency. In this investigation, the influence of the organic additive stearic acid on the manufacturing process of Al2O3-doped CoNiCrAlY powder was investigated. Powders were fabricated via mechanical alloying at different milling times and PCA concentrations. The results showed a decrease in particle size, without hindering the homogeneous incorporation of the oxide dispersions. Two powders manufactured with 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% PCA were deposited by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying. Results showed that a higher content of elongated particles in the powder with the higher PCA content led to increased surface roughness, porosity and decreased coating thickness, with areas without embedded oxide particles.

  14. Use of microhardness as a simple means of estimating relative wear resistance of carbide thermal spray coatings: Part 2. wear resistance of cemented carbide coatings (United States)

    Factor, Michael; Roman, Itzhak


    A selection of WC-Co and Cr3C2-25%NiCr coatings produced by plasma spray and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) deposition techniques were subjected to various wear tests designed to simulate abrasion, cavitation, sliding, and particle erosion type wear mechanisms. All of the coatings were at least 200 µm thick and were deposited onto stainless steel substrates. In Part 1 of this contribution, the microstructures of the coatings were characterized and their mechanical properties were assessed using microindentation procedures. In this second part of the article, the behavior of the coatings when subjected to the various wear tests is reported and the utility of microhardness testing as an indication of relative wear resistance is discussed. It is shown that correctly performed, appropriate microhardness measurements are a good indication of abrasion resistance and sliding wear resistance, and also correlate well with cavitation resistance in Cr3C2-NiCr. The measurements were less useful for predicting erosion resistance for both Cr3C2-NiCr and WC-Co, however, and for abrasion resistance when WC-Co was ground against SiC. Here the contribution of micromechanisms involving fracturing and brittle failure is greater than that indicated by the coating microhardness, which is essentially a measurement of resistance to plastic deformation under equilibrium conditions.

  15. Uncertainty assessment of 3D instantaneous velocity model from stack velocities (United States)

    Emanuele Maesano, Francesco; D'Ambrogi, Chiara


    3D modelling is a powerful tool that is experiencing increasing applications in data analysis and dissemination. At the same time the need of quantitative uncertainty evaluation is strongly requested in many aspects of the geological sciences and by the stakeholders. In many cases the starting point for 3D model building is the interpretation of seismic profiles that provide indirect information about the geology of the subsurface in the domain of time. The most problematic step in the 3D modelling construction is the conversion of the horizons and faults interpreted in time domain to the depth domain. In this step the dominant variable that could lead to significantly different results is the velocity. The knowledge of the subsurface velocities is related mainly to punctual data (sonic logs) that are often sparsely distributed in the areas covered by the seismic interpretation. The extrapolation of velocity information to wide extended horizons is thus a critical step to obtain a 3D model in depth that can be used for predictive purpose. In the EU-funded GeoMol Project, the availability of a dense network of seismic lines (confidentially provided by ENI S.p.A.) in the Central Po Plain, is paired with the presence of 136 well logs, but few of them have sonic logs and in some portion of the area the wells are very widely spaced. The depth conversion of the 3D model in time domain has been performed testing different strategies for the use and the interpolation of velocity data. The final model has been obtained using a 4 layer cake 3D instantaneous velocity model that considers both the initial velocity (v0) in every reference horizon and the gradient of velocity variation with depth (k). Using this method it is possible to consider the geological constraint given by the geometries of the horizons and the geo-statistical approach to the interpolation of velocities and gradient. Here we present an experiment based on the use of set of pseudo-wells obtained from the

  16. Spatio-velocity CSF as a function of retinal velocity using unstabilized stimuli (United States)

    Laird, Justin; Rosen, Mitchell; Pelz, Jeff; Montag, Ethan; Daly, Scott


    LCD televisions have LC response times and hold-type data cycles that contribute to the appearance of blur when objects are in motion on the screen. New algorithms based on studies of the human visual system's sensitivity to motion are being developed to compensate for these artifacts. This paper describes a series of experiments that incorporate eyetracking in the psychophysical determination of spatio-velocity contrast sensitivity in order to build on the 2D spatiovelocity contrast sensitivity function (CSF) model first described by Kelly and later refined by Daly. We explore whether the velocity of the eye has an additional effect on sensitivity and whether the model can be used to predict sensitivity to more complex stimuli. There were a total of five experiments performed in this research. The first four experiments utilized Gabor patterns with three different spatial and temporal frequencies and were used to investigate and/or populate the 2D spatio-velocity CSF. The fifth experiment utilized a disembodied edge and was used to validate the model. All experiments used a two interval forced choice (2IFC) method of constant stimuli guided by a QUEST routine to determine thresholds. The results showed that sensitivity to motion was determined by the retinal velocity produced by the Gabor patterns regardless of the type of motion of the eye. Based on the results of these experiments the parameters for the spatio-velocity CSF model were optimized to our experimental conditions.

  17. Advanced Ice Velocity Mapping Using Landsat 8 (United States)

    Klinger, M. J.; Scambos, T. A.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Haran, T. M.


    Improved image-to-image cross correlation software is applied to pairs of sequential Landsat 8 satellite imagery to accurately measure ice surface velocity over ice sheets and glaciers (±0.1 pixel displacement, 15 meter pixels). The high radiometric fidelity of Landsat 8's panchromatic band (12-bit), and exceptional geolocation accuracy (typically ±5 m) supports the generation of ice velocity fields over very short time intervals (e.g., 16-, 32-, or 48-day repeat images of the same scene location). The high radiometry supports velocity mapping in areas with very subtle topographic detail, including un-crevassed sastrugi regions on ice dome flanks or the ice sheet interior. New Python-based software presently under development (named PyCorr), takes two sequential Landsat 8 OLI scenes (or suitably processed ETM+ or TM scenes) and matches small sub-scenes ('chips') between the images based on similarity in their gray-scale value patterns, using an image correlation algorithm. Peak fitting in the region of maximum correlation for a chip pair yields sub-pixel fits to the feature offset vector. Vector editing after the image correlation runs seeks to eliminate spurious and cloud-impacted vectors, and correct residual geo-location error. This processing is based on plausible values of ice strain rates and known areas of near-zero ice flow (rock outcrops, ice dome areas, etc.). In preliminary processing, we have examined ~800 Landsat 8 image pairs having <20% cloud cover spanning the near-coastal Antarctic ice sheet during the 2013-14 summer season.

  18. Velocity shear generation of solar wind turbulence (United States)

    Roberts, D. A.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Matthaeus, William H.; Ghosh, Sanjoy


    A two-dimensional incompressible MHD spectral code is used to show that shear-driven turbulence is a possible means for producing many observed properties of the evolution of the magnetic and velocity fluctuations in the solar wind and, in particular, the evolution of the cross helicity ('Alfvenicity') at small scales. It is shown that large-scale shear can nonlinearly produce a cascade to smaller scale fluctuations even when the linear Kelvin-Helmholtz mode is stable, and that a roughly power law inertial range is established by this process. The evolution found is similar to that seen in some other simulations of MHD turbulence.

  19. Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)


    It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)

  20. Selection effects in Doppler velocity planet searches (United States)

    O'Toole, Simon; Tinney, Chris; Jones, Hugh


    The majority of extra-solar planets have been discovered by measuring the Doppler velocities of the host star. Like all exoplanet detection methods, the Doppler method is rife with observational biases. Before any robust comparison of mass, orbital period and eccentricity distributions can be made with theory, a detailed understanding of these selection effects is required, something which up to now is lacking. We present here a progress report on our analysis of the selection effects present in Anglo-Australian Planet Search data, including the methodology used and some preliminary results.

  1. Helicopter rotor induced velocities theory and experiment (United States)

    Berry, John D.; Hoad, Danny R.; Elliott, Joe W.; Althoff, Susan L.


    An investigation has been performed to assess methods used for rotor inflow modeling. A key element of this assessment has been the recent acquisition of high quality experimental measurements of inflow velocities taken in the proximity of a lifting rotor in forward flight. Widely used rotor performance predictive methods are based on blade element strip theory coupled with an inflow model. The inflow prediction models assessed in this paper include the uniform inflow based on momentum, a skewed disk model, and two methods based on a vortex wake structure.

  2. A new estimator for vector velocity estimation [medical ultrasonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    A new estimator for determining the two-dimensional velocity vector using a pulsed ultrasound field is derived. The estimator uses a transversely modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation....... The new estimator automatically compensates for the axial velocity when determining the transverse velocity. The estimation is optimized by using a lag different from one in the estimation process, and noise artifacts are reduced by averaging RF samples. Further, compensation for the axial velocity can...... be introduced, and the velocity estimation is done at a fixed depth in tissue to reduce the influence of a spatial velocity spread. Examples for different velocity vectors and field conditions are shown using both simple and more complex field simulations. A relative accuracy of 10.1% is obtained...

  3. The Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE): Fourth Data Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordopatis, G.; Gilmore, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Boeche, C.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Zwitter, T.; Binney, J.; de Laverny, P.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Williams, M. E. K.; Piffl, T.; Enke, H.; Roeser, S.; Bijaoui, A.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Freeman, K.; Munari, U.; Carrillo, I.; Anguiano, B.; Burton, D.; Campbell, R.; Cass, C. J. P.; Fiegert, K.; Hartley, M.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Ritter, A.; Russell, K. S.; Stupar, M.; Watson, F. G.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Gerhard, O.; Gibson, B. K.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Conrad, C.; Famaey, B.; Faure, C.; Just, A.; Kos, J.; Matijevič, G.; McMillan, P. J.; Minchev, I.; Scholz, R.; Sharma, S.; Siviero, A.; de Boer, E. Wylie; Žerjal, M.


    We present the stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity), radial velocities, individual abundances, and distances determined for 425,561 stars, which constitute the fourth public data release of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE). The stellar

  4. The radial velocity experiment (RAVE) : Fourth data release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordopatis, G.; Gilmore, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Boeche, C.; Seabroke, G. M.; Siebert, A.; Zwitter, T.; Binney, J.; de Laverny, P.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Williams, M. E. K.; Piffl, T.; Enke, H.; Roeser, S.; Bijaoui, A.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Freeman, K.; Munari, U.; Carrillo, I.; Anguiano, B.; Burton, D.; Campbell, R.; Cass, C. J. P.; Fiegert, K.; Hartley, M.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Ritter, A.; Russell, K. S.; Stupar, M.; Watson, F. G.; Bienayme, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Gerhard, O.; Gibson, B. K.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Conrad, C.; Famaey, B.; Faure, C.; Just, A.; Kos, J.; Matijevic, G.; McMillan, P. J.; Minchev, I.; Scholz, R.; Sharma, S.; Siviero, A.; de Boer, E. Wylie; Zerjal, M.


    We present the stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity), radial velocities, individual abundances, and distances determined for 425,561 stars, which constitute the fourth public data release of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE). The stellar

  5. Solenoidal filtering of volumetric velocity measurements using Gaussian process regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azijli, I.; Dwight, R.P.


    Volumetric velocity measurements of incompressible flows contain spurious divergence due to measurement noise, despite mass conservation dictating that the velocity field must be divergence-free (solenoidal). We investigate the use of Gaussian process regression to filter spurious divergence,

  6. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.


    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (∼3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  7. Velocity statistics in superfluid and classical turbulence (United States)

    Sreenivasan, K. R.; Donzis, D. A.; Fisher, M. E.; Lathrop, D. P.; Paoletti, M. S.; Young, P. K.


    Past work, summarized in part by Vinen & Niemela (J. Low Temp. Phys. 129, 213 (2002)) and by Walmsley et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 265302 (2007)), suggests that similarities exist between superfluid and classical turbulence. Conversely, the more recent work of Paoletti et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 154501 (2008)) has highlighted differences: in particular, the probability density function (PDF) of the turbulent superfluid velocity, measured by tracking the trajectories of small hydrogen particles, is strongly non-Gaussian with power-law tails, in contrast to classical homogeneous and isotropic turbulence for which the PDF is nearly Gaussian. Here, we explore this dichotomy. Since the observed power-law exponent of -3 in the superfluid case can be traced to the reconnection of quantized vortices, it is natural to explore the role of vortex reconnection in the classical case. We surmise that the latter, if it is significant at all, must involve vortices of high intensity. Using direct numerical solutions of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence on a grid of linear size 4096, we condition the velocity statistics on the magnitude of vorticity and find that the resulting conditional PDFs, if normalized on their own standard deviation, remain Gaussian for all vorticity magnitudes.

  8. Ejection of stars with relativistic velocities (United States)

    Dryomova, G.; Dryomov, V.; Tutukov, A.

    We present the results of numerical simulations performed in terms of modified Hills' scenario involving two supermassive black holes (SMBHs). In contrast to the classic Hills scenario (Hills 1988), here one component of the ordinary stellar binary system is replaced with a SMBH that provides a kinetic resource for ejecting a star (the secondary component of the binary) with relativistic velocity (RVS). We examine the conditions that favor relativistic ejections of stars, depending on the pericentric approach, the mass ratio of two SMBHs, and the orbital configuration of the binary system. Applying the simple criteria helped us to sort out the results of numerical simulations by the outcome: conservation of the orbital configuration of the binary system, dynamic recapture of the star by the central SMBH, emission of hypervelocity stars (HVSs), and RVS ejection. In the framework of N-body simulations we estimate the probability for a star to survive in the cross-field of two SMBHs during the ejection with relativistic velocity, and discuss the probability of the detection of RVSs in our Galaxy in the cases where such stars are generated in distant interacting galaxies undergoing a merger of their central parts occupied by SMBHs.

  9. A magnetospheric critical velocity experiment - Particle results (United States)

    Torbert, R. B.; Newell, P. T.


    In March of 1983, a barium injection sounding rocket experiment (The Star of Lima) was conducted to investigate Alfven's critical ionization velocity (CIV) hypothesis in space. Included in the instrumented payload was a particle detection experiment consisting of five retarding potential analyzers. Despite conditions that appeared to be optimal for the critical velocity effect, the particle data, in agreement with optical observations, indicates that a fractional ionization of only approximately .0005 was observed, indicating that the conditions required for the effect to occur are still not well understood. However many of the required phenomena associated with the CIV effect were observed; in particular a superthermal electron population was formed at the expense of ion drift kinetic energy in the presence of intense electrostatic waves near the lower hybrid frequency. The amount of ionization produced is plausibly consistent with the observed electron flux, but could also be accounted for by residual solar UV at the injection point. It is shown based on the data set that one obvious explanation for the low ionization efficiency, namely that the ionizing superthermal electrons may rapidly escape along field lines, can be ruled out.

  10. Disentangling rotational velocity distribution of stars (United States)

    Curé, Michel; Rial, Diego F.; Cassetti, Julia; Christen, Alejandra


    Rotational speed is an important physical parameter of stars: knowing the distribution of stellar rotational velocities is essential for understanding stellar evolution. However, rotational speed cannot be measured directly and is instead the convolution between the rotational speed and the sine of the inclination angle vsin(i). The problem itself can be described via a Fredhoml integral of the first kind. A new method (Curé et al. 2014) to deconvolve this inverse problem and obtain the cumulative distribution function for stellar rotational velocities is based on the work of Chandrasekhar & Münch (1950). Another method to obtain the probability distribution function is Tikhonov regularization method (Christen et al. 2016). The proposed methods can be also applied to the mass ratio distribution of extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs (in binary systems, Curé et al. 2015). For stars in a cluster, where all members are gravitationally bounded, the standard assumption that rotational axes are uniform distributed over the sphere is questionable. On the basis of the proposed techniques a simple approach to model this anisotropy of rotational axes has been developed with the possibility to ``disentangling'' simultaneously both the rotational speed distribution and the orientation of rotational axes.

  11. Discussion on accuracy degree evaluation of accident velocity reconstruction model (United States)

    Zou, Tiefang; Dai, Yingbiao; Cai, Ming; Liu, Jike

    In order to investigate the applicability of accident velocity reconstruction model in different cases, a method used to evaluate accuracy degree of accident velocity reconstruction model is given. Based on pre-crash velocity in theory and calculation, an accuracy degree evaluation formula is obtained. With a numerical simulation case, Accuracy degrees and applicability of two accident velocity reconstruction models are analyzed; results show that this method is feasible in practice.

  12. Quantification of aortic regurgitation by magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lise; Lindvig, K; Hildebrandt, P


    The use of magnetic resonance (MR) velocity mapping in the quantification of aortic valvular blood flow was examined in 10 patients with angiographically verified aortic regurgitation. MR velocity mapping succeeded in identifying and quantifying the regurgitation in all patients, and the regurgit......The use of magnetic resonance (MR) velocity mapping in the quantification of aortic valvular blood flow was examined in 10 patients with angiographically verified aortic regurgitation. MR velocity mapping succeeded in identifying and quantifying the regurgitation in all patients...

  13. A simple method to determine the settling velocity distribution from settling velocity tubes (United States)

    Malarkey, J.; Jago, C. F.; Hübner, R.; Jones, S. E.


    Settling velocity tubes (SVTs), as originally proposed by Owen (1976), remain important instruments to determine in-situ sediment settling velocity distributions, particularly in estuaries. Because there is still a need for SVTs in the field, this note provides the theoretical basis for the analysis of the samples taken from SVTs; together with a MATLAB script to execute this analysis and detailed documentation on its use. The script, which is based on Jones and Jago's (1996) original procedure, includes two additional constraints on the slopes of the curve fitted to the percentage of sediment in suspension with time, which help to control the fit.

  14. The Limit Deposit Velocity model : A new approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, S.A.; Ramsdell, R.C.


    In slurry transport of settling slurries in Newtonian fluids, it is often stated that one should apply a line speed above a critical velocity, because blow this critical velocity there is the danger of plugging the line. There are many definitions and names for this critical velocity. It is referred

  15. Influence of grain size and grain boundary recombination velocity on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plot of the diffusion capacitance allowed us to study the influence of the following parameters: grain size, grain boundary recombination velocity, junction recombination velocity and illumination wavelength on this capacitance. This study pointed out that junction and grain boundary recombination velocities play an ...

  16. Estimating 2-D Vector Velocities Using Multidimensional Spectrum Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Niels; Løvstakken, Lasse; Torp, Hans


    Wilson (1991) presented an ultrasonic wide-band estimator for axial blood flow velocity estimation through the use of the 2-D Fourier transform. It was shown how a single velocity component was concentrated along a line in the 2-D Fourier space, where the slope was given by the axial velocity. La...

  17. Dense velocity reconstruction from tomographic PTV with material derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneiders, J.F.G.; Scarano, F.


    A method is proposed to reconstruct the instantaneous velocity field from time-resolved volumetric particle tracking velocimetry (PTV, e.g., 3D-PTV, tomographic PTV and Shake-the-Box), employing both the instantaneous velocity and the velocity material derivative of the sparse tracer particles. The

  18. Influence of Hardness on Perforation Velocity in Steel Armour Plates


    S. N. Dikshit


    In an earlier investigation3, the influence ofh'ardness on tempered steel armour plates of 20 mm thickness, impacted by. 20 mm diameter steel ogive-shaped projectile at normal , was studied. Additional data is investigated with relation to the perforation velocity of the plates. It is observed that the plate perforation velocity and the plate plugging velocity decrease with increasing plate hardness.

  19. Examples of in-vivo blood vector velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Nielsen, Kristian R.


    In this paper examples of in-vivo blood vector velocity images of the carotid artery are presented. The transverse oscillation (TO) method for blood vector velocity estimation has been used to estimate the vector velocities and the method is first evaluated in a circulating flowrig where...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The results of Westerbork * observations of small-scale structure in high-velocity clouds (HVCs) at 1' angular and 1 km s-1 velocity resolution are presented in the form of a table of observational parameters, maps of hydrogen column density, velocity-right ascension cuts, and histograms of the

  1. Demonstrating the Direction of Angular Velocity in Circular Motion (United States)

    Demircioglu, Salih; Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Isik, Hakan


    Rotational motion is ubiquitous in nature, from astronomical systems to household devices in everyday life to elementary models of atoms. Unlike the tangential velocity vector that represents the instantaneous linear velocity (magnitude and direction), an angular velocity vector is conceptually more challenging for students to grasp. In physics…

  2. The Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) : Second data release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, T.; Siebert, A.; Munari, U.; Freeman, K. C.; Siviero, A.; Watson, F. G.; Fulbright, J. P.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Campbell, R.; Seabroke, G. M.; Williams, M.; Steinmetz, M.; Bienayme, O.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Helmi, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Anguiano, B.; Boeche, C.; Burton, D.; Cass, P.; Dawe, J.; Fiegert, K.; Hartley, M.; Russell, K.; Veltz, L.; Bailin, J.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brown, A.; Dehnen, W.; Evans, N. W.; Fiorentin, P. Re; Fiorucci, M.; Gerhard, O.; Gibson, B.; Kelz, A.; Kuijken, K.; Matijevic, G.; Minchev, I.; Parker, Q. A.; Penarrubia, J.; Quillen, A.; Read, M. A.; Reid, W.; Roeser, S.; Ruchti, G.; Scholz, R. -D.; Smith, M. C.; Sordo, R.; Tolstoi, E.; Tomasella, L.; Vidrih, S.; De Boer, E. Wylie

    We present the second data release of the Radial Velocity Experiment ( RAVE), an ambitious spectroscopic survey to measure radial velocities and stellar atmosphere parameters ( temperature, metallicity, surface gravity, and rotational velocity) of up to one million stars using the 6 dF multi-object

  3. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2 coatings · Maryamossadat Bozorgtabar Mehdi Salehi Mohammadreza Rahimipour Mohammadreza Jafarpour · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. A liquid fuel high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process has been used to deposit ...

  4. Electrochemical Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Fe-Based Fe73.13Si11.12B10.79Cr2.24C2.72 Composite Coatings (United States)

    Mahata, Nilanjan; Banerjee, A.; Bijalwan, P.; Rai, P. K.; Sangal, S.; Mondal, K.


    The present work describes a series of new amorphous and nanocrystalline composite coatings (composition: 87.6% Fe, 6.7% Si, 2.5% B, 2.5% Cr, 0.7% C in wt.%) on a mild steel substrate made by high-velocity oxy-fuel thermal spray at different feed rates of 20, 30 and 40 g/min. The microstructure characterization using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy shows uniform and adherent coatings of different thickness depending on the feed rate. The structure of the coating is composite in nature (mixture of amorphous and nanocrystalline phases) as confirmed by the x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The hardness of the coating is almost 6-7 times than that of the substrate. Though polarization test of the coating demonstrates corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution similar to the substrate, the difference of corrosion potentials of the coatings and the substrate is largely negative ( more than 200 mV against saturated calomel electrode) suggesting anodic nature of the coating as compared to the substrate resulting in sacrificial effect.

  5. Electrochemical Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Fe-Based Fe73.13Si11.12B10.79Cr2.24C2.72 Composite Coatings (United States)

    Mahata, Nilanjan; Banerjee, A.; Bijalwan, P.; Rai, P. K.; Sangal, S.; Mondal, K.


    The present work describes a series of new amorphous and nanocrystalline composite coatings (composition: 87.6% Fe, 6.7% Si, 2.5% B, 2.5% Cr, 0.7% C in wt.%) on a mild steel substrate made by high-velocity oxy-fuel thermal spray at different feed rates of 20, 30 and 40 g/min. The microstructure characterization using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy shows uniform and adherent coatings of different thickness depending on the feed rate. The structure of the coating is composite in nature (mixture of amorphous and nanocrystalline phases) as confirmed by the x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The hardness of the coating is almost 6-7 times than that of the substrate. Though polarization test of the coating demonstrates corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution similar to the substrate, the difference of corrosion potentials of the coatings and the substrate is largely negative ( more than 200 mV against saturated calomel electrode) suggesting anodic nature of the coating as compared to the substrate resulting in sacrificial effect.

  6. Effect of Wind Velocity on Flame Spread in Microgravity (United States)

    Prasad, Kuldeep; Olson, Sandra L.; Nakamura, Yuji; Fujita, Osamu; Nishizawa, Katsuhiro; Ito, Kenichi; Kashiwagi, Takashi; Simons, Stephen N. (Technical Monitor)


    A three-dimensional, time-dependent model is developed describing ignition and subsequent transition to flame spread over a thermally thin cellulosic sheet heated by external radiation in a microgravity environment. A low Mach number approximation to the Navier Stokes equations with global reaction rate equations describing combustion in the gas phase and the condensed phase is numerically solved. The effects of a slow external wind (1-20 cm/s) on flame transition are studied in an atmosphere of 35% oxygen concentration. The ignition is initiated at the center part of the sample by generating a line-shape flame along the width of the sample. The calculated results are compared with data obtained in the 10s drop tower. Numerical results exhibit flame quenching at a wind speed of 1.0 cm/s, two localized flames propagating upstream along the sample edges at 1.5 cm/s, a single line-shape flame front at 5.0 cm/s, three flames structure observed at 10.0 cm/s (consisting of a single line-shape flame propagating upstream and two localized flames propagating downstream along sample edges) and followed by two line-shape flames (one propagating upstream and another propagating downstream) at 20.0 cm/s. These observations qualitatively compare with experimental data. Three-dimensional visualization of the observed flame complex, fuel concentration contours, oxygen and reaction rate isosurfaces, convective and diffusive mass flux are used to obtain a detailed understanding of the controlling mechanism, Physical arguments based on lateral diffusive flux of oxygen, fuel depletion, oxygen shadow of the flame and heat release rate are constructed to explain the various observed flame shapes.

  7. Accelerated radial Fourier-velocity encoding using compressed sensing. (United States)

    Hilbert, Fabian; Wech, Tobias; Hahn, Dietbert; Köstler, Herbert


    Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a tool for non-invasive determination of flow velocities inside blood vessels. Because Phase Contrast MRI only measures a single mean velocity per voxel, it is only applicable to vessels significantly larger than the voxel size. In contrast, Fourier Velocity Encoding measures the entire velocity distribution inside a voxel, but requires a much longer acquisition time. For accurate diagnosis of stenosis in vessels on the scale of spatial resolution, it is important to know the velocity distribution of a voxel. Our aim was to determine velocity distributions with accelerated Fourier Velocity Encoding in an acquisition time required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. We imaged the femoral artery of healthy volunteers with ECG-triggered, radial CINE acquisition. Data acquisition was accelerated by undersampling, while missing data were reconstructed by Compressed Sensing. Velocity spectra of the vessel were evaluated by high resolution Phase Contrast images and compared to spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoding. By means of undersampling, it was possible to reduce the scan time for Fourier Velocity Encoding to the duration required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Acquisition time for a fully sampled data set with 12 different Velocity Encodings was 40 min. By applying a 12.6-fold retrospective undersampling, a data set was generated equal to 3:10 min acquisition time, which is similar to a conventional Phase Contrast measurement. Velocity spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoded images are in good agreement and show the same maximum velocities as compared to velocity maps from Phase Contrast measurements. Compressed Sensing proved to reliably reconstruct Fourier Velocity Encoded data. Our results indicate that Fourier Velocity Encoding allows an accurate determination of the velocity distribution in vessels in the order of the voxel size. Thus

  8. Personal Exposure to Contaminant Sources in a Uniform Velocity Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The objective of this study has been to determine the personal exposure to a contaminant source in a uniform velocity field. This was done by full-scale measurements and computer simulations. The results showed a significant dependence on the velocity field both regarding the direction and the ma...... the usual operation range. Guidelines for personal exposure reduction in a uniform velocity field are discussed.......The objective of this study has been to determine the personal exposure to a contaminant source in a uniform velocity field. This was done by full-scale measurements and computer simulations. The results showed a significant dependence on the velocity field both regarding the direction...

  9. Luminal pulse velocity in a superluminal medium (United States)

    Amano, Heisuke; Tomita, Makoto


    To investigate the physical meaning of pulse peak in fast and slow light media, we investigated propagation of differently shaped pulses experimentally, controlling the sharpness of the pulse peak. Symmetric behavior with respect to fast and slow light was observed in traditional Gaussian pulses; that is, propagated pulses were advanced or delayed, respectively, whereas the pulse shape remained unchanged. This symmetry broke down when the pulse peak was sharpened; in the fast light medium, the sharp pulse peak propagated with luminal velocity, and the transmitted pulse deformed into a characteristic asymmetric profile. In contrast, in the slow light medium, a time-delayed smooth peak appeared with a bending point at t =0 . This symmetry breaking with respect to fast and slow light is a universal characteristic of pulse propagation in causal dispersive systems. The sharp pulse peak can be recognized as a bending nonanalytical point and may be capable of transferring information.

  10. Velocity dependence of friction of confined polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.


    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the frictional...... shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (approx. 3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  11. Decreased Nerve Conduction Velocity in Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Didehdar


    Full Text Available Background: Lower limbs nerves are exposed to mechanical injuries in the football players and the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of football on the lower leg nerves. Materials and Methods: Nerve conduction studies were done on 35 male college students (20 football players, 15 non active during 2006 to 2007 in the Shiraz rehabilitation faculty. Standard nerve conduction techniques using to evaluate dominant and non dominant lower limb nerves. Results: The motor latency of deep peroneal and tibial nerves of dominant leg of football players and sensory latency of superficial peroneal, tibial and compound nerve action potential of tibial nerve of both leg in football players were significantly prolonged (p<0.05. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity of tibial and common peroneal in football players were significant delayed (p<0.05. Conclusion: It is concluded that football is sport with high contact and it causes sub-clinical neuropathies due to nerve entrapment.

  12. Universality of the Turbulent Velocity Profile (United States)

    Luchini, Paolo


    For nearly a century, the universal logarithmic law of the mean velocity profile has been a mainstay of turbulent fluid mechanics and its teaching. Yet many experiments and numerical simulations are not fit exceedingly well by it, and the question whether the logarithmic law is indeed universal keeps turning up in discussion and in writing. Large experiments have been set up in various parts of the world to confirm or deny the logarithmic law and accurately estimate von Kármán's constant, the coefficient that governs it. Here, we show that the discrepancy among flows in different (circular or plane) geometries can be ascribed to the effect of the pressure gradient. When this effect is accounted for in the form of a higher-order perturbation, universal agreement emerges beyond doubt and a satisfactorily simple formulation is established.

  13. Ultrasonic Doppler Velocity Profiler for Fluid Flow

    CERN Document Server


    The ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) method, first developed in medical engineering, is now widely used in clinical settings. The fluid mechanical basis of UVP was established in investigations by the author and his colleagues with work demonstrating that UVP is a powerful new tool in experimental fluid mechanics. There are diverse examples, ranging from problems in fundamental fluid dynamics to applied problems in mechanical, chemical, nuclear, and environmental engineering. In all these problems, the methodological principle in fluid mechanics was converted from point measurements to spatio-temporal measurements along a line. This book is the first monograph on UVP that offers comprehensive information about the method, its principles, its practice, and applied examples, and which serves both current and new users. Current users can confirm that their application configurations are correct, which will help them to improve the configurations so as to make them more efficient and effective. New users will be...

  14. Velocity anisotropy in tidally limited star clusters (United States)

    Tiongco, Maria A.; Vesperini, Enrico; Varri, Anna Lisa


    We explore the long-term evolution of the anisotropy in the velocity space of star clusters starting with different structural and kinematical properties. We show that the evolution of the radial anisotropy strength and its radial variation within a cluster contain distinct imprints of the cluster initial structural properties, dynamical history, and of the external tidal field of its host galaxy. Initially isotropic and compact clusters with small initial values of the ratio of the half-mass to Jacobi radius, rh/rJ, develop a strong radial anisotropy during their long-term dynamical evolution. Many clusters, if formed with small values of rh/rJ, should now be characterized by a significant radial anisotropy increasing with the distance from the cluster centre, reaching its maximum at a distance between 0.2 rJ and 0.4 rJ, and then becoming more isotropic or mildly tangentially anisotropic in the outermost regions. A similar radial variation of the anisotropy can also result from an early violent relaxation phase. In both cases, as a cluster continues its evolution and loses mass, the anisotropy eventually starts to decrease and the system evolves towards an isotropic velocity distribution. However, in order to completely erase the strong anisotropy developed by these compact systems during their evolution, they must be in the advanced stages of their evolution and lose a large fraction of their initial mass. Clusters that are initially isotropic and characterized by larger initial values of rh/rJ, on the other hand, never develop a significant radial anisotropy.

  15. Periodicity for 50 yr of daily solar wind velocity (United States)

    Li, K. J.; Zhang, J.; Feng, W.


    Daily mean velocity of solar wind that was surveyed near the Earth's orbit at about 1 au from 1963 November 27 to 2015 November 30 and issued by OMNIWeb is used to look into its periodicity through the Lomb-Scargle periodogram method. As the strongest periodical signal, the solar activity cycle of about 10.4 yr is found in high-velocity wind, but in low-velocity wind, the 9.17-yr cycle appears instead. The rotation cycle of about 27 d and its 1/2 and 1/3 harmonic periods are clearly detected in all-, low- and high-velocity wind, and at their periodograms, several individual periodical peaks appear very close to the peaks of these three periods. The annual period of about 1.07 yr is identified for both all- and low-velocity wind, but not for high-velocity wind after 1994. The 1.68-yr period occurs in all- and high-velocity wind, but does not appear in low-velocity wind. The period of about 2.42 yr appears just in the all-velocity wind after 1994, but its twofold period (about 4.83 yr) appears in both all- and high-velocity wind. The period of about 4.1 yr occurs in all-, low- and high-velocity wind. The possible origin of these periods is discussed.

  16. Sonic velocities for gases from coal-derived liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodner, A.J.; Jett, O.J.


    Accurate predictions of choking velocities for three-phase mixtures are needed to properly size coal-slurry letdown valves. The sonic velocity of the gas phase of the coal slurry must be known to evaluate this choking velocity. A FORTRAN computer program, based on the Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation of state, was developed to predict sonic velocities for both pure and pseudocomponent gaseous mixtures. Predictions of the sonic velocity for methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene deviated 0 to 25% from experimental data. The sonic velocity predictions were also more accurate than those with the reduced-property correlation of Pitzer and Curl. The predicted sonic velocity at 700 K for a mixture of gases from coal-derived liquids at conditions typical of coal-slurry letdown valves ranged from 100 to 330 m/s.

  17. Influence of Velocity on Variability in Gait Kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine


    Closed circuit television (CCTV) footage is often available from crime scenes and may be used to compare perpetrators with suspects. Usually, the footage comprises incomplete gait cycles at different velocities, making gait pattern identification from crimes difficult. This study investigated...... the concurrence of joint angles throughout a gait cycle at three different velocities (3.0, 4.5, 6.0 km/h). Six datasets at each velocity were collected from 16 men. A variability range VR throughout the gait cycle at each velocity for each joint angle for each person was calculated. The joint angles at each...... velocity were compared pairwise, and whenever this showed values within the VR of this velocity, the case was positive. By adding the positives throughout the gait cycle, phases with high and low concurrences were located; peak concurrence was observed at mid-stance phase. Striving for the same velocity...

  18. Critical velocity, lactate concentration and rowing performanc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Franchini


    Full Text Available There is, in the literature, a search for simple and non-expensive tests to determine the intensity equivalent to maximal lactate steady state (MLSS. The critical velocity (CV has been an indirect method used to determine MLSS. However, the few studies that applied CV in rowing did not verify its validity to estimate MLSS. Therefore, this study had the purposes of testing the validity of CV in determining MLSS velocity as well as of analyzing its predictive value in rowing performance. Therefore, eleven male rowers were submitted to three trials to exhaustion for CV determination. A 2000-m test in a rowing ergometer was used as performance criteria. Later, the subjects performed a continuous test at the CV, with blood lactate concentration (LA being measured during the test. During the continuous test, the LA linearly increased from rest (2 ± 0.,2 mmol.L-1 to the 10th minute (10.9 ± 3.7 mmol.L-1 with slightly higher values (11.6 ± 2.3 mmol.L-1 at the mean time to exhaustion (10.4 ± 3 min, showing that CV does not correspond to MLSS. The correlation coefficient between CV and mean velocity at the 2000-m test (r = 0.87; p RESUMO Existe, na literatura, a busca por testes simples e baratos para determinar a intensidade equivalente à máxima fase estável do lactato sangüíneo (MFELS. A velocidade crítica (VC tem sido um dos métodos indiretos utilizados para determinar a MFELS. No entanto, os poucos estudos que utilizaram a VC no remo, não verificaram sua validade para estimar a MFELS. Assim, esse estudo teve como objetivos verificar a validade da VC para determinar a velocidade da MFELS e analisar seu valor preditivo para o desempenho no remo. Para isso, onze atletas de remo do sexo masculino foram submetidos a três estímulos até a exaustão para a identificação da VC. Uma prova de 2000 m no ergômetro de remo foi usada como critério de desempenho. Posteriormente, os sujeitos realizaram um teste contínuo na VC, sendo mensurada a

  19. Sound velocity during solidification in binary eutectic systems (United States)

    Yoshioka, Hideaki; Kyoden, Tomoaki; Hachiga, Tadashi


    We applied an ultrasound technique to an advanced material process by investigating the behavior of sound velocity during solidification of binary alloy melts over a wide range of temperatures and compositions. To gain a basic understanding of the relationship between the sound velocity and phase change in binary eutectic systems, the sound velocity was measured in Pb-Sn and Bi-Sn alloys by the pulse transmission method. Based on the measurement results, we established a link between the sound velocity variation and the complex solidification process, including the initial appearance of undercooling and eutectic reaction. During solidification, alloys usually pass through a transient mushy state between the liquid and solid phases. Since the solid fraction is uniquely related to the sound velocity, we demonstrate that it is possible to identify the solid fraction in the mushy state using the sound velocity. At the eutectic point, a sudden change was observed in relation to the eutectic reaction, in which the sound velocity exhibited an abrupt transition under isothermal conditions. This sudden change in the sound velocity was evident even when the initial composition was below the maximum solid-solution limit, such as when the solute distribution coefficient was relatively large. This result suggests that the presence of a eutectic in the final solidified texture can be predicted using our sound velocity measurement system. Finally, we present a novel sound velocity phase diagram that provides a real-time state determination system using ultrasound during solidification process, such as casting.

  20. HI Linewidths, Rotation Velocities and the Tully-Fisher Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hyun Rhee


    Full Text Available We determine the rotation velocities of 108 spiral and irregular galaxies (XV-Sample from first-order rotation curves from position-velocity maps, based on short 21-cm observations with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT. To test the usual random motion corrections, we compare the global HI linewidths and the rotation velocities, obtained from kinematical fits to two-dimensional velocity fields for a sample of 28 galaxies (RC-Sample, and find that the most frequently used correction formulae (Tully & Fouqué 1985 are not very satisfactory. The rotation velocity parameter (the random-motion corrected HI linewidth: WRi, derived with these corrections, may be statistically equal to two times the true rotation velocity, but in individual cases the differences can be large. We analyse, for both RC- and XV-Samples, the dependence of the slope of, and scatter in the Tully-Fisher relation on the definition of the rotation velocity parameters. For the RC-Sample, we find that the scatter in the Tully-Fisher relation can be reduced considerably when the rotation velocities derived from rotation curves are used instead of the random-motion corrected global HI linewidths. No such reduction in the scatter is seen for XV-Sample. We conclude that the reduction of the scatter in the Tully-Fisher relation seems to be related to the use of two-dimensional velocity information: accurate rotation velocity and kinematical inclination.

  1. Peculiar velocity decomposition, redshift space distortion, and velocity reconstruction in redshift surveys: The methodology (United States)

    Zhang, Pengjie; Pan, Jun; Zheng, Yi


    Massive spectroscopic surveys will measure the redshift space distortion (RSD) induced by galaxy peculiar velocity to unprecedented accuracy and open a new era of precision RSD cosmology. We develop a new method to improve the RSD modeling and to carry out robust reconstruction of the 3D large scale peculiar velocity through galaxy redshift surveys, in light of RSD. (1) We propose a mathematically unique and physically motivated decomposition of peculiar velocity into three eigencomponents: an irrotational component completely correlated with the underlying density field (vδ), an irrotational component uncorrelated with the density field (vS), and a rotational (curl) component (vB). The three components have different origins, different scale dependences, and different impacts on RSD. (2) This decomposition has the potential to simplify and improve the RSD modeling. (i) vB damps the redshift space clustering. (ii) vS causes both damping and enhancement to the redshift space power spectrum Ps(k,u). Nevertheless, the leading order contribution to the enhancement has a u4 directional dependence, distinctively different from the Kaiser formula. Here, u≡kz/k, k is the amplitude of the wave vector, and kz is the component along the line of sight. (iii) vδ is of the greatest importance for the RSD cosmology. We find that the induced redshift clustering shows a number of important deviations from the usual Kaiser formula. Even in the limit of vS→0 and vB→0, the leading order contribution ∝(1+fW˜(k)u2)2. It differs from the Kaiser formula by a window function W˜(k). Nonlinear evolution generically drives W˜(k)≤1. We hence identify a significant systematical error causing underestimation of the structure growth parameter f by as much as O(10%) even at a relatively large scale k=0.1h/Mpc. (iv) The velocity decomposition reveals the three origins of the “finger-of-God” (FOG) effect and suggests how to simplify and improve the modeling of FOG by treating the

  2. Evaluation of force-velocity and power-velocity relationship of arm muscles. (United States)

    Sreckovic, Sreten; Cuk, Ivan; Djuric, Sasa; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Mirkov, Dragan; Jaric, Slobodan


    A number of recent studies have revealed an approximately linear force-velocity (F-V) and, consequently, a parabolic power-velocity (P-V) relationship of multi-joint tasks. However, the measurement characteristics of their parameters have been neglected, particularly those regarding arm muscles, which could be a problem for using the linear F-V model in both research and routine testing. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to evaluate the strength, shape, reliability, and concurrent validity of the F-V relationship of arm muscles. Twelve healthy participants performed maximum bench press throws against loads ranging from 20 to 70 % of their maximum strength, and linear regression model was applied on the obtained range of F and V data. One-repetition maximum bench press and medicine ball throw tests were also conducted. The observed individual F-V relationships were exceptionally strong (r = 0.96-0.99; all P 0.80), while their concurrent validity regarding directly measured F, P, and V ranged from high (for maximum F) to medium-to-low (for maximum P and V). The findings add to the evidence that the linear F-V and, consequently, parabolic P-V models could be used to study the mechanical properties of muscular systems, as well as to design a relatively simple, reliable, and ecologically valid routine test of the muscle ability of force, power, and velocity production.

  3. Featured Image: The Cosmic Velocity Web (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    You may have heard of the cosmic web, a network of filaments, clusters and voids that describes the three-dimensional distribution of matter in our universe. But have you ever considered the idea of a cosmic velocity web? In a new study led by Daniel Pomarde (IRFU CEA-Saclay, France), a team of scientists has built a detailed 3D view of the flows in our universe, showing in particular motions along filaments and in collapsing knots. In the image above (click for the full view), surfaces of knots (red) are embedded within surfaces of filaments (grey). The rainbow lines show the flow motion, revealing acceleration (redder tones) toward knots and retardation (bluer tones) beyond them. You can learn more about Pomarde and collaborators work and see their unusual and intriguing visualizationsin the video they produced, below. Check out the original paper for more information.CitationDaniel Pomarde et al 2017 ApJ 845 55. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa7f78

  4. Out-of-plane ultrasonic velocity measurement (United States)

    Hall, Maclin S.; Brodeur, Pierre H.; Jackson, Theodore G.


    A method for improving the accuracy of measuring the velocity and time of flight of ultrasonic signals through moving web-like materials such as paper, paperboard and the like, includes a pair of ultrasonic transducers disposed on opposing sides of a moving web-like material. In order to provide acoustical coupling between the transducers and the web-like material, the transducers are disposed in fluid-filled wheels. Errors due to variances in the wheel thicknesses about their circumference which can affect time of flight measurements and ultimately the mechanical property being tested are compensated by averaging the ultrasonic signals for a predetermined number of revolutions. The invention further includes a method for compensating for errors resulting from the digitization of the ultrasonic signals. More particularly, the invention includes a method for eliminating errors known as trigger jitter inherent with digitizing oscilloscopes used to digitize the signals for manipulation by a digital computer. In particular, rather than cross-correlate ultrasonic signals taken during different sample periods as is known in the art in order to determine the time of flight of the ultrasonic signal through the moving web, a pulse echo box is provided to enable cross-correlation of predetermined transmitted ultrasonic signals with predetermined reflected ultrasonic or echo signals during the sample period. By cross-correlating ultrasonic signals in the same sample period, the error associated with trigger jitter is eliminated.

  5. Gas-rise velocities during kicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.B. (Sedco Forex (FR))


    This paper reports on experiments to examine gas migration rates in drilling muds that were performed in a 15-m-long, 200-mm-ID inclinable flow loop where air injection simulates gas entry during a kick. These tests were conducted using a xanthum gum (a common polymer used in drilling fluids) solution to simulate drilling muds as the liquid phase and air as the gas phase. This work represents a significant extension of existing correlations for gas/liquid flows in large pipe diameters with non- Newtonian fluids. Bubbles rise faster in drilling muds than in water despite the increased viscosity. This surprising result is caused by the change in the flow regime, with large slug-type bubbles forming at lower void fractions. The gas velocity is independent of void fraction, thus simplifying flow modeling. Results show that a gas influx will rise faster in a well than previously believed. This has major implications for kick simulation, with gas arriving at the surface earlier than would be expected and the gas outflow rate being higher than would have been predicted. A model of the two-phase gas flow in drilling mud, including the results of this work, has been incorporated into the joint Schlumberger Cambridge Research (SCR)/BP Intl. kick model.

  6. High-Velocity Paint Gun Injuries. (United States)

    Wohltmann, Wendi E; Wisell, Joshua A; Lafrades, Celina M C; Cramer, Daniel M; Ragsdale, Bruce D


    Cutaneous injuries due to industrial high-pressure paint guns are well-documented in the literature; however, the histologic characteristics are uncommonly described, and facial involvement has not been previously reported. Histopathologic features of paint gun injuries vary depending on the time since injection and type of material. Early lesions display an acute neutrophilic infiltrate, edema, and thrombosis, with varying degrees of skin, fat, and muscle necrosis. More developed lesions (120-192 hours after injury) have prominent histiocytes and fibrosis around necrotic foci, possibly with the pitfall of muscle regenerative giant cells that could be mistaken for sarcoma. Continuing inflammation, swelling, and resultant vascular compression could explain ongoing necrosis months after the accident. The histopathologic differential diagnosis in the absence of clinical history includes paint in an abrasion, foreign body reaction to tattoo, giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, and various neoplasms. If available, radiologic studies can substitute for clinical photographs to indicate the extent of injury. The radiologic differential, uninformed by history, may include calcific periarthritis, gouty tophus, and tumoral calcinosis. Seven cases of injury due to high-velocity paint guns are presented with 4 additional cases mimicking paint gun injury and with review of the literature.

  7. Radial Velocity Variability of Field Brown Dwarfs (United States)

    Prato, L.; Mace, G. N.; Rice, E. L.; McLean, I. S.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Burgasser, A. J.; Kim, Sungsoo S.


    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R ˜ 20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity (RV) precision of ˜2 km s-1, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties, and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1σ upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included seven known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant RV variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant fraction of the orbital period. Specialized techniques are required to reach the high precisions sensitive to motion in orbits of very low-mass systems. For eight objects, including six T dwarfs, we present the first published high-resolution spectra, many with high signal to noise, that will provide valuable comparison data for models of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  8. GEODVEL, MORVEL, and the velocity of Earth's center (Invited) (United States)

    Argus, D.; Gordon, R. G.; Demets, C.


    Estimates of plate velocities from geodesy depend on the velocity of Earth’s center, which is the point relative to which geodetic site motions are described. In GEODVEL [Argus et al. 2010], a set of estimates of the velocities of 11 plates from space observations from GPS, SLR, VLBI, and DORIS over 25 yr, we define Earth’s center to be (CE) the mass center of solid Earth. We simultaneously estimate the angular velocities of the plates and the velocity of CE assuming that, besides plate motion, the parts of the plate interiors not near the late Pleistocene ice sheets are not moving horizontally relative to CE, that is, that these parts of the plate interiors are rigid laterally. We find the velocity of CE to differ significantly from the velocity of CM in ITRF2005 and ITRF2008. The velocity of CE that we estimate is likely nearer the velocity of (CM) the composite mass center of solid Earth, oceans, and atmosphere than the estimates in ITRF2005 and ITRF2008 because (1) no phenomena can sustain a velocity between CE and CM, (2) the plate interiors are indeed nearly rigid, and (3) estimates of the velocity of CM from SLR observation of satellite LAGEOS differ between ITRF2000 and ITRF2005 by an unacceptably large 1.8 mm/yr. Plate velocities in GEODVEL differ significantly from those in geologically current plate motion model MORVEL [DeMets et al. 2010], which is estimated mainly from transform azimuths and spreading rates from magnetic anomalies 1 to 3 Myr. The median vector difference between the GEODVEL and MORVEL sets of angular velocities is 0.046 °/Myr, which is on average ≈2.5 mm/yr along Earth’s surface. The biggest change in plate velocity since 3 Ma is that the east component of velocity of the Nazca plate has slowed. A second big change is that the north component of velocity of Nubia, Arabia, and India relative to Eurasia has slowed, because continental crust is difficult to subduct. The velocities of composite plates (e.g. Nubia, Somalia and

  9. Continuous model of the regional velocity field for Poland (United States)

    Bogusz, J.; Figurski, M.; Kontny, B.; Grzempowski, P.; Klos, A.


    The poster presents modern determinations of the regional velocity field for Poland. The research is based on the ASG-EUPOS, Polish multifunctional GNNS network and performed within the developmental project of the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. The network of the satellite-based sites consisted of above 130 Polish sites together with the selected number of European sites operating within EPN (EUREF Permanent Network). Data came from three-year period, which is the minimum number for the horizontal velocity determinations. The velocities were calculated within the discrete network related to the GNSS sites' distribution and then interpolated to the regular grid. The discussion on the interpolation methods is also included. To the interpolation of the velocity field kriging, spline and other functions were used. Assessment of the accuracy of the velocity on the interpolated points and tests of significance were also described. Developed models of the velocities field could indicate geodynamical activity on the area of Poland.

  10. Back to epicycles - relativistic Coulomb systems in velocity space (United States)

    Ben-Ya'acov, Uri


    The study of relativistic Coulomb systems in velocity space is prompted by the fact that the study of Newtonian Kepler/Coulomb systems in velocity space, although less familiar than the analytic solutions in ordinary space, provides a much simpler (also more elegant) method. The simplicity and elegance of the velocity-space method derives from the linearity of the velocity equation, which is the unique feature of 1/r interactions for Newtonian and relativistic systems alike. The various types of possible trajectories are presented, their properties deduced from the orbits in velocity space, accompanied with illustrations. In particular, it is found that the orbits traversed in the relativistic velocity space (which is hyperbolic (H 3) rather than Euclidean) are epicyclic - circles whose centres also rotate - thus the title. Dedicated to the memory of J. D. Bekenstein - physicist, teacher and human

  11. Optimisation of the mean boat velocity in rowing. (United States)

    Rauter, G; Baumgartner, L; Denoth, J; Riener, R; Wolf, P


    In rowing, motor learning may be facilitated by augmented feedback that displays the ratio between actual mean boat velocity and maximal achievable mean boat velocity. To provide this ratio, the aim of this work was to develop and evaluate an algorithm calculating an individual maximal mean boat velocity. The algorithm optimised the horizontal oar movement under constraints such as the individual range of the horizontal oar displacement, individual timing of catch and release and an individual power-angle relation. Immersion and turning of the oar were simplified, and the seat movement of a professional rower was implemented. The feasibility of the algorithm, and of the associated ratio between actual boat velocity and optimised boat velocity, was confirmed by a study on four subjects: as expected, advanced rowing skills resulted in higher ratios, and the maximal mean boat velocity depended on the range of the horizontal oar displacement.

  12. The Apparent Velocity and Acceleration of Relativistically Moving Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Berlet, Austen; Chishtie, Farrukh; Houde, Martin


    Although special relativity limits the actual velocity of a particle to $c$, the velocity of light, the observed velocity need not be the same as the actual velocity as the observer is only aware of the position of a particle at the time in the past when it emits the detected signal. We consider the apparent speed and acceleration of a particle in two cases, one when the particle is moving with a constant speed and the other when it is moving with a constant acceleration. One curious feature of our results is that in both cases, if the actual velocity of the particle approaches $c$, then the apparent velocity approaches infinity when it is moving toward the observer and $c/2$ when it is moving away from the observer.

  13. Moisture content effect on ultrasonic velocity in Goupia glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Goia Rosa de Oliveira


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of ultrasound waves on a Brazilian hardwood, Goupia glabra, to evaluate the sensitivity of the ultrasonic technique to the moisture content in wood. The velocity of ultrasonic wave is sensitive to the material's quality-determining factors; hence, this technique is an important industrial tool to improve the quality control of processes. The nature of the response of velocity of sound to changes in moisture content led us to conclude that moisture gradients during drying exert a dominating effect. The ultrasonic velocity was measured both parallel and perpendicular to the fibers of Goupia glabra during drying from green to 6% moisture content. The results of this study showed that velocity of ultrasonic waves is sensitive to changes in moisture content of lumber during drying. The velocity under dry conditions was always higher than the velocity under more humid conditions, in both directions of propagation.

  14. Surface Wave Velocity-Stress Relationship in Uniaxially Loaded Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shokouhi, Parisa; Zoëga, Andreas; Wiggenhauser, Herbert


    loading cycles revealed that the velocities show a stress-memory effect in good agreement with the Kaiser effect. Comparing the velocities measured during loading and unloading, the effects of stress and damage on the measured velocities could be differentiated. Moreover, the stress dependency of surface......The sonic surface wave (or Rayleigh wave) velocity measured on prismatic concrete specimens under uniaxial compression was found to be highly stress-dependent. At low stress levels, the acoustoelastic effect and the closure of existing microcracks results in a gradual increase in surface wave...... velocities. At higher stress levels, concrete suffers irrecoverable damage: the existing microcracks widen and coalesce and new microcracks form. This progressive damage process leads first to the flattening and eventually the drop in the velocity-stress curves. Measurements on specimens undergoing several...

  15. Demonstrating the Direction of Angular Velocity in Circular Motion (United States)

    Demircioglu, Salih; Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Isik, Hakan


    Rotational motion is ubiquitous in nature, from astronomical systems to household devices in everyday life to elementary models of atoms. Unlike the tangential velocity vector that represents the instantaneous linear velocity (magnitude and direction), an angular velocity vector is conceptually more challenging for students to grasp. In physics classrooms, the direction of an angular velocity vector is taught by the right-hand rule, a mnemonic tool intended to aid memory. A setup constructed for instructional purposes may provide students with a more easily understood and concrete method to observe the direction of the angular velocity. This article attempts to demonstrate the angular velocity vector using the observable motion of a screw mounted to a remotely operated toy car.

  16. Effective diffusion equation in a random velocity field (United States)

    Vinals, Jorge; Sekerka, Robert F.


    The effects are studied of assumed random velocity fields on diffusion in a binary fluid. Random velocity fields can result, for example, from the high-frequency components of residual accelerations onboard spacecraft (often called g-jitter). An effective diffusion equation is derived for an average concentration which includes spatial and temporal correlations induced by the fluctuating velocity fields assumed to be Gaussianly distributed. The resulting equation becomes nonlocal, and if correlations between different components of the velocity field exist, it is also anisotropic. The simple limiting case of short correlation times is discussed and an effective diffusivity is obtained which reflects the enhanced mixing caused by the velocity fields. The results obtained in the limit of short correlation times are valid even if the probability distribution of the velocity field is not Gaussian.

  17. Dynamics of fluid-conveying pipes: effects of velocity profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enz, Stephanie; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    Varying velocity profiles and internal fluid loads on fluid-conveying pipes are investigated. Different geometric layouts of the fluid domain and inflow velocity profiles are considered. It is found that the variation of the velocity profiles along the bended pipe is considerable. A determination...... of the resulting fluid loads on the pipe walls is of interest e.g, for evaluating the dynamical behaviour of lightly damped structures like Coriolis flow meters....

  18. Paintball velocity as a function of distance traveled


    Pat Chiarawongse; Arcan Chirathivat


    The relationship between the distance a paintball travels through air and its velocity is investigated by firing a paintball into a ballistic pendulum from a range of distances. The motion of the pendulum was filmed and analyzed by using video analysis software. The velocity of the paintball on impact was calculated from the maximum horizontal displacement of the pendulum. It is shown that the velocity of a paintball decreases exponentially with distance traveled, as expected...

  19. Background velocity inversion by phase along reflection wave paths

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han


    A background velocity model containing the correct lowwavenumber information is desired for both the quality of the migration image and the success of waveform inversion. We propose to invert for the low-wavenumber part of the velocity model by minimizing the phase difference between predicted and observed reflections. The velocity update is exclusively along the reflection wavepaths and, unlike conventional FWI, not along the reflection ellipses. This allows for reconstructing the smoothly varying parts of the background velocity model. Tests with synthetic data show both the benefits and limitations of this method.

  20. Tables of the velocity of sound in sea water

    CERN Document Server

    Bark, L S; Meister, N A


    Tables of the Velocity of Sound in Sea Water contains tables of the velocity of sound in sea water computed on a ""Strela-3"" high-speed electronic computer and a T-5 tabulator at the Computational Center of the Academy of Sciences. Knowledge of the precise velocity of sound in sea water is of great importance when investigating sound propagations in the ocean and when solving practical problems involving the use of hydro-acoustic devices. This book demonstrates the computations made for the velocity of sound in sea water, which can be found in two ways: by direct measurement with the aid of s

  1. Multi Point Velocity, Density and Temperature Measurements using LITA Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Laser induced thermal acoustics (LITA) is a nonintrusive, transient-grating optical technique that provides simultaneous high-accuracy measurements of velocity,...

  2. Stopping power of Au for silver ions at low velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribas, R.V. E-mail:; Medina, N.H.; Added, N.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Cybulska, E.W.; Rao, M.N.; Seale, W.A.; Brandolini, F.; Rizzutto, M.A.; Alcantara-Nunez, J.A


    Energy loss measurements for the slowing down of Ag ions in Au, in the velocity range 1.6v{sub 0}velocity, are presented. The measurements were performed using the Doppler shift technique and also with a new method, where a secondary beam of low velocity heavy ions is produced by elastic scattering of the accelerated beam. The results are compared to the SRIM2000 calculations ( and to recent measurements in this velocity region.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of vector flow and spectral velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per

    Spectral estimation is considered as the golden standard in ultrasound velocity estimation. For spectral velocity estimation the blood flow angle is set by the ultrasound operator. Vector flow provides temporal and spatial estimates of the blood flow angle and velocity. A comparison of vector flow...... estimation and spectral estimates is presented. The variation of the blood flow angle and the effect on the velocity estimate is investigated. The right common carotid arteries of three healthy volunteers were scanned. Real-time spectral and vector flow data were obtained simultaneously from one range gate...

  4. Modified Feynman ratchet with velocity-dependent fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Denur


    Full Text Available Abstract: The randomness of Brownian motion at thermodynamic equilibrium can be spontaneously broken by velocity-dependence of fluctuations, i.e., by dependence of values or probability distributions of fluctuating properties on Brownian-motional velocity. Such randomness-breaking can spontaneously obtain via interaction between Brownian-motional Doppler effects --- which manifest the required velocity-dependence --- and system geometrical asymmetry. A non random walk is thereby spontaneously superposed on Brownian motion, resulting in a systematic net drift velocity despite thermodynamic equilibrium. The time evolution of this systematic net drift velocity --- and of velocity probability density, force, and power output --- is derived for a velocity-dependent modification of Feynman's ratchet. We show that said spontaneous randomness-breaking, and consequent systematic net drift velocity, imply: bias from the Maxwellian of the system's velocity probability density, the force that tends to accelerate it, and its power output. Maximization, especially of power output, is discussed. Uncompensated decreases in total entropy, challenging the second law of thermodynamics, are thereby implied.

  5. Effects of physical variables on settling velocities of calcium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Effects of physical variables on settling velocities of calcium and strontium phosphates ... Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University of Science & Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria .... simplified stoichiometric chemical reactions.

  6. Motion planning in dynamic environments using velocity obstacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorini, P. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.; Shiller, Z. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Nuclear, and Aerospace Engineering


    This paper presents a method for robot motion planning in dynamic environments. It consists of selecting avoidance maneuvers to avoid static and moving obstacles in the velocity space, based on the current positions and velocities of the robot and obstacles. It is a first-order method, since it does not integrate velocities to yield positions as functions of time. The avoidance maneuvers are generated by selecting robot velocities outside of the velocity obstacles, which represent the set of robot velocities that would result in a collision with a given obstacle that moves at a given velocity, at some future time. To ensure that the avoidance maneuver is dynamically feasible, the set of avoidance velocities is intersected with the set of admissible velocities, defined by the robot`s acceleration constraints. computing new avoidance maneuvers at regular time intervals accounts for general obstacle trajectories. The trajectory from start to goal is computed by searching a tree of feasible avoidance maneuvers, computed at discrete time intervals. An exhaustive search of the tree yields near-optimal trajectories that either minimize distance or motion time. A heuristic search of the tee is applicable to on-line planning. The method is demonstrated for point and disk robots among static and moving obstacles, and for an automated vehicle in an intelligent vehicle highway system scenario.

  7. Paintball velocity as a function of distance traveled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Chiarawongse


    Full Text Available The relationship between the distance a paintball travels through air and its velocity is investigated by firing a paintball into a ballistic pendulum from a range of distances. The motion of the pendulum was filmed and analyzed by using video analysis software. The velocity of the paintball on impact was calculated from the maximum horizontal displacement of the pendulum. It is shown that the velocity of a paintball decreases exponentially with distance traveled, as expected. The average muzzle velocity of the paint balls is found with an estimate of the drag coefficient

  8. Paintball velocity as a function of distance traveled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Chiarawongse


    Full Text Available The relationship between the distance a paintball travels through air and its velocity is investigated by firing a paintball into a ballistic pendulum from a range of distances. The motion of the pendulum was filmed and analyzed by using video analysis software. The velocity of the paintball on impact was calculated from the maximum horizontal displacement of the pendulum. It is shown that the velocity of a paintball decreases exponentially with distance traveled, as expected. The average muzzle velocity of the paint balls is found with an estimate of the drag coefficient.

  9. New technology - demonstration of a vector velocity technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Hansen, Peter; Pedersen, Mads M; Hansen, Kristoffer L


    With conventional Doppler ultrasound it is not possible to estimate direction and velocity of blood flow, when the angle of insonation exceeds 60-70°. Transverse oscillation is an angle independent vector velocity technique which is now implemented on a conventional ultrasound scanner. In this pa......With conventional Doppler ultrasound it is not possible to estimate direction and velocity of blood flow, when the angle of insonation exceeds 60-70°. Transverse oscillation is an angle independent vector velocity technique which is now implemented on a conventional ultrasound scanner...

  10. Daily rhythm of cerebral blood flow velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spielman Arthur J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background CBFV (cerebral blood flow velocity is lower in the morning than in the afternoon and evening. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the time of day changes in CBFV: 1 CBFV changes are due to sleep-associated processes or 2 time of day changes in CBFV are due to an endogenous circadian rhythm independent of sleep. The aim of this study was to examine CBFV over 30 hours of sustained wakefulness to determine whether CBFV exhibits fluctuations associated with time of day. Methods Eleven subjects underwent a modified constant routine protocol. CBFV from the middle cerebral artery was monitored by chronic recording of Transcranial Doppler (TCD ultrasonography. Other variables included core body temperature (CBT, end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2, blood pressure, and heart rate. Salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO served as a measure of endogenous circadian phase position. Results A non-linear multiple regression, cosine fit analysis revealed that both the CBT and CBFV rhythm fit a 24 hour rhythm (R2 = 0.62 and R2 = 0.68, respectively. Circadian phase position of CBT occurred at 6:05 am while CBFV occurred at 12:02 pm, revealing a six hour, or 90 degree difference between these two rhythms (t = 4.9, df = 10, p Conclusion In conclusion, time of day variations in CBFV have an approximately 24 hour rhythm under constant conditions, suggesting regulation by a circadian oscillator. The 90 degree-phase angle difference between the CBT and CBFV rhythms may help explain previous findings of lower CBFV values in the morning. The phase difference occurs at a time period during which cognitive performance decrements have been observed and when both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events occur more frequently. The mechanisms underlying this phase angle difference require further exploration.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert A., E-mail: [Space Telescope Science Institute (United States)


    We study the task of estimating the true masses of known radial-velocity (RV) exoplanets by means of direct astrometry on coronagraphic images to measure the apparent separation between exoplanet and host star. Initially, we assume perfect knowledge of the RV orbital parameters and that all errors are due to photon statistics. We construct design reference missions for four missions currently under study at NASA: EXO-S and WFIRST-S, with external star shades for starlight suppression, EXO-C and WFIRST-C, with internal coronagraphs. These DRMs reveal extreme scheduling constraints due to the combination of solar and anti-solar pointing restrictions, photometric and obscurational completeness, image blurring due to orbital motion, and the “nodal effect,” which is the independence of apparent separation and inclination when the planet crosses the plane of the sky through the host star. Next, we address the issue of nonzero uncertainties in RV orbital parameters by investigating their impact on the observations of 21 single-planet systems. Except for two—GJ 676 A b and 16 Cyg B b, which are observable only by the star-shade missions—we find that current uncertainties in orbital parameters generally prevent accurate, unbiased estimation of true planetary mass. For the coronagraphs, WFIRST-C and EXO-C, the most likely number of good estimators of true mass is currently zero. For the star shades, EXO-S and WFIRST-S, the most likely numbers of good estimators are three and four, respectively, including GJ 676 A b and 16 Cyg B b. We expect that uncertain orbital elements currently undermine all potential programs of direct imaging and spectroscopy of RV exoplanets.

  12. Orographic precipitation and vertical velocity characteristics from drop size and fall velocity spectra observed by disdrometers (United States)

    Lee, Dong-In; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Kim, Ji-Hyeon; Kang, Yunhee; Kim, Hyeonjoon


    During a summer monsoon season each year, severe weather phenomena caused by front, mesoscale convective systems, or typhoons often occur in the southern Korean Peninsula where is mostly comprised of complex high mountains. These areas play an important role in controlling formation, amount, and distribution of rainfall. As precipitation systems move over the mountains, they can develop rapidly and produce localized heavy rainfall. Thus observational analysis in the mountainous areas is required for studying terrain effects on the rapid rainfall development and its microphysics. We performed intensive field observations using two s-band operational weather radars around Mt. Jiri (1950 m ASL) during summertime on June and July in 2015-2016. Observation data of DSD (Drop Size Distribution) from Parsivel disdrometer and (w component) vertical velocity data from ultrasonic anemometers were analyzed for Typhoon Chanhom on 12 July 2015 and the heavy rain event on 1 July 2016. During the heavy rain event, a dual-Doppler radar analysis using Jindo radar and Gunsan radar was also conducted to examine 3-D wind fields and vertical structure of reflectivity in these areas. For examining up-/downdrafts in the windward or leeward side of Mt. Jiri, we developed a new scheme technique to estimate vertical velocities (w) from drop size and fall velocity spectra of Parsivel disdrometers at different stations. Their comparison with the w values observed by the 3D anemometer showed quite good agreement each other. The Z histogram with regard to the estimated w was similar to that with regard to R, indicating that Parsivel-estimated w is quite reasonable for classifying strong and weak rain, corresponding to updraft and downdraft, respectively. Mostly, positive w values (upward) were estimated in heavy rainfall at the windward side (D1 and D2). Negative w values (downward) were dominant even during large rainfall at the leeward side (D4). For D1 and D2, the upward w percentages were

  13. On the origin of high-velocity runaway stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gvaramadze, V.V.; Gualandris, A.; Portegies Zwart, S.


    We explore the hypothesis that some high-velocity runaway stars attain their peculiar velocities in the course of exchange encounters between hard massive binaries and a very massive star (either an ordinary 50-100 M-circle dot star or a more massive one, formed through runaway mergers of ordinary

  14. Anisotropic parameter estimation using velocity variation with offset analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herawati, I.; Saladin, M.; Pranowo, W.; Winardhie, S.; Priyono, A. [Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)


    Seismic anisotropy is defined as velocity dependent upon angle or offset. Knowledge about anisotropy effect on seismic data is important in amplitude analysis, stacking process and time to depth conversion. Due to this anisotropic effect, reflector can not be flattened using single velocity based on hyperbolic moveout equation. Therefore, after normal moveout correction, there will still be residual moveout that relates to velocity information. This research aims to obtain anisotropic parameters, ε and δ, using two proposed methods. The first method is called velocity variation with offset (VVO) which is based on simplification of weak anisotropy equation. In VVO method, velocity at each offset is calculated and plotted to obtain vertical velocity and parameter δ. The second method is inversion method using linear approach where vertical velocity, δ, and ε is estimated simultaneously. Both methods are tested on synthetic models using ray-tracing forward modelling. Results show that δ value can be estimated appropriately using both methods. Meanwhile, inversion based method give better estimation for obtaining ε value. This study shows that estimation on anisotropic parameters rely on the accuracy of normal moveout velocity, residual moveout and offset to angle transformation.

  15. The structural significance of seismic velocity reversals - an overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the areas and deviation from this was observed within the geopressured shales. These low velocity zones constitute anomalies that are not only geophysically significant but have structural definition. Keywords: seismic velocity reversals, Niger Delta Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics Vol. 4(1) 2005: 75-81 ...

  16. High velocity impact on textile reinformced composties (CD-rom)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnet, Laurent; Akkerman, Remko; Ravensberg, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Hojo, M.; Sugimoto, S.; Ogasarawa, T.; Kageyama, K.; Takeda, N.


    Failure behavior of fiber reinforced plastics is a complex issue. Under impact conditions, the behavior depends among other aspects, on the structure formed by the fibers, the impact velocity and the geometry considered. A newly built gas-gun facility for high velocity impact (HSI) at the University

  17. Strong velocity effects in collisions of He+ with fullerenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlatholter, T; Hadjar, O; Hoekstra, R; Morgenstern, R


    We have studied fragmentation and ionization of C-60 by He+ impact over a velocity range from 0.1 to 1 a.u. where a transition from vibrational to electronic excitation is predicted. With increasing velocity we observe a strong decrease of evaporative processes (C-60-2m(r+) peaks) and a linearly

  18. Velocity anisotropy in the Niger Delta sediments derived from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seismic velocities decrease and increase laterally and vertically, respectively, towards the coast. These variations are attributable to the lateral and vertical changes in the degrees of compaction coastward and reduction in porosity with depth. Three zones of steep, moderate and slow velocity gradients, respectively, have ...

  19. Acceleration of objects to high velocity by electromagnetic forces (United States)

    Post, Richard F


    Two exemplary approaches to the acceleration of projectiles are provided. Both approaches can utilize concepts associated with the Inductrack maglev system. Either of them provides an effective means of accelerating multi-kilogram projectiles to velocities of several kilometers per second, using launchers of order 10 meters in length, thus enabling the acceleration of projectiles to high velocities by electromagnetic forces.

  20. Novel approach for prediction of ultrasonic velocity in quaternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2 lists the values of the experimental ultrasonic velocity taken from literature [5], theoretically computed values of ultrasonic velocity using Flory relation, Auerbach and Altenberg relations along with their average percentage deviations at 298.15. K, using eqs (1), (2) and (5). Figures 1a–c provide a graphical representation of ...

  1. Genetic analysis of peripheral nerve conduction velocity in twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsdijk, F.V.; Boomsma, D.I.; Vernon, P.A.


    We studied variation in peripheral nerve conduction velocity (PNCV) and intelligence in a group of 16-year-old Dutch twins. It has been suggested that both brain nerve conduction velocity and PNCV are positively correlated with intelligence (Reed, 1984) and that heritable differences in NCV may

  2. Unique determination of structure and velocity by 3-D tomographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the cause of this velocity-depth ambiguity is examined and a methodology is proposed that minimizes non-uniqueness in the inversion results. It is shown that simultaneous inversion of zero offset and offset reflection data as well as refraction data can reproduce accurate velocity-depth model using only certain ...

  3. Planck intermediate results: XIII. Constraints on peculiar velocities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, J.-F.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.


    (CMB) radiation at that redshift, i.e., the kSZ monopole, amounts to 72 ± 60 km s-1. This constitutes less than 1% of the relative Hubble velocity of the cluster sample with respect to our local CMB frame. While the linear ΛCDM prediction for the typical cluster radial velocity rms at z = 0.15 is close...

  4. Hydrocarbon saturation determination using acoustic velocities obtained through casing (United States)

    Moos, Daniel


    Compressional and shear velocities of earth formations are measured through casing. The determined compressional and shear velocities are used in a two component mixing model to provides improved quantitative values for the solid, the dry frame, and the pore compressibility. These are used in determination of hydrocarbon saturation.

  5. The velocity hodograph for an arbitrary Keplerian motion (United States)

    Butikov, Eugene I.


    An interesting, useful, and simple, but not widely known property of Keplerian motion relating to the circular shape of the orbit in velocity space is discussed in this paper. The property is illustrated by a computer simulation program. A simple dynamical derivation of the circular shape of the velocity hodograph is suggested.

  6. Impact of lithologic heterogeneity on acoustic velocities in the Bornu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gamma ray logs were used for the lithological delineation; the computation of porosity and compressional (acoustic) wave velocity was achieved utilizing sonic logs while the sediments bulk density was determined from density log. The analysis of compressional wave velocity with depth confirms a general trend of ...

  7. The shape of the velocity ellipsoid in NGC 488

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen, J; Kuijken, K; Merrifield, MR


    Theories of stellar orbit diffusion in disc galaxies predict different rates of increase of the velocity dispersions parallel and perpendicular to the disc plane, and it is therefore of interest to measure the different velocity dispersion components in galactic discs of different types. We show

  8. Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation anisotropy of shales, Whitby, United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhubayev, Alimzhan; Houben, M.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370588843; Smeulders, David; Barnhoorn, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304843636

    We have conducted ultrasonic experiments, between 0.3 and 1 MHz, to measure velocity and attenuation (Q−1) anisotropy of P- and S-waves in dry Whitby Mudstone samples as a function of stress. We found the degree of anisotropy to be as large as 70% for velocity and attenuation. The sensitivity of

  9. Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation anisotropy of shales, Whitby, United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhubayev, A.; Houben, M.E.; Smeulders, D.M.J.; Barnhoorn, A.


    We have conducted ultrasonic experiments, between 0.3 and 1 MHz, to measure velocity and attenuation (Q?1) anisotropy of P- and S-waves in dry Whitby Mudstone samples as a function of stress. We found the degree of anisotropy to be as large as 70% for velocity and attenuation. The sensitivity of

  10. The Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) : First data release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinmetz, M.; Zwitter, T.; Siebert, A.; Watson, F. G.; Freeman, K. C.; Munari, U.; Campbell, R.; Williams, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Parker, Q. A.; Bienayme, O.; Roeser, S.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Navarro, J. F.; Burton, D.; Cass, C. J. P.; Dawe, J. A.; Fiegert, K.; Hartley, M.; Russell, K. S.; Saunders, W.; Enke, H.; Bailin, J.; Binney, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Dehnen, W.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Evans, N. W.; Fiorucci, M.; Fulbright, J. P.; Gerhard, O.; Jauregi, U.; Kelz, A.; Mijovic, L.; Minchev, I.; Parmentier, G.; Penarrubia, J.; Quillen, A. C.; Read, M. A.; Ruchti, G.; Scholz, R. -D.; Siviero, A.; Smith, M.C.; Sordo, R.; Veltz, L.; Vidrih, S.; von Berlepsch, R.; Boyle, B. J.; Schilbach, E.; Helmi, A.


    We present the first data release of the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE), an ambitious spectroscopic survey to measure radial velocities and stellar atmosphere parameters (temperature, metallicity, and surface gravity) of up to one million stars using the Six Degree Field multiobject spectrograph

  11. Measuring the equatorial plasma bubble drift velocities over Morroco (United States)

    Lagheryeb, Amine; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Makela, Jonathan J.; Harding, Brian; Kaab, Mohamed; Lazrek, Mohamed; Fisher, Daniel J.; Duly, Timothy M.; Bounhir, Aziza; Daassou, Ahmed


    In this work, we present a method to measure the drift velocities of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) in the low latitude ionosphere. To calculate the EPB drift velocity, we use 630.0-nm airglow images collected by the Portable Ionospheric Camera and Small Scale Observatory (PICASSO) system deployed at the Oukkaimden observatory in Morocco. To extract the drift velocity, the individual images were processed by first spatially registering the images using the star field. After this, the stars were removed from the images using a point suppression methodology, the images were projected into geographic coordinates assuming an airglow emission altitude of 250 km. Once the images were projected into geographic coordinates, the intensities of the airglow along a line of constant geomagnetic latitude (31°) are used to detect the presence of an EPB, which shows up as a depletion in airglow intensity. To calculate the EPB drift velocity, we divide the spatial lag between depletions found in two images (found by the application of correlation analysis) by the time difference between these two images. With multiple images, we will have several velocity values and consequently we can draw the EPB drift velocity curve. Future analysis will compare the estimates of the plasma drift velocity with the thermospheric neutral wind velocity estimated by a collocated Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) at the observatory.

  12. Friction model for the velocity dependence of nanoscale friction. (United States)

    Tambe, Nikhil S; Bhushan, Bharat


    The velocity dependence of nanoscale friction is studied for the first time over a wide range of velocities between 1 microm s(-1) and 10 mm s(-1) on large scan lengths of 2 and 25 microm. High sliding velocities are achieved by modifying an existing commercial atomic force microscope (AFM) setup with a custom calibrated nanopositioning piezo stage. The friction and adhesive force dependences on velocity are studied on four different sample surfaces, namely dry (unlubricated), hydrophilic Si(100); dry, partially hydrophobic diamond-like carbon (DLC); a partially hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of hexadecanethiol (HDT); and liquid perfluoropolyether lubricant, Z-15. The friction force values are seen to reverse beyond a certain critical velocity for all the sample surfaces studied. A comprehensive friction model is developed to explain the velocity dependence of nanoscale friction, taking into consideration the contributions of adhesion at the tip-sample interface, high impact velocity-related deformation at the contacting asperities and atomic scale stick-slip. A molecular spring model is used for explaining the velocity dependence of friction force for HDT.

  13. Altered velocity processing in schizophrenia during pursuit eye tracking. (United States)

    Nagel, Matthias; Sprenger, Andreas; Steinlechner, Susanne; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Lencer, Rebekka


    Smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are needed to keep the retinal image of slowly moving objects within the fovea. Depending on the task, about 50%-80% of patients with schizophrenia have difficulties in maintaining SPEM. We designed a study that comprised different target velocities as well as testing for internal (extraretinal) guidance of SPEM in the absence of a visual target. We applied event-related fMRI by presenting four velocities (5, 10, 15, 20°/s) both with and without intervals of target blanking. 17 patients and 16 healthy participants were included. Eye movements were registered during scanning sessions. Statistical analysis included mixed ANOVAs and regression analyses of the target velocity on the Blood Oxygen Level Dependency (BOLD) signal. The main effect group and the interaction of velocity×group revealed reduced activation in V5 and putamen but increased activation of cerebellar regions in patients. Regression analysis showed that activation in supplementary eye field, putamen, and cerebellum was not correlated to target velocity in patients in contrast to controls. Furthermore, activation in V5 and in intraparietal sulcus (putative LIP) bilaterally was less strongly correlated to target velocity in patients than controls. Altered correlation of target velocity and neural activation in the cortical network supporting SPEM (V5, SEF, LIP, putamen) implies impaired transformation of the visual motion signal into an adequate motor command in patients. Cerebellar regions seem to be involved in compensatory mechanisms although cerebellar activity in patients was not related to target velocity.

  14. Altered velocity processing in schizophrenia during pursuit eye tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Nagel

    Full Text Available Smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM are needed to keep the retinal image of slowly moving objects within the fovea. Depending on the task, about 50%-80% of patients with schizophrenia have difficulties in maintaining SPEM. We designed a study that comprised different target velocities as well as testing for internal (extraretinal guidance of SPEM in the absence of a visual target. We applied event-related fMRI by presenting four velocities (5, 10, 15, 20°/s both with and without intervals of target blanking. 17 patients and 16 healthy participants were included. Eye movements were registered during scanning sessions. Statistical analysis included mixed ANOVAs and regression analyses of the target velocity on the Blood Oxygen Level Dependency (BOLD signal. The main effect group and the interaction of velocity×group revealed reduced activation in V5 and putamen but increased activation of cerebellar regions in patients. Regression analysis showed that activation in supplementary eye field, putamen, and cerebellum was not correlated to target velocity in patients in contrast to controls. Furthermore, activation in V5 and in intraparietal sulcus (putative LIP bilaterally was less strongly correlated to target velocity in patients than controls. Altered correlation of target velocity and neural activation in the cortical network supporting SPEM (V5, SEF, LIP, putamen implies impaired transformation of the visual motion signal into an adequate motor command in patients. Cerebellar regions seem to be involved in compensatory mechanisms although cerebellar activity in patients was not related to target velocity.

  15. Calibrating the Planck Cluster Mass Scale with Cluster Velocity Dispersions (United States)

    Amodeo, Stefania; Mei, Simona; Stanford, Spencer A.; Bartlett, James G.; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Lawrence, Charles R.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Shim, Hyunjin; Marleau, Francine; Stern, Daniel


    We measure the Planck cluster mass bias using dynamical mass measurements based on velocity dispersions of a subsample of 17 Planck-detected clusters. The velocity dispersions were calculated using redshifts determined from spectra that were obtained at the Gemini observatory with the GMOS multi-object spectrograph. We correct our estimates for effects due to finite aperture, Eddington bias, and correlated scatter between velocity dispersion and the Planck mass proxy. The result for the mass bias parameter, (1-b), depends on the value of the galaxy velocity bias, {b}{{v}}, adopted from simulations: (1-b)=(0.51+/- 0.09){b}{{v}}3. Using a velocity bias of {b}{{v}}=1.08 from Munari et al., we obtain (1-b)=0.64+/- 0.11, i.e., an error of 17% on the mass bias measurement with 17 clusters. This mass bias value is consistent with most previous weak-lensing determinations. It lies within 1σ of the value that is needed to reconcile the Planck cluster counts with the Planck primary cosmic microwave background constraints. We emphasize that uncertainty in the velocity bias severely hampers the precision of the measurements of the mass bias using velocity dispersions. On the other hand, when we fix the Planck mass bias using the constraints from Penna-Lima et al., based on weak-lensing measurements, we obtain a positive velocity bias of {b}{{v}}≳ 0.9 at 3σ .

  16. Velocity modulation and rhythmic synchronization of gait in Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Thaut, M H; Miltner, R; Lange, H W; Hurt, C P; Hoemberg, V


    This study analyzed the ability of patients with Huntington's disease (HD) to modulate gait velocity without external sensory cues and in response to an auditory rhythmic cue within a frequency entrainment design. Uncued gait patterns of 27 patients were first assessed during normal, slower, and faster self-paced walking. During rhythmic trials, metronome and musical beat patterns were delivered at rates 10% slower and 10-20% faster than baseline cadence to cue gait patterns. After the rhythmic trials, patients were retested at normal gait speed without rhythm. Gait velocities in the patients with HD were below normal reference values in all ranges. Patients were able to significantly (p music. The ability to modulate gait velocity was retained regardless of the severity of the disease. Gait velocity declined with an increase in disability and chorea score. The disability score differentiated better between gait velocity of moderately and severe patients than chorea score. Slowness of gait was significantly correlated only with disability score and not with chorea. Patients had more difficulty producing adequate step rates than stride lengths during normal and fast walking speeds. After the rhythmic trials, unpaced gait velocity remained significantly (p music declined more with severity of disease than metronome tracking. In summary, patients were able to modulate velocity with and without external cues. Velocity adaptations to the external rhythm in music and metronome were achieved without exact synchronization between step cadence and rhythmic stimulus.

  17. A classical model explaining the OPERA velocity paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Broda, Boguslaw


    In the context of the paradoxical results of the OPERA Collaboration, we have proposed a classical mechanics model yielding the statistically measured velocity of a beam higher than the velocity of the particles constituting the beam. Ingredients of our model necessary to obtain this curious result are a non-constant fraction function and the method of the maximum-likelihood estimation.

  18. Remarks on the Definition and Estimation of Friction Velocity (United States)

    Weber, Rudolf O.

    One of the mainscaling parameters in similarity theory of the atmospheric boundary layer is friction velocity. Unfortunately, several definitions of friction velocity exist in the literature. Some authors use the component of the horizontal Reynolds stress vector in the direction of the mean wind vector to define friction velocity. Others define the friction velocity by means of the absolute value of the horizontal Reynolds stress vector. The two definitions coincide only if the direction of the mean wind vector is parallel to the horizontal Reynolds stress vector. In general, the second definition gives larger values for the friction velocity. Over complex terrain the situation is further complicated by the fact that the terrain following flow is not necessarily horizontal. Thus, several authors have proposed to use terrain following coordinate systems for the definition of friction velocity. By means of a large dataset of fast-response wind measurements with an ultrasonic anemometer the friction velocities resulting from the different definitions are compared. Furthermore, it is shown that friction velocity can be well estimated from horizontal wind speed, and even better from simple horizontal or vertical turbulence parameters.

  19. Photon Doppler Velocimetry Measurements of Transverse Surface Velocities (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher R.; Lajeunesse, Jeff; Sable, Peter; Hatzenbihler, Ashley; Borg, John P.


    Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) is a prominent optical diagnostic used for measuring displacement or velocity in dynamic experiments. A table-top experiment consisting of a 31mm diameter metal wheel mounted in a hand tool was setup to make steady state transverse surface velocity measurements using PDV for a range of velocities and surface preparations. The experiment consisted of PDV collimators positioned with respect to either the side or bottom face of the wheel at various angles to resolve transverse velocity components. Different preparations for the surface of the wheel were explored such as polishing, laser etching, chemical etching, mechanical milling, and retroreflective microspheres. Light return and transverse surface velocity were recorded for each surface preparation as a function of angle. Polished aluminum allowed adequate light return for only one degree from the normal of the wheel, while the retroreflective microspheres exhibited usable light for upwards of 30 degrees. Velocity measurements were performed over a range of 0 to 45 degrees from the surface normal of the rotating wheel for each surface preparation. Velocity measurements from the PDV experiments show good accuracy with theoretical wheel velocities between 0 and 10 m/s.

  20. On the measurement of vertical velocity by MST radar (United States)

    Gage, K. S.


    An overview is presented of the measurement of atmospheric vertical motion utilizing the MST radar technique. Vertical motion in the atmosphere is briefly discussed as a function of scale. Vertical velocity measurement by MST radars is then considered from within the context of the expected magnitudes to be observed. Examples are drawn from published vertical velocity observations.

  1. Climate change velocity underestimates climate change exposure in mountainous regions (United States)

    Solomon Z. Dobrowski; Sean A. Parks


    Climate change velocity is a vector depiction of the rate of climate displacement used for assessing climate change impacts. Interpreting velocity requires an assumption that climate trajectory length is proportional to climate change exposure; longer paths suggest greater exposure. However, distance is an imperfect measure of exposure because it does not...

  2. Path following mobile robot in the presence of velocity constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Ravn, Ole


    This paper focuses on path following algorithms for mobile robots with velocity constraints on the wheels. The path considered consists of straight lines intersected with given angles. We present a fast real-time receding horizon controller which anticipates the intersections and smoothly controls...... the robot through the turnings while fulfilling the velocity constraints....

  3. Measurement of gas flow velocities by laser-induced gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmerling, B.; Stampanoni-Panariello, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Kozlov, A.D.N. [General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Time resolved light scattering from laser-induced electrostrictive gratings was used for the determination of flow velocities in air at room temperature. By measuring the velocity profile across the width of a slit nozzle we demonstrated the high spatial resolution (about 200 mm) of this novel technique. (author) 3 figs., 1 ref.

  4. Fat mass measured by DXA varies with scan velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Eva; Petersen, Liselotte; Kreutzer, Martin


    To study the influence of scan velocities of DXA on the measured size of fat mass, lean body mass, bone mineral content and density, and total body weight.......To study the influence of scan velocities of DXA on the measured size of fat mass, lean body mass, bone mineral content and density, and total body weight....

  5. Evaluation of 5-cm Agent Fate Wind Tunnel Velocity Profiles (United States)


    CONTRACT NUMBER Evaluation of 5-cm Agent Fate Wind Tunnel Velocity Profiles DAAD 13-03-D-0017 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER SAIC Agreement...TERMS (Continued) Evaporation Agent fate Wind tunnel Velocity profile 2 PREFACE The work described in this report was authorized under Contract No. DAAD

  6. An improved estimation and focusing scheme for vector velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Munk, Peter


    The full blood velocity vector must be estimated in medical ultrasound to give a correct depiction of the blood flow. This can be done by introducing a transversely oscillating pulse-echo ultrasound field, which makes the received signal influenced by a transverse motion. Such an approach...... was suggested in [1]. Here the conventional autocorrelation approach was used for estimating the transverse velocity and a compensation for the axial motion was necessary in the estimation procedure. This paper introduces a new estimator for determining the two-dimensional velocity vector and a new dynamic...... beamforming method. A modified autocorrelation approach employing fourth order moments of the input data is used for velocity estimation. The new estimator calculates the axial and lateral velocity component independently of each other. The estimation is optimized for differences in axial and lateral...

  7. Wave velocity characteristic for Kenaf natural fibre under impact damage (United States)

    Zaleha, M.; Mahzan, S.; Fitri, Muhamad; Kamarudin, K. A.; Eliza, Y.; Tobi, A. L. Mohd


    This paper aims to determining the wave velocity characteristics for kenaf fibre reinforced composite (KFC) and it includes both experimental and simulation results. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sensor were proposed to be positioned to corresponding locations on the panel. In order to demonstrate the wave velocity, an impacts was introduced onto the panel. It is based on a classical sensor triangulation methodology, combines with experimental strain wave velocity analysis. Then the simulation was designed to replicate panel used in the experimental impacts test. This simulation was carried out using ABAQUS. It was shown that the wave velocity propagates faster in the finite element simulation. Although the experimental strain wave velocity and finite element simulation results do not match exactly, the shape of both waves is similar.

  8. Velocity of escape from the Galaxy in the solar neighbourhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J.B. (Royal Greenwich Observatory, Hailsham (UK))


    The expected properties of stars moving with extremely high velocities relative to the centre of the Galaxy are discussed. Although the kinematic behaviour of the fastest known subdwarfs is consistent with unbound orbits, observational upper limits on the numbers of faint giant stars in the general field strongly suggest that these subdwarfs are bound to the Galaxy. If this is the case, only a lower limit to the value of the velocity of escape in the solar neighbourhood can be obtained. After allowance for observational error, this lower limit is about 400 km s/sup -1/. Although all known subdwarfs are probably in bound orbits, there is evidence that the mode of origin of the peculiar velocities of subdwarfs with extremely large galactocentric velocities is different from that of other high-velocity stars.

  9. Improvement of the sensitivity in velocity sensing using dynamic speckles (United States)

    Yokoi, Naomichi; Aizu, Yoshihisa


    Dynamic speckle patterns can be used for imaging of relative velocity of moving objects in fields of biomedical and mechanical measurements. In spite of the widespread use of this method, the effect of speckle size on velocity sensing has not fully been estimated so far. In addition, effects of speckle contrast and random noises on the sensitivity of velocity sensing have not been investigated yet. In the present study, we estimated condition of image processing of speckle patterns for reducing effects of random noises with relation to linearity and sensitivity in velocity sensing. We further introduced binarization of the speckle pattern to improve the sensitivity in velocity sensing. Experiments were conducted for sample models using a diffusive plate and fluid flows to confirm the feasibility of the proposed method.

  10. Leading-Edge Velocities and Lifted Methane Jet Flame Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wang


    Full Text Available Current interest exists in understanding reaction-zone dynamics and mechanisms with respect to how they counterpropagate against incoming reactants. Images of flame position and flow-field morphology are presented from flame chemiluminescence and particle image velocimetry (PIV measurements. In the present study, PIV experiments were carried out to measure the methane jet lifted-flame flow-field velocities in the vicinity of the flame leading edge. Specifically, velocity fields within the high-temperature zone were examined in detail, which complements previous studies, whose prime focus is the flow-field upstream of the high-temperature boundary. PIV data is used not only to determine the velocities, but, along with chemiluminescence images, to also indicate the approximate location of the reaction zone (further supported by/through the leading-edge flame velocity distributions. The velocity results indirectly support the concept that the flame is anchored primarily through the mechanism of partially premixed flame propagation.

  11. Recoiling supermassive black hole escape velocities from dark matter haloes (United States)

    Choksi, Nick; Behroozi, Peter; Volonteri, Marta; Schneider, Raffaella; Ma, Chung-Pei; Silk, Joseph; Moster, Benjamin


    We simulate recoiling black hole trajectories from z = 20 to z = 0 in dark matter haloes, quantifying how parameter choices affect escape velocities. These choices include the strength of dynamical friction, the presence of stars and gas, the accelerating expansion of the Universe (Hubble acceleration), host halo accretion and motion, and seed black hole mass. Lambda cold dark matter halo accretion increases escape velocities by up to 0.6 dex and significantly shortens return time-scales compared to non-accreting cases. Other parameters change orbit damping rates but have subdominant effects on escape velocities; dynamical friction is weak at halo escape velocities, even for extreme parameter values. We present formulae for black hole escape velocities as a function of host halo mass and redshift. Finally, we discuss how these findings affect black hole mass assembly as well as minimum stellar and halo masses necessary to retain supermassive black holes.

  12. Analyses of Current And Wave Forces on Velocity Caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Buhrkall, Jeppe; Eskesen, Mark C. D.


    leads the water into another pipe or tunnel system. A pressure gradient generated by the water level difference between the sea and basin drives the flow through the tunnel system. The tunnel system is often in the order of a couple kilometers long. Based on CFD analyses (computational fluid dynamics......Velocity caps are often used in connection with for instance offshore intake sea water for the use of for cooling water for power plants or as a source for desalinization plants. The intakes can also be used for river intakes. The velocity cap is placed on top of a vertical pipe. The vertical pipe......) this paper investigates the current and wave forces on the velocity cap and the vertical cylinder. The Morison’s force model was used in the analyses of the extracted force time series in from the CFD model. Further the distribution of the inlet velocities around the velocity cap was also analyzed in detail...

  13. Extremal inversion of lunar travel time data. [seismic velocity structure (United States)

    Burkhard, N.; Jackson, D. D.


    The tau method, developed by Bessonova et al. (1974), of inversion of travel times is applied to lunar P-wave travel time data to find limits on the velocity structure of the moon. Tau is the singular solution to the Clairaut equation. Models with low-velocity zones, with low-velocity zones at differing depths, and without low-velocity zones, were found to be consistent with data and within the determined limits. Models with and without a discontinuity at about 25-km depth have been found which agree with all travel time data to within two standard deviations. In other words, the existence of the discontinuity and its size and location have not been uniquely resolved. Models with low-velocity channels are also possible.

  14. Tracking moving radar targets with parallel, velocity-tuned filters (United States)

    Bickel, Douglas L.; Harmony, David W.; Bielek, Timothy P.; Hollowell, Jeff A.; Murray, Margaret S.; Martinez, Ana


    Radar data associated with radar illumination of a movable target is processed to monitor motion of the target. A plurality of filter operations are performed in parallel on the radar data so that each filter operation produces target image information. The filter operations are defined to have respectively corresponding velocity ranges that differ from one another. The target image information produced by one of the filter operations represents the target more accurately than the target image information produced by the remainder of the filter operations when a current velocity of the target is within the velocity range associated with the one filter operation. In response to the current velocity of the target being within the velocity range associated with the one filter operation, motion of the target is tracked based on the target image information produced by the one filter operation.

  15. Dielectric haloscopes: sensitivity to the axion dark matter velocity (United States)

    Millar, Alexander J.; Redondo, Javier; Steffen, Frank D.


    We study the effect of the axion dark matter velocity in the recently proposed dielectric haloscopes, a promising avenue to search for well-motivated high mass (40-400 μeV) axions. We describe non-zero velocity effects for axion-photon mixing in a magnetic field and for the phenomenon of photon emission from interfaces between different dielectric media. As velocity effects are only important when the haloscope is larger than about 20% of the axion de Broglie wavelength, for the planned MADMAX experiment with 80 dielectric disks the velocity dependence can safely be neglected. However, an augmented MADMAX or a second generation experiment would be directionally sensitive to the axion velocity, and thus a sensitive measure of axion astrophysics.

  16. Mean velocity and peak systolic velocity can help determine ischaemic and non-ischaemic priapism. (United States)

    von Stempel, C; Zacharakis, E; Allen, C; Ramachandran, N; Walkden, M; Minhas, S; Muneer, A; Ralph, D; Freeman, A; Kirkham, A


    To determine the threshold waveform characteristics at Doppler ultrasound (DUS) to differentiate between ischaemic and non-ischaemic priapism. Fifty-two patients were categorised into "ischaemic" and "non-ischaemic" types based on clinical and blood-gas findings: 10 patients with non-ischaemic priapism; 20 with ischaemic priapism before surgical shunt placement and 22 with ischaemic priapism after surgical shunt placement. DUS traces were analysed: peak systolic velocity (PSV) and mean velocity (MV) were calculated. Histological samples were obtained at the time of surgery. Three clinical outcome groups were defined: (1) normal, (2) regular use of pharmacostimulation, and (3) refractory dysfunction/penile implant. All non-ischaemic priapism cases had a PSV >50 cm/s and all but one had an MV of >6.5 cm/s. In pre-surgery ischaemic cases, all men had a PSV PSV 22 cm/s but diastolic reversal. In post-surgery ischaemic priapism, flow parameters overlapped with the non-ischaemic group. PSV/MV did not predict clinical outcome or histology. In the present cohort, PSV PSV >22 cm/s, but have diastolic reversal and therefore low net perfusion. Post-shunt, DUS findings were extremely variable and did not predict histology or clinical outcome. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The torque-velocity relation of elite soccer players. (United States)

    Borges, G M; Vaz, M A; De La Rocha Freitas, C; Rassier, D E


    The purpose of this study was to describe the torque-velocity (T-V) relationship during concentric and eccentric contractions of the lower limb muscles in professional soccer players. Soccer players (n=10) that were training systematically for at least 5 years were compared with moderately active individuals (n=13), that were not engaged in any systematic physical activity program in the last 5 years. Peak torque, and angle-specific torque at knee angles of 0.52 rad and 1.04 rad were evaluated during maximal concentric and eccentric contractions at 0.52 rad x sec(-1), 1.04 rad x sec(-1), 1.57 rad x sec(-1), 2.09 rad x sec(-1), 3.14 rad x sec(-1), 4.19 rad x sec(-1) and 5.23 rad x sec(-1) angular velocities. During concentric contractions, inverse hyperbolic relationships were fitted for the two groups [T = T(max) + (a x b)/(b + V)], with values for a and b of 1.4 and 347.6 for the control group, respectively, and 1.9 and 605.4 for the soccer players, respectively. When torque was measured at 0.52 rad, the torque-velocity relationship presented a plateau at low velocities in the two groups investigated. When torque was measured at 1.04 rad, the torque-velocity relationship presented a plateau at low velocities in the control group, in which force did not increase significantly as velocity was decreased. The plateau was not observed in soccer players. Peak torque and torque measured at 1.04 rad were higher in the soccer players than in the control group in all velocities investigated. However, the biggest difference was found in lower velocities of contraction. Soccer players produced a higher muscle torque in the lower limb than moderately active individuals, and this difference was bigger when the velocities were low.

  18. Determination of viscosity through terminal velocity: use of the drag force with a quadratic term in velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vertchenko, Lev; Vertchenko, Larissa


    A correction to the term with quadratic dependency of the velocity in the Oseen´s drag force by a dimensionless factor is proposed in order to determine the viscosity of glycerin through the measurement of the terminal velocity of spheres falling inside the fluid. This factor incorporates the eff...

  19. End-systolic stress-velocity relation and circumferential fiber velocity shortening for analysing left ventricular function in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayssoil, A. [Cardiologie, Hopital europeen Georges Pompidou, 20, rue le blanc, Paris (France)], E-mail:; Renault, G. [CNRS UMR 8104, Inserm, U567, Institut Cochin, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris (France); Fougerousse, F. [Genethon, RD, Evry (France)


    Traditionally, analysing left ventricular (LV) performance relies on echocardiography by evaluating shortening fraction (SF) in mice. SF is influenced by load conditions. End-systolic stress-velocity (ESSV) relation and circumferential fiber velocity (VcF) shortening are more relevant parameters for evaluating systolic function regardless load conditions particularly in mice's models of heart failure.

  20. Protection by high velocity thermal spraying coatings on thick walled permanent and interim store components for the diminution of repairs, corrosion and costs 'SHARK'. Overview at the end of the project; Schutz durch Hochgeschwindigkeitsflammspritzschichten auf dickwandigen End- und Zwischenlagerbauteilen zur Reduktion von Reparaturen, Korrosion und Kosten 'SHARK'. Ein Ueberblick zum Abschluss des Projektes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Sabine; Hassel, Thomas; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Unterwassertechnikum Hannover, Garbsen (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde; Steinwarz, Wolfgang; Dyllong, Nobert; Tragsdorf, Inga Maren [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH, Krefeld (Germany)


    The corrosion protection of the internal space of thick-walled interim and permanent storage facility components, such as Castor {sup copyright} containers, are ensured nowadays by a galvanic nickel layer. The method has proved itself and protects the base material of the containers at the underwater loading in the Nuclear power station from a corrosive attack. Although, the galvanic nickel plating is a relatively time consuming method, it lasts for several days for each container, and is with a layer thickness of 1,000 {mu}m also expensive. To develop an alternative, faster and more economical method, a BMBF research project named - 'SHARK - protection by high velocity thermal spraying layers on thick-walled permanent and interim store components for the diminution of repairs, corrosion and costs' in cooperation between Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH and the Institute of Materials Science of the Leibniz University of Hanover was established to investigate the suitability of the high velocity oxy fuel spraying technology (HVOF) for the corrosion protective coating of thickwalled interim and permanent storage facility components. Since the permanent storage depot components are manufactured from cast iron with globular graphite, this material was exclusively used as a base material in this project. The evaluation of the economical features of the application of different nickel base spraying materials on cast iron substratum was in focus, as well as the scientific characterization of the coating systems with regard to the corrosion protective properties. Furthermore, the feasibility of the transfer of the laboratory results on a large industrial setup as well as a general suitability of the coating process for a required repair procedure was to be investigated. The preliminary examination program identified chromium containing spraying materials as successful. Results of the preliminary examination program have been used for investigations with the CASOIK

  1. Spatially-resolved velocities of thermally-produced spray droplets using a velocity-divided Abel inversion of photographed streaks (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Y.; Kobayashi, N.; Yamagata, Y.; Miyazaki, F.; Yamasaki, M.; Muraoka, K.


    Droplet velocities of thermal spray are known to have profound effects on important coating qualities, such as adhesive strength, porosity, and hardness, for various applications. For obtaining the droplet velocities, therefore, the TOF (time-of-flight) technique has been widely used, which relies on observations of emitted radiation from the droplets, where all droplets along the line-of-sight contribute to signals. Because droplets at and near the flow axis mostly contribute coating layers, it has been hoped to get spatially resolved velocities. For this purpose, a velocity-divided Abel inversion was devised from CMOS photographic data. From this result, it has turned out that the central velocity is about 25% higher than that obtained from the TOF technique for the case studied (at the position 150 mm downstream of the plasma spray gun, where substrates for spray coatings are usually placed). Further implications of the obtained results are discussed.

  2. Interferometric measurement of the angular velocity of moving humans (United States)

    Nanzer, Jeffrey A.


    This paper presents an analysis of the measurement of the angular velocity of walking humans using a millimeter-wave correlation interferometer. Measurement of the angular velocity of moving objects is a desirable function in remote sensing applications. Doppler radar sensors are able to measure the signature of moving humans based on micro-Doppler analysis; however, a person moving with little to no radial velocity produces negligible Doppler returns. Measurement of the angular movement of humans can be done with traditional radar techniques, however the process involves either continuous tracking with narrow beamwidth or angle-of-arrival estimation algorithms. A new method of measuring the angular velocity of moving objects using interferometry has recently been developed which measures the angular velocity of an object without tracking or complex processing. The frequency of the interferometer signal response is proportional to the angular velocity of the object as it passes through the interferometer beam pattern. In this paper, the theory of the interferometric measurement of angular velocity is covered and simulations of the response of a walking human are presented. Simulations are produced using a model of a walking human to show the significant features associated with the interferometer response, which may be used in classification algorithms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BATH


    Full Text Available The velocities of elastic waves (P and S generally increase with
    depth in the earth. If at some depth this increase is replaced by a decrease
    over an interval of depth, again followed by an increase at some
    greater depth, we have, what we cali a low-velocity layer, provided
    the numerical value of the velocity decrease with depth in at least a
    part of the layer surpasses the criticai value v/r (v = velocity, r = radius;
    see Gutenberg, 1954 b, and Bullen, 1954, pp. 87-89. The most
    marked low-velocity layer (for P waves exists on the inner side of the
    outer core. This low-velocity layer has already been recognized by ali
    seismologists long ago. If a low-velocity layer exists also at the boundary
    of the inner core, is not yet certain. According to Jeffreys there is one,
    whereas Gutenberg does not find suffìcient observational support for it.

  4. Modeling velocity space-time correlations in wind farms (United States)

    Lukassen, Laura J.; Stevens, Richard J. A. M.; Meneveau, Charles; Wilczek, Michael


    Turbulent fluctuations of wind velocities cause power-output fluctuations in wind farms. The statistics of velocity fluctuations can be described by velocity space-time correlations in the atmospheric boundary layer. In this context, it is important to derive simple physics-based models. The so-called Tennekes-Kraichnan random sweeping hypothesis states that small-scale velocity fluctuations are passively advected by large-scale velocity perturbations in a random fashion. In the present work, this hypothesis is used with an additional mean wind velocity to derive a model for the spatial and temporal decorrelation of velocities in wind farms. It turns out that in the framework of this model, space-time correlations are a convolution of the spatial correlation function with a temporal decorrelation kernel. In this presentation, first results on the comparison to large eddy simulations will be presented and the potential of the approach to characterize power output fluctuations of wind farms will be discussed. Acknowledgements: 'Fellowships for Young Energy Scientists' (YES!) of FOM, the US National Science Foundation Grant IIA 1243482, and support by the Max Planck Society.

  5. Streaming Velocities and the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation Scale. (United States)

    Blazek, Jonathan A; McEwen, Joseph E; Hirata, Christopher M


    At the epoch of decoupling, cosmic baryons had supersonic velocities relative to the dark matter that were coherent on large scales. These velocities subsequently slow the growth of small-scale structure and, via feedback processes, can influence the formation of larger galaxies. We examine the effect of streaming velocities on the galaxy correlation function, including all leading-order contributions for the first time. We find that the impact on the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) peak is dramatically enhanced (by a factor of ∼5) over the results of previous investigations, with the primary new effect due to advection: if a galaxy retains memory of the primordial streaming velocity, it does so at its Lagrangian, rather than Eulerian, position. Since correlations in the streaming velocity change rapidly at the BAO scale, this advection term can cause a significant shift in the observed BAO position. If streaming velocities impact tracer density at the 1% level, compared to the linear bias, the recovered BAO scale is shifted by approximately 0.5%. This new effect, which is required to preserve Galilean invariance, greatly increases the importance of including streaming velocities in the analysis of upcoming BAO measurements and opens a new window to the astrophysics of galaxy formation.

  6. Fastball velocity trends in short-season minor league baseball. (United States)

    Crotin, Ryan L; Bhan, Shivam; Karakolis, Tom; Ramsey, Dan K


    Diminishing baseball velocities are objective measures to delineate pitching fatigue. Yet, velocity changes over the course of a competitive season vs. a single game remain unknown. This study examined fastball velocity (FBV) trends of minor league pitchers over an 8-game span. We assumed that accumulation of pitches would cause similar velocity decreases within games to produce velocity decreases between games pitched. Retrospective analysis of major league-affiliated pitching charts indicated mean FBVs, game pitches thrown, game innings pitched, rest days, and pitching work to rest ratios (PWRRs) for 12 pitchers over 8 games. Regression analyses (p league pitchers at the Class A Short Season level did not show similar exertion responses to cumulative workloads (pitches and innings pitched). Recovery factors (rest days, PWRRs, and training) also did not impact FBVs. Velocity increases may be attributable to biomechanical compensations, skill development, strength and conditioning regimens, multistarter rotations, and other performance-related factors. Strength and conditioning professionals should be aware of ball velocity trends, as apparent changes may infer neuromuscular fatigue and increased injury susceptibility, which require in-season training modifications.

  7. REVEL: A model for Recent plate velocities from space geodesy (United States)

    Sella, Giovanni F.; Dixon, Timothy H.; Mao, Ailin


    We present a new global model for Recent plate velocities, REVEL, describing the relative velocities of 19 plates and continental blocks. The model is derived from publicly available space geodetic (primarily GPS) data for the period 1993-2000. We include an independent and rigorous estimate for GPS velocity uncertainties to assess plate rigidity and propagate these uncertainties to the velocity estimates. The velocity fields for North America, Eurasia, and Antarctica clearly show the effects of glacial isostatic adjustment, and Australia appears to depart from rigid plate behavior in a manner consistent with the mapped intraplate stress field. Two thirds of tested plate pairs agree with the NUVEL-1A geologic (3 Myr average) velocities within uncertainties. Three plate pairs (Caribbean-North America, Caribbean-South America, and North America-Pacific) exhibit significant differences between the geodetic and geologic model that may reflect systematic errors in NUVEL-1A due to the use of seafloor magnetic rate data that do not reflect the full plate rate because of tectonic complexities. Most other differences probably reflect real velocity changes over the last few million years. Several plate pairs (Arabia-Eurasia, Arabia-Nubia, Eurasia-India) move more slowly than the 3 Myr NUVEL-1A average, perhaps reflecting long-term deceleration associated with continental collision. Several other plate pairs, including Nazca-Pacific, Nazca-South America and Nubia-South America, are experiencing slowing that began ~25 Ma, the beginning of the current phase of Andean crustal shortening.

  8. A study of methods to estimate debris flow velocity (United States)

    Prochaska, A.B.; Santi, P.M.; Higgins, J.D.; Cannon, S.H.


    Debris flow velocities are commonly back-calculated from superelevation events which require subjective estimates of radii of curvature of bends in the debris flow channel or predicted using flow equations that require the selection of appropriate rheological models and material property inputs. This research investigated difficulties associated with the use of these conventional velocity estimation methods. Radii of curvature estimates were found to vary with the extent of the channel investigated and with the scale of the media used, and back-calculated velocities varied among different investigated locations along a channel. Distinct populations of Bingham properties were found to exist between those measured by laboratory tests and those back-calculated from field data; thus, laboratory-obtained values would not be representative of field-scale debris flow behavior. To avoid these difficulties with conventional methods, a new preliminary velocity estimation method is presented that statistically relates flow velocity to the channel slope and the flow depth. This method presents ranges of reasonable velocity predictions based on 30 previously measured velocities. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Wave equation based microseismic source location and velocity inversion (United States)

    Zheng, Yikang; Wang, Yibo; Chang, Xu


    The microseismic event locations and velocity information can be used to infer the stress field and guide hydraulic fracturing process, as well as to image the subsurface structures. How to get accurate microseismic event locations and velocity model is the principal problem in reservoir monitoring. For most location methods, the velocity model has significant relation with the accuracy of the location results. The velocity obtained from log data is usually too rough to be used for location directly. It is necessary to discuss how to combine the location and velocity inversion. Among the main techniques for locating microseismic events, time reversal imaging (TRI) based on wave equation avoids traveltime picking and offers high-resolution locations. Frequency dependent wave equation traveltime inversion (FWT) is an inversion method that can invert velocity model with source uncertainty at certain frequency band. Thus we combine TRI with FWT to produce improved event locations and velocity model. In the proposed approach, the location and model information are interactively used and updated. Through the proposed workflow, the inverted model is better resolved and the event locations are more accurate. We test this method on synthetic borehole data and filed data of a hydraulic fracturing experiment. The results verify the effectiveness of the method and prove it has potential for real-time microseismic monitoring.

  10. Rayleigh-Wave Group-Velocity Tomography of Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Tang, Zheng; Mai, P. Martin; Chang, Sung-Joon; Zahran, Hani


    We use surface-wave tomography to investigate the lithospheric structure of the Arabian plate, which is traditionally divided into the Arabian shield in the west and the Arabian platform in the east. The Arabian shield is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks. The Arabian platform is primarily covered by very thick Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments. We develop high-resolution tomographic images from fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocities across Saudi Arabia, utilizing the teleseismic data recorded by the permanent Saudi National Seismic Network (SNSN). Our study extends previous efforts on surface wave work by increasing ray path density and improving spatial resolution. Good quality dispersion measurements for roughly 3000 Rayleigh-wave paths have been obtained and utilized for the group-velocity tomography. We have applied the Fast Marching Surface Tomography (FMST) scheme of Rawlinson (2005) to obtain Rayleigh-wave group-velocity images for periods from 8 s to 40 s on a 0.8° 0.8° grid and at resolutions approaching 2.5° based on the checkerboard tests. Our results indicate that short-period group-velocity maps (8-15 s) correlate well with surface geology, with slow velocities delineating the main sedimentary features including the Arabian platform, the Persian Gulf and Mesopotamia. For longer periods (20-40 s), the velocity contrast is due to the differences in crustal thickness and subduction/collision zones. The lower velocities are sensitive to the thicker continental crust beneath the eastern Arabia and the subduction/collision zones between the Arabian and Eurasian plate, while the higher velocities in the west infer mantle velocity.

  11. Characteristics of CSF Velocity-Time Profile in Posttraumatic Syringomyelia. (United States)

    Yeo, J; Cheng, S; Hemley, S; Lee, B B; Stoodley, M; Bilston, L


    The development of syringomyelia has been associated with changes in CSF flow dynamics in the spinal subarachnoid space. However, differences in CSF flow velocity between patients with posttraumatic syringomyelia and healthy participants remains unclear. The aim of this work was to define differences in CSF flow above and below a syrinx in participants with posttraumatic syringomyelia and compare the CSF flow with that in healthy controls. Six participants with posttraumatic syringomyelia were recruited for this study. Phase-contrast MR imaging was used to measure CSF flow velocity at the base of the skull and above and below the syrinx. Velocity magnitudes and temporal features of the CSF velocity profile were compared with those in healthy controls. CSF flow velocity in the spinal subarachnoid space of participants with syringomyelia was similar at different locations despite differences in syrinx size and locations. Peak cranial and caudal velocities above and below the syrinx were not significantly different (peak cranial velocity, P = .9; peak caudal velocity, P = 1.0), but the peak velocities were significantly lower (P < .001, P = .007) in the participants with syringomyelia compared with matched controls. Most notably, the duration of caudal flow was significantly shorter (P = .003) in the participants with syringomyelia. CSF flow within the posttraumatic syringomyelia group was relatively uniform along the spinal canal, but there are differences in the timing of CSF flow compared with that in matched healthy controls. This finding supports the hypothesis that syrinx development may be associated with temporal changes in spinal CSF flow. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  12. Threshold Velocity for Saltation Activity in the Taklimakan Desert (United States)

    Yang, Xinghua; He, Qing; Matimin, Ali; Yang, Fan; Huo, Wen; Liu, Xinchun; Zhao, Tianliang; Shen, Shuanghe


    The threshold velocity is an indicator of a soil's susceptibility to saltation activity and is also an important parameter in dust emission models. In this study, the saltation activity, atmospheric conditions, and soil conditions were measured from 1 August 2008 to 31 July 2009 in the Taklimakan Desert, China. the threshold velocity was estimated using the Gaussian time fraction equivalence method. At 2 m height, the 1-min averaged threshold velocity varied between 3.5 and 10.9 m/s, with a mean of 5.9 m/s. Threshold velocities varying between 4.5 and 7.5 m/s accounted for about 91.4% of all measurements. The average threshold velocity displayed clear seasonal variations in the following sequence: winter (5.1 m/s) relations between daily mean threshold velocity and air temperature, specific humidity, and soil volumetric moisture content. High or moderate positive correlations were found between threshold velocity and air temperature, specific humidity, and soil volumetric moisture content (air temperature r = 0.75; specific humidity r = 0.59; and soil volumetric moisture content r = 0.55; sample size = 251). In the study area, the observed horizontal dust flux was 4198.0 kg/m during the whole period of observation, while the horizontal dust flux calculated using the threshold velocity from the regression equation was 4675.6 kg/m. The correlation coefficient between the calculated result and the observations was 0.91. These results indicate that atmospheric and soil conditions should not be neglected in parameterization schemes for threshold velocity.

  13. The dependence of sheet erosion velocity on slope angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich


    Full Text Available The article presents a method for estimating the erosion velocity on forested natural area. As a research object for testing the methodology the authors selected Neskuchny Garden - a city Park on the Moskva river embankment, named after the cognominal Palace of Catherine's age. Here, an almost horizontal surface III of the Moskva river terrace above the flood-plain is especially remarkable, accentuated by the steep sides of the ravine parallel to St. Andrew's, but short and nameless. The crests of the ravine sides are sharp, which is the evidence of its recent formation, but the old trees on the slopes indicate that it has not been growing for at least 100 years. Earlier Russian researchers defined vertical velocity of sheet erosion for different regions and slopes with different parent (in relation to the soil rocks. The comparison of the velocities shows that climatic conditions, in the first approximation, do not have a decisive influence on the erosion velocity of silt loam soils. The velocities on the shores of Issyk-Kul lake and in Moscow proved to be the same. But the composition of the parent rocks strongly affects the sheet erosion velocity. Even low-strength rock material reduces the velocity by times. Phytoindication method gives a real, physically explainable sheet erosion velocities. The speed is rather small but it should be considered when designing long-term structures on the slopes composed of dispersive soils. On the slopes composed of rocky soils sheet erosion velocity is so insignificant that it shouldn't be taken into account when designing. However, there may be other geological processes, significantly disturbing the stability of slopes connected with cracks.

  14. Parachute landing fall characteristics at three realistic vertical descent velocities. (United States)

    Whitting, John W; Steele, Julie R; Jaffrey, Mark A; Munro, Bridget J


    Although parachute landing injuries are thought to be due in part to a lack of exposure of trainees to realistic descent velocities during parachute landing fall (PLF) training, no research has systematically investigated whether PLF technique is affected by different vertical descent conditions, with standardized and realistic conditions of horizontal drift. This study was designed to determine the effects of variations in vertical descent velocity on PLF technique. Kinematic, ground reaction force, and electromyographic data were collected and analyzed for 20 paratroopers while they performed parachute landings, using a custom-designed monorail apparatus, with a constant horizontal drift velocity (2.3 m x s(-1)) and at three realistic vertical descent velocities: slow (2.1 m x s(-1)), medium (3.3 m x s(-1)), and fast (4.6 m x s(-1)). Most biomechanical variables characterizing PLF technique were significantly affected by descent velocity. For example, at the fast velocity, the subjects impacted the ground with 123 degrees of plantar flexion and generated ground reaction forces averaging 13.7 times body weight, compared to 106 degrees and 6.1 body weight, respectively, at the slow velocity. Furthermore, the subjects activated their antigravity extensor muscles earlier during the fast velocity condition to eccentrically control the impact absorption. As vertical descent rates increased, the paratroopers displayed a significantly different strategy when performing the PLF. It is therefore recommended that PLF training programs include ground training activities with realistic vertical descent velocities to better prepare trainees to withstand the impact forces associated with initial aerial descents onto the Drop Zone and, ultimately, minimize the potential for injury.

  15. P1138Cardiac shear wave velocity in healthy individuals. (United States)

    Strachinaru, M; Geleijnse, M L; Bosch, J G; De Jong, N; Van Der Steen, Afw; Van Dalen, B M; Vos, H J


    The closure of the valves generates shear waves in the heart walls. The propagation velocity of shear waves relates to stiffness. This could potentially be used to estimate the stiffness of the myocardium, with huge potential implications in pathologies characterized by a deterioration of the diastolic properties of the left ventricle. In an earlier phantom study we already validated shear wave tracking with a clinical ultrasound system in cardiac mode. In this study we aimed to measure the shear waves velocity in normal individuals. 12 healthy volunteers, mean age=37±10, 33% females, were investigated using a clinical scanner (Philips iE33), equipped with a S5-1 probe, using a clinical tissue Doppler (TDI) application. ECG and phonocardiogram (PCG) were synchronously recorded. We achieved a TDI frame rate of >500Hz by carefully tuning normal system settings. Data were processed offline in Philips Qlab 8 to extract tissue velocity along a virtual M-mode line in the basal third of the interventricular septum, in parasternal long axis view. This tissue velocity showed a propagating wave pattern after closure of the valves. The slope of the wave front velocity in a space-time panel was measured to obtain the shear wave propagation velocity. The velocity of the shear waves induced by the closure of the mitral valve (1st heart sound) and aortic valve (2nd heart sound) was averaged over 4 heartbeats for every subject. Shear waves were visible after each closure of the heart valves, synchronous to the heart sounds. The figure shows one heart cycle of a subject, with the mean velocity along a virtual M-mode line in the upper panel, synchronous to the ECG signal (green line) and phonocardiogram (yellow line) in the lower panel. The slope of the shear waves is marked with dotted lines and the onset of the heart sounds with white lines. In our healthy volunteer group the mean velocity of the shear wave induced by mitral valve closure was 4.8±0.7m/s, standard error of 0.14 m

  16. Seismic velocity, attenuation and rheology of the upper mantle (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.; Minster, J. B.


    Seismic and rheological properties of the upper mantle in the vicinity of the low-velocity zone are expressed in terms of relaxation by dislocation glide. Dislocation bowing in the glide plane explains seismic velocities and attenuation. Climbing at higher stresses for longer periods of time give the observed viscosity, and explain the low velocity and high temperature attenuation found at seismic frequencies. Due to differing parameters, separate terms for thermal, seismic and rheological lithospheres are proposed. All three lithospheres, however, are related and are functions of temperature, and must be specified by parameters such as period, stress, and stress duration.

  17. Coding of Velocity Storage in the Vestibular Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei B. Yakushin


    Full Text Available Semicircular canal afferents sense angular acceleration and output angular velocity with a short time constant of ≈4.5 s. This output is prolonged by a central integrative network, velocity storage that lengthens the time constants of eye velocity. This mechanism utilizes canal, otolith, and visual (optokinetic information to align the axis of eye velocity toward the spatial vertical when head orientation is off-vertical axis. Previous studies indicated that vestibular-only (VO and vestibular-pause-saccade (VPS neurons located in the medial and superior vestibular nucleus could code all aspects of velocity storage. A recently developed technique enabled prolonged recording while animals were rotated and received optokinetic stimulation about a spatial vertical axis while upright, side-down, prone, and supine. Firing rates of 33 VO and 8 VPS neurons were studied in alert cynomolgus monkeys. Majority VO neurons were closely correlated with the horizontal component of velocity storage in head coordinates, regardless of head orientation in space. Approximately, half of all tested neurons (46% code horizontal component of velocity in head coordinates, while the other half (54% changed their firing rates as the head was oriented relative to the spatial vertical, coding the horizontal component of eye velocity in spatial coordinates. Some VO neurons only coded the cross-coupled pitch or roll components that move the axis of eye rotation toward the spatial vertical. Sixty-five percent of these VO and VPS neurons were more sensitive to rotation in one direction (predominantly contralateral, providing directional orientation for the subset of VO neurons on either side of the brainstem. This indicates that the three-dimensional velocity storage integrator is composed of directional subsets of neurons that are likely to be the bases for the spatial characteristics of velocity storage. Most VPS neurons ceased firing during drowsiness, but the firing

  18. Coding of Velocity Storage in the Vestibular Nuclei (United States)

    Yakushin, Sergei B.; Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard


    Semicircular canal afferents sense angular acceleration and output angular velocity with a short time constant of ≈4.5 s. This output is prolonged by a central integrative network, velocity storage that lengthens the time constants of eye velocity. This mechanism utilizes canal, otolith, and visual (optokinetic) information to align the axis of eye velocity toward the spatial vertical when head orientation is off-vertical axis. Previous studies indicated that vestibular-only (VO) and vestibular-pause-saccade (VPS) neurons located in the medial and superior vestibular nucleus could code all aspects of velocity storage. A recently developed technique enabled prolonged recording while animals were rotated and received optokinetic stimulation about a spatial vertical axis while upright, side-down, prone, and supine. Firing rates of 33 VO and 8 VPS neurons were studied in alert cynomolgus monkeys. Majority VO neurons were closely correlated with the horizontal component of velocity storage in head coordinates, regardless of head orientation in space. Approximately, half of all tested neurons (46%) code horizontal component of velocity in head coordinates, while the other half (54%) changed their firing rates as the head was oriented relative to the spatial vertical, coding the horizontal component of eye velocity in spatial coordinates. Some VO neurons only coded the cross-coupled pitch or roll components that move the axis of eye rotation toward the spatial vertical. Sixty-five percent of these VO and VPS neurons were more sensitive to rotation in one direction (predominantly contralateral), providing directional orientation for the subset of VO neurons on either side of the brainstem. This indicates that the three-dimensional velocity storage integrator is composed of directional subsets of neurons that are likely to be the bases for the spatial characteristics of velocity storage. Most VPS neurons ceased firing during drowsiness, but the firing rates of VO

  19. Coupling liquids acoustic velocity effects on elastic metallic bioglass properties (United States)

    Metiri, W.; Hadjoub, F.; Doghmane, A.; Hadjoub, Z.


    The effect of surface acoustic wave, SAW, velocities of coupling liquids on acoustical properties of several bulk metallic glasses, BMG, has been investigated using simulation program based on acoustic microscopy. Thus, we determined variations of critical angles at which the excitation of longitudinal mode, θL and Rayleigh mode, θR occurs as a function of wave velocities in different coupling liquids, Vliq. Linear relations of the form θi =ai0 +βiVliq were deduced. The importance of such formula, used with Snell's law, lies in the direct determination of SAW velocities and consequently mechanical properties of BMGs.

  20. Measuring Oscillatory Velocity Fields Due to Swimming Algae

    CERN Document Server

    Guasto, Jeffrey S; Gollub, J P


    In this fluid dynamics video, we present the first time-resolved measurements of the oscillatory velocity field induced by swimming unicellular microorganisms. Confinement of the green alga C. reinhardtii in stabilized thin liquid films allows simultaneous tracking of cells and tracer particles. The measured velocity field reveals complex time-dependent flow structures, and scales inversely with distance. The instantaneous mechanical power generated by the cells is measured from the velocity fields and peaks at 15 fW. The dissipation per cycle is more than four times what steady swimming would require.

  1. Response of polymer composites to high and low velocity impact (United States)

    Hsieh, C. Y.; Mount, A.; Jang, B. Z.; Zee, R. H.


    The present investigation of fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites' impact characteristics employed a drop tower for the low-velocity impact case and a novel, projectile instantaneous velocity-measuring sensor for high-velocity impact. Attention was given to the energy loss of projectiles in composites reinforced with polyethylene, kevlar, and graphite. Two distinct energy-loss mechanisms are noted, the first of which is due to the actual fracture process while the other is due to the generation of friction heat. The drop-tower impact-test results furnish the strain-rate dependence of the energy loss.

  2. Superconducting spoke cavities for high-velocity applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, Christopher S. [Old Dominion U.; Delayen, Jean R. [Old Dominion U., JLAB


    To date, superconducting spoke cavities have been designed, developed, and tested for particle velocities up to {beta}{sub 0}~0.6, but there is a growing interest in possible applications of multispoke cavities for high-velocity applications. We have explored the design parameter space for low-frequency, high-velocity, double-spoke superconducting cavities in order to determine how each design parameter affects the electromagnetic properties, in particular the surface electromagnetic fields and the shunt impedance. We present detailed design for cavities operating at 325 and 352 MHz and optimized for {beta}{sub 0}~=0.82 and 1.

  3. A Method of Initial Velocity Measurement for Rocket Projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiancheng


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel method is proposed to measure the initial velocity of the rocket based on STFT (the short-time Fourier transform and the WT (wavelet transform. The radar echo signal processing procedure involves the following steps: sampling process, overlapping windows, wavelet decomposition and reconstruction, computing FFT (Fast Fourier Transform and spectrum analysis, power spectrum peak detection. Then, according to the peak of the detection power spectrum, the corresponding Doppler frequency is obtained. Finally, on the basis of the relationship between Doppler frequency and instantaneous velocity, the V-T curve is drawn in MATLAB to obtain the initial velocity of the rocket muzzle.

  4. Review of the critical ionization velocity effect in space (United States)

    Newell, P. T.


    Laboratory experiments have shown under a variety of conditions that when a neutral gas passes through a magnetized plasma with a relative velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field that is greater than a critical velocity, anomalously high ionization of the neutrals occurs. The conditions under which the same effect is to be expected in space plasmas is still unclear. The experimental evidence for the occurrence of the critical ionization velocity effect in space is summarized, and various areas in which it has been proposed that the effect should be significant are discussed.

  5. Transverse Oscillation Vector Velocity Estimation using a Phased Array Transducer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcher, Jønne; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Seerup, Gert


    The Transverse Oscillation method has shown its commercial feasibility, providing the user with 2D velocity information. Todays implementation on commercial ultrasound platforms only support linear array transducers and are limited in depth. Extending the implementation to a phased array transduc...... leaves room for optimization. Despite the bias, the method has shown to work and produce reliable results, and 2D velocity estimates are provided within the entire color-box down to a depth of more than 100 mm making vector velocity imaging possible in the entire heart....

  6. Crustal Velocity Model of the Altai-Sayan Region (United States)

    Behrend, M. J.; Mackey, K. G.


    We have developed a crustal velocity model for the the region encompassed by the Altai-Sayan Seismic Network of South-Central Russia (45o-55o N. X 79o-98o E.). Geographically, the study area includes the Altai and Sayan Mountain Ranges, Western Mongolia, Eastern Kazakhstan, and Northwest China. To develop our model we used phase arrival data from approximately 175 larger earthquakes recorded by the Altai-Sayan Seismic Network between 1977 and 1981 and reported in the bulletin Materialy po Seismichnosti Sibiri. To develop our model, we divided the region into 1o N-S x 2o E-W cells. Events within each cell, plus a small surrounding area, were relocated multiple times using a grid-search routine, in effort to determine the best fitting Pg and Sg velocities. Pg and Sg phase arrivals are generally from the 100-1000 km range and represent secondary arriving phases. These arrivals are dominant in this region and we consider the time picks and phase identifications to be reliable. Velocities tested range from 5.650 to 6.350 km/s for Pg and from 3.310 to 3.710 km/s for Sg. The best fitting velocities for each cell were then assigned to the geographic coordinates of the cell's center point. The standard Jeffreys-Bullen model was used for Pn velocities. The best fitting Pg and Sg velocities are those that minimize the average event residuals in a cell. High residual arrivals were omitted from the location process. In our model, Pg velocities range from 5.975-6.325 km/s, while Sg velocities range from 3.510-3.630 km/s, though the higher velocity extremes are constrained by one event and are not statistically significant. The average Pg velocity of the study area was, 6.147 km/s, and average Sg, 3.576 km/s. Geologically, these velocities are associated with the Central Asiatic Foldbelt and are consistent with regional crustal velocities along the southern edge of the Siberian Craton to the East as determined by previous studies.

  7. Validation of Transverse Oscillation Vector Velocity Estimation In-Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Udesen, Jesper; Thomsen, Carsten


    method Transverse Oscillation (TO), which combines estimates of the axial and the transverse velocity components in the scan plane, makes it possible to estimate the vector velocity of the blood regardless of the Doppler angle. The present study evaluates the TO method with magnetic resonance angiography...... was constructed where the mean difference was 0.2 ml with limits of agreement at -1.4 ml and 1.9 ml (95 % CI for mean difference: -0.3 ml to 0.8 ml). The strong correlation and the low mean difference between the TO method and MRA indicates that reliable vector velocity estimates can be obtained in vivo using...

  8. Variable Phase Propagation Velocity for Long Range Lightning Location System (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Koh, K.; Mezentsev, A.; Enno, S. E.; Sugier, J.; Fullekrug, M.


    Lightning Location System (LLS) is of key importance to numerous meteorological, industrial and aviation systems worldwide. A crucial input parameter of a LLS which utilizes time-of-arrival (TOA) method is the wave propagation velocity at low frequencies. For example, the WWLLN network use group velocity approach, which is assumed to be constant near the speed of light [e.g. Dowden et al., 2002]. The detected lightning signals are normally a mixture of ground waves and sky waves (i.e. ionospheric hops), which are associated with different elevation angle of the incident wave [e.g., Fullekrug et al., 2015]. In this study, we introduce the new concept of "phase propagation velocity" as observed by the receiver considering the elevation angle. It is found that the radio waves from two submarine communication transmitters at 20.9 kHz and 23.4 kHz exhibit phase propagation velocities that are 0.51% slower and 0.64% faster than the speed of light as a result of sky wave contributions and ground effects. Here, we apply our new technique, using a variable phase propagation velocity, to the TOA method for the first time. This method was applied to electric field recordings from a long range LLS ( 500km) that consists of four radio receivers in Western Europe. The lightning locations inferred from variable velocities improve the accuracy of locations inferred from a fixed velocity by 0.89-1.06 km when compared to the lightning locations reported by the UK Met Office. The observed phase propagation velocities depend on the ground and ionosphere conditions along the propagation paths. The distribution of the observed phase propagation velocities in small geographic areas fit a normal distribution that is not centered at the speed of light. Consequently, representative velocities can be calculated for many small geographic areas to produce a velocity map over central France where numerous lightning discharges occurred. This map reflects the impact of sky waves and ground

  9. Scuffing resistance testing of piston ring materials for marine two-stroke diesel engines and mapping of the operating mechanisms


    Olander, Petra; Jacobson, Staffan


    The incentive is strong for optimising sliding materials to reduce the risk for scuffing. In this study, scuffing tests were performed aiming towards finding new piston ring materials for greener marine diesel engines and also towards understanding scuffing mechanisms better. The tested ring materials where grey iron, Stellite 6, plasma sprayed cermet and high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) cermet (both cermets with the same compounds: Cr-carbide, Ni, Cr, Mo). The Stellite 6 and HVOF cermet perform...

  10. Relative Velocity of Inertial Particles in Turbulent Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Liubin


    We present a model for the relative velocity of inertial particles in turbulent flows. Our general formulation shows that the relative velocity has contributions from two terms, referred to as the generalized acceleration and generalized shear terms, because they reduce to the well known acceleration and shear terms in the Saffman-Turner limit. The generalized shear term represents particles' memory of the flow velocity difference along their trajectories and depends on the inertial particle pair dispersion backward in time. The importance of this backward dispersion in determining the particle relative velocity is emphasized. We find that our model with a two-phase separation behavior, an early ballistic phase and a later tracer-like phase, as found by recent simulations for the forward (in time) dispersion of inertial particle pairs, gives good fits to the measured relative speeds from simulations at low Reynolds numbers. In the monodisperse case with identical particles, the generalized acceleration term v...

  11. Constraints on lunar structure. [propagation velocity and density distribution (United States)

    Dainty, A. M.; Toksoz, M. N.; Solomon, S. C.; Anderson, K. R.; Goins, N. R.


    A brief review is given of the constraints placed on lunar structure and composition by seismic data and density models. Bounds on the crustal velocity structure in Mare Cognitum are derived using travel-time data from artificial impacts, and a velocity model is determined on the basis of synthetic seismograms. It is shown that the velocities of P- and S-waves in the mantle can be fixed by a least-squares analysis of arrival times from meteor impacts and moonquakes, and that lunar density can be determined from the seismic structure, mean density, and moment of inertia. Olivine-pyroxene mixtures and certain olivine-rich compositions are found to be consistent with the seismic-velocity and density limits. Maximum radii are calculated for pure Fe and pure FeS cores, and it is concluded that the possibility of an ancient lunar magnetic dynamo may have to be reevaluated in the light of these figures.

  12. Isotropic Optical Mouse Placement for Mobile Robot Velocity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungbok Kim


    Full Text Available This paper presents the isotropic placement of multiple optical mice for the velocity estimation of a mobile robot. It is assumed that there can be positional restriction on the installation of optical mice at the bottom of a mobile robot. First, the velocity kinematics of a mobile robot with an array of optical mice is obtained and the resulting Jacobian matrix is analysed symbolically. Second, the isotropic, anisotropic and singular optical mouse placements are identified, along with the corresponding characteristic lengths. Third, the least squares mobile robot velocity estimation from the noisy optical mouse velocity measurements is discussed. Finally, simulation results for several different placements of three optical mice are given.

  13. Protein molecular weight computation from sedimentation velocity data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grievink, J; Houterman, R.T.B.; de Groot, K.


    In ultracentrifugation, the concentration gradient of mono-disperse samples obtained by sedimentation velocity experiments is described by Gehatia's equation which holds several parameters including the sedimentation and diffusion constants. Once these two constants are known, the molecular weight

  14. Detonation Velocity Measurement with Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peng Wei; Hao Lang; Taolin Liu; Dong Xia


    Detonation velocity is an important parameter for explosive, and it is crucial for many fields such as dynamic chemistry burn models, detonation propagation prediction, explosive performance estimation, and so on...

  15. Simultaneous Temperature and Velocity Diagnostic for Reacting Flows Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A diagnostic technique is proposed for measuring temperature and velocity simultaneously in a high temperature reacting flow for aiding research in propulsion. The...

  16. Novel Small-scale Technique for Determining Detonation Velocity (United States)

    Preston, Daniel; Hill, Larry; Tappan, Bryce


    Measuring the local detonation velocity of an explosive has been limited to rate stick and cylinder tests. These tests traditionally used break wires, pins, and more recently PDV as a velocity diagnostic. These experimental techniques can be very accurate at measuring detonation velocities but are costly and require tens to hundreds of grams of material. This paper presents a novel small-scale technique for inferring detonation velocity from a modest sized pellet of explosive. A streak image is taken of the breakout shock on the flat output side of the pellet. Assuming a spherical shock wave, one can show that the breakout trace is of hyperbolic form. From this, one can simultaneously infer detonation velocty and apparent center. This method is ideal for energetic formulation and synthesis development due to the small amount of material required. Furthermore, this paper discusses the accuracy and limitations of this technique.

  17. Superluminal Velocities in the Synchronized Space-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedev S. Yu.


    Full Text Available Within the framework of the non-gravitational generalization of the special relativity, a problem of possible superluminal motion of particles and signals is considered. It has been proven that for the particles with non-zero mass the existence of anisotropic light barrier with the shape dependent on the reference frame velocity results from the Tangherlini transformations. The maximal possible excess of neutrino velocity over the absolute velocity of light related to the Earth (using th e clock with instantaneous synchronization has been estimated. The illusoriness of t he acausality problem has been illustrated and conclusion is made on the lack of the upper limit of velocities of signals of informational nature.

  18. Hyper Velocity Impact - Damage Assessment System (HVI-DAS) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A device is proposed that can track the electrical charge dispersion that is created when hyper velocity impact (HVI) occurs between two entities with a closing...

  19. Rayleigh wave velocities and structural informations in Central Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Rayleigh wave dispersion has been observed along the three profiles
    Trieste-Olbia, Olbia-Bologna and Olbia-Bolzano, in central-northern Italy.
    The interpretation of phase velocities indicates a crustal thickness increasing
    from East (25-30 km, Trieste-Olbia to West (30-35 km, Olbia-Bolzano.
    For each profile two values of the Moho depth are acceptable; the shallower
    one is associated with a set of models which have low velocity
    material (¡3=4.3 lcm/s just under or within a few km from the Moho;
    the deeper one still accepts low velocity material ((3=4.4 km/s under
    the Moho but does not exclude the presence of an almost normal LID
    above the low velocity channel.

  20. Experimental investigation of transverse velocity estimation using cross-correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerngaard, Rasmus; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    /s. The volume flow was determined by a Danfoss MAG 1100 flow meter. The velocity profiles were measured for different beam-to-flow angles of 90, 65, and 45 degrees. A Harming apodized beam focused at the vessel was transmitted using 64 elements and the received signals on all elements were sampled at 40 MHz......A technique for estimating the full flow velocity vector has previously been presented by our group. Unlike conventional estimators, that only detect the axial component of the flow, this new method is capable of estimating the transverse velocity component. The method uses focusing along the flow...... direction to produce signals that are influenced by the shift of the scatterer's position. The signals are then cross-correllated to find the shift in position and thereby the velocity. The performance of the method is investigated using both a flow phantom and in-vivo measurements. A flow phantom capable...

  1. Radar velocity determination using direction of arrival measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Bickel, Douglas L.; Naething, Richard M.; Horndt, Volker


    The various technologies presented herein relate to utilizing direction of arrival (DOA) data to determine various flight parameters for an aircraft A plurality of radar images (e.g., SAR images) can be analyzed to identify a plurality of pixels in the radar images relating to one or more ground targets. In an embodiment, the plurality of pixels can be selected based upon the pixels exceeding a SNR threshold. The DOA data in conjunction with a measurable Doppler frequency for each pixel can be obtained. Multi-aperture technology enables derivation of an independent measure of DOA to each pixel based on interferometric analysis. This independent measure of DOA enables decoupling of the aircraft velocity from the DOA in a range-Doppler map, thereby enabling determination of a radar velocity. The determined aircraft velocity can be utilized to update an onboard INS, and to keep it aligned, without the need for additional velocity-measuring instrumentation.

  2. Cell wall pH and auxin transport velocity (United States)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Rayle, D.


    According to the chemiosmotic polar diffusion hypothesis, auxin pulse velocity and basal secretion should increase with decreasing cell wall pH. Experiments were designed to test this prediction. Avena coleoptile sections were preincubated in either fusicoccin (FC), cycloheximide, pH 4.0, or pH 8.0 buffer and subsequently their polar transport capacities were determined. Relative to controls, FC enhanced auxin (IAA) uptake while CHI and pH 8.0 buffer reduced IAA uptake. Nevertheless, FC reduced IAA pulse velocity while cycloheximide increased velocity. Additional experiments showed that delivery of auxin to receivers is enhanced by increased receiver pH. This phenomenon was overcome by a pretreatment of the tissue with IAA. Our data suggest that while acidic wall pH values facilitate cellular IAA uptake, they do not enhance pulse velocity or basal secretion. These findings are inconsistent with the chemiosmotic hypothesis for auxin transport.

  3. The nature of subslab slow velocity anomalies beneath South America (United States)

    Portner, Daniel Evan; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Scire, Alissa


    Slow seismic velocity anomalies are commonly imaged beneath subducting slabs in tomographic studies, yet a unifying explanation for their distribution has not been agreed upon. In South America two such anomalies have been imaged associated with subduction of the Nazca Ridge in Peru and the Juan Fernández Ridge in Chile. Here we present new seismic images of the subslab slow velocity anomaly beneath Chile, which give a unique view of the nature of such anomalies. Slow seismic velocities within a large hole in the subducted Nazca slab connect with a subslab slow anomaly that appears correlated with the extent of the subducted Juan Fernández Ridge. The hole in the slab may allow the subslab material to rise into the mantle wedge, revealing the positive buoyancy of the slow material. We propose a new model for subslab slow velocity anomalies beneath the Nazca slab related to the entrainment of hot spot material.

  4. (abstract) Modeling the Critical Velocity Ionization Experiment Interaction (United States)

    Wang, J.; Murphy, G.; Biasca, R.


    Proper interpretation of critical velocity ionization experiments depends upon understanding the expected results from in-situ or remote sensors. In particular, the 1991 shuttle based CIV experiment had diagnostics.

  5. Digital system accurately controls velocity of electromechanical drive (United States)

    Nichols, G. B.


    Digital circuit accurately regulates electromechanical drive mechanism velocity. The gain and phase characteristics of digital circuits are relatively unimportant. Control accuracy depends only on the stability of the input signal frequency.

  6. Dependence of kinetic friction on velocity: master equation approach. (United States)

    Braun, O M; Peyrard, M


    We investigate the velocity dependence of kinetic friction with a model that makes minimal assumptions on the actual mechanism of friction so that it can be applied at many scales, provided the system involves multicontact friction. Using a recently developed master equation approach, we investigate the influence of two concurrent processes. First, at a nonzero temperature, thermal fluctuations allow an activated breaking of contacts that are still below the threshold. As a result, the friction force monotonically increases with velocity. Second, the aging of contacts leads to a decrease of the friction force with velocity. Aging effects include two aspects: the delay in contact formation and aging of a contact itself, i.e., the change of its characteristics with the duration of stationary contact. All these processes are considered simultaneously with the master equation approach, giving a complete dependence of the kinetic friction force on the driving velocity and system temperature, provided the interface parameters are known.

  7. Patch near field acoustic holography based on particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yong-Bin; Jacobsen, Finn; Bi, Chuan-Xing


    Patch near field acoustic holography (PNAH) based on sound pressure measurements makes it possible to reconstruct the source field near a source by measuring the sound pressure at positions on a surface. that is comparable in size to the source region of concern. Particle velocity is an alternative...... input quantity for NAH, and the advantage of using the normal component of the particle velocity rather than the sound pressure as the input of conventional spatial Fourier transform based NAH and as the input of the statistically optimized variant of NAH has recently been demonstrated. This paper......, PNAH based on particle velocity measurements can give better results than the pressure-based PNAH with a reduced number of iterations. A simulation study, as well as an experiment carried out with a pressure-velocity sound intensity probe, demonstrates these findings....

  8. A finite velocity simulation of sedimentation behaviour of flocculating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    . In this study, an ... data and experimental data. The proposed velocity model offers a distinctive advantage over the interpolated-isopercentile ... Constant spatial and temporal variations and fluctuating initial conditions in ...

  9. Phased-array vector velocity estimation using transverse oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes; Marcher, Jønne; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    A method for estimating the 2-D vector velocity of blood using a phased-array transducer is presented. The approach is based on the transverse oscillation (TO) method. The purposes of this work are to expand the TO method to a phased-array geometry and to broaden the potential clinical applicabil......A method for estimating the 2-D vector velocity of blood using a phased-array transducer is presented. The approach is based on the transverse oscillation (TO) method. The purposes of this work are to expand the TO method to a phased-array geometry and to broaden the potential clinical.......79 to 0.92, indicating a correlation between the performance metrics of the TO spectrum and the velocity estimates. Because these performance metrics are much more readily computed, the TO fields can be optimized faster for improved velocity estimation of both simulations and measurements. For simulations...

  10. Novel approach for prediction of ultrasonic velocity in quaternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modified Flory theory along with the Auerbach and Altenberg relations has been employed for the computation of ultrasonic velocity of three quaternary liquid mixtures and a comparative study of all the three relations has then been carried out.

  11. Electrohysterography of labor contractions: propagation velocity and direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikkelsen, E.; Johansen, P.; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A.; Uldbjerg, N.


    OBJECTIVE: Electrohysterographic assessment of the propagation velocity of uterine depolarization has been introduced as a promising predictor of preterm labor. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to characterize the uterine electrohysterographic signals during labor and to determine the

  12. Streamwise decrease of the 'unsteady' virtual velocity of gravel tracers (United States)

    Klösch, Mario; Gmeiner, Philipp; Habersack, Helmut


    Gravel tracers are usually inserted and transported on top of the riverbed, before they disperse vertically and laterally due to periods of intense bedload, the passage of bed forms, lateral channel migration and storage on bars. Buried grains have a lower probability of entrainment, resulting in a reduction of overall mobility, and, on average, in a deceleration of the particles with distance downstream. As a consequence, the results derived from tracer experiments and their significance for gravel transport may depend on the time scale of the investigation period, complicating the comparison of results from different experiments. We developed a regression method, which establishes a direct link between the transport velocity and the unsteady flow variables to yield an 'unsteady' virtual velocity, while considering the tracer slowdown with distance downstream in the regression. For that purpose, the two parameters of a linear excess shear velocity formula (the critical shear velocity u*c and coefficient a) were defined as functions of the travelled distance since the tracer's insertion. Application to published RFID tracer data from the Mameyes River, Puerto Rico, showed that during the investigation period the critical shear velocity u*c of tracers representing the median bed particle diameter (0.11 m) increased from 0.36 m s-1 to 0.44 m s-1, while the coefficient a decreased from the dimensionless value of 4.22 to 3.53, suggesting a reduction of the unsteady virtual velocity at the highest shear velocity in the investigation period from 0.40 m s-1 to 0.08 m s-1. Consideration of the tracer slowdown improved the root mean square error of the calculated mean displacements of the median bed particle diameter from 8.82 m to 0.34 m. As in previous work these results suggest the need of considering the history of transport when deriving travel distances and travel velocities, depending on the aim of the tracer study. The introduced method now allows estimating the

  13. Ascent Velocity of Plasmoids Generated by Surface Discharges (United States)

    Wenzel, Uwe

    The ascent velocity of long-lived plasmoids generated under atmospheric conditions to simulate ball lightning was estimated in [Fussmann et al., Phys. Unserer Zeit 39, 246 (2008) and Jegorov et al., Tech. Phys. 53, 688 (2008): Refs. 1 and 2 in the text, respectively], using a rigid sphere model with poor agreement with the experiment. The plasmoids were, however, deformed. Much better agreement is obtained using the Davies and Taylor formula, which describes the ascent velocity of large spherical-cap bubbles.

  14. Dense velocity reconstruction from tomographic PTV with material derivatives (United States)

    Schneiders, Jan F. G.; Scarano, Fulvio


    A method is proposed to reconstruct the instantaneous velocity field from time-resolved volumetric particle tracking velocimetry (PTV, e.g., 3D-PTV, tomographic PTV and Shake-the-Box), employing both the instantaneous velocity and the velocity material derivative of the sparse tracer particles. The constraint to the measured temporal derivative of the PTV particle tracks improves the consistency of the reconstructed velocity field. The method is christened as pouring time into space, as it leverages temporal information to increase the spatial resolution of volumetric PTV measurements. This approach becomes relevant in cases where the spatial resolution is limited by the seeding concentration. The method solves an optimization problem to find the vorticity and velocity fields that minimize a cost function, which includes next to instantaneous velocity, also the velocity material derivative. The velocity and its material derivative are related through the vorticity transport equation, and the cost function is minimized using the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) algorithm. The procedure is assessed numerically with a simulated PTV experiment in a turbulent boundary layer from a direct numerical simulation (DNS). The experimental validation considers a tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiment in a similar turbulent boundary layer and the additional case of a jet flow. The proposed technique (`vortex-in-cell plus', VIC+) is compared to tomographic PIV analysis (3D iterative cross-correlation), PTV interpolation methods (linear and adaptive Gaussian windowing) and to vortex-in-cell (VIC) interpolation without the material derivative. A visible increase in resolved details in the turbulent structures is obtained with the VIC+ approach, both in numerical simulations and experiments. This results in a more accurate determination of the turbulent stresses distribution in turbulent boundary layer investigations. Data from a jet

  15. Electromagnetic radiation in a medium with a velocity gradient (United States)

    Gladyshev, V. O.; Tereshin, A. A.; Bazleva, D. D.


    A relativistic expression has been obtained for the curvature of trajectory of the wave vector of an electromagnetic wave in a moving optically transparent medium. It has been shown that the curvature of the trajectory and angular deviation of rays appear in a homogeneous isotropic medium if the gradient of the velocity field in the medium is nonzero. The bending of the trajectory in the medium with the velocity gradient is a firstorder effect in the ratio u/ c.

  16. Velocity Tomography Imaging Method with Variable Grid spacing/Interval


    Guangnan, Huang; Yang, Liu; Tryggvason, Ari; Guangyi, Hu; Tingen, Fan; Jianhua, Dong


    In variable grid spacing tomography the underground velocity distribution is parameterized with model cells of different sizes. This method can simultaneously take into account the spatially varying resolution inherent in most datasets. E.g., due to experimental design or logistic constraints, the shallow and deep subsurface velocity distribution may be very differently determined by the available data. The variable grid spacing tomography and regular grid spacing tomography are similar in mo...

  17. Effects of superficial gas velocity and fluid property on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the influence of superficial gas velocity and fluid properties on gas holdup and liquid circulation velocity in a three-phase external loop airlift column using polystyrene (0.0036 m diameter and 1025.55 kg/m3 density) and nylon-6 (0.0035 m diameter and 1084.24 kg/m3 density) particles with aqueous ...

  18. Tomographic Inversion for Shear Velocity Beneath the North American Plate (United States)

    Grand, Stephen P.


    A tomographic back projection scheme has been applied to S and SS travel times to invert for shear velocity below the North American plate. The data range in distance from 8° to 80°, and a total of 3923 arrival times were used. First arrivals were measured directly off the seismograms, while the arrival times of later arrivals were found by a waveform correlation technique using synthetic seismograms. The starting model was laterally heterogeneous in the upper 400 km to account for the first-order differences in ray paths already known. The model was divided into blocks with horizontal dimensions of 500 km by 500 km and varying vertical thicknesses. Good resolution was obtained for structure from just below the crust to about 1700 km depth in the mantle. In the upper mantle a high-velocity root was found directly beneath the Canadian shield to about 400 km depth with the Superior province having the highest velocity and deepest root. The east coast of the United States was found to have intermediate velocities from 100 to 350 km depth and the western United States the slowest velocities at these depths. Below 400 km depth the most significant structure found is a slab-shaped high-velocity anomaly from the eastern Carribean to the northern United States. Beneath the Carribean this anomaly is almost vertical and extends from about 700 km to 1700 km depth. Further to the north, the anomaly dips to the east with high velocities at 700 km depth in the central United States and high velocities below 1100 km depth beneath the east coast. The anomaly is about 1% in magnitude. This lower-mantle anomaly may be associated with past subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America.

  19. Surface recombination velocity of silicon wafers by photoluminescence (United States)

    Baek, D.; Rouvimov, S.; Kim, B.; Jo, T.-C.; Schroder, D. K.


    Photoluminescence (PL) and optical reflection measurements, obtained in the two-wavelength SiPHER PL instrument, are used to determine the surface recombination velocity of silicon wafers. Local measurements and contour maps are possible allowing surface recombination maps to be displayed. This instrument also allows doping and trap density measurements. Surface recombination velocities from 10 to 106cm/s can be measured on low or high resistivity polished and epitaxial wafers.

  20. Deformation of soap films pushed through tubes at high velocity


    Dollet, Benjamin; Cantat, Isabelle


    International audience; The behaviour of soap films pushed through tubes at large velocities, up to several m/s, is investigated. The film shape deviates from its equilibrium configuration perpendicular to the walls and gets curved downstream. A simple model relates the radius of curvature of the film to the friction in the lubrication films touching the wall, and the scaling of Bretherton (1961) holds up to surprisingly high velocities, at which the capillary and Weber numbers are no longer ...

  1. Vehicle Optimal Velocity Curves for Minimum-Time Maneuver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-xia Zhang


    Full Text Available A problem in vehicle minimum-time maneuver is the assumption that a vehicle passes through a given path in a minimal amount of time without deviating from the boundary of the given path. Vehicle handling inverse dynamics provides a new perspective to solve such problem. Based on inverse dynamics, this paper transformed the problem of optimal vehicle velocity for minimum-time maneuver into that of optimal control with the objective function of minimum time. The path for minimum vehicle travel time and the optimal control model were established. The optimal velocity curves for three types of paths, namely, monotonically increasing path, monotonically decreasing path, and constant radius path, were analyzed. On this basis, the optimal velocity curves were solved for two kinds of concrete paths: a path of decreasing curvature radius followed by a path of increasing curvature radius and another path of increasing curvature radius followed by a path of decreasing curvature radius. Nine cases of possible optimal velocity curves were acquired. The optimal velocity curve of the given path, that is, a parabola followed by a semicircle, was obtained. Optimal velocity curves can be used as reference for vehicle minimum-time maneuver, which is an important issue for driver safety in fast-moving vehicles.

  2. Relations between Lagrangian models and synthetic random velocity fields. (United States)

    Olla, Piero; Paradisi, Paolo


    The authors propose an alternative interpretation of Markovian transport models based on the well-mixed condition, in terms of the properties of a random velocity field with second order structure functions scaling linearly in the space-time increments. This interpretation allows direct association of the drift and noise terms entering the model, with the geometry of the turbulent fluctuations. In particular, the well-known nonuniqueness problem in the well-mixed approach is solved in terms of the antisymmetric part of the velocity correlations; its relation with the presence of nonzero mean helicity and other geometrical properties of the flow is elucidated. The well-mixed condition appears to be a special case of the relation between conditional velocity increments of the random field and the one-point Eulerian velocity distribution, allowing generalization of the approach to the transport of nontracer quantities. Application to solid particle transport leads to a model satisfying, in the homogeneous isotropic turbulence case, all the conditions on the behavior of the correlation times for the fluid velocity sampled by the particles. In particular, correlation times in the gravity and in the inertia dominated case, respectively, longer and shorter than in the passive tracer case; in the gravity dominated case, correlation times longer for velocity components along gravity, than for the perpendicular ones. The model produces, in channel flow geometry, particle deposition rates in agreement with experiments.

  3. Crustal velocities from geodetic very long baseline interferometry (United States)

    Fallon, F. W.; Dillinger, W. H.


    VLBI observations from the International Radio Interferometric Surveying and Crustal Dynamics Projects programs taken over a span of 5-8 yr (through August 1990) are used to derive relative velocities of 16 sites on the North American, Eurasian, Pacific, and African plates. The data reduction scheme simultaneously estimates earth orientation parameters and nutation for each session, local atmosphere and clock correction terms, source positions, and initial site positions, as well as the site velocities. Instead of an a priori geophysical crustal model, a minimal set of geometric constraints is used to obtain the velocities. Two alternative constraint formulations - setting the secular motion of the pole and mean length of day to fixed values, and fixing the net rotation of the sites - are considered. They are shown to be equivalent in that they yield equivalent velocity sets with allowance for translation and rotation. The resulting velocities have formal standard errors typically less than 0.2 cm/yr, and most velocities are significantly different from zero.

  4. Superconducting accelerating structures for very low velocity ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xu


    Full Text Available This paper presents designs for four types of very-low-velocity superconducting (SC accelerating cavity capable of providing several MV of accelerating potential per cavity, and suitable for particle velocities in the range 0.006velocity profile to maximize the output energy for each of a number of different ion species. Several laboratories in the U.S. and Europe are planning exotic beam facilities based on SC linacs. The cavity designs presented here are intended for the front end of such linacs, particularly for the postacceleration of rare isotopes of low charge state. Several types of SC cavities have been developed recently to cover particle velocities above 0.06c. Superconducting four-gap quarter-wave resonators for velocities 0.008<β=v/c<0.05 were developed about two decades ago and have been successfully operated at the ATLAS SC linac at Argonne National Laboratory. Since that time, progress in simulation tools, cavity fabrication, and processing have increased SC cavity gradients by a factor of 3–4. This paper applies these tools to optimize the design of a four-gap quarter-wave resonator for exotic beam facilities and other low-velocity applications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Gulgin


    Full Text Available Since labral pathology in professional golfers has been reported, and such pathology has been associated with internal/external hip rotation, quantifying the rotational velocity of the hips during the golf swing may be helpful in understanding the mechanism involved in labral injury. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the peak internal/external rotational velocities of the thigh relative to the pelvis during the golf swing. Fifteen female, collegiate golfers participated in the study. Data were acquired through high-speed three dimensional (3-D videography using a multi-segment bilateral marker set to define the segments, while the subjects completed multiple repetitions of a drive. The results indicated that the lead hip peak internal rotational velocity was significantly greater than that of the trail hip external rotational velocity (p = 0.003. It appears that the lead hip of a golfer experiences much higher rotational velocities during the downswing than that of the trail hip. In other structures, such as the shoulder, an increased risk of soft tissue injury has been associated with high levels of rotational velocity. This may indicate that, in golfers, the lead hip may be more susceptible to injury such as labral tears than that of the trailing hip

  6. Superconducting accelerating structures for very low velocity ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Shepard, K.W.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Fuerst, J.D.; Waldschmidt, G.; /Argonne; Gonin, I.V.; /Fermilab


    This paper presents designs for four types of very-low-velocity superconducting accelerating cavity capable of providing several MV of accelerating potential per cavity, and suitable for particle velocities in the range 0.006 < v/c < 0.06. Superconducting TEM-class cavities have been widely applied to CW acceleration of ion beams. SC linacs can be formed as an array of independently-phased cavities, enabling a variable velocity profile to maximize the output energy for each of a number of different ion species. Several laboratories in the US and Europe are planning exotic beam facilities based on SC linacs. The cavity designs presented here are intended for the front-end of such linacs, particularly for the post-acceleration of rare isotopes of low charge state. Several types of SC cavities have been developed recently to cover particle velocities above 0.06c. Superconducting four-gap quarter-wave resonators for velocities 0.008 < {beta} = v/c < 0.05 were developed about two decades ago and have been successfully operated at the ATLAS SC linac at Argonne National Laboratory. Since that time, progress in simulation tools, cavity fabrication and processing have increased SC cavity gradients by a factor of 3-4. This paper applies these tools to optimize the design of a four-gap quarter-wave resonator for exotic beam facilities and other low-velocity applications.

  7. Accurate Recovery of H i Velocity Dispersion from Radio Interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianjamasimanana, R. [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Blok, W. J. G. de [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Heald, George H., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV, Groningen (Netherlands)


    Gas velocity dispersion measures the amount of disordered motion of a rotating disk. Accurate estimates of this parameter are of the utmost importance because the parameter is directly linked to disk stability and star formation. A global measure of the gas velocity dispersion can be inferred from the width of the atomic hydrogen (H i) 21 cm line. We explore how several systematic effects involved in the production of H i cubes affect the estimate of H i velocity dispersion. We do so by comparing the H i velocity dispersion derived from different types of data cubes provided by The H i Nearby Galaxy Survey. We find that residual-scaled cubes best recover the H i velocity dispersion, independent of the weighting scheme used and for a large range of signal-to-noise ratio. For H i observations, where the dirty beam is substantially different from a Gaussian, the velocity dispersion values are overestimated unless the cubes are cleaned close to (e.g., ∼1.5 times) the noise level.

  8. Velocity and directionality of the electrohysterographic signal propagation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Lange

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The initiation of treatment for women with threatening preterm labor requires effective distinction between true and false labor. The electrohysterogram (EHG has shown great promise in estimating and classifying uterine activity. However, key issues remain unresolved and no clinically usable method has yet been presented using EHG. Recent studies have focused on the propagation velocity of the EHG signals as a potential discriminator between true and false labor. These studies have estimated the propagation velocity of individual spikes of the EHG signals. We therefore focus on estimating the propagation velocity of the entire EHG burst recorded during a contraction in two dimensions. STUDY DESIGN: EHG measurements were performed on six women in active labor at term, and a total of 35 contractions were used for the estimation of propagation velocity. The measurements were performed using a 16-channel two-dimensional electrode grid. The estimates were calculated with a maximum-likelihood approach. RESULTS: The estimated average propagation velocity was 2.18 (±0.68 cm/s. No single preferred direction of propagation was found. CONCLUSION: The propagation velocities estimated in this study are similar to those reported in other studies but with a smaller intra- and inter-patient variation. Thus a potential tool has been established for further studies on true and false labor contractions.

  9. Flexural testing of weld site and HVOF coating characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Sahin, Ahmet


    This book provides fundamental understanding and practical application of characteristics of flexural motion in the assessment of the weld size and coating thickness. Some formulations of heat transfer and flexural motion are introduced while displacement and load correlation are used to estimate elastic modules and the size of the heat affected zone as well as the coating thickness. The case studies presented give a practical understanding of weld size and coating thickness characterizations.

  10. Is Fish Response related to Velocity and Turbulence Magnitudes? (Invited) (United States)

    Wilson, C. A.; Hockley, F. A.; Cable, J.


    Riverine fish are subject to heterogeneous velocities and turbulence, and may use this to their advantage by selecting regions which balance energy expenditure for station holding whilst maximising energy gain through feeding opportunities. This study investigated microhabitat selection by guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in terms of the three-dimensional velocity structure generated by idealised boulders in an experimental flume. Velocity and turbulence influenced intra-species variation in swimming behaviour with respect to size, sex and parasite intensity. With increasing body length, fish swam further and more frequently between boulder regions. Larger guppies spent more time in the high velocity and low turbulence region, whereas smaller guppies preferred the low velocity and high shear stress region directly behind the boulders. Male guppies selected the region of low velocity, indicating a possible reduced swimming ability due to hydrodynamic drag imposed by their fins. With increasing parasite (Gyrodactylus turnbulli) burden, fish preferentially selected the region of moderate velocity which had the lowest bulk measure of turbulence of all regions and was also the most spatially homogeneous velocity and turbulence region. Overall the least amount of time was spent in the recirculation zone which had the highest magnitude of shear stresses and mean vertical turbulent length scale to fish length ratio. Shear stresses were a factor of two greater than in the most frequented moderate velocity region, while mean vertical turbulent length scale to fish length ratio were six times greater. Indeed the mean longitudinal turbulent scale was 2-6 times greater than the fish length in all regions. While it is impossible to discriminate between these two turbulence parameters (shear stress and turbulent length to fish length ratio) in influencing the fish preference, our study infers that there is a bias towards fish spending more time in a region where both the bulk

  11. Stabilization and Riesz basis property for an overhead crane model with feedback in velocity and rotating velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toure K. Augustin


    Full Text Available This paper studies a variant of an overhead crane model's problem, with a control force in velocity and rotating velocity on the platform. We obtain under certain conditions the well-posedness and the strong stabilization of the closed-loop system. We then analyze the spectrum of the system. Using a method due to Shkalikov, we prove the existence of a sequence of generalized eigenvectors of the system, which forms a Riesz basis for the state energy Hilbert space.

  12. Three dimensional reflection velocity analysis based on velocity model scan; Model scan ni yoru sanjigen hanshaha sokudo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, M.; Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Introduced herein is a reflection wave velocity analysis method using model scanning as a method for velocity estimation across a section, the estimation being useful in the construction of a velocity structure model in seismic exploration. In this method, a stripping type analysis is carried out, wherein optimum structure parameters are determined for reflection waves one after the other beginning with those from shallower parts. During this process, the velocity structures previously determined for the shallower parts are fixed and only the lowest of the layers undergoing analysis at the time is subjected to model scanning. To consider the bending of ray paths at each velocity boundaries involving shallower parts, the ray path tracing method is utilized for the calculation of the reflection travel time curve for the reflection surface being analyzed. Out of the reflection wave travel time curves calculated using various velocity structure models, one that suits best the actual reflection travel time is detected. The degree of matching between the calculated result and actual result is measured by use of data semblance in a time window provided centering about the calculated reflective wave travel time. The structure parameter is estimated on the basis of conditions for the maximum semblance. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  13. Velocity Structure and Spatio-temporal Evolution in the Head Turbidity Currents based on Ultrasound Doppler Velocity Profiling (United States)

    Nomura, Shun; Cesare Giovanni, De; Takeda, Yasushi; Yoshida, Taiki; Tasaka, Yuji; Sakaguchi, Hide


    Particle laden flow or turbidity current along the sea floor are important as a sediment conveyer and a formation factor of the submarine topography in the geological field. Especially, in the head of the flow, the kinematic energy is frequently exchanged through the boundary of the ambient water and the seabed floor, and it dominants the substantial dynamics of turbidity currents. An understanding of its turbulence structure helps to predict the sediment transport and layer development processes. To comprehend its dynamics precisely, flume test were conducted with continuously fed fluid quartz flour mixture supply. The flow velocities were measured at two different angles by the ultrasound Doppler velocity profiler UVP and both velocity components, in flow direction and on the vertical axis, were extracted. The fundamental velocity structure corresponds to the theories found in literature. Its spatio-temporal evolution was examined from the velocity distribution profiles along the downstream directions. Additionally, developing processes of head structures were also discussed through hydraulic statistic values such as mean velocity, Reynolds stress, and turbulent kinematic energy.

  14. Effects of frequency-dependent attenuation and velocity dispersion on in vitro ultrasound velocity measurements in intact human femur specimens. (United States)

    Haïat, Guillaume; Padilla, Frédéric; Cleveland, Robin O; Laugier, Pascal


    Numerous studies have shown that ultrasonic velocity measured in bone provides a good assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk. However, a lack of standardization of signal processing techniques used to compute the speed of sound (SOS) complicates the comparison between data obtained with different commercial devices. In this study, 38 intact femurs were tested using a through-transmission technique and SOS determined using different techniques. The resulting difference in measured SOS was determined as functions of the attenuation and the velocity dispersion. A numerical simulation was used to explain how attenuation and dispersion impact two different SOS measurements (group velocity, velocity based on the first zero crossing of the signal). A new method aimed at compensating for attenuation was devised and led to a significant reduction in the difference between SOS obtained with both signal processing techniques. A comparison between SOS and X-ray density measurements indicated that the best correlation was reached for SOS based on the first zero crossing apparently because it used a marker located in the early part of the signal and was less sensitive to multipath interference. The conclusion is that first zero crossing velocity may be preferred to group velocity for ultrasonic assessment at this potential fracture site.

  15. Peak velocity measurements in tortuous arteries with phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging: the effect of multidirectional velocity encoding. (United States)

    Schubert, Tilman; Bieri, Oliver; Pansini, Michele; Stippich, Christoph; Santini, Francesco


    Blood flow velocity measurement with phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) is widely applied in clinical routine imaging. Usually, velocity and volumetric flow measurements are performed using unidirectional encoding of the through-plane velocity with a 2-dimensional (2D) acquisition. Single-slice acquisitions and measurements with unidirectional encoding, however, may lead to significant errors, especially in tortuous vessels, but might benefit from higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). To evaluate the impact of volumetric acquisition and multidirectional velocity encoding, blood velocity measurements were performed at 3 locations in the distal internal carotid artery with a 3-dimensional, 3-directional time-resolved phase contrast (PC) sequence (4-dimensional [4D]) and a 2D acquisition with 3-directional (2D-3dir) and through-plane velocity encoding (2D-tp) derived from the same sequence. Twenty carotid arteries of 10 healthy volunteers (24-37 years) were evaluated. For each volunteer, 1 4D acquisition and 3 2D 3-directional PC measurements were placed according to a time-of-flight angiography. Unidirectionally encoded through-plane velocities were derived from the multidirectionally encoded 2D scan by discarding the in-plane components. Regions of interest were identified on the slab after postprocessing and visualization for the 4D data set as well as directly on the digital imaging and communications in medicine images for the 2D measurement. Blood flow velocity, volumetric flow, and SNRs were measured at carotid segments C4, C5, and C7 on both sides obtaining 20 values per vessel location. The quantities were tested for significant differences between each modality at all 3 locations with paired t tests. At the segments C5 and C7, the highest peak velocities (PVs) were measured with the 4D sequence, followed by 2D-3dir and 2D tp. The PV differences between the sequences were significant (P measured with 2D-tp. The mean PV value of the 4D sequence

  16. Eccentricity samples: Implications on the potential and the velocity distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cubarsi R.


    Full Text Available Planar and vertical epicycle frequencies and local angular velocity are related to the derivatives up to the second order of the local potential and can be used to test the shape of the potential from stellar disc samples. These samples show a more complex velocity distribution than halo stars and should provide a more realistic test. We assume an axisymmetric potential allowing a mixture of independent ellipsoidal velocity distributions, of separable or Staeckel form in cylindrical or spherical coordinates. We prove that values of local constants are not consistent with a potential separable in addition in cylindrical coordinates and with a spherically symmetric potential. The simplest potential that fits the local constants is used to show that the harmonical and non-harmonical terms of the potential are equally important. The same analysis is used to estimate the local constants. Two families of nested subsamples selected for decreasing planar and vertical eccentricities are used to borne out the relation between the mean squared planar and vertical eccentricities and the velocity dispersions of the subsamples. According to the first-order epicycle model, the radial and vertical velocity components provide accurate information on the planar and vertical epicycle frequencies. However, it is impossible to account for the asymmetric drift which introduces a systematic bias in estimation of the third constant. Under a more general model, when the asymmetric drift is taken into account, the rotation velocity dispersions together with their asymmetric drift provide the correct fit for the local angular velocity. The consistency of the results shows that this new method based on the distribution of eccentricities is worth using for kinematic stellar samples. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. No 176011: Dynamics and Kinematics of Celestial Bodies and Systems

  17. Numerical Investigation of Vasospasm Detection by Extracranial Blood Velocity Ratios. (United States)

    Ryu, Jaiyoung; Ko, Nerissa; Hu, Xiao; Shadden, Shawn C


    Early diagnosis of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage can prevent cerebral ischemia and improve neurological outcomes. This study numerically evaluates the relevance of extracranial blood velocity indices to detect vasospasm. A numerical model of cerebral blood flow was used to evaluate the hemodynamics associated with anterior and posterior vasospasm under normal and impaired cerebral autoregulation conditions. Extracranial blood velocities at the carotid and vertebral arteries and their ratios between ipsilateral and contralateral, anterior and posterior, and downstream and upstream arteries were monitored during vasospasm progression. For current clinical indices that track blood velocities at vasospastic arterial segments using transcranial Doppler (TCD), we observed that velocities increased initially and then decreased with vasospasm progression. This nonmonotonic behavior can lead to false-negative decisions in moderate to severe vasospasm. Alternatively, volumetric flow decreased monotonically at the affected arteries, leading to blood velocities upstream of the vasospastic artery also decreasing monotonically. Based on this principle, we demonstrate that velocity ratios between the carotid and vertebral arteries may better identify moderate to severe vasospasm and improve sensitivity and specificity of vasospasm detection. The velocity indices proposed in this study may enable new or improved noninvasive diagnosis of vasospasm using extracranial Doppler ultrasound. Compared to current clinical indices, the new indices may improve the handling of (1) scenarios of severe vasospasm or impaired cerebral autoregulation, (2) systemic changes in blood pressure and cardiac output, (3) vasospasm occurring in arteries distal to the cerebral circle region, and (4) cases with insufficient acoustic bone window for TCD. The results provide a concrete basis for future clinical evaluation of extracranial indices for vasospasm detection. © 2017 S. Karger AG

  18. Eccentricity Samples: Implications on the Potential and the Velocity Distribution (United States)

    Cubarsi, R.; Stojanović, M.; Ninković, S.


    Planar and vertical epicycle frequencies and local angular velocity are related to the derivatives up to the second order of the local potential and can be used to test the shape of the potential from stellar disc samples. These samples show a more complex velocity distribution than halo stars and should provide a more realistic test. We assume an axisymmetric potential allowing a mixture of independent ellipsoidal velocity distributions, of separable or Staeckel form in cylindrical or spherical coordinates. We prove that values of local constants are not consistent with a potential separable in addition in cylindrical coordinates and with a spherically symmetric potential. The simplest potential that fits the local constants is used to show that the harmonical and non-harmonical terms of the potential are equally important. The same analysis is used to estimate the local constants. Two families of nested subsamples selected for decreasing planar and vertical eccentricities are used to borne out the relation between the mean squared planar and vertical eccentricities and the velocity dispersions of the subsamples. According to the first-order epicycle model, the radial and vertical velocity components provide accurate information on the planar and vertical epicycle frequencies. However, it is impossible to account for the asymmetric drift which introduces a systematic bias in estimation of the third constant. Under a more general model, when the asymmetric drift is taken into account, the rotation velocity dispersions together with their asymmetric drift provide the correct fit for the local angular velocity. The consistency of the results shows that this new method based on the distribution of eccentricities is worth using for kinematic stellar samples.

  19. Velocity field calculation for non-orthogonal numerical grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Computational grids containing cell faces that do not align with an orthogonal (e.g. Cartesian, cylindrical) coordinate system are routinely encountered in porous-medium numerical simulations. Such grids are referred to in this study as non-orthogonal grids because some cell faces are not orthogonal to a coordinate system plane (e.g. xy, yz or xz plane in Cartesian coordinates). Non-orthogonal grids are routinely encountered at the Savannah River Site in porous-medium flow simulations for Performance Assessments and groundwater flow modeling. Examples include grid lines that conform to the sloping roof of a waste tank or disposal unit in a 2D Performance Assessment simulation, and grid surfaces that conform to undulating stratigraphic surfaces in a 3D groundwater flow model. Particle tracking is routinely performed after a porous-medium numerical flow simulation to better understand the dynamics of the flow field and/or as an approximate indication of the trajectory and timing of advective solute transport. Particle tracks are computed by integrating the velocity field from cell to cell starting from designated seed (starting) positions. An accurate velocity field is required to attain accurate particle tracks. However, many numerical simulation codes report only the volumetric flowrate (e.g. PORFLOW) and/or flux (flowrate divided by area) crossing cell faces. For an orthogonal grid, the normal flux at a cell face is a component of the Darcy velocity vector in the coordinate system, and the pore velocity for particle tracking is attained by dividing by water content. For a non-orthogonal grid, the flux normal to a cell face that lies outside a coordinate plane is not a true component of velocity with respect to the coordinate system. Nonetheless, normal fluxes are often taken as Darcy velocity components, either naively or with accepted approximation. To enable accurate particle tracking or otherwise present an accurate depiction of the velocity field for a non

  20. Water removal studies on high power hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells with alkaline electrolytes (United States)

    Kordesch, K.; Oliveira, J. C. T.; Gruber, Ch.; Winkler, G.


    Research in verification of bipolar fuel cell design, containing mass-produceable all-carbon electrodes which can be used in alkaline or acidic cells with liquid or immobilized (matrix) electrolytes, is described. Spin-offs from the research related to the Hermes manned spaceplane could be useful for applications on Earth. Peak-power plants, electric vehicles and storage devices used in combination with renewable energy sources could all benefit from the research. A subsequent investigation of water transpiration properties of carbon electrodes is described.

  1. 29 CFR 1910.253 - Oxygen-fuel gas welding and cutting. (United States)


    ... shall be used. Slings or electric magnets shall not be used for this purpose. Valve-protection caps... having fixed hand wheels shall have keys, handles, or nonadjustable wrenches on valve stems while these cylinders are in service. In multiple cylinder installations only one key or handle is required for each...

  2. A hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell using an ion-exchange membrane as an electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duin, P.J. van; Kruissink, C.A.


    Using an acidic type of water leached ion exchange membrane, cell current outputs of the order of 100 mA▪cm-2 at 0,6 V cell voltage have been obtained; the removal of produced water largely limits the cell performance. Cells using the alkaline type of membrane exhibit much smaller current densities,

  3. NOx emissions from high swirl turbulent spray flames with highly oxygenated fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Bohon, Myles


    Combustion of fuels with fuel bound oxygen is of interest from both a practical and a fundamental viewpoint. While a great deal of work has been done studying the effect of oxygenated additives in diesel and gasoline engines, much less has been done examining combustion characteristics of fuels with extremely high mass fractions of fuel bound oxygen. This work presents an initial investigation into the very low NOx emissions resulting from the combustion of a model, high oxygen mass fraction fuel. Glycerol was chosen as a model fuel with a fuel bound oxygen mass fraction of 52%, and was compared with emissions measured from diesel combustion at similar conditions in a high swirl turbulent spray flame. This work has shown that high fuel bound oxygen mass fractions allow for combustion at low global equivalence ratios with comparable exhaust gas temperatures due to the significantly lower concentrations of diluting nitrogen. Despite similar exhaust gas temperatures, NOx emissions from glycerol combustion were up to an order of magnitude lower than those measured using diesel fuel. This is shown to be a result not of specific burner geometry, but rather is influenced by the presence of higher oxygen and lower nitrogen concentrations at the flame front inhibiting NOx production. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.

  4. Internal voltage control of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells: Feasibility study (United States)

    Prokopius, P. R.


    An experimental study was conducted to assess the feasibility of internal voltage regulation of fuel cell systems. Two methods were tested. In one, reactant partial pressure was used as the voltage control parameter and in the other reactant total pressure was used for control. Both techniques were breadboarded and tested on a single alkaline-electrolyte fuel cell. Both methods were found to be possible forms of regulation, however, of the two the total pressure technique would be more efficient, simpler to apply and would provide better transient characteristics.

  5. Transport dynamics of a high-power-density matrix-type hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell (United States)

    Prokopius, P. R.; Hagedorn, N. H.


    Experimental transport dynamics tests were made on a space power fuel cell of current design. Various operating transients were introduced and transport-related response data were recorded with fluidic humidity sensing instruments. Also, sampled data techniques were developed for measuring the cathode-side electrolyte concentration during transient operation.

  6. Effect of water velocity on hydroponic phytoremediation of metals. (United States)

    Weiss, P; Westbrook, A; Weiss, J; Gulliver, J; Biesboer, D


    The influence of flow velocity on the uptake of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc by hydroponically grown soft stem bulrush (Scirpus validus) was investigated. The roots of the plants were exposed to a continually recycled, nutrient enriched, synthetic stormwater. Plants were divided into groups and the roots of each group exposed to different but constant water velocities. The metal concentrations in the roots and stems were compared after three weeks. Metal accumulation in roots was increased for water velocities between 1.3 and 4.0 cm s(-1). In a second experiment, the roots of all plants were exposed to a single velocity and the root and stem metal concentrations were determined as a function of time. Metal concentrations in the roots approached a constant value after three weeks. After this time, accumulation of metals depends upon root growth. The results suggest that long-term accumulation by the roots of hydroponic Scirpus validus can be increased by increasing water velocity, which implies that floating islands with movement will retain more metals from the water column.

  7. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 Contingency Drogue Deploy Velocity Trigger (United States)

    Gay, Robert S.; Stochowiak, Susan; Smith, Kelly


    As a backup to the GPS-aided Kalman filter and the Barometric altimeter, an "adjusted" velocity trigger is used during entry to trigger the chain of events that leads to drogue chute deploy for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). Even though this scenario is multiple failures deep, the Orion Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) software makes use of a clever technique that was taken from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) program, which recently successfully landing the Curiosity rover on Mars. MSL used this technique to jettison the heat shield at the proper time during descent. Originally, Orion use the un-adjusted navigated velocity, but the removal of the Star Tracker to save costs for EFT-1, increased attitude errors which increased inertial propagation errors to the point where the un-adjusted velocity caused altitude dispersions at drogue deploy to be too large. Thus, to reduce dispersions, the velocity vector is projected onto a "reference" vector that represents the nominal "truth" vector at the desired point in the trajectory. Because the navigation errors are largely perpendicular to the truth vector, this projection significantly reduces dispersions in the velocity magnitude. This paper will detail the evolution of this trigger method for the Orion project and cover the various methods tested to determine the reference "truth" vector; and at what point in the trajectory it should be computed.

  8. Tissue motion in blood velocity estimation and its simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaikjer, Malene; Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    . The motion due to the heart, when the volunteer was asked to hold his breath, gave a peak velocity of 4.2±1.7 mm/s. The movement of the carotid artery wall due to changing blood pressure had a peak velocity of 8.9±3.7 mm/s over the cardiac cycle. The variations are due to differences in heart rhythm......Determination of blood velocities for color flow mapping systems involves both stationary echo cancelling and velocity estimation. Often the stationary echo cancelling filter is the limiting factor in color flow mapping and the optimization and further development of this filter is crucial...... to the improvement of color flow imaging. Optimization based on in-vivo data is difficult since the blood and tissue signals cannot be accurately distinguished and the correct extend of the vessel under investigation is often unknown. This study introduces a model for the simulation of blood velocity data in which...

  9. Velocity and stress autocorrelation decay in isothermal dissipative particle dynamics. (United States)

    Chaudhri, Anuj; Lukes, Jennifer R


    The velocity and stress autocorrelation decay in a dissipative particle dynamics ideal fluid model is analyzed in this paper. The autocorrelation functions are calculated at three different friction parameters and three different time steps using the well-known Groot/Warren algorithm and newer algorithms including self-consistent leap-frog, self-consistent velocity Verlet and Shardlow first and second order integrators. At low friction values, the velocity autocorrelation function decays exponentially at short times, shows slower-than exponential decay at intermediate times, and approaches zero at long times for all five integrators. As friction value increases, the deviation from exponential behavior occurs earlier and is more pronounced. At small time steps, all the integrators give identical decay profiles. As time step increases, there are qualitative and quantitative differences between the integrators. The stress correlation behavior is markedly different for the algorithms. The self-consistent velocity Verlet and the Shardlow algorithms show very similar stress autocorrelation decay with change in friction parameter, whereas the Groot/Warren and leap-frog schemes show variations at higher friction factors. Diffusion coefficients and shear viscosities are calculated using Green-Kubo integration of the velocity and stress autocorrelation functions. The diffusion coefficients match well-known theoretical results at low friction limits. Although the stress autocorrelation function is different for each integrator, fluctuates rapidly, and gives poor statistics for most of the cases, the calculated shear viscosities still fall within range of theoretical predictions and nonequilibrium studies.

  10. Elastic velocities of partially gas-saturated unconsolidated sediments (United States)

    Lee, M.W.


    Fluid in sediments significantly affects elastic properties of sediments and gas in the pore space can be identified by a marked reduction of P-wave velocity or a decrease of Poisson's ratio. The elastic properties of gas-saturated sediments can be predicted by the classical Biot-Gassmann theory (BGT). However, parameters for the BGT such as the Biot coefficient or moduli of dry frame of unconsolidated and high porosity sediments are not readily available. Dependence of velocities on differential pressure or porosity for partially gas-saturated sediments is formulated using properties derived from velocities of water-saturated sediments. Laboratory samples for unconsolidated and consolidated sediments and well log data acquired for unconsolidated marine sediments agree well with the predictions. However, because the P-wave velocity depends highly on how the gas is saturated in the pore space such as uniform or patch, the amounts of gas estimated from the P-wave velocity contains high uncertainty. The modeled Vp/Vs ratio of partially gas-saturated sediment using the patch distribution is usually greater than 1.6, whereas the ratio modeled assuming a uniform distribution is about 1.6. Thus, Poisson's ratio or Vp/Vs ratio may be used to differentiate patch from uniform saturation, but differences between various models of patch saturation cannot be easily identified. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exceptional Ground Accelerations and Velocities Caused by Earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, John


    This project aims to understand the characteristics of the free-field strong-motion records that have yielded the 100 largest peak accelerations and the 100 largest peak velocities recorded to date. The peak is defined as the maximum magnitude of the acceleration or velocity vector during the strong shaking. This compilation includes 35 records with peak acceleration greater than gravity, and 41 records with peak velocities greater than 100 cm/s. The results represent an estimated 150,000 instrument-years of strong-motion recordings. The mean horizontal acceleration or velocity, as used for the NGA ground motion models, is typically 0.76 times the magnitude of this vector peak. Accelerations in the top 100 come from earthquakes as small as magnitude 5, while velocities in the top 100 all come from earthquakes with magnitude 6 or larger. Records are dominated by crustal earthquakes with thrust, oblique-thrust, or strike-slip mechanisms. Normal faulting mechanisms in crustal earthquakes constitute under 5% of the records in the databases searched, and an even smaller percentage of the exceptional records. All NEHRP site categories have contributed exceptional records, in proportions similar to the extent that they are represented in the larger database.

  12. The statistical properties of sea ice velocity fields (United States)

    Agarwal, S.; Wettlaufer, J. S.


    Thorndike and Colony (1982) showed that more than 70% of the variance of the ice motion can be explained by the geostrophic winds. This conclusion was reached by analyzing only 2 years of data. Due to the importance of ice motion in Arctic climate we ask how persistent is such a prediction. In so doing, we study and develop a stochastic model for the Arctic sea ice velocity fields based on the observed sea ice velocity fields from satellites and buoys for the period 1978 - 2012. Having previously found that the Arctic Sea Equivalent Ice Extent (EIE) has a white noise structure on annual to bi-annual time scales (Agarwal et. al. 2012), we assess the connection to ice motion. We divide the Arctic into dynamic and thermodynamic components, with focus on the dynamic part i.e. the velocity fields of sea ice driven by the geostrophic winds over the Arctic. We show (1) the stationarity of the spatial correlation structure of the velocity fields, and (2) the robustness of white noise structure present in the velocity fields on annual to bi-annual time scales, which combine to explain the white noise characteristics of the EIE on these time scales. S. Agarwal, W. Moon and J.S. Wettlaufer, Trends, noise and reentrant long-term persistence in Arctic sea ice, Proc. R. Soc. A, 468, 2416 (2012). A.S. Thorndike and R. Colony, Sea ice motion in response to geostrophic winds, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 5845 (1982).

  13. Sound velocity determination in gel-based emulsions. (United States)

    Ammann, Jean-Jacques; Galaz, Belfor


    Sound velocity is a main parameter in non destructive characterization, closely related to the elastic properties and to the microstructure of heterogeneous materials. The accurate determination of the sound velocity using pulse-echo technique relies on the ability to reduce pulse distortion and to measure specimen dimensions with a high precision. In the field of bio-mimetic materials and biological tissues, the nature of the specimen makes this last requirement highly difficult or inappropriate. The present work, using a through-transmission configuration, allows, in a stress free environment, to access the sound velocity in soft, low acoustic contrast materials without requiring the specimen dimensions. The specimen sound velocity is obtained from the echo time-of-flights through a Z-scan process providing the absolute medium sound velocity as reference. The technique uses an excitation burst at a frequency below the transducer resonance to ensure a significantly reduction in pulse distortions and improve signal-to-noise ratio. The accurate determination of the echo time-of-flight relies on a highly efficient cross-correlation/Hilbert transform signal processing. The method has been applied to gel-based emulsions of different microstructures considered as biomimetic phantoms, as well as to their constituents: pure gelatin and vegetable oil.

  14. Divergence instability of pipes conveying fluid with uncertain flow velocity (United States)

    Rahmati, Mehdi; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza; Goli, Sareh


    This article deals with investigation of probabilistic stability of pipes conveying fluid with stochastic flow velocity in time domain. As a matter of fact, this study has focused on the randomness effects of flow velocity on stability of pipes conveying fluid while most of research efforts have only focused on the influences of deterministic parameters on the system stability. The Euler-Bernoulli beam and plug flow theory are employed to model pipe structure and internal flow, respectively. In addition, flow velocity is considered as a stationary random process with Gaussian distribution. Afterwards, the stochastic averaging method and Routh's stability criterion are used so as to investigate the stability conditions of system. Consequently, the effects of boundary conditions, viscoelastic damping, mass ratio, and elastic foundation on the stability regions are discussed. Results delineate that the critical mean flow velocity decreases by increasing power spectral density (PSD) of the random velocity. Moreover, by increasing PSD from zero, the type effects of boundary condition and presence of elastic foundation are diminished, while the influences of viscoelastic damping and mass ratio could increase. Finally, to have a more applicable study, regression analysis is utilized to develop design equations and facilitate further analyses for design purposes.

  15. Magnetophoretic velocities of superparamagnetic particles, agglomerates and complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, Naomi, E-mail: [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ, United Kindom (United Kingdom); Grob, Tim [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ, United Kindom (United Kingdom); Morten, Karl [Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford, The Women Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU (United Kingdom); Thompson, Ian; Sheard, Steve [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ, United Kindom (United Kingdom)


    A study into the magnetically induced mobility of four types of superparamagnetic particles (SMPs) was conducted using a video camera, an inverted light microscope and ImageJ tracking software. The objective is to improve the understanding of how SMP-capture assays perform by measuring mobilities of SMPs, when aggregated together or attached to non-magnetic beads (NMB). The magnetically induced velocities of self-assembled SMP chains were measured and found to meet the proposed models. A study into the zeta potential of the SMPs was completed to determine a scenario for maximal electrostatic interactions and efficient capture of the SMPs to a target. SMPs were bound to biotinylated NMBs, representing attachment to a disease biomarker. The drift velocity of SMP chains and SMP–NMB complexes in a gradient magnetic field was compared. It is expected that the observable changes to the magnetophoretic mobility of SMPs attached to a disease biomarker will lead to new biosensor technology. - Highlights: • Analysis of the magnetically induced drift velocity of superparamagnetic particles. • Zeta potential of superparamagnetic particles and non-magnetic particles found. • Drift velocity of single particles, chains and complexes determined experimentally. • Magnetic drift velocities of chains and complexes predicted by simple models.

  16. Cardiac Shear Wave Velocity Detection in the Porcine Heart. (United States)

    Vos, Hendrik J; van Dalen, Bas M; Heinonen, Ilkka; Bosch, Johan G; Sorop, Oana; Duncker, Dirk J; van der Steen, Antonius F W; de Jong, Nico


    Cardiac muscle stiffness can potentially be estimated non-invasively with shear wave elastography. Shear waves are present on the septal wall after mitral and aortic valve closure, thus providing an opportunity to assess stiffness in early systole and early diastole. We report on the shear wave recordings of 22 minipigs with high-frame-rate echocardiography. The waves were captured with 4000 frames/s using a programmable commercial ultrasound machine. The wave pattern was extracted from the data through a local tissue velocity estimator based on one-lag autocorrelation. The wave propagation velocity was determined with a normalized Radon transform, resulting in median wave propagation velocities of 2.2 m/s after mitral valve closure and 4.2 m/s after aortic valve closure. Overall the velocities ranged between 0.8 and 6.3 m/s in a 95% confidence interval. By dispersion analysis we found that the propagation velocity only mildly increased with shear wave frequency. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Velocity of climate change algorithms for guiding conservation and management. (United States)

    Hamann, Andreas; Roberts, David R; Barber, Quinn E; Carroll, Carlos; Nielsen, Scott E


    The velocity of climate change is an elegant analytical concept that can be used to evaluate the exposure of organisms to climate change. In essence, one divides the rate of climate change by the rate of spatial climate variability to obtain a speed at which species must migrate over the surface of the earth to maintain constant climate conditions. However, to apply the algorithm for conservation and management purposes, additional information is needed to improve realism at local scales. For example, destination information is needed to ensure that vectors describing speed and direction of required migration do not point toward a climatic cul-de-sac by pointing beyond mountain tops. Here, we present an analytical approach that conforms to standard velocity algorithms if climate equivalents are nearby. Otherwise, the algorithm extends the search for climate refugia, which can be expanded to search for multivariate climate matches. With source and destination information available, forward and backward velocities can be calculated allowing useful inferences about conservation of species (present-to-future velocities) and management of species populations (future-to-present velocities). © 2014 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Ion velocities in a micro-cathode arc thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang Taisen; Shashurin, Alexey; Keidar, Michael [The George Washington University, Washington, DC 22202 (United States); Beilis, Isak [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)


    Ion velocities in the plasma jet generated by the micro-cathode arc thruster are studied by means of time-of-flight method using enhanced ion detection system (EIDS). The EIDS triggers perturbations (spikes) on arc current waveform, and the larger current in the spike generates denser plasma bunches propagating along with the mainstream plasma. The EIDS utilizes double electrostatic probes rather than single probes. The average Ti ion velocity is measured to be around 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} m/s without a magnetic field. It was found that the application of a magnetic field does not change ion velocities in the interelectrode region while leads to ion acceleration in the free expanding plasma plume by a factor of about 2. Ion velocities of about 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} m/s were detected for the magnetic field of about 300 mT at distance of about 100-200 mm from the cathode. It is proposed that plasma is accelerated due to Lorentz force. The average thrust is calculated using the ion velocity measurements and the cathode mass consumption rate, and its increase with the magnetic field is demonstrated.

  19. Comparison of ultrasonic velocities in dispersive and nondispersive food materials. (United States)

    Cobus, Laura A E B; Ross, Kelly A; Scanlon, Martin G; Page, John H


    Ultrasonic techniques are increasingly being used to evaluate the properties of food materials. Interpretation of the structure and dynamics on the basis of measured ultrasonic parameters requires rigorous definition of ultrasonic parameters such as velocity, especially since many food materials can display considerable dispersive behavior (changes in velocity with frequency). Agar gel (2% w/v) and agar gel (2% w/v) with a regular array of bubbles (8% volume fraction) were chosen as nondispersive and dispersive materials, respectively. Frequency and time domain techniques were used to analyze velocities. Signal, phase, and group velocities were identical in the agar gel and were indistinguishable from those of water (1500 m s(-1)), indicating the predominant effect of the bulk modulus of the water they contain on the longitudinal modulus of the gel. In contrast, the inclusion of the bubbles in the agar gel led to strongly dispersive behavior, with group velocities varying by 1000 m s(-1) above and below the 1500 m s(-1) of the agar gel without bubbles, depending on frequency. The addition of bubbles also led to strong attenuation in the agar gel with a peak occurring at a frequency associated with a band gap arising from destructive interference of sound waves. The results show that care must be taken when comparing ultrasonic parameters derived from experiments on food materials performed at different frequencies or with different ultrasonic techniques.

  20. Tuning the Fano factor of graphene via Fermi velocity modulation (United States)

    Lima, Jonas R. F.; Barbosa, Anderson L. R.; Bezerra, C. G.; Pereira, Luiz Felipe C.


    In this work we investigate the influence of a Fermi velocity modulation on the Fano factor of periodic and quasi-periodic graphene superlattices. We consider the continuum model and use the transfer matrix method to solve the Dirac-like equation for graphene where the electrostatic potential, energy gap and Fermi velocity are piecewise constant functions of the position x. We found that in the presence of an energy gap, it is possible to tune the energy of the Fano factor peak and consequently the location of the Dirac point, by a modulation in the Fermi velocity. Hence, the peak of the Fano factor can be used experimentally to identify the Dirac point. We show that for higher values of the Fermi velocity the Fano factor goes below 1/3 at the Dirac point. Furthermore, we show that in periodic superlattices the location of Fano factor peaks is symmetric when the Fermi velocity vA and vB is exchanged, however by introducing quasi-periodicity the symmetry is lost. The Fano factor usually holds a universal value for a specific transport regime, which reveals that the possibility of controlling it in graphene is a notable result.

  1. Effects of increasing tip velocity on wind turbine rotor design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resor, Brian Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berg, Jonathan Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Richards, Phillip William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A reduction in cost of energy from wind is anticipated when maximum allowable tip velocity is allowed to increase. Rotor torque decreases as tip velocity increases and rotor size and power rating are held constant. Reduction in rotor torque yields a lighter weight gearbox, a decrease in the turbine cost, and an increase in the capacity for the turbine to deliver cost competitive electricity. The high speed rotor incurs costs attributable to rotor aero-acoustics and system loads. The increased loads of high speed rotors drive the sizing and cost of other components in the system. Rotor, drivetrain, and tower designs at 80 m/s maximum tip velocity and 100 m/s maximum tip velocity are created to quantify these effects. Component costs, annualized energy production, and cost of energy are computed for each design to quantify the change in overall cost of energy resulting from the increase in turbine tip velocity. High fidelity physics based models rather than cost and scaling models are used to perform the work. Results provide a quantitative assessment of anticipated costs and benefits for high speed rotors. Finally, important lessons regarding full system optimization of wind turbines are documented.

  2. Migration velocity analysis using pre-stack wave fields

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Using both image and data domains to perform velocity inversion can help us resolve the long and short wavelength components of the velocity model, usually in that order. This translates to integrating migration velocity analysis into full waveform inversion. The migration velocity analysis part of the inversion often requires computing extended images, which is expensive when using conventional methods. As a result, we use pre-stack wavefield (the double-square-root formulation) extrapolation, which includes the extended information (subsurface offsets) naturally, to make the process far more efficient and stable. The combination of the forward and adjoint pre-stack wavefields provides us with update options that can be easily conditioned to improve convergence. We specifically use a modified differential semblance operator to split the extended image into a residual part for classic differential semblance operator updates and the image (Born) modelling part, which provides reflections for higher resolution information. In our implementation, we invert for the velocity and the image simultaneously through a dual objective function. Applications to synthetic examples demonstrate the features of the approach.

  3. Cold dark matter. 2: Spatial and velocity statistics (United States)

    Gelb, James M.; Bertschinger, Edmund


    We examine high-resolution gravitational N-body simulations of the omega = 1 cold dark matter (CDM) model in order to determine whether there is any normalization of the initial density fluctuation spectrum that yields acceptable results for galaxy clustering and velocities. Dense dark matter halos in the evolved mass distribution are identified with luminous galaxies; the most massive halos are also considered as sites for galaxy groups, with a range of possibilities explored for the group mass-to-light ratios. We verify the earlier conclusions of White et al. (1987) for the low-amplitude (high-bias) CDM model-the galaxy correlation function is marginally acceptable but that there are too many galaxies. We also show that the peak biasing method does not accurately reproduce the results obtained using dense halos identified in the simulations themselves. The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) anisotropy implies a higher normalization, resulting in problems with excessive pairwise galaxy velocity dispersion unless a strong velocity bias is present. Although we confirm the strong velocity bias of halos reported by Couchman & Carlberg (1992), we show that the galaxy motions are still too large on small scales. We find no amplitude for which the CDM model can reconcile simultaneously and galaxy correlation function, the low pairwise velocity dispersion, and the richness distribution of groups and clusters. With the normalization implied by COBE, the CDM spectrum has too much power on small scales if omega = 1.

  4. Significance of relative velocity in drag force or drag power estimation for a tethered float

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Sastry, J.S.

    is considered for the analysis. Float velocity is computed through dynamical equation of motion and particle velocity using linear wave theory. The method of computation is briefly described. The results show that variation of particle velocity with respect...

  5. Investigation of the Velocity Distribution in Sediment-Laden Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khodadoust Siuki


    Full Text Available Introduction: For a velocity profile in turbulent flows, the flow conditions in the vicinity of the wall are described by logarithmic law of the wall. However, it has been extensively verified that the log-law does not apply in the outer region of the boundary layer. For example, in free surface flows, the law of the wall holds only for 20 percent of the flow depth from the wall. Coles (1956 conducted an important advancement and argued that away from the wall, the deviations of the profiles of measured velocity from those obtained from the law of the wall could be explained by another universal law, called the wake-law. Combining both laws (wall and wake, a complete approximation to the time-averaged velocity profile in turbulent flows is then feasible (White, 1991. On the other hand, the fundamental problem of characterizing the mean velocity profile in sediment-laden flows remains unresolved. While existence models have been developed to estimate velocity profile, but there is a lack of generalization in the sediment-laden flows. For several decades, it has been controversial about the effects of suspended sediment on hydraulic characteristics of the flow, including flow resistance and velocity distribution. Fig. 1 shows the variations of velocity distribution due to introduction of the suspended sediment. As it is seen in this Figure, the suspended sediment moves faster than the water in the inner layer; on the other hands, there is a velocity-lag due to the introduction of sediment into the outer layer. Accurate estimate of the rate of sediment loads is important in sediment-laden flow. Because velocity distribution is one of the required parameters to estimate the sediment discharge. Until now, many equations have been introduced by many researchers for estimating the velocity distribution in open channels. Generally, there are two different views about the velocity distribution in sediment-laden flows. The first view suggests that the log

  6. Carbon film deposition from high velocity rarefied flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebrov, A.K., E-mail:; Emelyanov, A.A.; Yudin, I.B.


    The presented study is based on the idea of the activation of a gas-precursor high velocity flow by hot wire. The wire forms the channel for flow before expansion to substrate. The construction allows change of the specific flow rate, velocity, composition and temperature of a gas mixture by studying the film synthesis in conditions from free molecular to continuum flow at velocities from hundreds to thousands of m/s. At a high pressure, the film has typical and unusual hexagonal incorporations for diamond tetragonal particles. Raman spectrum with the pronounced diamond peak is typical for diamond-like film. X-ray diffraction points in the presence of lonsdaleite. Conditions of deposition were simulated by Monte Carlo method. Collisions with hot surfaces and chemical transformations were taken into consideration as well.

  7. A technique for establishing oblique detonations at high velocities (United States)

    Dabora, E. K.; Wagner, H. Gg.; Desbordes, D.

    A technique for establishing oblique detonations at hypersonic velocities is described. The technique is used to produce oblique detonations in C 2H2-air at an equivalence ratio of 0.75 (normal CJ velocity = 1770 m/s) at a velocity of 3300 m/s. On décrit une méthode d'obtention des détonations obliques à vitesse hypersonique. La méthode est utilisée pour produire des détonations obliques dans un mélange de C2H2-air à richesse de 0,75 (vitesse CJ normale = 1770 m/s) avec une célérité de 3300 m/s.

  8. 3D finite element simulations of high velocity projectile impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ožbolt Joško


    Full Text Available An explicit three-dimensional (3D finite element (FE code is developed for the simulation of high velocity impact and fragmentation events. The rate sensitive microplane material model, which accounts for large deformations and rate effects, is used as a constitutive law. In the code large deformation frictional contact is treated by forward incremental Lagrange multiplier method. To handle highly distorted and damaged elements the approach based on the element deletion is employed. The code is then used in 3D FE simulations of high velocity projectile impact. The results of the numerical simulations are evaluated and compared with experimental results. It is shown that it realistically predicts failure mode and exit velocities for different geometries of plain concrete slab. Moreover, the importance of some relevant parameters, such as contact friction, rate sensitivity, bulk viscosity and deletion criteria are addressed.

  9. Pierce Prize Lecture: High Velocity Clouds: Cosmological and Galactic Weather (United States)

    Sembach, K.


    The Milky Way and its surrounding environs contain gas moving at high velocities with respect to the Sun. For the past half century, most of the information available for these high velocity clouds (HVCs) has come from H I 21cm surveys. Improvements in these surveys have recently led to the idea that some of the high velocity H I clouds may be located outside the Milky Way within the Local Group. Such a hypothesis is testable by various means, but the neutral gas content of the clouds tells only half of a much more complex story. In this talk I will present new information about the ionized gas within HVCs, their impact on the gaseous atmosphere of the Galaxy, and their relevance to the cosmic web of hot gas that may contain a significant fraction of the baryonic material in the low-redshift universe.

  10. Superluminal X-wave propagation: energy localization and velocity. (United States)

    Mugnai, D; Mochi, I


    The electromagnetic propagation of a Bessel-X wave is analyzed on the basis of a vectorial treatment in order to obtain information about the propagation of energy flux and the velocity of the energy. Knowledge of these quantities is of great interest since they are connected to the production of localized electromagnetic energy and to the topic of superluminality, respectively. The electric and magnetic fields are obtained in the far-field approximation by considering a realistic situation able to generate a Bessel-X wave. The vectorial treatment confirms the capability of this kind of wave to localize energy, while, quite surprisingly, even if the group velocity is superluminal, the energy velocity is equal to the light speed.

  11. Starspot-induced radial velocity jitter during a stellar cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Heidi Helena; Andersen, Jan Marie; Järvinen, Silva


    on the Sun and other cool stars changes cyclically during an activity cycle, which has length varying from about a year to longer than the solar 11 years. In this work we investigate the influence of varying amount of starspots on the sparsely sampled radial velocity observations - which are the norm......Late-type stars exhibit cool regions on their surface, the stellar equivalent of sunspots. These dark starspots can also mimic the radial velocity variations caused by orbiting planets, making it at times difficult to distinguish between planets and activity signatures. The amount of spots...... in the radial velocity studies searching for exoplanets on wide orbits. We study two simulated cases: one with a random spot configuration, and one where the spot occurrence is concentrated. In addition we use Doppler images of young solar analogue V889 Her as a high activity case....

  12. Detonation Velocity Measurement with Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wei


    Full Text Available Detonation velocity is an important parameter for explosive, and it is crucial for many fields such as dynamic chemistry burn models, detonation propagation prediction, explosive performance estimation, and so on. Dual-channel detonation velocity measurement method and system are described. The CFBG sensors are pasted both on the surface and in the center of the explosive cylinder. The length of CFBG sensors is measured via the hot-tip probe method. The light intensity reflected from the CFBG sensors attached to the explosive is transformed to voltage, and the voltage–time is then measured with the oscilloscope. According to the five experiments results, the relative standard uncertainty of detonation velocity is below 1%.

  13. Correlation between spin structure oscillations and domain wall velocities (United States)

    Bisig, André; Stärk, Martin; Mawass, Mohamad-Assaad; Moutafis, Christoforos; Rhensius, Jan; Heidler, Jakoba; Büttner, Felix; Noske, Matthias; Weigand, Markus; Eisebitt, Stefan; Tyliszczak, Tolek; van Waeyenberge, Bartel; Stoll, Hermann; Schütz, Gisela; Kläui, Mathias


    Magnetic sensing and logic devices based on the motion of magnetic domain walls rely on the precise and deterministic control of the position and the velocity of individual magnetic domain walls in curved nanowires. Varying domain wall velocities have been predicted to result from intrinsic effects such as oscillating domain wall spin structure transformations and extrinsic pinning due to imperfections. Here we use direct dynamic imaging of the nanoscale spin structure that allows us for the first time to directly check these predictions. We find a new regime of oscillating domain wall motion even below the Walker breakdown correlated with periodic spin structure changes. We show that the extrinsic pinning from imperfections in the nanowire only affects slow domain walls and we identify the magnetostatic energy, which scales with the domain wall velocity, as the energy reservoir for the domain wall to overcome the local pinning potential landscape.

  14. Effects of superficial gas velocity on process dynamics in bioreactors (United States)

    Devi, T. T.; Kumar, B.


    Present work analyzes the flow hydrodynamics and mass transfer mechanisms in double Rushton and CD-6 impeller on wide range (0.0075-0.25 m/s) of superficial gas velocity ( v g) in a gas-liquid phase bioreactor by employing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The volume averaged velocity magnitude and dissipation rate are found higher with increasing superficial gas velocity. Higher relative power draw ( P g/ P 0) is predicted in CD-6 than the Rushton impeller but no significant difference in volume averaged mass transfer coefficient ( k L a) observed between these two types of impeller. The ratio of power draw with mass transfer coefficient has been found higher in CD-6 impeller (25-50 %) than the Rushton impeller.

  15. Absolute calibration of Doppler coherence imaging velocity images (United States)

    Samuell, C. M.; Allen, S. L.; Meyer, W. H.; Howard, J.


    A new technique has been developed for absolutely calibrating a Doppler Coherence Imaging Spectroscopy interferometer for measuring plasma ion and neutral velocities. An optical model of the interferometer is used to generate zero-velocity reference images for the plasma spectral line of interest from a calibration source some spectral distance away. Validation of this technique using a tunable diode laser demonstrated an accuracy better than 0.2 km/s over an extrapolation range of 3.5 nm; a two order of magnitude improvement over linear approaches. While a well-characterized and very stable interferometer is required, this technique opens up the possibility of calibrated velocity measurements in difficult viewing geometries and for complex spectral line-shapes.

  16. Measurement of Poloidal Velocity on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald E. Bell and Russell Feder


    A diagnostic suite has been developed to measure impurity poloidal flow using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Toroidal and poloidal viewing systems measure all quantities required to determine the radial electric field. Two sets of up/down symmetric poloidal views are used to measure both active emission in the plane of the neutral heating beams and background emission in a radial plane away from the neutral beams. Differential velocity measurements isolate the line-integrated poloidal velocity from apparent flows due to the energy-dependent chargeexchange cross section. Six f/1.8 spectrometers measure 276 spectra to obtain 75 active and 63 background channels every 10 ms. Local measurements from a similar midplane toroidal viewing system are mapped into two dimensions to allow the inversion of poloidal line-integrated measurements to obtain local poloidal velocity profiles. Radial resolution after inversion is 0.6-1.8 cm from the plasma edge to the center.

  17. Motion of Euglena gracilis: Active fluctuations and velocity distribution (United States)

    Romanczuk, P.; Romensky, M.; Scholz, D.; Lobaskin, V.; Schimansky-Geier, L.


    We study the velocity distribution of unicellular swimming algae Euglena gracilis using optical microscopy and active Brownian particle theory. To characterize a peculiar feature of the experimentally observed distribution at small velocities we use the concept of active fluctuations, which was recently proposed for the description of stochastically self-propelled particles [Romanczuk, P. and Schimansky-Geier, L., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 230601 (2011)]. In this concept, the fluctuating forces arise due to internal random performance of the propulsive motor. The fluctuating forces are directed in parallel to the heading direction, in which the propulsion acts. In the theory, we introduce the active motion via the depot model [Schweitzer, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(23), 5044 (1998)]. We demonstrate that the theoretical predictions based on the depot model with active fluctuations are consistent with the experimentally observed velocity distributions. In addition to the model with additive active noise, we obtain theoretical results for a constant propulsion with multiplicative noise.

  18. Velocity measurement by coherent x-ray heterodyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhermitte, Julien R. M.; Rogers, Michael C.; Manet, Sabine; Sutton, Mark


    We present a small-angle coherent x-ray scattering technique used for measuring flow velocities in slow moving materials. The technique is an extension of X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS): It involves mixing the scattering from moving tracer particles with a static reference that heterodynes the signal. This acts to elongate temporal effects caused by flow in homodyne measurements, allowing for a more robust measurement of flow properties. Using coherent x-ray heterodyning, velocities ranging from 0.1 to 10 μm/s were measured for a viscous fluid pushed through a rectangular channel. We describe experimental protocols and theory for making these Poiseuille flow profile measurements and also develop the relevant theory for using heterodyne XPCS to measure velocities in uniform and Couette flows.

  19. Microscopic theory of longitudinal sound velocity in charge ordered manganites. (United States)

    Rout, G C; Panda, S


    A microscopic theory of longitudinal sound velocity in a manganite system is reported here. The manganite system is described by a model Hamiltonian consisting of charge density wave (CDW) interaction in the e(g) band, an exchange interaction between spins of the itinerant e(g) band electrons and the core t(2g) electrons, and the Heisenberg interaction of the core level spins. The magnetization and the CDW order parameters are considered within mean-field approximations. The phonon Green's function was calculated by Zubarev's technique and hence the longitudinal velocity of sound was finally calculated for the manganite system. The results show that the elastic spring involved in the velocity of sound exhibits strong stiffening in the CDW phase with a decrease in temperature as observed in experiments.

  20. Variation of Quench Propagation Velocities in YBCO Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Härö, E.; Stenvall, A.; 10.1007/s10948-015-2976-y


    changes during the quench. Due to the large temperature margin between the operation and the current sharing temperatures, the normal zone does not propagate with the temperature front. This means that the temperature will rise in a considerably larger volume when compared to the quenched volume. Thus, the evolution of the temperature distribution below current sharing temperature Tcs after the quench onset affects the normal zone propagation velocity in HTS more than in LTS coils. This can be seen as an acceleration of the quench propagation velocities while the quench evolves when margin to Tcs is high. In this paper we scrutinize quench propagation in a stack of YBCO cables with an in-house finite element method software which solves the heat diffusion equation. We compute the longitudinal and transverse normal zone propagation velocities at various distances from the hot spot to demonstrate the distance-variation...

  1. Development of a very-low-velocity superconducting linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.


    Four types of superconducting accelerator structures are being developed for use in a low velocity positive-ion injector linac for the ATLAS heavy-ion accelerator. Prototypes of the first two of these have been tested. The structures are all variants of a quarter-wave line terminated with a four-gap interdigital drift-tube array. The two structure types so far tested operate at 48.5 mHz and have an active length of 10 cm (for the particle velocity - .008c type) and 16.5 cm (for the velocity - .014c type). Effective accelerating fields of 10 MV/m have been achieved with the 10 cm structure, corresponding to an effective accelerating potential of 1 MV. The 16.5 cm structure has been operated at field levels of 6 MV/m, also giving an effective potential of 1 MV. Prototypes of the remaining two resonant geometries are under construction.

  2. Velocity Explains the Links between Personality States and Affect. (United States)

    Wilt, Joshua A; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Revelle, William


    The present research examined whether perceived rate of progress toward a goal (velocity) mediated the relationships between personality states and affective states. Drawing from control theories of self-regulation, we hypothesized (i) that increased velocity would mediate the association between state extraversion and state positive affect, and (ii) that decreased velocity would mediate the association between state neuroticism and state negative affect. We tested these hypotheses in 2 experience sampling methodology studies that each spanned 2 weeks. Multilevel modeling analyses showed support for each of the bivariate links in our model, and multilevel path analyses supported our mediation hypotheses. We discuss implications for understanding the relations between personality states and affective states, control theories of self-regulation, and goal striving.

  3. Study on low velocity detonation phenomena in Nitromethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Osada


    Full Text Available In detonation of an explosive, there are two forms, high velocity detonation(HVD and low velocity detonation (LVD. For example, it is known that thedetonation velocities of methyl nitrate are 6700m/s in HVD and 2500m/s inLVD. In a liquid explosive, the highest pressure of LVD changes with thetype of explosive and conditions, is a few GPa and has destructive powerequivalent to HVD. It is important also for security to get to know the actualcondition of LVD. Moreover, it is important that the performance ofexplosives is completely understood to control HVD, LVD, and deflagration,and to predict the behavior of the explosive.

  4. Vector Velocity Imaging Using Cross-Correlation and Virtual Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    . Using the RASMUS experimental ultrasound scanner, measurements have been carried out in a water tank using a 7~MHz transducer. A 6~mm tube contained the flow and a Danfoss, MAG~3000, magnetic flow meter measured the volume flow. The tube has a parabolic flow profile with a peak velocity of 0.29~m...... estimations of the vector velocities of a larger region by combining the estimations along several scan lines. In combination with a B-mode image, the vector velocities are displayed as an image of the investigated region with a color indicating the magnitude, and arrows showing the direction of the flow....../s. During the experiments fixed beam-to-flow angles at $\\{60^{\\circ}, 75^{\\circ}, 90^{\\circ}\\}$ have been applied. The images are obtained using a pulse repetition frequency of 15~kHz, and the images contain 33~lines with 60~emissions for each line. Corresponding to the three fixed beam-to-flow angles...

  5. A dissipative random velocity field for fully developed fluid turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Rodrigo M; Chevillard, Laurent


    We investigate the statistical properties, based on numerical simulations and analytical calculations, of a recently proposed stochastic model for the velocity field of an incompressible, homogeneous, isotropic and fully developed turbulent flow. A key step in the construction of this model is the introduction of some aspects of the vorticity stretching mechanism that governs the dynamics of fluid particles along their trajectory. An additional further phenomenological step aimed at including the long range correlated nature of turbulence makes this model depending on a single free parameter $\\gamma$ that can be estimated from experimental measurements. We confirm the realism of the model regarding the geometry of the velocity gradient tensor, the power-law behaviour of the moments of velocity increments (i.e. the structure functions), including the intermittent corrections, and the existence of energy transfers across scales. We quantify the dependence of these basic properties of turbulent flows on the free...

  6. Near-wall velocity profile measurement for nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kanjirakat


    Full Text Available We perform near-wall velocity measurements of a SiO2–water nanofluid inside a microchannel. Nanoparticle image velocimetry measurements at three visible depths within 500 nm of the wall are conducted. We evaluate the optical properties of the nanofluid and their effect on the measurement technique. The results indicate that the small effect of the nanoparticles on the optical properties of the suspension have a negligible effect on the measurement technique. Our measurements show an increase in nanofluid velocity gradients near the walls, with no measurable slip, relative to the equivalent basefluid flow. We conjecture that particle migration induced by shear may have caused this increase. The effect of this increase in the measured near wall velocity gradient has implications on the viscosity measurement for these fluids.

  7. Velocity Statistics and Spectra in Three-Stream Jets (United States)

    Ecker, Tobias; Lowe, K. Todd; Ng, Wing F.; Henderson, Brenda; Leib, Stewart


    Velocimetry measurements were obtained in three-stream jets at the NASA Glenn Research Center Nozzle Acoustics Test Rig using the time-resolved Doppler global velocimetry technique. These measurements afford exceptional frequency response, to 125 kHz bandwidth, in order to study the detailed dynamics of turbulence in developing shear flows. Mean stream-wise velocity is compared to measurements acquired using particle image velocimetry for validation. Detailed results for convective velocity distributions throughout an axisymmetric plume and the thick side of a plume with an offset third-stream duct are provided. The convective velocity results exhibit that, as expected, the eddy speeds are reduced on the thick side of the plume compared to the axisymmetric case. The results indicate that the time-resolved Doppler global velocimetry method holds promise for obtaining results valuable to the implementation and refinement of jet noise prediction methods being developed for three-stream jets.

  8. The velocity field induced by a helical vortex tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukumoto, Y.; Okulov, Valery


    The influence of finite-core thickness on the velocity field around a vortex tube is addressed. An asymptotic expansion of the Biot-Savart law is made to a higher order in a small parameter, the ratio of core radius to curvature radius, which consists of the velocity field due to lines of monopoles...... and dipoles arranged on the centerline of the tube. The former is associated with an infinitely thin core and is featured by the circulation alone. The distribution of vorticity in the core reflects on the strength of dipole. This result is applied to a helical vortex tube, and the induced velocity due...... to a helical filament of the dipoles is obtained in the form of the Kapteyn series, which augments Hardin's [Phys. Fluids 25, 1949 (1982)] solution for the monopoles. Using a singularity-separation technique, a substantial part of the series is represented in a closed form for both the mono- and the dipoles...

  9. Measuring average angular velocity with a smartphone magnetic field sensor (United States)

    Pili, Unofre; Violanda, Renante


    The angular velocity of a spinning object is, by standard, measured using a device called a tachometer. However, by directly using it in a classroom setting, the activity is likely to appear as less instructive and less engaging. Indeed, some alternative classroom-suitable methods for measuring angular velocity have been presented. In this paper, we present a further alternative that is smartphone-based, making use of the real-time magnetic field (simply called B-field in what follows) data gathering capability of the B-field sensor of the smartphone device as the timer for measuring average rotational period and average angular velocity. The in-built B-field sensor in smartphones has already found a number of uses in undergraduate experimental physics. For instance, in elementary electrodynamics, it has been used to explore the well-known Bio-Savart law and in a measurement of the permeability of air.

  10. CIV experiments on ATLAS-1. [Critical Ionization Velocity (United States)

    Marshall, J. A.; Burch, J. L.; Choueiri, E. Y.; Kawashima, N.


    A test of the Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) theory was made with neutral xenon releases from the Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators hollow cathode plasma contactor onboard the Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis during the ATLAS-1 mission. The gas velocity perpendicular to the Earth's magnetic field was essentially the orbital velocity (7.5 km/s), and thus it exceeded the CIV for xenon. The releases were observed with onboard instrumentation. A factor of 60 enhancement was seen in the Langmuir probe current. Calculations confirmed that release conditions generally satisfied criteria for CIV and predicted a maximum factor of 20 increase in plasma density. Thus, CIV effects were likely to have occurred during the ATLAS-I experiments.

  11. A simulation study of the critical ionization velocity process (United States)

    Machida, S.; Goertz, C. K.


    The critical ionization velocity process is studied by first investigating a coupled system of equations describing the production of several ion species and electrons by impact ionization, their collisions with neutrals, and the heating of electrons. Analytic relations derived from this were tested with the help of a particle simulation, including collisional processes between neutrals and plasma particles. It was found that resistive heating of electrons plays an important role when the density of the neutrals is high, and that electron heating due to lower hybrid waves is significant when the neutral density is low. In both cases, the control of the plasma production rate by the ratio of the beam velocity to the critical velocity was verified.

  12. An asymptotic state of the critical ionization velocity phenomenon (United States)

    Goertz, C. K.; Machida, S.; Smith, R. A.


    The paper considers the problem of how the momentum of ions created by electron impact ionization of neutrals moving at a speed v(0) perpendicular to the magnetic field through a background plasma is coupled to this plasma. It has been found that the plasma accelerates, and the relative velocity between neutrals and plasma decreases. If this decrease is rapid and large enough, the critical ionization velocity (CIV) phenomenon may turn off. Equations for the evolution of plasma density, electron and ion thermal energy, and plasma velocity have been derived. It was found that the CIV process reaches an asymptotic quasi-steady state, in which the ionization rate reaches a constant value which depends on the properties of the surrounding medium and the value of v(0).

  13. 39 GHz Interferometer System for Measuring Detonation Velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Patrick W. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Livermore, CA (United States); Tran, Vu [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Livermore, CA (United States); Waltman, Thomas B. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Livermore, CA (United States); Tringe, Joe [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); May, Chadd [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cradick, Jerry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hodgin, Ralph [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Ron [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    A new 39 GHz RF interferometer system is presented for use in velocity measurements of high explosives (HE) detonations. The frequency was chosen to compliment the currently available suite, and provide more spatial information. An RF signal is generated and coupled to a waveguide adapter serving as an antenna. The HE is initially transparent to the RF. When the HE detonates, the detonation front becomes reflective to the RF. This reflection is picked up by the waveguide adapter and mixed with an unperturbed RF signal to give a low frequency signal which can be digitized with an oscilloscope. By comparing the signal with a reference signal, velocity information can be obtained using Fourier Transforms and wavelet models. Bench test results using a “slapper” are shown. The 39 GHz microwave interferometer is used in Deflagration to Detonation shots. The signal is reflected off a moving surface, and the Doppler shift of the reflected signal is used to calculate the velocity.

  14. Joint probability discrimination between stationary tissue and blood velocity signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaikjer, Malene; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    before and after echo-canceling, and (b) the amplitude variations between samples in consecutive RF-signals before and after echo-canceling. The statistical discriminator was obtained by computing the probability density functions (PDFs) for each feature through histogram analysis of data......In CFM-mode the blood velocity estimates are overlaid onto the B-mode image. The velocity estimation gives non-zero velocity estimates in both the surrounding tissue and the vessels. A discrimination algorithm is needed to determine, which estimates represent blood flow and should be displayed....... This study presents a new statistical discriminator. Investigation of the RF-signals reveals that features can be derived that distinguish the segments of the signal, which do an do not carry information on the blood flow. In this study 4 features, have been determined: (a) the energy content in the segments...

  15. In Vivo 3-D Vector Velocity Estimation with Continuous Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Ewertsen, Caroline


    In this study, a method for estimating 3-D vector velocities at very high frame rate using continuous data acquisition is presented. An emission sequence was designed to acquire real-time continuous data in one plane. The transverse oscillation (TO) method was used to estimate 3-D vector flow...... measurements, three heart cycles acquired at 2.1 kHz showed peak out-of-plane velocities of 83 cm/s, 87 cm/s and 90 cm/s in agreement with the 92 cm/s found with spectral Doppler. Mean flow rate was estimated to 257 ml/min. The results demonstrate that accurate real-time 3- D vector velocities can be obtained...

  16. A fast algorithm for 3D azimuthally anisotropic velocity scan

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Jingwei


    © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers. The conventional velocity scan can be computationally expensive for large-scale seismic data sets, particularly when the presence of anisotropy requires multiparameter scanning. We introduce a fast algorithm for 3D azimuthally anisotropic velocity scan by generalizing the previously proposed 2D butterfly algorithm for hyperbolic Radon transforms. To compute semblance in a two-parameter residual moveout domain, the numerical complexity of our algorithm is roughly O(N3logN) as opposed to O(N5) of the straightforward velocity scan, with N being the representative of the number of points in a particular dimension of either data space or parameter space. Synthetic and field data examples demonstrate the superior efficiency of the proposed algorithm.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Outokesh


    Full Text Available In the present work, slip velocity has been measured in a 76 mm diameter pulsed disc and doughnut extraction column for four different liquid-liquid systems. The effects of operating variables including pulsation intensity and dispersed and continuous phase flow rates on slip velocity have been investigated. The existence of three different operational regimes, namely mixersettler, transition, and emulsion regimes, was observed when the energy input was changed. Empirical correlations are derived for prediction of the slip velocity in terms of operating variables, physical properties of the liquid systems, and column geometry for different regimes. Good agreement between prediction and experiments was found for all operating conditions that were investigated.

  18. Effects of water velocity on activity of juvenile striped bass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, R.R.; Griffith, J.S.; Coutant, C.C.


    The swimming activity of juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis Walbaum) 8 to 80 mm long was investigated in a test chamber simulating, on a small scale, a fixed-screen cooling water intake structure. As water velocity increased from 0 to 30 cm/sec area and distance traveled by juvenile bass 10 to 80 mm long decreased. However, as water velocity increased from 0 to 3 cm/sec the area and distance covered by larval bass increased. The presence of food increased the activity of larval bass, but decreased the activity of juveniles. Area ranged by striped bass at test velocities ranging from 0 to 30 cm/sec increased in proportion to body length. Juvenile striped bass tested at acclimation temperatures between 20 and 5/sup 0/C experienced a 30% reduction of activity. Activity was also reduced as temperature increased from 20 to 30/sup 0/C.

  19. Bohm velocity in the presence of a hot cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacio Mizrahi, J. H.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)


    The spatial distribution of the plasma and beam electrons in a region whose extension from a hot cathode is larger than the Debye length, but smaller than the electron mean free path, is analyzed. In addition, the influence of electrons thermionically emitted from a hot cathode and the ratio of electron-to-ion mass on the Bohm velocity and on the ion and electron densities at the plasma-sheath boundary in a gas discharge are studied. It is shown that thermionic emission has the effect of increasing the Bohm velocity, and this effect is more pronounced for lighter ions. In addition, it is shown that the Bohm velocity cannot be increased to more than 24% above its value when there is no electron emission.

  20. On the turbulent heating and the threshold condition in the critical ionization velocity interaction (United States)

    Moebius, E.; Papadopoulos, K.; Piel, A.


    On the basis of the nonlinear treatment of the ion beam instability and the modified two-stream instability, threshold conditions for the critical ionization velocity interaction are derived. There are three different regimes of interaction: (1) additional ionization for relative velocities smaller than the critical velocity, (2) the self-sustained discharge for velocities greater than the critical velocity which indeed turns out as a sharp threshold, and (3) an explosive growth regime for velocities exceeding 1.5 times the critical velocity. Additional charge exchange collisions of ions and energy loss of electrons due to excitation do not change the basic threshold behavior but modify the value of the critical velocity.