WorldWideScience

Sample records for velocity distributions obtained

  1. Techniques for obtaining velocity distributions of atoms or ions from Doppler-broadened spectral line profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, T.G.

    1986-12-01

    Analysis of the doppler-broadened profiles of spectral lines radiated by atoms or ions in plasmas yields information about their velocity distributions. Researchers have analysed profiles of lines radiated by atoms in isotropic velocity distributions in several ways, one being the inversion of the integral equation which relates the velocity distribution to the line profile. This inversion formula was derived for a separate application and was given to within an arbitrary multiplicative constant. This paper presents a new derivation which obtains the inversion exactly, using a method which is easily generalized for determination of anisotropic velocity distribution functions. The technique to obtain an anisotropic velocity distribution function from line profiles measured at different angles is outlined

  2. Velocity distribution of fragments of catastrophic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Yasuhiko; Kato, Manabu; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    Three dimensional velocities of fragments produced by laboratory impact experiments were measured for basalts and pyrophyllites. The velocity distribution of fragments obtained shows that the velocity range of the major fragments is rather narrow, at most within a factor of 3 and that no clear dependence of velocity on the fragment mass is observed. The NonDimensional Impact Stress (NDIS) defined by Mizutani et al. (1990) is found to be an appropriate scaling parameter to describe the overall fragment velocity as well as the antipodal velocity.

  3. Velocity distribution in snow avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, K.; Ito, Y.

    1997-12-01

    In order to investigate the detailed structure of snow avalanches, we have made snow flow experiments at the Miyanomori ski jump in Sapporo and systematic observations in the Shiai-dani, Kurobe Canyon. In the winter of 1995-1996, a new device to measure static pressures was used to estimate velocities in the snow cloud that develops above the flowing layer of avalanches. Measurements during a large avalanche in the Shiai-dani which damaged and destroyed some instruments indicate velocities increased rapidly to more than 50 m/s soon after the front. Velocities decreased gradually in the following 10 s. Velocities of the lower flowing layer were also calculated by differencing measurement of impact pressure. Both recordings in the snow cloud and in the flowing layer changed with a similar trend and suggest a close interaction between the two layers. In addition, the velocity showed a periodic change. Power spectrum analysis of the impact pressure and the static pressure depression showed a strong peak at a frequency between 4 and 6 Hz, which might imply the existence of either ordered structure or a series of surges in the flow.

  4. Analyses of subchannel velocity distribution for HANARO fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Hee Taek; Han, Gee Yang; Park, Cheol; Lim, In Cheol

    1998-10-01

    MATRA-h which is a subchannel analysis computer code is used to evaluate the thermal margin of HANARO core. To estimate core thermal margin, accurate prediction of subchannel velocity is very important. The average subchannel velocities of 18 element fuel assembly were obtained from the results of velocity measurement test. To validate the adequacy of the hydraulic model code predictions were compared with the experimental results for the subchannel velocity distribution in 18 element fuel channel. The calculated subchannel velocity distributions in the central channels were larger than those of experiment. On the other hand the subchannel velocities in the outer channels were smaller. It is speculated that the prediction like as above would make CHF value lower because CHF phenomena had been occurred in the outer fuel element in the bundle CHF test of AECL. The prediction for axial pressure distribution coincided with the experimental results well. (author). 9 refs., 9 tabs., 14 figs

  5. Stationary velocity distributions in traffic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    We introduce a traffic flow model that incorporates clustering and passing. We obtain analytically the steady state characteristics of the flow from a Boltzmann-like equation. A single dimensionless parameter, R=c 0 v 0 t 0 with c 0 the concentration, v 0 the velocity range, and t 0 -1 the passing rate, determines the nature of the steady state. When R 1, large clusters with average mass left-angle m right-angle ∼R α form, and the flux is J∼R -γ . The initial distribution of slow cars governs the statistics. When P 0 (v)∼v μ as v→0, the scaling exponents are γ=1/(μ+2), α=1/2 when μ>0, and α=(μ+1)/(μ+2) when μ<0. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. The Velocity Distribution of Isolated Radio Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoumanian, Z.; Chernoff, D. F.; Cordes, J. M.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We infer the velocity distribution of radio pulsars based on large-scale 0.4 GHz pulsar surveys. We do so by modelling evolution of the locations, velocities, spins, and radio luminosities of pulsars; calculating pulsed flux according to a beaming model and random orientation angles of spin and beam; applying selection effects of pulsar surveys; and comparing model distributions of measurable pulsar properties with survey data using a likelihood function. The surveys analyzed have well-defined characteristics and cover approx. 95% of the sky. We maximize the likelihood in a 6-dimensional space of observables P, dot-P, DM, absolute value of b, mu, F (period, period derivative, dispersion measure, Galactic latitude, proper motion, and flux density). The models we test are described by 12 parameters that characterize a population's birth rate, luminosity, shutoff of radio emission, birth locations, and birth velocities. We infer that the radio beam luminosity (i) is comparable to the energy flux of relativistic particles in models for spin-driven magnetospheres, signifying that radio emission losses reach nearly 100% for the oldest pulsars; and (ii) scales approximately as E(exp 1/2) which, in magnetosphere models, is proportional to the voltage drop available for acceleration of particles. We find that a two-component velocity distribution with characteristic velocities of 90 km/ s and 500 km/ s is greatly preferred to any one-component distribution; this preference is largely immune to variations in other population parameters, such as the luminosity or distance scale, or the assumed spin-down law. We explore some consequences of the preferred birth velocity distribution: (1) roughly 50% of pulsars in the solar neighborhood will escape the Galaxy, while approx. 15% have velocities greater than 1000 km/ s (2) observational bias against high velocity pulsars is relatively unimportant for surveys that reach high Galactic absolute value of z distances, but is severe for

  7. On the velocity distributions of granular gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polito, A.M.M.; Rocha Filho, T.M.; Figueiredo, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new approach to determine velocity distributions in granular gases to improve the Sonine polynomial expansion of the velocity distribution function, at higher inelasticities, for the homogeneous cooling regime of inelastic hard spheres. The perturbative consistency is recovered using a new set of dynamical variables based on the characteristic function and we illustrate our approach by computing the first four Sonine coefficients for moderate and high inelasticities. The analytical coefficients are compared with molecular dynamics simulations results and with a previous approach by Huthmann et al.

  8. Anisotropy of dark matter velocity distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Nagao, Keiko I.

    2018-01-01

    Direct detection of dark matter with directional sensitivity has the potential to discriminate the dark matter velocity distribution. Especially, it will be suitable to discriminate isotropic distribution from anisotropic one. Analyzing data produced with Monte-Carlo simulation, required conditions for the discrimination is estimated. If energy threshold of detector is optimized, $O(10^3-10^4)$ event number is required to discriminate the anisotropy.

  9. Velocity distributions in dilute granular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zon, J.S.; Mac Kintosh, F.C.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the idea that velocity distributions in granular gases are determined mainly by η, the coefficient of restitution and q, which measures the relative importance of heating (or energy input) to collisions. To this end, we study by numerical simulation the properties of inelastic gases

  10. Electron velocity distributions near collisionless shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Recent studies of the amount of electron heating and of the shapes of electron velocity distributions across shocks near the earth are reviewed. It is found that electron heating increases with increasing shock strength but is always less than the ion heating. The scale length of electron heating is also less than that for the ions. Electron velocity distributions show characteristic shapes which depend on the strength of the shocks. At the weaker shocks, electron heating is mostly perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, bar B, and results in Gaussian-shaped velocity distributions at low-to-moderate energies. At the stronger shocks, parallel heating predominates resulting in flat-topped velocity distributions. A reasonable interpretation of these results indicates that at the weaker shocks electron heating is dominated by a tendency toward conservation of the magnetic moment. At the stronger fast-mode shocks, this heating is thought to be dominated by an acceleration parallel to bar B produced by the macroscopic shock electric field followed by beam driven plasma instabilities. Some contribution to the heating at the stronger shocks from conservation of the magnetic moment and cross-field current-driven instabilities cannot be ruled out. Although the heating at slow-mode shocks is also dominated by instabilities driven by magnetic field-aligned electron beams, their acceleration mechanism is not yet established

  11. Hydrocarbon saturation determination using acoustic velocities obtained through casing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Daniel

    2010-03-09

    Compressional and shear velocities of earth formations are measured through casing. The determined compressional and shear velocities are used in a two component mixing model to provides improved quantitative values for the solid, the dry frame, and the pore compressibility. These are used in determination of hydrocarbon saturation.

  12. Turbulent flow velocity distribution at rough walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, W.

    1978-08-01

    Following extensive measurements of the velocity profile in a plate channel with artificial roughness geometries specific investigations were carried out to verify the results obtained. The wall geometry used was formed by high transverse square ribs having a large pitch. The measuring position relative to the ribs was varied as a parameter thus providing a statement on the local influence of roughness ribs on the values measured. As a fundamental result it was found that the gradient of the logarithmic rough wall velocity profiles, which differs widely from the value 2.5, depends but slightly on the measuring position relative to the ribs. The gradients of the smooth wall velocity profiles deviate from 2.5 near the ribs, only. This fact can be explained by the smooth wall shear stress varying with the pitch of the ribs. (orig.) 891 GL [de

  13. Velocity Distributions in Inelastic Granular Gases with Continuous Size Distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rui; Li Zhi-Hao; Zhang Duan-Ming

    2011-01-01

    We study by numerical simulation the property of velocity distributions of granular gases with a power-law size distribution, driven by uniform heating and boundary heating. It is found that the form of velocity distribution is primarily controlled by the restitution coefficient η and q, the ratio between the average number of heatings and the average number of collisions in the system. Furthermore, we show that uniform and boundary heating can be understood as different limits of q, with q ≫ 1 and q ≤ 1, respectively. (general)

  14. Velocity distribution in a turbulent flow near a rough wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsun, A. S.; Pisarevsky, M. I.; Fedoseev, V. N.; Kreps, M. V.

    2017-11-01

    Velocity distribution in the zone of developed wall turbulence, regardless of the conditions on the wall, is described by the well-known Prandtl logarithmic profile. In this distribution, the constant, that determines the value of the velocity, is determined by the nature of the interaction of the flow with the wall and depends on the viscosity of the fluid, the dynamic velocity, and the parameters of the wall roughness.In extreme cases depending on the ratio between the thickness of the viscous sublayer and the size of the roughness the constant takes on a value that does not depend on viscosity, or leads to a ratio for a smooth wall.It is essential that this logarithmic profile is the result not only of the Prandtl theory, but can be derived from general considerations of the theory of dimensions, and also follows from the condition of local equilibrium of generation and dissipation of turbulent energy in the wall area. This allows us to consider the profile as a universal law of velocity distribution in the wall area of a turbulent flow.The profile approximation up to the maximum speed line with subsequent integration makes possible to obtain the resistance law for channels of simple shape. For channels of complex shape with rough walls, the universal profile can be used to formulate the boundary condition when applied to the calculation of turbulence models.This paper presents an empirical model for determining the constant of the universal logarithmic profile. The zone of roughness is described by a set of parameters and is considered as a porous structure with variable porosity.

  15. Development of vortex model with realistic axial velocity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kei; Ezure, Toshiki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    A vortex is considered as one of significant phenomena which may cause gas entrainment (GE) and/or vortex cavitation in sodium-cooled fast reactors. In our past studies, the vortex is assumed to be approximated by the well-known Burgers vortex model. However, the Burgers vortex model has a simple but unreal assumption that the axial velocity component is horizontally constant, while in real the free surface vortex has the axial velocity distribution which shows large gradient in radial direction near the vortex center. In this study, a new vortex model with realistic axial velocity distribution is proposed. This model is derived from the steady axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equation as well as the Burgers vortex model, but the realistic axial velocity distribution in radial direction is considered, which is defined to be zero at the vortex center and to approach asymptotically to zero at infinity. As the verification, the new vortex model is applied to the evaluation of a simple vortex experiment, and shows good agreements with the experimental data in terms of the circumferential velocity distribution and the free surface shape. In addition, it is confirmed that the Burgers vortex model fails to calculate accurate velocity distribution with the assumption of uniform axial velocity. However, the calculation accuracy of the Burgers vortex model can be enhanced close to that of the new vortex model in consideration of the effective axial velocity which is calculated as the average value only in the vicinity of the vortex center. (author)

  16. A phenomenological retention tank model using settling velocity distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruejouls, T; Vanrolleghem, P A; Pelletier, G; Lessard, P

    2012-12-15

    Many authors have observed the influence of the settling velocity distribution on the sedimentation process in retention tanks. However, the pollutants' behaviour in such tanks is not well characterized, especially with respect to their settling velocity distribution. This paper presents a phenomenological modelling study dealing with the way by which the settling velocity distribution of particles in combined sewage changes between entering and leaving an off-line retention tank. The work starts from a previously published model (Lessard and Beck, 1991) which is first implemented in a wastewater management modelling software, to be then tested with full-scale field data for the first time. Next, its performance is improved by integrating the particle settling velocity distribution and adding a description of the resuspension due to pumping for emptying the tank. Finally, the potential of the improved model is demonstrated by comparing the results for one more rain event. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Numerical calculation of velocity distribution near a vertical flat plate immersed in bubble flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Akihiro; Nakamura, Hajime; Horihata, Hideyuki; Hiraoka, Setsuro; Aragaki, Tsutomu; Yamada, Ikuho; Isoda, Shinji.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid and gas velocity distributions for bubble flow near a vertical flat plate were calculated numerically by using the SIMPLER method, where the flow was assumed to be laminar, two-dimensional, and at steady state. The two-fluid flow model was used in the numerical analysis. To calculate the drag force on a small bubble, Stokes' law for a rigid sphere is applicable. The dimensionless velocity distributions which were arranged with characteristic boundary layer thickness and maximum liquid velocity were adjusted with a single line and their forms were similar to that for single-phase wall-jet flow. The average wall shear stress derived from the velocity gradient at the plate wall was strongly affected by bubble diameter but not by inlet liquid velocity. The present dimensionless velocity distributions obtained numerically agreed well with previous experimental results, and the proposed numerical algorithm was validated. (author)

  18. Empirical analysis on the runners' velocity distribution in city marathons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenquan; Meng, Fan

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, much researches have been performed on human temporal activity and mobility patterns, while few investigations have been made to examine the features of the velocity distributions of human mobility patterns. In this paper, we investigated empirically the velocity distributions of finishers in New York City marathon, American Chicago marathon, Berlin marathon and London marathon. By statistical analyses on the datasets of the finish time records, we captured some statistical features of human behaviors in marathons: (1) The velocity distributions of all finishers and of partial finishers in the fastest age group both follow log-normal distribution; (2) In the New York City marathon, the velocity distribution of all male runners in eight 5-kilometer internal timing courses undergoes two transitions: from log-normal distribution at the initial stage (several initial courses) to the Gaussian distribution at the middle stage (several middle courses), and to log-normal distribution at the last stage (several last courses); (3) The intensity of the competition, which is described by the root-mean-square value of the rank changes of all runners, goes weaker from initial stage to the middle stage corresponding to the transition of the velocity distribution from log-normal distribution to Gaussian distribution, and when the competition gets stronger in the last course of the middle stage, there will come a transition from Gaussian distribution to log-normal one at last stage. This study may enrich the researches on human mobility patterns and attract attentions on the velocity features of human mobility.

  19. How required reserve ratio affects distribution and velocity of money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2005-11-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve ratio are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.

  20. The SCEC Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) Software Framework for Distributing and Querying Seismic Velocity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maechling, P. J.; Taborda, R.; Callaghan, S.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Olsen, K. B.; Jordan, T. H.; Goulet, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Crustal seismic velocity models and datasets play a key role in regional three-dimensional numerical earthquake ground-motion simulation, full waveform tomography, modern physics-based probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis, as well as in other related fields including geophysics, seismology, and earthquake engineering. The standard material properties provided by a seismic velocity model are P- and S-wave velocities and density for any arbitrary point within the geographic volume for which the model is defined. Many seismic velocity models and datasets are constructed by synthesizing information from multiple sources and the resulting models are delivered to users in multiple file formats, such as text files, binary files, HDF-5 files, structured and unstructured grids, and through computer applications that allow for interactive querying of material properties. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) software framework to facilitate the registration and distribution of existing and future seismic velocity models to the SCEC community. The UCVM software framework is designed to provide a standard query interface to multiple, alternative velocity models, even if the underlying velocity models are defined in different formats or use different geographic projections. The UCVM framework provides a comprehensive set of open-source tools for querying seismic velocity model properties, combining regional 3D models and 1D background models, visualizing 3D models, and generating computational models in the form of regular grids or unstructured meshes that can be used as inputs for ground-motion simulations. The UCVM framework helps researchers compare seismic velocity models and build equivalent simulation meshes from alternative velocity models. These capabilities enable researchers to evaluate the impact of alternative velocity models in ground-motion simulations and seismic hazard analysis applications

  1. The size distributions of fragments ejected at a given velocity from impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, John D.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    The mass distribution of fragments that are ejected at a given velocity for impact craters is modeled to allow extrapolation of laboratory, field, and numerical results to large scale planetary events. The model is semi-empirical in nature and is derived from: (1) numerical calculations of cratering and the resultant mass versus ejection velocity, (2) observed ejecta blanket particle size distributions, (3) an empirical relationship between maximum ejecta fragment size and crater diameter, (4) measurements and theory of maximum ejecta size versus ejecta velocity, and (5) an assumption on the functional form for the distribution of fragments ejected at a given velocity. This model implies that for planetary impacts into competent rock, the distribution of fragments ejected at a given velocity is broad, e.g., 68 percent of the mass of the ejecta at a given velocity contains fragments having a mass less than 0.1 times a mass of the largest fragment moving at that velocity. The broad distribution suggests that in impact processes, additional comminution of ejecta occurs after the upward initial shock has passed in the process of the ejecta velocity vector rotating from an initially downward orientation. This additional comminution produces the broader size distribution in impact ejecta as compared to that obtained in simple brittle failure experiments.

  2. Shaping the distribution of vertical velocities of antihydrogen in GBAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufour, G.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S. [CNRS, ENS, UPMC, Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel, Paris (France); Debu, P. [CEA-Saclay, Institut de Recherche sur les lois Fondamentales de l' Univers, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Nesvizhevsky, V.V. [Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin, Grenoble (France); Voronin, A.Yu. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-15

    GBAR is a project aiming at measuring the freefall acceleration of gravity for antimatter, namely antihydrogen atoms (H). The precision of this timing experiment depends crucially on the dispersion of initial vertical velocities of the atoms as well as on the reliable control of their distribution.We propose to use a new method for shaping the distribution of the vertical velocities of H, which improves these factors simultaneously. The method is based on quantum reflection of elastically and specularly bouncing H with small initial vertical velocity on a bottom mirror disk, and absorption of atoms with large initial vertical velocities on a top rough disk.We estimate statistical and systematic uncertainties, and we show that the accuracy for measuring the free fall acceleration g of H could be pushed below 10{sup -3} under realistic experimental conditions. (orig.)

  3. Shaping the distribution of vertical velocities of antihydrogen in GBAR

    CERN Document Server

    Dufour, G.; Lambrecht, A.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Reynaud, S.; Voronin, A.Yu.

    2014-01-30

    GBAR is a project aiming at measuring the free fall acceleration of gravity for antimatter, namely antihydrogen atoms ($\\overline{\\mathrm{H}}$). Precision of this timing experiment depends crucially on the dispersion of initial vertical velocities of the atoms as well as on the reliable control of their distribution. We propose to use a new method for shaping the distribution of vertical velocities of $\\overline{\\mathrm{H}}$, which improves these factors simultaneously. The method is based on quantum reflection of elastically and specularly bouncing $\\overline{\\mathrm{H}}$ with small initial vertical velocity on a bottom mirror disk, and absorption of atoms with large initial vertical velocities on a top rough disk. We estimate statistical and systematic uncertainties, and show that the accuracy for measuring the free fall acceleration $\\overline{g}$ of $\\overline{\\mathrm{H}}$ could be pushed below $10^{-3}$ under realistic experimental conditions.

  4. Generation of the auroral electron velocity distribution by stochastic acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, D.A.; Cook, A.C.; Wang, Z.-S.; Angelis, U. de.

    1990-07-01

    In a further development of the wave theory of the aurora, it is demonstrated, using a Monte-Carlo numerical model, that the characteristic peak in the auroral electron velocity distribution can be generated stochastically through resonant interactions between an initially monotonic distribution and lower-hybrid electrostatic turbulence. The principal requirement is that the velocity spectrum of resonant waves has a sharp cut-off at high velocity. It is then shown that a cut-off is expected as a natural consequence of the difference between the phase and group velocities of lower-hybrid waves. The possibility is considered that a second peak, sometimes observed at lower velocities, is due to the same statistical mechanism, arising from the damping of waves of low phase velocity. An enhancement of wave intensity is found at higher velocities, where momentum flows preferentially from electrons to waves. The relation between the wave theory and the currently prevailing potential-difference theory emerges clearly from the analysis. (author)

  5. Measurement of pressure distributions and velocity fields of water jet intake flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Eun Ho; Yoon, Sang Youl; Kwon, Seong Hoon; Chun, Ho Hwan; Kim, Mun Chan; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2002-01-01

    Waterjet propulsion system can avoid cavitation problem which is being arised conventional propeller propulsion system. The main issue of designing waterjet system is the boundary layer separation at ramp and lib of water inlet. The flow characteristics are highly depended on Jet to Velocity Ratio(JVR) as well as the intake geometry. The present study is conducted in a wind tunnel to provide accurate pressure destribution at the inlet wall and velocity field of the inlet and exit planes. Particle image velocimetry technique is used to obtain detail velocity fields. Pressure distributions and velocity field are discussed with accelerating and deaccelerating flow zones and the effect of JVR

  6. Asymmetric Velocity Distributions from Halo Density Profiles in the Eddington Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergados, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    We show how to obtain the energy distribution f(E) in our vicinity starting from WIMP density profiles in a self-consistent way by employing the Eddington approach and adding reasonable angular momentum dependent terms in the expression of the energy. We then show how we can obtain the velocity dispersions and the asymmetry parameter β in terms of the parameters describing the angular momentum dependence. From this expression, for f(E), we proceed to construct an axially symmetric WIMP a velocity distribution, which, for a gravitationally bound system, automatically has a velocity upper bound and is characterized by the same asymmetriy β. This approach is tested and clarified by constructing analytic expressions in a simple model, with adequate structure. We then show how such velocity distributions can be used in determining the event rates, including modulation, in both the standard and the directional WIMP searches.

  7. Eccentricity samples: Implications on the potential and the velocity distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cubarsi R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Planar and vertical epicycle frequencies and local angular velocity are related to the derivatives up to the second order of the local potential and can be used to test the shape of the potential from stellar disc samples. These samples show a more complex velocity distribution than halo stars and should provide a more realistic test. We assume an axisymmetric potential allowing a mixture of independent ellipsoidal velocity distributions, of separable or Staeckel form in cylindrical or spherical coordinates. We prove that values of local constants are not consistent with a potential separable in addition in cylindrical coordinates and with a spherically symmetric potential. The simplest potential that fits the local constants is used to show that the harmonical and non-harmonical terms of the potential are equally important. The same analysis is used to estimate the local constants. Two families of nested subsamples selected for decreasing planar and vertical eccentricities are used to borne out the relation between the mean squared planar and vertical eccentricities and the velocity dispersions of the subsamples. According to the first-order epicycle model, the radial and vertical velocity components provide accurate information on the planar and vertical epicycle frequencies. However, it is impossible to account for the asymmetric drift which introduces a systematic bias in estimation of the third constant. Under a more general model, when the asymmetric drift is taken into account, the rotation velocity dispersions together with their asymmetric drift provide the correct fit for the local angular velocity. The consistency of the results shows that this new method based on the distribution of eccentricities is worth using for kinematic stellar samples. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. No 176011: Dynamics and Kinematics of Celestial Bodies and Systems

  8. Obtaining Samples Representative of Contaminant Distribution in an Aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalla, Ronald; Spane, Frank A.; Narbutovskih, Susan M.; Conley, Scott F.; Webber, William D.

    2002-01-01

    Historically, groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells have been assumed to provide average indications of contaminant concentrations within the aquifer over the well-screen interval. In-well flow circulation, heterogeneity in the surrounding aquifer, and the sampling method utilized, however, can significantly impact the representativeness of samples as contaminant indicators of actual conditions within the surrounding aquifer. This paper identifies the need and approaches essential for providing cost-effective and technically meaningful groundwater-monitoring results. Proper design of the well screen interval is critical. An accurate understanding of ambient (non-pumping) flow conditions within the monitoring well is essential for determining the contaminant distribution within the aquifer. The ambient in-well flow velocity, flow direction and volumetric flux rate are key to this understanding. Not only do the ambient flow conditions need to be identified for preferential flow zones, but also the probable changes that will be imposed under dynamic conditions that occur during groundwater sampling. Once the in-well flow conditions are understood, effective sampling can be conducted to obtain representative samples for specific depth zones or zones of interest. The question of sample representativeness has become an important issue as waste minimization techniques such as low flow purging and sampling are implemented to combat the increasing cost of well purging and sampling at many hazardous waste sites. Several technical approaches (e.g., well tracer techniques and flowmeter surveys) can be used to determine in-well flow conditions, and these are discussed with respect to both their usefulness and limitations. Proper fluid extraction methods using minimal, (low) volume and no purge sampling methods that are used to obtain representative samples of aquifer conditions are presented

  9. Analysis shear wave velocity structure obtained from surface wave methods in Bornova, Izmir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamuk, Eren, E-mail: eren.pamuk@deu.edu.tr; Akgün, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafa.akgun@deu.edu.tr [Department of Geophysical Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey); Özdağ, Özkan Cevdet, E-mail: cevdet.ozdag@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University Rectorate, Izmir (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Properties of the soil from the bedrock is necessary to describe accurately and reliably for the reduction of earthquake damage. Because seismic waves change their amplitude and frequency content owing to acoustic impedance difference between soil and bedrock. Firstly, shear wave velocity and depth information of layers on bedrock is needed to detect this changing. Shear wave velocity can be obtained using inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods (MASW- the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, ReMi-Refraction Microtremor, SPAC-Spatial Autocorrelation). While research depth is limeted in active source study, a passive source methods are utilized for deep depth which is not reached using active source methods. ReMi method is used to determine layer thickness and velocity up to 100 m using seismic refraction measurement systems.The research carried out up to desired depth depending on radius using SPAC which is utilized easily in conditions that district using of seismic studies in the city. Vs profiles which are required to calculate deformations in under static and dynamic loads can be obtained with high resolution using combining rayleigh wave dispersion curve obtained from active and passive source methods. In the this study, Surface waves data were collected using the measurements of MASW, ReMi and SPAC at the İzmir Bornova region. Dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods were combined in wide frequency band and Vs-depth profiles were obtained using inversion. Reliability of the resulting soil profiles were provided by comparison with theoretical transfer function obtained from soil paremeters and observed soil transfer function from Nakamura technique and by examination of fitting between these functions. Vs values are changed between 200-830 m/s and engineering bedrock (Vs>760 m/s) depth is approximately 150 m.

  10. How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money

    OpenAIRE

    Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money fo...

  11. Current distribution in triodes neglecting space charge and initial velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamaker, H.C.

    1950-01-01

    A theory of the current distribution in triodes with positive grid is developed on the assumption that space charge and the initial velocities of both primary and secondary electrons may be neglected. This theory, which is originally due to De Lussanct de la Sablonière, has been put in a more lucid

  12. Supply Chain Synchronization: Improving Distribution Velocity to the Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Figures ix List of Tables x I. Introduction 1 II. Literature Review 4...DISTRIBUTION VELOCITY TO THE THEATRE I. Introduction “When you do battle, even if you are winning, if you continue for a long time it will...jointvision/jvpub2.htm Accessed 9 March 2009. Lambert, Douglas M. Supply Chain Mangement : Processes, Partnerships, Performance. Jacksonville: The

  13. Velocity Distributions of Runaway Stars Produced by Supernovae in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2016) 37: 22. DOI: 10.1007/s12036-016-9400-2. Velocity Distributions of Runaway Stars Produced by Supernovae in the Galaxy. Abudusaimaitijiang Yisikandeer. ∗. , Chunhua Zhu, Zhaojun Wang. & Guoliang Lü. School of Physical Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, 830046, China. ∗.

  14. Instantaneous fluctuation velocity and skewness distributions upstream of transition onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernon, D.; Walsh, E.J.; McEligot, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    The development of streamwise orientated disturbances through the boundary layer thickness prior to transition onset for zero-pressure gradient boundary layer flow under the influence %Tu = 4.2 is presented. The analysis concentrates on the development of the maximum positive and negative of the fluctuation velocity in order to gain further insight into the transition process. The average location of the peak negative fluctuation velocity over a range of Reynolds numbers was measured in the upper portion of the boundary layer at y/δ ∼ 0.6, whereas the location of the peak positive value was measured at y/δ ∼ 0.3. The disturbance magnitude of the negative fluctuation velocity increased beyond that of the positive as transition onset approached. The distribution and disturbance magnitude of the maximum positive and negative fluctuation velocities indicate that the initiation of transition may occur on the low-speed components of the flow that are lifted up to the upper region of the boundary layer. This is in qualitative agreement with recent direct numerical simulations on the breakdown of the flow on the lifted low-speed streaks near the boundary layer edge. The results presented in this investigation also demonstrate the increased physical insight gained by examining the distributions of the maximum positive and negative of the streamwise fluctuation velocity component associated with the low- and high-speed streaks, compared to time-averaged values, in determining what structures cause the breakdown to turbulence

  15. Generation of the auroral electron velocity distribution by electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, D.A.; Cook, A.C.; Wang, Z.-S.; Angelis, U. de; Perry, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown from first principles that the characteristic peak in the auroral electron velocity distribution can be generated stochastically through resonant interactions with lower-hybrid electrostatic turbulence. The peak itself is shown to be the inevitable consequence of restrictions imposed on random walk in velocity space by the limitation in wave group velocity. A Monte-Carlo model of the process demonstrates how the various properties of the acceleration region are reflected in the resultant electron distribution. It is shown, in particular, that the width of the peak is governed by the amplitude of the turbulence, while the amplitude of the peak reflects the column density of wave energy. Electron distributions encountered within three auroral arcs are interpreted to yield order of magnitude estimates of the amplitude and rms electric field of lower-hybrid wave packets. The velocities and frequencies of the resonant waves, the net electric field, the column density of wave energy and the electric field energy density are also estimated. The results are found to be not inconsistent with available electric-field measurements. (author)

  16. Visualization of velocity field and phase distribution in gas-liquid two-phase flow by NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, G.; Monji, H.; Obata, J.

    2004-01-01

    NMR imaging has been applied in the field of fluid mechanics, mainly single phase flow, to visualize the instantaneous flow velocity field. In the present study, NMR imaging was used to visualize simultaneously both the instantaneous phase structure and velocity field of gas-liquid two-phase flow. Two methods of NMR imaging were applied. One is useful to visualize both the one component of liquid velocity and the phase distribution. This method was applied to horizontal two-phase flow and a bubble rising in stagnant oil. It was successful in obtaining some pictures of velocity field and phase distribution on the cross section of the pipe. The other is used to visualize a two-dimensional velocity field. This method was applied to a bubble rising in a stagnant water. The velocity field was visualized after and before the passage of a bubble at the measuring cross section. Furthermore, the distribution of liquid velocity was obtained. (author)

  17. Study on velocity field in a wire wrapped fuel pin bundle of sodium cooled reactor. Detailed velocity distribution in a subchannel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Jun; Miyakoshi, Hiroyuki; Kamide, Hideki

    2009-01-01

    A sodium cooled fast reactor is designed to attain a high burn-up core in a feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. In high burn-up fuel subassemblies, deformation of fuel pin due to the swelling and thermal bowing may decrease local flow velocity via change of flow area in the subassembly and influence the heat removal capability. Therefore, it is of importance to obtain the flow velocity distribution in a wire wrapped pin bundle. A 2.5 times enlarged 7-pin bundle water model was applied to investigate the detailed velocity distribution in an inner subchannel surrounded by 3 pins with wrapping wire. The test section consisted of a hexagonal acrylic duct tube and fluorinated resin pins which had nearly the same refractive index with that of water and a high light transmission rate. The velocity distribution in an inner subchannel with the wrapping wire was measured by PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) through the front and lateral sides of the duct tube. In the vertical velocity distribution in a narrow space between the pins, the wrapping wire decreased the velocity downstream of the wire and asymmetric flow distribution was formed between the pin and wire. In the horizontal velocity distribution, swirl flow around the wrapping wire was obviously observed. The measured velocity data are useful for code validation of pin bundle thermalhydraulics. (author)

  18. Spherical Harmonic Analysis of Particle Velocity Distribution Function: Comparison of Moments and Anisotropies using Cluster Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgiolo, Chris; Vinas, Adolfo F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a spherical harmonic analysis of the plasma velocity distribution function using high-angular, energy, and time resolution Cluster data obtained from the PEACE spectrometer instrument to demonstrate how this analysis models the particle distribution function and its moments and anisotropies. The results show that spherical harmonic analysis produced a robust physical representation model of the velocity distribution function, resolving the main features of the measured distributions. From the spherical harmonic analysis, a minimum set of nine spectral coefficients was obtained from which the moment (up to the heat flux), anisotropy, and asymmetry calculations of the velocity distribution function were obtained. The spherical harmonic method provides a potentially effective "compression" technique that can be easily carried out onboard a spacecraft to determine the moments and anisotropies of the particle velocity distribution function for any species. These calculations were implemented using three different approaches, namely, the standard traditional integration, the spherical harmonic (SPH) spectral coefficients integration, and the singular value decomposition (SVD) on the spherical harmonic methods. A comparison among the various methods shows that both SPH and SVD approaches provide remarkable agreement with the standard moment integration method.

  19. Analysis of the velocity distribution in different types of ventilation system ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peszyński, Kazimierz; Olszewski, Lukasz; Smyk, Emil; Perczyński, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    The paper presents the results obtained during the preliminary studies of circular and rectangular ducts before testing the properties elements (elbows, tees, etc.)of rectangular with rounded corners ducts. The fundamental problem of the studies was to determine the flow rate in the ventilation duct. Due to the size of the channel it was decided to determine the flow rate based on the integration of flow velocity over the considered cross-section. This method requires knowledge of the velocity distribution in the cross section. Approximation of the measured actual profile by the classic and modified Prandtl power-law velocity profile was analysed.

  20. Analysis of the velocity distribution in different types of ventilation system ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peszyński Kazimierz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained during the preliminary studies of circular and rectangular ducts before testing the properties elements (elbows, tees, etc.of rectangular with rounded corners ducts. The fundamental problem of the studies was to determine the flow rate in the ventilation duct. Due to the size of the channel it was decided to determine the flow rate based on the integration of flow velocity over the considered cross-section. This method requires knowledge of the velocity distribution in the cross section. Approximation of the measured actual profile by the classic and modified Prandtl power-law velocity profile was analysed.

  1. Optimized velocity distributions for direct dark matter detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Rappelt, Andreas, E-mail: ibarra@tum.de, E-mail: andreas.rappelt@tum.de [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    We present a method to calculate, without making assumptions about the local dark matter velocity distribution, the maximal and minimal number of signal events in a direct detection experiment given a set of constraints from other direct detection experiments and/or neutrino telescopes. The method also allows to determine the velocity distribution that optimizes the signal rates. We illustrate our method with three concrete applications: i) to derive a halo-independent upper limit on the cross section from a set of null results, ii) to confront in a halo-independent way a detection claim to a set of null results and iii) to assess, in a halo-independent manner, the prospects for detection in a future experiment given a set of current null results.

  2. Experimental investigations on frictional resistance and velocity distribution of rough wall with regularly distributed triangular ribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motozawa, Masaaki; Ito, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Kaoru; Kawashima, Hideki; Ando, Hirotomo; Senda, Tetsuya; Tsuji, Yoshiyuki; Kawaguchi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Flow over the regularly distributed triangular ribs was investigated. • Simultaneous measurement of flow resistance and velocity profile was performed. • Flow resistance was measured directly and velocity profile was measured by LDV. • Flow resistance was estimated by the information of the velocity field. • Estimated flow resistance has good agreement with the measured flow resistance. -- Abstract: The relationship between the flow resistance of a turbulent flow over triangular ribs regularly distributed on a wall surface and the velocity distribution around the ribs was investigated experimentally. A concentric cylinder device composed of an inner test cylinder and an outer cylinder was employed to measure the flow resistance using the torque of the shaft of the inner cylinder and the velocity distribution of the flow around a rib by laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) simultaneously. We prepared four inner test cylinders having 4, 8, 12 and 16 triangular ribs on the surface with the same interval between them. Each rib had an isosceles right triangle V-shape and a height of 2 mm. To investigate the relationship between flow resistance and velocity distribution, we estimated the frictional drag and pressure drag acting on the surface of the ribs separately using the velocity distribution. Therefore, we could also estimate the total flow resistance using the velocity distribution. As a result of the experiment, the flow resistance and the attachment point downstream of the rib were shown to depend on the distance between ribs. Moreover, the flow resistance estimated using the velocity distribution had good agreement with the flow resistance measured using the torque of the inner cylinder

  3. Distributed Velocity-Dependent Protocol for Multihop Cellular Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepthi Chander

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones are embedded with sensors form a Cellular Sensor Network which can be used to localize a moving event. The inherent mobility of the application and of the cell phone users warrants distributed structure-free data aggregation and on-the-fly routing. We propose a Distributed Velocity-Dependent (DVD protocol to localize a moving event using a Multihop Cellular Sensor Network (MCSN. DVD is based on a novel form of connectivity determined by the waiting time of nodes for a Random Waypoint (RWP distribution of cell phone users. This paper analyzes the time-stationary and spatial distribution of the proposed waiting time to explain the superior event localization and delay performances of DVD over the existing Randomized Waiting (RW protocol. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to compare the performance of DVD with RW and the existing Centralized approach.

  4. Distributed Velocity-Dependent Protocol for Multihop Cellular Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagyasi Bhushan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cell phones are embedded with sensors form a Cellular Sensor Network which can be used to localize a moving event. The inherent mobility of the application and of the cell phone users warrants distributed structure-free data aggregation and on-the-fly routing. We propose a Distributed Velocity-Dependent (DVD protocol to localize a moving event using a Multihop Cellular Sensor Network (MCSN. DVD is based on a novel form of connectivity determined by the waiting time of nodes for a Random Waypoint (RWP distribution of cell phone users. This paper analyzes the time-stationary and spatial distribution of the proposed waiting time to explain the superior event localization and delay performances of DVD over the existing Randomized Waiting (RW protocol. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to compare the performance of DVD with RW and the existing Centralized approach.

  5. Study on velocity distribution in a pool by submersible mixers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, F; Shi, W D; Lu, X N; Chen, B; Jiang, H

    2012-01-01

    To study the distribution of submersible mixers and agitating effect in the sewage treatment pool, Pro/E software was utilized to build the three-dimensional model. Then, the large-scale computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT6.3 was used. ICEM software was used to build unstructured grid of sewage treatment pool. After that, the sewage treatment pool was numerically simulated by dynamic coordinate system technology and RNG k-ε turbulent model and PIOS algorithm. The macro fluid field and each section velocity flow field distribution were analyzed to observe the efficiency of each submersible mixer. The average velocity and mixing area in the sewage pool were studied simultaneously. Results show that: the preferred project B, two submersible mixers speed is 980 r/min, and setting angles are all 30°. Fluid mixing area in the pool has reached more than 95%. Under the action of two mixers, the fluid in the sewage pool form a continuous circulating water flow. The fluid is mixed adequately and average velocity of fluid in the pool is at around 0.241m/s, which agreed with the work requirements. Consequently it can provide a reference basis for practical engineering application of submersible mixers by using this method.

  6. Creating unstable velocity-space distributions with barium injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    Large Debye lengths relative to detector dimensions and the absence of confining walls makes space an attractive laboratory for studying fundamental theories of plasma instabilities. However, natural space plasmas are rarely found displaced from equilibrium enough to permit isolation and diagnosis of the controlling parameters and driving conditions. Furthermore, any plasma or field response to the departure from equilibrium can be masked by noise in the natural system. Active experiments provide a technique for addressing the chicken or egg dilemma. Early thermite barium releases were generally conducted at low altitudes from sounding rockets to trace electric fields passively or to study configuration-space instabilities. One can also study velocity-space instabilities with barium releases. Neutral barium vapor releases wherein a typical speed greatly exceeds the thermal speed can be used to produce barium ion velocity-space distributions that should be subject to a number of microinstabilities. We examine the ion velocity-space distributions resulting from barium injections from orbiting spacecraft and shaped-charges

  7. Electron velocity distributions near the earth's bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.; Anderson, R.C.; Bame, S.J.; Gary, S.P.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Thomsen, M.F.; Paschmann, G.; Hoppe, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of two-dimensional electron velocity distributions, f(V), measured near the earth's bow shock using Los Alamos/Garching plasma instrumentation aboard ISEE 2 is presented. This survey provides clues to the mechanisms of electron thermalization within the shock and the relaxation of both the upsteam and downstream velocity distributions. First, near the foreshock boundary, fluxes of electrons having a power law shape at high energies backstream from the shock. Second, within the shock, cuts through f(V) along B. f(V), often show single maxima offset toward the magnetosheath by speeds comparable to, but larger than, the upstream thermal speed.Third, magnetosheath distributions generally have flat tops out to an energy, E 0 , with maxima substantially lower than that in the solar wind. Occasionally, cuts through f(V) along B show one and sometimes two small peaks at the edge of the flat tops making them appear concave upward. The electron distributions characteristic of these three regions are interpreted as arising from the effects of macroscopic (scale size comparable to or larger than the shock width) electric and magnetic fields and the subsequent effects of microscopic (scale size small in comparison with the shock width) fields. In particular, our results suggest that field-aligned instabilities are likely to be present in the earth's bow shock

  8. Anomalous Skin Effect for Anisotropic Electron Velocity Distribution Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; Gennady Shvets

    2004-01-01

    The anomalous skin effect in a plasma with a highly anisotropic electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) is very different from skin effect in a plasma with the isotropic EVDF. An analytical solution was derived for the electric field penetrated into plasma with the EVDF described as a Maxwellian with two temperatures Tx >> Tz, where x is the direction along the plasma boundary and z is the direction perpendicular to the plasma boundary. The skin layer was found to consist of two distinctive regions of width of order nTx/w and nTz/w, where nTx,z/w = (Tx,z/m)1/2 is the thermal electron velocity and w is the incident wave frequency

  9. Velocity distribution measurement in wire-spaced fuel pin bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Hiroshi; Ohtake, Toshihide; Uruwashi, Shinichi; Takahashi, Keiichi

    1974-01-01

    Flow distribution measurement was made in the subchannels of a pin bundle in air flow. The present paper is interim because the target of this work is the decision of temperature of the pin surface in contact with wire spacers. The wire-spaced fuel pin bundle used for the experiment consists of 37 simulated fuel pins of stainless steel tubes, 3000 mm in length and 31.6 mm in diameter, which are wound spirally with 6 mm stainless steel wire. The bundle is wrapped with a hexagonal tube, 3500 mm in length and 293 mm in flat-to-flat distance. The bundle is fixed with knock-bar at the entrance of air flow in the hexagonal tube. The pitch of pins in the bundle is 37.6 mm (P/D=1.19) and the wrapping pitch of wire is 1100 mm (H/D=34.8). A pair of arrow-type 5-hole Pitot tubes are used to measure the flow velocity and the direction of air flow in the pin bundle. The measurement of flow distribution was made with the conditions of air flow rate of 0.33 m 3 /sec, air temperature of 45 0 C, and average Reynolds number of 15100 (average air velocity of 20.6 m/sec.). It was found that circular flow existed in the down stream of wire spacers, that axial flow velocity was slower in the subchannels, which contained wire spacers, than in those not affected by the wire, and that the flow angle to the axial velocity at the boundary of subchannels was two thirds smaller than wire wrapping angle. (Tai, I.)

  10. Predicted and measured velocity distribution in a model heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, D.B.; Carlucci, L.N.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between numerical predictions, using the porous media concept, and measurements of the two-dimensional isothermal shell-side velocity distributions in a model heat exchanger. Computations and measurements were done with and without tubes present in the model. The effect of tube-to-baffle leakage was also investigated. The comparison was made to validate certain porous media concepts used in a computer code being developed to predict the detailed shell-side flow in a wide range of shell-and-tube heat exchanger geometries

  11. Sodium Atoms in the Lunar Exotail: Observed Velocity and Spatial Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Line, Michael R.; Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Oliversen, R. J.; Wilson, J. K.; Haffner, L. M.; Roesler, F. L.

    2011-01-01

    The lunar sodium tail extends long distances due to radiation pressure on sodium atoms in the lunar exosphere. Our earlier observations determined the average radial velocity of sodium atoms moving down the lunar tail beyond Earth along the Sun-Moon-Earth line (i.e., the anti-lunar point) to be 12.4 km/s. Here we use the Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper to obtain the first kinematically resolved maps of the intensity and velocity distribution of this emission over a 15 x times 15 deg region on the sky near the anti-lunar point. We present both spatially and spectrally resolved observations obtained over four nights around new moon in October 2007. The spatial distribution of the sodium atoms is elongated along the ecliptic with the location of the peak intensity drifting 3 degrees east along the ecliptic per night. Preliminary modeling results suggest that the spatial and velocity distributions in the sodium exotail are sensitive to the near surface lunar sodium velocity distribution and that observations of this sort along with detailed modeling offer new opportunities to describe the time history of lunar surface sputtering over several days.

  12. In vitro performance of ceramic coatings obtained by high velocity oxy-fuel spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, H; Garcia-Giralt, N; Fernández, J; Díez-Pérez, A; Guilemany, J M

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings obtained by plasma-spraying have been used for many years to improve biological performance of bone implants, but several studies have drawn attention to the problems arising from high temperatures and the lack of mechanical properties. In this study, plasma-spraying is substituted by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray, with lower temperatures reached, and TiO2 is added in low amounts to hydroxyapatite in order to improve the mechanical properties. Four conditions have been tested to evaluate which are those with better biological properties. Viability and proliferation tests, as well as differentiation assays and morphology observation, are performed with human osteoblast cultures onto the studied coatings. The hydroxyapatite-TiO2 coatings maintain good cell viability and proliferation, especially the cases with higher amorphous phase amount and specific surface, and promote excellent differentiation, with a higher ALP amount for these cases than for polystyrene controls. Observation by SEM corroborates this excellent behaviour. In conclusion, these coatings are a good alternative to those used industrially, and an interesting issue would be improving biological behaviour of the worst cases, which in turn show the better mechanical properties.

  13. Comparative study of the temperature and velocity gradients for the interphases obtained during directional solidification of Al-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ares, Alicia Esther; Gueijman, Sergio Fabian; Schvezov, Carlos E

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies determined that in directionally solidified lead-tin alloys, the position in which the transition occurs from columnar to equiaxial structure depending on the distribution of temperatures in the system, occurs when a minimum and critical thermal gradient value is attained in the liquid before the interphase that separates the (liquid) phase from the (solid + liquid) phase and this critical gradient value is independent from the solute concentration, natural convection, degree of overheating, the mold geometry and the number of columnar and equiaxial grains that form. The study now includes aluminum-copper alloys, for which the temperature gradient test values in the liquid before the (liquid)/(solid + liquid) interphase and the speeds of the (liquid)/(solid+liquid)/(solid) interphases are determined. The values of interphase gradients and velocities contrast with the values predicted by the Hunt model for the same alloy system. The velocities of the interphases are also compared with those calculated with the Lipton equation and used in the Wang and Beckermann model for dendritic equiaxial growth. The results are compared with those obtained previously in the lead-tin system (CW)

  14. Jeans' criterion and nonextensive velocity distribution function in kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jiulin

    2004-01-01

    The effect of nonextensivity of self-gravitating systems on the Jeans' criterion for gravitational instability is studied in the framework of Tsallis statistics. The nonextensivity is introduced in the Jeans problem by a generalized q-nonextensive velocity distribution function through the equation of state of ideal gas in nonextensive kinetic theory. A new Jeans' criterion is deduced with a factor √(2/(5-3q)) that, however, differs from that one in [Astron. Astrophys. 396 (2002) 309] and new results of gravitational instability are analyzed for the nonextensive parameter q. An understanding of physical meaning of q and a possible seismic observation to find astronomical evidence for a value of q different from unity are also discussed

  15. Meteoroid velocity distribution derived from head echo data collected at Arecibo during regular world day observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Sulzer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the observation and analysis of ionization flashes associated with the decay of meteoroids (so-called head echos detected by the Arecibo 430 MHz radar during regular ionospheric observations in the spring and autumn equinoxes. These two periods allow pointing well-above and nearly-into the ecliptic plane at dawn when the event rate maximizes. The observation of many thousands of events allows a statistical interpretation of the results, which show that there is a strong tendency for the observed meteoroids to come from the apex as has been previously reported (Chau and Woodman, 2004. The velocity distributions agree with Janches et al. (2003a when they are directly comparable, but the azimuth scan used in these observations allows a new perspective. We have constructed a simple statistical model which takes meteor velocities as input and gives radar line of sight velocities as output. The intent is to explain the fastest part of the velocity distribution. Since the speeds interpreted from the measurements are distributed fairly narrowly about nearly 60 km s-1, double the speed of the earth in its orbit, is consistent with the interpretation that many of the meteoroids seen by the Arecibo radar are moving in orbits about the sun with similar parameters as the earth, but in the retrograde direction. However, it is the directional information obtained from the beam-swinging radar experiment and the speed that together provide the evidence for this interpretation. Some aspects of the measured velocity distributions suggest that this is not a complete description even for the fast part of the distribution, and it certainly says nothing about the slow part first described in Janches et al. (2003a. Furthermore, we cannot conclude anything about the entire dust population since there are probably selection effects that restrict the observations to a subset of the population.

  16. CFD Simulation of Air Velocity Distribution in Occupied Livestock Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Zhang, G.; Bjerg, B.

    In modem livestock buildings the design of the ventilation systems is important in order to obtain good air distribution. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting the air flow and air quality makes it possible to include the effect of room geometry, equipment and occupants in the de......In modem livestock buildings the design of the ventilation systems is important in order to obtain good air distribution. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for predicting the air flow and air quality makes it possible to include the effect of room geometry, equipment and occupants....... In this study laboratory measurements in a ventilated test room with "pig simulators" are compared with CFD-simulations....

  17. Determination and shaping of the ion-velocity distribution function in a single-ended Q machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Michelsen, Poul

    1971-01-01

    An electrostatic energy analyzer with a resolution better than 0.03 eV was constructed. This analyzer was used to determine the ion-velocity distribution function at different densities and plate temperatures in a single-ended Q machine. In all regions good agreement with theoretical predictions...... based on simple, physical pictures is obtained. It is shown that within certain limits the velocity distribution function can be shaped; double-humped distribution functions have been obtained. The technique used here is suggested as an accurate method for determination of plasma densities within 10...

  18. Aerosol formation from high-velocity uranium drops: Comparison of number and mass distributions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, D.J.; Benson, D.A.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the aerosol produced by the combustion of high-velocity molten-uranium droplets produced by the simultaneous heating and electromagnetic launch of uranium wires. These tests are intended to simulate the reduction of high-velocity fragments into aerosol in high-explosive detonations or reactor accidents involving nuclear materials. As reported earlier, the resulting aerosol consists mainly of web-like chain agglomerates. A condensation nucleus counter was used to investigate the decay of the total particle concentration due to coagulation and losses. Number size distributions based on mobility equivalent diameter obtained soon after launch with a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer showed lognormal distributions with an initial count median diameter (CMD) of 0.3 {mu}m and a geometric standard deviation, {sigma}{sub g} of about 2; the CMD was found to increase and {sigma}{sub g} decrease with time due to coagulation. Mass size distributions based on aerodynamic diameter were obtained for the first time with a Microorifice Uniform Deposit Impactor, which showed lognormal distributions with mass median aerodynamic diameters of about 0.5 {mu}m and an aerodynamic geometric standard deviation of about 2. Approximate methods for converting between number and mass distributions and between mobility and aerodynamic equivalent diameters are presented.

  19. Aerosol formation from high-velocity uranium drops: Comparison of number and mass distributions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rader, D.J.; Benson, D.A.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the aerosol produced by the combustion of high-velocity molten-uranium droplets produced by the simultaneous heating and electromagnetic launch of uranium wires. These tests are intended to simulate the reduction of high-velocity fragments into aerosol in high-explosive detonations or reactor accidents involving nuclear materials. As reported earlier, the resulting aerosol consists mainly of web-like chain agglomerates. A condensation nucleus counter was used to investigate the decay of the total particle concentration due to coagulation and losses. Number size distributions based on mobility equivalent diameter obtained soon after launch with a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer showed lognormal distributions with an initial count median diameter (CMD) of 0.3 μm and a geometric standard deviation, σ g of about 2; the CMD was found to increase and σ g decrease with time due to coagulation. Mass size distributions based on aerodynamic diameter were obtained for the first time with a Microorifice Uniform Deposit Impactor, which showed lognormal distributions with mass median aerodynamic diameters of about 0.5 μm and an aerodynamic geometric standard deviation of about 2. Approximate methods for converting between number and mass distributions and between mobility and aerodynamic equivalent diameters are presented

  20. Experimental research on velocity distribution in narrow slots of plane type reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Xinxing; Zhang Youjie; Jia Haijun; Jiang Shengyao; Bo Hanliang; Min Gang

    2003-01-01

    The experimental research on velocity distribution in multiple parallel narrow channels formed by fuel plane of assembly is carried out under various Re and the water without ions as fluid in testing loop. The experimental results show that under various Re within a channel the velocity in the middle area is high and the velocity in the edge of channel decreases rapidly to zero, and the velocity is symmetrically distributed along the central line, thus the velocity distribution within a channel is like a trapezium. While in parallel channels the velocity of the middle channel is low and the velocity of the channel close to the edge is high, it is supposed to be caused by the inlet structure of channels, this concave distribution is a disadvantage to the even distribution of reactor flux

  1. Space and velocity distributions of fast ions in magnetically confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Lutsenko, V.V.; Lisak, M.; Wising, F.

    1994-01-01

    General expressions in terms of the orbit averaged distribution function are obtained for local characteristic quantities of fast ions, such as the velocity distribution, energy density and power deposition. The resulting expressions are applied to the case of a very peaked production profile of fast ions, characterized by particularly strong orbital effects. It is shown that in this case the radial profiles of the fast ions can be qualitatively different from the source profile, being e.g. strongly non-monotonic. The analysis is carried out for a straight as well as for a tokamak magnetic field. It is predicted that marginally co-passing and semi-trapped particles (i.e. particles that are trapped in only one azimuthal direction) can be transformed to trapped and circulating particles due to electron drag. This leads to e.g. different distribution functions of fast ions in the cases of co- or counter-injection. Collisional constants of motion are obtained

  2. Vessel Sampling and Blood Flow Velocity Distribution With Vessel Diameter for Characterizing the Human Bulbar Conjunctival Microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Yuan, Jin; Jiang, Hong; Yan, Wentao; Cintrón-Colón, Hector R; Perez, Victor L; DeBuc, Delia C; Feuer, William J; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    This study determined (1) how many vessels (i.e., the vessel sampling) are needed to reliably characterize the bulbar conjunctival microvasculature and (2) if characteristic information can be obtained from the distribution histogram of the blood flow velocity and vessel diameter. Functional slitlamp biomicroscope was used to image hundreds of venules per subject. The bulbar conjunctiva in five healthy human subjects was imaged on six different locations in the temporal bulbar conjunctiva. The histograms of the diameter and velocity were plotted to examine whether the distribution was normal. Standard errors were calculated from the standard deviation and vessel sample size. The ratio of the standard error of the mean over the population mean was used to determine the sample size cutoff. The velocity was plotted as a function of the vessel diameter to display the distribution of the diameter and velocity. The results showed that the sampling size was approximately 15 vessels, which generated a standard error equivalent to 15% of the population mean from the total vessel population. The distributions of the diameter and velocity were not only unimodal, but also somewhat positively skewed and not normal. The blood flow velocity was related to the vessel diameter (r=0.23, Psampling size of the vessels and the distribution histogram of the blood flow velocity and vessel diameter, which may lead to a better understanding of the human microvascular system of the bulbar conjunctiva.

  3. Study of the relaxation of electron velocity distributions in gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braglia, G L [Parma Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Caraffini, G L; Diligenti, M [Parma Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica

    1981-03-11

    The Fokker-Planck equation governing the relaxation of the electron speed (energy) distribution in gases is solved in a number of cases of special interest. The solution is given in terms of eigenfunctions of the Fokker-Planck operator, satisfying an orthonormalization condition in which the steady-state distribution is the weight function. The real cross-sections of the noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe, together with model collision frequencies of the form ..nu..(v) = ..cap alpha..vsup(n) with n = 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3 and 3.5, are used to calculate eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. The first fifteen eigenvalues are obtained in each case both in the absence and in the presence of a d.c. electric field and, in the latter case, both with atoms at rest and atoms in motion. Calculations of relaxation times and examples of evolutions towards their steady-state forms of given initial distributions are reported in several particular cases.

  4. The PDF of fluid particle acceleration in turbulent flow with underlying normal distribution of velocity fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aringazin, A.K.; Mazhitov, M.I.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a formal procedure to obtain and specify the general form of a marginal distribution for the Lagrangian acceleration of fluid particle in developed turbulent flow using Langevin type equation and the assumption that velocity fluctuation u follows a normal distribution with zero mean, in accord to the Heisenberg-Yaglom picture. For a particular representation, β=exp[u], of the fluctuating parameter β, we reproduce the underlying log-normal distribution and the associated marginal distribution, which was found to be in a very good agreement with the new experimental data by Crawford, Mordant, and Bodenschatz on the acceleration statistics. We discuss on arising possibilities to make refinements of the log-normal model

  5. Velocity distribution of women's 30-km cross-country skiing during Olympic Games from 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Wlodzimierz S; Dancewicz-Nosko, Dorota; Giovanis, Vasilios

    2017-12-01

    Within several investigated endurance sport disciplines the distribution of load of the best competitors has a manner of evenly or slightly rising velocity values. Unfortunately many other competitors have usually diminishing values or when they are very poor they have evenly values. The aim of this study was to investigate distribution of velocity within 30-km cross-country female skiers. Cross-country skiing runs were investigated of Olympic Games 2002-2014 (Salt Lake City, Turin, Vancouver, Sochi). At every race two 15 km or three 10 km loops of the same vertical profile were taken into account. The competitors were divided onto: A - winners, B - medallists, C - competitors who obtained places 4 to 10 at the finish line (medium runners), D - competitors who obtained places 11 to 30 at the finish line (poor runners). Velocity data presented on the web pages of several institutions were utilized. The competitors had their velocity distributed in a manner with usually diminishing values. While comparing velocity of sequential loops with the mean velocity the difference for the poor runners reached the value of almost 6 %, which was too high. There was significant (usually negative) correlation coefficient between values of velocity deviation for the first and second loops and the mean value of velocity for the entire distance for the better runners and mixed, i.e. positive and negative values for the poorer runners. It was postulated investigations of velocity distribution should be introduced in coaching in order to inform competitors about their running. This advise is especially important for the poorer runners. Up to now cross country skiers run for themselves. It should be discussed whether the tactics used by road and track runners, i.e. running with pace makers, can be introduced in cross country skiing. Also the use of a drone during training can be used in order to maintain proper pace.

  6. Relative-velocity distributions for two effusive atomic beams in counterpropagating and crossed-beam geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    2012-01-01

    Formulas are presented for calculating the relative velocity distributions in effusive, orthogonal crossed beams and in effusive, counterpropagating beams experiments, which are two important geometries for the study of collision processes between atoms. In addition formulas for the distributions...

  7. Channel flow analysis. [velocity distribution throughout blade flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanis, T.

    1973-01-01

    The design of a proper blade profile requires calculation of the blade row flow field in order to determine the velocities on the blade surfaces. An analysis theory is presented for several methods used for this calculation and associated computer programs that were developed are discussed.

  8. Velocity and stress distributions of deep seismic zone under Izu-Bonin, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoming; Zhang, Guibin; Jia, Zhengyuan

    2017-04-01

    Deep earthquakes can provide the deep information of the Earth directly. We have collected the waveform data from 77 deep earthquakes with depth greater than 300 km under Izu-Bonin in Japan. To obtain the velocity structures of P- and S-wave, we have inversed the double-differences of travel times from deep event-pairs. These velocity anomalies can further yield the Poisson's ratio and the porosity. Our results show that the average P-wave velocity anomaly is lower 6%, however the S-wave anomaly is higher 2% than the iasp91 model. The corresponding Poisson's ratio and porosity anomaly are -24% and -4%, respectively, which suggest that the possibility of water in the deep seismic zone is very few and the porosity might be richer. To obtain the stress distribution, we have used the ISOLA method to analyse the non-double-couple components of moment tensors of 77 deep earthquakes. The focal mechanism results show that almost half of all earthquakes have larger double-couple (DC) components, but others have clear isotropic (ISO) or compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD) components. The non-double-couple components (ISO and CLVD) seem to represent the volume around a deep earthquake changes as it occurs, which could be explained the metastable olivine phase transition. All results indicate that the metastable olivine wedge (MOW) might exist in the Pacific slab under the Izu-Bonin region and the deep earthquakes might be induced by the phase change of metastable olivine.

  9. Obtaining contaminant arrival distributions for steady flow in heterogeneous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The versatility of the new contaminant arrival distributions for determining environmental consequences of subsurface pollution problems is demonstrated through application to a field example involving land drainage in heterogeneous porous materials. Though the four phases of the hydrologic evaluations are complicated because of the material heterogeneity encountered in the field problem, the arrival distributions still effectively summarize the minimal amount of data required to determine the environmental implications. These arrival distributions yield a single graph or tabular set of data giving the consequences of the subsurface pollution problems. Accordingly, public control authorities would be well advised to request that the results of subsurface pollution investigations be provided in the form of arrival distributions and the resulting simpler summary curve or tabulation. Such an objective is most easily accomplished through compliance with the requirements for assuring a complete subsurface evaluation

  10. Experimental study of the spatial distribution of the velocity field of sedimenting particles: mean velocity, pseudo-turbulent fluctuations, intrinsic convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard-Michel, G.

    2001-01-01

    This work follows previous experiments from Nicolai et al. (95), Peysson and Guazzelli (98) and Segre et al. (97), which consisted in measures of the velocity of particles sedimenting in a liquid at low particular Reynolds numbers. Our goal, introduced in the first part with a bibliographic study, is to determinate the particles velocity fluctuations properties. The fluctuations are indeed of the same order as the mean velocity. We are proceeding with PIV Eulerian measures. The method is described in the second part. Its originality comes from measures obtained in a thin laser light sheet, from one side to the other of the cells, with a square section: the measures are therefore spatially localised. Four sets of cells and three sets of particles were used, giving access to ratios 'cell width over particle radius' ranging from about 50 up to 800. In the third part, we present the results concerning the velocity fluctuations structure and their spatial distribution. The intrinsic convection between to parallel vertical walls is also studied. The velocity fluctuations are organised in eddy structures. Their size (measured with correlation length) is independent of the volume fraction, contradicting the results of Segre et al. (97). The results concerning the velocity fluctuations spatial profiles - from one side to the other of the cell - confirm those published by Peysson and Guazzelli (98) in the case of stronger dilution. The evolution of the spatial mean velocity fluctuations confirms the results obtained by Segre et al. (97). The intrinsic convection is also observed in the case of strong dilutions. (author)

  11. The Velocity Distribution Of Pickup He+ Measured at 0.3 AU by MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Daniel J.; Fisk, Lennard A.; Gloeckler, George; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2014-06-01

    During its interplanetary trajectory in 2007-2009, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvrionment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft passed through the gravitational focusing cone for interstellar helium multiple times at a heliocentric distance R ≈ 0.3 AU. Observations of He+ interstellar pickup ions made by the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer sensor on MESSENGER during these transits provide a glimpse into the structure of newly formed inner heliospheric pickup-ion distributions. This close to the Sun, these ions are picked up in a nearly radial interplanetary magnetic field. Compared with the near-Earth environment, pickup ions observed near 0.3 AU will not have had sufficient time to be energized substantially. Such an environment results in a nearly pristine velocity distribution function that should depend only on pickup-ion injection velocities (related to the interstellar gas), pitch-angle scattering, and cooling processes. From measured energy-per-charge spectra obtained during multiple spacecraft observational geometries, we have deduced the phase-space density of He+ as a function of magnetic pitch angle. Our measurements are most consistent with a distribution that decreases nearly monotonically with increasing pitch angle, rather than the more commonly modeled isotropic or hemispherically symmetric forms. These results imply that pitch-angle scattering of He+ may not be instantaneous, as is often assumed, and instead may reflect the velocity distribution of initially injected particles. In a slow solar wind stream, we find a parallel-scattering mean free path of λ || ~ 0.1 AU and a He+ production rate of ~0.05 m-3 s-1 within 0.3 AU.

  12. Obtaining and utilizing contaminant arrival distributions in transient flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The versatility of the new contaminant arrival distributions for determining environmental consequences of subsurface pollution problems is demonstrated through application to a transient flow system. Though some of the four phases of the hydrologic evaluations are more complicated because of the time-dependence of the flow and input contaminant concentrations, the arrival distributions still effectively summarize the data required to determine the environmental implications. These arrival distributions yield two graphs or tabular sets of data giving the consequences of the subsurface pollution problems in a simple and direct form. Accordingly, the public control authorities would be able to use these results to choose alternatives or initiate corrective actions, depending on the indicated environmental consequences

  13. Imaging water velocity and volume fraction distributions in water continuous multiphase flows using inductive flow tomography and electrical resistance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Yiqing; Lucas, Gary P

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an inductive flow tomography (IFT) system, employing a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM) and novel reconstruction techniques, for measuring the local water velocity distribution in water continuous single and multiphase flows. A series of experiments were carried out in vertical-upward and upward-inclined single phase water flows and ‘water continuous’ gas–water and oil–gas–water flows in which the velocity profiles ranged from axisymmetric (single phase and vertical-upward multiphase flows) to highly asymmetric (upward-inclined multiphase flows). Using potential difference measurements obtained from the electrode array of the EMFM, local axial velocity distributions of the continuous water phase were reconstructed using two different IFT reconstruction algorithms denoted RT#1, which assumes that the overall water velocity profile comprises the sum of a series of polynomial velocity components, and RT#2, which is similar to RT#1 but which assumes that the zero’th order velocity component may be replaced by an axisymmetric ‘power law’ velocity distribution. During each experiment, measurement of the local water volume fraction distribution was also made using the well-established technique of electrical resistance tomography (ERT). By integrating the product of the local axial water velocity and the local water volume fraction in the cross section an estimate of the water volumetric flow rate was made which was compared with a reference measurement of the water volumetric flow rate. In vertical upward flows RT#2 was found to give rise to water velocity profiles which are consistent with the previous literature although the profiles obtained in the multiphase flows had relatively higher central velocity peaks than was observed for the single phase profiles. This observation was almost certainly a result of the transfer of axial momentum from the less dense dispersed phases to the

  14. Imaging water velocity and volume fraction distributions in water continuous multiphase flows using inductive flow tomography and electrical resistance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yiqing; Lucas, Gary P.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an inductive flow tomography (IFT) system, employing a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM) and novel reconstruction techniques, for measuring the local water velocity distribution in water continuous single and multiphase flows. A series of experiments were carried out in vertical-upward and upward-inclined single phase water flows and ‘water continuous’ gas-water and oil-gas-water flows in which the velocity profiles ranged from axisymmetric (single phase and vertical-upward multiphase flows) to highly asymmetric (upward-inclined multiphase flows). Using potential difference measurements obtained from the electrode array of the EMFM, local axial velocity distributions of the continuous water phase were reconstructed using two different IFT reconstruction algorithms denoted RT#1, which assumes that the overall water velocity profile comprises the sum of a series of polynomial velocity components, and RT#2, which is similar to RT#1 but which assumes that the zero’th order velocity component may be replaced by an axisymmetric ‘power law’ velocity distribution. During each experiment, measurement of the local water volume fraction distribution was also made using the well-established technique of electrical resistance tomography (ERT). By integrating the product of the local axial water velocity and the local water volume fraction in the cross section an estimate of the water volumetric flow rate was made which was compared with a reference measurement of the water volumetric flow rate. In vertical upward flows RT#2 was found to give rise to water velocity profiles which are consistent with the previous literature although the profiles obtained in the multiphase flows had relatively higher central velocity peaks than was observed for the single phase profiles. This observation was almost certainly a result of the transfer of axial momentum from the less dense dispersed phases to the water

  15. Obtaining sparse distributions in 2D inverse problems

    OpenAIRE

    Reci, A; Sederman, Andrew John; Gladden, Lynn Faith

    2017-01-01

    The mathematics of inverse problems has relevance across numerous estimation problems in science and engineering. L1 regularization has attracted recent attention in reconstructing the system properties in the case of sparse inverse problems; i.e., when the true property sought is not adequately described by a continuous distribution, in particular in Compressed Sensing image reconstruction. In this work, we focus on the application of L1 regularization to a class of inverse problems; relaxat...

  16. A code for obtaining temperature distribution by finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, M.

    1984-01-01

    The ELEFIB Fortran language computer code using finite element method for calculating temperature distribution of linear and two dimensional problems, in permanent region or in the transient phase of heat transfer, is presented. The formulation of equations uses the Galerkin method. Some examples are shown and the results are compared with other papers. The comparative evaluation shows that the elaborated code gives good values. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Electronic oscillations in a hot plasma due the non-Maxwellian velocity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, L.A.V.; Nakamura, Y.

    1977-01-01

    In a completely ionized hot plasma, with a non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution, it is shown that, depending on the electron temperature, oscillations may occur at the elctron plasma and gyro frequencies. For three different electron velocity distributions, it is shown the oscillations dependency on the temperature. This situation occurs in the ionospheric plasma when artificially heated by HF radio waves. If the distribution is Maxwellian, the oscillation only occur near the electron plasma frequency [pt

  18. Investigation of velocity distribution in an inner subchannel of wire wrapped fuel pin bundle of sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Masahiro; Kamide, Hideki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Jun; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    A sodium cooled fast reactor is designed to attain a high burn-up of core fuel in commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. In high burn-up fuel subassemblies, deformation of fuel pin due to the swelling and thermal bowing may decrease local flow velocity via change of flow area in the subassembly and influence the heat removal capability. Therefore, it is important to obtain the detail of flow velocity distribution in a wire wrapped pin bundle. In this study, water experiments were carried out to investigate the detailed velocity distribution in a subchannel of nominal pin geometry as the first step. These basic data are not only useful for understanding of pin bundle thermal hydraulics but also a code validation. A wire-wrapped 3-pin bundle water model was applied to investigate the detailed velocity distribution in the subchannel which is surrounded by 3 pins with wrapping wire. The test section consists of an irregular hexagonal acrylic duct tube and three pins made of fluorinated resin pins which has nearly the same refractive index with that of water and a high light transmission rate. This enables to visualize the central subchannel through the pins. The velocity distribution in the central subchannel with the wrapping wire was measured by PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) through a side wall of the duct tube. Typical flow velocity conditions in the pin bundle were 0.36m/s (Re=2,700) and 1.6m/s (Re=13,500). Influence of the wrapping wire on the velocity distributions in vertical and horizontal directions was confirmed. A clockwise swirl flow around the wire was found in subchannel. Significant differences were not recognized between the two cases of Re=2,700 and 13,500 concerning flow patterns. (author)

  19. Obtaining parton distribution functions from self-organizing maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkanen, H.; Liuti, S.; Loitiere, Y.C.; Brogan, D.; Reynolds, P.

    2007-01-01

    We present an alternative algorithm to global fitting procedures to construct Parton Distribution Functions parametrizations. The proposed algorithm uses Self-Organizing Maps which at variance with the standard Neural Networks, are based on competitive-learning. Self-Organizing Maps generate a non-uniform projection from a high dimensional data space onto a low dimensional one (usually 1 or 2 dimensions) by clustering similar PDF representations together. The SOMs are trained on progressively narrower selections of data samples. The selection criterion is that of convergence towards a neighborhood of the experimental data. All available data sets on deep inelastic scattering in the kinematical region of 0.001 ≤ x ≤ 0.75, and 1 ≤ Q 2 ≤ 100 GeV 2 , with a cut on the final state invariant mass, W 2 ≥ 10 GeV 2 were implemented. The proposed fitting procedure, at variance with standard neural network approaches, allows for an increased control of the systematic bias by enabling the user to directly control the data selection procedure at various stages of the process. (author)

  20. Late Quaternary climate-change velocity: Implications for modern distributions and communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Dalsgaard, Bo; Arge, Lars Allan

    a global map of climate-change velocity since the Last Glacial Maximum and used this measure of climate instability to address a number of classic hypotheses. Results/Conclusions We show that historical climate-change velocity is related to a wide range of characteristics of modern distributions...

  1. Crucial role of sidewalls in velocity distributions in quasi-two-dimensional granular gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zon, J.S.; Kreft, J.; Goldman, D.L.; Miracle, D.; Swift, J. B.; Swinney, H. L.

    2004-01-01

    The significance of sidewalls which yield velocity distributions with non-Gaussian tails and a peak near zero velocity in quasi-two-dimensional granular gases, was investigated. It was observed that the particles gained energy only through collisions with the bottom of the container, which was not

  2. The ion velocity distribution of tokamak plasmas: Rutherford scattering at TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammen, H.F.

    1995-01-10

    One of the most promising ways to gererate electricity in the next century on a large scale is nuclear fusion. In this process two light nuclei fuse and create a new nucleus with a smaller mass than the total mass of the original nuclei, the mass deficit is released in the form of kinetic energy. Research into this field has already been carried out for some decades now, and will have to continue for several more decades before a commercially viable fusion reactor can be build. In order to obtain fusion, fuels of extremely high temperatures are needed to overcome the repulsive force of the nuclei involved. Under these circumstances the fuel is fully ionized: it consists of ions and electrons and is in the plasma state. The problem of confining such a hot substance is solved by using strong magnetic fields. One specific magnetic configuration, in common use, is called the tokamak. The plasma in this machine has a toroidal, i.e. doughnut shaped, configuration. For understanding the physical processes which take place in the plasma, a good temporally and spatially resolved knowledge of both the ion and electron velocity distribution is required. The situation concerning the electrons is favourable, but this is not the case for the ions. To improve the existing knowledge of the ion velocity distribution in tokamak plasmas, a Rutherford scattering diagnostic (RUSC), designed and built by the FOM-Institute for Plasmaphysics `Rijnhuizen`, was installed at the TEXTOR tokamak in Juelich (D). The principle of the diagnostic is as follows. A beam of monoenergetic particles (30 keV, He) is injected vertically into the plasma. A small part of these particles collides elastically with the moving plasma ions. By determining the energy of a scattered beam particle under a certain angle (7 ), the initial velocity of the plasma ion in one direction can be computed. (orig./WL).

  3. The ion velocity distribution of tokamak plasmas: Rutherford scattering at TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammen, H.F.

    1995-01-01

    One of the most promising ways to gererate electricity in the next century on a large scale is nuclear fusion. In this process two light nuclei fuse and create a new nucleus with a smaller mass than the total mass of the original nuclei, the mass deficit is released in the form of kinetic energy. Research into this field has already been carried out for some decades now, and will have to continue for several more decades before a commercially viable fusion reactor can be build. In order to obtain fusion, fuels of extremely high temperatures are needed to overcome the repulsive force of the nuclei involved. Under these circumstances the fuel is fully ionized: it consists of ions and electrons and is in the plasma state. The problem of confining such a hot substance is solved by using strong magnetic fields. One specific magnetic configuration, in common use, is called the tokamak. The plasma in this machine has a toroidal, i.e. doughnut shaped, configuration. For understanding the physical processes which take place in the plasma, a good temporally and spatially resolved knowledge of both the ion and electron velocity distribution is required. The situation concerning the electrons is favourable, but this is not the case for the ions. To improve the existing knowledge of the ion velocity distribution in tokamak plasmas, a Rutherford scattering diagnostic (RUSC), designed and built by the FOM-Institute for Plasmaphysics 'Rijnhuizen', was installed at the TEXTOR tokamak in Juelich (D). The principle of the diagnostic is as follows. A beam of monoenergetic particles (30 keV, He) is injected vertically into the plasma. A small part of these particles collides elastically with the moving plasma ions. By determining the energy of a scattered beam particle under a certain angle (7 ), the initial velocity of the plasma ion in one direction can be computed. (orig./WL)

  4. On the persistence of unstable bump-on-tail electron velocity distributions in the earth's foreshock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimas, A.J.; Fitzenreiter, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Further evidence for the persistence of bump-on-tail unstable reduced velocity distribution in the Earth's electron foreshock is presented. This persistence contradicts our understanding of quasi-linear saturation of the bump-on-tail instability; the distributions should be stabilized through velocity space diffusion too quickly to allow an observation of their unstable form. A modified theory for the saturation of the bump-on-tail instability in the Earth's foreshock is proposed and examined using numerical simulation and quasi-linear theoretical techniques. It is argued the mechanism due to Filbert and Kellogg and to Cairns which is responsible for the creation of the bump-on-tail velocity distribution in the foreshock is still operative during the evolution of the bump-on-tail instability. The saturated state of the plasma must represent a balance between this creation mechanism and velocity space diffusion; the saturated state is not determined by velocity space diffusion alone. Thus the velocity distribution of the saturated stat may still appear bump-on-tail unstable to standard linear analysis which does not take the creation mechanism into account. The bump-on-tail velocity distributions in the foreshock would then represent the state of the plasma after saturation of the bump-on-tail instability, not before

  5. Settling-velocity specific SOC distribution on hillslopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yaxian; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Fogel, Marilyn L.

    The net effect of soil erosion by water, as a sink or source of atmospheric CO2, is determined by the spatial (re-)distribution and stability of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC). The depositional position of eroded SOC is a function of the transport distances of soil fractions where the SOC...... fractions. Eroding sandy soils and sediment were sampled after a series of rainfall events along a slope on a freshly seeded cropland in Jutland, Denmark. All the soil samples were fractionated into five settling classes using a settling tube apparatus. The spatial distribution of soil settling classes...... shows a coarsening effect immediately below the eroding slope, followed by a fining trend at the slope tail. The 13C values of soil fractions were more positive at the footslope than on the slope shoulder or at the slope tail, suggesting enhanced decomposition rate of fresh SOC input at the footslope...

  6. Low Reynolds number airfoil aerodynamic loads determination via line integral of velocity obtained with particle image velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.; Su, Y.Y. [McGill University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-11-15

    The small magnitude lift forces generated by both a NACA 0012 airfoil and a thin flat plate at Re = 29,000 and 54,000 were determined through the line integral of velocity, obtained with particle image velocimetry, via the application of the Kutta-Joukowsky theorem. Surface pressure measurements of the NACA0012 airfoil were also obtained to validate the lift coefficient C{sub l}. The bound circulation was found to be insensitive to the size and aspect ratio of the rectangular integration loop for pre-stall angles. The present C{sub l} data were also found to agree very well with the surface pressure-determined lift coefficient for pre-stall conditions. A large variation in C{sub l} with the loop size and aspect ratio for post-stall conditions was, however, observed. Nevertheless, the present flat-plate C{sub l} data were also found to collectively agree with the published force-balance measurements at small angles of attack, despite the large disparity exhibited among the various published data at high angles. Finally, the ensemble-averaged wake velocity profiles were also used to compute the drag coefficient and, subsequently, the lift-to-drag ratio. (orig.)

  7. Analyzing angular distributions for two-step dissociation mechanisms in velocity map imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Daniel B; Butler, Lynne M; Alligood, Bridget W; Butler, Laurie J

    2013-08-15

    Increasingly, velocity map imaging is becoming the method of choice to study photoinduced molecular dissociation processes. This paper introduces an algorithm to analyze the measured net speed, P(vnet), and angular, β(vnet), distributions of the products from a two-step dissociation mechanism, where the first step but not the second is induced by absorption of linearly polarized laser light. Typically, this might be the photodissociation of a C-X bond (X = halogen or other atom) to produce an atom and a momentum-matched radical that has enough internal energy to subsequently dissociate (without the absorption of an additional photon). It is this second step, the dissociation of the unstable radicals, that one wishes to study, but the measured net velocity of the final products is the vector sum of the velocity imparted to the radical in the primary photodissociation (which is determined by taking data on the momentum-matched atomic cophotofragment) and the additional velocity vector imparted in the subsequent dissociation of the unstable radical. The algorithm allows one to determine, from the forward-convolution fitting of the net velocity distribution, the distribution of velocity vectors imparted in the second step of the mechanism. One can thus deduce the secondary velocity distribution, characterized by a speed distribution P(v1,2°) and an angular distribution I(θ2°), where θ2° is the angle between the dissociating radical's velocity vector and the additional velocity vector imparted to the product detected from the subsequent dissociation of the radical.

  8. A Gordeyev integral for electrostatic waves in a magnetized plasma with a kappa velocity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mace, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    A Gordeyev-type integral for the investigation of electrostatic waves in magnetized plasma having a kappa or generalized Lorentzian velocity distribution is derived. The integral readily reduces, in the unmagnetized and parallel propagation limits, to simple expressions involving the Z κ function. For propagation perpendicular to the magnetic field, it is shown that the Gordeyev integral can be written in closed form as a sum of two generalized hypergeometric functions, which permits easy analysis of the dispersion relation for electrostatic waves. Employing the same analytical techniques used for the kappa distribution, it is further shown that the well-known Gordeyev integral for a Maxwellian distribution can be written very concisely as a generalized hypergeometric function in the limit of perpendicular propagation. This expression, in addition to its mathematical conciseness, has other advantages over the traditional sum over modified Bessel functions form. Examples of the utility of these generalized hypergeometric series, especially how they simplify analyses of electrostatic waves propagating perpendicular to the magnetic field, are given. The new expression for the Gordeyev integral for perpendicular propagation is solved numerically to obtain the dispersion relations for the electrostatic Bernstein modes in a plasma with a kappa distribution

  9. The three-dimensional distributions of tangential velocity and total- temperature in vortex tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderstrøm-Lang, C.U.

    1971-01-01

    The axial and radial gradients of the tangential velocity distribution are calculated from prescribed secondary flow functions on the basis of a zero-order approximation to the momentum equations developed by Lewellen. It is shown that secondary flow functions may be devised which meet pertinent...... physical requirements and which at the same time lead to realistic tangential velocity gradients. The total-temperature distribution in both the axial and radial directions is calculated from such secondary flow functions and corresponding tangential velocity results on the basis of an approximate...

  10. Investigation of Velocity Distribution in Open Channel Flows Based on Conditional Average of Turbulent Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the development of a new analytical model similar to the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations to determine the distribution of streamwise velocity by considering the bursting phenomenon. It is found that, in two-dimensional (2D flows, the underlying mechanism of the wake law in 2D uniform flow is actually a result of up/down events. A special experiment was conducted to examine the newly derived analytical model, and good agreement is achieved between the experimental data in the inner region and the model’s prediction. The obtained experimental data were also used to examine the DML-Law (dip-modified-log-law, MLW-Law (modified-log-wake law, and CML-Law (Cole’s wake law, and the agreement is not very satisfactory in the outer region.

  11. Temporal evolution of confined fast-ion velocity distributions measured by collective Thomson scattering in TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik; Porte, L.

    2008-01-01

    reported [Bindslev , Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 205005 2006]. Here we extend the discussion of these results which were obtained at the TEXTOR tokamak. The fast ions are generated by neutral-beam injection and ion-cyclotron resonance heating. The CTS system uses 100-150 kW of 110-GHz gyrotron probing radiation......Fast ions created in the fusion processes will provide up to 70% of the heating in ITER. To optimize heating and current drive in magnetically confined plasmas insight into fast-ion dynamics is important. First measurements of such dynamics by collective Thomson scattering (CTS) were recently...... of the velocity distribution after turnoff of the ion heating. These results are in close agreement with numerical simulations....

  12. THE VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION OF NEARBY STARS FROM HIPPARCOS DATA. II. THE NATURE OF THE LOW-VELOCITY MOVING GROUPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, Jo; Hogg, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The velocity distribution of nearby stars (∼<100 pc) contains many overdensities or 'moving groups', clumps of comoving stars, that are inconsistent with the standard assumption of an axisymmetric, time-independent, and steady-state Galaxy. We study the age and metallicity properties of the low-velocity moving groups based on the reconstruction of the local velocity distribution in Paper I of this series. We perform stringent, conservative hypothesis testing to establish for each of these moving groups whether it could conceivably consist of a coeval population of stars. We conclude that they do not: the moving groups are neither trivially associated with their eponymous open clusters nor with any other inhomogeneous star formation event. Concerning a possible dynamical origin of the moving groups, we test whether any of the moving groups has a higher or lower metallicity than the background population of thin disk stars, as would generically be the case if the moving groups are associated with resonances of the bar or spiral structure. We find clear evidence that the Hyades moving group has higher than average metallicity and weak evidence that the Sirius moving group has lower than average metallicity, which could indicate that these two groups are related to the inner Lindblad resonance of the spiral structure. Further, we find weak evidence that the Hercules moving group has higher than average metallicity, as would be the case if it is associated with the bar's outer Lindblad resonance. The Pleiades moving group shows no clear metallicity anomaly, arguing against a common dynamical origin for the Hyades and Pleiades groups. Overall, however, the moving groups are barely distinguishable from the background population of stars, raising the likelihood that the moving groups are associated with transient perturbations.

  13. Mass-velocity and size-velocity distributions of ejecta cloud from shock-loaded tin surface using atomistic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, O.; Soulard, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2015-04-28

    The mass (volume and areal densities) versus velocity as well as the size versus velocity distributions of a shock-induced cloud of particles are investigated using large scale molecular dynamics simulations. A generic three-dimensional tin crystal with a sinusoidal free surface roughness (single wavelength) is set in contact with vacuum and shock-loaded so that it melts directly on shock. At the reflection of the shock wave onto the perturbations of the free surface, two-dimensional sheets/jets of liquid metal are ejected. The simulations show that the distributions may be described by an analytical model based on the propagation of a fragmentation zone, from the tip of the sheets to the free surface, in which the kinetic energy of the atoms decreases as this zone comes closer to the free surface on late times. As this kinetic energy drives (i) the (self-similar) expansion of the zone once it has broken away from the sheet and (ii) the average size of the particles which result from fragmentation in the zone, the ejected mass and the average size of the particles progressively increase in the cloud as fragmentation occurs closer to the free surface. Though relative to nanometric scales, our model may help in the analysis of experimental profiles.

  14. EISCAT measurements of ion temperatures which indicate non-isotropic ion velocity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perraut, S.; Brekke, A.; Hubert, D.

    1984-01-01

    Substantial increases of the ion temperature can be observed at high latitudes as a consequence of strong convection electric fields. We have measured, with EISCAT, three independent components of the ion velocity vector and temperature in the same scattering volume, at about 300 km. During periods of strong variations in ion velocity (consequently of the E-field), the ion temperatures derived at the 3 sites are different. This difference, which appears to be systematic for the two experiments studied, can be interpreted in terms of different ion temperature perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field, i.e. Tsub(i perpendicular) greater than Tsub(i parallel). Assuming that a bi-Maxwellian distribution is present for convection electric field strengths as large as 50 mV m -1 , one obtains an anisotropy factor of approximately 1.5. It also appears that resonant charge exchange is the dominant collision process. During the evening sector events studied, the electron density was decreasing, whereas the electron temperature was generally increasing. Such events are strongly related to variations in the magnetic H component detected on the ground. (author)

  15. Diagnosis of mildly relativistic electron velocity distributions by electron cyclotron emission in the Alcator C tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, K.

    1986-09-01

    Mildly relativistic electron velocity distributions are diagnosed from measurements of the first few electron cyclotron emission harmonics in the Alcator C tokamak. The approach employs a vertical viewing chord through the center of the tokamak plasma terminating at a compact, high-performance viewing dump. The cyclotron emission spectra obtained in this way are dominated by frequency downshifts due to the relativistic mass increase, which discriminates the electrons by their total energy. In this way a one-to-one correspondence between the energy and the emission frequency is accomplished in the absence of harmonic superpositions. The distribution, described by f/sub p/, the line-averaged phase space density, and Λ, the anisotropy factor, is determined from the ratio of the optically thin harmonics or polarizations. Diagnosis of spectra in the second and the third harmonic range of frequencies obtained during lower hybrid heating, current drive, and low density ohmic discharges are carried out, using different methods depending on the degree of harmonic superposition present in the spectrum and the availability of more than one ratio measurement. Discussions of transient phenomena, the radiation temperature measurement from the optically thick first harmonic, and the measurements compared to the angular hard x-ray diagnostic results illuminate the capabilities of the vertically viewing electron cyclotron emission diagnostic

  16. Probability distributions of bed load particle velocities, accelerations, hop distances, and travel times informed by Jaynes's principle of maximum entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbish, David; Schmeeckle, Mark; Schumer, Rina; Fathel, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    We describe the most likely forms of the probability distributions of bed load particle velocities, accelerations, hop distances, and travel times, in a manner that formally appeals to inferential statistics while honoring mechanical and kinematic constraints imposed by equilibrium transport conditions. The analysis is based on E. Jaynes's elaboration of the implications of the similarity between the Gibbs entropy in statistical mechanics and the Shannon entropy in information theory. By maximizing the information entropy of a distribution subject to known constraints on its moments, our choice of the form of the distribution is unbiased. The analysis suggests that particle velocities and travel times are exponentially distributed and that particle accelerations follow a Laplace distribution with zero mean. Particle hop distances, viewed alone, ought to be distributed exponentially. However, the covariance between hop distances and travel times precludes this result. Instead, the covariance structure suggests that hop distances follow a Weibull distribution. These distributions are consistent with high-resolution measurements obtained from high-speed imaging of bed load particle motions. The analysis brings us closer to choosing distributions based on our mechanical insight.

  17. Axial dispersion, holdup and slip velocity of dispersed phase in a pulsed sieve plate extraction column by radiotracer residence time distribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Ghiyas Ud; Chughtai, Imran Rafiq; Inayat, Mansoor Hameed; Khan, Iqbal Hussain

    2008-12-01

    Axial dispersion, holdup and slip velocity of dispersed phase have been investigated for a range of dispersed and continuous phase superficial velocities in a pulsed sieve plate extraction column using radiotracer residence time distribution (RTD) analysis. Axial dispersion model (ADM) was used to simulate the hydrodynamics of the system. It has been observed that increase in dispersed phase superficial velocity results in a decrease in its axial dispersion and increase in its slip velocity while its holdup increases till a maximum asymptotic value is achieved. An increase in superficial velocity of continuous phase increases the axial dispersion and holdup of dispersed phase until a maximum value is obtained, while slip velocity of dispersed phase is found to decrease in the beginning and then it increases with increase in superficial velocity of continuous phase.

  18. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA COLORS AND EJECTA VELOCITIES: HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN REGRESSION WITH NON-GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Foley, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the statistical dependence of the peak intrinsic colors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) on their expansion velocities at maximum light, measured from the Si II λ6355 spectral feature. We construct a new hierarchical Bayesian regression model, accounting for the random effects of intrinsic scatter, measurement error, and reddening by host galaxy dust, and implement a Gibbs sampler and deviance information criteria to estimate the correlation. The method is applied to the apparent colors from BVRI light curves and Si II velocity data for 79 nearby SNe Ia. The apparent color distributions of high-velocity (HV) and normal velocity (NV) supernovae exhibit significant discrepancies for B – V and B – R, but not other colors. Hence, they are likely due to intrinsic color differences originating in the B band, rather than dust reddening. The mean intrinsic B – V and B – R color differences between HV and NV groups are 0.06 ± 0.02 and 0.09 ± 0.02 mag, respectively. A linear model finds significant slopes of –0.021 ± 0.006 and –0.030 ± 0.009 mag (10 3 km s –1 ) –1 for intrinsic B – V and B – R colors versus velocity, respectively. Because the ejecta velocity distribution is skewed toward high velocities, these effects imply non-Gaussian intrinsic color distributions with skewness up to +0.3. Accounting for the intrinsic-color-velocity correlation results in corrections to A V extinction estimates as large as –0.12 mag for HV SNe Ia and +0.06 mag for NV events. Velocity measurements from SN Ia spectra have the potential to diminish systematic errors from the confounding of intrinsic colors and dust reddening affecting supernova distances

  19. Validation of MCDS by comparison of predicted with experimental velocity distribution functions in rarefied normal shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Van-diep, Gerald C.; Erwin, Daniel A.

    1989-01-01

    Velocity distribution functions in normal shock waves in argon and helium are calculated using Monte Carlo direct simulation. These are compared with experimental results for argon at M = 7.18 and for helium at M = 1.59 and 20. For both argon and helium, the variable-hard-sphere (VHS) model is used for the elastic scattering cross section, with the velocity dependence derived from a viscosity-temperature power-law relationship in the way normally used by Bird (1976).

  20. Galactic Subsystems on the Basis of Cumulative Distribution of Space Velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidojević, S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A sample containing $4,614$ stars with available space velocities and high-quality kinematical data from the Arihip Catalogue is formed. For the purpose of distinguishing galactic subsystems the cumulative distribution of space velocities is studied. The fractions of the three subsystems are found to be: thin disc 92\\%, thick disc 6\\% and halo 2\\%. These results are verified by analysing the elements of velocity ellipsoids and the shape and size of the galactocentric orbits of the sample stars, i.e. the planar and vertical eccentricities of the orbits.

  1. Electron velocity distribution function in a plasma with temperature gradient and in the presence of suprathermal electrons: application to incoherent-scatter plasma lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guio

    Full Text Available The plasma dispersion function and the reduced velocity distribution function are calculated numerically for any arbitrary velocity distribution function with cylindrical symmetry along the magnetic field. The electron velocity distribution is separated into two distributions representing the distribution of the ambient electrons and the suprathermal electrons. The velocity distribution function of the ambient electrons is modelled by a near-Maxwellian distribution function in presence of a temperature gradient and a potential electric field. The velocity distribution function of the suprathermal electrons is derived from a numerical model of the angular energy flux spectrum obtained by solving the transport equation of electrons. The numerical method used to calculate the plasma dispersion function and the reduced velocity distribution is described. The numerical code is used with simulated data to evaluate the Doppler frequency asymmetry between the up- and downshifted plasma lines of the incoherent-scatter plasma lines at different wave vectors. It is shown that the observed Doppler asymmetry is more dependent on deviation from the Maxwellian through the thermal part for high-frequency radars, while for low-frequency radars the Doppler asymmetry depends more on the presence of a suprathermal population. It is also seen that the full evaluation of the plasma dispersion function gives larger Doppler asymmetry than the heat flow approximation for Langmuir waves with phase velocity about three to six times the mean thermal velocity. For such waves the moment expansion of the dispersion function is not fully valid and the full calculation of the dispersion function is needed.

    Key words. Non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution · Incoherent scatter plasma lines · EISCAT · Dielectric response function

  2. Electron velocity distribution function in a plasma with temperature gradient and in the presence of suprathermal electrons: application to incoherent-scatter plasma lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guio

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The plasma dispersion function and the reduced velocity distribution function are calculated numerically for any arbitrary velocity distribution function with cylindrical symmetry along the magnetic field. The electron velocity distribution is separated into two distributions representing the distribution of the ambient electrons and the suprathermal electrons. The velocity distribution function of the ambient electrons is modelled by a near-Maxwellian distribution function in presence of a temperature gradient and a potential electric field. The velocity distribution function of the suprathermal electrons is derived from a numerical model of the angular energy flux spectrum obtained by solving the transport equation of electrons. The numerical method used to calculate the plasma dispersion function and the reduced velocity distribution is described. The numerical code is used with simulated data to evaluate the Doppler frequency asymmetry between the up- and downshifted plasma lines of the incoherent-scatter plasma lines at different wave vectors. It is shown that the observed Doppler asymmetry is more dependent on deviation from the Maxwellian through the thermal part for high-frequency radars, while for low-frequency radars the Doppler asymmetry depends more on the presence of a suprathermal population. It is also seen that the full evaluation of the plasma dispersion function gives larger Doppler asymmetry than the heat flow approximation for Langmuir waves with phase velocity about three to six times the mean thermal velocity. For such waves the moment expansion of the dispersion function is not fully valid and the full calculation of the dispersion function is needed.Key words. Non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution · Incoherent scatter plasma lines · EISCAT · Dielectric response function

  3. Velocity-space tomography of the fast-ion distribution function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    probes certain regions in velocity-space, determined by the geometry of the set-up. Exploiting this, the fast-ion distribution function can be inferred using a velocity-space tomography method. This poster contains a tomography calculated from measured spectra from three different FIDA views at ASDEX......Fast ions play an important role in heating the plasma in a magnetic confinement fusion device. Fast-ion Dα(FIDA) spectroscopy diagnoses fast ions in small measurement volumes. Spectra measured by a FIDA diagnostic can be related to the 2D fast-ion velocity distribution function. A single FIDA view...... Upgrade. The quality of the tomography improves with the number of FIDA views simultaneously measuring the same volume. To investigate the potential benefits of including additional views (up to 18), tomographies are inferred from synthetic spectra calculated from a simulated distribution function...

  4. Maximum Likelihood-Based Methods for Target Velocity Estimation with Distributed MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxin Cao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The estimation problem for target velocity is addressed in this in the scenario with a distributed multi-input multi-out (MIMO radar system. A maximum likelihood (ML-based estimation method is derived with the knowledge of target position. Then, in the scenario without the knowledge of target position, an iterative method is proposed to estimate the target velocity by updating the position information iteratively. Moreover, the Carmér-Rao Lower Bounds (CRLBs for both scenarios are derived, and the performance degradation of velocity estimation without the position information is also expressed. Simulation results show that the proposed estimation methods can approach the CRLBs, and the velocity estimation performance can be further improved by increasing either the number of radar antennas or the information accuracy of the target position. Furthermore, compared with the existing methods, a better estimation performance can be achieved.

  5. Velocity Distribution in a Room Ventilated by Displacement Ventilation and Wall-Mounted Air Terminal Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2000-01-01

    The article describes experiments with wall-mounted air terminal devices. The airflow from an air terminal device influences the occupants' thermal comfort and, therefore, it is important to develop an expression for this flow in the occupied zone. The velocity at the floor is influenced...... by the flow rate to the room, the temperature difference and the type of diffuser. The flow is stratified at Archimedes numbers larger than four. The article gives expressions for the velocity distribution close to the floor. It is shown that openings between obstacles placed directly on the floor generate...... a flow similar to the air movement in front of a diffuser, and expressions for the velocity distribution in that situation are also given in the article....

  6. Detection of bump-on-tail reduced electron velocity distributions at the electron foreshock boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzenreiter, R.J.; Klimas, A.J.; Scudder, J.D.

    1984-02-01

    Reduced velocity distributions are derived from three-dimensional measurements of the velocity distribution of electrons in the 7 to 500 eV range in the electron foreshock. Bump-on-tail reduced distributions are presented for the first time at the foreshock boundary consistent with Filbert and Kellogg's proposed time-of-flight mechanism for generating the electron beams. In a significant number of boundary crossings, bump-on-tail reduced distributions were found in consecutive 3 sec measurements made 9 sec apart. It is concluded that, although the beams are linearly unstable to plasma waves according to the Penrose criterion, they persist on a time scale of 3 to 15 sec

  7. Ion velocity distributions within the LLBL and their possible implication to multiple reconnections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Vaisberg

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze two LLBL crossings made by the Interball-Tail satellite under a southward or variable magnetosheath magnetic field: one crossing on the flank of the magnetosphere, and another one closer to the subsolar point. Three different types of ion velocity distributions within the LLBL are observed: (a D-shaped distributions, (b ion velocity distributions consisting of two counter-streaming components of magnetosheath-type, and (c distributions with three components, one of which has nearly zero parallel velocity and two counter-streaming components. Only the (a type fits to the single magnetic flux tube formed by reconnection between the magnetospheric and magnetosheath magnetic fields. We argue that two counter-streaming magnetosheath-like ion components observed by Interball within the LLBL cannot be explained by the reflection of the ions from the magnetic mirror deeper within the magnetosphere. Types (b and (c ion velocity distributions would form within spiral magnetic flux tubes consisting of a mixture of alternating segments originating from the magnetosheath and from magnetospheric plasma. The shapes of ion velocity distributions and their evolution with decreasing number density in the LLBL indicate that a significant part of the LLBL is located on magnetic field lines of long spiral flux tube islands at the magnetopause, as has been proposed and found to occur in magnetopause simulations. We consider these observations as evidence for multiple reconnection Χ-lines between magnetosheath and magnetospheric flux tubes. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  8. Dynamical effects of the spiral arms on the velocity distribution of disc stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kohei; Gouda, Naoteru; Yano, Taihei; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Tagawa, Hiromichi

    2018-04-01

    Nearby disc stars in Gaia DR1 (TGAS) and RAVE DR5 show a bimodal velocity distribution in the metal-rich region (characterized by the Hercules stream) and mono-modal velocity distribution in the metal-poor region. We investigate the origin of this [Fe/H] dependence of the local velocity distribution by using 2D test particle simulations. We found that this [Fe/H] dependence can be well reproduced if we assume fast rotating bar models with Ωbar ~= 52 km s-1 kpc-1. A possible explanation for this result is that the metal-rich, relatively young stars are more likely to be affected by bar's outer Lindblad resonance due to their relatively cold kinematics. We also found that slowly rotating bar models with Ωbar ~= 39 km s-1 kpc-1 can not reproduce the observed data. Interestingly, when we additionally consider spiral arms, some models can reproduce the observed velocity distribution even when the bar is slowly rotating.

  9. Analytical models for predicting the ion velocity distributions in JET in the presence of ICRF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.; Eriksson, L.G.; Lisak, M.

    1986-01-01

    The present report summarizes the work performed within the contract JT4/9008, the aim of which is to derive analytical models for ion velocity distributions resulting from ICRF heating on JET. The work has been performed over a two-year-period ending in August 1986 and has involved a total effort of 2.4 man years. (author)

  10. Experimental study of ablation pressures and target velocities obtained in 0. 26. mu. m wavelength laser experiments in planar geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbro, R.; Faral, B.; Virmont, J.; Cottet, F.; Romain, J.P.; Pepin, H.

    1985-11-01

    In 0.26 ..mu..m wavelength laser experiments that were performed in planar geometry with irradiances between 10/sup 13/ and 10/sup 15/ W/cm/sup 2/, the ablation pressure and the target velocity have been measured using a shock-velocity measurement and the double foil technique, respectively. The conditions are discussed that must be satisfied if the double-foil technique is to give an accurate measurement of the velocity of the dense part of the target. The rocket model has also been improved using a time-dependent applied pressure pulse, in order to accurately describe the relation between ablation pressure, target velocity, and ablated fraction. Pressures up to 50 Mbar have been easily generated since lateral energy transport is rather low with a 0.26 ..mu..m wavelength laser.

  11. On the Spatial Distribution of High Velocity Al-26 Near the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturner, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    We present results of simulations of the distribution of 1809 keV radiation from the decay of Al-26 in the Galaxy. Recent observations of this emission line using the Gamma Ray Imaging Spectrometer (GRIS) have indicated that the bulk of the AL-26 must have a velocity of approx. 500 km/ s. We have previously shown that a velocity this large could be maintained over the 10(exp 6) year lifetime of the Al-26 if it is trapped in dust grains that are reaccelerated periodically in the ISM. Here we investigate whether a dust grain velocity of approx. 500 km/ s will produce a distribution of 1809 keV emission in latitude that is consistent with the narrow distribution seen by COMPTEL. We find that dust grain velocities in the range 275 - 1000 km/ s are able to reproduce the COMPTEL 1809 keV emission maps reconstructed using the Richardson-Lucy and Maximum Entropy image reconstruction methods while the emission map reconstructed using the Multiresolution Regularized Expectation Maximization algorithm is not well fit by any of our models. The Al-26 production rate that is needed to reproduce the observed 1809 keV intensity yields in a Galactic mass of Al-26 of approx. 1.5 - 2 solar mass which is in good agreement with both other observations and theoretical production rates.

  12. Anomalous diffusion and q-Weibull velocity distributions in epithelial cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Souza Vilela Podestá

    Full Text Available In multicellular organisms, cell motility is central in all morphogenetic processes, tissue maintenance, wound healing and immune surveillance. Hence, the control of cell motion is a major demand in the creation of artificial tissues and organs. Here, cell migration assays on plastic 2D surfaces involving normal (MDCK and tumoral (B16F10 epithelial cell lines were performed varying the initial density of plated cells. Through time-lapse microscopy quantities such as speed distributions, velocity autocorrelations and spatial correlations, as well as the scaling of mean-squared displacements were determined. We find that these cells exhibit anomalous diffusion with q-Weibull speed distributions that evolves non-monotonically to a Maxwellian distribution as the initial density of plated cells increases. Although short-ranged spatial velocity correlations mark the formation of small cell clusters, the emergence of collective motion was not observed. Finally, simulational results from a correlated random walk and the Vicsek model of collective dynamics evidence that fluctuations in cell velocity orientations are sufficient to produce q-Weibull speed distributions seen in our migration assays.

  13. Development of three-dimensional phasic-velocity distribution measurement in a large-diameter pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Taizo; Furuya, Masahiro; Arai, Takahiro; Shirakawa, Kenetsu

    2011-01-01

    A wire-mesh sensor (WMS) can acquire a void fraction distribution at a high temporal and spatial resolution and also estimate the velocity of a vertical rising flow by investigating the signal time-delay of the upstream WMS relative to downstream. Previously, one-dimensional velocity was estimated by using the same point of each WMS at a temporal resolution of 1.0 - 5.0 s. The authors propose to extend this time series analysis to estimate the multi-dimensional velocity profile via cross-correlation analysis between a point of upstream WMS and multiple points downstream. Bubbles behave in various ways according to size, which is used to classify them into certain groups via wavelet analysis before cross-correlation analysis. This method was verified by air-water straight and swirl flows within a large-diameter vertical pipe. The results revealed that for the rising straight and swirl flows, large scale bubbles tend to move to the center, while the small bubble is pushed to the outside or sucked into the space where the large bubbles existed. Moreover, it is found that this method can estimate the rotational component of velocity of the swirl flow as well as measuring the multi-dimensional velocity vector at high temporal resolutions of 0.2s. (author)

  14. Comment on ‘Information hidden in the velocity distribution of ions and the exact kinetic Bohm criterion’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafaev, A. S.; Sukhomlinov, V. S.; Timofeev, N. A.

    2018-03-01

    This Comment is devoted to some mathematical inaccuracies made by the authors of the paper ‘Information hidden in the velocity distribution of ions and the exact kinetic Bohm criterion’ (Plasma Sources Science and Technology 26 055003). In the Comment, we show that the diapason of plasma parameters for the validity of the theoretical results obtained by the authors was defined incorrectly; we made a more accurate definition of this diapason. As a result, we show that it is impossible to confirm or refute the feasibility of the Bohm kinetic criterion on the basis of the data of the cited paper.

  15. Study on Droplet Size and Velocity Distributions of a Pressure Swirl Atomizer Based on the Maximum Entropy Formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A predictive model for droplet size and velocity distributions of a pressure swirl atomizer has been proposed based on the maximum entropy formalism (MEF. The constraint conditions of the MEF model include the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy. The effects of liquid swirling strength, Weber number, gas-to-liquid axial velocity ratio and gas-to-liquid density ratio on the droplet size and velocity distributions of a pressure swirl atomizer are investigated. Results show that model based on maximum entropy formalism works well to predict droplet size and velocity distributions under different spray conditions. Liquid swirling strength, Weber number, gas-to-liquid axial velocity ratio and gas-to-liquid density ratio have different effects on droplet size and velocity distributions of a pressure swirl atomizer.

  16. On the persistence of unstable bump-on-tail electron velocity distributions in the earth's foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, Alexander J.; Fitzenreiter, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents further evidence for the persistence of bump-on-tail unstable reduced velocity distributions in the earth's electron foreshock, which contradicts the understanding of quasi-linear saturation of the bump-on-tail instability. A modified theory for the saturation of the bump-on-tail instability in the earth's foreshock is proposed to explain the mechanism of this persistence, and the predictions are compared to the results of a numerical simulation of the electron plasma in the foreshock. The results support the thesis that quasi-linear saturation of the bump-on-tail instability is modified in the foreshock, due to the driven nature of the region, so that at saturation the stabilized velocity distribution still appears bump-on-tail unstable to linear plasma analysis.

  17. Post-midnight equatorial irregularity distributions and vertical drift velocity variations during solstices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S.-Y.; Liu, C. H.; Chao, C.-K.

    2018-04-01

    Longitudinal distributions of post-midnight equatorial ionospheric irregularity occurrences observed by ROCSAT-1 (1st satellite of the Republic of China) during moderate to high solar activity years in two solstices are studied with respect to the vertical drift velocity and density variations. The post-midnight irregularity distributions are found to be similar to the well-documented pre-midnight ones, but are different from some published distributions taken during solar minimum years. Even though the post-midnight ionosphere is sinking in general, longitudes of frequent positive vertical drift and high density seems to coincide with the longitudes of high irregularity occurrences. Large scatters found in the vertical drift velocity and density around the dip equator in different ROCSAT-1 orbits indicate the existence of large and frequent variations in the vertical drift velocity and density that seem to be able to provide sufficient perturbations for the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability to cause the irregularity occurrences. The need of seeding agents such as gravity waves from atmospheric convective clouds to initiate the Rayleigh-Taylor instability may not be necessary.

  18. Blind test of methods for obtaining 2-D near-surface seismic velocity models from first-arrival traveltimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelt, Colin A.; Haines, Seth; Powers, Michael H.; Sheehan, Jacob; Rohdewald, Siegfried; Link, Curtis; Hayashi, Koichi; Zhao, Don; Zhou, Hua-wei; Burton, Bethany L.; Petersen, Uni K.; Bonal, Nedra D.; Doll, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Seismic refraction methods are used in environmental and engineering studies to image the shallow subsurface. We present a blind test of inversion and tomographic refraction analysis methods using a synthetic first-arrival-time dataset that was made available to the community in 2010. The data are realistic in terms of the near-surface velocity model, shot-receiver geometry and the data's frequency and added noise. Fourteen estimated models were determined by ten participants using eight different inversion algorithms, with the true model unknown to the participants until it was revealed at a session at the 2011 SAGEEP meeting. The estimated models are generally consistent in terms of their large-scale features, demonstrating the robustness of refraction data inversion in general, and the eight inversion algorithms in particular. When compared to the true model, all of the estimated models contain a smooth expression of its two main features: a large offset in the bedrock and the top of a steeply dipping low-velocity fault zone. The estimated models do not contain a subtle low-velocity zone and other fine-scale features, in accord with conventional wisdom. Together, the results support confidence in the reliability and robustness of modern refraction inversion and tomographic methods.

  19. Nonlinear Wave-Particle Interaction: Implications for Newborn Planetary and Backstreaming Proton Velocity Distribution Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, N.; Mazelle, C.; Meziane, K.

    2018-02-01

    Seen from the solar wind (SW) reference frame, the presence of newborn planetary protons upstream from the Martian and Venusian bow shocks and SW protons reflected from each of them constitutes two sources of nonthermal proton populations. In both cases, the resulting proton velocity distribution function is highly unstable and capable of giving rise to ultralow frequency quasi-monochromatic electromagnetic plasma waves. When these instabilities take place, the resulting nonlinear waves are convected by the SW and interact with nonthermal protons located downstream from the wave generation region (upstream from the bow shock), playing a predominant role in their dynamics. To improve our understanding of these phenomena, we study the interaction between a charged particle and a large-amplitude monochromatic circularly polarized electromagnetic wave propagating parallel to a background magnetic field, from first principles. We determine the number of fix points in velocity space, their stability, and their dependence on different wave-particle parameters. Particularly, we determine the temporal evolution of a charged particle in the pitch angle-gyrophase velocity plane under nominal conditions expected for backstreaming protons in planetary foreshocks and for newborn planetary protons in the upstream regions of Venus and Mars. In addition, the inclusion of wave ellipticity effects provides an explanation for pitch angle distributions of suprathermal protons observed at the Earth's foreshock, reported in previous studies. These analyses constitute a mean to evaluate if nonthermal proton velocity distribution functions observed at these plasma environments present signatures that can be understood in terms of nonlinear wave-particle processes.

  20. Design of two-dimensional channels with prescribed velocity distributions along the channel walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitz, John D

    1953-01-01

    A general method of design is developed for two-dimensional unbranched channels with prescribed velocities as a function of arc length along the channel walls. The method is developed for both compressible and incompressible, irrotational, nonviscous flow and applies to the design of elbows, diffusers, nozzles, and so forth. In part I solutions are obtained by relaxation methods; in part II solutions are obtained by a Green's function. Five numerical examples are given in part I including three elbow designs with the same prescribed velocity as a function of arc length along the channel walls but with incompressible, linearized compressible, and compressible flow. One numerical example is presented in part II for an accelerating elbow with linearized compressible flow, and the time required for the solution by a Green's function in part II was considerably less than the time required for the same solution by relaxation methods in part I.

  1. Velocity and size distribution measurement of suspension droplets using PDPA technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Shahin; Akbarnozari, Ali; Moreau, Christian; Dolatabadi, Ali

    2015-11-01

    The creation of fine and uniform droplets from a bulk of liquid is a vital process in a variety of engineering applications, such as atomization in suspension plasma spray (SPS) in which the submicron coating materials are injected to the plasma gas through the suspension droplets. The size and velocity of these droplets has a great impact on the interaction of the suspension with the gas flow emanating from a plasma torch and can consequently affect the mechanical and chemical properties of the resultant coatings. In the current study, an aqueous suspension of small glass particles (2-8 μm) was atomized by utilizing an effervescent atomizer of 1 mm orifice diameter which involves bubbling gas (air) directly into the liquid stream. The gas to liquid ratio (GLR) was kept constant at 6% throughout this study. The mass concentration of glass particles varied in the range between 0.5 to 5% in order to investigate the effect of suspension viscosity and surface tension on the droplet characteristics, such as velocity and size distributions. These characteristics were simultaneously measured by using a non-intrusive optical technique, Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry (PDPA), which is based on the light signal scattered from the droplets moving in a measurement volume. The velocity and size distribution of suspension droplets were finally compared to those of distilled water under identical conditions. The results showed a different atomization behaviors due to the reduction in surface tension of the suspension spray.

  2. Hydrogen distribution in a containment with a high-velocity hydrogen-steam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, G.R.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Postma, A.K.; Claybrook, S.W.

    1982-09-01

    Hydrogen mixing and distribution tests are reported for a modeled high velocity hydrogen-steam release from a postulated small pipe break or release from a pressurizer relief tank rupture disk into the lower compartment of an Ice Condenser Plant. The tests, which in most cases used helium as a simulant for hydrogen, demonstrated that the lower compartment gas was well mixed for both hydrogen release conditions used. The gas concentration differences between any spatial locations were less than 3 volume percent during the hydrogen/steam release period and were reduced to less than 0.5 volume percent within 20 minutes after termination of the hydrogen source. The high velocity hydrogen/steam jet provided the dominant mixing mechanism; however, natural convection and forced air recirculation played important roles in providing a well mixed atmosphere following termination of the hydrogen source. 5 figures, 4 tables

  3. Seismic Velocity Structure of the San Jacinto Fault Zone from Double-Difference Tomography and Expected Distribution of Head Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, A. A.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We present initial results of double-difference tomographic images for the velocity structure of the San Jacinto Fault Zone (SJFZ), and related 3D forward calculations of waves in the immediate vicinity of the SJFZ. We begin by discretizing the SJFZ region with a uniform grid spacing of 500 m, extending 140 km by 80 km and down to 25 km depth. We adopt the layered 1D model of Dreger & Helmberger (1993) as a starting model for this region, and invert for 3D distributions of VP and VS with the double-difference tomography of Zhang & Thurber (2003), which makes use of absolute event-station travel times as well as relative travel times for phases from nearby event pairs. Absolute arrival times of over 78,000 P- and S-wave phase picks generated by 1127 earthquakes and recorded at 70 stations near the SJFZ are used. Only data from events with Mw greater than 2.2 are used. Though ray coverage is limited at shallow depths, we obtain relatively high-resolution images from 4 to 13 km which show a clear contrast in velocity across the NW section of the SJFZ. To the SE, in the so-called trifurcation area, the structure is more complicated, though station coverage is poorest in this region. Using the obtained image, the current event locations, and the 3D finite-difference code of Olsen (1994), we estimate the likely distributions of fault zone head waves as a tool for future deployment of instrument. We plan to conduct further studies by including more travel time picks, including those from newly-deployed stations in the SJFZ area, in order to gain a more accurate image of the velocity structure.

  4. Vlasov-Maxwell equilibrium solutions for Harris sheet magnetic field with Kappa velocity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, W.-Z.; Hau, L.-N.

    2005-01-01

    An exact solution of the steady-state, one-dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell equations for a plasma current sheet with oppositely directed magnetic field was found by Harris in 1962. The so-called Harris magnetic field model assumes Maxwellian velocity distributions for oppositely drifting ions and electrons and has been widely used for plasma stability studies. This paper extends Harris solutions by using more general κ distribution functions that incorporate Maxwellian distribution in the limit of κ→∞. A new functional form for the plasma pressure as a function of the magnetic vector potential p(A) is found and the magnetic field is a modified tanh z function. In the extended solutions the effective temperature is no longer spatially uniform like in the Harris model and the thickness of the current layer decreases with decreasing κ

  5. An asymptotic inversion method of inferring the sound velocity distribution in the sun from the spectrum of p-mode oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekii, Takashi; Shibahashi, Hiromoto

    1989-01-01

    We present an inversion method of inferring the sound velocity distribution in the Sun from its oscillation data of p-modes. The equation governing the p-mode oscillations is reduced to a form similar to the Schroedinger equation in quantum mechanics. By using a quantization rule based on the KWBJ asymptotic method, we derive an integral equation of which solution provides the 'acoustic potential' of the wave equation. The acoustic potential consists of two parts: One of them is related with the squared sound velocity and is dependent on the degree of the mode l, while the other term is independent of l and dominates in the outer part of the Sun. By examining the l-dependence of the acoustic potential obtained as the solution of the integral equation, we separate these two components of the potential and eventually obtain the sound velocity distribution from a set of eigenfrequencies of p-modes. In order to evaluate prospects of this inversion method, we perform numerical simulations in which eigenfrequencies of a theoretical solar model are used to reproduce the sound velocity distribution of the model. The error of thus inferred sound velocity relative to the true values is estimated to be less than a few percent. (author)

  6. Improving the modelling of redshift-space distortions - I. A bivariate Gaussian description for the galaxy pairwise velocity distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Davide; Chiesa, Matteo; Guzzo, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    As a step towards a more accurate modelling of redshift-space distortions (RSD) in galaxy surveys, we develop a general description of the probability distribution function of galaxy pairwise velocities within the framework of the so-called streaming model. For a given galaxy separation r, such function can be described as a superposition of virtually infinite local distributions. We characterize these in terms of their moments and then consider the specific case in which they are Gaussian functions, each with its own mean μ and dispersion σ. Based on physical considerations, we make the further crucial assumption that these two parameters are in turn distributed according to a bivariate Gaussian, with its own mean and covariance matrix. Tests using numerical simulations explicitly show that with this compact description one can correctly model redshift-space distortions on all scales, fully capturing the overall linear and non-linear dynamics of the galaxy flow at different separations. In particular, we naturally obtain Gaussian/exponential, skewed/unskewed distribution functions, depending on separation as observed in simulations and data. Also, the recently proposed single-Gaussian description of RSD is included in this model as a limiting case, when the bivariate Gaussian is collapsed to a two-dimensional Dirac delta function. We also show how this description naturally allows for the Taylor expansion of 1 + ξS(s) around 1 + ξR(r), which leads to the Kaiser linear formula when truncated to second order, explicating its connection with the moments of the velocity distribution functions. More work is needed, but these results indicate a very promising path to make definitive progress in our programme to improve RSD estimators.

  7. Velocity and phase distribution measurements in vertical air-water annular flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassallo, P.

    1997-07-01

    Annular flow topology for three air-water conditions in a vertical duct is investigated through the use of a traversing double-sensor hot-film anemometry probe and differential pressure measurements. Near wall measurements of mean and fluctuating velocities, as well as local void fraction, are taken in the liquid film, with the highest turbulent fluctuations occurring for the flow condition with the largest pressure drop. A modified law-of-the-wall formulation for wall shear is presented which, using near wall values of mean velocity and kinetic energy, agrees reasonably well with the average stress obtained from direct pressure drop measurements. The linear profile using wall coordinates in the logarithmic layer is preserved in annular flow; however, the slope and intercept of the profile differ from the single-phase values for the annular flow condition which has a thicker, more turbulent, liquid film

  8. Velocity distribution and dimer formation in a Na/Na2 beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, K.; Hefter, U.; Hering, P.

    1977-01-01

    Using the TOF via optical pumping method and the Doppler-shifted laser induced emission described previously, the authors have measured the parallel and perpendicular velocity distribution respectively for Na atoms and Na 2 molecules in a variety of individual quantum states. In addition they monitored the flux of molecules in specific states while changing the stagnation pressure. In all cases a significant dependence on the internal energy of the molecules was found. The goal of these experiments is to improve understanding of the beam dynamics and the dimer formation process. (Auth.)

  9. Energy Loss, Velocity Distribution, and Temperature Distribution for a Baffled Cylinder Model, Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevoort, Maurice J.

    1937-01-01

    In the design of a cowling a certain pressure drop across the cylinders of a radial air-cooled engine is made available. Baffles are designed to make use of this available pressure drop for cooling. The problem of cooling an air-cooled engine cylinder has been treated, for the most part, from considerations of a large heat-transfer coefficient. The knowledge of the precise cylinder characteristics that give a maximum heat-transfer coefficient should be the first consideration. The next problem is to distribute this ability to cool so that the cylinder cools uniformly. This report takes up the problem of the design of a baffle for a model cylinder. A study has been made of the important principles involved in the operation of a baffle for an engine cylinder and shows that the cooling can be improved 20% by using a correctly designed baffle. Such a gain is as effective in cooling the cylinder with the improved baffle as a 65% increase in pressure drop across the standard baffle and fin tips.

  10. The b Distribution and the Velocity Structure of Absorption Peaks in the Lyα Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, L.; Rutledge, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    A theory is developed that relates the observed b parameter of a Lyα absorption line to the velocity curvature of the corresponding peak in the optical depth fluctuation. Its relation to the traditional interpretation of b as the thermal broadening width is discussed. It is demonstrated that, independent of the details of the cosmological model, the differential b distribution has a high-b asymptote of dN/db∝b -m , where m≥5, when we make the reasonable assumption that low-curvature fluctuations are statistically favored over high-curvature ones. There in general always exist lines much broader than the thermal width. We develop a linear perturbative analysis of the optical depth fluctuation, which yields a single-parameter prediction for the full b distribution. In addition to exhibiting the high-velocity tail, it qualitatively explains the observed sharp low-b cutoff a simple reflection of the fact that high-curvature fluctuations are relatively rare. Although the existence of the high-b asymptote, which is independent of the validity of the linear expansion, is consistent with the observed b distribution, a detailed comparison of the linear prediction with six observational data sets indicates that higher order corrections are not negligible. The perturbative analysis nonetheless offers valuable insights into the dependence of the b distribution on cosmological parameters such as Ω and the power spectrum. A key parameter is the effective smoothing scale of the optical depth fluctuation, which is in turn determined by three scales: the thermal broadening width, the baryon smoothing scale (approximately the Jeans scale), and the observation/simulation resolution. The first two are determined by reionization history, but are comparable in general, whereas the third varies by about an order of magnitude in current hydrodynamic simulations. Studies with non resolution-dominated b distributions can be used to probe the reionization history of the universe

  11. Distributed leader-follower flocking control for multi-agent dynamical systems with time-varying velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Wenwu; Chen, Guanrong; Cao, Ming

    Using tools from algebraic graph theory and nonsmooth analysis in combination with ideas of collective potential functions, velocity consensus and navigation feedback, a distributed leader-follower flocking algorithm for multi-agent dynamical systems with time-varying velocities is developed where

  12. 3D ion velocity distribution function measurement in an electric thruster using laser induced fluorescence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, P. Q.; Jarrige, J.; Cucchetti, E.; Cannat, F.; Packan, D.

    2017-09-01

    Measuring the full ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) by non-intrusive techniques can improve our understanding of the ionization processes and beam dynamics at work in electric thrusters. In this paper, a Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) tomographic reconstruction technique is applied to the measurement of the IVDF in the plume of a miniature Hall effect thruster. A setup is developed to move the laser axis along two rotation axes around the measurement volume. The fluorescence spectra taken from different viewing angles are combined using a tomographic reconstruction algorithm to build the complete 3D (in phase space) time-averaged distribution function. For the first time, this technique is used in the plume of a miniature Hall effect thruster to measure the full distribution function of the xenon ions. Two examples of reconstructions are provided, in front of the thruster nose-cone and in front of the anode channel. The reconstruction reveals the features of the ion beam, in particular on the thruster axis where a toroidal distribution function is observed. These findings are consistent with the thruster shape and operation. This technique, which can be used with other LIF schemes, could be helpful in revealing the details of the ion production regions and the beam dynamics. Using a more powerful laser source, the current implementation of the technique could be improved to reduce the measurement time and also to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the distribution function.

  13. MAVEN Observations of Escaping Planetary Ions from the Martian Atmosphere: Mass, Velocity, and Spatial Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yaxue; Fang, Xiaohua; Brain, D. A.; McFadden, James P.; Halekas, Jasper; Connerney, Jack

    2015-04-01

    The Mars-solar wind interaction accelerates and transports planetary ions away from the Martian atmosphere through a number of processes, including ‘pick-up’ by electromagnetic fields. The MAVEN spacecraft has made routine observations of escaping planetary ions since its arrival at Mars in September 2014. The SupraThermal And Thermal Ion Composition (STATIC) instrument measures the ion energy, mass, and angular spectra. It has detected energetic planetary ions during most of the spacecraft orbits, which are attributed to the pick-up process. We found significant variations in the escaping ion mass and velocity distributions from the STATIC data, which can be explained by factors such as varying solar wind conditions, contributions of particles from different source locations and different phases during the pick-up process. We also study the spatial distributions of different planetary ion species, which can provide insight into the physics of ion escaping process and enhance our understanding of atmospheric erosion by the solar wind. Our results will be further interpreted within the context of the upstream solar wind conditions measured by the MAVEN Solar Wind Ion Analyzer (SWIA) instrument and the magnetic field environment measured by the Magnetometer (MAG) instrument. Our study shows that the ion spatial distribution in the Mars-Sun-Electric-Field (MSE) coordinate system and the velocity space distribution with respect to the local magnetic field line can be used to distinguish the ions escaping through the polar plume and those through the tail region. The contribution of the polar plume ion escape to the total escape rate will also be discussed.

  14. Measurements on multichannel arrays. The angular dependence of the absolute intensity and the velocity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijerinck, H.C.W.; Verster, N.F.

    1974-01-01

    Three multichannel arrays with channel-diameters of 16, 50 and 140μm have been investigated using O 2 with flow rates of 4 10 -5 through 8 10 -3 torr l s -1 mm -2 . All experimental values of the peaking factor K are described by one experimental curve if the peaking factor is reduced by K*=KT, where T is the Clausing factor, and then is plotted vs. the reduced entrance density eta*=L/lambda, where lambda is the mean free path corresponding to the entrance density and L is the length of the channel. At eta*=1 the experimental curve lies 40% below Giordmaine and Wang theory, and this deviation increases slightly with increasing eta*. In the plot of the reduced half-width-half-maximum THETAsub(1/2)sup(*)=THETAsub(1/2)T -1 vs. eta* all data are also well represented by a single experimental curve. The center-line velocity distribution is described in terms of a deformation function GAMMA(v), to be applied to the Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution from an ideal orifice

  15. Interpreting dark matter direct detection independently of the local velocity and density distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Patrick J.; Kribs, Graham D.; Tait, Tim M. P.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate precisely what particle physics information can be extracted from a single direct detection observation of dark matter while making absolutely no assumptions about the local velocity distribution and local density of dark matter. Our central conclusions follow from a very simple observation: the velocity distribution of dark matter is positive definite, f(v)≥0. We demonstrate the utility of this result in several ways. First, we show a falling deconvoluted recoil spectrum (deconvoluted of the nuclear form factor), such as from ordinary elastic scattering, can be 'mocked up' by any mass of dark matter above a kinematic minimum. As an example, we show that dark matter much heavier than previously considered can explain the CoGeNT excess. Specifically, m χ Ge can be in just as good agreement as light dark matter, while m χ >m Ge depends on understanding the sensitivity of xenon to dark matter at very low recoil energies, E R < or approx. 6 keVnr. Second, we show that any rise in the deconvoluted recoil spectrum represents distinct particle physics information that cannot be faked by an arbitrary f(v). As examples of resulting nontrivial particle physics, we show that inelastic dark matter and dark matter with a form factor can both yield such a rise.

  16. Monte Carlo Estimation of Absorbed Dose Distributions Obtained from Heterogeneous 106Ru Eye Plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Francisco J; Eichmann, Marion; Flühs, Dirk; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Brualla, Lorenzo

    2017-09-01

    The distribution of the emitter substance in 106 Ru eye plaques is usually assumed to be homogeneous for treatment planning purposes. However, this distribution is never homogeneous, and it widely differs from plaque to plaque due to manufacturing factors. By Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, we study the absorbed dose distribution obtained from the specific CCA1364 and CCB1256 106 Ru plaques, whose actual emitter distributions were measured. The idealized, homogeneous CCA and CCB plaques are also simulated. The largest discrepancy in depth dose distribution observed between the heterogeneous and the homogeneous plaques was 7.9 and 23.7% for the CCA and CCB plaques, respectively. In terms of isodose lines, the line referring to 100% of the reference dose penetrates 0.2 and 1.8 mm deeper in the case of heterogeneous CCA and CCB plaques, respectively, with respect to the homogeneous counterpart. The observed differences in absorbed dose distributions obtained from heterogeneous and homogeneous plaques are clinically irrelevant if the plaques are used with a lateral safety margin of at least 2 mm. However, these differences may be relevant if the plaques are used in eccentric positioning.

  17. Production of a double-humped ion velocity distribution function in a single-ended Q-machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Michelsen, Poul

    1970-01-01

    An experimental method of producing a double-humped velocity distribution function for the ions in a Q-machine is described. The method is based on charge exchange processes between neutral ceasium and the ions in a ceasium plasma.......An experimental method of producing a double-humped velocity distribution function for the ions in a Q-machine is described. The method is based on charge exchange processes between neutral ceasium and the ions in a ceasium plasma....

  18. Wind direction/velocity and current direction/velocity data from current meter casts in a world wide distribution from 1970-12-06 to 1991-10-01 (NODC Accession 9700218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind direction/velocity and current direction/velocity data were collected using current meter casts in a world wide distribution from December 6, 1970 to October 1,...

  19. Real-time three-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for characterizing the spatial velocity distribution and quantifying the peak flow rate in the left ventricular outflow tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujino, H.; Jones, M.; Shiota, T.; Qin, J. X.; Greenberg, N. L.; Cardon, L. A.; Morehead, A. J.; Zetts, A. D.; Travaglini, A.; Bauer, F.; hide

    2001-01-01

    Quantification of flow with pulsed-wave Doppler assumes a "flat" velocity profile in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), which observation refutes. Recent development of real-time, three-dimensional (3-D) color Doppler allows one to obtain an entire cross-sectional velocity distribution of the LVOT, which is not possible using conventional 2-D echo. In an animal experiment, the cross-sectional color Doppler images of the LVOT at peak systole were derived and digitally transferred to a computer to visualize and quantify spatial velocity distributions and peak flow rates. Markedly skewed profiles, with higher velocities toward the septum, were consistently observed. Reference peak flow rates by electromagnetic flow meter correlated well with 3-D peak flow rates (r = 0.94), but with an anticipated underestimation. Real-time 3-D color Doppler echocardiography was capable of determining cross-sectional velocity distributions and peak flow rates, demonstrating the utility of this new method for better understanding and quantifying blood flow phenomena.

  20. Blocking temperature distribution in implanted Co-Ni nanoparticles obtained by magneto-optical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Orazio, F.; Lucari, F. E-mail: franco.lucari@aquila.infn.it; Melchiorri, M.; Julian Fernandez, C. de; Mattei, G.; Mazzoldi, P.; Sangregorio, C.; Gatteschi, D.; Fiorani, D

    2003-05-01

    Three samples of Co-Ni alloy nanoparticles with different compositions were prepared by sequential ion implantation in silica slides. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the presence of spherical nanoparticles dispersed in the matrix. Magneto-optical Kerr effect analysis identified two magnetic components attributed to superparamagnetic particles in unblocked and blocked states, respectively. Magnetic field loops were measured as a function of temperature. Blocking temperature distributions were obtained; and their comparison with the size distributions derived from TEM provided the average magnetic anisotropy of the particles.

  1. Blocking temperature distribution in implanted Co-Ni nanoparticles obtained by magneto-optical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Orazio, F.; Lucari, F.; Melchiorri, M.; Julian Fernandez, C. de; Mattei, G.; Mazzoldi, P.; Sangregorio, C.; Gatteschi, D.; Fiorani, D.

    2003-01-01

    Three samples of Co-Ni alloy nanoparticles with different compositions were prepared by sequential ion implantation in silica slides. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the presence of spherical nanoparticles dispersed in the matrix. Magneto-optical Kerr effect analysis identified two magnetic components attributed to superparamagnetic particles in unblocked and blocked states, respectively. Magnetic field loops were measured as a function of temperature. Blocking temperature distributions were obtained; and their comparison with the size distributions derived from TEM provided the average magnetic anisotropy of the particles

  2. Neutron angular distribution in a plasma focus obtained using nuclear track detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Mejía, F; Herrera, J J E; Rangel, J; Golzarri, J I; Espinosa, G

    2002-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a coaxial plasma gun in which a high-density, high-temperature plasma is obtained in a focused column for a few nanoseconds. When the filling gas is deuterium, neutrons can be obtained from fusion reactions. These are partially due to a beam of deuterons which are accelerated against the background hot plasma by large electric fields originating from plasma instabilities. Due to a beam-target effect, the angular distribution of the neutron emission is anisotropic, peaked in the forward direction along the axis of the gun. The purpose of this work is to illustrate the use of CR-39 nuclear track detectors as a diagnostic tool in the determination of the time-integrated neutron angular distribution. For the case studied in this work, neutron emission is found to have a 70% contribution from isotropic radiation and a 30% contribution from anisotropic radiation.

  3. Distributed Extended Kalman Filter for Position, Velocity, Time, Estimation in Satellite Navigation Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Jakubov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Common techniques for position-velocity-time estimation in satellite navigation, iterative least squares and the extended Kalman filter, involve matrix operations. The matrix inversion and inclusion of a matrix library pose requirements on a computational power and operating platform of the navigation processor. In this paper, we introduce a novel distributed algorithm suitable for implementation in simple parallel processing units each for a tracked satellite. Such a unit performs only scalar sum, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The algorithm can be efficiently implemented in hardware logic. Given the fast position-velocity-time estimator, frequent estimates can foster dynamic performance of a vector tracking receiver. The algorithm has been designed from a factor graph representing the extended Kalman filter by splitting vector nodes into scalar ones resulting in a cyclic graph with few iterations needed. Monte Carlo simulations have been conducted to investigate convergence and accuracy. Simulation case studies for a vector tracking architecture and experimental measurements with a real-time software receiver developed at CTU in Prague were conducted. The algorithm offers compromises in stability, accuracy, and complexity depending on the number of iterations. In scenarios with a large number of tracked satellites, it can outperform the traditional methods at low complexity.

  4. Obtaining location/arrival-time and location/outflow-quantity distributions for steady flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A steady, two-dimensional flow system is used to demonstrate the application of location/arrival-time and location/outflow-quantity curves in determining the environmental consequences of groundwater contamination. The subsurface geologic and hydrologic evaluations needed to obtain the arrival results involve a sequence of four phases: system identification, new potential determination, flow systems kinematics, and contaminant transport analysis. Once these phases are completed, they are effectively summarized and easily used to evaluate environmental consequences through the arrival distributions

  5. Extracting kinetic freeze-out temperature and radial flow velocity from an improved Tsallis distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lao, Hai-Ling; Liu, Fu-Hu [Shanxi University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanxi (China); Lacey, Roy A. [Stony Brook University, Departments of Chemistry and Physics, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    We analyze the transverse-momentum (p{sub T}) spectra of identified particles (π{sup ±}, K{sup ±}, p, and anti p) produced in gold-gold (Au-Au) and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions over a √(s{sub NN}) (center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair) range from 14.5 GeV (one of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energies) to 2.76 TeV (one of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies). For the spectra with a narrow p{sub T} range, an improved Tsallis distribution which is in fact the Tsallis distribution with radial flow is used. For the spectra with a wide p{sub T} range, a superposition of the improved Tsallis distribution and an inverse power law is used. Both the extracted kinetic freeze-out temperature (T{sub 0}) and radial flow velocity (β{sub T}) increase with the increase of √(s{sub NN}), which indicates a higher excitation and larger expansion of the interesting system at the LHC. Both the values of T{sub 0} and β{sub T} in central collisions are slightly larger than those in peripheral collisions, and they are independent of isospin and slightly dependent on mass. (orig.)

  6. Prediction of the low-velocity distribution from the pore structure in simple porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Anna, Pietro; Quaife, Bryan; Biros, George; Juanes, Ruben

    2017-12-01

    The macroscopic properties of fluid flow and transport through porous media are a direct consequence of the underlying pore structure. However, precise relations that characterize flow and transport from the statistics of pore-scale disorder have remained elusive. Here we investigate the relationship between pore structure and the resulting fluid flow and asymptotic transport behavior in two-dimensional geometries of nonoverlapping circular posts. We derive an analytical relationship between the pore throat size distribution fλ˜λ-β and the distribution of the low fluid velocities fu˜u-β /2 , based on a conceptual model of porelets (the flow established within each pore throat, here a Hagen-Poiseuille flow). Our model allows us to make predictions, within a continuous-time random-walk framework, for the asymptotic statistics of the spreading of fluid particles along their own trajectories. These predictions are confirmed by high-fidelity simulations of Stokes flow and advective transport. The proposed framework can be extended to other configurations which can be represented as a collection of known flow distributions.

  7. Anisotropic electron velocity distribution in an ECR helium plasma as determined from polarization of emission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, A; Sato, T; Horimoto, Y; Inoue, K; Fujimoto, T; Uchida, M; Maekawa, T

    2005-01-01

    A helium plasma is produced by electron-cyclotron resonance heating in a cusp-configuration magnetic field. Several neutral helium lines are found polarized in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field; the maximum polarization degree exceeds 10%. The polarization degree and intensity of the emission lines yield, respectively, the alignment and population of the upper levels. The population-alignment collisional-radiative model is developed, and the experimental result is interpreted in terms of an anisotropic electron velocity distribution; it is of a Saturn-type with the central thermal component of 14 eV and the 'ring' component displaced by 9.2 eV from the central component. The relative number of 'ring' electrons is 40%. (letter to the editor)

  8. Spectroscopic measurement of ion temperature and ion velocity distributions in the flux-coil generated FRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, D.; Gota, H.; Hayashi, R.; Kiyashko, V.; Morehouse, M.; Primavera, S.; Bolte, N.; Marsili, P.; Roche, T.; Wessel, F.

    2010-01-01

    One aim of the flux-coil generated field reversed configuration at Tri Alpha Energy (TAE) is to establish the plasma where the ion rotational energy is greater than the ion thermal energy. To verify this, an optical diagnostic was developed to simultaneously measure the Doppler velocity-shift and line-broadening using a 0.75 m, 1800 groves/mm, spectrometer. The output spectrum is magnified and imaged onto a 16-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) array. The individual PMT outputs are coupled to high-gain, high-frequency, transimpedance amplifiers, providing fast-time response. The Doppler spectroscopy measurements, along with a survey spectrometer and photodiode-light detector, form a suite of diagnostics that provide insights into the time evolution of the plasma-ion distribution and current when accelerated by an azimuthal-electric field.

  9. Viscous flux flow velocity and stress distribution in the Kim model of a long rectangular slab superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Chai, Xueguang

    2018-05-01

    When a bulk superconductor endures the magnetization process, enormous mechanical stresses are imposed on the bulk, which often leads to cracking. In the present work, we aim to resolve the viscous flux flow velocity υ 0/w, i.e. υ 0 (because w is a constant) and the stress distribution in a long rectangular slab superconductor for the decreasing external magnetic field (B a ) after zero-field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) using the Kim model and viscous flux flow equation simultaneously. The viscous flux flow velocity υ 0/w and the magnetic field B* at which the body forces point away in all of the slab volumes during B a reduction, are determined by both B a and the decreasing rate (db a /dt) of the external magnetic field normalized by the full penetration field B p . In previous studies, υ 0/w obtained by the Bean model with viscous flux flow is only determined by db a /dt, and the field B* that is derived only from the Kim model is a positive constant when the maximum external magnetic field is chosen. This means that the findings in this paper have more physical contents than the previous results. The field B* stress changing with decreasing field B a after ZFC if B* ≤ 0. The effect of db a /dt on the stress is significant in the cases of both ZFC and FC.

  10. Velocity distribution of laser photoionized neutrals ejected from methanol-dosed aluminium(111) by electron-stimulated desorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, C.E.; Whitten, J.E.; Pellin, M.J.; Gruen, D.M.; Jones, P.L.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH

    1989-01-01

    Nonresonant multiphoton ionization at 193 nm wavelength was employed for efficient detection of electron-stimulated neutral desorption from Al(111) dosed with methanol to produce monolayer methoxide coverage. Velocity spectra were measured by the flight time from the crystal surface to the focal region of the laser beam with a pulsed primary electron beam of 3 keV and the sample at 300 K. Either the C + or HCO + photofragment indicated the same non-Boltzmann velocity spectrum for the neutral parent precursor with a peak kinetic energy of ∼0.1 eV. Identical distributions were obtained when the cleaned crystal was pre-oxidized with O 2 prior to methanol dosing. As the crystal temperature was raised, photoion signal from the HCO + fragment declined steadily, while C + increased until ∼550 K. The total cross section for loss of parent signal with dose of 3 keV electrons was measured to be 2±1 x 10 -17 cm -2 . 19 refs., 4 figs

  11. Three-dimensional distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities at the Nankai trough seismogenic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T.; Obana, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nakanishi, A.; Kaiho, Y.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Nankai trough in southwestern Japan is a convergent margin where the Philippine sea plate is subducted beneath the Eurasian plate. There are major faults segments of huge earthquakes that are called Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes. According to the earthquake occurrence history over the past hundreds years, we must expect various rupture patters such as simultaneous or nearly continuous ruptures of plural fault segments. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) conducted seismic surveys at Nankai trough in order to clarify mutual relations between seismic structures and fault segments, as a part of "Research concerning Interaction Between the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes" funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. This study evaluated the spatial distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities from Hyuga-nada to Kii-channel by using velocity seismograms of small and moderate sized earthquakes. Random velocity inhomogeneities are estimated by the peak delay time analysis of S-wave envelopes (e.g., Takahashi et al. 2009). Peak delay time is defined as the time lag from the S-wave onset to its maximal amplitude arrival. This quantity mainly reflects the accumulated multiple forward scattering effect due to random inhomogeneities, and is quite insensitive to the inelastic attenuation. Peak delay times are measured from the rms envelopes of horizontal components at 4-8Hz, 8-16Hz and 16-32Hz. This study used the velocity seismograms that are recorded by 495 ocean bottom seismographs and 378 onshore seismic stations. Onshore stations are composed of the F-net and Hi-net stations that are maintained by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) of Japan. It is assumed that the random inhomogeneities are represented by the von Karman type PSDF. Preliminary result of inversion analysis shows that spectral gradient of PSDF (i.e., scale dependence of

  12. Development of a generalized correlation for phase-velocity measurements obtained from impedance-probe pairs in two-phase flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.T.; Keshock, E.G.; McGill, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    A flag type electrical impedance probe has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) to measure liquid- and vapor-phase velocities in steam-water mixtures flowing through rod bundles. Measurements are made by utilizing the probes in pairs, installed in line, parallel to the flow direction, and extending out into the flow channel. The present study addresses performance difficulties by examining from a fundamental point of view the two-phase flow system which the impedance probes typically operate in. Specifically, the governing equations (continuity, momentum, energy) were formulated for both air-water and steam-water systems, and then subjected to a scaling analysis. The scaling analysis yielded the appropriate dimensionless parameters of significance in both kinds of systems. Additionally, with the aid of experimental data obtained at ORNL, those parameters of significant magnitude were established. As a result, a generalized correlation was developed for liquid and vapor phase velocities that makes it possible to employ the impedance probe velocity measurement technique in a wide variety of test configurations and fluid combinations

  13. Spectroscopic Measurements of the Ion Velocity Distribution at the Base of the Fast Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Natasha L. S.; Hahn, Michael; Savin, Daniel W.; Fletcher, Lyndsay

    2018-03-01

    In situ measurements of the fast solar wind reveal non-thermal distributions of electrons, protons, and minor ions extending from 0.3 au to the heliopause. The physical mechanisms responsible for these non-thermal properties and the location where these properties originate remain open questions. Here, we present spectroscopic evidence, from extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy, that the velocity distribution functions (VDFs) of minor ions are already non-Gaussian at the base of the fast solar wind in a coronal hole, at altitudes of thermal equilibrium, (b) fluid motions such as non-Gaussian turbulent fluctuations or non-uniform wave motions, or (c) some combination of both. These observations provide important empirical constraints for the source region of the fast solar wind and for the theoretical models of the different acceleration, heating, and energy deposition processes therein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the ion VDF in the fast solar wind has been probed so close to its source region. The findings are also a timely precursor to the upcoming 2018 launch of the Parker Solar Probe, which will provide the closest in situ measurements of the solar wind at approximately 0.04 au (8.5 solar radii).

  14. Fluid Distribution in Synthetic Wet Halite Rocks : Inference from Measured Elastic Wave Velocity and Electrical Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, T.; Kitano, M.

    2011-12-01

    Intercrystalline fluid can significantly affect rheological and transport properties of rocks. Its influences are strongly dependent on its distribution. The dihedral angle between solid and liquid phases has been widely accepted as a key parameter that controls solid-liquid textures. The liquid phase is not expected to be interconnected if the dihedral angle is larger than 60 degree. However, observations contradictory to dihedral angle values have been reported. Watanabe (2010) suggested the coexistence of grain boundary fluid with a positive dihedral angle. For good understanding of fluid distribution, it is thus critical to study the nature of grain boundary fluid. We have developed a high pressure and temperature apparatus for study of intercrystalline fluid distribution. It was specially designed for measurements of elastic wave velocities and electrical conductivity. The apparatus mainly consists of a conventional cold-seal vessel with an external heater. The pressure medium is silicon oil of the viscosity of 0.1 Pa s. The pressure and temperature can be controlled from 0 to 200 MPa and from 20 to 200 C, respectively. Dimensions of a sample are 9 mm in diameter, and 15 mm in length. Halite-water system is used as an analog for crustal rocks. The dihedral angle has been studied systematically at various pressure and temperature conditions [Lewis and Holness, 1996]. The dihedral angle is larger than 60 degree at lower pressure and temperature. It decreases to be smaller than 60 degree with increasing pressure and temperature. A sample is prepared by cold-pressing and annealing of wet NaCl powder. Optical examination has shown that synthesized samples are microstructurally homogeneous. Grains are polygonal and equidimensional with a mean diameter of 100 micrometer. Grain boundaries vary from straight to bowed and 120 degree triple junctions are common. Gas and fluid bearing inclusions are visible on the grain boundaries. There are spherical inclusions or

  15. Study of the velocity distribution influence upon the pressure pulsations in draft tube model of hydro-turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonin, V.; Ustimenko, A.; Kuibin, P.; Litvinov, I.; Shtork, S.

    2016-11-01

    One of the mechanisms of generation of powerful pressure pulsations in the circuit of the turbine is a precessing vortex core, formed behind the runner at the operation points with partial or forced loads, when the flow has significant residual swirl. To study periodic pressure pulsations behind the runner the authors of this paper use approaches of experimental modeling and methods of computational fluid dynamics. The influence of velocity distributions at the output of the hydro turbine runner on pressure pulsations was studied based on analysis of the existing and possible velocity distributions in hydraulic turbines and selection of the distribution in the extended range. Preliminary numerical calculations have showed that the velocity distribution can be modeled without reproduction of the entire geometry of the circuit, using a combination of two blade cascades of the rotor and stator. Experimental verification of numerical results was carried out in an air bench, using the method of 3D-printing for fabrication of the blade cascades and the geometry of the draft tube of hydraulic turbine. Measurements of the velocity field at the input to a draft tube cone and registration of pressure pulsations due to precessing vortex core have allowed building correlations between the velocity distribution character and the amplitude-frequency characteristics of the pulsations.

  16. Numerical modelling of physical processes in a ballistic laboratory setup with a tapered adapter and plastic piston used for obtaining high muzzle velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, N. V.

    2014-12-01

    Numerical modelling of a ballistic setup with a tapered adapter and plastic piston is considered. The processes in the firing chamber are described within the framework of quasi- one-dimensional gas dynamics and a geometrical law of propellant burn by means of Lagrangian mass coordinates. The deformable piston is considered to be an ideal liquid with specific equations of state. The numerical solution is obtained by means of a modified explicit von Neumann scheme. The calculation results given show that the ballistic setup with a tapered adapter and plastic piston produces increased shell muzzle velocities by a factor of more than 1.5-2.

  17. Exploration of probability distribution of velocities of saltating sand particles based on the stochastic particle-bed collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xiaojing; Xie Li; Zhou Youhe

    2005-01-01

    The wind-blown sand saltating movement is mainly categorized into two mechanical processes, that is, the interaction between the moving sand particles and the wind in the saltation layer, and the collisions of incident particles with sand bed, and the latter produces a lift-off velocity of a sand particle moving into saltation. In this Letter a methodology of phenomenological analysis is presented to get probability density (distribution) function (pdf) of the lift-off velocity of sand particles from sand bed based on the stochastic particle-bed collision. After the sand particles are dealt with by uniform circular disks and a 2D collision between an incident particle and the granular bed is employed, we get the analytical formulas of lift-off velocity of ejected and rebound particles in saltation, which are functions of some random parameters such as angle and magnitude of incident velocity of the impacting particles, impact and contact angles between the collision particles, and creeping velocity of sand particles, etc. By introducing the probability density functions (pdf's) of these parameters in communion with all possible patterns of sand bed and all possible particle-bed collisions, and using the essential arithmetic of multi-dimension random variables' pdf, the pdf's of lift-off velocities are deduced out and expressed by the pdf's of the random parameters in the collisions. The numerical results of the distributions of lift-off velocities display that they agree well with experimental ones

  18. Homogeneous dose distribution of electrons obtained from linear accelerators equipped with beam scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchardt, D.; Cwiekala, M.; Schroeder, U.G.

    1985-01-01

    Homogeneous distribution of electrons used for therapeutic purposes and obtained from accelerators, is achieved by means of Potter-Bucky diaphragms or by repeated, staggered, sawtooth-shaped sweeping movements of the electron beam (scanning) over the radiation field. The repetition of the scanning process (number of scans) can result in long measurement times for achieving a sufficiently homogeneous, dosimetrically adequate distribution of the electrons. This ''time problem'' makes it imperative to achieve good homogeneity while keeping the number of scans as low as possible. To solve the problem, the scanning movement of the electron beam is simulated by a computer programme and the independence of the homogeneity of the irradiation field and number of scans is investigated. Since changing the ratio of the two deflection rates exercises a significant influence, it is mandatory in dosimetry to pay close attention to strict observance of the deflection rates. (orig.) [de

  19. Distribution of Snow and Maximum Snow Water Equivalent Obtained by LANDSAT Data and Degree Day Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, K.; Ochiai, H.; Takeuchi, S.

    1985-01-01

    Maximum snow water equivalence and snowcover distribution are estimated using several LANDSAT data taken in snowmelting season over a four year period. The test site is Okutadami-gawa Basin located in the central position of Tohoku-Kanto-Chubu District. The year to year normalization for snowmelt volume computation on the snow line is conducted by year to year correction of degree days using the snowcover percentage within the test basin obtained from LANDSAT data. The maximum snow water equivalent map in the test basin is generated based on the normalized snowmelt volume on the snow line extracted from four LANDSAT data taken in a different year. The snowcover distribution on an arbitrary day in snowmelting of 1982 is estimated from the maximum snow water equivalent map. The estimated snowcover is compared with the snowcover area extracted from NOAA-AVHRR data taken on the same day. The applicability of the snow estimation using LANDSAT data is discussed.

  20. Uptake, distribution, and velocity of organically complexed plutonium in corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Shannon W; Molz, Fred J; Fjeld, Robert A; Kaplan, Daniel I

    2012-10-01

    Lysimeter experiments and associated simulations suggested that Pu moved into and through plants that invaded field lysimeters during an 11-year study at the Savannah River Site. However, probable plant uptake and transport mechanisms were not well defined, so more detailed study is needed. Therefore, experiments were performed to examine movement, distribution, and velocity of soluble, complexed Pu in corn. Corn was grown and exposed to Pu using a "long root" system in which the primary root extended through a soil pot and into a hydroponic container. To maintain solubility, Pu was complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB (Desferrioxamine B) or the chelating agent DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid). Corn plants were exposed to nutrient solutions containing Pu for periods of 10 min to 10 d. Analysis of root and shoot tissues permitted concentration measurement and calculation of uptake velocity and Pu retardation in corn. Results showed that depending on exposure time, 98.3-95.9% of Pu entering the plant was retained in the roots external to the xylem, and that 1.7-4.1% of Pu entered the shoots (shoot fraction increased with exposure time). Corn Pu uptake was 2-4 times greater as Pu(DFOB) than as Pu(2)(DTPA)(3). Pu(DFOB) solution entered the root xylem and moved 1.74 m h(-1) or greater upward, which is more than a million times faster than Pu(III/IV) downward movement through soil during the lysimeter study. The Pu(DFOB) xylem retardation factor was estimated to be 3.7-11, allowing for rapid upward Pu transport and potential environmental release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Methods for obtaining distributions of uranium occurrence from estimates of geologic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C.E.; McLaren, R.A.

    1980-04-01

    The problem addressed in this paper is the determination of a quantitative estimate of a resource from estimates of fundamental variables which describe the resource. Due to uncertainty about the estimates, these basic variables are stochastic. The evaluation of random equations involving these variables is the core of the analysis process. The basic variables are originally described in terms of a low and a high percentile (the 5th and 95th, for example) and a central value (the mode, mean or median). The variable thus described is then generally assumed to be represented by a three-parameter lognormal distribution. Expressions involving these variables are evaluated by computing the first four central moments of the random functions (which are usually products and sums of variables). Stochastic independence is discussed. From the final set of moments a Pearson distribution is obtained; the high values of skewness and kurtosis resulting from uranium data require obtaining Pearson curves beyond those described in published tables. A cubic spline solution to the Pearson differential equation accomplishes this task. A sample problem is used to illustrate the application of the process; sensitivity to the estimated values of the basic variables is discussed. Appendices contain details of the methods and descriptions of computer programs

  2. Methods for obtaining distributions of uranium occurrence from estimates of geologic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C.E.; McLaren, R.A.

    1980-04-01

    The problem addressed in this report is the determination of a quantitative estimate of a resource from estimates of fundamental variables which describe the resource. Due to uncertainty about the estimates, these basic variables are stochastic. The evaluation of random equations involving these variables is the core of the analysis process. The basic variables are originally described in terms of a low and a high percentile (the 5th and 95th, for example) and a central value (the mode, mean or median). The variable thus described is then generally assumed to be represented by a three-parameter lognormal distribution. Expressions involving these variables are evaluated by computing the first four central moments of the random functions (which are usually products and sums of variables). Stochastic independence is discussed. From the final set of moments a Pearson distribution is obtained; the high values of skewness and kurtosis resulting from uranium data requires obtaining Pearson curves beyond those described in published tables. A cubic spline solution to the Pearson differential equation accomplishes this task. A sample problem is used to illustrate the application of the process; sensitivity to the estimated values of the basic variables is discussed. Appendices contain details of the methods and descriptions of computer programs

  3. A new Technique for ultrafast velocity distribution measurements of atomic species by post-ionization laser induced fluorescence (PILIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabares, F.L.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for single shot velocity distribution measurement of metallic impurities of relevance for studies involving continuous sources, such as limiter experiments in fusion devices or sputtering experiments, based in the combination of Resonant Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (REMPI) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) is proposed. High ionization yield and good time resolution are expected according to the numerical simulation of the experiment that has been run for several atomic species. Other possible applications of REMPI to plasma edge physics and to conventional techniques for velocity distribution measurements are briefly addressed. (author)

  4. A new technique for ultrafast velocity distribution measurements of atomic species by post-ionization laser induced fluorescent (PILIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabares, F.L.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for single shot velocity distribution measurement of metallic impurities of relevance for studies involving continuous sources, such as limiter experiments in fusion devices or sputtering experiments, based in the combination of Resonant Enhanced Multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) is proposed. High ionization yield and good time resolution are expected according to the numerical simulation of the experiment that has been run for several atomic species. Other possible applications of REMPI to plasma edge physics and to conventional techniques for velocity distribution measurements are briefly addressed. (Author) 8 refs

  5. A new technique for ultrafast velocity distribution measurements of atomic species by post-ionization laser induced fluorescent (PILIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares, F.L.

    1992-07-01

    A new method for single shot velocity distribution measurement of metallic impurities of relevance for studies involving continuous sources, such as limiter experiments in fusion devices or sputtering experiments, based in the combination of Resonant Enhanced Multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) is proposed. High ionization yield and good time resolution are expected according to the numerical simulation of the experiment that has been run for several atomic species. Other possible applications of REMPI to plasma edge physics and to conventional techniques for velocity distribution measurements are briefly addressed. (Author) 8 refs.

  6. Velocity distribution around a sphere descending in a salt-stratified water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanazaki, Hideshi; Akiyama, Shinsaku; Okino, Shinya

    2017-11-01

    When a sphere descends at constant speed in a salt-stratified water, a thin and high-speed jet is often generated above the sphere. The phenomenon has first been observed by shadowgraph and then has been investigated numerically. In this study, a systematic measurement by particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been performed for a wide range of Froude number Fr and Reynolds number Re , to actually observe the numerically simulated velocity distributions and confirm the accuracy of the numerical simulations for a very high Schmidt (Prandtl) number of Sc =(Pr =) 700 . The results show that the radius of the jet is proportional to both Fr 1 / 2 and Re - 1 / 2 , meaning that it is proportional to √{ Fr / Re } (when F < 1). The boundary layer on the sphere surface has a thickness comparable to the jet radius, and it is also proportional to √{ Fr / Re }. These results are in agreement with the recent numerical simulations and a simple dimensional analysis. Typical diverging internal-wave patterns, whose vertical wavelength has been predicted to be proportional to Fr , could also be observed.

  7. Sublimation pit distribution indicates convection cell surface velocities of ∼10 cm per year in Sputnik Planitia, Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Peter B.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2018-01-01

    The ∼106 km2 Sputnik Planitia, Pluto is the upper surface of a vast basin of nitrogen ice. Cellular landforms in Sputnik Planitia with areas in the range of a few × 102-103 km2 are likely the surface manifestation of convective overturn in the nitrogen ice. The cells have sublimation pits on them, with smaller pits near their centers and larger pits near their edges. We map pits on seven cells and find that the pit radii increase by between 2.1 ± 0.4 × 10-3 and 5.9 ± 0.8 × 10-3 m m-1 away from the cell center, depending on the cell. This is a lower bound on the size increase because of the finite resolution of the data. Accounting for resolution yields upper bounds on the size vs. distance distribution of between 4.2 ± 0.2 × 10-3 and 23.4 ± 1.5 × 10-3 m m-1. We then use an analytic model to calculate that pit radii grow via sublimation at a rate of 3.6-0.6+2.1 ×10-4 m yr-1, which allows us to convert the pit size vs. distance distribution into a pit age vs. distance distribution. This yields surface velocities between 1.5-0.2+1.0 and 6.2-1.4+3.4 cm yr-1 for the slowest cell and surface velocities between 8.1-1.0+5.5 and 17.9-5.1+8.9 cm yr-1 for the fastest cell. These convection rates imply that the surface ages at the edge of cells reach ∼4.2-8.9 × 105 yr. The rates are comparable to rates of ∼6 cm yr-1 that were previously obtained from modeling of the convective overturn in Sputnik Planitia (McKinnon et al., 2016). Finally, we investigate the surface rheology of the convection cells and estimate that the minimum ice viscosity necessary to support the geometry of the observed pits is of order 1016-1017 Pa s, based on the argument that pits would relax away before growing to their observed radii of several hundred meters if the viscosity were lower than this value.

  8. Downward velocity distribution of free surface vortex in a cylindrical vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohguri, Youhei; Monji, Hideaki; Kamide, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the basic flow characteristics, especially downward velocity, of the free surface vortex. The flow field at the vertical cross section in a cylindrical vessel was measured by using PIV. The measurement results showed the inclined vortex center due to the un-axisymmetric structure of the vessel. Therefore, the maximum downward velocity on the cross section was discussed with the depth. The relation between the maximum downward velocity and the depth showed the tendency where the downward velocity increased with the depth non-linearly. By using dye, the downward velocity was also measured but its results showed a little difference from that by PIV. (author)

  9. Study on Water Distribution Imaging in the Sand Using Propagation Velocity of Sound with Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Tsuneyoshi; Nakagawa, Yutaka; Shirakawa, Takashi; Sano, Motoaki; Ohaba, Motoyoshi; Shibusawa, Sakae

    2013-07-01

    We propose a method for the monitoring and imaging of the water distribution in the rooting zone of plants using sound vibration. In this study, the water distribution measurement in the horizontal and vertical directions in the soil layer was examined to confirm whether a temporal change in the volume water content of the soil could be estimated from a temporal changes in propagation velocity. A scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) is used for measurement of the vibration velocity of the soil surface, because the highly precise vibration velocity measurement of several many points can be carried out automatically. Sand with a uniform particle size distribution is used for the soil, as it has high plasticity; that is, the sand can return to a dry state easily even if it is soaked with water. A giant magnetostriction vibrator or a flat speaker is used as a sound source. Also, a soil moisture sensor, which measures the water content of the soil using the electric permittivity, is installed in the sand. From the experimental results of the vibration measurement and soil moisture sensors, we can confirm that the temporal changes of the water distribution in sand using the negative pressure irrigation system in both the horizontal and vertical directions can be estimated using the propagation velocity of sound. Therefore, in the future, we plan to develop an insertion-type sound source and receiver using the acceleration sensors, and we intend to examine whether our method can be applied even in commercial soil with growing plants.

  10. Verification of the network flow and transport/distributed velocity (NWFT/DVM) computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duda, L.E.

    1984-05-01

    The Network Flow and Transport/Distributed Velocity Method (NWFT/DVM) computer code was developed primarily to fulfill a need for a computationally efficient ground-water flow and contaminant transport capability for use in risk analyses where, quite frequently, large numbers of calculations are required. It is a semi-analytic, quasi-two-dimensional network code that simulates ground-water flow and the transport of dissolved species (radionuclides) in a saturated porous medium. The development of this code was carried out under a program funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop a methodology for assessing the risk from disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations (FIN: A-1192 and A-1266). In support to the methodology development program, the NRC has funded a separate Maintenance of Computer Programs Project (FIN: A-1166) to ensure that the codes developed under A-1192 or A-1266 remain consistent with current operating systems, are as error-free as possible, and have up-to-date documentations for reference by the NRC staff. Part of this effort would include verification and validation tests to assure that a code correctly performs the operations specified and/or is representing the processes or system for which it is intended. This document contains four verification problems for the NWFT/DVM computer code. Two of these problems are analytical verifications of NWFT/DVM where results are compared to analytical solutions. The other two are code-to-code verifications where results from NWFT/DVM are compared to those of another computer code. In all cases NWFT/DVM showed good agreement with both the analytical solutions and the results from the other code

  11. Generation of lower hybrid and whistler waves by an ion velocity ring distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.; Daughton, W.

    2012-01-01

    Using fully kinetic simulations in two and three spatial dimensions, we consider the generation and nonlinear evolution of lower hybrid waves produced by a cold ion ring velocity distribution in a low beta plasma. We show that the initial development of the instability is very similar in two and three dimensions and not significantly modified by electromagnetic effects, consistent with linear theory. At saturation, the level of electric field fluctuations is a small fraction of the background thermal energy; the electric field and corresponding density fluctuations consist of long, field-aligned striations. Energy extracted from the ring goes primarily into heating the background ions and the electrons at comparable rates. The initial growth and saturation of the magnetic components of the lower hybrid waves are related to the electric field components, consistent with linear theory. As the growing electric field fluctuations saturate, parallel propagating whistler waves develop by the interaction of two lower hybrid waves. At later times, these whistlers are replaced by longer wavelength, parallel propagating whistlers that grow through the decay of the lower hybrid fluctuations. Wave matching conditions demonstrate these conversion processes of lower hybrid waves to whistler waves. The conversion efficiency (=ratio of the whistler wave energy to the energy in the saturated lower hybrid waves) is computed and found to be significant (∼15%) for the parameters of the three-dimensional simulation (and even larger in the two-dimensional simulation), although when normalized in terms of the initial kinetic energy in the ring ions the overall efficiency is very small ( −4 ). The results are compared with relevant linear and nonlinear theory.

  12. DETECTION OF THE VELOCITY SHEAR EFFECT ON THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE GALACTIC SATELLITES IN ISOLATED SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jounghun; Choi, Yun-Young

    2015-01-01

    We report a detection of the effect of the large-scale velocity shear on the spatial distributions of the galactic satellites around the isolated hosts. Identifying the isolated galactic systems, each of which consists of a single host galaxy and its satellites, from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and reconstructing linearly the velocity shear field in the local universe, we measure the alignments between the relative positions of the satellites from their isolated hosts and the principal axes of the local velocity shear tensors projected onto the plane of sky. We find a clear signal that the galactic satellites in isolated systems are located preferentially along the directions of the minor principal axes of the large-scale velocity shear field. Those galactic satellites that are spirals, are brighter, are located at distances larger than the projected virial radii of the hosts, and belong to the spiral hosts yield stronger alignment signals, which implies that the alignment strength depends on the formation and accretion epochs of the galactic satellites. It is also shown that the alignment strength is quite insensitive to the cosmic web environment, as well as the size and luminosity of the isolated hosts. Although this result is consistent with the numerical finding of Libeskind et al. based on an N-body experiment, owing to the very low significance of the observed signals, it remains inconclusive whether or not the velocity shear effect on the satellite distribution is truly universal

  13. Detection of the Velocity Shear Effect on the Spatial Distributions of the Galactic Satellites in Isolated Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghun; Choi, Yun-Young

    2015-02-01

    We report a detection of the effect of the large-scale velocity shear on the spatial distributions of the galactic satellites around the isolated hosts. Identifying the isolated galactic systems, each of which consists of a single host galaxy and its satellites, from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and reconstructing linearly the velocity shear field in the local universe, we measure the alignments between the relative positions of the satellites from their isolated hosts and the principal axes of the local velocity shear tensors projected onto the plane of sky. We find a clear signal that the galactic satellites in isolated systems are located preferentially along the directions of the minor principal axes of the large-scale velocity shear field. Those galactic satellites that are spirals, are brighter, are located at distances larger than the projected virial radii of the hosts, and belong to the spiral hosts yield stronger alignment signals, which implies that the alignment strength depends on the formation and accretion epochs of the galactic satellites. It is also shown that the alignment strength is quite insensitive to the cosmic web environment, as well as the size and luminosity of the isolated hosts. Although this result is consistent with the numerical finding of Libeskind et al. based on an N-body experiment, owing to the very low significance of the observed signals, it remains inconclusive whether or not the velocity shear effect on the satellite distribution is truly universal.

  14. Effect of Coulomb friction on orientational correlation and velocity distribution functions in a sheared dilute granular gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Bishakhdatta; Alam, Meheboob

    2011-08-01

    From particle simulations of a sheared frictional granular gas, we show that the Coulomb friction can have dramatic effects on orientational correlation as well as on both the translational and angular velocity distribution functions even in the Boltzmann (dilute) limit. The dependence of orientational correlation on friction coefficient (μ) is found to be nonmonotonic, and the Coulomb friction plays a dual role of enhancing or diminishing the orientational correlation, depending on the value of the tangential restitution coefficient (which characterizes the roughness of particles). From the sticking limit (i.e., with no sliding contact) of rough particles, decreasing the Coulomb friction is found to reduce the density and spatial velocity correlations which, together with diminished orientational correlation for small enough μ, are responsible for the transition from non-gaussian to gaussian distribution functions in the double limit of small friction (μ→0) and nearly elastic particles (e→1). This double limit in fact corresponds to perfectly smooth particles, and hence the maxwellian (gaussian) is indeed a solution of the Boltzmann equation for a frictional granular gas in the limit of elastic collisions and zero Coulomb friction at any roughness. The high-velocity tails of both distribution functions seem to follow stretched exponentials even in the presence of Coulomb friction, and the related velocity exponents deviate strongly from a gaussian with increasing friction.

  15. The GALAH Survey: Stellar streams and how stellar velocity distributions vary with Galactic longitude, hemisphere and metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillen, Alice C.; De Silva, Gayandhi; Sharma, Sanjib; Hayden, Michael; Freeman, Ken; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Žerjal, Maruša; Asplund, Martin; Buder, Sven; D'Orazi, Valentina; Duong, Ly; Kos, Janez; Lin, Jane; Lind, Karin; Martell, Sarah; Schlesinger, Katharine; Simpson, Jeffrey D.; Zucker, Daniel B.; Zwitter, Tomaz; Anguiano, Borja; Carollo, Daniela; Casagrande, Luca; Cotar, Klemen; Cottrell, Peter L.; Ireland, Michael; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Horner, Jonathan; Lewis, Geraint F.; Nataf, David M.; Ting, Yuan-Sen; Watson, Fred; Wittenmyer, Rob; Wyse, Rosemary

    2018-04-01

    Using GALAH survey data of nearby stars, we look at how structure in the planar (u, v) velocity distribution depends on metallicity and on viewing direction within the Galaxy. In nearby stars with distance d ≲ 1 kpc, the Hercules stream is most strongly seen in higher metallicity stars [Fe/H]>0.2. The Hercules stream peak v value depends on viewed galactic longitude, which we interpret as due to the gap between the stellar stream and more circular orbits being associated with a specific angular momentum value of about 1640 km s-1 kpc. The association of the gap with a particular angular momentum value supports a bar resonant model for the Hercules stream. Moving groups previously identified in Hipparcos observations are easiest to see in stars nearer than 250 pc, and their visibility and peak velocities in the velocity distributions depends on both viewing direction (galactic longitude and hemisphere) and metallicity. We infer that there is fine structure in local velocity distributions that varies over distances of a few hundred pc in the Galaxy.

  16. Primordial inhomogeneities in the expanding universe. I - Density and velocity distributions of galaxies in the vicinities of rich clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, J.; Wilson, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    The density profiles and Hubble flow deviations in the vicinities of rich galaxy clusters are derived for a variety of models of initial density and velocity perturbations at the recombination epoch. The galaxy correlation function, measured with respect to the Abell clusters, is used to normalize the theoretical models. The angular scales of the required primordial inhomogeneities are calculated. It is found that the resulting density profiles around rich clusters are surprisingly insensitive to the shape of the initial perturbations and also to the cosmological density parameter, Omega. However, it is shown that the distribution of galaxy radial velocities can provide a possible means of deriving Omega.

  17. Application of one-dimensional model to calculate water velocity distributions over elastic elements simulating Canadian waterweed plants (Elodea Canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrak, Elżbieta; Kubrak, Janusz; Rowiński, Paweł

    2013-02-01

    One-dimensional model for vertical profiles of longitudinal velocities in open-channel flows is verified against laboratory data obtained in an open channel with artificial plants. Those plants simulate Canadian waterweed which in nature usually forms dense stands that reach all the way to the water surface. The model works particularly well for densely spaced plants.

  18. Obtaining the Bidirectional Transfer Distribution Function ofIsotropically Scattering Materials Using an Integrating Sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Jacob C.; Branden, Henrik

    2006-10-19

    This paper demonstrates a method to determine thebidirectional transfer distribution function (BTDF) using an integratingsphere. Information about the sample's angle dependent scattering isobtained by making transmittance measurements with the sample atdifferent distances from the integrating sphere. Knowledge about theilluminated area of the sample and the geometry of the sphere port incombination with the measured data combines to an system of equationsthat includes the angle dependent transmittance. The resulting system ofequations is an ill-posed problem which rarely gives a physical solution.A solvable system is obtained by using Tikhonov regularization on theill-posed problem. The solution to this system can then be used to obtainthe BTDF. Four bulk-scattering samples were characterised using both twogoniophotometers and the described method to verify the validity of thenew method. The agreement shown is great for the more diffuse samples.The solution to the low-scattering samples contains unphysicaloscillations, butstill gives the correct shape of the solution. Theorigin of the oscillations and why they are more prominent inlow-scattering samples are discussed.

  19. A different approach to obtain Mayer’s extension to stationary single particle Wigner distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Anirban; Janaki, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the stationary collisionless single-particle Wigner equation in one dimension containing quantum corrections at the lowest order is satisfied by a distribution function that is similar in form to the Maxwellian distribution with an effective mass and a generalized potential. The distribution is used to study quantum corrections to electron hole solutions.

  20. The effect of reported high-velocity small raindrops on inferred drop size distributions and derived power laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Leijnse

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that at high rainfall intensities, small raindrops may fall with much larger velocities than would be expected from their diameters. These were argued to be fragments of recently broken-up larger drops. In this paper we quantify the effect of this phenomenon on raindrop size distribution measurements from a Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer, a 2-D Video Distrometer, and a vertically-pointing Doppler radar. Probability distributions of fall velocities have been parameterized, where the parameters are functions of both rainfall intensity and drop size. These parameterizations have been used to correct Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer measurements for this phenomenon. The effect of these corrections on fitted scaled drop size distributions are apparent but not major. Fitted gamma distributions for three different types of rainfall have been used to simulate drop size measurements. The effect of the high-velocity small drops is shown to be minor. Especially for the purpose of remote sensing of rainfall using radar, microwave links, or optical links, the errors caused by using the slightly different retrieval relations will be masked completely by other error sources.

  1. Notes on representing grain size distributions obtained by electron backscatter diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Laszlo S.; Biswas, Somjeet; Gu, Chengfan; Beausir, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Grain size distributions measured by electron backscatter diffraction are commonly represented by histograms using either number or area fraction definitions. It is shown here that they should be presented in forms of density distribution functions for direct quantitative comparisons between different measurements. Here we make an interpretation of the frequently seen parabolic tales of the area distributions of bimodal grain structures and a transformation formula between the two distributions are given in this paper. - Highlights: • Grain size distributions are represented by density functions. • The parabolic tales corresponds to equal number of grains in a bin of the histogram. • A simple transformation formula is given to number and area weighed distributions. • The particularities of uniform and lognormal distributions are examined

  2. Resolution Effects on the Mean Square Displacement as Obtained by the Self-Distribution-Function Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetto, A; Magazù, S; Migliardo, F; Mondelli, C; Gonzalez, M A

    2012-01-01

    In the present contribution, a procedure for molecular motion characterization based on the evaluation of the Mean Square Displacement (MSD), through the Self-Distribution Function (SDF), is presented. It is shown how MSD, which represents an important observable for the characterization of dynamical properties, can be decomposed into different partial contributions associated to system dynamical processes within a specific spatial scale. It is also shown how the SDF procedure allows us to evaluate both total MSD and partial MSDs through total and partial SDFs. As a result, total MSD is the weighed sum of partial MSDs in which the weights are obtained by the fitting procedure of measured Elastic Incoherent Neutron Scattering (EINS) intensity. We apply SDF procedure to data collected,by IN13, IN10 and IN4 spectrometers (Institute Laue Langevin), on aqueous mixtures of two homologous disaccharides (sucrose and trehalose) and on dry and hydrated (H 2 O and D 2 O) lysozyme with and without disaccharides. It emerges that the hydrogen bond imposed network of the water-trehalose mixture appears to be stronger with respect to that of the water-sucrose mixture. This result can justify the higher bioprotectant effectiveness of trehalose. Furthermore, it emerges that partial MSDs of sucrose and trehalose are equivalent in the low Q domain (0÷1.7) Å −1 whereas they are different in the high Q domain (1.7÷4) Å −1 . This suggests that the higher structure sensitivity of sucrose should be related to the small spatial observation windows. Moreover, the role of the instrumental resolution in EINS is considered. The nature of the dynamical transition is highlighted and it is shown that it occurs when the system relaxation time becomes shorter than the instrumental energy time. Finally, the bioprotectants effect on protein dynamics and the amplitude of vibrations in lysozyme are presented.

  3. Response to 'Comment on 'Mathematical and physical aspects of Kappa velocity distribution'' [Phys. Plasmas 16, 094701 (2009)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau, L.-N.; Fu, W.-Z.; Chuang, S.-H.

    2009-01-01

    The comment questions the formulation of the κ velocity distribution function used in our paper as compared to a slightly different form used by the authors. The difference in the distribution function necessarily leads to different number densities, thermal pressures, etc. We show that the restriction with their distribution function is that the macroscopic temperature (or average kinetic energy) is the same for all spatially uniform systems with a family of κ distributions including the Maxwellian case. The distribution function used in our paper and widely adopted in various studies of nonthermal systems, however, does not impose such a constraint; in particular, the temperature has κ dependence reflecting the kinetic nature of different statistical systems. The points made in the comment are trivial and misleading.

  4. Non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution as a result of electron-attachment collisions in ionized gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Stiller, W.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of electron-attachment collisions on the velocity distribution of electrons is studied on the basis of Boltzmann kinetic equations governing the energetic balance of electrons (e), atoms of a carrier gas (c), and SF 6 -molecules (m) capturing electrons. Under the assumption that 1) the densities of the particles fulfill the conditions nsub(e) << nsub(c), nsub(m), nsub(m) << nsub(c), and that 2) only the electron-attachment process is in competition with the elastic collision process between electrons and the atoms of the carrier gas, the time behaviour of the energetic balance of the electrons is investigated. The calculations lead to non-Maxwellian forms of the electron velocity distribution changing the mean electron energy. (author)

  5. Comparison of in vitro behavior of as-sprayed, alkaline-treated and collagen-treated bioceramic coatings obtained by high velocity oxy-fuel spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melero, H., E-mail: hortensia.melero.correas@gmail.com [Thermal Spray Centre, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franqués, 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia-Giralt, N. [URFOA, IMIM (Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques), RETICEF, Doctor Aiguader, 80, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Fernández, J. [Thermal Spray Centre, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franqués, 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Díez-Pérez, A. [URFOA, IMIM (Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques), RETICEF, Doctor Aiguader, 80, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Servei de Medicina Interna, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona (Spain); Guilemany, J.M. [Thermal Spray Centre, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franqués, 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp)–TiO{sub 2} samples obtained using high velocity oxy-fuel spray (HVOF), that had previously shown excellent mechanical behaviour, were innovatively surface treated in order to improve their biological performance. The chosen treatments were an alkaline treatment to increase –OH radicals density on the surface (especially on TiO{sub 2} zones), and a collagen treatment to bond collagen fibrils to the –OH radicals present in hydroxyapatite. These coatings were analysed using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy, and tested for human osteoblast biocompatibility and functionality. In the case of the alkaline treatment, although the –OH radicals density did not increase compared to the as-sprayed coatings, a nanostructured layer of sodium hydroxycarbonate precipitated on the surface, thus improving biological behaviour due to the nanoroughness effect. For the collagen-treated samples, collagen fibrils appeared well-adhered to the surface, and in vitro cell culture tests showed that these surfaces were much more conducive to cell adhesion and differentiation than the as-sprayed and alkaline-treated samples. These results pointed to collagen treatment as a very promising method to improve bioactivity of HAp–TiO{sub 2} thermal-sprayed coatings.

  6. Velocity Distribution in the Flow from a Wall-Mounted Diffuser in Rooms with Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The paper describes experiments with wall-mounted air terminal devices. The airflow from an air terminal device will influence the thermal comfort of the occupants and it is therefore important to develop an expression for this flow. The velocity at the floor is influenced by the flow rate...

  7. Deconstructing Disk Velocity Distribution Functions in the Disk-Mass Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westfall, K. B.; Bershady, M. A.; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Andersen, D. R.; Swaters, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze integral-field ionized gas and stellar line-of-sight kinematics in the context of determining the stellar velocity ellipsoid for spiral galaxies observed by the Disk-Mass Survey. Our new methodology enables us to measure, for the first time, a radial gradient in the ellipsoid ratio

  8. Determination of the Ion Velocity Distribution in a Rotating Plasma from Measurements of Doppler Broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L. W.; Sillesen, Alfred Hegaard

    1979-01-01

    The Doppler-broadened profile of the He II 4685.75 AA line was measured along a chord in a rotating plasma, transverse to the magnetic field. Using a single-particle orbit picture, the corresponding velocity spectrum of ions confirm the measurements, so it can be concluded that the single-particl...

  9. DISTRIBUTION AND ORIGIN OF HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS .3. CLOUDS, COMPLEXES AND POPULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WAKKER, BP; VANWOERDEN, H

    1991-01-01

    We present the first complete catalogue of high-velocity clouds (HVCs), followed by a classification of these clouds into complexes and populations. The catalogue will form the basis for comparisons with theoretical models. The study described here yields the following conclusions: (1) Differential

  10. The Spanwise Distribution of Losses in Prismatic Turbine Cascade with Non-Uniform Inlet Velocity Profile

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fürst, J.; Luxa, Martin; Šimurda, David

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2014), s. 135-141 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/10/1329 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : prismatic turbine cascade * losses * velocity profile Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://www.engineeringmechanics.cz/obsahy.html?R=21&C=2

  11. Seismic velocity distribution in the vicinity of a mine tunnel at Thabazimbi, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the refracted arrivals on a seismic reflection profile recorded along the wall of a tunnel at an iron mine near Thabazimbi, South Africa, shows variations in P-wave velocity in dolomite away from the de-stressed zone that vary between 4...

  12. Cutoff effects of electron velocity distribution to the properties of plasma parameters near the plasma-sheath boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelic, N.

    2011-01-01

    The plasma properties under high thermodynamic non-equilibrium condition, established due to the presence of electrically biased electrode, are investigated. Assumption of electron cut-off velocity distribution function (VDF), as done by Andrews and Varey in their investigations of the sheath region [J. Phys. A 3, 413 (1970)], has been extended here to both plasma and sheath regions. Analytic expressions for the moments of electron VDF, as well as for the electron screening temperature function dependence on the plasma-sheath local potential are derived. In deriving the ion velocity distribution the ''standard'' assumption of strict plasma quasineutrality, or equivalently vanishing of the plasma Debye length, is employed, whereas the ions are assumed to be generated at rest over the plasma region. However, unlike the standard approach of solving the plasma equation, where pure Boltzmann electron density profile is used, here we employ modified Boltzmann's electron density profile, due to cutoff effect of the electron velocity distribution. It is shown that under these conditions the quasineutrality equation solution is characterised by the electric field singularity for any negative value of the electrode bias potential as measured with respect to the plasma potential. The point of singularity i.e., the plasma length and its dependence on the electrode bias and sheath potential is established for the particular case of ionization profile mechanism proportional to the local electron density. Relevant parameters for the kinetic Bohm criterion are explicitly calculated for both ions and electrons, for arbitrary electrode bias.

  13. Effects of non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution function on two-stream instability in low-pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydorenko, D.; Smolyakov, A.; Kaganovich, I.; Raitses, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Electron emission from discharge chamber walls is important for plasma maintenance in many low-pressure discharges. The electrons emitted from the walls are accelerated by the sheath electric field and are injected into the plasma as an electron beam. Penetration of this beam through the plasma is subject to the two-stream instability, which tends to slow down the beam electrons and heat the plasma electrons. In the present paper, a one-dimensional particle-in-cell code is used to simulate these effects both in a collisionless plasma slab with immobile ions and in a cross-field discharge of a Hall thruster. The two-stream instability occurs if the total electron velocity distribution function of the plasma-beam system is a nonmonotonic function of electron speed. Low-pressure plasmas can be depleted of electrons with energy above the plasma potential. This study reveals that under such conditions the two-stream instability depends crucially on the velocity distribution function of electron emission. It is shown that propagation of the secondary electron beams in Hall thrusters may be free of the two-stream instability if the velocity distribution of secondary electron emission is a monotonically decaying function of speed. In this case, the beams propagate between the walls with minimal loss of the beam current and the secondary electron emission does not affect the thruster plasma properties

  14. Effect of Weakly Nonthermal Ion Velocity Distribution on Jeans Instability in a Complex Plasma in Presence of Secondary Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.; Maity, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we have investigated the effect of weak nonthermality of ion velocity distribution on Jean’s instability in a complex plasma in presence of secondary electrons and negatively charged dust grains. The primary and secondary electron temperatures are assumed equal. Thus plasma under consideration consists of three components: Boltzman distributed electrons, non-thermal ions and negatively charged inertial dust grains. From the linear dispersion relation we have calculated the real frequency and growth rate of the Jean’s mode. Numerically we have found that secondary electron emission destabilizes Jean’s mode when ion nonthermality is weak. (author)

  15. The Three-Dimensional Velocity Distribution of Wide Gap Taylor-Couette Flow Modelled by CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Shina Adebayo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation is conducted for the flow between two concentric cylinders with a wide gap, relevant to bearing chamber applications. This wide gap configuration has received comparatively less attention than narrow gap journal bearing type geometries. The flow in the gap between an inner rotating cylinder and an outer stationary cylinder has been modelled as an incompressible flow using an implicit finite volume RANS scheme with the realisable k-ε model. The model flow is above the critical Taylor number at which axisymmetric counterrotating Taylor vortices are formed. The tangential velocity profiles at all axial locations are different from typical journal bearing applications, where the velocity profiles are quasilinear. The predicted results led to two significant findings of impact in rotating machinery operations. Firstly, the axial variation of the tangential velocity gradient induces an axially varying shear stress, resulting in local bands of enhanced work input to the working fluid. This is likely to cause unwanted heat transfer on the surface in high torque turbomachinery applications. Secondly, the radial inflow at the axial end-wall boundaries is likely to promote the transport of debris to the junction between the end-collar and the rotating cylinder, causing the build-up of fouling in the seal.

  16. Carbon isotope evidence for the latitudinal distribution and wind speed dependence of the air-sea gas transfer velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakauer, Nir Y.

    2006-01-01

    The air-sea gas transfer velocity is an important determinant of the exchange of gases, including CO 2 , between the atmosphere and ocean, but the magnitude of the transfer velocity and what factors control it remains poorly known. Here, we use oceanic and atmospheric observations of 14 C and 13 C to constrain the global mean gas transfer velocity as well as the exponent of its wind speed dependence, utilizing the distinct signatures left by the air-sea exchange of 14 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 . While the atmosphere and ocean inventories of 14 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 constrain the mean gas transfer velocity, the latitudinal pattern in the atmospheric and oceanic 14 C and 13 C distributions contain information about the wind speed dependence. We computed the uptake of bomb 14 C by the ocean for different transfer velocity patterns using pulse response functions from an ocean general circulation model, and evaluated the match between the predicted bomb 14 C concentrations and observationally based estimates for the 1970s-1990s. Using a wind speed climatology based on satellite measurements, we solved either for the best-fit global relationship between gas exchange and mean wind speed or for the mean gas transfer velocity over each of 11 ocean regions. We also compared the predicted consequences of different gas exchange relationships on the rate of change and interhemisphere gradient of 14 C in atmospheric CO 2 with tree-ring and atmospheric measurements. Our results suggest that globally, the dependence of the air-sea gas transfer velocity on wind speed is close to linear, with an exponent of 0.5 ± 0.4, and that the global mean gas transfer velocity at a Schmidt number of 660 is 20 ± 3 cm/hr, similar to the results of previous analyses. We find that the air-sea flux of 13 C estimated from atmosphere and ocean observations also suggests a lower than quadratic dependence of gas exchange on wind speed

  17. Unified solution of the Boltzmann equation for electron and ion velocity distribution functions and transport coefficients in weakly ionized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, Dmitry A.; Cocks, Daniel G.; White, Ronald D.

    2017-10-01

    The velocity distribution function and transport coefficients for charged particles in weakly ionized plasmas are calculated via a multi-term solution of Boltzmann's equation and benchmarked using a Monte-Carlo simulation. A unified framework for the solution of the original full Boltzmann's equation is presented which is valid for ions and electrons, avoiding any recourse to approximate forms of the collision operator in various limiting mass ratio cases. This direct method using Lebedev quadratures over the velocity and scattering angles avoids the need to represent the ion mass dependence in the collision operator through an expansion in terms of the charged particle to neutral mass ratio. For the two-temperature Burnett function method considered in this study, this amounts to avoiding the need for the complex Talmi-transformation methods and associated mass-ratio expansions. More generally, we highlight the deficiencies in the two-temperature Burnett function method for heavy ions at high electric fields to calculate the ion velocity distribution function, even though the transport coefficients have converged. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Physics of Ionized Gases (SPIG 2016)", edited by Goran Poparic, Bratislav Obradovic, Dragana Maric and Aleksandar Milosavljevic.

  18. Nonlinear inversion of borehole-radar tomography data to reconstruct velocity and attenuation distribution in earth materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C.; Liu, L.; Lane, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    A nonlinear tomographic inversion method that uses first-arrival travel-time and amplitude-spectra information from cross-hole radar measurements was developed to simultaneously reconstruct electromagnetic velocity and attenuation distribution in earth materials. Inversion methods were developed to analyze single cross-hole tomography surveys and differential tomography surveys. Assuming the earth behaves as a linear system, the inversion methods do not require estimation of source radiation pattern, receiver coupling, or geometrical spreading. The data analysis and tomographic inversion algorithm were applied to synthetic test data and to cross-hole radar field data provided by the US Geological Survey (USGS). The cross-hole radar field data were acquired at the USGS fractured-rock field research site at Mirror Lake near Thornton, New Hampshire, before and after injection of a saline tracer, to monitor the transport of electrically conductive fluids in the image plane. Results from the synthetic data test demonstrate the algorithm computational efficiency and indicate that the method robustly can reconstruct electromagnetic (EM) wave velocity and attenuation distribution in earth materials. The field test results outline zones of velocity and attenuation anomalies consistent with the finding of previous investigators; however, the tomograms appear to be quite smooth. Further work is needed to effectively find the optimal smoothness criterion in applying the Tikhonov regularization in the nonlinear inversion algorithms for cross-hole radar tomography. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Procedure to Obtain Reliable Pair Distribution Functions of Non-Crystalline Materials from Diffraction Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Carneiro, K.

    1977-01-01

    A simple numerical method, which unifies the calculation of structure factors from X-ray or neutron diffraction data with the calculation of reliable pair distribution functions, is described. The objective of the method is to eliminate systematic errors in the normalizations and corrections of t...

  20. Prediction of velocity distributions in rod bundle axial flow, with a statistical model (K-epsilon) of turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, H.C. da.

    1978-12-01

    Reactor fuel elements generally consist of rod bundles with the coolant flowing axially through the region between the rods. The confiability of the thermohydraulic design of such elements is related to a detailed description of the velocity field. A two-equation statistical model (K-epsilon) of turbulence is applied to compute main and secondary flow fields, wall shear stress distributions and friction factors of steady, fully developed turbulent flows, with incompressible, temperature independent fluid flowing axially through triangular or square arrays of rod bundles. The numerical procedure uses the vorticity and the stream function to describe the velocity field. Comparison with experimental and analytical data of several investigators is presented. Results are in good agreement. (Author) [pt

  1. Angular distributions of plasma edge velocity and integrated intensity: Update on specific impulse for Ablative Laser Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun; Pakhomov, Andrew V.

    2005-04-01

    This work concludes our discussion of the image processing technique developed earlier for determination of specific impulse (Isp) for Ablative Laser Propulsion (ALP). The plasma plumes are recorded with a time-resolved intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera. The plasma was formed in vacuum (˜ 3×10-3 Torr) by focusing output pulses of a laser system (100-ps pulsewidth at 532 nm wavelength and ˜35 mJ energy) on surfaces of C (graphite), Al, Si, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sn, and Pb elements. Angular profiles for integrated intensity and plasma expansion velocity were determined for the tested elements. Such profiles were used further for assessment of specific impulse. Specific impulses derived from angular distributions of plasma expansion velocity and integral intensity appeared in excellent agreement with the data derived earlier from force measurements.

  2. Angular distributions of plasma edge velocity and integrated intensity: Update on specific impulse for Ablative Laser Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jun; Pakhomov, Andrew V.

    2005-01-01

    This work concludes our discussion of the image processing technique developed earlier for determination of specific impulse (Isp) for Ablative Laser Propulsion (ALP). The plasma plumes are recorded with a time-resolved intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera. The plasma was formed in vacuum (∼ 3x10-3 Torr) by focusing output pulses of a laser system (100-ps pulsewidth at 532 nm wavelength and ∼35 mJ energy) on surfaces of C (graphite), Al, Si, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sn, and Pb elements. Angular profiles for integrated intensity and plasma expansion velocity were determined for the tested elements. Such profiles were used further for assessment of specific impulse. Specific impulses derived from angular distributions of plasma expansion velocity and integral intensity appeared in excellent agreement with the data derived earlier from force measurements

  3. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste: The distributed velocity method of solving the convective-dispersion equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, James E; Longsine, Dennis E [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (United States); Reeves, Mark [INTERA Environmental Consultants, Inc. Houston, TX (United States)

    1980-06-01

    A new method is proposed for treating convective-dispersive transport. The motivation for developing this technique arises from the demands of performing a risk assessment for a nuclear waste repository. These demands include computational efficiency over a relatively large range of Peclet numbers and the ability to handle chains of decaying radionuclides with rather extreme contrasts in both solution velocities and half lives. To the extent it has been tested to date, the Distributed Velocity Method (DVM) appears to satisfy these demands. Included in this paper are the mathematical theory, numerical implementation, an error analysis employing statistical sampling and regression analysis techniques, and comparisons of DVM with other methods for convective-dispersive transport. (author)

  4. Characterization of Medication Velocity and Size Distribution from Pressurized Metered-Dose Inhalers by Phase Doppler Anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatrash, Abubaker; Matida, Edgar

    2016-12-01

    Particle size and velocity are two of the most significant factors that impact the deposition of pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) sprays in the mouth cavity. pMDIs are prominently used around the world in the treatment of patients suffering from a variety of lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Since their introduction in the field, and as a result of their effectiveness and simplicity of usage, pMDIs are considered to be the most widely prescribed medical aerosol delivery system. In the current study, particle velocity and size distribution were measured at three different locations along the centerline of a pMDI spray using Phase Doppler Anemometry. pMDIs from four different pharmaceutical companies were tested, each using salbutamol sulfate as the medication. Measurements along at the pMDI centerline (at 0, 75, and 100 mm downstream of the inhaler mouthpiece) showed that the spray velocities were bimodal in time for all four pMDI brands. The first peak occurred as the spray was leaving the mouthpiece, while the second peak (at the same location, 0 mm) occurred at around 60, 95, 95, and 115 milliseconds later, respectively, for the four tested inhalers, with a drop in the velocity between the two peaks. Three probability density functions (PDFs) were tested, and the Rosin-Rammler PDF best fit the empirical data, as determined using a chi-squared test. These results suggest that there is a difference in the mean particle velocities at the centerline for the tested pMDIs and the diameter of released particles varied statistically for each brand.

  5. Reliability of the Load-Velocity Relationship Obtained Through Linear and Polynomial Regression Models to Predict the One-Repetition Maximum Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestaña-Melero, Francisco Luis; Haff, G Gregory; Rojas, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Castilla, Alejandro; García-Ramos, Amador

    2017-12-18

    This study aimed to compare the between-session reliability of the load-velocity relationship between (1) linear vs. polynomial regression models, (2) concentric-only vs. eccentric-concentric bench press variants, as well as (3) the within-participants vs. the between-participants variability of the velocity attained at each percentage of the one-repetition maximum (%1RM). The load-velocity relationship of 30 men (age: 21.2±3.8 y; height: 1.78±0.07 m, body mass: 72.3±7.3 kg; bench press 1RM: 78.8±13.2 kg) were evaluated by means of linear and polynomial regression models in the concentric-only and eccentric-concentric bench press variants in a Smith Machine. Two sessions were performed with each bench press variant. The main findings were: (1) first-order-polynomials (CV: 4.39%-4.70%) provided the load-velocity relationship with higher reliability than second-order-polynomials (CV: 4.68%-5.04%); (2) the reliability of the load-velocity relationship did not differ between the concentric-only and eccentric-concentric bench press variants; (3) the within-participants variability of the velocity attained at each %1RM was markedly lower than the between-participants variability. Taken together, these results highlight that, regardless of the bench press variant considered, the individual determination of the load-velocity relationship by a linear regression model could be recommended to monitor and prescribe the relative load in the Smith machine bench press exercise.

  6. Velocity and shear stress distribution downstream of mechanical heart valves in pulsatile flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giersiepen, M; Krause, U; Knott, E; Reul, H; Rau, G

    1989-04-01

    Ten mechanical valves (TAD 27 mm): Starr-Edwards Silastic Ball, Björk-Shiley Standard, Björk-Shiley Concave-Convex, Björk-Shiley Monostrut, Hall-Kaster (Medtronic-Hall), OmniCarbon, Bicer Val, Sorin, Saint-Jude Medical and Hemex (Duromedics) are investigated in a comparative in vitro study. The velocity and turbulent shear stress profiles of the valves were determined by Laser Doppler anemometry in two different downstream axes within a model aortic root. Depending on the individual valve design, velocity peaks up to 1.5 m/s and turbulent shear stress peaks up to 150 N/m2 were measured during the systolic phase. These shear stress peaks mainly occurred in areas of flow separation and intense momentum exchange. Directly downstream of the valves (measuring axis 0.55.dAorta) turbulent shear stress peaks occurred at peak systole and during the deceleration phase, while in the second measuring axis (1.5.dAorta) turbulence levels were lower. Shear stress levels were high at the borders of the fluid jets. The results are discussed from a fluid-dynamic point of view.

  7. Distribution of radionuclides in surface seawater obtained by an aerial radiological survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi; Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo; Tsubono, Takaki; Tsumune, Daisuke; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the distribution in seawater of anthropogenic radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) as preliminary attempt using a rapid aerial radiological survey performed by the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration on 18 April 2011. We found strong correlations between in-situ activities of 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs measured in surface seawater samples and gamma-ray peak count rates determined by the aerial survey (correlation coefficients were 0.89 for 131 I, 0.96 for 134 Cs, and 0.92 for 137 Cs). The offshore area of high radionuclide activity extended south and southeast from the FNPP1. The maximum activities of 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs were 329, 650, and 599 Bq L -1 , respectively. The 131 I/ 137 Cs ratio in surface water of the high-activity area ranged from 0.6 to 0.7. Considering the radioactive decay of 131 I (half-life 8.02 d), we determined that the radionuclides in this area were directly released from FNPP1 to the ocean. We confirm that aerial radiological surveys can be effective for investigating the surface distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in seawater. Our model reproduced the distribution pattern of radionuclides derived from the FNPP1, although results simulated by a regional ocean model were underestimated. (author)

  8. A path integral methodology for obtaining thermodynamic properties of nonadiabatic systems using Gaussian mixture distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Neil; Iouchtchenko, Dmitri; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas; Nooijen, Marcel

    2018-05-01

    We introduce a new path integral Monte Carlo method for investigating nonadiabatic systems in thermal equilibrium and demonstrate an approach to reducing stochastic error. We derive a general path integral expression for the partition function in a product basis of continuous nuclear and discrete electronic degrees of freedom without the use of any mapping schemes. We separate our Hamiltonian into a harmonic portion and a coupling portion; the partition function can then be calculated as the product of a Monte Carlo estimator (of the coupling contribution to the partition function) and a normalization factor (that is evaluated analytically). A Gaussian mixture model is used to evaluate the Monte Carlo estimator in a computationally efficient manner. Using two model systems, we demonstrate our approach to reduce the stochastic error associated with the Monte Carlo estimator. We show that the selection of the harmonic oscillators comprising the sampling distribution directly affects the efficiency of the method. Our results demonstrate that our path integral Monte Carlo method's deviation from exact Trotter calculations is dominated by the choice of the sampling distribution. By improving the sampling distribution, we can drastically reduce the stochastic error leading to lower computational cost.

  9. A procedure to obtain reliable pair distribution functions of non-crystalline materials from diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, F.Y.; Carneiro, K.

    1977-01-01

    A simple numerical method, which unifies the calculation of structure factors from X-ray or neutron diffraction data with the calculation of reliable pair distribution functions, is described. The objective of the method is to eliminate systematic errors in the normalizations and corrections of the intensity data, and to provide measures for elimination of truncation errors without losing information about the structure. This is done through an iterative procedure, which is easy to program for computers. The applications to amorphous selenium and diatomic liquids are briefly reviewed. (Auth.)

  10. Depth distribution of damage obtained by Rutherford backscattering combined with channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrisch, R.; Roth, J.

    1976-01-01

    The different approaches to determine depth distributions of damage in solids by Rutherford backscattering combined with channeling are reviewed. These methods are best applicable for damage introduced by ion bombardment. Most investigations up to now have been done at semiconductors where the ion damage seems to be more suited for analysis by this method than the ion damage in metals. The quantity used for getting depth profiles is mostly the increase in minimum yields in single alignment Rutherford backscattering, while only few measurements have been done at double alignment and at slight misalignment, i.e., the sides of the channeling dips

  11. Drift velocity, longitudinal and transverse diffusion in hydrocarbons derived from distributions of single electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, B.; Roncossek, M.

    1992-01-01

    A time of flight method is described which allows the simultaneous measurement of drift velocity w and the ratios of the longitudinal and transverse diffusion coefficients to mobility (D L /μ, D T /μ) of electrons in gases. The accuracy achieved in this omnipurpose experiment is comparable with that of specialised techniques and is estimated to be ±1% for w and ±5% for the d/μ measurements. Results for methane, ethane, ethene, propane, propene and cyclopropane for values of E/N (the electric field strength divided by the number density) ranging from 0.02 to 15 Td are presented and discussed (1 Td = 10 21 V m 2 ). 13 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  12. THE POSTERIOR DISTRIBUTION OF sin(i) VALUES FOR EXOPLANETS WITH MT sin(i) DETERMINED FROM RADIAL VELOCITY DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Shirley; Turner, Edwin L.

    2011-01-01

    Radial velocity (RV) observations of an exoplanet system giving a value of M T sin(i) condition (i.e., give information about) not only the planet's true mass M T but also the value of sin(i) for that system (where i is the orbital inclination angle). Thus, the value of sin(i) for a system with any particular observed value of M T sin(i) cannot be assumed to be drawn randomly from a distribution corresponding to an isotropic i distribution, i.e., the presumptive prior distribution. Rather, the posterior distribution from which it is drawn depends on the intrinsic distribution of M T for the exoplanet population being studied. We give a simple Bayesian derivation of this relationship and apply it to several 'toy models' for the intrinsic distribution of M T , on which we have significant information from available RV data in some mass ranges but little or none in others. The results show that the effect can be an important one. For example, even for simple power-law distributions of M T , the median value of sin(i) in an observed RV sample can vary between 0.860 and 0.023 (as compared to the 0.866 value for an isotropic i distribution) for indices of the power law in the range between -2 and +1, respectively. Over the same range of indices, the 95% confidence interval on M T varies from 1.0001-2.405 (α = -2) to 1.13-94.34 (α = +2) times larger than M T sin(i) due to sin(i) uncertainty alone. More complex, but still simple and plausible, distributions of M T yield more complicated and somewhat unintuitive posterior sin(i) distributions. In particular, if the M T distribution contains any characteristic mass scale M c , the posterior sin(i) distribution will depend on the ratio of M T sin(i) to M c , often in a non-trivial way. Our qualitative conclusion is that RV studies of exoplanets, both individual objects and statistical samples, should regard the sin(i) factor as more than a 'numerical constant of order unity' with simple and well-understood statistical

  13. Methods for obtaining true particle size distributions from cross section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, Kristina Alyse [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Sectioning methods are frequently used to measure grain sizes in materials. These methods do not provide accurate grain sizes for two reasons. First, the sizes of features observed on random sections are always smaller than the true sizes of solid spherical shaped objects, as noted by Wicksell [1]. This is the case because the section very rarely passes through the center of solid spherical shaped objects randomly dispersed throughout a material. The sizes of features observed on random sections are inversely related to the distance of the center of the solid object from the section [1]. Second, on a plane section through the solid material, larger sized features are more frequently observed than smaller ones due to the larger probability for a section to come into contact with the larger sized portion of the spheres than the smaller sized portion. As a result, it is necessary to find a method that takes into account these reasons for inaccurate particle size measurements, while providing a correction factor for accurately determining true particle size measurements. I present a method for deducing true grain size distributions from those determined from specimen cross sections, either by measurement of equivalent grain diameters or linear intercepts.

  14. Model of the seismic velocity distribution in the upper lithosphere of the Vrancea seismogenic zone and within the adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raileanu, Victor; Bala, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    The task of this project is to perform a detailed seismic velocity model of the P waves in the crust and upper mantle crossed by the VRANCEA 2001 seismic line and to interpret it in structural terms. The velocity model aims to contribute to a new geodynamical model of the Eastern Carpathians evolution and to a better understanding of the causes of the Vrancea earthquakes. It is performed in cooperation with the University of Karlsruhe, Germany, and University of Bucharest. The Project will be completed in 5 working stages. Vrancea 2001 is the name of the seismic line recorded with about 780 seismic instruments deployed over more then 600 km length from eastern part of Romania (east Tulcea) through Vrancea area to Aiud and south Oradea. 10 big shots with charges from 300 kg to 1500 kg dynamite were detonated along seismic line. Field data quality is from good to very good and it provides information down to the upper mantle levels. Processing of data has been performed in the first stage of present project and it consisted in merging of all individual field records in seismograms for each shotpoint. Almost 800 individual records for each out of the 10 shots were merged in 10 seismograms with about 800 channels. A seismogram of shot point S (25 km NE of Ramnicu Sarat) is given. It is visible a high energy generated by shotpoint S. Pn wave can be traced until the western end of seismic line, about 25 km from source. In the second stage of project an interpretation of seismic data is achieved for the first 5 seismograms from the eastern half of seismic line, from Tulcea to Ramnicu Sarat. It is used a forward modeling procedure. 5 unidimensional (1D) velocity-depth function models are obtained. P wave velocity-depth function models for shotpoints from O to T are presented. Velocity-depth information is extended down to 40 km for shot R and 80 km for shot S. It should noticed the unusually high velocities at the shallow levels for Dobrogea area (O and P shots) and the

  15. An iterative procedure for obtaining maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions, Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B. C., Jr.; Walker, H. F.

    1975-01-01

    New results and insights concerning a previously published iterative procedure for obtaining maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions were discussed. It was shown that the procedure converges locally to the consistent maximum likelihood estimate as long as a specified parameter is bounded between two limits. Bound values were given to yield optimal local convergence.

  16. Effect of the borax mass and pre-spray medium temperature on droplet size and velocity vector distributions of intermittently sprayed starchy solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Muhammad Yasin; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ariwahjoedi, Bambang

    2015-02-07

    Spray coating technology has demonstrated great potential in the slow release fertilizers industry. The better understanding of the key spray parameters benefits both the environment and low cost coating processes. The use of starch based materials to coat the slow release fertilizers is a new development. However, the hydraulic spray jet breakup of the non-Newtonian starchy solutions is a complex phenomenon and very little known. The aim of this research was to study the axial and radial distributions of the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) and velocity vectors in pulsing spray patterns of native and modified tapioca starch solutions. To meet the objective, high speed imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) techniques were employed to characterize the four compositions of the starch-urea-borax complex namely S0, S1, S2 and S3. The unheated solutions exhibited very high viscosities ranging from 2035 to 3030 cP. No jet breakup was seen at any stage of the nozzle operation at an injection pressure of 1-5 bar. However, at 80 °C temperature and 5 bar pressure, the viscosity was reduced to 455 to 638 cP and dense spray patterns emerged from the nozzle obscuring the PDA signals. The axial size distribution revealed a significant decrease in SMD along the spray centreline. The smallest axial SMD (51 to 79 μm) was noticed in S0 spray followed by S1, S2 and S3. Unlikely, the radial SMD in S0 spray did not vary significantly at any stage of the spray injection. This trend was attributed to the continuous growth of the surface wave instabilities on the native starch sheet. However, SMD obtained with S1, S2 and S3 varied appreciably along the radial direction. The mean velocity vector profiles followed the non-Gaussian distribution. The constant vector distributions were seen in the near nozzle regions, where the spray was in the phase of development. In far regions, the velocity vectors were poly-dispersed and a series of ups and downs were seen in the respective radial

  17. Reflection of electromagnetic radiation from plasma with an anisotropic electron velocity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, K. Yu.; Uryupin, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    The reflection of a test electromagnetic pulse from the plasma formed as a result of tunnel ionization of atoms in the field of a circularly polarized high-power radiation pulse is analyzed using the kinetic approach to describe electron motion. It is shown that the reflected pulse is significantly amplified due to the development of Weibel instability. The amplification efficiency is determined by the maximum value of the instability growth rate, which depends on the degree of anisotropy of the photoelectron distribution function

  18. Dual-mode nonlinear instability analysis of a confined planar liquid sheet sandwiched between two gas streams of unequal velocities and prediction of droplet size and velocity distribution using maximum entropy formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Debayan; Nath, Sujit; Bhanja, Dipankar

    2018-04-01

    Twin fluid atomizers utilize the kinetic energy of high speed gases to disintegrate a liquid sheet into fine uniform droplets. Quite often, the gas streams are injected at unequal velocities to enhance the aerodynamic interaction between the liquid sheet and surrounding atmosphere. In order to improve the mixing characteristics, practical atomizers confine the gas flows within ducts. Though the liquid sheet coming out of an injector is usually annular in shape, it can be considered to be planar as the mean radius of curvature is much larger than the sheet thickness. There are numerous studies on breakup of the planar liquid sheet, but none of them considered the simultaneous effects of confinement and unequal gas velocities on the spray characteristics. The present study performs a nonlinear temporal analysis of instabilities in the planar liquid sheet, produced by two co-flowing gas streams moving with unequal velocities within two solid walls. The results show that the para-sinuous mode dominates the breakup process at all flow conditions over the para-varicose mode of breakup. The sheet pattern is strongly influenced by gas velocities, particularly for the para-varicose mode. Spray characteristics are influenced by both gas velocity and proximity to the confining wall, but the former has a much more pronounced effect on droplet size. An increase in the difference between gas velocities at two interfaces drastically shifts the droplet size distribution toward finer droplets. Moreover, asymmetry in gas phase velocities affects the droplet velocity distribution more, only at low liquid Weber numbers for the input conditions chosen in the present study.

  19. The analysis of coolant-velocity distribution in plat-typed fuel element using CFD method for RSG-GAS research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Subekti; Darwis Isnaini; Endiah Puji Hastuti

    2013-01-01

    The measurement experiment for coolant-velocity distribution in the subchannel of fuel element of RSG-GAS research reactor is difficult to be carried out due to too narrow channel and subchannel placed inside the fuel element. Hence, the calculation is required to predict the coolant-velocity distribution inside subchannel to confirm that the handle presence does not ruin the velocity distribution into every subchannel. This calculation utilizes CFD method, which respect to 3-dimension interior. Moreover, the calculation of coolant-velocity distribution inside subchannel was not ever carried out. The research object is to investigate the distribution of coolant-velocity in plat-typed fuel element using 3-dimension CFD method for RSG-GAS research reactor. This research is required as a part of the development of thermalhydraulic design of fuel element for innovative research reactor as well. The modeling uses ½ model in Gambit software and calculation uses turbulence equation in FLUENT 6.3 software. Calculation result of 3D coolant-velocity in subchannel using CFD method is lower about 4.06 % than 1D calculation result due to 1D calculation obeys handle availability. (author)

  20. Distribution of rotational velocities for low-mass stars in the Pleiades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, J.R.; Hartmann, L.W.; Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria, Canada; Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA)

    1987-01-01

    The available spectral type and color data for late-type Pleiades members have been reanalyzed, and new reddening estimates are obtained. New photometry for a small number of stars and a compilation of H-alpha equivalent widths for Pleiades dwarfs are presented. These data are used to examine the location of the rapid rotators in color-magnitude diagrams and the correlation between chromospheric activity and rotation. It is shown that the wide range of angular momenta exhibited by Pleiades K and M dwarfs is not necessarily produced by a combination of main-sequence spin-downs and a large age spread; it can also result from a plausible spread in initial angular momenta, coupled with initial main-sequence spin-down rates that are only weakly dependent on rotation. The new reddening estimates confirm Breger's (1985) finding of large extinctions confined to a small region in the southern portion of the Merope nebula. 79 references

  1. The distribution of rotational velocities for low-mass stars in the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, John R.; Hartmann, Lee W.

    1987-01-01

    The available spectral type and color data for late-type Pleiades members have been reanalyzed, and new reddening estimates are obtained. New photometry for a small number of stars and a compilation of H-alpha equivalent widths for Pleiades dwarfs are presented. These data are used to examine the location of the rapid rotators in color-magnitude diagrams and the correlation between chromospheric activity and rotation. It is shown that the wide range of angular momenta exhibited by Pleiades K and M dwarfs is not necessarily produced by a combination of main-sequence spin-downs and a large age spread; it can also result from a plausible spread in initial angular momenta, coupled with initial main-sequence spin-down rates that are only weakly dependent on rotation. The new reddening estimates confirm Breger's (1985) finding of large extinctions confined to a small region in the southern portion of the Merope nebula.

  2. Kinetic transverse dispersion relation for relativistic magnetized electron-positron plasmas with Maxwell-Jüttner velocity distribution functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Rodrigo A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Moya, Pablo S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington DC, DC 20064 (United States); Muñoz, Víctor [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Viñas, Adolfo F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Valdivia, J. Alejandro [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-09-15

    We use a kinetic treatment to study the linear transverse dispersion relation for a magnetized isotropic relativistic electron-positron plasma with finite relativistic temperature. The explicit linear dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves propagating along a constant background magnetic field is presented, including an analytical continuation to the whole complex frequency plane for the case of Maxwell-Jüttner velocity distribution functions. This dispersion relation is studied numerically for various temperatures. For left-handed solutions, the system presents two branches, the electromagnetic ordinary mode and the Alfvén mode. In the low frequency regime, the Alfvén branch has two dispersive zones, the normal zone (where ∂ω/∂k > 0) and an anomalous zone (where ∂ω/∂k < 0). We find that in the anomalous zone of the Alfvén branch, the electromagnetic waves are damped, and there is a maximum wave number for which the Alfvén branch is suppressed. We also study the dependence of the Alfvén velocity and effective plasma frequency with the temperature. We complemented the analytical and numerical approaches with relativistic full particle simulations, which consistently agree with the analytical results.

  3. An Algorithm for Obtaining the Distribution of 1-Meter Lightning Channel Segment Altitudes for Application in Lightning NOx Production Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Harold; Koshak, William J.

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed to estimate the altitude distribution of one-meter lightning channel segments. The algorithm is required as part of a broader objective that involves improving the lightning NOx emission inventories of both regional air quality and global chemistry/climate models. The algorithm was tested and applied to VHF signals detected by the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The accuracy of the algorithm was characterized by comparing algorithm output to the plots of individual discharges whose lengths were computed by hand; VHF source amplitude thresholding and smoothing were applied to optimize results. Several thousands of lightning flashes within 120 km of the NALMA network centroid were gathered from all four seasons, and were analyzed by the algorithm. The mean, standard deviation, and median statistics were obtained for all the flashes, the ground flashes, and the cloud flashes. One-meter channel segment altitude distributions were also obtained for the different seasons.

  4. Study of microinstabilities due to an anisotropic velocity distribution function of the particles of a homogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennion, F.

    1966-06-01

    A study is made of instabilities in a plasma with an ion velocity distribution function of the form: f oi = 1 / (2*π*α p e i *α p a i ) * λ(ν p e - α p e i ) * e -(v p a 2 /α p a i 2 ) . The plasma is assumed to have finite dimensions limited by infinitely conductive boundary surfaces. A theoretical and numerical analysis of marginal stability locates the regions of stability as a function of several parameters; i.e. plasma length, ion anisotropy (τ) and electron temperature (T e ). A limiting plasma length is found, below which the plasma is stable regardless of its density. For the parameters of the injection experiment M.M.I.I. at Fontenay-aux-roses it is found that the type of instabilities studied here should not occur. (author) [fr

  5. Prediction of the Velocity Contours in Triangular Channel with Non-uniform Roughness Distributions by Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bardestani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Triangular channels have different applications in many water and wastewater engineering problems. For this purpose investigating hydraulic characteristics of flow in these sections has great importance. Researchers have presented different prediction methods for the velocity contours in prismatic sections. Most proposed methods are not able to consider the effect of walls roughness, the roughness distribution and secondary flows. However, due to complexity and nonlinearity of velocity contours in open channel flow, there is no simple relationship that can be fully able to exactly draw the velocity contours. In this paper an efficient approach for modeling velocity contours in triangular open channels with non-uniform roughness distributions by Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS has been suggested. For training and testing model, the experimental data including 1703 data in triangular channels with geometric symmetry and non-uniform roughness distributions have been used. Comparing experimental results with predicted values by model indicates that ANFIS model is capable to be used in simulation of local velocity and determining velocity contours and the independent evaluation showed that the calculated values of discharge and depth-averaged velocity from model information are precisely in conformity with experimental values.

  6. Development of unfolding method to obtain pin-wise source strength distribution from PWR spent fuel assembly measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitompul, Yos Panagaman; Shin, Hee-Sung; Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong Myeong; Seo, Hee; Kim, Ho Dong

    2013-01-01

    An unfolding method has been developed to obtain a pin-wise source strength distribution of a 14 × 14 pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel assembly. Sixteen measured gamma dose rates at 16 control rod guide tubes of an assembly are unfolded to 179 pin-wise source strengths of the assembly. The method calculates and optimizes five coefficients of the quadratic fitting function for X-Y source strength distribution, iteratively. The pin-wise source strengths are obtained at the sixth iteration, with a maximum difference between two sequential iterations of about 0.2%. The relative distribution of pin-wise source strength from the unfolding is checked using a comparison with the design code (Westinghouse APA code). The result shows that the relative distribution from the unfolding and design code is consistent within a 5% difference. The absolute value of the pin-wise source strength is also checked by reproducing the dose rates at the measurement points. The result shows that the pin-wise source strengths from the unfolding reproduce the dose rates within a 2% difference. (author)

  7. Visualization tool for three-dimensional plasma velocity distributions (ISEE_3D) as a plug-in for SPEDAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keika, Kunihiro; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Machida, Shinobu; Ieda, Akimasa; Seki, Kanako; Hori, Tomoaki; Miyashita, Yukinaga; Shoji, Masafumi; Shinohara, Iku; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Lewis, Jim W.; Flores, Aaron

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces ISEE_3D, an interactive visualization tool for three-dimensional plasma velocity distribution functions, developed by the Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Japan. The tool provides a variety of methods to visualize the distribution function of space plasma: scatter, volume, and isosurface modes. The tool also has a wide range of functions, such as displaying magnetic field vectors and two-dimensional slices of distributions to facilitate extensive analysis. The coordinate transformation to the magnetic field coordinates is also implemented in the tool. The source codes of the tool are written as scripts of a widely used data analysis software language, Interactive Data Language, which has been widespread in the field of space physics and solar physics. The current version of the tool can be used for data files of the plasma distribution function from the Geotail satellite mission, which are publicly accessible through the Data Archives and Transmission System of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The tool is also available in the Space Physics Environment Data Analysis Software to visualize plasma data from the Magnetospheric Multiscale and the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms missions. The tool is planned to be applied to data from other missions, such as Arase (ERG) and Van Allen Probes after replacing or adding data loading plug-ins. This visualization tool helps scientists understand the dynamics of space plasma better, particularly in the regions where the magnetohydrodynamic approximation is not valid, for example, the Earth's inner magnetosphere, magnetopause, bow shock, and plasma sheet.

  8. Propagation of Electron Acoustic Soliton, Periodic and Shock Waves in Dissipative Plasma with a q-Nonextensive Electron Velocity Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hanbaly, A. M.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Elgarayhi, A.; Kassem, A. I.

    2015-11-01

    The nonlinear properties of small amplitude electron-acoustic (EA) solitary and shock waves in a homogeneous system of unmagnetized collisionless plasma with nonextensive distribution for hot electrons have been investigated. A reductive perturbation method used to obtain the Kadomstev-Petviashvili-Burgers equation. Bifurcation analysis has been discussed for non-dissipative system in the absence of Burgers term and reveals different classes of the traveling wave solutions. The obtained solutions are related to periodic and soliton waves and their behavior are shown graphically. In the presence of the Burgers term, the EXP-function method is used to solve the Kadomstev-Petviashvili-Burgers equation and the obtained solution is related to shock wave. The obtained results may be helpful in better conception of waves propagation in various space plasma environments as well as in inertial confinement fusion laboratory plasmas.

  9. Comparison of a simulated velocity profile of a turbulent boundary layer with measurements obtained by Femtosecond Laser Electronic Excitation Tagging (FLEET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    New-Tolley, Matthew; Zhang, Yibin; Shneider, Mikhail; Miles, Richard

    2017-11-01

    Accurate velocimetry measurements of turbulent flows are essential for improving our understanding of turbulent phenomena and validating numerical approaches. Femtosecond Laser Electronic Excitation Tagging (FLEET) is an unseeded molecular tagging method for velocimetry measurements in flows which contain nitrogen. A femtosecond laser pulse is used to ionize and dissociate nitrogen molecules within its focal zone. The decaying plasma fluoresces in the visible and infrared spectrum over a period of microseconds which allows the displacement of the tagged region to be photographed to determine velocity. This study compares the experimental and numerical advection of the tagged region in a turbulent boundary layer generated by a supersonic flow over a flat plate. The tagged region in the simulation is approximated as an infinitely thin cylinder while the flow field is generated using the steady state boundary layer equations with an algebraic turbulence model. This approximation is justified by previous computational analyses, using an unsteady three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver, which indicate that the radial perturbations of the tagged region are negligible compared to its translation. This research was conducted with government support from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Dr. Ivett Leyva and the Army Research Office under Dr. Matthew Munson.

  10. Scaling of Ln(Permeability) in Sediments and Velocity Distributions in Turbulence: The Possibility of an Analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molz, F. J.; Kozubowski, T. J.; Miller, R. S.; Podgorski, K.

    2005-12-01

    The theory of non-stationary stochastic processes with stationary increments gives rise to stochastic fractals. When such fractals are used to represent measurements of (assumed stationary) physical properties, such as ln(k) increments in sediments or velocity increments "delta(v)" in turbulent flows, the resulting measurements exhibit scaling, either spatial, temporal or both. (In the present context, such scaling refers to systematic changes in the statistical properties of the increment distributions, such as variance, with the lag size over which the increments are determined.) Depending on the class of probability density functions (PDFs) that describe the increment distributions, the resulting stochastic fractals will display different properties. Until recently, the stationary increment process was represented using mainly Gaussian, Gamma or Levy PDFs. However, measurements in both sediments and fluid turbulence indicate that these PDFs are not commonly observed. Based on recent data and previous studies referenced and discussed in Meerschaert et al. (2004) and Molz et al. (2005), the measured increment PDFs display an approximate double exponential (Laplace) shape at smaller lags, and this shape evolves towards Gaussian at larger lags. A model for this behavior based on the Generalized Laplace PDF family called fractional Laplace motion, in analogy with its Gaussian counterpart - fractional Brownian motion, has been suggested (Meerschaert et al., 2004) and the necessary mathematics elaborated (Kozubowski et al., 2005). The resulting stochastic fractal is not a typical self-affine monofractal, but it does exhibit monofractal-like scaling in certain lag size ranges. To date, it has been shown that the Generalized Laplace family fits ln(k) increment distributions and reproduces the original 1941 theory of Kolmogorov when applied to Eulerian turbulent velocity increments. However, to make a physically self-consistent application to turbulence, one must adopt a

  11. A new numerical method for inverse Laplace transforms used to obtain gluon distributions from the proton structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, Martin M.; Durand, Loyal

    2011-01-01

    We recently derived a very accurate and fast new algorithm for numerically inverting the Laplace transforms needed to obtain gluon distributions from the proton structure function F 2 γp (x,Q 2 ). We numerically inverted the function g(s), s being the variable in Laplace space, to G(v), where v is the variable in ordinary space. We have since discovered that the algorithm does not work if g(s)→0 less rapidly than 1/s as s→∞, e.g., as 1/s β for 0 β-1 and a polynomial in v. We test the algorithm numerically for very small positive β, β=10 -6 obtaining numerical results that imitate the Dirac delta function δ(v). We also devolve the published MSTW2008LO gluon distribution at virtuality Q 2 =5 GeV 2 down to the lower virtuality Q 2 =1.69 GeV 2 . For devolution, β is negative, giving rise to inverse Laplace transforms that are distributions and not proper functions. This requires us to introduce the concept of Hadamard Finite Part integrals, which we discuss in detail. (orig.)

  12. Analytical and numerical treatment of the heat conduction equation obtained via time-fractional distributed-order heat conduction law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Želi, Velibor; Zorica, Dušan

    2018-02-01

    Generalization of the heat conduction equation is obtained by considering the system of equations consisting of the energy balance equation and fractional-order constitutive heat conduction law, assumed in the form of the distributed-order Cattaneo type. The Cauchy problem for system of energy balance equation and constitutive heat conduction law is treated analytically through Fourier and Laplace integral transform methods, as well as numerically by the method of finite differences through Adams-Bashforth and Grünwald-Letnikov schemes for approximation derivatives in temporal domain and leap frog scheme for spatial derivatives. Numerical examples, showing time evolution of temperature and heat flux spatial profiles, demonstrate applicability and good agreement of both methods in cases of multi-term and power-type distributed-order heat conduction laws.

  13. Redox potential distribution of an organic-rich contaminated site obtained by the inversion of self-potential data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.; Soueid Ahmed, A.; Revil, A.; Brigaud, L.; Bégassat, Ph.; Dupont, J. P.

    2017-11-01

    Mapping the redox potential of shallow aquifers impacted by hydrocarbon contaminant plumes is important for the characterization and remediation of such contaminated sites. The redox potential of groundwater is indicative of the biodegradation of hydrocarbons and is important in delineating the shapes of contaminant plumes. The self-potential method was used to reconstruct the redox potential of groundwater associated with an organic-rich contaminant plume in northern France. The self-potential technique is a passive technique consisting in recording the electrical potential distribution at the surface of the Earth. A self-potential map is essentially the sum of two contributions, one associated with groundwater flow referred to as the electrokinetic component, and one associated with redox potential anomalies referred to as the electroredox component (thermoelectric and diffusion potentials are generally negligible). A groundwater flow model was first used to remove the electrokinetic component from the observed self-potential data. Then, a residual self-potential map was obtained. The source current density generating the residual self-potential signals is assumed to be associated with the position of the water table, an interface characterized by a change in both the electrical conductivity and the redox potential. The source current density was obtained through an inverse problem by minimizing a cost function including a data misfit contribution and a regularizer. This inversion algorithm allows the determination of the vertical and horizontal components of the source current density taking into account the electrical conductivity distribution of the saturated and non-saturated zones obtained independently by electrical resistivity tomography. The redox potential distribution was finally determined from the inverted residual source current density. A redox map was successfully built and the estimated redox potential values correlated well with in

  14. Spatial distribution of the neutron flux in the IEA-R1 reactor core obtained by means of foil activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestnik Filho, J.

    1979-01-01

    A three-dimensional distribution of the neutron flux in IEA-R1 reactor, obtained by activating gold foils, is presented. The foils of diameter 8mm and thickness 0,013mm were mounted on lucite plates and located between the fuel element plates. Foil activities were measured using a 3x3 inches Nal(Tl) scintilation detector calibrated against a 4πβγ coincidence detector. Foil positions were chosen to minimize the errors of measurement; the overall estimated error on the measured flux is 5%. (Author) [pt

  15. Combination of panoramic and fluorescence endoscopic images to obtain tumor spatial distribution information useful for bladder cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olijnyk, S.; Hernández Mier, Y.; Blondel, W. C. P. M.; Daul, C.; Wolf, D.; Bourg-Heckly, G.

    2007-07-01

    Bladder cancer is widely spread. Moreover, carcinoma in situ can be difficult to diagnose as it may be difficult to see, and become invasive in 50 % of case. Non invasive diagnosis methods like photodynamic or autofluorescence endoscopy allow enhancing sensitivity and specificity. Besides, bladder tumors can be multifocal. Multifocality increases the probability of recurrence and infiltration into bladder muscle. Analysis of spatial distribution of tumors could be used to improve diagnosis. We explore the feasibility to combine fluorescence and spatial information on phantoms. We developed a system allowing the acquisition of consecutive images under white light or UV excitation alternatively and automatically along the video sequence. We also developed an automatic image processing algorithm to build a partial panoramic image from a cystoscopic sequence of images. Fluorescence information is extracted from wavelength bandpass filtered images and superimposed over the cartography. Then, spatial distribution measures of fluorescent spots can be computed. This cartography can be positioned on a 3D generic shape of bladder by selecting some reference points. Our first results on phantoms show that it is possible to obtain cartography with fluorescent spots and extract quantitative information of their spatial distribution on a "wide" field of view basis.

  16. A new numerical method for inverse Laplace transforms used to obtain gluon distributions from the proton structure function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, Martin M. [Northwestern University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Evanston, IL (United States); Durand, Loyal [University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Madison, WI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    We recently derived a very accurate and fast new algorithm for numerically inverting the Laplace transforms needed to obtain gluon distributions from the proton structure function F{sub 2}{sup {gamma}}{sup p}(x,Q{sup 2}). We numerically inverted the function g(s), s being the variable in Laplace space, to G(v), where v is the variable in ordinary space. We have since discovered that the algorithm does not work if g(s){yields}0 less rapidly than 1/s as s{yields}{infinity}, e.g., as 1/s{sup {beta}} for 0 <{beta}<1. In this note, we derive a new numerical algorithm for such cases, which holds for all positive and non-integer negative values of {beta}. The new algorithm is exact if the original function G(v) is given by the product of a power v{sup {beta}}{sup -1} and a polynomial in v. We test the algorithm numerically for very small positive {beta}, {beta}=10{sup -6} obtaining numerical results that imitate the Dirac delta function {delta}(v). We also devolve the published MSTW2008LO gluon distribution at virtuality Q{sup 2}=5 GeV{sup 2} down to the lower virtuality Q{sup 2}=1.69 GeV{sup 2}. For devolution, {beta} is negative, giving rise to inverse Laplace transforms that are distributions and not proper functions. This requires us to introduce the concept of Hadamard Finite Part integrals, which we discuss in detail. (orig.)

  17. Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) Array near a Highway for Traffic Monitoring and Near-Surface Shear-Wave Velocity Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. F.; Fratta, D.; Lancelle, C.; Ak, E. Ms; Lord, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring traffic is important for many technical reasons. It allows for better design of future roads and assessment of the state of current roads. The number, size, weight, and speed of vehicles control deterioration rate. Also, real-time information supplies data to intelligent information systems to help control traffic. Recently there have been studies looking at monitoring traffic seismically as vibrations from traffic are not sensitive to weather and poor visibility. Furthermore, traffic noise can be used to image S-wave velocity distribution in the near surface by capturing and interpreting Rayleigh and Love waves (Nakata, 2016; Zeng et al. 2016). The capability of DAS for high spatial sampling (1 m), temporal sampling (up to 10 kHz), and distributed nature (tens of kilometers) allows for a closer look at the traffic as it passes and how the speed of the vehicle may change over the length of the array. The potential and difficulties of using DAS for these objectives were studied using two DAS arrays. One at Garner Valley in Southern California (a 700-meter array adjacent to CA Highway 74) and another in Brady Hot Springs, Nevada (an 8700-meter array adjacent to Interstate 80). These studies experimentally evaluated the use of DAS data for monitoring traffic and assessing the use of traffic vibration as non-localized sources for seismic imaging. DAS arrays should also be resilient to issues with lighting conditions that are problematic for video monitoring and it may be sensitive to the weight of a vehicle. This study along a major interstate provides a basis for examining DAS' potential and limitations as a key component of intelligent highway systems.

  18. TEGENA: Detailed experimental investigations of temperature and velocity distributions in rod bundle geometries with turbulent sodium flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, R.

    1989-02-01

    Precise knowledge of the velocity and temperature distributions is necessary in fuel element design (rod bundles with longitudinal flow). The detail codes required in the fine analysis of non-uniformly cooled bundle zones are presently at the stage of development. In order to verify these computer codes, the mean fluid temperatures and the related RMS values of the temperature fluctuations were measured in a heated bundle TEGENA, containing 4 rods arranged in one row (P/D = W/D = 1.147) with sodium cooling (Pr ≅ 0.005). The temperature distribution in the structures was determined as the necessary boundary condition for the temperature profiles in the fluid. The experiments were carried out with different types of heating (uniform load and load tilting) and the flow conditions were varied in the range from 4000 ≤ Re ≤ 76.000, 20 ≤ Pe ≤ 400. The essential process of thermal development took place under uniform load within a heated bundle length of about 100 hydraulic diameters. In the main measuring plane at the end of the heated zone, after 200 hydraulic diameters, the flow can be termed largely developed thermally. There, the temperature profiles measured in the fluid exhibit pronounced maxima in the narrowest gaps of the subchannels as well as pronounced minima in the centers of the subchannels at the unheated wall. In the zones of maximum temperature gradients the temperature fluctuations attain maximum and minimum values, respectively, at the points of disappearance of the temperature gradients. In all cases of load tilting investigated the flow at the end of the heated zone had not yet developed thermally. By inspection of all thermocouples in isothermal experiments performed at regular intervals, by redundant arrangement of the mobile probe thermocouples and by demonstration of the reproducibility of results of measurement the experiments have been validated satisfactorily. (orig./GL) [de

  19. TEGENA: Detailed experimental investigations of temperature and velocity distributions in rod bundle geometries with turbulent sodium flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, R.

    1989-12-01

    Precise knowlege of the velocity and temperature distributions is necessary in fuel element design (rod bundles with longitudinal flow). The detail codes required in the fine analysis of non-uniformly cooled bundle zones are presently at the stage of development. In order to verify these computer codes, the mean fluid temperatures and the related RMS values of the temperature fluctuations were measured in a heated bundle, TEGENA, containing four rods arranged in one row (P/D = W/D = 1.147) with sodium cooling (Pr≅0.005). The temperature distribution in the structures was determined as the necessary boundary condition for the temperature profiles in the fluid. The experiments were carried out with different types of heating (uniform load and flux tilting) and the flow conditions were varied in the ranges 4000≤Re≤76,000; 20≤Pe≤400. The essential processes of thermal development took place under uniform load within a heated bundle length of about 100 hydraulic diameters. In the main measuring plane at the end of the heated zone, after 200 hydraulic diameters, the flow can be termed largely developed thermally. There, the temperature profiles measured in the fluid exhibit pronounced maxima in the narrowest gaps of the subchannels as well as pronounced minima in the centers of the subchannels at the unheated wall. In the zones of maximum temperature gradients the temperature fluctuations attain maximum and minimum values, respectively, at the points of disappearance of the temperature gradients. In all cases of flux tilting investigated the flow at the end of the heated zone had not yet developed thermally. (orig.) [de

  20. Influence of Particle Size Distribution on the Morphology and Cavitation Resistance of High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, L. L.; Sucharski, G. B.; Pukasiewicz, A. G. M.; Paredes, R. S. C.

    2018-02-01

    The cavitation wear process is one of the major wear mechanisms in turbines and rotors of hydroelectric power plants in Brazil. An effective way to increase the cavitation resistance is the use of coatings, applied by thermal spraying. The high-velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF) is one of the most used thermal spraying processes, and it is widely adopted for applying coatings for protection against wear and in maintenance components. A FeCrMnSiB experimental alloy was deposited onto SAE 1020 substrate by HVOF process, in order to evaluate the influence of the powder particle size range on the morphology and cavitation resistance of the coatings. The morphology of the coatings showed an increase in oxide content with powder size reduction. The increase in the powder particle size reduced the wettability of the particles, observed by the increase in the quantity of non-melted particles. Higher particle size distribution led to an increase in erosion rate, due to higher presence of non-melted particles in the coatings and consequently reduction of splats adhesion. The cavitation damage was perceived mainly by the mechanism of lamellae detachment; however, part of the damage was also absorbed by strain hardening due to the γ-ɛ martensitic transformation.

  1. Influence of Particle Size Distribution on the Morphology and Cavitation Resistance of High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, L. L.; Sucharski, G. B.; Pukasiewicz, A. G. M.; Paredes, R. S. C.

    2018-04-01

    The cavitation wear process is one of the major wear mechanisms in turbines and rotors of hydroelectric power plants in Brazil. An effective way to increase the cavitation resistance is the use of coatings, applied by thermal spraying. The high-velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF) is one of the most used thermal spraying processes, and it is widely adopted for applying coatings for protection against wear and in maintenance components. A FeCrMnSiB experimental alloy was deposited onto SAE 1020 substrate by HVOF process, in order to evaluate the influence of the powder particle size range on the morphology and cavitation resistance of the coatings. The morphology of the coatings showed an increase in oxide content with powder size reduction. The increase in the powder particle size reduced the wettability of the particles, observed by the increase in the quantity of non-melted particles. Higher particle size distribution led to an increase in erosion rate, due to higher presence of non-melted particles in the coatings and consequently reduction of splats adhesion. The cavitation damage was perceived mainly by the mechanism of lamellae detachment; however, part of the damage was also absorbed by strain hardening due to the γ- ɛ martensitic transformation.

  2. Theory of pixel lensing towards M31 II, The velocity anisotropy and flattening of the MACHO distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Kerins, E; Evans, N W; Baillon, Paul; Carr, B J; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Gould, A; Hewett, P C; Kaplan, J; Paulin-Henriksson, S; Smartt, S J; Tsapras, Y; Valls-Gabaud, D

    2003-01-01

    The POINT-AGAPE collaboration is currently searching for massive compact halo objects (MACHOs) towards the Andromeda galaxy (M31). The survey aims to exploit the high inclination of the M31 disk, which causes an asymmetry in the spatial distribution of M31 MACHOs. Here, we investigate the effects of halo velocity anisotropy and flattening on the asymmetry signal using simple halo models. For a spherically symmetric and isotropic halo, we find that the underlying pixel-lensing rate in far-disk M31 MACHOs is more than 5 times the rate of near-disk events. We find that the asymmetry is increased further by about 30% if the MACHOs occupy radial orbits rather than tangential orbits, but is substantially reduced if the MACHOs lie in a flattened halo. However, even for haloes with a minor-to-major axis ratio q = 0.3, the numbers of M31 MACHOs in the far-side outnumber those in the near-side by a factor of ~2. We show that, if positional information is exploited in addition to number counts, then the number of candid...

  3. Laser Boost of a Small Interstellar Ram Jet to Obtain Operational Velocity. Implications for the DM Rocket/Ram Jet Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott Beckwith, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    In other conference research papers, Beckwith obtained a maximum DM mass/energy value of up to 5 TeV, as opposed to 400 GeV for DM, which may mean more convertible power for a dark matter ram jet. The consequences are from assuming that axions are CDM, and KK gravitons are for WDM, then ρWarm-Dark-Matter would dominate not only structure formation in early universe formation, but would also influence the viability of the DM ram jet applications for interstellar travel. The increase in convertible DM mass makes the ram jet a conceivable option. This paper in addition to describing the scientific issues leading to that 5 TeV mass for DM also what are necessary and sufficient laser boost systems which would permit a ram net to become operational.

  4. Evolution of size distribution, optical properties, and structure of Si nanoparticles obtained by laser-assisted fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plautz, G. L.; Graff, I. L.; Schreiner, W. H.; Bezerra, A. G.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the physical properties of Si-based nanoparticles produced by an environment-friendly three-step method relying on: (1) laser ablation of a solid target immersed in water, (2) centrifugation and separation, and (3) laser-assisted fragmentation. The evolution of size distribution is followed after each step by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements and crosschecked by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The as-ablated colloidal suspension of Si nanoparticles presents a large size distribution, ranging from a few to hundreds of nanometers. Centrifugation drives the very large particles to the bottom eliminating them from the remaining suspension. Subsequent irradiation of height-separated suspensions with a second high-fluence (40 mJ/pulse) Nd:YAG laser operating at the fourth harmonic (λ =266 nm) leads to size reduction and ultra-small nanoparticles are obtainable depending on the starting size. Si nanoparticles as small as 1.5 nm with low dispersion (± 0.7 nm) are observed for the uppermost part after irradiation. These nanoparticles present a strong blue photoluminescence that remains stable for at least 8 weeks. Optical absorption (UV-Vis) measurements demonstrate an optical gap widening as a consequence of size decrease. Raman spectra present features related to pure silicon and silicon oxides for the irradiated sample. Interestingly, a defect band associated with silicon oxide is also identified, indicating the possible formation of defect states, which, in turn, supports the idea that the blue photoluminescence has its origin in defects.

  5. Micro manometer and pitot tube for measuring the velocity distribution in a natural convection water stream between two vertical parallel plates (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santon, L.; Vernier, Ph.

    1961-01-01

    For heat transfer studies in certain cases of cooling in swimming-pool type nuclear reactors, a knowledge of the distribution of the velocities between two heating elements is of prime importance. A Pitot tube and a micro-manometer have been developed for making these measurements on an experimental model. (authors) [fr

  6. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of Water-Load Distributions Obtained during Seaplane Landings with Bureau of Aeronautics Specifications. TED No. NACA 2413

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, Robert F.; Haines, Gilbert A.

    1949-01-01

    Bureau of Aeronautics Design Specifications SS-IC-2 for water loads in sheltered water are compared with experimental water loads obtained during a full--scale landing investigation. This investigation was conducted with a JRS-1 flying boat which has a 20 degrees dead-rise V-bottom with a partial chine flare. The range of landing conditions included airspeeds between 88 and 126 feet per second, sinking speeds between 1.6 and 9.1 feet per second, flight angles less than 6 degrees, and trims between 2 degrees and 12 degrees. Landings were moderate and were made in calm water. Measurements were obtained of maximum over-all loads, maximum pitching moments, and pressure distributions. Maximum experimental loads include over-all load factors of 2g, moments of 128,000 pound-feet, and maximum local pressures greater than 40 pounds per square inch. Experimental over-all loads are approximately one-half the design values, while local pressures are of the same order as or larger than pressures calculated from specifications for plating, stringer, floor, and frame design. The value of this comparison is limited, to some extent, by the moderate conditions of the test and by the necessary simplifying assumptions used in comparing the specifications with the experimental loads.

  8. Distribution and inventories of fallout radionuclides (239+24Pu, 137Cs) and 21Pb to study the filling velocity of salt marshes in Donana National Park (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Anton, M.P.; Pozuelo, M.; Clemente, L.; Rodriguez, A.; Yanez, C.; Gonzalez, A.; Meral, J.

    2006-01-01

    Within an extensive multinational and multidisciplinary project carried out in Donana National Park (Spain) to investigate its preservation and regeneration, the filling velocity of the salt marshes has been evaluated through the calculation of their average sediment accumulation rates. 239+24 Pu and 137 Cs from weapons testing fallout and total 21 Pb distribution profiles and inventories have been determined in some of the most characteristic zones of the park, namely, the ponds (or 'lucios') and the waterjets (or 'canos'). Plutonium inventories range from 16 to 101 Bq m -2 , 137 Cs values fluctuate between 514 and 3758 Bq m -2 and unsupported 21 Pb values comprise between 124 and 9398 Bq m -2 . Average sedimentation rates range from 3 to 5 mm y -1 (1952-2002). These data are higher than those obtained by carbon dating for the period 6500 AD-present, estimated as 1.5-2 mm y -1 , suggesting an increase in the accumulation of sediments and the alteration of the park's hydrodynamics caused by the re-channeling of the major rivers feeding the salt marshes

  9. Velocity distribution of electrons in time-varying low-temperature plasmas: progress in theoretical procedures over the past 70 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makabe, Toshiaki

    2018-03-01

    A time-varying low-temperature plasma sustained by electrical powers with various kinds of fRequencies has played a key role in the historical development of new technologies, such as gas lasers, ozonizers, micro display panels, dry processing of materials, medical care, and so on, since World War II. Electrons in a time-modulated low-temperature plasma have a proper velocity spectrum, i.e. velocity distribution dependent on the microscopic quantum characteristics of the feed gas molecule and on the external field strength and the frequency. In order to solve and evaluate the time-varying velocity distribution, we have mostly two types of theoretical methods based on the classical and linear Boltzmann equations, namely, the expansion method using the orthogonal function and the procedure of non-expansional temporal evolution. Both methods have been developed discontinuously and progressively in synchronization with those technological developments. In this review, we will explore the historical development of the theoretical procedure to evaluate the electron velocity distribution in a time-varying low-temperature plasma over the past 70 years.

  10. Experimental investigation of the velocity distribution of the attached plane jet after impingement with the corner in a high room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Guangyu [Department of Energy Technology, Helsinki University of Technology, Otakaari 4, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Ruponen, Mika [Halton Oy, Haltonintie 1-3, 47400 Kausala (Finland); Kurnitski, Jarek [Finnish Innovation Fund, Itaemerentori 2, 00181 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-06-15

    Supplying air into rooms properly without causing a sensation of draught is a challenging task. Airflow patterns and the air velocity of attached plane jets should be predicted and designed accurately before the airflow enters an occupied zone in different applications. The objective of this study is to identify the airflow patterns of attached plane jets and set up an efficient model to predict the maximum jet velocity decay of an attached plane jet after its impingement with the corner in a high room. A full-scale test chamber was used to measure the jet velocity with a plane jet supply device. The attached plane jet is bounded initially by the ceiling and the insulated wall after being discharged from the jet slot. Three velocities from the slot, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 m/s, are used as the initial jet velocities with three Reynolds numbers, 1000, 2000, and 4000, respectively. The results show that the behaviours of the attached plane jet differ from earlier studies carried out in a relatively low room. The virtual origin model setup in this study can be used to predict the maximum jet velocity decay for jet flow design with impingement in the corners of rooms. (author)

  11. Effect of Magnetic Flux Density and Applied Current on Temperature, Velocity and Entropy Generation Distributions in MHD Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kiyasatfar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, simulation of steady state, incompressible and fully developed laminar flow has been conducted in a magneto hydrodynamic (MHD pump. The governing equations are solved numerically by finite-difference method. The effect of the magnetic flux density and current on the flow and temperature distributions in a MHD pump is investigated. The obtained results showed that controlling the flow and the temperature is possible through the controlling of the applied current and the magnetic flux. Furthermore, the effects of the magnetic flux density and current on entropy generation in MHD pump are considered. Our presented numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data showed in literature.

  12. An iterative procedure for obtaining maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B. C., Jr.; Walker, H. F.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of obtaining numerically maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions is addressed. In recent literature, a certain successive approximations procedure, based on the likelihood equations, is shown empirically to be effective in numerically approximating such maximum-likelihood estimates; however, the reliability of this procedure was not established theoretically. Here, a general iterative procedure is introduced, of the generalized steepest-ascent (deflected-gradient) type, which is just the procedure known in the literature when the step-size is taken to be 1. With probability 1 as the sample size grows large, it is shown that this procedure converges locally to the strongly consistent maximum-likelihood estimate whenever the step-size lies between 0 and 2. The step-size which yields optimal local convergence rates for large samples is determined in a sense by the separation of the component normal densities and is bounded below by a number between 1 and 2.

  13. An iterative procedure for obtaining maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B. C., Jr.; Walker, H. F.

    1978-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of obtaining numerically maximum-likelihood estimates of the parameters for a mixture of normal distributions. In recent literature, a certain successive-approximations procedure, based on the likelihood equations, was shown empirically to be effective in numerically approximating such maximum-likelihood estimates; however, the reliability of this procedure was not established theoretically. Here, we introduce a general iterative procedure, of the generalized steepest-ascent (deflected-gradient) type, which is just the procedure known in the literature when the step-size is taken to be 1. We show that, with probability 1 as the sample size grows large, this procedure converges locally to the strongly consistent maximum-likelihood estimate whenever the step-size lies between 0 and 2. We also show that the step-size which yields optimal local convergence rates for large samples is determined in a sense by the 'separation' of the component normal densities and is bounded below by a number between 1 and 2.

  14. Simulating Pre-Asymptotic, Non-Fickian Transport Although Doing Simple Random Walks - Supported By Empirical Pore-Scale Velocity Distributions and Memory Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, S.; Jia, N.; Bijeljic, B.; Nowak, W.

    2016-12-01

    Pre-asymptotic characteristics are almost ubiquitous when analyzing solute transport processes in porous media. These pre-asymptotic aspects are caused by spatial coherence in the velocity field and by its heterogeneity. For the Lagrangian perspective of particle displacements, the causes of pre-asymptotic, non-Fickian transport are skewed velocity distribution, statistical dependencies between subsequent increments of particle positions (memory) and dependence between the x, y and z-components of particle increments. Valid simulation frameworks should account for these factors. We propose a particle tracking random walk (PTRW) simulation technique that can use empirical pore-space velocity distributions as input, enforces memory between subsequent random walk steps, and considers cross dependence. Thus, it is able to simulate pre-asymptotic non-Fickian transport phenomena. Our PTRW framework contains an advection/dispersion term plus a diffusion term. The advection/dispersion term produces time-series of particle increments from the velocity CDFs. These time series are equipped with memory by enforcing that the CDF values of subsequent velocities change only slightly. The latter is achieved through a random walk on the axis of CDF values between 0 and 1. The virtual diffusion coefficient for that random walk is our only fitting parameter. Cross-dependence can be enforced by constraining the random walk to certain combinations of CDF values between the three velocity components in x, y and z. We will show that this modelling framework is capable of simulating non-Fickian transport by comparison with a pore-scale transport simulation and we analyze the approach to asymptotic behavior.

  15. Background and Pickup Ion Velocity Distribution Dynamics in Titan's Plasma Environment: 3D Hybrid Simulation and Comparison with CAPS T9 Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Simpson, D. G.

    2011-01-01

    In this report we discuss the ion velocity distribution dynamics from the 3D hybrid simulation. In our model the background, pickup, and ionospheric ions are considered as a particles, whereas the electrons are described as a fluid. Inhomogeneous photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our model. We also take into account the collisions between the ions and neutrals. The current simulation shows that mass loading by pickup ions H(+); H2(+), CH4(+) and N2(+) is stronger than in the previous simulations when O+ ions are introduced into the background plasma. In our hybrid simulations we use Chamberlain profiles for the atmospheric components. We also include a simple ionosphere model with average mass M = 28 amu ions that were generated inside the ionosphere. The moon is considered as a weakly conducting body. Special attention will be paid to comparing the simulated pickup ion velocity distribution with CAPS T9 observations. Our simulation shows an asymmetry of the ion density distribution and the magnetic field, including the formation of the Alfve n wing-like structures. The simulation also shows that the ring-like velocity distribution for pickup ions relaxes to a Maxwellian core and a shell-like halo.

  16. Shell-like configuration in O+ ion velocity distribution at high altitudes in the dayside magnetosphere observed by Cluster/CIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Joko

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We report shell-like configurations seen in O+ ion velocity distributions. One case was observed above 8RE in radial distance in the dayside magnetosphere, presumably in the mantle region, during the observation period of 09:30-10:00 UT on 12 April 2001 by the CIS instrument on board the Cluster satellite. This shell-like configuration was different from so-called "conics" or "beams": the lower energy (cold population and the higher energy partial shell part were seen together, but there was no obvious signature of heating process. With respect to H+ ion velocity distributions observed simultaneously, transverse heating (so-called in "pan-cake" shape or field-aligned energisation configurations were seen as the result of heating/energisation processes and the upward-going part of the distribution also formed a half spherical thick shell configuration. Concerning O+ ion heating in the case of 12 April 2001, it was obviously observed when the spacecraft passed through the mantle region close to the poleward cusp. As the spacecraft moved toward the dayside cusp shell-like (or dome shape velocity distributions appeared apparently and continued to be observed until the spacecraft reached the magnetopause according to two other different cases (13 February 2001 and 14 April 2001. Two other cases were observed in the Southern Hemisphere and the spacecraft was supposed to pass through the dayside cusp toward the mantle region at higher altitudes (9-11RE. O+ ion velocity distributions in these cases show pre-/post-structured shell-like configurations, depending on the observation sites (mantle or dayside cusp.

  17. The spatial distribution and velocity field of the molecular hydrogen line emission from the centre of the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatley, I.; Krisciunas, K.; Jones, T.J.; Hyland, A.R.; Geballe, T.R.; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

    1986-01-01

    In an earlier paper the existence of a ring of molecular hydrogen-line emission surrounding the nucleus of the Galaxy was demonstrated. Here are presented the first detailed maps of the surface brightness and the velocity field, made in the upsilon=1-0 S(1) line of molecular hydrogen with a spatial resolution of 18 arcsec and a velocity resolution of 130 km s -1 . It is found that the molecular ring is tilted approximately 20 0 out of the plane of the Galaxy, has a broken and clumpy appearance, rotates at 100 km s -1 in the sense of galactic rotation, and exhibits radial motion at a velocity of 50 km s -1 . (author)

  18. Isotopic and velocity distributions of {sub 83}Bi produced in charge-pickup reactions of {sup 208}{sub 82}PB at 1 A GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelic, A.; Schmidt, K.H.; Enqvist, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (DE)] [and others

    2004-07-01

    Isotopically resolved cross sections and velocity distributions have been measured in charge-pickup reactions of 1 A GeV {sup 208}Pb with proton, deuterium and titanium target. The total and partial charge-pickup cross sections in the reactions {sup 208}Pb + {sup 1}H and {sup 208}Pb + {sup 2}H are measured to be the same in the limits of the error bars. A weak increase in the total charge-pickup cross section is seen in the reaction of {sup 208}Pb with the titanium target. The measured velocity distributions show different contributions - quasi-elastic scattering and {delta}-resonance excitation - to the charge-pickup production. Data on total and partial charge-pickup cross sections from these three reactions are compared with other existing data and also with model calculations based on the coupling of different intra-nuclear cascade codes and an evaporation code. (orig.)

  19. A peculiar distribution of radial velocities of faint radio-galaxies with 13.0<=msub(corr)<=15.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karoji, H.; Nottale, L.; Vigier, J.-P.

    1976-01-01

    A sample of 41 radio-galaxies with 13.0<=msub(corr)<=15.5 has been analyzed to test the angular redshift anisotropy discovered on Sc I galaxies by Rubin, Rubin and Ford (1973). The sample does not present their anisotropy but contains an even more curious distribution of radial velocities which suggests that the Rubin-Ford effect results from an anomalous redshift of light when it travels through clusters of galaxies. (Auth.)

  20. Fine-Structure Artifact of the Velocity Distribution of Cs Beam Tubes as Measured by the Pulsed Microwave Power Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-15

    Officer MOIE Program manager SSD/MSSB AFSTC/WCO OL-AB UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE la . REPORT SECURITY...34 Metrologia , 9, 1973, pp. 107-112. 2. H. Hellwig, S. Jarvis, D. J. Glaze, D. Halford, and H. E. Bell, "Time domain velocity selection modulation as a

  1. The velocity distribution caused by an airplane at the points of a vertical plane containing the span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Max M

    1925-01-01

    A formula for the computation of the vertical velocity component on all sides of an airplane is deduced and discussed. The formation is of value for the interpretation of such free flight tests where two airplanes fly alongside each other to facilitate observation.

  2. Estimating regional pore pressure distribution using 3D seismic velocities in the Dutch Central North Sea Graben

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winthaegen, P.L.A.; Verweij, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The application of the empirical Eaton method to calibrated sonic well information and 3D seismic interval velocity data in the southeastern part of the Central North Sea Graben, using the Japsen (Glob. Planet. Change 24 (2000) 189) normal velocitydepth trend, resulted in the identification of an

  3. Do bacterial cell numbers follow a theoretical Poisson distribution? Comparison of experimentally obtained numbers of single cells with random number generation via computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kento; Hokunan, Hidekazu; Hasegawa, Mayumi; Kawamura, Shuso; Koseki, Shigenobu

    2016-12-01

    We investigated a bacterial sample preparation procedure for single-cell studies. In the present study, we examined whether single bacterial cells obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a theoretical Poisson distribution. Four serotypes of Salmonella enterica, three serotypes of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli and one serotype of Listeria monocytogenes were used as sample bacteria. An inoculum of each serotype was prepared via a 10-fold dilution series to obtain bacterial cell counts with mean values of one or two. To determine whether the experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts follow a theoretical Poisson distribution, a likelihood ratio test between the experimentally obtained cell counts and Poisson distribution which parameter estimated by maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was conducted. The bacterial cell counts of each serotype sufficiently followed a Poisson distribution. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the parameters of Poisson distribution from experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts, we compared these with the parameters of a Poisson distribution that were estimated using random number generation via computer simulation. The Poisson distribution parameters experimentally obtained from bacterial cell counts were within the range of the parameters estimated using a computer simulation. These results demonstrate that the bacterial cell counts of each serotype obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a Poisson distribution. The fact that the frequency of bacterial cell counts follows a Poisson distribution at low number would be applied to some single-cell studies with a few bacterial cells. In particular, the procedure presented in this study enables us to develop an inactivation model at the single-cell level that can estimate the variability of survival bacterial numbers during the bacterial death process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating the environmental consequences of groundwater contamination. IV. Obtaining and utilizing contaminant arrival distributions in transient flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The versatility of the new contaminant arrival distributions for determining environmental consequences of subsurface pollution problems is demonstrated through application to a transient flow system. Though some of the four phases of the hydrologic evaluations are more complicated because of the time dependence of the flow and input contaminant concentrations, the arrival distributions still effectively summarize the data required to determine the environmental implications. These arrival distributions yield two graphs or tabular sets of data giving the consequences of the subsurface pollution problems in a simple and direct form. 4 refs

  5. Building America Case Study: Standard- Versus High-Velocity Air Distribution in High-Performance Townhomes, Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Poerschke, R. Beach, T. Begg

    2017-06-01

    IBACOS investigated the performance of a small-diameter high-velocity heat pump system compared to a conventional system in a new construction triplex townhouse. A ductless heat pump system also was installed for comparison, but the homebuyer backed out because of aesthetic concerns about that system. In total, two buildings, having identical solar orientation and comprised of six townhomes, were monitored for comfort and energy performance.

  6. Analytical and numerical studies of approximate phase velocity matching based nonlinear S0 mode Lamb waves for the detection of evenly distributed microstructural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, X; Xu, G H; Tao, T F; Zhang, Q; Tse, P W

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies on nonlinear Lamb waves are conducted using mode pairs that satisfying strict phase velocity matching and non-zero power flux criteria. However, there are some limitations in existence. First, strict phase velocity matching is not existed in the whole frequency bandwidth; Second, excited center frequency is not always exactly equal to the true phase-velocity-matching frequency; Third, mode pairs are isolated and quite limited in number; Fourth, exciting a single desired primary mode is extremely difficult in practice and the received signal is quite difficult to process and interpret. And few attention has been paid to solving these shortcomings. In this paper, nonlinear S0 mode Lamb waves at low-frequency range satisfying approximate phase velocity matching is proposed for the purpose of overcoming these limitations. In analytical studies, the secondary amplitudes with the propagation distance considering the fundamental frequency, the maximum cumulative propagation distance (MCPD) with the fundamental frequency and the maximum linear cumulative propagation distance (MLCPD) using linear regression analysis are investigated. Based on analytical results, approximate phase velocity matching is quantitatively characterized as the relative phase velocity deviation less than a threshold value of 1%. Numerical studies are also conducted using tone burst as the excitation signal. The influences of center frequency and frequency bandwidth on the secondary amplitudes and MCPD are investigated. S1–S2 mode with the fundamental frequency at 1.8 MHz, the primary S0 mode at the center frequencies of 100 and 200 kHz are used respectively to calculate the ratios of nonlinear parameter of Al 6061-T6 to Al 7075-T651. The close agreement of the computed ratios to the actual value verifies the effectiveness of nonlinear S0 mode Lamb waves satisfying approximate phase velocity matching for characterizing the material nonlinearity. Moreover, the ratios derived

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of Six Mycobacterium immunogenum, Strains Obtained from a Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the draft genome sequences of six Mycobacterium immunogenum isolated from a chloraminated drinking water distribution system simulator subjected to changes in operational parameters. M. immunogenum, a rapidly growing mycobacteria previously reported as the cause of hyp...

  8. Study of the angular momentum distribution of compound nuclei obtained from fusion reactions close to the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romain, P.

    1990-03-01

    The effect of the mass asymmetry of the input channel on the compound nuclei spin distribution. The 16 O + 144 Nd and 80 Se + 80 Se reactions produce the same 160 Er compound nucleus in the 38 to 68 MeV energy range. In certain cases, the incident energies required to form the compound nucleus, at the same excitation energies, are very close to the Coulomb barrier. In the experimental device, the 'Chateau de Cristal' multidetector and additional sensors are used. The angular momentum distribution of the different evaporation products are measured by gamma spectrometry techniques. The fusion cross sections are measured by the time-of-flight technique. Theoretical predictions and experimental results concerning the distribution of the compound nucleus angular momentum are compared [fr

  9. Effect of pressure on 3D distribution of P-wave velocity and attenuation in antigorite serpentinite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svitek, Tomáš; Vavryčuk, Václav; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Petružálek, Matěj; Kern, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 4 (2017), WA33-WA43 ISSN 0016-8033 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13967S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03950S; GA ČR(CZ) GC16-19751J Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : antigorite * serpentinite * P-wawe velocity Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy; DB - Geology ; Mineralogy (GFU-E) OBOR OECD: Geology; Geology (GFU-E) Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016

  10. The Statistical Distribution of Turbulence Driven Velocity Extremes in the Atmosperic Boundary Layer cartwright/Longuet-Higgins Revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2007-01-01

    The statistical distribution of extreme wind excursions above a mean level, for a specified recurrence period, is of crucial importance in relation to design of wind sensitive structures. This is particularly true for wind turbine structures. Based on an assumption of a Gaussian "mother......" distribution, Cartwright and Longuet-Higgens [1] derived an asymptotic expression for the distribution of the largest excursion from the mean level during an arbitrary recurrence period. From its inception, this celebrated expression has been widely used in wind engineering (as well as in off-shore engineering...... associated with large excursions from the mean [2]. Thus, the more extreme turbulence excursions (i.e. the upper tail of the turbulence PDF) seem to follow an Exponential-like distribution rather than a Gaussian distribution, and a Gaussian estimate may under-predict the probability of large turbulence...

  11. 37 CFR 201.18 - Notice of intention to obtain a compulsory license for making and distributing phonorecords of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... form different than required by this section, or delivered by means (including electronic transmission... purposes of this section, a digital phonorecord delivery shall be treated as a type of phonorecord... authorizing such making and distribution (for example: a record company or digital music service), if an...

  12. Direct detection of neutral metal atoms in electron-stimulated desorption: Al from CH3O/Al(111) - velocity distribution and absolute yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitten, J.E.; Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.; Gruen, D.M.; Jones, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    Electron-stimulated desorption of neutral aluminum from the system CH 3 O/Al(111) has been directly monitored via quasiresonant photoionization with 193 nm excimer laser light and confirmed by two-step resonant ionization, utilizing the Al 3d 2 D manifold. Velocity distribution measurements for the neutral Al peak at ∼ 800 m/s for 1 keV incident electron energy. An absolute yield of 3.2 x 10 -6 Al atoms/electron was determined by comparison with sputtering measurements in the same apparatus. This is the first observation of electron-stimulated metal desorption from adsorbate-covered metallic surfaces

  13. First evaluation of experimental results describing pressure buildup and hydrogen distribution, obtained by experimental series E11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzbauer, H.; Wolf, L.; Valencia, L.

    1990-01-01

    The beginning of the core meltdown process in the reactor pressure vessel, with a supposed release position for hydrogen in the upper part of the containment, is simulated, and the influence of the plant geometry on the distribution process is studied. In addition, the release point is shifted to the lower containment area, additional hydrogen production owing to the interaction between concrete and melt is taken into account, and sump boiling is simulated. The experimental program covers analytical investigations in the form of blind post-calculations. (DG) [de

  14. Distributed Bragg reflectors obtained by combining Se and Te compounds: Influence on the luminescence from CdTe quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousset, J.-G., E-mail: j-g.rousset@fuw.edu.pl; Kobak, J.; Janik, E.; Slupinski, T.; Golnik, A.; Kossacki, P.; Nawrocki, M.; Pacuski, W. [Faculty of Physics, Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5, PL-02-093 Warszawa (Poland); Parlinska-Wojtan, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Krakow (Poland)

    2016-05-14

    We report on the optical properties of structures containing self assembled CdTe quantum dots (QDs) combined with Te and Se based distributed Bragg reflectors either in a half cavity geometry with a relatively broad cavity mode or in a full cavity geometry where the cavity mode is much narrower. We show that for both structures the extraction coefficient of the light emitted from the QDs ensemble is enhanced by more than one order of magnitude with respect to the QDs grown on a ZnTe buffer. However, a single QD line broadening is observed and attributed to an unintentional incorporation of Se in the vicinity of the CdTe QDs. We show that postponing the QDs growth for 24 h after the distributed Bragg reflector deposition allows recovering sharp emission lines from individual QDs. This two step growth method is proven to be efficient also for the structures with CdTe QDs containing a single Mn{sup 2+} ion.

  15. Obtaining better performance in the measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with heralded single-photon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xing-Yu; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Qin

    2017-11-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) has been widely investigated due to its remarkable advantages on the achievable transmission distance and practical security. However, the relative low key generation rate limits its real-life implementations. In this work, we adopt the newly proposed four-intensity decoy-state scheme [Phys. Rev. A 93, 042324 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.042324] to study the performance of MDI-QKD with heralded single-photon sources (HSPS). Corresponding simulation results demonstrate that the four-intensity decoy-state scheme combining HSPS can drastically improve both the key generation rate and transmission distance in MDI-QKD, which may be very promising in future MDI-QKD systems.

  16. A novel high-pressure vessel for simultaneous observations of seismic velocity and in situ CO2 distribution in a porous rock using a medical X-ray CT scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lanlan; Nishizawa, Osamu; Zhang, Yi; Park, Hyuck; Xue, Ziqiu

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between seismic wave velocity or attenuation and CO2 saturation is essential for CO2 storage in deep saline formations. In the present study, we describe a novel upright high-pressure vessel that is designed to keep a rock sample under reservoir conditions and simultaneously image the entire sample using a medical X-ray CT scanner. The pressure vessel is composed of low X-ray absorption materials: a carbon-fibre-enhanced polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cylinder and PEEK vessel closures supported by carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) joists. The temperature was controlled by a carbon-coated film heater and an aramid fibre thermal insulator. The assembled sample cell allows us to obtain high-resolution images of rock samples during CO2 drainage and brine imbibition under reservoir conditions. The rock sample was oriented vertical to the rotation axis of the CT scanner, and seismic wave paths were aligned parallel to the rotation axis to avoid shadows from the acoustic transducers. The reconstructed CO2 distribution images allow us to calculate the CO2 saturation in the first Fresnel zone along the ray path between transducers. A robust relationship between the seismic wave velocity or attenuation and the CO2 saturation in porous rock was obtained from experiments using this pressure vessel.

  17. Building America Case Study: Standard- Versus High-Velocity Air Distribution in High-Performance Townhomes, Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-09

    IBACOS investigated the performance of a small-diameter high velocity heat pump system compared to a conventional system in a new construction triplex townhouse. A ductless heat pump system also was installed for comparison, but the homebuyer backed out because of aesthetic concerns about that system. In total, two buildings, having identical solar orientation and comprised of six townhomes, were monitored for comfort and energy performance. Results show that the small-diameter system provides more uniform temperatures from floor to floor in the three-story townhome. No clear energy consumption benefit was observed from either system. The builder is continuing to explore the small-diameter system as its new standard system to provide better comfort and indoor air quality. The homebuilder also explored the possibility of shifting its townhome product to meet the U.S. Department of Energy Challenge Home National Program Requirements. Ultimately, the builder decided that adoption of these practices would be too disruptive midstream in the construction cycle. However, the townhomes met the ENERGY STAR Version 3.0 program requirements.

  18. Measurement of a 2D fast-ion velocity distribution function by tomographic inversion of fast-ion D-alpha spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2014-01-01

    We present the first measurement of a local fast-ion 2D velocity distribution function f(v‖, v⊥). To this end, we heated a plasma in ASDEX Upgrade by neutral beam injection and measured spectra of fast-ion Dα (FIDA) light from the plasma centre in three views simultaneously. The measured spectra ...... can measure spectra in up to seven views simultaneously in the next ASDEX Upgrade campaign which would further improve measurements of f(v‖, v⊥) by tomographic inversion.......We present the first measurement of a local fast-ion 2D velocity distribution function f(v‖, v⊥). To this end, we heated a plasma in ASDEX Upgrade by neutral beam injection and measured spectra of fast-ion Dα (FIDA) light from the plasma centre in three views simultaneously. The measured spectra...... agree very well with synthetic spectra calculated from a TRANSP/NUBEAM simulation. Based on the measured FIDA spectra alone, we infer f(v‖, v⊥) by tomographic inversion. Salient features of our measurement of f(v‖, v⊥) agree reasonably well with the simulation: the measured as well as the simulated f...

  19. Thermo-mechanical characterization of epoxy nanocomposites with different carbon nanotube distributions obtained by solvent aided and direct mixing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zarrelli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two different routes, namely solvent aided dispersion and direct mixing, were employed to disperse Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs into a mono-component epoxy system used as matrix for advanced composites. In the first route, MWCNTs were diluted in three different solvents (acetone, sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethanol and then mixed with the matrix by tip sonication. In the second case, carbonaceous nanoparticles were added directly into the hosting system and dispersion was carried out by using three different techniques (mechanical stirring, magnetic agitation and tip sonication. The effects of the solvents and agitation energy were investigated by optical microscopy at micron level, in order assess the more efficient dispersion procedure for the considered epoxy system. It was demonstrated that parameters associated with direct mixing rather than solvent solubility govern MWCNT dispersion. Optical analysis of the nanocomposite morphology evidenced a very low density of MWCNTs micron sized aggregates in the case of direct mixed tip sonicated samples if compared to those obtained by solution aided dispersion. In addition, nanocomposites obtained by sonication showed the lowest density of MWCNTs micron sized aggregates, also when compared with mechanically and magnetically stirred system. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA and Thermo-Mechanical Analysis (TMA results confirm the final result that among the considered direct mixing techniques, the direct tip sonication represents the most efficient route for MWCNT dispersion. Moreover, the mixing temperature of the hosting matrix system represents a fundamental feature in enhancing the MWCNT de-bundling and dispersion. Small X-ray Scattering analysis revealed that a nanosized structure of nanotubes is formed in the case of the tip sonicated samples that is heuristically correlated with both the maximum enhancement of mechanical modulus and the maximum reduction of thermal expansion coefficients.

  20. The distribution of tritium among the amino acids of proteins obtained from mice exposed to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commerford, S.L.; Carsten, A.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of tritium among the amino acids of serum proteins in mice chronically exposed to tritiated water was determined by ion exchange chromatography of the protein hydrolysate. The specific activity of nonexchangeable tritium in these amino acids relative to the specific activity of tritium in the tissue water of mice ranged from 0.04 for phenylalanine and threonine to 1.0 for glycine and alanine. Since tritium from tissue water can enter the nonexchangeable positions of amino acids only as the result of metabolic processing, the relative specific activity of tritium in each amino acid is an indicator of the extent of such processing. The tritium content of tyrosine and all the amino acids required in the diet for survival is quite low, except for histidine, and can be entirely accounted for by transamination or, in the case of methionine, by transmethylation. The tritium content of the other amino acids is too high to result from such minor processing and must reflect primarily the fraction synthesized de novo. The implications of these findings with respect to the radiobiological consequences of a diet containing tritiated proteins are discussed

  1. Determination of concentration distribution and velocity of a catalyst in a model of a fluidized bed reactor using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, V.A. dos.

    1981-09-01

    A simplified model of a cracking unit was construct. The gaseous phase consisted of air, the solid phase (zeolite catalyst cracking) and both the phases circulate at the ambiente temperature in the steady state with 500 g of catalyst and air flow of 1600 1/h. Measurements for the circulation time of the solid phase (catalyst), concentration and radial distribution of catalyst have been carried out. The reduced experimental model of the cracking reactor (FCC) was used and radioctive tracer and attenuation of γ-radiation techniques were employed. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Effects of non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution functions and nonspherical geometry on minor ions in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgi, A.

    1987-01-01

    A previous model has shown that in order to account for the charge state distribution in the low-speed solar wind, a high coronal temperature is necessary and that this temperature peak goes together with a peak of nx/np in the corona. In the present paper, one of the assumptions made previously, i.e., that coronal electrons are Maxwellian, is relaxed, and a much cooler model is presented, which could account for the same oxygen charge states in the solar wind due to the inclusion of non-Maxwellian electrons. Also, due to a different choice of the coronal magnetic field geometry, this model would show no enhancement of the coronal nx/np. Results of the two models are then compared, and observational tests to distinguish between the two scenarios are proposed: comparison of directly measured coronal Te to charge state measurements in the solar wind, determination of the coronal nx/np measurement of ion speeds in the acceleration region of the solar wind, and measurement of the frozen-in silicon charge state distribution.

  3. Planar and nonplanar electron-acoustic solitary waves in a plasma with a q-nonextensive electron velocity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jiu-Ning; Luo, Jun-Hua; Sun, Gui-Hua; Liu, Zhen-Lai; Ge, Su-Hong; Wang, Xin-Xing; Li, Jun-Xiu

    2014-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) electron-acoustic solitary wave structures in an unmagnetized, collisionless plasma composed of stationary ions, cold fluid electrons and hot q-nonextensive distributed electrons are theoretically studied. We discuss the effects of the nonplanar geometry, nonextensivity of hot electrons and ‘hot’ to ‘cold’ electron number density ratio on the time evolution characters of cylindrical and spherical solitary waves. Moreover, the effects of plasma parameters on the nonlinear structure induced by the interaction between two planar solitary waves are also investigated. It is found that these plasma parameters have significant influences on the properties of the above-mentioned nonlinear structures. Our theoretical study may be useful to understand the nonlinear features of electron-acoustic wave structures in astrophysical plasma systems. (paper)

  4. Non-Gaussian Velocity Distributions in Solar Flares from Extreme Ultraviolet Lines: A Possible Diagnostic of Ion Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, Natasha L. S.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Labrosse, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    In a solar flare, a large fraction of the magnetic energy released is converted rapidly to the kinetic energy of non-thermal particles and bulk plasma motion. This will likely result in non-equilibrium particle distributions and turbulent plasma conditions. We investigate this by analyzing the profiles of high temperature extreme ultraviolet emission lines from a major flare (SOL2014-03-29T17:44) observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode . We find that in many locations the line profiles are non-Gaussian, consistent with a kappa distribution of emitting ions with properties that vary in space and time. At the flare footpoints, close to sites of hard X-ray emission from non-thermal electrons, the κ index for the Fe xvi 262.976 Å line at 3 MK takes values of 3–5. In the corona, close to a low-energy HXR source, the Fe xxiii 263.760 Å line at 15 MK shows κ values of typically 4–7. The observed trends in the κ parameter show that we are most likely detecting the properties of the ion population rather than any instrumental effects. We calculate that a non-thermal ion population could exist if locally accelerated on timescales ≤0.1 s. However, observations of net redshifts in the lines also imply the presence of plasma downflows, which could lead to bulk turbulence, with increased non-Gaussianity in cooler regions. Both interpretations have important implications for theories of solar flare particle acceleration.

  5. Discrepancies between conformational distributions of a polyalanine peptide in solution obtained from molecular dynamics force fields and amide I' band profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbaro, Daniel; Ghosh, Indrajit; Nau, Werner M; Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard

    2010-12-30

    Structural preferences in the unfolded state of peptides determined by molecular dynamics still contradict experimental data. A remedy in this regard has been suggested by MD simulations with an optimized Amber force field ff03* ( Best, R. Hummer, G. J. Phys. Chem. B 2009 , 113 , 9004 - 9015 ). The simulations yielded a statistical coil distribution for alanine which is at variance with recent experimental results. To check the validity of this distribution, we investigated the peptide H-A(5)W-OH, which with the exception of the additional terminal tryptophan is analogous to the peptide used to optimize the force fields ff03*. Electronic circular dichroism, vibrational circular dichroism, and infrared spectroscopy as well as J-coupling constants obtained from NMR experiments were used to derive the peptide's conformational ensemble. Additionally, Förster resonance energy transfer between the terminal chromophores of the fluorescently labeled peptide analogue H-Dbo-A(5)W-OH was used to determine its average length, from which the end-to-end distance of the unlabeled peptide was estimated. Qualitatively, the experimental (3)J(H(N),C(α)), VCD, and ECD indicated a preference of alanine for polyproline II-like conformations. The experimental (3)J(H(N),C(α)) for A(5)W closely resembles the constants obtained for A(5). In order to quantitatively relate the conformational distribution of A(5) obtained with the optimized AMBER ff03* force field to experimental data, the former was used to derive a distribution function which expressed the conformational ensemble as a mixture of polyproline II, β-strand, helical, and turn conformations. This model was found to satisfactorily reproduce all experimental J-coupling constants. We employed the model to calculate the amide I' profiles of the IR and vibrational circular dichroism spectrum of A(5)W, as well as the distance between the two terminal peptide carbonyls. This led to an underestimated negative VCD couplet and an

  6. Effect of Flow Configuration on Velocity and Temperature Distribution of Moderator Inside 540 MWe PHWR Calandria using CFD Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharj, J.S.; Sahaya, R.R.; Datta, D.; Dharne, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    The calandria of a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) is a horizontal cylindrical vessel housing a matrix of horizontal tubes called calandria tubes, through which pass the pressure tubes that house the fuel bundles. The calandria is filled with heavy water acting as moderator. A large amount of heat (about 95 MW) is generated within the moderator mainly due to neutron slowing down and attenuation of gamma radiations. In the present configuration of 540 MWe calandria, moderator inlet diffusers are directed upwards and the outlet is from the bottom of the calandria. This configuration is not conducive for the buoyancy-dominated flows generated due to large volumetric heat generation in the moderator. In order to decide the effects of changes in flow configuration by changing location/direction of inlet/outlet nozzles, a study was done for moderator flows in the using PHOENICS CFD software. The results of study with various flow configurations show that modification in moderator flow configuration, reduces the peak temperature of moderator in calandria by about 12 deg C as well as gives a much more uniform temperature distribution. (authors)

  7. Solar Wind Halo Formation by the Scattering of the Strahl via Direct Cluster/PEACE Observations of the 3D Velocity Distribution Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Vinas, Adolfo; Gurgiolo, Chris A.; Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested by a number of authors that the solar wind electron halo can be formed by the scattering of the strahl. On frequent occasions we have observed in electron angular skymaps (Phi/Theta-plots) of the electron 3D velocity distribution functions) a bursty-filament of particles connecting the strahl to the solar wind core-halo. These are seen over a very limited energy range. When the magnetic field is well off the nominal solar wind flow direction such filaments are inconsistent with any local forces and are probably the result of strong scattering. Furthermore, observations indicates that the strahl component is frequently and significantly anisotropic (Tper/Tpal approx.2). This provides a possible free energy source for the excitation of whistler waves as a possible scattering mechanism. The empirical observational evidence between the halo and the strahl suggests that the strahl population may be, at least in part, the source of the halo component.

  8. Cosmic string induced peculiar velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Dalen, A.; Schramm, D.N.

    1987-02-01

    We calculate analytically the probability distribution for peculiar velocities on scales from 10h -1 to 60h -1 Mpc with cosmic string loops as the dominant source of primordial gravitational perturbations. We consider a range of parameters βGμ appropriate for both hot (HDM) and cold (CDM) dark matter scenarios. An Ω = 1 CDM Universe is assumed with the loops randomly placed on a smooth background. It is shown how the effects can be estimated of loops breaking up and being born with a spectrum of sizes. It is found that to obtain large scale streaming velocities of at least 400 km/s it is necessary that either a large value for βGμ or the effect of loop fissioning and production details be considerable. Specifically, for optimal CDM string parameters Gμ = 10 -6 , β = 9, h = .5, and scales of 60h -1 Mpc, the parent size spectrum must be 36 times larger than the evolved daughter spectrum to achieve peculiar velocities of at least 400 km/s with a probability of 63%. With this scenario the microwave background dipole will be less than 800 km/s with only a 10% probability. The string induced velocity spectrum is relatively flat out to scales of about 2t/sub eq//a/sub eq/ and then drops off rather quickly. The flatness is a signature of string models of galaxy formation. With HDM a larger value of βGμ is necessary for galaxy formation since accretion on small scales starts later. Hence, with HDM, the peculiar velocity spectrum will be larger on large scales and the flat region will extend to larger scales. If large scale peculiar velocities greater than 400 km/s are real then it is concluded that strings plus CDM have difficulties. The advantages of strings plus HDM in this regard will be explored in greater detail in a later paper. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. 3D velocity distribution of P- and S-waves in a biotite gneiss, measured in oil as the pressure medium: Comparison with velocity measurements in a multi-anvil pressure apparatus and with texture-based calculated data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lokajíček, Tomáš; Kern, H.; Svitek, Tomáš; Ivankina, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 231, June (2014), s. 1-15 ISSN 0031-9201 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13102; GA ČR(CZ) GAP104/12/0915; GA ČR GA13-13967S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : 3D-velocity calculation * measured and calculated elastic properties * neutron diffraction * seismic anisotropy * velocity measurements Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.895, year: 2014

  10. Examples of Vector Velocity Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter M.; Pedersen, Mads M.; Hansen, Kristoffer L.

    2011-01-01

    To measure blood flow velocity in vessels with conventional ultrasound, the velocity is estimated along the direction of the emitted ultrasound wave. It is therefore impossible to obtain accurate information on blood flow velocity and direction, when the angle between blood flow and ultrasound wa...

  11. Identifying the morphologies of gas hydrate distribution using P-wave velocity and density: a test from the GMGS2 expedition in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Liu, Xuewei

    2018-06-01

    Pore-filling and fracture-filling are two basic distribution morphologies of gas hydrates in nature. A clear knowledge of gas hydrate morphology is important for better resource evaluation and exploitation. Improper exploitation may cause seafloor instability and exacerbate the greenhouse effect. To identify the gas hydrate morphologies in sediments, we made a thorough analysis of the characteristics of gas hydrate bearing sediments (GHBS) based on rock physics modeling. With the accumulation of gas hydrate in sediments, both the velocities of two types of GHBS increase, and their densities decrease. Therefore, these two morphologies cannot be differentiated only by velocity or density. After a series of tests, we found the attribute ρ {{V}{{P}}}0.5 as a function of hydrate concentration show opposite trends for these two morphologies due to their different formation mechanisms. The morphology of gas hydrate can thus be identified by comparing the measured ρ {{V}{{P}}}0.5 with its background value, which means the ρ {{V}{{P}}}0.5 of the hydrate-free sediments. In 2013, China’s second gas hydrate expedition was conducted by Guangzhou Marine Geologic Survey to explore gas hydrate resources in the northern South China Sea, and both two hydrate morphologies were recovered. We applied this method to three sites, which include two pore-filling and three fracture-filling hydrate layers. The data points, that agree with the actual situations, account for 72% and 82% of the total for the two pore-filling hydrate layers, respectively, and 86%, 74%, and 69% for the three fracture-filling hydrate layers, respectively.

  12. Velocity distribution of liquid in rotary cylinder when a rotary disc is disposed in contact with a liquid surface; Ekimen ni kaitenenban no arubaai no kaiten entonai ekitai no sokudo bunpu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karino, Fumimaru; Kawai, Kazuho; Domoto, Takuya; Takahashi, Toru [Kyoto University, Tokyoto (Japan)

    1999-02-05

    As a model of a flow in a crucible of Cz method, which is a crystal growth method, a system was formed by flowing water into a rotary cylindrical container and disposing a rotary disc in contact with a free surface of the liquid, and this system was used to determine the velocity distribution in the cylindrical container by a laser Doppler hydrometer. The effects of cylinder rotation Reynolds number, disc rotation Reynolds number, the distance between the disc and the cylinder bottom, and the radius ratio of the disc to the cylinder on the determined radial distribution of tangential time average velocity were examined. As a result, it was found that, in the cases where only the cylinder is rotated, where only the disc is rotated, and where an absolute value of the rotation angular velocity ratio of the disc to the cylinder is small when the cylinder and the disc are rotated in directions inverse to each other, the radial distribution of the time average tangential velocity shows a distribution substantially the same independent on vertical positions, thus Taylor-Proudman theorem is valid. It was further known that, when the disc and the cylinder are rotated in inverse directions and the absolute value of the angular velocity ratio is great, the effect of the disc rotation is remarkable, and particularly, this effect becomes greater in the lower flow than near the disc. (translated by NEDO)

  13. Microseismic Velocity Imaging of the Fracturing Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing of low permeability reservoirs can induce microseismic events during fracture development. For this reason, microseismic monitoring using sensors on surface or in borehole have been widely used to delineate fracture spatial distribution and to understand fracturing mechanisms. It is often the case that the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) is determined solely based on microseismic locations. However, it is known that for some fracture development stage, long period long duration events, instead of microseismic events may be associated. In addition, because microseismic events are essentially weak and there exist different sources of noise during monitoring, some microseismic events could not be detected and thus located. Therefore the estimation of the SRV is biased if it is solely determined by microseismic locations. With the existence of fluids and fractures, the seismic velocity of reservoir layers will be decreased. Based on this fact, we have developed a near real time seismic velocity tomography method to characterize velocity changes associated with fracturing process. The method is based on double-difference seismic tomography algorithm to image the fracturing zone where microseismic events occur by using differential arrival times from microseismic event pairs. To take into account varying data distribution for different fracking stages, the method solves the velocity model in the wavelet domain so that different scales of model features can be obtained according to different data distribution. We have applied this real time tomography method to both acoustic emission data from lab experiment and microseismic data from a downhole microseismic monitoring project for shale gas hydraulic fracturing treatment. The tomography results from lab data clearly show the velocity changes associated with different rock fracturing stages. For the field data application, it shows that microseismic events are located in low velocity anomalies. By

  14. Dispersion upscaling from a pore scale characterization of Lagrangian velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turuban, Régis; de Anna, Pietro; Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Tabuteau, Hervé; Méheust, Yves; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2013-04-01

    Mixing and reactive transport are primarily controlled by the interplay between diffusion, advection and reaction at pore scale. Yet, how the distribution and spatial correlation of the velocity field at pore scale impact these processes is still an open question. Here we present an experimental investigation of the distribution and correlation of pore scale velocities and its relation with upscaled dispersion. We use a quasi two-dimensional (2D) horizontal set up, consisting of two glass plates filled with cylinders representing the grains of the porous medium : the cell is built by soft lithography technique, wich allows for full control of the system geometry. The local velocity field is quantified from particle tracking velocimetry using microspheres that are advected with the pore scale flow. Their displacement is purely advective, as the particle size is chosen large enough to avoid diffusion. We thus obtain particle trajectories as well as lagrangian velocities in the entire system. The measured velocity field shows the existence of a network of preferential flow paths in channels with high velocities, as well as very low velocity in stagnation zones, with a non Gaussian distribution. Lagrangian velocities are long range correlated in time, which implies a non-fickian scaling of the longitudinal variance of particle positions. To upscale this process we develop an effective transport model, based on correlated continous time random walk, which is entirely parametrized by the pore scale velocity distribution and correlation. The model predictions are compared with conservative tracer test data for different Peclet numbers. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of different pore geometries on the distribution and correlation of Lagrangian velocities and we discuss the link between these properties and the effective dispersion behavior.

  15. Microscale soil structure development after glacial retreat - using machine-learning based segmentation of elemental distributions obtained by NanoSIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Steffen; Schlueter, Steffen; Hoeschen, Carmen; Koegel-Knabner, Ingrid; Mueller, Carsten W.

    2017-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is distributed on mineral surfaces depending on physicochemical soil properties that vary at the submicron scale. Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) can be used to visualize the spatial distribution of up to seven elements simultaneously at a lateral resolution of approximately 100 nm from which patterns of SOM coatings can be derived. Existing computational methods are mostly confined to visualization and lack spatial quantification measures of coverage and connectivity of organic matter coatings. This study proposes a methodology for the spatial analysis of SOM coatings based on supervised pixel classification and automatic image analysis of the 12C, 12C14N (indicative for SOM) and 16O (indicative for mineral surfaces) secondary ion distributions. The image segmentation of the secondary ion distributions into mineral particle surface and organic coating was done with a machine learning algorithm, which accounts for multiple features like size, color, intensity, edge and texture in all three ion distributions simultaneously. Our workflow allowed the spatial analysis of differences in the SOM coverage during soil development in the Damma glacier forefield (Switzerland) based on NanoSIMS measurements (n=121; containing ca. 4000 particles). The Damma chronosequence comprises several stages of soil development with increasing ice-free period (from ca. 15 to >700 years). To investigate mineral-associated SOM in the developing soil we obtained clay fractions (2.2 g cm3). We found increased coverage and a simultaneous development from patchy-distributed organic coatings to more connected coatings with increasing time after glacial retreat. The normalized N:C ratio (12C14N: (12C14N + 12C)) on the organic matter coatings was higher in the medium-aged soils than in the young and mature ones in both heavy and light mineral fraction. This reflects the sequential accumulation of proteinaceous SOM in the medium-aged soils and C

  16. Diagnostic of the spatial and velocity distribution of alpha particles in tokamak fusion reactor using beat-wave generated lower hybrid wave. Progress report, 1994-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D.Q.; Horton, R.D.; Evans, R.

    1995-01-01

    The alpha particle population from fusion reactions in a DT tokamak reactor can have dramatic effects on the pressure profiles, energetic particle confinement, and the overall stability of the plasma; thus leading to important design consideration of a fusion reactor based on the tokamak concept. In order to fully understand the effects of the alpha population, a non-invasive diagnostic technique suitable for use in a reacting plasma environment needs to be developed to map out both the spatial and velocity distribution of the alphas. The proposed experimental goals for the eventual demonstration of LH wave interaction with a fast ion population is given in the reduced 3 year plan in table 1. At present time the authors are approaching the 8th month in their first year of this project. Up to now, their main effort has been concentrated in the operation of the two beat wave sources in burst mode. The second priority in the experimental project is the probe diagnostics and computer aided data acquisition system. The progress made so far is given, and they are ready to perform the beat-wave generated lower hybrid wave experiment. Some theoretical calculation had been reported at APS meetings. More refined theoretical models are being constructed in collaboration with Drs. J. Rogers and E. Valeo at PPPL

  17. Reliability of the measures of weight-bearing distribution obtained during quiet stance by digital scales in subjects with and without hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo-Barbosa, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; de Menezes, Lidiane Teles; Costa, Abraão Souza; Couto Paz, Clarissa Cardoso Dos Santos; Fachin-Martins, Emerson

    2015-05-01

    Described as an alternative way of assessing weight-bearing asymmetries, the measures obtained from digital scales have been used as an index to classify weight-bearing distribution. This study aimed to describe the intra-test and the test/retest reliability of measures in subjects with and without hemiparesis during quiet stance. The percentage of body weight borne by one limb was calculated for a sample of subjects with hemiparesis and for a control group that was matched by gender and age. A two-way analysis of variance was used to verify the intra-test reliability. This analysis was calculated using the differences between the averages of the measures obtained during single, double or triple trials. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was utilized and data plotted using the Bland-Altman method. The intra-test analysis showed significant differences, only observed in the hemiparesis group, between the measures obtained by single and triple trials. Excellent and moderate ICC values (0.69-0.84) between test and retest were observed in the hemiparesis group, while for control groups ICC values (0.41-0.74) were classified as moderate, progressing from almost poor for measures obtained by a single trial to almost excellent for those obtained by triple trials. In conclusion, good reliability ranging from moderate to excellent classifications was found for participants with and without hemiparesis. Moreover, an improvement of the repeatability was observed with fewer trials for participants with hemiparesis, and with more trials for participants without hemiparesis.

  18. Analysis of in situ water velocity distributions in the lowland river floodplain covered by grassland and reed marsh habitats - a case study of the bypass channel of Warta River (Western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laks Ireneusz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of in situ measurements of velocity distribution in the floodplain of the lowland river has been carried out. The survey area was located on a bypass channel of the Warta River (West of Poland which is filled with water only in case of flood waves. The floodplain is covered by grassland and reed marsh habitats. The velocity measurements were performed with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP in a cross-section with a bed reinforced with concrete slabs. The measured velocities have reflected the differentiated impact of various vegetation types on the loss of water flow energy. The statistical analyses have proven a relationship between the local velocities and the type of plant communities.

  19. Pulsar velocity observations: Correlations, interpretations, and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfand, D.J.; Tademaru, E.

    1977-01-01

    From an examination of the current sample of 12 pulsars with measured proper motions and the z-distribution of the much larger group of over 80 sources with measured period derivatives, we develop a self-consistent picture of pulsar evolution. The apparent tendency of pulsars to move parallel to the galactic plane is explained as the result of various selection effects. A method for calculating the unmeasurable radial velocity of a pulsar is presented; it is shown that the total space velocities thus obtained are consistent with the assumption of an extreme Population I origin for pulsars which subsequently move away from the plane with a large range of velocities. The time scale for pulsar magnetic field decay is derived from dynamical considerations. A strong correlation of the original pulsar field strength with the magnitude of pulsar velocity is discussed. This results in the division of pulsars into two classes: Class A sources characterized by low space velocities, a small scale height, and low values of P 0 P 0 ; and Class B sources with a large range of velocities (up to 1000 km s -1 ), a much greater scale height, and larger values of initial field strength. It is postulated that Class A sources originate in tight binaries where their impulse acceleration at birth is insufficient to remove them from the system, while the Class B sources arise from single stars or loosely bound binaries and are accelerated to high velocities by their asymmetric radiation force. The evolutionary picture which is developed is shown to be consistent with a number of constraints imposed by supernova rates, the relative frequency of massive binaries and Class A sources, theoretical field-decay times, and the overall pulsar galactic distribution

  20. A study of the b-quark fragmentation function with the DELPHI detector at LEP I and an averaged distribution obtained at the Z Pole

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, N.; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S.U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.J.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; da Silva, T.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, N.; De Min, A.; de Paula, L.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Houlden, M.A.; Jackson, J.N.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E.K.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Kerzel, U.; King, B.T.; Kjaer, N.J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McNulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nemecek, S.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J.P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Radojicic, D.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sander, C.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Van Dam, P.; Van Eldik, J.; van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimine, N.I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of b-quark jet hadronisation has been investigated using data taken at the Z peak by the DELPHI detector at LEP. Two complementary methods are used to reconstruct the energy of weakly decaying b-hadrons, E^weak_B. The average value of x^weak_B = E^weak_B/E_beam is measured to be 0.699 +/- 0.011. The resulting x^weak_B distribution is then analysed in the framework of two choices for the perturbative contribution (parton shower and Next to Leading Log QCD calculation) in order to extract measurements of the non-perturbative contribution to be used in studies of b-hadron production in other experimental environments than LEP. In the parton shower framework, data favour the Lund model ansatz and corresponding values of its parameters have been determined within PYTHIA~6.156 from DELPHI data: a= 1.84^{+0.23}_{-0.21} and b=0.642^{+0.073}_{-0.063} GeV^-2, with a correlation factor rho = 92.2%. Combining the data on the b-quark fragmentation distributions with those obtained at the Z peak by ALEPH, OPAL a...

  1. Distribution of muscle fibre conduction velocity for representative samples of motor units in the full recruitment range of the tibialis anterior muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, A; Negro, F; Felici, F; Farina, D

    2018-02-01

    Motor units are recruited in an orderly manner according to the size of motor neurones. Moreover, because larger motor neurones innervate fibres with larger diameters than smaller motor neurones, motor units should be recruited orderly according to their conduction velocity (MUCV). Because of technical limitations, these relations have been previously tested either indirectly or in small motor unit samples that revealed weak associations between motor unit recruitment threshold (RT) and MUCV. Here, we analyse the relation between MUCV and RT for large samples of motor units. Ten healthy volunteers completed a series of isometric ankle dorsiflexions at forces up to 70% of the maximum. Multi-channel surface electromyographic signals recorded from the tibialis anterior muscle were decomposed into single motor unit action potentials, from which the corresponding motor unit RT, MUCV and action potential amplitude were estimated. Established relations between muscle fibre diameter and CV were used to estimate the fibre size. Within individual subjects, the distributions of MUCV and fibre diameters were unimodal and did not show distinct populations. MUCV was strongly correlated with RT (mean (SD) R 2  = 0.7 (0.09), P motor units), which supported the hypothesis that fibre diameter is associated with RT. The results provide further evidence for the relations between motor neurone and muscle fibre properties for large samples of motor units. The proposed methodology for motor unit analysis has also the potential to open new perspectives in the study of chronic and acute neuromuscular adaptations to ageing, training and pathology. © 2017 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Interpretation of Actinide-Distribution Data Obtained from Non-Destructive and Destructive Post-Test Analyses of an Intact-Core Column of Culebra Dolomite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUCERO, DANIEL A.; PERKINS, W. GEORGE

    1999-01-01

    The US DOE, with technical assistance from Sandia National Laboratories, has successfully received EPA certification and opened the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a nuclear waste disposal facility located approximately 42 km east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. Performance assessment analyses indicate that human intrusions by inadvertent, intermittent drilling for resources provide the only credible mechanisms for releases of radionuclides from the disposal system. In modeling long-term brine releases, subsequent to a drilling event, potential migration pathways through the permeable layers of rock above the Salado formation were analyzed. Major emphasis is placed on the Culebra Member of the Rustler Formation because this is the most transmissive geologic layer overlying the WIPP site. In order to help quantify parameters for the calculated releases, radionuclide transport experiments have been earned out using intact-core columns obtained from the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation within the WIPP site. This paper deals primarily with results of analyses for 241 Pu and 241 Am distributions developed during transport experiments in one of these cores. Transport experiments were done using a synthetic brine that simulates Culebra brine at the core recovery location (the WIPP air-intake shaft--AIS). Hydraulic characteristics (i.e., apparent porosity and apparent dispersion coefficient) for intact-core columns were obtained via experiments using the conservative tracer 22 Na. Elution experiments carried out over periods of a few days with tracers 232 U and 239 Np indicated that these tracers were weakly retarded as indicated by delayed elution of the species. Elution experiments with tracers 241 Pu and 241 Am were attempted, but no elution of either species has been observed to date, including experiments of many months' duration. In order to quantify retardation of the non-eluted species 241 Pu and 241 Am after a period of brine flow, non-destructive and

  3. Conditions to obtain precise and true measurements of the intramolecular {sup 13}C distribution in organic molecules by isotopic {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayle, Kevin [EBSI Team, Interdisciplinary Chemistry: Synthesis, Analysis, Modelling (CEISAM), University of Nantes-CNRS UMR 6230, 2 Rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, F-44322, Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Gilbert, Alexis [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Earth–Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Julien, Maxime [EBSI Team, Interdisciplinary Chemistry: Synthesis, Analysis, Modelling (CEISAM), University of Nantes-CNRS UMR 6230, 2 Rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, F-44322, Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Yamada, Keita [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Silvestre, Virginie; Robins, Richard J.; Akoka, Serge [EBSI Team, Interdisciplinary Chemistry: Synthesis, Analysis, Modelling (CEISAM), University of Nantes-CNRS UMR 6230, 2 Rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, F-44322, Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Yoshida, Naohiro [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Earth–Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Remaud, Gérald S., E-mail: gerald.remaud@univ-nantes.fr [EBSI Team, Interdisciplinary Chemistry: Synthesis, Analysis, Modelling (CEISAM), University of Nantes-CNRS UMR 6230, 2 Rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, F-44322, Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Evaluation of the trueness and precision criteria of isotopic {sup 13}C NMR spectrometry. • Use of bi-labelled [1,2-{sup 13}C{sub 2}]acetic acid to determine the performance of the instrumental response. • Inter-calibration of the {sup 13}C intramolecular composition of acetic acid using the technique GC-Py–irm-MS. - Abstract: Intramolecular {sup 13}C composition gives access to new information on the (bio) synthetic history of a given molecule. Isotopic {sup 13}C NMR spectrometry provides a general tool for measuring the position-specific {sup 13}C content. As an emerging technique, some aspects of its performance are not yet fully delineated. This paper reports on (i) the conditions required to obtain satisfactory trueness and precision for the determination of the internal {sup 13}C distribution, and (ii) an approach to determining the “absolute” position-specific {sup 13}C content. In relation to (i), a precision of <1% can be obtained whatever the molecule on any spectrometer, once quantitative conditions are met, in particular appropriate proton decoupling efficiency. This performance is a prerequisite to the measurement of isotope fractionation either on the transformed or residual compound when a chemical reaction or process is being studied. The study of the trueness has revealed that the response of the spectrometer depends on the {sup 13}C frequency range of the studied molecule, i.e. the chemical shift range. The “absolute value” and, therefore, the trueness of the {sup 13}C NMR measurements has been assessed on acetic acid and by comparison to the results obtained on the fragments from COOH and CH{sub 3} by isotopic mass spectrometry coupled to a pyrolysis device (GC-Py–irm-MS), this technique being the reference method for acetic acid. Of the two NMR spectrometers used in this work, one gave values that corresponded to those obtained by GC-Py–irm-MS (thus, the “true” value) while the other showed a bias, which was

  4. Comparison of drug distribution images from whole-body thin tissue sections obtained using desorption electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and autoradiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J; Vavrek, Marissa; Koeplinger, Kenneth A; Schneider, Bradley B; Covey, Thomas R

    2008-07-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (DESI-MS/MS) and whole-body autoradiography (WBA) were used for chemical imaging of whole-body thin tissue sections of mice intravenously dosed with propranolol (7.5 mg/kg). DESI-MS/MS imaging utilized selected reaction monitoring detection performed on an AB/MDS SCIEX 4000 QTRAP mass spectrometer equipped with a prototype extended length particle discriminator interface. Propranolol images of the tissue sections using DESI-MS/MS were obtained at surface scan rates of 0.1, 0.5, 2, and 7 mm/s. Although signal decreased with increasing scan rate, useful whole-body images for propranolol were obtained from the tissues even at 7 mm/s, which required just 79 min of analysis time. Attempts to detect and image the distribution of the known propranolol metabolites were unsuccessful. Regions of the tissue sections showing the most radioactivity from WBA sections were excised and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with radiochemical detection to determine relative levels of propranolol and metabolites present. Comparison of the DESI-MS/MS signal for propranolol and the radioactivity attributed to propranolol from WBA sections indicated nominal agreement between the two techniques for the amount of propranolol in the brain, lung, and liver. Data from the kidney showed an unexplained disparity between the two techniques. The results of this study show the feasibility of using DESI-MS/MS to obtain useful chemical images of a drug in whole-body thin tissue sections following drug administration at a pharmacologically relevant level. Further optimization to improve sensitivity and enable detection of the drug metabolites will be among the requirements necessary to move DESI-MS/MS chemical imaging forward as a practical tool in drug discovery.

  5. Modified Feynman ratchet with velocity-dependent fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Denur

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The randomness of Brownian motion at thermodynamic equilibrium can be spontaneously broken by velocity-dependence of fluctuations, i.e., by dependence of values or probability distributions of fluctuating properties on Brownian-motional velocity. Such randomness-breaking can spontaneously obtain via interaction between Brownian-motional Doppler effects --- which manifest the required velocity-dependence --- and system geometrical asymmetry. A non random walk is thereby spontaneously superposed on Brownian motion, resulting in a systematic net drift velocity despite thermodynamic equilibrium. The time evolution of this systematic net drift velocity --- and of velocity probability density, force, and power output --- is derived for a velocity-dependent modification of Feynman's ratchet. We show that said spontaneous randomness-breaking, and consequent systematic net drift velocity, imply: bias from the Maxwellian of the system's velocity probability density, the force that tends to accelerate it, and its power output. Maximization, especially of power output, is discussed. Uncompensated decreases in total entropy, challenging the second law of thermodynamics, are thereby implied.

  6. Velocity slice imaging for dissociative electron attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Dhananjay; Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S.; Krishnakumar, E.; Chatterjee, A.

    2005-05-01

    A velocity slice imaging method is developed for measuring the angular distribution of fragment negative ions arising from dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to molecules. A low energy pulsed electron gun, a pulsed field ion extraction, and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector consisting of microchannel plates and a wedge-and-strip anode are used for this purpose. Detection and storage of each ion separately for its position and flight time allows analysis of the data offline for any given time slice, without resorting to pulsing the detector bias. The performance of the system is evaluated by measuring the angular distribution of O- from O2 and comparing it with existing data obtained using conventional technique. The capability of this technique in obtaining forward and backward angular distribution data is shown to have helped in resolving one of the existing problems in the electron scattering on O2.

  7. Velocity Dispersions Across Bulge Types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabricius, Maximilian; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Saglia, Roberto; Drory, Niv; Fisher, David

    2010-01-01

    We present first results from a long-slit spectroscopic survey of bulge kinematics in local spiral galaxies. Our optical spectra were obtained at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope with the LRS spectrograph and have a velocity resolution of 45 km/s (σ*), which allows us to resolve the velocity dispersions in the bulge regions of most objects in our sample. We find that the velocity dispersion profiles in morphological classical bulge galaxies are always centrally peaked while the velocity dispersion of morphologically disk-like bulges stays relatively flat towards the center--once strongly barred galaxies are discarded.

  8. Fine crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure beneath the Tengchong volcanic area inferred from receiver function and surface-wave dispersion: constraints on magma chamber distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengkui; Zhang, Shuangxi; Wu, Tengfei; Hua, Yujin; Zhang, Bo

    2018-03-01

    The Tengchong volcanic area is located in the southeastern margin of the collision zone between the Indian and Eurasian Plates. It is one of the youngest intraplate volcano groups in mainland China. Imaging the S-wave velocity structure of the crustal and uppermost mantle beneath the Tengchong volcanic area is an important means of improving our understanding of its volcanic activity and seismicity. In this study, we analyze teleseismic data from nine broadband seismic stations in the Tengchong Earthquake Monitoring Network. We then image the crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure by joint analysis of receiver functions and surface-wave dispersion. The results reveal widely distributed low-velocity zones. We find four possible magma chambers in the upper-to-middle crust and one in the uppermost mantle. The chamber in the uppermost mantle locates in the depth range from 55 to 70 km. The four magma chambers in the crust occur at different depths, ranging from the depth of 7 to 25 km in general. They may be the heat sources for the high geothermal activity at the surface. Based on the fine crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure, we propose a model for the distribution of the magma chambers.

  9. A technique for plasma velocity-space cross-correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Sean; Skiff, Fred

    2018-05-01

    An advance in experimental plasma diagnostics is presented and used to make the first measurement of a plasma velocity-space cross-correlation matrix. The velocity space correlation function can detect collective fluctuations of plasmas through a localized measurement. An empirical decomposition, singular value decomposition, is applied to this Hermitian matrix in order to obtain the plasma fluctuation eigenmode structure on the ion distribution function. A basic theory is introduced and compared to the modes obtained by the experiment. A full characterization of these modes is left for future work, but an outline of this endeavor is provided. Finally, the requirements for this experimental technique in other plasma regimes are discussed.

  10. Dogs with hearth diseases causing turbulent high-velocity blood flow have changes in patelet function and von Willebrand factor multimer distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Inge; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate platelet function using in vitro tests based on both high and low shear rates and von Willebrand factor (vWf) multimeric composition in dogs with cardiac disease and turbulent high-velocity blood flow. Client-owned asymptomatic, untreated d...

  11. Distribution of motor unit potential velocities in short static and prolongd dynamic contractions at low forces: Use of the within-subject's skewness and standard deviation variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver-Krol, E.G.; Henriquez, N.R.; Oosterloo, Sebe J.; Klaver, P.; Bos, J.M.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Behaviour of motor unit potential (MUP) velocities in relation to (low) force and duration was investigated in biceps brachii muscle using a surface electrode array. Short static tests of 3.8 s (41 subjects) and prolonged dynamic tests (prolonged tests) of 4 min (30 subjects) were performed as

  12. Determination of hydrogen cluster velocities and comparison with numerical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Täschner, A.; Köhler, E.; Ortjohann, H.-W.; Khoukaz, A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of powerful hydrogen cluster jet targets in storage ring experiments led to the need of precise data on the mean cluster velocity as function of the stagnation temperature and pressure for the determination of the volume density of the target beams. For this purpose a large data set of hydrogen cluster velocity distributions and mean velocities was measured at a high density hydrogen cluster jet target using a trumpet shaped nozzle. The measurements have been performed at pressures above and below the critical pressure and for a broad range of temperatures relevant for target operation, e.g., at storage ring experiments. The used experimental method is described which allows for the velocity measurement of single clusters using a time-of-flight technique. Since this method is rather time-consuming and these measurements are typically interfering negatively with storage ring experiments, a method for a precise calculation of these mean velocities was needed. For this, the determined mean cluster velocities are compared with model calculations based on an isentropic one-dimensional van der Waals gas. Based on the obtained data and the presented numerical calculations, a new method has been developed which allows to predict the mean cluster velocities with an accuracy of about 5%. For this two cut-off parameters defining positions inside the nozzle are introduced, which can be determined for a given nozzle by only two velocity measurements

  13. Precollisional velocity correlations in a hard-disk fluid with dissipative collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, R; Piasecki, J; Mareschal, M

    2001-09-01

    Velocity correlations are studied in granular fluids, modeled by the inelastic hard sphere gas. Making a density expansion of the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy for the evolution of the reduced distributions, we predict the presence of precollisional velocity correlations. They are created by the propagation through correlated sequences of collisions (ring events) of the velocity correlations generated after dissipative collisions. The correlations have their origin in the dissipative character of collisions, being always present in granular fluids. The correlations, that manifest microscopically as an alignment of the velocities of a colliding pair produce modifications of collisional averages, in particular, the virial pressure. The pressure shows a reduction with respect to the elastic case as a consequence of the velocity alignment. Good qualitative agreement is obtained for the comparison of the numerical evaluations of the obtained analytical expressions and molecular dynamics results that showed evidence of precollisional velocity correlations [R. Soto and M. Mareschal, Phys. Rev. E 63, 041303 (2001)].

  14. Transport coefficients and orientational distributions of dilute colloidal dispersions composed of hematite particles (for an external magnetic field parallel to the angular velocity vector of simple shear flow)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Akira; Hayasaka, Ryo; Majima, Tamotsu

    2008-01-01

    We have treated a dilute dispersion composed of ferromagnetic rodlike particles with a magnetic moment normal to the particle axis, such as hematites, to investigate the influences of the magnetic field strength, shear rate, and random forces on the orientational distribution of rodlike particles and also on transport coefficients, such as viscosity and diffusion coefficient. In the present analysis, these rodlike particles are assumed to conduct the rotational Brownian motion in a simple shear flow as well as an external magnetic field. The results obtained here are summarized as follows. In the case of a strong magnetic field and a smaller shear rate, the rodlike particle can freely rotate in the xy-plane with the magnetic moment continuing to point the magnetic field direction. On the other hand, for a strong shear flow, the particle has a tendency to incline in the flow direction with the magnetic moment pointing to the magnetic field direction. In the case of the magnetic field applied normal to the direction of the sedimentation, the diffusion coefficient gives rise to smaller values than expected, since the rodlike particle sediments with the particle axis inclining toward directions normal to the movement direction and, of course, toward the direction along that direction

  15. Probabilistic distributions of wind velocity for the evaluation of the wind power potential; Distribuicoes probabilisticas de velocidades do vento para avaliacao do potencial energetico eolico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramini, Elisa Zanuncio

    1986-10-01

    The theoretical model of wind speed distributions allow valuable information about the probability of events relative to the variable in study eliminating the necessity of a new experiment. The most used distributions has been the Weibull and the Rayleigh. These distributions are examined in the present investigation, as well as the exponential, gamma, chi square and lognormal distributions. Three years of hourly averages wind data recorded from a anemometer setting at the city of Ataliba Leonel, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were used. Using wind speed distribution the theoretical relative frequency was calculated from the distributions which have been examined. Results from the Kolmogorov - Smirnov test allow to conclude that the lognormal distribution fit better the wind speed data, followed by the gamma and Rayleigh distributions. Using the lognormal probability density function the yearly energy output from a wind generator installed in the side was calculated. 30 refs, 4 figs, 14 tabs

  16. On the energy distribution profile of interface states obtained by taking into account of series resistance in Al/TiO2/p-Si (MIS) structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakma, O.; Serin, N.; Serin, T.; Altindal, S.

    2011-01-01

    The energy distribution profile of the interface states (N ss ) of Al/TiO 2 /p-Si (MIS) structures prepared using the sol-gel method was obtained from the forward bias current-voltage (I-V) characteristics by taking into account both the bias dependence of the effective barrier height (φ e ) and series resistance (R s ) at room temperature. The main electrical parameters of the MIS structure such as ideality factor (n), zero-bias barrier height (φ b0 ) and average series resistance values were found to be 1.69, 0.519 eV and 659 Ω, respectively. This high value of n was attributed to the presence of an interfacial insulator layer at the Al/p-Si interface and the density of interface states (N ss ) localized at the Si/TiO 2 interface. The values of N ss localized at the Si/TiO 2 interface were found with and without the R s at 0.25-E v in the range between 8.4x10 13 and 4.9x10 13 eV -1 cm -2 . In addition, the frequency dependence of capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G/ω-V) characteristics of the structures have been investigated by taking into account the effect of N ss and R s at room temperature. It can be found out that the measured C and G/ω are strongly dependent on bias voltage and frequency. -- Research highlights: →We successfully fabricated Al/TiO 2 /p-Si device with interlayer by a sol-gel method. The facts: (i) that the technology of the fabrication of a Al/TiO 2 /p-Si MIS structure much simpler and economical than that for the Si p-n junction and (b) the main advantages of TiO 2 films are low densities of the surface states when compared to SiO 2 .

  17. On the energy distribution profile of interface states obtained by taking into account of series resistance in Al/TiO{sub 2}/p-Si (MIS) structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakma, O., E-mail: osman@pakma.co [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Batman University, Batman (Turkey); Serin, N.; Serin, T. [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Altindal, S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gazi University, Teknikokullar, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    The energy distribution profile of the interface states (N{sub ss}) of Al/TiO{sub 2}/p-Si (MIS) structures prepared using the sol-gel method was obtained from the forward bias current-voltage (I-V) characteristics by taking into account both the bias dependence of the effective barrier height ({phi}{sub e}) and series resistance (R{sub s}) at room temperature. The main electrical parameters of the MIS structure such as ideality factor (n), zero-bias barrier height ({phi}{sub b0}) and average series resistance values were found to be 1.69, 0.519 eV and 659 {Omega}, respectively. This high value of n was attributed to the presence of an interfacial insulator layer at the Al/p-Si interface and the density of interface states (N{sub ss}) localized at the Si/TiO{sub 2} interface. The values of N{sub ss} localized at the Si/TiO{sub 2} interface were found with and without the R{sub s} at 0.25-E{sub v} in the range between 8.4x10{sup 13} and 4.9x10{sup 13} eV{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. In addition, the frequency dependence of capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G/{omega}-V) characteristics of the structures have been investigated by taking into account the effect of N{sub ss} and R{sub s} at room temperature. It can be found out that the measured C and G/{omega} are strongly dependent on bias voltage and frequency. -- Research highlights: {yields}We successfully fabricated Al/TiO{sub 2}/p-Si device with interlayer by a sol-gel method. The facts: (i) that the technology of the fabrication of a Al/TiO{sub 2}/p-Si MIS structure much simpler and economical than that for the Si p-n junction and (b) the main advantages of TiO{sub 2} films are low densities of the surface states when compared to SiO{sub 2}.

  18. Study of microinstabilities due to an anisotropic velocity distribution function of the particles of a homogeneous plasma; Etude des microinstabilities liees a l'anisotropie de la fonction de distribution des vitesses des particules d'un plasma homogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennion, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    A study is made of instabilities in a plasma with an ion velocity distribution function of the form: f{sub oi} = 1 / (2*{pi}*{alpha}{sub p}e{sub i}*{alpha}{sub p}a{sub i}) * {lambda}({nu}{sub p}e - {alpha}{sub p}e{sub i}) * e{sup -}(v{sub pa2}/{alpha}{sub pai2}). The plasma is assumed to have finite dimensions limited by infinitely conductive boundary surfaces. A theoretical and numerical analysis of marginal stability locates the regions of stability as a function of several parameters; i.e. plasma length, ion anisotropy ({tau}) and electron temperature (T{sub e}). A limiting plasma length is found, below which the plasma is stable regardless of its density. For the parameters of the injection experiment M.M.I.I. at Fontenay-aux-roses it is found that the type of instabilities studied here should not occur. (author) [French] L'etude est faite en choisissant une fonction de distribution des ions de la forme f{sub oi} = 1 / (2*{pi}*{alpha}{sub p}e{sub i}*{alpha}{sub p}a{sub i}) * {lambda}({nu}{sub p}e - {alpha}{sub p}e{sub i}) * e{sup -}(v{sub pa2}/{alpha}{sub pai2}) et en supposant une conductivite infinie sur les limites du plasma de dimensions finies. L'etude theorique et numerique de la stabilite marginale determine les domaines de stabilite qui sont etudies en fonction de plusieurs parametres: longueur du plasma, anisotropie des ions ({tau}), temperature electronique (T{sub e}). Il apparait une longueur limite du plasma au-dessous de laquelle le plasma est stable, independemment de la densite. L'application faite avec les valeurs des parametres de l'experience d'injection M.M.I.I, a Fontenay-aux-Roses permet de conclure a la non existence dans cet appareil du type d'instabilite etudie ici. (auteur)

  19. Effects of Port Shape on Steady Flow Characteristics in an SI Engine with Semi-Wedge Combustion Chamber (2) - Velocity Distribution (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Inkyoung; Ohm, Inyong [Seoul Nat’l Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    This study is the second investigation on the steady flow characteristics of an SI engine with a semi-edge combustion chamber as a function of the port shape with varying evaluation positions. For this purpose, the planar velocity profiles were measured from 1.75B, 1.75 times of bore position apart from the bottom of head, to 6.00B positions using particle – image velocimetry. The flow patterns were examined with both a straight and a helical port. The velocity profiles, streamlines, and centers of swirl were almost the same at the same valve lift regardless of the measuring position, which is quite different from the case of the pent-roof combustion chamber. All the eccentricity values of the straight port were out of distortion criterion 0.15 through the lifts and the position. However, the values of the helical port exceeded the distortion criterion by up to 4 mm lift, but decreased rapidly above the 3.00B position and the 5 mm lift. There always existed a relative offset effect in the evaluation of the swirl coefficient using the PIV method due to the difference of the ideal impulse swirl meter velocity profile assumption, except for the cylinder-center-base estimation that was below 4 mm of the straight port. Finally, it was concluded that taking the center as an evaluation basis and the assumption about the axial velocity profile did not have any qualitative effect on swirl evaluation, but affected the value owing to the detailed profile.

  20. Instability of shallow open channel flow with lateral velocity gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, A C; Izumi, N, E-mail: adriano@eng.hokudai.ac.jp, E-mail: nizumi@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [River and Watershed Engineering Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-8628 (Japan)

    2011-12-22

    The turbulent flow in a wide rectangular open channel partially covered with vegetation is studied using linear stability analysis. In the base state normal flow condition, the water depth is constant and the transverse velocity vanishes, while there is a lateral gradient in the streamwise velocity with an inflexion point at the boundary between the vegetated zone and the main channel. The Reynolds stress is expressed by introducing the eddy viscosity, which is obtained from assuming a logarithmic distribution of the velocity near the bed. Perturbation expansions are introduced to the streamwise and transverse velocities, as well as to the water depth. The system of governing equations was solved in order to determine the maximum growth rate of the perturbations as a function of parameters which describe physical characteristics of the channel and the flow.

  1. Using of residential load curves obtained for determination of the load diversity, and loading of distribution transformers; Utilizacao de curvas de carga de consumidores industriais medidas para determinacao de diversidade de carga, e carregamento de transformadores de distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, Eduardo Luiz; Jardini, Jose Antonio

    1996-07-01

    This work presents some applications of the residential loads, obtained from measurements conducted by the electric power utilities in the state of Sao Paulo , Brazil. During the first application, curve of coincidence of load peaks occurrence, as function of the number of consumers simultaneously connected to a specific residential distribution transformer. This curve provides a information on the number of consumers presenting coincident load peaks coincident relative to the total numbers of consumers connected to the distribution transformer. Those curves allow to obtain the diversity curves. The second application focused the calculation of the distribution transformer life reduction.

  2. Liquid velocity in upward and downward air-water flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaodong; Paranjape, Sidharth; Kim, Seungjin; Ozar, Basar; Ishii, Mamoru

    2004-01-01

    Local characteristics of the liquid phase in upward and downward air-water two-phase flows were experimentally investigated in a 50.8-mm inner-diameter round pipe. An integral laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system was used to measure the axial liquid velocity and its fluctuations. No effect of the flow direction on the liquid velocity radial profile was observed in single-phase liquid benchmark experiments. Local multi-sensor conductivity probes were used to measure the radial profiles of the bubble velocity and the void fraction. The measurement results in the upward and downward two-phase flows are compared and discussed. The results in the downward flow demonstrated that the presence of the bubbles tended to flatten the liquid velocity radial profile, and the maximum liquid velocity could occur off the pipe centerline, in particular at relatively low flow rates. However, the maximum liquid velocity always occurred at the pipe center in the upward flow. Also, noticeable turbulence enhancement due to the bubbles in the two-phase flows was observed in the current experimental flow conditions. Furthermore, the distribution parameter and the void-weighted area-averaged drift velocity were obtained based on the definitions

  3. SDSS-IV MaNGA: What Shapes the Distribution of Metals in Galaxies? Exploring the Roles of the Local Gas Fraction and Escape Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Heckman, T.; Sánchez, S. F.; Zakamska, N. L.; Cleary, J.; Zhu, G.; Brinkmann, J.; Drory, N.; THE MaNGA TEAM

    2018-01-01

    We determine the local metallicity of the ionized gas for more than 9.2 × 105 star-forming regions (spaxels) located in 1023 nearby galaxies included in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV MaNGA integral field spectroscopy unit survey. We use the dust extinction derived from the Balmer decrement and the stellar template fitting in each spaxel to estimate the local gas and stellar mass densities, respectively. We also use the measured rotation curves to determine the local escape velocity (V esc). We then analyze the relationships between the local metallicity and both the local gas fraction (μ) and V esc. We find that metallicity decreases with both increasing μ and decreasing V esc. By examining the residuals in these relations we show that the gas fraction plays a more primary role in the local chemical enrichment than does V esc. We show that the gas-regulator model of chemical evolution provides a reasonable explanation of the metallicity on local scales. The best-fit parameters for this model are consistent with the metal loss caused by momentum-driven galactic outflows. We also argue that both the gas fraction and the local escape velocity are connected to the local stellar surface density, which in turn is a tracer of the epoch at which the dominant local stellar population formed.

  4. Do Readers Obtain Preview Benefit from Word n + 2? A Test of Serial Attention Shift versus Distributed Lexical Processing Models of Eye Movement Control in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Keith; Juhasz, Barbara J.; Brown, Sarah J.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments tested predictions derived from serial lexical processing and parallel distributed models of eye movement control in reading. The boundary paradigm (K. Rayner, 1975) was used, and the boundary location was set either at the end of word n - 1 (the word just to the left of the target word) or at the end of word n - 2. Serial lexical…

  5. Velocity Statistics and Spectra in Three-Stream Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Tobias; Lowe, K. Todd; Ng, Wing F.; Henderson, Brenda; Leib, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Velocimetry measurements were obtained in three-stream jets at the NASA Glenn Research Center Nozzle Acoustics Test Rig using the time-resolved Doppler global velocimetry technique. These measurements afford exceptional frequency response, to 125 kHz bandwidth, in order to study the detailed dynamics of turbulence in developing shear flows. Mean stream-wise velocity is compared to measurements acquired using particle image velocimetry for validation. Detailed results for convective velocity distributions throughout an axisymmetric plume and the thick side of a plume with an offset third-stream duct are provided. The convective velocity results exhibit that, as expected, the eddy speeds are reduced on the thick side of the plume compared to the axisymmetric case. The results indicate that the time-resolved Doppler global velocimetry method holds promise for obtaining results valuable to the implementation and refinement of jet noise prediction methods being developed for three-stream jets.

  6. Uncertainty assessment of 3D instantaneous velocity model from stack velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele Maesano, Francesco; D'Ambrogi, Chiara

    2015-04-01

    3D modelling is a powerful tool that is experiencing increasing applications in data analysis and dissemination. At the same time the need of quantitative uncertainty evaluation is strongly requested in many aspects of the geological sciences and by the stakeholders. In many cases the starting point for 3D model building is the interpretation of seismic profiles that provide indirect information about the geology of the subsurface in the domain of time. The most problematic step in the 3D modelling construction is the conversion of the horizons and faults interpreted in time domain to the depth domain. In this step the dominant variable that could lead to significantly different results is the velocity. The knowledge of the subsurface velocities is related mainly to punctual data (sonic logs) that are often sparsely distributed in the areas covered by the seismic interpretation. The extrapolation of velocity information to wide extended horizons is thus a critical step to obtain a 3D model in depth that can be used for predictive purpose. In the EU-funded GeoMol Project, the availability of a dense network of seismic lines (confidentially provided by ENI S.p.A.) in the Central Po Plain, is paired with the presence of 136 well logs, but few of them have sonic logs and in some portion of the area the wells are very widely spaced. The depth conversion of the 3D model in time domain has been performed testing different strategies for the use and the interpolation of velocity data. The final model has been obtained using a 4 layer cake 3D instantaneous velocity model that considers both the initial velocity (v0) in every reference horizon and the gradient of velocity variation with depth (k). Using this method it is possible to consider the geological constraint given by the geometries of the horizons and the geo-statistical approach to the interpolation of velocities and gradient. Here we present an experiment based on the use of set of pseudo-wells obtained from the

  7. EXAFS analysis of cations distribution in structure of Co1-xNixFe2O4 nanoparticles obtained by hydrothermal method in aloe vera extract solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpratat, Unchista; Maensiri, Santi; Swatsitang, Ekaphan

    2016-09-01

    Effect of cations distribution upon EXAFS analysis on magnetic properties of Co1-xNixFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0) nanoparticles prepared by the hydrothermal method in aloe vera extract solution were studied. XRD analysis confirmed a pure phase of cubic spinel ferrite of all samples. Changes in lattice parameter and particle size depended on the Ni content with partial substitution and site distributions of Co2+, Ni2+ ions of different ionic radii at both tetrahedral and octahedral sites in the crystal structure. Particle sizes of samples estimated by TEM images were found to be in the range of 10.87-62.50 nm. The VSM results at room temperature indicated the ferrimagnetic behavior of all samples. Superparamagnetic behavior was observed in NiFe2O4 sample. The coercivity (Hc) and remanance (Mr) values were related to the particle sizes of samples. The saturation magnetization (Ms) was increased by a factor of 1.4 to a value of 57.57 emu/g, whereas the coercivity (Hc) was decreased by a factor of 20 to a value of 63.15 Oe for a sample with x = 0.75. In addition to the cations distribution, the increase of aspect ratio (surface to volume ratio) due to the decrease of particle size could significantly affect the magnetic properties of the materials.

  8. Sap-flow velocities and distribution of wet-wood in trunks of healthy and unhealthy Quercus robur, Quercus petraea and Quercus cerris oak trees in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenyvesi, A.; Béres, C.; Raschi, A.; Tognietti, R.; Ridder, H.W.; Molnár, T.; Röfler, J.; Lakatos, T.; Csiha, I.

    1998-01-01

    Sap-flow of Quercus robur, Quercus petraea and Quercus cerris oak trees were studied. 43 K radioisotope tracing, the heat pulse velocity technique and the Granier-method were employed. Numerous intense pulses were observed in healthy Quercus petraea superposing onto the usual diurnal change. Only a few pulses were observed in unhealthy Quercus petraea, in healthy Quercus cerris and healthy and unhealthy Quercus robur trees. Proportion of wet-wood assessed by γ- and X-ray computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging was significantly less in healthy Quercus petraea trees than in healthy Quercus cerris trees. Proportion of wet-wood was higher in healthy trees than unhealthy trees of both species. (author)

  9. Pre- and post-processing filters for improvement of blood velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaikjer, Malene; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2000-01-01

    with different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The exact extent of the vessel and the true velocities are thereby known. Velocity estimates were obtained by employing Kasai's autocorrelator on the data. The post-processing filter was used on the computed 2D velocity map. An improvement of the RMS error...... velocity in the vessels. Post-processing is beneficial to obtain an image that minimizes the variation, and present the important information to the clinicians. Applying the theory of fluid mechanics introduces restrictions on the variations possible in a flow field. Neighboring estimates in time and space...... should be highly correlated, since transitions should occur smoothly. This idea is the basis of the algorithm developed in this study. From Bayesian image processing theory an a posteriori probability distribution for the velocity field is computed based on constraints on smoothness. An estimate...

  10. Velocity measurements in a rigid ceramic filter in a parallel-flow arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hajeri, M.H.; Aroussi, A.; Witry, A.

    2002-01-01

    Rigid ceramic filters have been developed for cleaning the hot combustion gas streams upstream of the turbine in a combined cycle power plant. To obtain continues operation a periodic cleaning is necessary and the cleaning efficiency depends on the distribution of the filtration cake. Consequently uniform particle deposition on the filter element surface is desired. The flow around three filter elements in cross flow is investigated computationally using the commercial code FLUENT. Three filter elements are placed in a two-dimensional rectangle duct with fixed face velocity and varying the velocity ratio between the approach and face velocity. Particle trajectories are obtained for a number of particle diameters and different inlet (approach) velocity to face filtration velocity ratios to investigate the behavior of particles around the filter element. (author)

  11. Seismic velocity structure and spatial distribution of reflection intensity off the Boso Peninsula, Central Japan, revealed by an ocean bottom seismographic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Akihiro; Sato, Toshinori; Shinohara, Masanao; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Yamada, Tomoaki; Uehira, Kenji; Shinbo, Takashi; Machida, Yuuya; Hino, Ryota; Azuma, Ryosuke

    2016-04-01

    Off the Boso Peninsula, central Japan, where the Sagami Trough is in the south and the Japan Trench is in the east, there is a triple junction where the Pacific plate (PAC), the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) and the Honshu island arc (HIA) meet each other. In this region, the PAC subducts beneath the PHS and the HIA, and the PHS subducts beneath the HIA. Due to the subduction of 2 oceanic plates, numerous seismic events took place in the past. In order to understand these events, it is important to image structure of these plates. Hence, many researchers attempted to reveal the substructure from natural earthquakes and seismic experiments. Because most of the seismometers are placed inland area and the regular seismicity off Boso is inactive, it is difficult to reveal the precise substructure off Boso area using only natural earthquakes. Although several marine seismic experiments using active sources were conducted, vast area remains unclear off Boso Peninsula. In order to improve the situation, a marine seismic experiment, using airgun as an active source, was conducted from 30th July to 4th of August, 2009. The survey line has 216 km length and 20 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) were placed on it. We estimated 2-D P-wave velocity structure from the airgun data using the PMDM (Progressive Model Development Method; Sato and Kenett, 2000) and the FAST (First Arrival Seismic Tomography ; Zelt and Barton, 1998). Furthermore, we identified the probable reflection phases from the data and estimated the location of reflectors using Travel time mapping method (Fujie et al. 2006). We found some reflection phases from the data, and the reflectors are located near the region where P-wave velocity is 5.0 km/s. We interpret that the reflectors indicate the plate boundary between the PHS and the HIA. The variation of the intensity of reflection along the upper surface of PHS seems to be consistent with the result from previous reflection seismic experiment conducted by Kimura et

  12. Proposed method for reconstructing velocity profiles using a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollár, László E; Lucas, Gary P; Zhang, Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    An analytical method is developed for the reconstruction of velocity profiles using measured potential distributions obtained around the boundary of a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM). The method is based on the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), and is implemented in Matlab. The method assumes the velocity profile in a section of a pipe as a superposition of polynomials up to sixth order. Each polynomial component is defined along a specific direction in the plane of the pipe section. For a potential distribution obtained in a uniform magnetic field, this direction is not unique for quadratic and higher-order components; thus, multiple possible solutions exist for the reconstructed velocity profile. A procedure for choosing the optimum velocity profile is proposed. It is applicable for single-phase or two-phase flows, and requires measurement of the potential distribution in a non-uniform magnetic field. The potential distribution in this non-uniform magnetic field is also calculated for the possible solutions using weight values. Then, the velocity profile with the calculated potential distribution which is closest to the measured one provides the optimum solution. The reliability of the method is first demonstrated by reconstructing an artificial velocity profile defined by polynomial functions. Next, velocity profiles in different two-phase flows, based on results from the literature, are used to define the input velocity fields. In all cases, COMSOL Multiphysics is used to model the physical specifications of the EMFM and to simulate the measurements; thus, COMSOL simulations produce the potential distributions on the internal circumference of the flow pipe. These potential distributions serve as inputs for the analytical method. The reconstructed velocity profiles show satisfactory agreement with the input velocity profiles. The method described in this paper is most suitable for stratified flows and is not applicable to axisymmetric flows in

  13. A small-scale comparison of Iceland scallop size distributions obtained from a camera based autonomous underwater vehicle and dredge survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warsha Singh

    Full Text Available An approach is developed to estimate size of Iceland scallop shells from AUV photos. A small-scale camera based AUV survey of Iceland scallops was conducted at a defined site off West Iceland. Prior to height estimation of the identified shells, the distortions introduced by the vehicle orientation and the camera lens were corrected. The average AUV pitch and roll was 1.3 and 2.3 deg that resulted in <2% error in ground distance rendering these effects negligible. A quadratic polynomial model was identified for lens distortion correction. This model successfully predicted a theoretical grid from a frame photographed underwater, representing the inherent lens distortion. The predicted shell heights were scaled for the distance from the bottom at which the photos were taken. This approach was validated by height estimation of scallops of known sizes. An underestimation of approximately 0.5 cm was seen, which could be attributed to pixel error, where each pixel represented 0.24 x 0.27 cm. After correcting for this difference the estimated heights ranged from 3.8-9.3 cm. A comparison of the height-distribution from a small-scale dredge survey carried out in the vicinity showed non-overlapping peaks in size distribution, with scallops of a broader size range visible in the AUV survey. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate any underlying bias and to validate how representative these surveys are of the true population. The low resolution images made identification of smaller scallops difficult. Overall, the observations of very few small scallops in both surveys could be attributed to low recruitment levels in the recent years due to the known scallop parasite outbreak in the region.

  14. A small-scale comparison of Iceland scallop size distributions obtained from a camera based autonomous underwater vehicle and dredge survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Warsha; Örnólfsdóttir, Erla B; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    An approach is developed to estimate size of Iceland scallop shells from AUV photos. A small-scale camera based AUV survey of Iceland scallops was conducted at a defined site off West Iceland. Prior to height estimation of the identified shells, the distortions introduced by the vehicle orientation and the camera lens were corrected. The average AUV pitch and roll was 1.3 and 2.3 deg that resulted in <2% error in ground distance rendering these effects negligible. A quadratic polynomial model was identified for lens distortion correction. This model successfully predicted a theoretical grid from a frame photographed underwater, representing the inherent lens distortion. The predicted shell heights were scaled for the distance from the bottom at which the photos were taken. This approach was validated by height estimation of scallops of known sizes. An underestimation of approximately 0.5 cm was seen, which could be attributed to pixel error, where each pixel represented 0.24 x 0.27 cm. After correcting for this difference the estimated heights ranged from 3.8-9.3 cm. A comparison of the height-distribution from a small-scale dredge survey carried out in the vicinity showed non-overlapping peaks in size distribution, with scallops of a broader size range visible in the AUV survey. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate any underlying bias and to validate how representative these surveys are of the true population. The low resolution images made identification of smaller scallops difficult. Overall, the observations of very few small scallops in both surveys could be attributed to low recruitment levels in the recent years due to the known scallop parasite outbreak in the region.

  15. Final Report (1994 to 1996) Diagnostic of the Spatial and Velocity Distribution of Alpha Particles in Tokamak Fusion Reactor using Beat-wave Generated Lower Hybrid Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D.Q.; Horton, R.D.; Evans, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The alpha particles in a fusion reactor play a key role in the sustaining the fusion reaction. It is the heating provided by the alpha particles that help a fusion reactor operating in the ignition regime. It is, therefore, essential to understand the behavior of the alpha population both in real space and velocity space in order to design the optimal confinement device for fusion application. Moreover, the alphas represent a strong source of free energy that may generate plasma instabilities. Theoretical studies has identified the Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) as an instability that can be excited by the alpha population in a toroidal device. Since the alpha has an energy of 3.5 MeV, a good confinement device will retain it in the interior of the plasma. Therefore, alpha measurement system need to probe the interior of a high density plasma. Due to the conducting nature of a plasma, wave with frequencies below the plasma frequency can not penetrate into the interior of the plasma where the alphas reside. This project uses a wave that can interact with the perpendicular motion of the alphas to probe its characteristics. However, this wave (the lower hybrid wave) is below the plasma frequency and can not be directly launched from the plasma edge. This project was designed to non-linearly excite the lower hybrid in the interior of a magnetized plasma and measure its interaction with a fast ion population

  16. Effects of Short-Term Exenatide Treatment on Regional Fat Distribution, Glycated Hemoglobin Levels, and Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity of Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Young Hong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMost type 2 diabetes mellitus patients are obese and have obesity related vascular complications. Exenatide treatment is well known for both decreasing glycated hemoglobin levels and reduction in body weight. So, this study aimed to determine the effects of exenatide on body composition, glycated hemoglobin levels, and vascular stiffness in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.MethodsFor 1 month, 32 obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were administered 5 µg of exenatide twice daily. The dosage was then increased to 10 µg. Patients' height, body weight, glycated hemoglobin levels, lipid profile, pulse wave velocity (PWV, body mass index, fat mass, and muscle mass were measured by using Inbody at baseline and after 3 months of treatment.ResultsAfter 3 months of treatment, glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly (P=0.007. Triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein levels decreased, while aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were no change. Body weight, and fat mass decreased significantly (P=0.002 and P=0.001, respectively, while interestingly, muscle mass did not decrease (P=0.289. In addition to, Waist-to-hip ratio and aortic PWV decreased significantly (P=0.006 and P=0.001, respectively.ConclusionEffects of short term exenatide use in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus with cardiometabolic high risk patients not only reduced body weight without muscle mass loss, body fat mass, and glycated hemoglobin levels but also improved aortic PWV in accordance with waist to hip ratio.

  17. Velocity selection for ultra-cold atoms using bimodal mazer cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irshad, A.; Qamar, S.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss the velocity selection of ultra-cold three-level atoms in Λ configuration using a micromazer. Our model is the same as discussed by Arun et al., for mazer action in a bimodal cavity. We have shown that significantly narrowed velocity distribution of ultra-cold atoms can be obtained in this system due to the presence of dark states. (author)

  18. Cold dark matter. 2: Spatial and velocity statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelb, James M.; Bertschinger, Edmund

    1994-01-01

    We examine high-resolution gravitational N-body simulations of the omega = 1 cold dark matter (CDM) model in order to determine whether there is any normalization of the initial density fluctuation spectrum that yields acceptable results for galaxy clustering and velocities. Dense dark matter halos in the evolved mass distribution are identified with luminous galaxies; the most massive halos are also considered as sites for galaxy groups, with a range of possibilities explored for the group mass-to-light ratios. We verify the earlier conclusions of White et al. (1987) for the low-amplitude (high-bias) CDM model-the galaxy correlation function is marginally acceptable but that there are too many galaxies. We also show that the peak biasing method does not accurately reproduce the results obtained using dense halos identified in the simulations themselves. The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) anisotropy implies a higher normalization, resulting in problems with excessive pairwise galaxy velocity dispersion unless a strong velocity bias is present. Although we confirm the strong velocity bias of halos reported by Couchman & Carlberg (1992), we show that the galaxy motions are still too large on small scales. We find no amplitude for which the CDM model can reconcile simultaneously and galaxy correlation function, the low pairwise velocity dispersion, and the richness distribution of groups and clusters. With the normalization implied by COBE, the CDM spectrum has too much power on small scales if omega = 1.

  19. GPU-based, parallel-line, omni-directional integration of measured acceleration field to obtain the 3D pressure distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    A PIV based method to reconstruct the volumetric pressure field by direct integration of the 3D material acceleration directions has been developed. Extending the 2D virtual-boundary omni-directional method (Omni2D, Liu & Katz, 2013), the new 3D parallel-line omni-directional method (Omni3D) integrates the material acceleration along parallel lines aligned in multiple directions. Their angles are set by a spherical virtual grid. The integration is parallelized on a Tesla K40c GPU, which reduced the computing time from three hours to one minute for a single realization. To validate its performance, this method is utilized to calculate the 3D pressure fields in isotropic turbulence and channel flow using the JHU DNS Databases (http://turbulence.pha.jhu.edu). Both integration of the DNS acceleration as well as acceleration from synthetic 3D particles are tested. Results are compared to other method, e.g. solution to the Pressure Poisson Equation (e.g. PPE, Ghaemi et al., 2012) with Bernoulli based Dirichlet boundary conditions, and the Omni2D method. The error in Omni3D prediction is uniformly low, and its sensitivity to acceleration errors is local. It agrees with the PPE/Bernoulli prediction away from the Dirichlet boundary. The Omni3D method is also applied to experimental data obtained using tomographic PIV, and results are correlated with deformation of a compliant wall. ONR.

  20. Velocity Profiles of Slow Blood Flow in a Narrow Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyu; Huang, Zuqia; Zhuang, Fengyuan; Zhang, Hui

    1998-04-01

    A fractal model is introduced into the slow blood motion. When blood flows slowly in a narrow tube, red cell aggregation results in the formation of an approximately cylindrical core of red cells. By introducing the fractal model and using the power law relation between area fraction φ and distance from tube axis ρ, rigorous velocity profiles of the fluid in and outside the aggregated core and of the core itself are obtained analytically for different fractal dimensions. It shows a blunted velocity distribution for a relatively large fractal dimension (D ˜ 2), which can be observed in normal blood; a pathological velocity profile for moderate dimension (D = 1), which is similar to the Segre-Silberberg effect; and a parabolic profile for negligible red cell concentration (D = 0), which likes in the Poiseuille flow. The project supported by the National Basic Research Project "Nonlinear Science", National Natural Science Foundation of China and the State Education Commission through the Foundation of Doctoral Training

  1. Prediction of residence time distributions in food processing machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Torben; Friis, Alan; Szabo, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The velocity field in a co-rotating disc scraped surface heat exchanger (CDHE) is calculated using a finite element method. The residence time distribution for the CDHE is then obtained by tracing particles introduced in the inlet.......The velocity field in a co-rotating disc scraped surface heat exchanger (CDHE) is calculated using a finite element method. The residence time distribution for the CDHE is then obtained by tracing particles introduced in the inlet....

  2. Dense velocity reconstruction from tomographic PTV with material derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Jan F. G.; Scarano, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    A method is proposed to reconstruct the instantaneous velocity field from time-resolved volumetric particle tracking velocimetry (PTV, e.g., 3D-PTV, tomographic PTV and Shake-the-Box), employing both the instantaneous velocity and the velocity material derivative of the sparse tracer particles. The constraint to the measured temporal derivative of the PTV particle tracks improves the consistency of the reconstructed velocity field. The method is christened as pouring time into space, as it leverages temporal information to increase the spatial resolution of volumetric PTV measurements. This approach becomes relevant in cases where the spatial resolution is limited by the seeding concentration. The method solves an optimization problem to find the vorticity and velocity fields that minimize a cost function, which includes next to instantaneous velocity, also the velocity material derivative. The velocity and its material derivative are related through the vorticity transport equation, and the cost function is minimized using the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) algorithm. The procedure is assessed numerically with a simulated PTV experiment in a turbulent boundary layer from a direct numerical simulation (DNS). The experimental validation considers a tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiment in a similar turbulent boundary layer and the additional case of a jet flow. The proposed technique (`vortex-in-cell plus', VIC+) is compared to tomographic PIV analysis (3D iterative cross-correlation), PTV interpolation methods (linear and adaptive Gaussian windowing) and to vortex-in-cell (VIC) interpolation without the material derivative. A visible increase in resolved details in the turbulent structures is obtained with the VIC+ approach, both in numerical simulations and experiments. This results in a more accurate determination of the turbulent stresses distribution in turbulent boundary layer investigations. Data from a jet

  3. Nerve conduction velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see ...

  4. A new maximum likelihood blood velocity estimator incorporating spatial and temporal correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaikjer, Malene; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2001-01-01

    and space. This paper presents a new estimator (STC-MLE), which incorporates the correlation property. It is an expansion of the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) developed by Ferrara et al. With the MLE a cross-correlation analysis between consecutive RF-lines on complex form is carried out for a range...... of possible velocities. In the new estimator an additional similarity investigation for each evaluated velocity and the available velocity estimates in a temporal (between frames) and spatial (within frames) neighborhood is performed. An a priori probability density term in the distribution...... of the observations gives a probability measure of the correlation between the velocities. Both the MLE and the STC-MLE have been evaluated on simulated and in-vivo RF-data obtained from the carotid artery. Using the MLE 4.1% of the estimates deviate significantly from the true velocities, when the performance...

  5. The velocity of sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the work carried out on the velocity of sound in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to determine the velocity measurements are described. Tables are presented of reported data on the velocity of sound in lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. A formula is given for alkali metals, in which the sound velocity is a function of shear viscosity, atomic mass and atomic volume. (U.K.)

  6. Estimation of the Vertical Distribution of Radiocesium in Soil on the Basis of the Characteristics of Gamma-Ray Spectra Obtained via Aerial Radiation Monitoring Using an Unmanned Helicopter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Kotaro; Sasaki, Miyuki; Ishida, Mutsushi; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Nishimura, Taku; Sanada, Yukihisa

    2017-08-17

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the vertical distribution of radiocesium in soil has been investigated to better understand the behavior of radiocesium in the environment. The typical method used for measuring the vertical distribution of radiocesium is troublesome because it requires collection and measurement of the activity of soil samples. In this study, we established a method of estimating the vertical distribution of radiocesium by focusing on the characteristics of gamma-ray spectra obtained via aerial radiation monitoring using an unmanned helicopter. The estimates are based on actual measurement data collected at an extended farm. In this method, the change in the ratio of direct gamma rays to scattered gamma rays at various depths in the soil was utilized to quantify the vertical distribution of radiocesium. The results show a positive correlation between the abovementioned and the actual vertical distributions of radiocesium measured in the soil samples. A vertical distribution map was created on the basis of this ratio using a simple equation derived from the abovementioned correlation. This technique can provide a novel approach for effective selection of high-priority areas that require decontamination.

  7. Estimation of the Vertical Distribution of Radiocesium in Soil on the Basis of the Characteristics of Gamma-Ray Spectra Obtained via Aerial Radiation Monitoring Using an Unmanned Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Kotaro; Sasaki, Miyuki; Ishida, Mutsushi; Sanada, Yukihisa

    2017-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the vertical distribution of radiocesium in soil has been investigated to better understand the behavior of radiocesium in the environment. The typical method used for measuring the vertical distribution of radiocesium is troublesome because it requires collection and measurement of the activity of soil samples. In this study, we established a method of estimating the vertical distribution of radiocesium by focusing on the characteristics of gamma-ray spectra obtained via aerial radiation monitoring using an unmanned helicopter. The estimates are based on actual measurement data collected at an extended farm. In this method, the change in the ratio of direct gamma rays to scattered gamma rays at various depths in the soil was utilized to quantify the vertical distribution of radiocesium. The results show a positive correlation between the abovementioned and the actual vertical distributions of radiocesium measured in the soil samples. A vertical distribution map was created on the basis of this ratio using a simple equation derived from the abovementioned correlation. This technique can provide a novel approach for effective selection of high-priority areas that require decontamination. PMID:28817098

  8. Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....

  9. Consideration of wear rates at high velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Chad S.

    The development of the research presented here is one in which high velocity relative sliding motion between two bodies in contact has been considered. Overall, the wear environment is truly three-dimensional. The attempt to characterize three-dimensional wear was not economically feasible because it must be analyzed at the micro-mechanical level to get results. Thus, an engineering approximation was carried out. This approximation was based on a metallographic study identifying the need to include viscoplasticity constitutive material models, coefficient of friction, relationships between the normal load and velocity, and the need to understand wave propagation. A sled test run at the Holloman High Speed Test Track (HHSTT) was considered for the determination of high velocity wear rates. In order to adequately characterize high velocity wear, it was necessary to formulate a numerical model that contained all of the physical events present. The experimental results of a VascoMax 300 maraging steel slipper sliding on an AISI 1080 steel rail during a January 2008 sled test mission were analyzed. During this rocket sled test, the slipper traveled 5,816 meters in 8.14 seconds and reached a maximum velocity of 1,530 m/s. This type of environment was never considered previously in terms of wear evaluation. Each of the features of the metallography were obtained through micro-mechanical experimental techniques. The byproduct of this analysis is that it is now possible to formulate a model that contains viscoplasticity, asperity collisions, temperature and frictional features. Based on the observations of the metallographic analysis, these necessary features have been included in the numerical model, which makes use of a time-dynamic program which follows the movement of a slipper during its experimental test run. The resulting velocity and pressure functions of time have been implemented in the explicit finite element code, ABAQUS. Two-dimensional, plane strain models

  10. An improved estimation and focusing scheme for vector velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Munk, Peter

    1999-01-01

    to reduce spatial velocity dispersion. Examples of different velocity vector conditions are shown using the Field II simulation program. A relative accuracy of 10.1 % is obtained for the lateral velocity estimates for a parabolic velocity profile for a flow perpendicular to the ultrasound beam and a signal...

  11. A study of the river velocity measurement techniques and analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung Yang, Han; Lun Chiang, Jie

    2013-04-01

    Velocity measurement technology can be traced back to the pitot tube velocity measurement method in the 18th century and today's velocity measurement technology use the acoustic and radar technology, with the Doppler principle developed technology advances, in order to develop the measurement method is more suitable for the measurement of velocity, the purpose is to get a more accurate measurement data and with the surface velocity theory, the maximum velocity theory and the indicator theory to obtain the mean velocity. As the main research direction of this article is to review the literature of the velocity measurement techniques and analysis methods, and to explore the applicability of the measurement method of the velocity measurement instruments, and then to describe the advantages and disadvantages of the different mean velocity profiles analysis method. Adequate review of the references of this study will be able to provide a reference for follow-up study of the velocity measurement. Review velocity measurement literature that different velocity measurement is required to follow the different flow conditions measured be upgraded its accuracy, because each flow rate measurement method has its advantages and disadvantages. Traditional velocity instrument can be used at low flow and RiverRAD microwave radar or imaging technology measurement method may be applied in high flow. In the tidal river can use the ADCP to quickly measure river vertical velocity distribution. In addition, urban rivers may be used the CW radar to set up on the bridge, and wide rivers can be used RiverRAD microwave radar to measure the velocities. Review the relevant literature also found that using Ultrasonic Doppler Current Profiler with the Chiu's theory to the velocity of observing automation work can save manpower and resources to improve measurement accuracy, reduce the risk of measurement, but the great variability of river characteristics in Taiwan and a lot of drifting floating

  12. Algorithms for estimating blood velocities using ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2000-01-01

    Ultrasound has been used intensively for the last 15 years for studying the hemodynamics of the human body. Systems for determining both the velocity distribution at one point of interest (spectral systems) and for displaying a map of velocity in real time have been constructed. A number of schemes...... have been developed for performing the estimation, and the various approaches are described. The current systems only display the velocity along the ultrasound beam direction and a velocity transverse to the beam is not detected. This is a major problem in these systems, since most blood vessels...... are parallel to the skin surface. Angling the transducer will often disturb the flow, and new techniques for finding transverse velocities are needed. The various approaches for determining transverse velocities will be explained. This includes techniques using two-dimensional correlation (speckle tracking...

  13. The OH + D2 --> HOD + D angle-velocity distribution: quasi-classical trajectory calculations on the YZCL2 and WSLFH potential energy surfaces and comparison with experiments at ET = 0.28 eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, José Daniel; Martínez, Rodrigo; Hernando, Jordi; González, Miguel

    2009-12-28

    The angle-velocity distribution (HOD) of the OH + D(2) reaction at a relative translational energy of 0.28 eV has been calculated using the quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) method on the two most recent potential energy surfaces available (YZCL2 and WSLFH PESs), widely extending a previous investigation of our group. Comparison with the high resolution experiments of Davis and co-workers (Science, 2000, 290, 958) shows that the structures (peaks) found in the relative translational energy distributions of products could not be satisfactorily reproduced in the calculations, probably due to the classical nature of the QCT method and the importance of quantum effects. The calculations, however, worked quite well for other properties. Overall, both surfaces led to similar results, although the YZCL2 surface is more accurate to describe the H(3)O PES, as derived from comparison with high level ab initio results. The differences observed in the QCT calculations were interpreted considering the somewhat larger anisotropy of the YZCL2 PES when compared with the WSLFH PES.

  14. Three-dimensional P velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle under Beijing region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, A.; Liu, F.; Sun, Y.

    1980-04-01

    By use of the teleseismic P arrival times at 15 stations of the Beijing network for 120 events distributed over various azimuths, we studied the three-dimensional P velocity structure under the Beijing region. In calculating the theoretic travel time, we adopted the source parameters given in BISC, and used the J-B model as the standard model of earth. On inversion, we adopted singular value decomposition as a generalized inversion package, which can be used for solving very large over-determined systems of equations Gm = t without resorting to normal equations G/sup T/Gm = G/sup T/t. The results are that within the crust and upper mantle under the Beijing region there are clear lateral differences. In the results obtained by use of data from 1972 to 1975, it can be seen that there are three different zones of P-velocity. In the southeast Beijing region, P velocity is lower than that of the normal model by 10 to 14% within the crust, and by 8 to 9% within the upper mantle. The northwest Beijing region is a higher-velocity zone, within which the average P-velocity is faster than that of the normal model by about 9%. It disappears after entering into the upper mantle. The central part of this region is a normal zone. On the surface, the distribution of these P velocity variations corresponds approximately to the distribution of the over-burden. But in the deeper region, the distribution of velocity variation agrees with the distribution of seismicity. It is interesting to note that the hypocenters of several major earthquakes in this region, e.g., the Sanhe-Pinggu earthquake (1679, M = 8), the Shacheng earthquake (1730, M = 6-3/4) and the Tangshan earthquake (1976, M = 7.8), are all located very close to this boundary of these P-velocity variation zones.

  15. Test and Numerical Analysis for Penetration Residual Velocity of Bullet Considering Failure Strain Uncertainty of Composite Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Myungseok; Lee, Minhyung [Sejong Univ., Sejong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The ballistic performance data of composite materials is distributed due to material inhomogeneity. In this paper, the uncertainty in residual velocity is obtained experimentally, and a method of predicting it is established numerically for the high-speed impact of a bullet into laminated composites. First, the failure strain distribution was obtained by conducting a tensile test using 10 specimens. Next, a ballistic impact test was carried out for the impact of a fragment-simulating projectile (FSP) bullet with 4ply ([0/90]s) and 8ply ([0/90/0/90]s) glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) plates. Eighteen shots were made at the same impact velocity and the residual velocities were obtained. Finally, simulations were conducted to predict the residual velocities by using the failure strain distributions that were obtained from the tensile test. For this simulation, two impact velocities were chosen at 411.7m/s (4ply) and 592.5m/s (8ply). The simulation results show that the predicted residual velocities are in close agreement with test results. Additionally, the modeling of a composite plate with layered solid elements requires less calculation time than modeling with solid elements.

  16. Radial velocities of RR Lyrae stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, S.L.; Barnes, T.G. III

    1985-01-01

    283 spectra of 57 RR Lyrae stars have been obtained using the 2.1-m telescope at McDonald Observatory. Radial velocities were determined using a software cross-correlation technique. New mean radial velocities were determined for 46 of the stars. 11 references

  17. Velocity Segregation and Systematic Biases In Velocity Dispersion Estimates with the SPT-GMOS Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Matthew. B.; Zengo, Kyle; Ruel, Jonathan; Benson, Bradford A.; Bleem, Lindsey E.; Bocquet, Sebastian; Bulbul, Esra; Brodwin, Mark; Capasso, Raffaella; Chiu, I.-non; McDonald, Michael; Rapetti, David; Saro, Alex; Stalder, Brian; Stark, Antony A.; Strazzullo, Veronica; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Zenteno, Alfredo

    2017-03-01

    The velocity distribution of galaxies in clusters is not universal; rather, galaxies are segregated according to their spectral type and relative luminosity. We examine the velocity distributions of different populations of galaxies within 89 Sunyaev Zel’dovich (SZ) selected galaxy clusters spanning 0.28GMOS spectroscopic survey, supplemented by additional published spectroscopy, resulting in a final spectroscopic sample of 4148 galaxy spectra—2868 cluster members. The velocity dispersion of star-forming cluster galaxies is 17 ± 4% greater than that of passive cluster galaxies, and the velocity dispersion of bright (m< {m}* -0.5) cluster galaxies is 11 ± 4% lower than the velocity dispersion of our total member population. We find good agreement with simulations regarding the shape of the relationship between the measured velocity dispersion and the fraction of passive versus star-forming galaxies used to measure it, but we find a small offset between this relationship as measured in data and simulations, which suggests that our dispersions are systematically low by as much as 3% relative to simulations. We argue that this offset could be interpreted as a measurement of the effective velocity bias that describes the ratio of our observed velocity dispersions and the intrinsic velocity dispersion of dark matter particles in a published simulation result. Measuring velocity bias in this way suggests that large spectroscopic surveys can improve dispersion-based mass-observable scaling relations for cosmology even in the face of velocity biases, by quantifying and ultimately calibrating them out.

  18. Cap Bubble Drift Velocity in a Confined Test Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaodong Sun; Seungjin Kim; Mamoru Ishii; Lincoln, Frank W.; Beus, Stephen G.

    2002-01-01

    In the two-group interfacial area transport equation, bubbles are categorized into two groups, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as group 1 and cap/slug/churn-turbulent bubbles as group 2. The bubble rise velocities for both groups of bubbles may be estimated by the drift flux model by applying different distribution parameters and drift velocities for both groups. However, the drift velocity for group 2 bubbles is not always applicable (when the wall effect becomes important) as in the current test loop of interest where the flow channel is confined by two parallel flat walls, with a dimension of 200-mm in width and 10-mm in gap. The previous experiments indicated that no stable slug flow existed in this test section, which was designed to permit visualization of the flow patterns and bubble characteristics without the distortion associated with curved surfaces. In fact, distorted cap bubbly and churn-turbulent flow was observed. Therefore, it is essential to developed a correlation for cap bubble drift velocity in this confined flow channel. Since the rise velocity of a cap bubble depends on its size, a high-speed movie camera is used to capture images of cap bubbles to obtain the bubble size information. Meanwhile, the rise velocity of cap and elongated bubbles (called cap bubbles hereafter) is investigated by examining the captured images frame by frame. As a result, the conventional correlation of drift velocity for slug bubbles is modified and acceptable agreements between the measurements and correlation estimation are achieved

  19. The new double energy-velocity spectrometer VERDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Kaj; Frégeau, Marc Olivier; Al-Adili, Ali; Göök, Alf; Gustavsson, Cecilia; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Oberstedt, Stephan; Pomp, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    VERDI (VElocity foR Direct particle Identification) is a fission-fragment spectrometer recently put into operation at JRC-Geel. It allows measuring the kinetic energy and velocity of both fission fragments simultaneously. The velocity provides information about the pre-neutron mass of each fission fragment when isotropic prompt-neutron emission from the fragments is assumed. The kinetic energy, in combination with the velocity, provides the post-neutron mass. From the difference between pre- and post-neutron masses, the number of neutrons emitted by each fragment can be determined. Multiplicity as a function of fragment mass and total kinetic energy is one important ingredient, essential for understanding the sharing of excitation energy between fission fragments at scission, and may be used to benchmark nuclear de-excitation models. The VERDI spectrometer design is a compromise between geometrical efficiency and mass resolution. The spectrometer consists of an electron detector located close to the target and two arrays of silicon detectors, each located 50 cm away from the target. In the present configuration pre-neutron and post-neutron mass distributions are in good agreement with reference data were obtained. Our latest measurements performed with spontaneously fissioning 252Cf is presented along with the developed calibration procedure to obtain pulse height defect and plasma delay time corrections.

  20. On whistler-mode group velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazhin, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical of the group velocity of whistler-mode waves propagating parallel to the magnetic field in a hot anisotropic plasma is presented. Some simple approximate formulae, which can be used for the magnetospheric applications, are derived. These formulae can predict some properties of this group velocity which were not previously recognized or were obtained by numerical methods. In particular, it is pointed out that the anisotropy tends to compensate for the influence of the electron temperature on the value of the group velocity when the wave frequency is well below the electron gyrofrequency. It is predicted, that under conditions at frequencies near the electron gyrofrequency, this velocity tends towards zero

  1. Two-Dimensional Distributed Velocity Collision Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-11

    place (i.e., in the global problem space) as much as possible in an effort to simplify the process/description. Additionally, to make some of the...guide agents without collision in the vast majority of cases. NAWCWD TP 8786 31 7.0 REFERENCES 1. P. L. Franchi . “Near Misses Between

  2. ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES FOR M DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J. S.; Ramsey, L. W.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pavlenko, Y.; Barnes, J. R.; Pinfield, D. J.; Gallardo, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present spectroscopic rotation velocities (v sin i) for 56 M dwarf stars using high-resolution Hobby-Eberly Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph red spectroscopy. In addition, we have also determined photometric effective temperatures, masses, and metallicities ([Fe/H]) for some stars observed here and in the literature where we could acquire accurate parallax measurements and relevant photometry. We have increased the number of known v sin i values for mid M stars by around 80% and can confirm a weakly increasing rotation velocity with decreasing effective temperature. Our sample of v sin is peak at low velocities (∼3 km s -1 ). We find a change in the rotational velocity distribution between early M and late M stars, which is likely due to the changing field topology between partially and fully convective stars. There is also a possible further change in the rotational distribution toward the late M dwarfs where dust begins to play a role in the stellar atmospheres. We also link v sin i to age and show how it can be used to provide mid-M star age limits. When all literature velocities for M dwarfs are added to our sample, there are 198 with v sin i ≤ 10 km s -1 and 124 in the mid-to-late M star regime (M3.0-M9.5) where measuring precision optical radial velocities is difficult. In addition, we also search the spectra for any significant Hα emission or absorption. Forty three percent were found to exhibit such emission and could represent young, active objects with high levels of radial-velocity noise. We acquired two epochs of spectra for the star GJ1253 spread by almost one month and the Hα profile changed from showing no clear signs of emission, to exhibiting a clear emission peak. Four stars in our sample appear to be low-mass binaries (GJ1080, GJ3129, Gl802, and LHS3080), with both GJ3129 and Gl802 exhibiting double Hα emission features. The tables presented here will aid any future M star planet search target selection to extract stars with low v

  3. Measurement of vortex velocities over a wide range of vortex age, downstream distance and free stream velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorke, J. B.; Moffett, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted to obtain vortex velocity signatures over a wide parameter range encompassing the data conditions of several previous researchers while maintaining a common instrumentation and test facility. The generating wing panel was configured with both a revolved airfoil tip shape and a square tip shape and had a semispan aspect of 4.05/1.0 with a 121.9 cm span. Free stream velocity was varied from 6.1 m/sec to 76.2 m/sec and the vortex core velocities were measured at locations 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 chordlengths downstream of the wing trailing edge, yielding vortex ages up to 2.0 seconds. Wing pitch angles of 6, 8, 9 and 12 deg were investigated. Detailed surface pressure distributions and wing force measurements were obtained for each wing tip configuration. Correlation with vortex velocity data taken in previous experiments is good. During the rollup process, vortex core parameters appear to be dependent primarily on vortex age. Trending in the plateau and decay regions is more complex and the machanisms appear to be more unstable.

  4. Axial and radial velocities in the creeping flow in a pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuykov Andrey L'vovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to analytical study of transformation fields of axial and radial velocities in uneven steady creeping flow of a Newtonian fluid in the initial portion of the cylindrical channel. It is shown that the velocity field of the flow is two-dimensional and determined by the stream function. The article is a continuation of a series of papers, where normalized analytic functions of radial axial distributions in uneven steady creeping flow in a cylindrical tube with azimuthal vorticity and stream function were obtained. There is Poiseuille profile for the axial velocity in the uniform motion of a fluid at an infinite distance from the entrance of the pipe (at x = ∞, here taken equal to zero radial velocity. There is uniform distribution of the axial velocity in the cross section at the tube inlet at x = 0, at which the axial velocity is constant along the current radius. Due to the axial symmetry of the flow on the axis of the pipe (at r = 0, the radial velocities and the partial derivative of the axial velocity along the radius, corresponding to the condition of the soft function extremum, are equal to zero. The authors stated vanishing of the velocity of the fluid on the walls of the pipe (at r = R , where R - radius of the tube due to its viscous sticking and tightness of the walls. The condition of conservation of volume flow along the tube was also accepted. All the solutions are obtained in the form of the Fourier - Bessel. It is shown that the hydraulic losses at uniform creeping flow of a Newtonian fluid correspond to Poiseuille - Hagen formula.

  5. The Rings Survey. I. Hα and H I Velocity Maps of Galaxy NGC 2280

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Carl J.; Williams, T. B.; Spekkens, Kristine; Lee-Waddell, K.; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Sellwood, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    Precise measurements of gas kinematics in the disk of a spiral galaxy can be used to estimate its mass distribution. The Southern African Large Telescope has a large collecting area and field of view, and is equipped with a Fabry-Pérot (FP) interferometer that can measure gas kinematics in a galaxy from the Hα line. To take advantage of this capability, we have constructed a sample of 19 nearby spiral galaxies, the RSS Imaging and Spectroscopy Nearby Galaxy Survey, as targets for detailed study of their mass distributions and have collected much of the needed data. In this paper, we present velocity maps produced from Hα FP interferometry and H i aperture synthesis for one of these galaxies, NGC 2280, and show that the two velocity measurements are generally in excellent agreement. Minor differences can mostly be attributed to the different spatial distributions of the excited and neutral gas in this galaxy, but we do detect some anomalous velocities in our Hα velocity map of the kind that have previously been detected in other galaxies. Models produced from our two velocity maps agree well with each other and our estimates of the systemic velocity and projection angles confirm previous measurements of these quantities for NGC 2280. Based in part on observations obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) program 2011-3-RU-003.

  6. A glance at velocity structure of Izmir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özer, Çağlar, E-mail: caglar.ozer@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Engineering, Geophysical Engineering Department, Izmir (Turkey); Dokuz Eylul University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Geophysical Engineering, Izmir (Turkey); Polat, Orhan, E-mail: orhan.polat@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Engineering, Geophysical Engineering Department, Izmir (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    In this study; we investigated velocity structure of Izmir and surroundings. We used local earthquake data which was recorded by different type of instruments and obtained high resolution 3D sections. We selected more than 400 earthquakes which were occurred between 2010 and 2013. Examined tomographic sections especially in Izmir along coastal areas (Mavisehir-Inciraltı); revealed the low speed zone. Along this low-speed zone; it is consistent with the results obtained from the stratigraphic section and surface geology. While; low velocity zones are associated with faults and water content; high velocity is related to magmatic rocks or compact rocks. Along Karsıyaka, Seferihisar, Orhanlı, Izmir fault zones; low P velocity was observed. When examined higher elevations of the topography; which are composed of soured magmatic material is dominated by high P velocity. In all horizontal sections; resolution decreasing with increasing depth. The reason for this; the reduction of earthquakes causes ray tracing problems.

  7. Water velocity meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C. W.; Smith, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive drag sphere velocity meter with a zero to 6 ft/sec range measures steady-state flow. When combined with appropriate data acquisition system, it is suited to applications where large numbers of simultaneous measurements are needed for current mapping or velocity profile determination.

  8. Estimation of vector velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...

  9. Determination of the filtration velocities and mean velocity in ground waters using radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran P, Oscar; Diaz V, Francisco; Heresi M, Nelida

    1994-01-01

    An experimental method to determine filtration, or, Darcy velocity and mean velocity in underground waters using radiotracers, is described. After selecting the most appropriate tracers, from 6 chemical compounds, to measure water velocity, a method to measure filtration velocity was developed. By fully labelling the water column with 2 radioisotopes, Br and tritium, almost identical values were obtained for the aquifer filtration velocity in the sounding S1. This value was 0.04 m/d. Field porosity was calculated at 11% and mean velocity at 0.37 m.d. With the filtration velocity value and knowing the hydraulic variation between the soundings S1 and S2 placed at 10 meters, field permeability was estimated at 2.4 x 10 m/s. (author)

  10. The species velocity of trees in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, B. D.; Napier, J.; de Lafontaine, G.; Heath, K.; Li, B.; Hu, F.; Greenberg, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has motivated interest in the paleo record to enhance our knowledge about past vegetation responses to climate change and help understand potential responses in the future. Additionally, polar regions currently experience the most rapid rates of climate change globally, prompting concern over changes in the ecological composition of high latitude ecosystems. Recent analyses have attempted to construct methods to estimate a species' ability to track climate change by computing climate velocity; a measure of the rate of climate displacement across a landscape which may indicate the speed an organism must migrate to keep pace with climate change. However, a challenge to using climate velocity in understanding range shifts is a lack of species-specificity in the velocity calculations: climate velocity does not actually use any species data in its analysis. To solve the shortcomings of climate velocity in estimating species displacement rates, we computed the "species velocity" of white spruce, green and grey alder populations across the state of Alaska from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to today. Species velocity represents the rate and direction a species is required to migrate to keep pace with a changing climate following the LGM. We used a species distribution model to determine past and present white spruce and alder distributions using statistically downscaled climate data at 60m. Species velocity was then derived from the change in species distribution per year by the change in distribution over Alaska (km/yr). High velocities indicate locations where the species environmental envelope is changing drastically and must disperse rapidly to survive climate change. As a result, high velocity regions are more vulnerable to distribution shifts and higher risk of local extinction. Conversely, low species velocities indicate locations where the local climate envelope is shifting relatively slowly, reducing the stress to disperse quickly

  11. Consideration of some difficulties in migration velocity analysis; Migration velocity analysis no shomondai ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akama, K [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center; Matsuoka, T [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Concerning migration velocity analysis in the seismic exploration method, two typical techniques, out of velocity analysis techniques using residual moveout in the CIP gather, are verified. Deregowski`s method uses pre-stacking deep-level migration records for velocity analysis to obtain velocities free of spatial inconsistency and not dependent on the velocity structure. This method is very like the conventional DMO velocity analysis method and is easy to understand intuitively. In this method, however, error is apt to be aggravated in the process of obtaining the depth-sector velocity from the time-RMS velocity. Al-Yahya`s method formulates the moveout residual in the CIP gather. This assumes horizontal stratification and a small residual velocity, however, and fails to guarantee convergence in the case of a steep structure or a grave model error. In the updating of the velocity model, in addition, it has to maintain required accuracy and, at the same time, incorporate smoothing to ensure not to deteriorate high convergence. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Velocity Feedback Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Choi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Transient response such as ringing in a control system can be reduced or removed by velocity feedback. It is a useful control technique that should be covered in the relevant engineering laboratory courses. We developed velocity feedback experiments using two different low cost technologies, viz., operational amplifiers and microcontrollers. These experiments can be easily integrated into laboratory courses on feedback control systems or microcontroller applications. The intent of developing these experiments was to illustrate the ringing problem and to offer effective, low cost solutions for removing such problem. In this paper the pedagogical approach for these velocity feedback experiments was described. The advantages and disadvantages of the two different implementation of velocity feedback were discussed also.

  13. The critical ionization velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.

    1980-06-01

    The critical ionization velocity effect was first proposed in the context of space plasmas. This effect occurs for a neutral gas moving through a magnetized plasma and leads to rapid ionization and braking of the relative motion when a marginal velocity, 'the critical velocity', is exceeded. Laboratory experiments have clearly established the significance of the critical velocity and have provided evidence for an underlying mechanism which relies on the combined action of electron impact ionization and a collective plasma interaction heating electrons. There is experimental support for such a mechanism based on the heating of electrons by the modified two-stream instability as part of a feedback process. Several applications to space plasmas have been proposed and the possibility of space experiments has been discussed. (author)

  14. High Velocity Gas Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  15. 3D shear wave velocity structure revealed with ambient noise tomography on a DAS array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X.; Thurber, C. H.; Wang, H. F.; Fratta, D.

    2017-12-01

    An 8700-m Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) cable was deployed at Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada in March 2016 in a 1.5 by 0.5 km study area. The layout of the DAS array was designed with a zig-zag geometry to obtain relatively uniform areal and varied angular coverage, providing very dense coverage with a one-meter channel spacing. This array continuously recorded signals of a vibroseis truck, earthquakes, and traffic noise during the 15-day deployment. As shown in a previous study (Zeng et al., 2017), ambient noise tomography can be applied to DAS continuous records to image shear wave velocity structure in the near surface. To avoid effects of the vibroseis truck operation, only continuous data recorded during the nighttime was used to compute noise cross-correlation functions for channel pairs within a given linear segment. The frequency band of whitening was set at 5 to 15 Hz and the length of the cross-correlation time window was set to 60 second. The phase velocities were determined using the multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) methodology. The phase velocity dispersion curve was then used to invert for shear wave velocity profiles. A preliminarily velocity model at Brady's Hot Springs (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2015) was used as the starting model and the sensitivity kernels of Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities were computed with this model. As the sensitivity kernel shows, shear wave velocity in the top 200 m can be constrained with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities in our frequency band. With the picked phase velocity data, the shear wave velocity structure can be obtained via Occam's inversion (Constable et al., 1987; Lai 1998). Shear wave velocity gradually increases with depth and it is generally faster than the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (2015) model. Furthermore, that model has limiting constraints at shallow depth. The strong spatial variation is interpreted to reflect the different sediments and

  16. Kinematics of Local, High-Velocity K dwarfs in the SUPERBLINK Proper Motion Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bokyoung; Lepine, Sebastien

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of the kinematics of 345,480 K stars within 2 kpc of the Sun, based on data from the SUPERBLINK catalog of stars with high proper motions (> 40 mas/yr), combined with data from the 2MASS survey and from the first GAIA release, which together yields proper motions accurate to ~2 mas/yr. All K dwarfs were selected based on their G-K colors, and photometric distances were estimated from a re-calibrated color-magnitude relationship for K dwarfs. We plot transverse velocities VT in various directions on the sky, to examine the local distribution of K dwarfs in velocity space. We have also obtained radial velocity information for a subsample of 10,128 stars, from RAVE and SDSS DR12, which we use to construct spatial velocity (U, V, W) plots. About a third (123,350) of the stars are high-velocity K dwarfs, with motions consistent with the local Galactic halo population. Our kinematic analysis suggests that their velocity-space distribution is very uniform, and we find no evidence of substructure that might arise, e.g., from local streams or moving groups.

  17. Experimental study on liquid velocity in upward and downward two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, X.; Paranjape, S.; Kim, S.; Ozar, B.; Ishii, M.

    2003-01-01

    Local characteristics of the liquid phase in upward and downward air-water two-phase flows were experimentally investigated in a 50.8-mm inner-diameter round pipe. An integral Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) system was used to measure the axial liquid velocity and its fluctuations. No effect of the flow direction on the liquid velocity radial profile was observed in single-phase liquid benchmark experiments. Local multi-sensor conductivity probes were used to measure the radial profiles of the bubble velocity and the void fraction. The measurement results in the upward and downward two-phase flows are compared and discussed. The results in the downward flow demonstrated that the presence of the bubbles tended to flatten the liquid velocity radial profile, and the maximum liquid velocity could occur off the pipe centerline, in particular at relatively low flow rates. However, the maximum liquid velocity always occurred at the pipe center in the upward flow. Also, noticeable turbulence enhancement due to the bubbles in the two-phase flows was observed in the current experimental flow conditions. Furthermore, the distribution parameter and the void weighted area-averaged drift velocity were obtained based on the definitions

  18. Calibration of the nuclear power channels of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor obtained from the measurements of the spatial thermal neutron flux distribution in the reactor core through the irradiation of infinitely diluted gold foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Lucas Batista

    2008-01-01

    Several nuclear parameters are obtained through the gamma spectrometry of targets irradiated in a research reactor core and this is the case of the activation foils which make possible, through the measurements of the activity induced, to determine the neutron flux in the place where they had been irradiated. The power level operation of the reactor is a parameter directly proportional to the average neutron flux in the core. This work aims to get the power operation of the reactor through of spatial neutron flux distribution in the core of IPEN/MB-01 reactor by the irradiation of infinitely diluted gold foils and prudently located in its interior. These foils were made in the form of metallic alloy in concentration levels such that the phenomena of flux disturbance, as the self-shielding factors to neutrons become worthless. These activation foils has only 1% of dispersed gold atoms in an aluminium matrix content of 99% of this element. The irradiations of foils have been carried through with and without cadmium plate. The total correlation between the average thermal neutron flux obtained by irradiation of infinitely diluted activation foils and the average digital value of current of the nuclear power channels 5 and 6 (non-compensated ionization chambers - CINC), allow the calibration of the nuclear channels of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor. (author)

  19. Velocity field measurement in micro-bubble emission boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Daisuke; Saito, Yasushi; Natazuka, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Liquid inlet behavior to a heat surface in micro-bubble emission boiling (MEB) was investigated by flow measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Subcooled pool boiling experiments under atmospheric pressure were carried out using a heat surface with a diameter of 10 mm. An upper end of a heater block made of copper was used as the heat surface. Working fluid was the deionized water and the subcooling was varied from 40 K to 70 K. Three K-type thermocouples were installed in the copper block to measure the temperature gradient, and the heat flux and wall superheat were estimated from these temperature data to make a boiling curve. The flow visualization around the heat surface was carried out using a high-speed video camera and a light sheet. The microbubbles generated in the MEB were used as tracer particles and the velocity field was obtained by PIV analysis of the acquired image sequence. As a result, the higher heat fluxes than the critical heat flux could be obtained in the MEB region. In addition, the distribution characteristics of the velocity in MEB region were studied using the PIV results and the location of the stagnation point in the velocity fields was discussed. (author)

  20. Performance of a vector velocity estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1998-01-01

    tracking can be found in the literature, but no method with a satisfactory performance has been found that can be used in a commercial implementation. A method for estimation of the velocity vector is presented. Here an oscillation transverse to the ultrasound beam is generated, so that a transverse motion...... in an autocorrelation approach that yields both the axial and the lateral velocity, and thus the velocity vector. The method has the advantage that a standard array transducer and a modified digital beamformer, like those used in modern ultrasound scanners, is sufficient to obtain the information needed. The signal...

  1. Sound velocity in potassium hydroxide aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapuryan, Kh.D.; Aleksandrov, A.A.; Kochetkov, A.I.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of ultrasonic velocities in potassium hydroxide aqueous solutions are carried out within the frames of studies on improvement of water chemistry in NPP cooling systems. Method of echo pulses superposition with acoustic path length of 41.447 mm is used for measurements. The measurements are performed at 2.6 MHz frequency. Complex temperature dependence of ultrasonic velocity is determined. Ultrasonic velocity dependence on pressure is close to linear one. The formula for calculation of thermodynamic properties of the studied solutions on the basis of experimental data obtained is proposed

  2. Neutron stars velocities and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paret, Daryel Manreza; Martinez, A. Perez; Ayala, Alejandro.; Piccinelli, G.; Sanchez, A.

    2018-01-01

    We study a model that explain neutron stars velocities due to the anisotropic emission of neutrinos. Strong magnetic fields present in neutron stars are the source of the anisotropy in the system. To compute the velocity of the neutron star we model its core as composed by strange quark matter and analice the properties of a magnetized quark gas at finite temperature and density. Specifically we have obtained the electron polarization and the specific heat of magnetized fermions as a functions of the temperature, chemical potential and magnetic field which allow us to study the velocity of the neutron star as a function of these parameters.

  3. Calibration of the nuclear power channels for the cylindrical configuration of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor obtained from the measurements of the spatial neutron flux distribution in the reactor core through the irradiation of gold foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitelli, Ulysses d' Utra; Silva, Alexandre F. Povoa da; Mura, Luiz Ernesto Credidio; Aredes, Vitor Ottoni Garcia; Santos, Diogo Feliciano dos, E-mail: ubitelli@ipen.br, E-mail: alexpovoa@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The activation foil is one of the most used techniques to obtain and compare nuclear parameters from the nuclear data libraries, given by a gamma spectrometry system. Through the measurements of activity induced in the foils, it is possible to determine the neutron flux profile exactly where it has been irradiated. The power level operation of the reactor is a parameter directly proportional to the average neutron flux in the core. The objective of this work is to obtain, for a cylindrical configuration, the power generation through a spatial thermal neutron flux distribution in the core of IPEN/MB-01 Reactor, by irradiating gold foils positioned symmetrically into the core. They are put in a Lucite plate which will not interfere in the analysis of the neutron flux, because of its low microscopic absorption cross section for the analyzed neutrons. The foils are irradiated with and without cadmium covered small plates, to obtain the thermal and epithermal neutron flux, through specific equations. The correlation between the average power neutron flux, as a result of the foil's irradiation, and the average power digital neutron flux of the nuclear power channels, allows the calibration of the nuclear channels of the reactor. This same correlation was done in 2008 with the reactor in a rectangular configuration, which resulted in a specific calibration of the power level operation. This calibration cannot be used in the cylindrical configuration, because the nuclear parameters could change, which may lead to a different neutron profile. Furthermore, the precise knowledge of the power neutron flux in the core also validates the mathematics used to calculate the power neutron flux. (author)

  4. Optimal velocity difference model for a car-following theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, G.H.; Cai, X.H.; Liu, C.Q.; Cao, B.F.; Tuo, M.X.

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, we present a new optimal velocity difference model for a car-following theory based on the full velocity difference model. The linear stability condition of the new model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. The unrealistically high deceleration does not appear in OVDM. Numerical simulation of traffic dynamics shows that the new model can avoid the disadvantage of negative velocity occurred at small sensitivity coefficient λ in full velocity difference model by adjusting the coefficient of the optimal velocity difference, which shows that collision can disappear in the improved model. -- Highlights: → A new optimal velocity difference car-following model is proposed. → The effects of the optimal velocity difference on the stability of traffic flow have been explored. → The starting and braking process were carried out through simulation. → The effects of the optimal velocity difference can avoid the disadvantage of negative velocity.

  5. Experiments for obtaining field influence mass particles.

    CERN Document Server

    Yahalomi, E

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing time dilation experiments the existence of a universal field interacting with moving mass particles is obtained. It is found that mass particle changes its properties depend on its velocity relative to this universal scalar field and not on its velocity relative to the laboratory. High energy proton momentum, energy and mass were calculated obtaining new results. Experiments in high energy accelerators are suggested as additional proofs for the existence of this universal field. This universal field may explain some results of other high energy experiments.

  6. MHD free convection flow of a visco-elastic (Kuvshiniski type dusty gas through a semi infinite plate moving with velocity decreasing exponentially with time and radiative heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the study of MHD free convective flow of a visco-elastic (Kuvshinski type dusty gas through a porous medium induced by the motion of a semi-infinite flat plate under the influence of radiative heat transfer moving with velocity decreasing exponentially with time. The expressions for velocity distribution of a dusty gas and dust particles, concentration profile and temperature field are obtained. The effect of Schmidt number (Sc, Magnetic field parameter (M and Radiation parameter (N on velocity distribution of dusty gas and dust particles, concentration and temperature distribution are discussed graphically.

  7. Modified circular velocity law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeghloul, Nazim

    2018-05-01

    A modified circular velocity law is presented for a test body orbiting around a spherically symmetric mass. This law exhibits a distance scale parameter and allows to recover both usual Newtonian behaviour for lower distances and a constant velocity limit at large scale. Application to the Galaxy predicts the known behaviour and also leads to a galactic mass in accordance with the measured visible stellar mass so that additional dark matter inside the Galaxy can be avoided. It is also shown that this circular velocity law can be embedded in a geometrical description of spacetime within the standard general relativity framework upon relaxing the usual asymptotic flatness condition. This formulation allows to redefine the introduced Newtonian scale limit in term of the central mass exclusively. Moreover, a satisfactory answer to the galactic escape speed problem can be provided indicating the possibility that one can also get rid of dark matter halo outside the Galaxy.

  8. Modeling non-Fickian dispersion by use of the velocity PDF on the pore scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooshapur, Sheema; Manhart, Michael

    2015-04-01

    For obtaining a description of reactive flows in porous media, apart from the geometrical complications of resolving the velocities and scalar values, one has to deal with the additional reactive term in the transport equation. An accurate description of the interface of the reacting fluids - which is strongly influenced by dispersion- is essential for resolving this term. In REV-based simulations the reactive term needs to be modeled taking sub-REV fluctuations and possibly non-Fickian dispersion into account. Non-Fickian dispersion has been observed in strongly heterogeneous domains and in early phases of transport. A fully resolved solution of the Navier-Stokes and transport equations which yields a detailed description of the flow properties, dispersion, interfaces of fluids, etc. however, is not practical for domains containing more than a few thousand grains, due to the huge computational effort required. Through Probability Density Function (PDF) based methods, the velocity distribution in the pore space can facilitate the understanding and modelling of non-Fickian dispersion [1,2]. Our aim is to model the transition between non-Fickian and Fickian dispersion in a random sphere pack within the framework of a PDF based transport model proposed by Meyer and Tchelepi [1,3]. They proposed a stochastic transport model where velocity components of tracer particles are represented by a continuous Markovian stochastic process. In addition to [3], we consider the effects of pore scale diffusion and formulate a different stochastic equation for the increments in velocity space from first principles. To assess the terms in this equation, we performed Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) for solving the Navier-Stokes equation on a random sphere pack. We extracted the PDFs and statistical moments (up to the 4th moment) of the stream-wise velocity, u, and first and second order velocity derivatives both independent and conditioned on velocity. By using this data and

  9. Determination of velocity correction factors for real-time air velocity monitoring in underground mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lihong; Yuan, Liming; Thomas, Rick; Iannacchione, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    When there are installations of air velocity sensors in the mining industry for real-time airflow monitoring, a problem exists with how the monitored air velocity at a fixed location corresponds to the average air velocity, which is used to determine the volume flow rate of air in an entry with the cross-sectional area. Correction factors have been practically employed to convert a measured centerline air velocity to the average air velocity. However, studies on the recommended correction factors of the sensor-measured air velocity to the average air velocity at cross sections are still lacking. A comprehensive airflow measurement was made at the Safety Research Coal Mine, Bruceton, PA, using three measuring methods including single-point reading, moving traverse, and fixed-point traverse. The air velocity distribution at each measuring station was analyzed using an air velocity contour map generated with Surfer ® . The correction factors at each measuring station for both the centerline and the sensor location were calculated and are discussed.

  10. Obtaining of inulin acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  11. The Prescribed Velocity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The- velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...

  12. Multidisc neutron velocity selector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosta, L.; Zsigmond, Gy.; Farago, B.; Mezei, F.; Ban, K.; Perendi, J.

    1987-12-01

    The prototype of a velocity selector for neutron monochromatization in the 4-20 A wavelength range is presented. The theoretical background of the multidisc rotor system is given together with a description of the mechanical construction and electronic driving system. The first tests and neutron measurements prove easy handling and excellent parameters. (author) 6 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. Characterizing the original ejection velocity field of the Koronis family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruba, V.; Nesvorný, D.; Aljbaae, S.

    2016-06-01

    An asteroid family forms as a result of a collision between an impactor and a parent body. The fragments with ejection speeds higher than the escape velocity from the parent body can escape its gravitational pull. The cloud of escaping debris can be identified by the proximity of orbits in proper element, or frequency, domains. Obtaining estimates of the original ejection speed can provide valuable constraints on the physical processes occurring during collision, and used to calibrate impact simulations. Unfortunately, proper elements of asteroids families are modified by gravitational and non-gravitational effects, such as resonant dynamics, encounters with massive bodies, and the Yarkovsky effect, such that information on the original ejection speeds is often lost, especially for older, more evolved families. It has been recently suggested that the distribution in proper inclination of the Koronis family may have not been significantly perturbed by local dynamics, and that information on the component of the ejection velocity that is perpendicular to the orbital plane (vW), may still be available, at least in part. In this work we estimate the magnitude of the original ejection velocity speeds of Koronis members using the observed distribution in proper eccentricity and inclination, and accounting for the spread caused by dynamical effects. Our results show that (i) the spread in the original ejection speeds is, to within a 15% error, inversely proportional to the fragment size, and (ii) the minimum ejection velocity is of the order of 50 m/s, with larger values possible depending on the orbital configuration at the break-up.

  14. Development of two-dimensional velocity field measurement using particle tracking velocimetry on neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Y.; Mishima, K.; Suzuki, T.; Matsubayashi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The structures of liquid metal two-phase flow are investigated for analyzing the core meltdown accident of fast reactor. The experiments of high-density ratio two-phase flow for lead-bismuth molten metal and nitrogen gases are conducted to understand in detail. The liquid phase velocity distributions of lead-bismuth molten metal are measured by neutron radiography using Au-Cd tracer particles. The liquid phase velocity distributions are obtained usually by using particle image velocimetry (PIV) on the neutron radiography. The PIV, however is difficult to get the velocity vector distribution quantitatively. An image of neutron radiography is divided into two images of the bubbles and the tracer particles each in particle tracking velocimetry (PTV), which distinguishes tracer contents in the bubble from them in the liquid phase. The locations of tracer particles in the liquid phase are possible to determine by particle mask correlation method, in which the bubble images are separated from the tracer images by Σ-scaling method. The particle tracking velocimetry give a full detail of the velocity vector distributions of the liquid phase in two-phase flow, in comparison with the PIV method. (M. Suetake)

  15. Measurement of fluid velocity development behind a circular cylinder using particle image velocimetry (PIV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goharzadeh, Afshin; Molki, Arman

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a non-intrusive experimental approach for obtaining a two-dimensional velocity distribution around a 22 mm diameter circular cylinder mounted in a water tunnel. Measurements were performed for a constant Reynolds number of 7670 using a commercial standard particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Different flow patterns generated behind the circular cylinder are discussed. Both instantaneous and time-averaged velocity distributions with corresponding streamlines are obtained. Key concepts in fluid mechanics, such as contra-rotating vortices, von Kármán vortex street, and laminar-turbulent flow, are discussed. In addition, brief historical information pertaining to the development of flow measurement techniques—in particular, PIV—is described. (paper)

  16. Accelerated radial Fourier-velocity encoding using compressed sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilbert, Fabian; Han, Dietbert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a tool for non-invasive determination of flow velocities inside blood vessels. Because Phase Contrast MRI only measures a single mean velocity per voxel, it is only applicable to vessels significantly larger than the voxel size. In contrast, Fourier Velocity Encoding measures the entire velocity distribution inside a voxel, but requires a much longer acquisition time. For accurate diagnosis of stenosis in vessels on the scale of spatial resolution, it is important to know the velocity distribution of a voxel. Our aim was to determine velocity distributions with accelerated Fourier Velocity Encoding in an acquisition time required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Materials and Methods:We imaged the femoral artery of healthy volunteers with ECG - triggered, radial CINE acquisition. Data acquisition was accelerated by undersampling, while missing data were reconstructed by Compressed Sensing. Velocity spectra of the vessel were evaluated by high resolution Phase Contrast images and compared to spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoding. By means of undersampling, it was possible to reduce the scan time for Fourier Velocity Encoding to the duration required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Results:Acquisition time for a fully sampled data set with 12 different Velocity Encodings was 40 min. By applying a 12.6 - fold retrospective undersampling, a data set was generated equal to 3:10 min acquisition time, which is similar to a conventional Phase Contrast measurement. Velocity spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoded images are in good agreement and show the same maximum velocities as compared to velocity maps from Phase Contrast measurements. Conclusion: Compressed Sensing proved to reliably reconstruct Fourier Velocity Encoded data. Our results indicate that Fourier Velocity Encoding allows an accurate determination of the velocity

  17. Analyses of Current And Wave Forces on Velocity Caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Buhrkall, Jeppe; Eskesen, Mark C. D.

    2015-01-01

    Velocity caps are often used in connection with for instance offshore intake sea water for the use of for cooling water for power plants or as a source for desalinization plants. The intakes can also be used for river intakes. The velocity cap is placed on top of a vertical pipe. The vertical pipe......) this paper investigates the current and wave forces on the velocity cap and the vertical cylinder. The Morison’s force model was used in the analyses of the extracted force time series in from the CFD model. Further the distribution of the inlet velocities around the velocity cap was also analyzed in detail...

  18. Accelerated radial Fourier-velocity encoding using compressed sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, Fabian; Han, Dietbert [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Wech, Tobias; Koestler, Herbert [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Comprehensive Heart Failure Center (CHFC)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose:Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a tool for non-invasive determination of flow velocities inside blood vessels. Because Phase Contrast MRI only measures a single mean velocity per voxel, it is only applicable to vessels significantly larger than the voxel size. In contrast, Fourier Velocity Encoding measures the entire velocity distribution inside a voxel, but requires a much longer acquisition time. For accurate diagnosis of stenosis in vessels on the scale of spatial resolution, it is important to know the velocity distribution of a voxel. Our aim was to determine velocity distributions with accelerated Fourier Velocity Encoding in an acquisition time required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Materials and Methods:We imaged the femoral artery of healthy volunteers with ECG - triggered, radial CINE acquisition. Data acquisition was accelerated by undersampling, while missing data were reconstructed by Compressed Sensing. Velocity spectra of the vessel were evaluated by high resolution Phase Contrast images and compared to spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoding. By means of undersampling, it was possible to reduce the scan time for Fourier Velocity Encoding to the duration required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Results:Acquisition time for a fully sampled data set with 12 different Velocity Encodings was 40 min. By applying a 12.6 - fold retrospective undersampling, a data set was generated equal to 3:10 min acquisition time, which is similar to a conventional Phase Contrast measurement. Velocity spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoded images are in good agreement and show the same maximum velocities as compared to velocity maps from Phase Contrast measurements. Conclusion: Compressed Sensing proved to reliably reconstruct Fourier Velocity Encoded data. Our results indicate that Fourier Velocity Encoding allows an accurate determination of the velocity

  19. Accelerated radial Fourier-velocity encoding using compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Fabian; Wech, Tobias; Hahn, Dietbert; Köstler, Herbert

    2014-09-01

    Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a tool for non-invasive determination of flow velocities inside blood vessels. Because Phase Contrast MRI only measures a single mean velocity per voxel, it is only applicable to vessels significantly larger than the voxel size. In contrast, Fourier Velocity Encoding measures the entire velocity distribution inside a voxel, but requires a much longer acquisition time. For accurate diagnosis of stenosis in vessels on the scale of spatial resolution, it is important to know the velocity distribution of a voxel. Our aim was to determine velocity distributions with accelerated Fourier Velocity Encoding in an acquisition time required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. We imaged the femoral artery of healthy volunteers with ECG-triggered, radial CINE acquisition. Data acquisition was accelerated by undersampling, while missing data were reconstructed by Compressed Sensing. Velocity spectra of the vessel were evaluated by high resolution Phase Contrast images and compared to spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoding. By means of undersampling, it was possible to reduce the scan time for Fourier Velocity Encoding to the duration required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Acquisition time for a fully sampled data set with 12 different Velocity Encodings was 40 min. By applying a 12.6-fold retrospective undersampling, a data set was generated equal to 3:10 min acquisition time, which is similar to a conventional Phase Contrast measurement. Velocity spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoded images are in good agreement and show the same maximum velocities as compared to velocity maps from Phase Contrast measurements. Compressed Sensing proved to reliably reconstruct Fourier Velocity Encoded data. Our results indicate that Fourier Velocity Encoding allows an accurate determination of the velocity distribution in vessels in the order of the voxel size. Thus

  20. A radial velocity survey of the Carina Nebula's O-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiminki, Megan M.; Smith, Nathan

    2018-03-01

    We have obtained multi-epoch observations of 31 O-type stars in the Carina Nebula using the CHIRON spectrograph on the CTIO/SMARTS 1.5-m telescope. We measure their radial velocities to 1-2 km s-1 precision and present new or updated orbital solutions for the binary systems HD 92607, HD 93576, HDE 303312, and HDE 305536. We also compile radial velocities from the literature for 32 additional O-type and evolved massive stars in the region. The combined data set shows a mean heliocentric radial velocity of 0.6 km s-1. We calculate a velocity dispersion of ≤9.1 km s-1, consistent with an unbound, substructured OB association. The Tr 14 cluster shows a marginally significant 5 km s-1 radial velocity offset from its neighbor Tr 16, but there are otherwise no correlations between stellar position and velocity. The O-type stars in Cr 228 and the South Pillars region have a lower velocity dispersion than the region as a whole, supporting a model of distributed massive-star formation rather than migration from the central clusters. We compare our stellar velocities to the Carina Nebula's molecular gas and find that Tr 14 shows a close kinematic association with the Northern Cloud. In contrast, Tr 16 has accelerated the Southern Cloud by 10-15 km s-1, possibly triggering further massive-star formation. The expansion of the surrounding H II region is not symmetric about the O-type stars in radial velocity space, indicating that the ionized gas is constrained by denser material on the far side.

  1. A radial velocity survey of the Carina Nebula's O-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiminki, Megan M.; Smith, Nathan

    2018-06-01

    We have obtained multi-epoch observations of 31 O-type stars in the Carina Nebula using the CHIRON spectrograph on the CTIO/SMARTS 1.5-m telescope. We measure their radial velocities to 1-2 km s-1 precision and present new or updated orbital solutions for the binary systems HD 92607, HD 93576, HDE 303312, and HDE 305536. We also compile radial velocities from the literature for 32 additional O-type and evolved massive stars in the region. The combined data set shows a mean heliocentric radial velocity of 0.6 km s-1. We calculate a velocity dispersion of ≤9.1 km s-1, consistent with an unbound, substructured OB association. The Tr 14 cluster shows a marginally significant 5 km s-1 radial velocity offset from its neighbour Tr 16, but there are otherwise no correlations between stellar position and velocity. The O-type stars in Cr 228 and the South Pillars region have a lower velocity dispersion than the region as a whole, supporting a model of distributed massive star formation rather than migration from the central clusters. We compare our stellar velocities to the Carina Nebula's molecular gas and find that Tr 14 shows a close kinematic association with the Northern Cloud. In contrast, Tr 16 has accelerated the Southern Cloud by 10-15 km s-1, possibly triggering further massive star formation. The expansion of the surrounding H II region is not symmetric about the O-type stars in radial velocity space, indicating that the ionized gas is constrained by denser material on the far side.

  2. Sound velocity in the coolant of boiling nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskuryakov, K.N.; Parshin, D.A.; Novikov, K.S.; Galivec, E.Yu.

    2009-01-01

    To prevent resonant interaction between acoustic resonance and natural frequencies of FE, FA and RI oscillations, it is necessary to determine the value of EACPO. Based on results of calculations of EACPO and natural frequencies of FR, FA and RI oscillations values, it would be possible to reveal the dynamical loadings on metal that are dangerous for the initiation of cracking process in the early stage of negative condition appearance. To calculate EACPO it is necessary to know the Speed Velocity in Coolant. Now we do not have any data about real values of such important parameter as pressure pulsations propagation velocity in two phase environments, especially in conditions with variations of steam content along the length of FR, with taking into account the type of local resistances, flow geometry etc. While areas of resonant interaction of the single-phase liquid coolant with equipment and internals vibrations are estimated well enough, similar estimations in the conditions of presence of a gas and steam phase in the liquid coolant are inconvenient till now. Paper presents results of calculation of velocity of pressure pulsations distribution in two-phase flow formed in core of RBMK-1000 reactors. Feature of the developed techniques is that not only thermodynamic factors and effect of a speed difference between water and steam in a two phase flow but also geometrical features of core, local resistance, non heterogeneity in the two phase environment and power level of a reactor are considered. Obtained results evidence noticeable decreasing of velocity propagation of pressure pulsations in the presence of steam actions in the liquids. Such estimations for real RC of boiling nuclear reactors with steam-liquid coolant are obtained for the first time. (author)

  3. RADIAL VELOCITIES FROM VLT-KMOS SPECTRA OF GIANT STARS IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6388

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapenna, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Lanzoni, B.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Origlia, L.; Valenti, E.; Cirasuolo, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present new radial velocity measurements for 82 stars, members of the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 6388, obtained from ESO-VLT K-band Multi Object Spectrograph (KMOS) spectra acquired during the instrument Science Verification. The accuracy of the wavelength calibration is discussed and a number of tests of the KMOS response are presented. The cluster systemic velocity obtained (81.3 ± 1.5 km s –1 ) is in very good agreement with previous determinations. While a hint of ordered rotation is found between 9'' and 20'' from the cluster center, where the distribution of radial velocities is clearly bimodal, more data are needed before drawing any firm conclusions. The acquired sample of radial velocities has also been used to determine the cluster velocity dispersion (VD) profile between ∼9'' and 70'', supplementing previous measurements at r < 2'' and r > 60'' obtained with ESO-SINFONI and ESO-FLAMES spectroscopy, respectively. The new portion of the VD profile nicely matches the previous ones, better defining the knee of the distribution. The present work clearly shows the effectiveness of a deployable integral field unit in measuring the radial velocities of individual stars for determining the VD profile of Galactic GCs. It represents the pilot project for an ongoing large program with KMOS and FLAMES at the ESO-VLT, aimed at determining the next generation of VD and rotation profiles for a representative sample of GCs

  4. Ultrasound systems for blood velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1998-01-01

    Medical ultrasound scanners can be used both for displayinggray-scale images of the anatomy and for visualizing theblood flow dynamically in the body.The systems can interrogate the flow at a single position in the bodyand there find the velocity distribution over time. They can also show adynamic...

  5. The Solution of a Velocity-Dependent Slowing-Down Problem Using Case's Eigenfunction Expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claesson, A

    1964-11-15

    The slowing-down of neutrons in a hydrogenous moderator is calculated assuming a plane source of monoenergetic neutrons. The scattering is regarded as spherically symmetric, but it is shown that a generalization to anisotropy is possible. The cross-section is assumed to be constant. The virgin neutrons are separated out, and it follows that the distribution of the remaining neutrons can be obtained by using an expansion in the eigenfunctions given by Case for the velocity-independent problem.

  6. The Milky Way's Circular Velocity Curve and Its Constraint on the Galactic Mass with RR Lyrae Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablimit, Iminhaji; Zhao, Gang, E-mail: iminhaji@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: gzhao@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-09-01

    We present a sample of 1148 ab-type RR Lyrae (RRLab) variables identified from Catalina Surveys Data Release 1, combined with SDSS DR8 and LAMOST DR4 spectral data. We first use a large sample of 860 Galactic halo RRLab stars and derive the circular velocity distributions for the stellar halo. With the precise distances and carefully determined radial velocities (the center-of-mass radial velocities) and by considering the pulsation of the RRLab stars in our sample, we can obtain a reliable and comparable stellar halo circular velocity curve. We follow two different prescriptions for the velocity anisotropy parameter β in the Jeans equation to study the circular velocity curve and mass profile. Additionally, we test two different solar peculiar motions in our calculation. The best result we obtained with the adopted solar peculiar motion 1 of ( U , V , W ) = (11.1, 12, 7.2) km s{sup −1} is that the enclosed mass of the Milky Way within 50 kpc is (3.75 ± 1.33) × 10{sup 11} M {sub ⊙} based on β = 0 and the circular velocity 180 ± 31.92 (km s{sup −1}) at 50 kpc. This result is consistent with dynamical model results, and it is also comparable to the results of previous similar works.

  7. Bulk velocity extraction for nano-scale Newtonian flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenfei, E-mail: zwenfei@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Mechanical Reliability for Heavy Equipments and Large Structures of Hebei Province, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Sun, Hongyu [Key Laboratory of Mechanical Reliability for Heavy Equipments and Large Structures of Hebei Province, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2012-04-16

    The conventional velocity extraction algorithm in MDS method has difficulty to determine the small flow velocity. This study proposes a new method to calculate the bulk velocity in nano-flows. Based on the Newton's law of viscosity, according to the calculated viscosities and shear stresses, the flow velocity can be obtained by numerical integration. This new method can overcome the difficulty existed in the conventional MDS method and improve the stability of the computational process. Numerical results show that this method is effective for the extraction of bulk velocity, no matter the bulk velocity is large or small. -- Highlights: ► Proposed a new method to calculate the bulk velocity in nano-flows. ► It is effective for the extraction of small bulk velocity. ► The accuracy, convergence and stability of the new method is good.

  8. Bulk velocity extraction for nano-scale Newtonian flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenfei; Sun, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    The conventional velocity extraction algorithm in MDS method has difficulty to determine the small flow velocity. This study proposes a new method to calculate the bulk velocity in nano-flows. Based on the Newton's law of viscosity, according to the calculated viscosities and shear stresses, the flow velocity can be obtained by numerical integration. This new method can overcome the difficulty existed in the conventional MDS method and improve the stability of the computational process. Numerical results show that this method is effective for the extraction of bulk velocity, no matter the bulk velocity is large or small. -- Highlights: ► Proposed a new method to calculate the bulk velocity in nano-flows. ► It is effective for the extraction of small bulk velocity. ► The accuracy, convergence and stability of the new method is good.

  9. Multidisk neutron velocity selectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammouda, B.

    1992-01-01

    Helical multidisk velocity selectors used for neutron scattering applications have been analyzed and tested experimentally. Design and performance considerations are discussed along with simple explanation of the basic concept. A simple progression is used for the inter-disk spacing in the 'Rosta' design. Ray tracing computer investigations are presented in order to assess the 'coverage' (how many absorbing layers are stacked along the path of 'wrong' wavelength neutrons) and the relative number of neutrons absorbed in each disk (and therefore the relative amount of gamma radiation emitted from each disk). We discuss whether a multidisk velocity selector can be operated in the 'reverse' configuration (i.e. the selector is turned by 180 0 around a vertical axis with the rotor spun in the reverse direction). Experimental tests and calibration of a multidisk selector are reported together with evidence that a multidisk selector can be operated in the 'reverse' configuration. (orig.)

  10. RADIAL VELOCITY MONITORING OF KEPLER HEARTBEAT STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shporer, Avi [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Fuller, Jim [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, Mailcode 350-17, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Isaacson, Howard [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Hambleton, Kelly; Prša, Andrej [Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Villanova University, 800 East Lancaster Avenue, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Thompson, Susan E. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Kurtz, Donald W. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); O’Leary, Ryan M. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, 80309-0440 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Heartbeat stars (HB stars) are a class of eccentric binary stars with close periastron passages. The characteristic photometric HB signal evident in their light curves is produced by a combination of tidal distortion, heating, and Doppler boosting near orbital periastron. Many HB stars continue to oscillate after periastron and along the entire orbit, indicative of the tidal excitation of oscillation modes within one or both stars. These systems are among the most eccentric binaries known, and they constitute astrophysical laboratories for the study of tidal effects. We have undertaken a radial velocity (RV) monitoring campaign of Kepler HB stars in order to measure their orbits. We present our first results here, including a sample of 22 Kepler HB systems, where for 19 of them we obtained the Keplerian orbit and for 3 other systems we did not detect a statistically significant RV variability. Results presented here are based on 218 spectra obtained with the Keck/HIRES spectrograph during the 2015 Kepler observing season, and they have allowed us to obtain the largest sample of HB stars with orbits measured using a single instrument, which roughly doubles the number of HB stars with an RV measured orbit. The 19 systems measured here have orbital periods from 7 to 90 days and eccentricities from 0.2 to 0.9. We show that HB stars draw the upper envelope of the eccentricity–period distribution. Therefore, HB stars likely represent a population of stars currently undergoing high eccentricity migration via tidal orbital circularization, and they will allow for new tests of high eccentricity migration theories.

  11. RADIAL VELOCITY MONITORING OF KEPLER HEARTBEAT STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shporer, Avi; Fuller, Jim; Isaacson, Howard; Hambleton, Kelly; Prša, Andrej; Thompson, Susan E.; Kurtz, Donald W.; Howard, Andrew W.; O’Leary, Ryan M.

    2016-01-01

    Heartbeat stars (HB stars) are a class of eccentric binary stars with close periastron passages. The characteristic photometric HB signal evident in their light curves is produced by a combination of tidal distortion, heating, and Doppler boosting near orbital periastron. Many HB stars continue to oscillate after periastron and along the entire orbit, indicative of the tidal excitation of oscillation modes within one or both stars. These systems are among the most eccentric binaries known, and they constitute astrophysical laboratories for the study of tidal effects. We have undertaken a radial velocity (RV) monitoring campaign of Kepler HB stars in order to measure their orbits. We present our first results here, including a sample of 22 Kepler HB systems, where for 19 of them we obtained the Keplerian orbit and for 3 other systems we did not detect a statistically significant RV variability. Results presented here are based on 218 spectra obtained with the Keck/HIRES spectrograph during the 2015 Kepler observing season, and they have allowed us to obtain the largest sample of HB stars with orbits measured using a single instrument, which roughly doubles the number of HB stars with an RV measured orbit. The 19 systems measured here have orbital periods from 7 to 90 days and eccentricities from 0.2 to 0.9. We show that HB stars draw the upper envelope of the eccentricity–period distribution. Therefore, HB stars likely represent a population of stars currently undergoing high eccentricity migration via tidal orbital circularization, and they will allow for new tests of high eccentricity migration theories.

  12. Waveform tomography images of velocity and inelastic attenuation from the Mallik 2002 crosshole seismic surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R.G.; Hou, F. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada); Bauer, K.; Weber, M. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    A time-lapse crosshole seismic survey was conducted at the Mallik field in Canada's Northwest Territories as part of the 2002 Mallik Gas Hydrate Production Research Well Program. The acquired data provided information on the distribution of the compressional-velocity and compressional-attenuation properties of the sediments. Waveform tomography extracted that information and provided subwavelength high-resolution quantitative images of the seismic velocity and attenuation from the first repeat survey, using frequencies between 100 Hz and 1000 Hz. A preprocessing flow was applied to the waveform data that includes tube-wave suppression, low-pass filtering, spatial subsampling, time-windowing, and amplitude equalization. Travel times by anisotropic velocity tomography was used to obtain the starting model for the waveform tomography. The gas-hydrate-bearing sediments were seen as laterally, continuous, high-velocity anomalies and were characterized by an increase in attenuation. The velocity images resolved individual layers as thin as a few metres. These layers could be followed across the area of interest. Slight lateral changes in velocity and in the attenuation factor were observed.

  13. The ascent of magma as determined by seismic tomography. The visualization of velocity structure and magma distribution from upper mantle to upper crust in Hakone volcano, northern Izu peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Shintaro; Aoyagi, Yasuhira; Toshida, Kiyoshi; Oda, Yoshiya

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional seismic reflection and refraction survey was carried out in Hakone volcanic area, northern part of Izu peninsula. The region is one of the most famous hot spring areas in Japan. Hakone volcano morphologically resembles one big caldera. However, the depression of the volcano consists of several small calderas which has been formed by multiple eruptions. Although sprouts of fumarolic gas and steam are identified in a few areas of the volcano, there is no historical record of volcanic eruption. Main purpose of our study is to determine the 3-dimensional deep velocity structure around the volcano using the seismic tomography processing. We deployed 44 sets of temporal offline seismic stations and a line of multi-channels seismic reflection survey cable. The seismic waves generated by some natural earthquakes and 14 dynamite explosions were observed, and their data were processed for tomography. The observation coverage was 20 km in diameter. Our result demonstrates the usefulness of high dense seismic observation in identifying and locating low velocity zones beneath the particular area. According to our tomography, low velocity zone was identified only in surface layer of the old caldera part of the volcano. We could not identify any remarkable reflector in deeper crust, as the result of wide-angle reflection survey using explosive shots. Moreover, we could not identify any other low velocity zone as far as 32 km depth by incorporating the results of other study. In other words, we think that magma is no longer supplied to Hakone volcanic area. (author)

  14. Radial Velocities of 41 Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Rachel A.; Gies, Douglas R.; Guo, Zhao; Williams, Stephen J.

    2017-12-01

    Eclipsing binaries are vital for directly determining stellar parameters without reliance on models or scaling relations. Spectroscopically derived parameters of detached and semi-detached binaries allow us to determine component masses that can inform theories of stellar and binary evolution. Here we present moderate resolution ground-based spectra of stars in close binary systems with and without (detected) tertiary companions observed by NASA’s Kepler mission and analyzed for eclipse timing variations. We obtain radial velocities and spectroscopic orbits for five single-lined and 35 double-lined systems, and confirm one false positive eclipsing binary. For the double-lined spectroscopic binaries, we also determine individual component masses and examine the mass ratio {M}2/{M}1 distribution, which is dominated by binaries with like-mass pairs and semi-detached classical Algol systems that have undergone mass transfer. Finally, we constrain the mass of the tertiary component for five double-lined binaries with previously detected companions.

  15. Ultrasonic velocity profiling rheometry based on a widened circular Couette flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiratori, Takahisa; Tasaka, Yuji; Oishi, Yoshihiko; Murai, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new rheometry for characterizing the rheological properties of fluids. The technique produces flow curves, which represent the relationship between the fluid shear rate and shear stress. Flow curves are obtained by measuring the circumferential velocity distribution of tested fluids in a circular Couette system, using an ultrasonic velocity profiling technique. By adopting a widened gap of concentric cylinders, a designed range of the shear rate is obtained so that velocity profile measurement along a single line directly acquires flow curves. To reduce the effect of ultrasonic noise on resultant flow curves, several fitting functions and variable transforms are examined to best approximate the velocity profile without introducing a priori rheological models. Silicone oil, polyacrylamide solution, and yogurt were used to evaluate the applicability of this technique. These substances are purposely targeted as examples of Newtonian fluids, shear thinning fluids, and opaque fluids with unknown rheological properties, respectively. We find that fourth-order Chebyshev polynomials provide the most accurate representation of flow curves in the context of model-free rheometry enabled by ultrasonic velocity profiling. (paper)

  16. A new car-following model considering velocity anticipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun-Fang, Tian; Bin, Jia; Xin-Gang, Li; Zi-You, Gao

    2010-01-01

    The full velocity difference model proposed by Jiang et al. [2001 Phys. Rev. E 64 017101] has been improved by introducing velocity anticipation. Velocity anticipation means the follower estimates the future velocity of the leader. The stability condition of the new model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. Theoretical results show that the stability region increases when we increase the anticipation time interval. The mKdV equation is derived to describe the kink–antikink soliton wave and obtain the coexisting stability line. The delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density are obtained in this model. Numerical simulations exhibit that when we increase the anticipation time interval enough, the new model could avoid accidents under urgent braking cases. Also, the traffic jam could be suppressed by considering the anticipation velocity. All results demonstrate that this model is an improvement on the full velocity difference model. (general)

  17. A new estimator for vector velocity estimation [medical ultrasonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2001-01-01

    A new estimator for determining the two-dimensional velocity vector using a pulsed ultrasound field is derived. The estimator uses a transversely modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation...... be introduced, and the velocity estimation is done at a fixed depth in tissue to reduce the influence of a spatial velocity spread. Examples for different velocity vectors and field conditions are shown using both simple and more complex field simulations. A relative accuracy of 10.1% is obtained...

  18. Velocity navigator for motion compensated thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Florian; Krafft, Axel J; Yung, Joshua P; Stafford, R Jason; Elliott, Andrew; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Semmler, Wolfhard; Bock, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Proton resonance frequency shift thermometry is sensitive to breathing motion that leads to incorrect phase differences. In this work, a novel velocity-sensitive navigator technique for triggering MR thermometry image acquisition is presented. A segmented echo planar imaging pulse sequence was modified for velocity-triggered temperature mapping. Trigger events were generated when the estimated velocity value was less than 0.2 cm/s during the slowdown phase in parallel to the velocity-encoding direction. To remove remaining high-frequency spikes from pulsation in real time, a Kalman filter was applied to the velocity navigator data. A phantom experiment with heating and an initial volunteer experiment without heating were performed to show the applicability of this technique. Additionally, a breath-hold experiment was conducted for comparison. A temperature rise of ΔT = +37.3°C was seen in the phantom experiment, and a root mean square error (RMSE) outside the heated region of 2.3°C could be obtained for periodic motion. In the volunteer experiment, a RMSE of 2.7°C/2.9°C (triggered vs. breath hold) was measured. A novel velocity navigator with Kalman filter postprocessing in real time significantly improves the temperature accuracy over non-triggered acquisitions and suggests being comparable to a breath-held acquisition. The proposed technique might be clinically applied for monitoring of thermal ablations in abdominal organs.

  19. SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2012fr: A LUMINOUS, NORMAL TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA WITH EARLY HIGH-VELOCITY FEATURES AND A LATE VELOCITY PLATEAU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, M. J.; Scalzo, R. A.; Sim, S. A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Schmidt, B. P.; Cenko, S. B.; Filippenko, A. V.; Silverman, J. M.; Contreras, C.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M.; Morrell, N.; Jha, S. W.; McCully, C.; Anderson, J. P.; De Jaeger, T.; Forster, F.; Benetti, S.; Bufano, F.

    2013-01-01

    We present 65 optical spectra of the Type Ia SN 2012fr, 33 of which were obtained before maximum light. At early times, SN 2012fr shows clear evidence of a high-velocity feature (HVF) in the Si II λ6355 line that can be cleanly decoupled from the lower velocity ''photospheric'' component. This Si II λ6355 HVF fades by phase –5; subsequently, the photospheric component exhibits a very narrow velocity width and remains at a nearly constant velocity of ∼12,000 km s –1 until at least five weeks after maximum brightness. The Ca II infrared triplet exhibits similar evidence for both a photospheric component at v ≈ 12,000 km s –1 with narrow line width and long velocity plateau, as well as an HVF beginning at v ≈ 31,000 km s –1 two weeks before maximum. SN 2012fr resides on the border between the ''shallow silicon'' and ''core-normal'' subclasses in the Branch et al. classification scheme, and on the border between normal and high-velocity Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Wang et al. system. Though it is a clear member of the ''low velocity gradient'' group of SNe Ia and exhibits a very slow light-curve decline, it shows key dissimilarities with the overluminous SN 1991T or SN 1999aa subclasses of SNe Ia. SN 2012fr represents a well-observed SN Ia at the luminous end of the normal SN Ia distribution and a key transitional event between nominal spectroscopic subclasses of SNe Ia.

  20. Indentation of aluminium foam at low velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The indentation behaviour of aluminium foams at low velocity (10 m/s ∼ 30 m/s was investigated both in experiments and numerical simulation in this paper. A flat-ended indenter was used and the force-displacement history was recorded. The Split Hopkinson Pressure bar was used to obtain the indentation velocity and forces in the dynamic experiments. Because of the low strength of the aluminium foam, PMMA bar was used, and the experimental data were corrected using Bacon's method. The energy absorption characteristics varying with impact velocity were then obtained. It was found that the energy absorption ability of aluminium foam gradually increases in the quasi-static regime and shows a significant increase at ∼10 m/s velocity. Numerical simulation was also conducted to investigate this process. A 3D Voronoi model was used and models with different relative densities were investigated as well as those with different failure strain. The indentation energy increases with both the relative density and failure strain. The analysis of the FE model implies that the significant change in energy absorption ability of aluminium foam in indentation at ∼10 m/s velocity may be caused by plastic wave effect.

  1. Accurate mass and velocity functions of dark matter haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparat, Johan; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo; Klypin, Anatoly

    2017-08-01

    N-body cosmological simulations are an essential tool to understand the observed distribution of galaxies. We use the MultiDark simulation suite, run with the Planck cosmological parameters, to revisit the mass and velocity functions. At redshift z = 0, the simulations cover four orders of magnitude in halo mass from ˜1011M⊙ with 8783 874 distinct haloes and 532 533 subhaloes. The total volume used is ˜515 Gpc3, more than eight times larger than in previous studies. We measure and model the halo mass function, its covariance matrix w.r.t halo mass and the large-scale halo bias. With the formalism of the excursion-set mass function, we explicit the tight interconnection between the covariance matrix, bias and halo mass function. We obtain a very accurate (function. We also model the subhalo mass function and its relation to the distinct halo mass function. The set of models obtained provides a complete and precise framework for the description of haloes in the concordance Planck cosmology. Finally, we provide precise analytical fits of the Vmax maximum velocity function up to redshift z publicly available in the Skies and Universes data base.

  2. Different percentages of false-positive results obtained using five methods for the calculation of reference change values based on simulated normal and ln-normal distributions of data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Fraser, Callum G

    2016-01-01

    a homeostatic set point that follows a normal (Gaussian) distribution. This set point (or baseline in steady-state) should be estimated from a set of previous samples, but, in practice, decisions based on reference change value are often based on only two consecutive results. The original reference change value......-positive results. The aim of this study was to investigate false-positive results using five different published methods for calculation of reference change value. METHODS: The five reference change value methods were examined using normally and ln-normally distributed simulated data. RESULTS: One method performed...... best in approaching the theoretical false-positive percentages on normally distributed data and another method performed best on ln-normally distributed data. The commonly used reference change value method based on two results (without use of estimated set point) performed worst both on normally...

  3. Electron attachment cross sections obtained from electron attachment spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, P.; Baumbach, J.I.; Leonhardt, J.W.; Mothes, S.

    1988-01-01

    Electron capture detectors have a high sensitivity for substances with high thermal electron attachment cross sections. The electron attachment spectroscopy makes it possible to change the mean electron energy in such a way that the maximum for dissociative electron attachment is reached. Thus, best operation modes of the detection system as well as significant dependencies of electron attachment coefficients are available. Cross sections for electron attachment as a function of the electron energy are obtained with the knowledge of electron energy distribution functions from Boltzmann equation analysis by a special computer code. A disadvantage of this electron attachment spectroscopy is the superposition of space charge effects due to the decrease of the electron drift velocity with increasing mean electron energy. These influences are discussed. (author)

  4. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  5. Calculation of local characteristics of velocity field in turbulent coolant flow in fast reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlbauer, P.

    1981-08-01

    Experience is described gained with the application of computer code VELASCO in calculating the velocity field in fast reactor fuel assemblies taking into account configuration disturbances due to fuel pin displacement. Theoretical results are compared with the results of experiments conducted by UJV on aerodynamic models HEM-1 (model of the fuel assembly central part) and HEM-2 (model of the fuel assembly peripheral part). The results are reported of calculating the distribution of shear stress in wetted rod surfaces and in the assembly wall (model HEM-2) and the corresponding experimental results are shown. The shear stress distribution in wetted surfaces obtained using the VELASCO code allowed forming an opinion on the code capability of comprising local parameters of turbulent flow through a fuel rod bundle. The applicability was also tested of the code for calculating mean velocities in the individual zones, eg., in elementary cells. (B.S.)

  6. Parameters determining maximum wind velocity in a tropical cyclone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, A.M.

    1984-09-01

    The spiral structure of a tropical cyclone was earlier explained by a tangential velocity distribution which varies inversely as the distance from the cyclone centre outside the circle of maximum wind speed. The case has been extended in the present paper by adding a radial velocity. It has been found that a suitable combination of radial and tangential velocities can account for the spiral structure of a cyclone. This enables parametrization of the cyclone. Finally a formula has been derived relating maximum velocity in a tropical cyclone with angular momentum, radius of maximum wind speed and the spiral angle. The shapes of the spirals have been computed for various spiral angles. (author)

  7. Flocking and invariance of velocity angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Le; Huang, Lihong; Wu, Jianhong

    2016-04-01

    Motsch and Tadmor considered an extended Cucker-Smale model to investigate the flocking behavior of self-organized systems of interacting species. In this extended model, a cone of the vision was introduced so that outside the cone the influence of one agent on the other is lost and hence the corresponding influence function takes the value zero. This creates a problem to apply the Motsch-Tadmor and Cucker-Smale method to prove the flocking property of the system. Here, we examine the variation of the velocity angles between two arbitrary agents, and obtain a monotonicity property for the maximum cone of velocity angles. This monotonicity permits us to utilize existing arguments to show the flocking property of the system under consideration, when the initial velocity angles satisfy some minor technical constraints.

  8. The radial velocity, velocity dispersion, and mass-to-light ratio of the Sculptor dwarf galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armandroff, T. E.; Da Costa, G. S.

    1986-01-01

    The radial velocity, velocity dispersion, and mass-to-light ratio for 16 K giants in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy are calculated. Spectra at the Ca II triplet are analyzed using cross-correlation techniques in order to obtain the mean velocity of + 107.4 + or - 2.0 km/s. The dimensional velocity dispersion estimated as 6.3 (+1.1, -1.3) km/s is combined with the calculated core radius and observed central surface brightness to produce a mass-to-light ratio of 6.0 in solar units. It is noted that the data indicate that the Sculptor contains a large amount of mass not found in globular clusters, and the mass is either in the form of remnant stars or low-mass dwarfs.

  9. Imaging inhomogeneous seismic velocity structure in and around the fault plane of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi, Japan, Nairiku Earthquake (M7.2) - spatial variation in depth of seismic-aseismic transition and possible high-T/overpressurized fluid distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, T.; Umino, N.; Hasegawa, A.; 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake, G. O.

    2008-12-01

    A large shallow earthquake (named the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake) with a JMA magnitude of 7.2 occurred in the central part of NE Japan on June 14, 2008. Focal area of the present earthquake is located in the Tohoku backbone range strain concentration zone (Miura et al., 2004) along the volcanic front. Just after the occurrence of this earthquake, Japanese universities (Hokkaido, Hirosaki, Tohoku, Tokyo, Nagoya, Kyoto, Kochi, Kyusyu, Kagoshima) and NIED deployed a dense aftershock observation network in and around the focal area. Total number of temporal stations is 128. Using data from this dense aftershock observation and other temporary and routinely operated stations, we estimate hypocenter distribution and seismic velocity structure of the crust in and around the focal area of the present earthquake. We determined three-dimensional seismic velocity structure and relocated hypocenters simultaneously using the double- difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003). Spatial extent of the aftershock area is about 45 km (NNE-SSW) by 15 km (WNW-ESE). Most of aftershocks are aligned in westward dipping. Shallower extensions of aftershock alignments seem to be located nearly at the coseismic surface deformations, which are along a geological fault, and the surface trace of the active fault (Detana fault). Note that some aftershocks seem to occur off the fault plane of the mainshock. The focal area of the present earthquake is located at a high Vs area. In the lower crust, we found some distinct low-Vs areas. These low velocity zones are located just beneath the strain concentration zones / seismic belts along the backbone range and in the northern Miyagi region. Focal area of the present earthquake is also located just above the low velocity zone in the lower crust. Beneath active volcanoes, these low velocity zones become more distinct and shallower, and aftershocks tend to occur shallower and not occur within such low-velocity zones. These low-velocity

  10. APPLICATION OF MULTIHOLE PRESSURE PROBE FOR RESEARCH OF COOLANT VELOCITY PROFILE IN NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ASSEMBLIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Dmitriev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of heat and mass transfer intensifiers is a major engineering task in the design of new and modernization of existing fuel assemblies. These devices create lateral mass flow of coolant. Design of intensifiers affects both the coolant mixing and the hydraulic resistance. The aim of this work is to develop a methodology of measuring coolant local velocity in the fuel assembly models with different mixing grids. To solve the problems was manufactured and calibrated multihole pressure probe. The air flow velocity measuring method with multihole pressure probe was used in the experimental studies on the coolant local hydrodynamics in fuel assemblies with mixing grids. Analysis of the coolant lateral velocity vector fields allowed to study the formation of the secondary vortex flows behind the mixing grids, and to determine the basic laws of coolant flow in experimental models. Quantitative data on the coolant flow velocity distribution obtained with a multihole pressure probe make possible to determine the magnitude of the flow lateral velocities in fuel rod gaps, as well as to determine the distance at which damping occurs during mixing. 

  11. Evaluation of metered dose inhaler spray velocities using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Doub, William H; Guo, Changning

    2012-02-28

    Droplet velocity is an important parameter which can significantly influence inhalation drug delivery performance. Together with the droplet size, this parameter determines the efficiency of the deposition of MDI products at different sites within the lungs. In this study, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to investigate the instantaneous droplet velocity emitted from MDIs as well as the corresponding droplet size distribution. The nine commercial MDI products surveyed showed significantly different droplet velocities, indicating that droplet velocity could be used as a discriminating parameter for in vitro testing of MDI products. The droplet velocity for all tested MDI products decreased when the testing distance was increased from 3 cm to 6 cm from the front of mouthpiece, with CFC formulations showing a larger decrease than HFA formulations. The mean droplet diameters of the nine MDIs were also significantly different from one-another. Droplet size measurements made using PDA (a number-based technique) could not be directly compared to results obtained using laser light scattering measurements (a volume-based technique). This work demonstrates that PDA can provide unique information useful for characterizing MDI aerosol plumes and evaluating MDI drug delivery efficiency. PDA could also aid the evaluation of in vitro equivalence in support of formulation or manufacturing changes and in evaluation of abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for MDIs. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Surface wave velocity tracking by bisection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, T.

    2005-01-01

    Calculation of surface wave velocity is a classic problem dating back to the well-known Haskell's transfer matrix method, which contributes to solutions of elastic wave propagation, global subsurface structure evaluation by simulating observed earthquake group velocities, and on-site evaluation of subsurface structure by simulating phase velocity dispersion curves and/or H/V spectra obtained by micro-tremor observation. Recently inversion analysis on micro-tremor observation requires efficient method of generating many model candidates and also stable, accurate, and fast computation of dispersion curves and Raleigh wave trajectory. The original Haskell's transfer matrix method has been improved in terms of its divergence tendency mainly by the generalized transmission and reflection matrix method with formulation available for surface wave velocity; however, root finding algorithm has not been fully discussed except for the one by setting threshold to the absolute value of complex characteristic functions. Since surface wave number (reciprocal to the surface wave velocity multiplied by frequency) is a root of complex valued characteristic function, it is intractable to use general root finding algorithm. We will examine characteristic function in phase plane to construct two dimensional bisection algorithm with consideration on a layer to be evaluated and algorithm for tracking roots down along frequency axis. (author)

  13. Complex relationship between groundwater velocity and concentration of radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszeta, F.E.; Bond, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper uses the results from the Multi-component Mass Transport model to examine the complex interrelationship between groundwater velocity and contaminant dispersion, decay, and retardation with regard to their influence on the contaminant concentration distribution as it travels through the geosphere to the biosphere. The rate of transport of contaminants through the geosphere is governed by groundwater velocity, leach rate, and contaminant retardation. The dominant characteristics of the contaminant concentration distribution are inherited during leaching and modified during transport by dilution, dispersion and decay. For a hypothetical non-decaying, non-dispersing contaminant with no retardation properties, the shape of the source term distribution is governed by the groundwater velocity (dilution) and leach rate. This distribution remains unchanged throughout transport. Under actual conditions, however, dispersion, decay and retardation modify the concentration distribution during both leaching and transport. The amount of dispersion is determined by the distance traveled, but it does have a greater peak-reducing influence on spiked distributions than square-shaped distributions. Decay acts as an overall scaling factor on the concentration distribution. Retardation alters the contaminant travel time and therefore indirectly influences the amount of dilution, dispersion and decay. Simple relationships between individual parameters and groundwater velocity as they influence peak concentration do not exist. For those cases where the source term is not solubility-limited and flow past the waste is independent of regional hydrologic conditions, a threshold concentration occurs at a specific groundwater velocity where the effects of dilution balance those of dispersion and decay

  14. How Angular Velocity Features and Different Gyroscope Noise Types Interact and Determine Orientation Estimation Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasciuto, Ilaria; Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    In human movement analysis, 3D body segment orientation can be obtained through the numerical integration of gyroscope signals. These signals, however, are affected by errors that, for the case of micro-electro-mechanical systems, are mainly due to: constant bias, scale factor, white noise, and bias instability. The aim of this study is to assess how the orientation estimation accuracy is affected by each of these disturbances, and whether it is influenced by the angular velocity magnitude and 3D distribution across the gyroscope axes. Reference angular velocity signals, either constant or representative of human walking, were corrupted with each of the four noise types within a simulation framework. The magnitude of the angular velocity affected the error in the orientation estimation due to each noise type, except for the white noise. Additionally, the error caused by the constant bias was also influenced by the angular velocity 3D distribution. As the orientation error depends not only on the noise itself but also on the signal it is applied to, different sensor placements could enhance or mitigate the error due to each disturbance, and special attention must be paid in providing and interpreting measures of accuracy for orientation estimation algorithms. PMID:26393606

  15. How Angular Velocity Features and Different Gyroscope Noise Types Interact and Determine Orientation Estimation Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasciuto, Ilaria; Ligorio, Gabriele; Bergamini, Elena; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Sabatini, Angelo Maria; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2015-09-18

    In human movement analysis, 3D body segment orientation can be obtained through the numerical integration of gyroscope signals. These signals, however, are affected by errors that, for the case of micro-electro-mechanical systems, are mainly due to: constant bias, scale factor, white noise, and bias instability. The aim of this study is to assess how the orientation estimation accuracy is affected by each of these disturbances, and whether it is influenced by the angular velocity magnitude and 3D distribution across the gyroscope axes. Reference angular velocity signals, either constant or representative of human walking, were corrupted with each of the four noise types within a simulation framework. The magnitude of the angular velocity affected the error in the orientation estimation due to each noise type, except for the white noise. Additionally, the error caused by the constant bias was also influenced by the angular velocity 3D distribution. As the orientation error depends not only on the noise itself but also on the signal it is applied to, different sensor placements could enhance or mitigate the error due to each disturbance, and special attention must be paid in providing and interpreting measures of accuracy for orientation estimation algorithms.

  16. How Angular Velocity Features and Different Gyroscope Noise Types Interact and Determine Orientation Estimation Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Pasciuto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In human movement analysis, 3D body segment orientation can be obtained through the numerical integration of gyroscope signals. These signals, however, are affected by errors that, for the case of micro-electro-mechanical systems, are mainly due to: constant bias, scale factor, white noise, and bias instability. The aim of this study is to assess how the orientation estimation accuracy is affected by each of these disturbances, and whether it is influenced by the angular velocity magnitude and 3D distribution across the gyroscope axes. Reference angular velocity signals, either constant or representative of human walking, were corrupted with each of the four noise types within a simulation framework. The magnitude of the angular velocity affected the error in the orientation estimation due to each noise type, except for the white noise. Additionally, the error caused by the constant bias was also influenced by the angular velocity 3D distribution. As the orientation error depends not only on the noise itself but also on the signal it is applied to, different sensor placements could enhance or mitigate the error due to each disturbance, and special attention must be paid in providing and interpreting measures of accuracy for orientation estimation algorithms.

  17. Classical and quantum analysis of one-dimensional velocity selection for ultracold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J K; Kim, H A; Mishra, S R; Myrskog, S H; Jofre, A M; Segal, L R; Kim, J B; Steinberg, A M

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a velocity selection technique for obtaining cold atoms, in which all atoms below a certain energy are spatially selected from the surrounding atom cloud. Velocity selection can in some cases be more efficient than other cooling techniques for the preparation of ultracold atom clouds in one dimension. With quantum mechanical and classical simulations and theory we present a scheme using a dipole force barrier to select the coldest atoms from a magnetically trapped atom cloud. The dipole and magnetic potentials create a local minimum which traps the coldest atoms. A unique advantage of this technique is the sharp cut-off in the velocity distribution of the sample of selected atoms. Such a non-thermal distribution should prove useful for a variety of experiments, including proposed studies of atomic tunnelling and scattering from quantum potentials. We show that when the rms size of the atom cloud is smaller than the local minimum in which the selected atoms are trapped, the velocity selection technique can be more efficient in one dimension than some common techniques such as evaporative cooling. For example, one simulation shows nearly 6% of the atoms retained at a temperature 100 times lower than the starting condition

  18. The in situ permeable flow sensor: A device for measuring groundwater flow velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, S.; Barker, G.T.; Nichols, R.L.

    1994-03-01

    A new technology called the In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. These sensors use a thermal perturbation technique to directly measure the direction and magnitude of the full three dimensional groundwater flow velocity vector in unconsolidated, saturated, porous media. The velocity measured is an average value characteristic of an approximately 1 cubic meter volume of the subsurface. During a test at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, two flow sensors were deployed in a confined aquifer in close proximity to a well which was screened over the entire vertical extent of the aquifer and the well was pumped at four different pumping rates. In this situation horizontal flow which is radially directed toward the pumping well is expected. The flow sensors measured horizontal flow which was directed toward the pumping well, within the uncertainty in the measurements. The observed magnitude of the horizontal component of the flow velocity increased linearly with pumping rate, as predicted by theoretical considerations. The measured horizontal component of the flow velocity differed from the predicted flow velocity, which was calculated with the assumptions that the hydraulic properties of the aquifer were radially homogeneous and isotropic, by less than a factor of two. Drawdown data obtained from other wells near the pumping well during the pump test indicate that the hydraulic properties of the aquifer are probably not radially homogeneous but the effect of the inhomogeneity on the flow velocity field around the pumping well was not modeled because the degree and distribution of the inhomogeneity are unknown. Grain size analysis of core samples from wells in the area were used to estimate the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity

  19. Subsurface offset behaviour in velocity analysis with extended reflectivity images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Migration velocity analysis with the wave equation can be accomplished by focusing of extended migration images, obtained by introducing a subsurface offset or shift. A reflector in the wrong velocity model will show up as a curve in the extended image. In the correct model, it should collapse to a

  20. Subsurface offset behaviour in velocity analysis with extended reflectivity images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Migration velocity analysis with the constant-density acoustic wave equation can be accomplished by the focusing of extended migration images, obtained by introducing a subsurface shift in the imaging condition. A reflector in a wrong velocity model will show up as a curve in the extended image. In

  1. A classical model explaining the OPERA velocity paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Broda, Boguslaw

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the paradoxical results of the OPERA Collaboration, we have proposed a classical mechanics model yielding the statistically measured velocity of a beam higher than the velocity of the particles constituting the beam. Ingredients of our model necessary to obtain this curious result are a non-constant fraction function and the method of the maximum-likelihood estimation.

  2. Development of an optimal velocity selection method with velocity obstacle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Geuk; Oh, Jun Ho [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    The Velocity obstacle (VO) method is one of the most well-known methods for local path planning, allowing consideration of dynamic obstacles and unexpected obstacles. Typical VO methods separate a velocity map into a collision area and a collision-free area. A robot can avoid collisions by selecting its velocity from within the collision-free area. However, if there are numerous obstacles near a robot, the robot will have very few velocity candidates. In this paper, a method for choosing optimal velocity components using the concept of pass-time and vertical clearance is proposed for the efficient movement of a robot. The pass-time is the time required for a robot to pass by an obstacle. By generating a latticized available velocity map for a robot, each velocity component can be evaluated using a cost function that considers the pass-time and other aspects. From the output of the cost function, even a velocity component that will cause a collision in the future can be chosen as a final velocity if the pass-time is sufficiently long enough.

  3. Spatially-resolved velocities of thermally-produced spray droplets using a velocity-divided Abel inversion of photographed streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Y.; Kobayashi, N.; Yamagata, Y.; Miyazaki, F.; Yamasaki, M.; Muraoka, K.

    2017-10-01

    Droplet velocities of thermal spray are known to have profound effects on important coating qualities, such as adhesive strength, porosity, and hardness, for various applications. For obtaining the droplet velocities, therefore, the TOF (time-of-flight) technique has been widely used, which relies on observations of emitted radiation from the droplets, where all droplets along the line-of-sight contribute to signals. Because droplets at and near the flow axis mostly contribute coating layers, it has been hoped to get spatially resolved velocities. For this purpose, a velocity-divided Abel inversion was devised from CMOS photographic data. From this result, it has turned out that the central velocity is about 25% higher than that obtained from the TOF technique for the case studied (at the position 150 mm downstream of the plasma spray gun, where substrates for spray coatings are usually placed). Further implications of the obtained results are discussed.

  4. Effects of Turbulence on Settling Velocities of Synthetic and Natural Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C.; Jendrassak, M.; Gurka, R.; Hackett, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    For large-scale sediment transport predictions, an important parameter is the settling or terminal velocity of particles because it plays a key role in determining the concentration of sediment particles within the water column as well as the deposition rate of particles onto the seabed. The settling velocity of particles is influenced by the fluid dynamic environment as well as attributes of the particle, such as its size, shape, and density. This laboratory study examines the effects of turbulence, generated by an oscillating grid, on both synthetic and natural particles for a range of flow conditions. Because synthetic particles are spherical, they serve as a reference for the natural particles that are irregular in shape. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and high-speed imaging systems were used simultaneously to study the interaction between the fluid mechanics and sediment particles' dynamics in a tank. The particles' dynamics were analyzed using a custom two-dimensional tracking algorithm used to obtain distributions of the particle's velocity and acceleration. Turbulence properties, such as root-mean-square turbulent velocity and vorticity, were calculated from the PIV data. Results are classified by Stokes number, which was based-on the integral scale deduced from the auto-correlation function of velocity. We find particles with large Stokes numbers are unaffected by the turbulence, while particles with small Stokes numbers primarily show an increase in settling velocity in comparison to stagnant flow. The results also show an inverse relationship between Stokes number and standard deviation of the settling velocity. This research enables a better understanding of the interdependence between particles and turbulent flow, which can be used to improve parameterizations in large-scale sediment transport models.

  5. Analytical solution of velocity for ammonia-water horizontal falling-film flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Gao, Yide

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We built a new falling-film flow model that analyzed the film flow characteristics. • We have obtained a new formula of film thickness over the horizontal tube. • We derived analysis solution to analyze the effect of inertial force to velocity in the entrance region of liquid film. • It described the characters of the ammonia-waterfalling-film film over the horizontal tube. • It is good for falling-film absorption, generation and evaporation to optimizing the design parameters and further improving the capabilities. - Abstract: A new horizontal tube falling film velocity model was built and calculated to analyze the problem of film flow conditions. This model also analyzed the film thickness distribution in horizontal tube falling film flow and considered the effect of the inertial force on velocity. The film thickness and velocity profile can be obtained based on the principle of linear superposition, a method of separation of variables that introduces the effect of variable inertial force on the velocity profile in the process of falling-film absorption. The film flow condition and the film thickness distribution at different fluid Reynolds numbers (Re) and tube diameters were calculated and compared with the results of the Crank–Nicolson numerical solution under the same conditions. The results show that the film flow condition out of a horizontal tube and that the film thickness increases with the fluid Re. At a specific Re and suitable tube diameter, the horizontal tube reaches a more uniform film. Finally, the analysis results have similar trend with the experimental and numerical predicted data in literature.

  6. Double path-integral migration velocity analysis: a real data example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Jessé C; Schleicher, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Path-integral imaging forms an image with no knowledge of the velocity model by summing over the migrated images obtained for a set of migration velocity models. Double path-integral imaging migration extracts the stationary velocities, i.e. those velocities at which common-image gathers align horizontally, as a byproduct. An application of the technique to a real data set demonstrates that quantitative information about the time migration velocity model can be determined by double path-integral migration velocity analysis. Migrated images using interpolations with different regularizations of the extracted velocities prove the high quality of the resulting time-migration velocity information. The so-obtained velocity model can then be used as a starting model for subsequent velocity analysis tools like migration tomography or other tomographic methods

  7. Variation of the solar wind velocity following solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.; Lee, Y.

    1975-01-01

    By use of the superposed epoch method, changes in the solar wind velocity following solar flares have been investigated by using the solar wind velocity data obtained by Pioneer 6 and 7 and Vela 3, 4, and 5 satellites. A significant increase of the solar wind velocity has been found on the second day following importance 3 solar flares and on the third day following importance 2 solar flares. No significant increase of the solar wind velocity has been found for limb flares. (auth)

  8. Micro manometer and pitot tube for measuring the velocity distribution in a natural convection water stream between two vertical parallel plates (1961); Micromano metre et tube de pitot destines a l'exploration du profil de vitesse dans un ecoulement d'eau de convection naturelle entre deux plaques verticales paralleles (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santon, L; Vernier, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    For heat transfer studies in certain cases of cooling in swimming-pool type nuclear reactors, a knowledge of the distribution of the velocities between two heating elements is of prime importance. A Pitot tube and a micro-manometer have been developed for making these measurements on an experimental model. (authors) [French] Pour l'etude du transfert de chaleur dans certains cas de refroidissement des reacteurs nucleaires du type piscine, la connaissance de la repartition des vitesses entre deux elements chauffants est primordiale. On a mis au point un tube de Pitot et un micromanometre pour effectuer ces mesures sur une maquette experimentale. (auteurs)

  9. Control rod velocity limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cearley, J.E.; Carruth, J.C.; Dixon, R.C.; Spencer, S.S.; Zuloaga, J.A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a velocity control arrangement for a reciprocable, vertically oriented control rod for use in a nuclear reactor in a fluid medium, the control rod including a drive hub secured to and extending from one end therefrom. The control device comprises: a toroidally shaped control member spaced from and coaxially positioned around the hub and secured thereto by a plurality of spaced radial webs thereby providing an annular passage for fluid intermediate the hub and the toroidal member spaced therefrom in coaxial position. The side of the control member toward the control rod has a smooth generally conical surface. The side of the control member away from the control rod is formed with a concave surface constituting a single annular groove. The device also comprises inner and outer annular vanes radially spaced from one another and spaced from the side of the control member away from the control rod and positioned coaxially around and spaced from the hub and secured thereto by spaced radial webs thereby providing an annular passage for fluid intermediate the hub and the vanes. The vanes are angled toward the control member, the outer edge of the inner vane being closer to the control member and the inner edge of the outer vane being closer to the control member. When the control rod moves in the fluid in the direction toward the drive hub the vanes direct a flow of fluid turbulence which provides greater resistance to movement of the control rod in the direction toward the drive hub than in the other direction

  10. On linear relationship between shock velocity and particle velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandache, H.

    1986-11-01

    We attempt to derive the linear relationship between shock velocity U s and particle velocity U p from thermodynamic considerations, taking into account an ideal gas equation of state and a Mie-Grueneisen equation of state for solids. 23 refs

  11. The Mean and Scatter of the Velocity Dispersion-Optical Richness Relation for MaxBCG Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, M.R.; McKay, T.A.; /Michigan U.; Koester, B.; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Wechsler, R.H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Rozo, E.; /Ohio State U.; Evrard, A.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Johnston, D.; /Caltech, JPL; Sheldon, E.; /New York U.; Annis, J.; /Fermilab; Lau, E.; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Nichol, R.; /Portsmouth U., ICG; Miller, C.; /Michigan U.

    2007-06-05

    The distribution of galaxies in position and velocity around the centers of galaxy clusters encodes important information about cluster mass and structure. Using the maxBCG galaxy cluster catalog identified from imaging data obtained in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we study the BCG--galaxy velocity correlation function. By modeling its non-Gaussianity, we measure the mean and scatter in velocity dispersion at fixed richness. The mean velocity dispersion increases from 202 {+-} 10 km s{sup -1} for small groups to more than 854 {+-} 102 km s{sup -1} for large clusters. We show the scatter to be at most 40.5{+-}3.5%, declining to 14.9{+-}9.4% in the richest bins. We test our methods in the C4 cluster catalog, a spectroscopic cluster catalog produced from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR2 spectroscopic sample, and in mock galaxy catalogs constructed from N-body simulations. Our methods are robust, measuring the scatter to well within one-sigma of the true value, and the mean to within 10%, in the mock catalogs. By convolving the scatter in velocity dispersion at fixed richness with the observed richness space density function, we measure the velocity dispersion function of the maxBCG galaxy clusters. Although velocity dispersion and richness do not form a true mass--observable relation, the relationship between velocity dispersion and mass is theoretically well characterized and has low scatter. Thus our results provide a key link between theory and observations up to the velocity bias between dark matter and galaxies.

  12. Calibrating the Planck Cluster Mass Scale with Cluster Velocity Dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Stefania; Mei, Simona; Stanford, Spencer A.; Bartlett, James G.; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Lawrence, Charles R.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Shim, Hyunjin; Marleau, Francine; Stern, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    We measure the Planck cluster mass bias using dynamical mass measurements based on velocity dispersions of a subsample of 17 Planck-detected clusters. The velocity dispersions were calculated using redshifts determined from spectra that were obtained at the Gemini observatory with the GMOS multi-object spectrograph. We correct our estimates for effects due to finite aperture, Eddington bias, and correlated scatter between velocity dispersion and the Planck mass proxy. The result for the mass bias parameter, (1-b), depends on the value of the galaxy velocity bias, {b}{{v}}, adopted from simulations: (1-b)=(0.51+/- 0.09){b}{{v}}3. Using a velocity bias of {b}{{v}}=1.08 from Munari et al., we obtain (1-b)=0.64+/- 0.11, I.e., an error of 17% on the mass bias measurement with 17 clusters. This mass bias value is consistent with most previous weak-lensing determinations. It lies within 1σ of the value that is needed to reconcile the Planck cluster counts with the Planck primary cosmic microwave background constraints. We emphasize that uncertainty in the velocity bias severely hampers the precision of the measurements of the mass bias using velocity dispersions. On the other hand, when we fix the Planck mass bias using the constraints from Penna-Lima et al., based on weak-lensing measurements, we obtain a positive velocity bias of {b}{{v}}≳ 0.9 at 3σ .

  13. On the theory of turbulent flame velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Bychkov, Vitaly; Akkerman, Vyacheslav; Petchenko, Arkady

    2012-01-01

    The renormalization ideas of self-similar dynamics of a strongly turbulent flame front are applied to the case of a flame with realistically large thermal expansion of the burning matter. In that case a flame front is corrugated both by external turbulence and the intrinsic flame instability. The analytical formulas for the velocity of flame propagation are obtained. It is demonstrated that the flame instability is of principal importance when the integral turbulent length scale is much large...

  14. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  15. Velocity Dispersion of Ionized Gas and Multiple Supernova Explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliev E. O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We use 3D numerical simulations to study the evolution of the Hα intensity and velocity dispersion for single and multiple supernova (SN explosions. We find that the IHα– σ diagram obtained for simulated gas flows is similar in shape to that observed in dwarf galaxies. We conclude that colliding SN shells with significant difference in age are responsible for high velocity dispersion that reaches up to ≳ 100 km s−1. Such a high velocity dispersion could be hardly obtained for a single SN remnant. Peaks of velocity dispersion in the IHα– σ diagram may correspond to several isolated or merged SN remnants with moderately different ages. Degrading the spatial resolution in the Hα intensity and velocity dispersion maps makes the simulated IHα– σ diagrams close to those observed in dwarf galaxies not only in shape, but also quantitatively.

  16. High velocity impact experiment (HVIE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toor, A.; Donich, T.; Carter, P.

    1998-02-01

    The HVIE space project was conceived as a way to measure the absolute EOS for approximately 10 materials at pressures up to {approximately}30 Mb with order-of-magnitude higher accuracy than obtainable in any comparable experiment conducted on earth. The experiment configuration is such that each of the 10 materials interacts with all of the others thereby producing one-hundred independent, simultaneous EOS experiments The materials will be selected to provide critical information to weapons designers, National Ignition Facility target designers and planetary and geophysical scientists. In addition, HVIE will provide important scientific information to other communities, including the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization and the lethality and vulnerability community. The basic HVIE concept is to place two probes in counter rotating, highly elliptical orbits and collide them at high velocity (20 km/s) at 100 km altitude above the earth. The low altitude of the experiment will provide quick debris strip-out of orbit due to atmospheric drag. The preliminary conceptual evaluation of the HVIE has found no show stoppers. The design has been very easy to keep within the lift capabilities of commonly available rides to low earth orbit including the space shuttle. The cost of approximately 69 million dollars for 100 EOS experiment that will yield the much needed high accuracy, absolute measurement data is a bargain!

  17. Circumferential-wave phase velocities for empty, fluid-immersed spherical metal shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Überall, Herbert; Claude Ahyi, A.; Raju, P. K.

    2001-01-01

    Our earlier studies regarding acoustic scattering resonances and the dispersive phase velocities of the surface waves that generate them, have demonstrated the effectiveness of obtaining phase velocity dispersion curves from the known acoustic resonance frequencies, and their accuracy. This possi...

  18. Introduction to vector velocity imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Udesen, Jesper; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov

    Current ultrasound scanners can only estimate the velocity along the ultrasound beam and this gives rise to the cos() factor on all velocity estimates. This is a major limitation as most vessels are close to perpendicular to the beam. Also the angle varies as a function of space and time making ...

  19. Three-dimensional simulation of the motion of a single particle under a simulated turbulent velocity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Casas, P. A.; Bombardelli, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    A 3D Lagrangian particle tracking model is coupled to a 3D channel velocity field to simulate the saltation motion of a single sediment particle moving in saltation mode. The turbulent field is a high-resolution three dimensional velocity field that reproduces a by-pass transition to turbulence on a flat plate due to free-stream turbulence passing above de plate. In order to reduce computational costs, a decoupled approached is used, i.e., the turbulent flow is simulated independently from the tracking model, and then used to feed the 3D Lagrangian particle model. The simulations are carried using the point-particle approach. The particle tracking model contains three sub-models, namely, particle free-flight, a post-collision velocity and bed representation sub-models. The free-flight sub-model considers the action of the following forces: submerged weight, non-linear drag, lift, virtual mass, Magnus and Basset forces. The model also includes the effect of particle angular velocity. The post-collision velocities are obtained by applying conservation of angular and linear momentum. The complete model was validated with experimental results from literature within the sand range. Results for particle velocity time series and distribution of particle turbulent intensities are presented.

  20. A Method of Initial Velocity Measurement for Rocket Projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiancheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel method is proposed to measure the initial velocity of the rocket based on STFT (the short-time Fourier transform and the WT (wavelet transform. The radar echo signal processing procedure involves the following steps: sampling process, overlapping windows, wavelet decomposition and reconstruction, computing FFT (Fast Fourier Transform and spectrum analysis, power spectrum peak detection. Then, according to the peak of the detection power spectrum, the corresponding Doppler frequency is obtained. Finally, on the basis of the relationship between Doppler frequency and instantaneous velocity, the V-T curve is drawn in MATLAB to obtain the initial velocity of the rocket muzzle.

  1. An interferometric velocity calibrator for 73Ge Moessbauer spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.; Kimble, T.

    1987-01-01

    A velocity calibrator based on a laser driven Michelson interferometer was designed for a 73 Ge Moessbauer spectrometer in the range of 100 to 500 μm/sec. The conventional method of counting the interference fringes cannot be used in this case because the displacement only spans about 3 to 15 μm and only a few fringes can be observed during one velocity sweep. The velocity calibration obtained this way was compared with the calibration obtained from 57 Fe measurement, and excellent agreement was found between the two methods. (orig.)

  2. EXAFS analysis of cations distribution in structure of Co{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles obtained by hydrothermal method in aloe vera extract solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongpratat, Unchista [Materials Science and Nanotechnology Program, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Maensiri, Santi [School of Physics, Institute of Science, Suranaree University, Nakhonratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Swatsitang, Ekaphan, E-mail: ekaphan@kku.ac.th [Materials Science and Nanotechnology Program, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 Thailand (Thailand)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: It is obvious from the M–H curves at room temperature of Co{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0) nanoparticles that partially substitution of the lower Bohr magneton (2 μ{sub B}) and smaller atomic radii (0.55 Å at A site, 0.69 Å at B site) of Ni{sup 2+} ions on the higher Bohr magneton (3 μ{sub B}) and larger atomic radii (0.58 Å at A site, 0.74 Å at B site) of Co{sup 2+} ions can increase the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of sample with x = 0.75 to approximately 1.4 times of sample with x = 0, due to the increase of the aspect ratio (surface to volume) of nanoparticles, as a result of particle size decreasing from 37.03 to 12.63 nm. In addition to this, the ferrimagnetic behavior of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been changed to superparamagnetic behavior with the dramatic decrease of the coercivity from 1365.60 to 63.15 Oe. - Highlights: • Magnetic behavior of Co{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} NPs depends on Ni content and size of NPs. • Distribution of Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions in the structure results in the increase of M{sub s}. • Superparamagnetic behavior is observed with increasing of the aspect ratio. • M{sub s} is increased by a factor 1.4 to a value of 57.57 emu/g in Co{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 0.75}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • H{sub c} is decreased by a factor 20 to a value of 63.15 Oe in Co{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 0.75}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. - Abstract: Effect of cations distribution upon EXAFS analysis on magnetic properties of Co{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0) nanoparticles prepared by the hydrothermal method in aloe vera extract solution were studied. XRD analysis confirmed a pure phase of cubic spinel ferrite of all samples. Changes in lattice parameter and particle size depended on the Ni content with partial substitution and site distributions of Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} ions of different ionic radii at both tetrahedral and octahedral sites in the

  3. EXAFS analysis of cations distribution in structure of Co_1_−_xNi_xFe_2O_4 nanoparticles obtained by hydrothermal method in aloe vera extract solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongpratat, Unchista; Maensiri, Santi; Swatsitang, Ekaphan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: It is obvious from the M–H curves at room temperature of Co_1_−_xNi_xFe_2O_4 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0) nanoparticles that partially substitution of the lower Bohr magneton (2 μ_B) and smaller atomic radii (0.55 Å at A site, 0.69 Å at B site) of Ni"2"+ ions on the higher Bohr magneton (3 μ_B) and larger atomic radii (0.58 Å at A site, 0.74 Å at B site) of Co"2"+ ions can increase the saturation magnetization (M_s) of sample with x = 0.75 to approximately 1.4 times of sample with x = 0, due to the increase of the aspect ratio (surface to volume) of nanoparticles, as a result of particle size decreasing from 37.03 to 12.63 nm. In addition to this, the ferrimagnetic behavior of CoFe_2O_4 has been changed to superparamagnetic behavior with the dramatic decrease of the coercivity from 1365.60 to 63.15 Oe. - Highlights: • Magnetic behavior of Co_1_−_xNi_xFe_2O_4 NPs depends on Ni content and size of NPs. • Distribution of Co"2"+ and Ni"2"+ ions in the structure results in the increase of M_s. • Superparamagnetic behavior is observed with increasing of the aspect ratio. • M_s is increased by a factor 1.4 to a value of 57.57 emu/g in Co_0_._2_5Ni_0_._7_5Fe_2O_4. • H_c is decreased by a factor 20 to a value of 63.15 Oe in Co_0_._2_5Ni_0_._7_5Fe_2O_4. - Abstract: Effect of cations distribution upon EXAFS analysis on magnetic properties of Co_1_−_xNi_xFe_2O_4 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0) nanoparticles prepared by the hydrothermal method in aloe vera extract solution were studied. XRD analysis confirmed a pure phase of cubic spinel ferrite of all samples. Changes in lattice parameter and particle size depended on the Ni content with partial substitution and site distributions of Co"2"+, Ni"2"+ ions of different ionic radii at both tetrahedral and octahedral sites in the crystal structure. Particle sizes of samples estimated by TEM images were found to be in the range of 10.87–62.50 nm. The VSM results at room

  4. Diffraction imaging and velocity analysis using oriented velocity continuation

    KAUST Repository

    Decker, Luke

    2014-08-05

    We perform seismic diffraction imaging and velocity analysis by separating diffractions from specular reflections and decomposing them into slope components. We image slope components using extrapolation in migration velocity in time-space-slope coordinates. The extrapolation is described by a convection-type partial differential equation and implemented efficiently in the Fourier domain. Synthetic and field data experiments show that the proposed algorithm is able to detect accurate time-migration velocities by automatically measuring the flatness of events in dip-angle gathers.

  5. Three-dimensional groundwater velocity field in an unconfined aquifer under irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlotnik, V.

    1990-01-01

    A method for three-dimensional flow velocity calculation has been developed to evaluate unconfined aquifer sensitivity to areal agricultural contamination of groundwater. The methodology of Polubarinova-Kochina is applied to an unconfined homogeneous compressible or incompressible anisotropic aquifer. It is based on a three-dimensional groundwater flow model with a boundary condition on the moving surface. Analytical solutions are obtained for a hydraulic head under the influence of areal sources of circular and rectangular shape using integral transforms. Two-dimensional Hantush formulas result from the vertical averaging of the three-dimensional solutions, and the asymptotic behavior of solutions is analyzed. Analytical expressions for flow velocity components are obtained from the gradient of the hydraulic head field. Areal and temporal variability of specific yield in groundwater recharge areas is also taken into account. As a consequence of linearization of the boundary condition, the operation of any irrigation system with respect to groundwater is represented by superposition of the operating wells and circular and rectangular source influences. Combining the obtained solutions with Dagan or Neuman well functions, one can develop computer codes for the analytical computation of the three-dimensional groundwater hydraulic head and velocity component distributions. Methods for practical implementation are discussed. (Author) (20 refs., 4 figs.)

  6. Leading-Edge Velocities and Lifted Methane Jet Flame Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current interest exists in understanding reaction-zone dynamics and mechanisms with respect to how they counterpropagate against incoming reactants. Images of flame position and flow-field morphology are presented from flame chemiluminescence and particle image velocimetry (PIV measurements. In the present study, PIV experiments were carried out to measure the methane jet lifted-flame flow-field velocities in the vicinity of the flame leading edge. Specifically, velocity fields within the high-temperature zone were examined in detail, which complements previous studies, whose prime focus is the flow-field upstream of the high-temperature boundary. PIV data is used not only to determine the velocities, but, along with chemiluminescence images, to also indicate the approximate location of the reaction zone (further supported by/through the leading-edge flame velocity distributions. The velocity results indirectly support the concept that the flame is anchored primarily through the mechanism of partially premixed flame propagation.

  7. Radial velocity asymmetries from jets with variable velocity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueira, A. H.; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Velazquez, P. F.; Raga, A. C.; De Colle, F.

    2006-01-01

    We have computed a set of 3-D numerical simulations of radiatively cooling jets including variabilities in both the ejection direction (precession) and the jet velocity (intermittence), using the Yguazu-a code. In order to investigate the effects of jet rotation on the shape of the line profiles, we also introduce an initial toroidal rotation velocity profile. Since the Yguazu-a code includes an atomic/ionic network, we are able to compute the emission coefficients for several emission lines, and we generate line profiles for the Hα, [O I]λ6300, [S II]λ6716 and [N II]λ6548 lines. Using initial parameters that are suitable for the DG Tau microjet, we show that the computed radial velocity shift for the medium-velocity component of the line profile as a function of distance from the jet axis is strikingly similar for rotating and non-rotating jet models

  8. Fractals control in particle's velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongping; Liu Shutang; Shen Shulan

    2009-01-01

    Julia set, a fractal set of the literature of nonlinear physics, has significance for the engineering applications. For example, the fractal structure characteristics of the generalized M-J set could visually reflect the change rule of particle's velocity. According to the real world requirement, the system need show various particle's velocity in some cases. Thus, the control of the nonlinear behavior, i.e., Julia set, has attracted broad attention. In this work, an auxiliary feedback control is introduced to effectively control the Julia set that visually reflects the change rule of particle's velocity. It satisfies the performance requirement of the real world problems.

  9. Southern high-velocity stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augensen, H.J.; Buscombe, W.

    1978-01-01

    Using the model of the Galaxy presented by Eggen, Lynden-Bell and Sandage (1962), plane galactic orbits have been calculated for 800 southern high-velocity stars which possess parallax, proper motion, and radial velocity data. The stars with trigonometric parallaxes were selected from Buscombe and Morris (1958), supplemented by more recent spectroscopic data. Photometric parallaxes from infrared color indices were used for bright red giants studied by Eggen (1970), and for red dwarfs for which Rodgers and Eggen (1974) determined radial velocities. A color-color diagram based on published values of (U-B) and (B-V) for most of these stars is shown. (Auth.)

  10. Climatology of tropospheric vertical velocity spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, W. L.; Gage, K. S.; Balsley, B. B.; Carter, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Vertical velocity power spectra obtained from Poker Flat, Alaska; Platteville, Colorado; Rhone Delta, France; and Ponape, East Caroline Islands using 50-MHz clear-air radars with vertical beams are given. The spectra were obtained by analyzing the quietest periods from the one-minute-resolution time series for each site. The lengths of available vertical records ranged from as long as 6 months at Poker Flat to about 1 month at Platteville. The quiet-time vertical velocity spectra are shown. Spectral period ranging from 2 minutes to 4 hours is shown on the abscissa and power spectral density is given on the ordinate. The Brunt-Vaisala (B-V) periods (determined from nearby sounding balloons) are indicated. All spectra (except the one from Platteville) exhibit a peak at periods slightly longer than the B-V period, are flat at longer periods, and fall rapidly at periods less than the B-V period. This behavior is expected for a spectrum of internal waves and is very similar to what is observed in the ocean (Eriksen, 1978). The spectral amplitudes vary by only a factor of 2 or 3 about the mean, and show that under quiet conditions vertical velocity spectra from the troposphere are very similar at widely different locations.

  11. Liquid distribution in trickle-bed reactor; Distribution du liquide en reacteur a lit ruisselant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcandelli, C.; Wild, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS-ENSIC), Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique, 54 - Nancy (France); Lamine, A.S. [CNRS-Universite de Paris-Nord, Lab. d' Ingenierie des Materiaux et des Hautes Pressions, 93 - Villetaneuse (France); Bernard, J.R. [Elf Antar France, Centre de Recherche Elf de Solaize, 69 - Solaize (France)

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this study is to develop techniques to qualify the efficiency of liquid distribution in trickle-bed reactors, using cold mockups. The experimental setup consists mainly in a 0.3-m-ID packed-bed column with three different plates used to vary the quality of inlet liquid distribution. Liquid distribution has been qualified using several techniques: global pressure drop measurements, global RTD (Residence-Time Distribution) of the liquid, local heat transfer probes, capacitance tomography, collector at the bottom of the reactor with nine equal zones. The bed pressure drop and the overall external liquid saturation decrease when the maldistribution increases; quantitative information is however difficult to obtain this way. Global RTD of the liquid allows quantifying of the average liquid distribution in the bed. The local thermal sensors give an indication of local liquid velocity and indicate possible local maldistribution of the liquid (scale mm) even when global distribution is good. Concerning the results obtained with the collector, a maldistribution index is defined ranging from 0 (ideal distribution) to 1 (worst possible distribution), and the influence of the different operating parameters (gas and liquid velocities, particle shape) is discussed. (authors)

  12. Influence on Heat Transfer Coefficient of Heat Exchanger by Velocity and Heat Transfer Temperature Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Fang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimed to insufficient heat transfer of heat exchanger, research the influence on the heat transfer coefficient impacted by velocity and heat transfer temperature difference of tube heat exchanger. According to the different heat transfer temperature difference and gas velocity,the experimental data were divided into group. Using the control variable method,the above two factors were analyzed separately. K一△T and k一:fitting curve were clone to obtain empirical function. The entire heat exchanger is as the study object,using numerical simulation methods,porous media,k一£model,second order upwind mode,and pressure一velocity coupling with SIMPLE algorithm,the entire heat exchanger temperature field and the heat transfer coefficient distribution were given. Finally the trend of the heat transfer coefficient effected by the above two factors was gotten.

  13. Introducing a novel gravitation-based high-velocity compaction analysis method for pharmaceutical powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Timo; Antikainen, Osmo; Ehlers, Henrik; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2017-06-30

    With modern tableting machines large amounts of tablets are produced with high output. Consequently, methods to examine powder compression in a high-velocity setting are in demand. In the present study, a novel gravitation-based method was developed to examine powder compression. A steel bar is dropped on a punch to compress microcrystalline cellulose and starch samples inside the die. The distance of the bar is being read by a high-accuracy laser displacement sensor which provides a reliable distance-time plot for the bar movement. In-die height and density of the compact can be seen directly from this data, which can be examined further to obtain information on velocity, acceleration and energy distribution during compression. The energy consumed in compact formation could also be seen. Despite the high vertical compression speed, the method was proven to be cost-efficient, accurate and reproducible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Flow visualization and velocity measurement in a small-scale open channel using an electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, K; Sogo, M; Iwamoto, Y

    2013-01-01

    The present note describes a method for use in conjunction with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) that has been developed to visualize a liquid flow under a high-level vacuum and to measure a velocity field in a small-scale flow through an open channel. In general, liquid cannot be observed via a SEM, because liquid evaporates under the high-vacuum environment of the SEM. As such, ionic liquid and room temperature molten salt having a vapor pressure of nearly zero is used in the present study. We use ionic liquid containing Au-coated tracer particles to visualize a small-scale flow under a SEM. Furthermore, the velocity distribution in the open channel is obtained by particle tracking velocimetry measurement and a parabolic profile is confirmed. (technical design note)

  15. Spatial interpolation of point velocities in stream cross-section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasníková Eliška

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The most frequently used instrument for measuring velocity distribution in the cross-section of small rivers is the propeller-type current meter. Output of measuring using this instrument is point data of a tiny bulk. Spatial interpolation of measured data should produce a dense velocity profile, which is not available from the measuring itself. This paper describes the preparation of interpolation models.

  16. The velocity field induced by a helical vortex tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukumoto, Y.; Okulov, Valery

    2005-01-01

    The influence of finite-core thickness on the velocity field around a vortex tube is addressed. An asymptotic expansion of the Biot-Savart law is made to a higher order in a small parameter, the ratio of core radius to curvature radius, which consists of the velocity field due to lines of monopoles...... and dipoles arranged on the centerline of the tube. The former is associated with an infinitely thin core and is featured by the circulation alone. The distribution of vorticity in the core reflects on the strength of dipole. This result is applied to a helical vortex tube, and the induced velocity due...

  17. Magnetic gauge for free surface velocities in reinforced concrete blasted by explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashuach, Y; Gissis, I; Avinadav, C

    2014-01-01

    We developed a simple magnetic gauge for measuring free surface velocities of rock materials in the range of 0.1-20 m/s. The gauge consists of two elements: a NdFeB magnet and a pick-up coil. The coil is attached to the free surface at the point of interest. The magnet is placed a few centimeters away from the coil and the rock. The motion of the rock surface, due to blast loading, induces current in the coil due to the changes in the magnetic flux. The coil velocity is deduced from the measured current using a computational code. The gauge was tested and validated in a set of free-falling experiments. We present velocity measurements from various blast experiments in limestone and reinforced concrete, using both the magnetic gauge and a Doppler interferometer. The results obtained from the two measurement techniques are in good agreement. Since the magnetic gauge is cheap and very simple to operate, it is well-suited for mapping the velocity distribution at multiple points of interest on the concrete surface.

  18. Molecular extended thermodynamics of rarefied polyatomic gases and wave velocities for increasing number of moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arima, Takashi, E-mail: tks@stat.nitech.ac.jp [Center for Social Contribution and Collaboration, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan); Mentrelli, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.mentrelli@unibo.it [Department of Mathematics and Research Center of Applied Mathematics (CIRAM), University of Bologna (Italy); Ruggeri, Tommaso, E-mail: tommaso.ruggeri@unibo.it [Department of Mathematics and Research Center of Applied Mathematics (CIRAM), University of Bologna (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    Molecular extended thermodynamics of rarefied polyatomic gases is characterized by two hierarchies of equations for moments of a suitable distribution function in which the internal degrees of freedom of a molecule is taken into account. On the basis of physical relevance the truncation orders of the two hierarchies are proven to be not independent on each other, and the closure procedures based on the maximum entropy principle (MEP) and on the entropy principle (EP) are proven to be equivalent. The characteristic velocities of the emerging hyperbolic system of differential equations are compared to those obtained for monatomic gases and the lower bound estimate for the maximum equilibrium characteristic velocity established for monatomic gases (characterized by only one hierarchy for moments with truncation order of moments N) by Boillat and Ruggeri (1997) (λ{sub (N)}{sup E,max})/(c{sub 0}) ⩾√(6/5 (N−1/2 )),(c{sub 0}=√(5/3 k/m T)) is proven to hold also for rarefied polyatomic gases independently from the degrees of freedom of a molecule. -- Highlights: •Molecular extended thermodynamics of rarefied polyatomic gases is studied. •The relation between two hierarchies of equations for moments is derived. •The equivalence of maximum entropy principle and entropy principle is proven. •The characteristic velocities are compared to those of monatomic gases. •The lower bound of the maximum characteristic velocity is estimated.

  19. Molecular extended thermodynamics of rarefied polyatomic gases and wave velocities for increasing number of moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, Takashi; Mentrelli, Andrea; Ruggeri, Tommaso

    2014-01-01

    Molecular extended thermodynamics of rarefied polyatomic gases is characterized by two hierarchies of equations for moments of a suitable distribution function in which the internal degrees of freedom of a molecule is taken into account. On the basis of physical relevance the truncation orders of the two hierarchies are proven to be not independent on each other, and the closure procedures based on the maximum entropy principle (MEP) and on the entropy principle (EP) are proven to be equivalent. The characteristic velocities of the emerging hyperbolic system of differential equations are compared to those obtained for monatomic gases and the lower bound estimate for the maximum equilibrium characteristic velocity established for monatomic gases (characterized by only one hierarchy for moments with truncation order of moments N) by Boillat and Ruggeri (1997) (λ (N) E,max )/(c 0 ) ⩾√(6/5 (N−1/2 )),(c 0 =√(5/3 k/m T)) is proven to hold also for rarefied polyatomic gases independently from the degrees of freedom of a molecule. -- Highlights: •Molecular extended thermodynamics of rarefied polyatomic gases is studied. •The relation between two hierarchies of equations for moments is derived. •The equivalence of maximum entropy principle and entropy principle is proven. •The characteristic velocities are compared to those of monatomic gases. •The lower bound of the maximum characteristic velocity is estimated

  20. Changes in muscle fiber conduction velocity indicate recruitment of distinct motor unit populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, C J; Stegeman, D F; Van Dijk, J P; Zwarts, M J

    2003-09-01

    To obtain more insight into the changes in mean muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) during sustained isometric exercise at relatively low contraction levels, we performed an in-depth study of the human tibialis anterior muscle by using multichannel surface electromyogram. The results show an increase in MFCV after an initial decrease of MFCV at 30 or 40% maximum voluntary contraction in all of the five subjects studied. With a peak velocity analysis, we calculated the distribution of conduction velocities of action potentials in the bipolar electromyogram signal. It shows two populations of peak velocities occurring simultaneously halfway through the exercise. The MFCV pattern implies the recruitment of two different populations of motor units. Because of the lowering of MFCV of the first activated population of motor units, the newly recruited second population of motor units becomes visible. It is most likely that the MFCV pattern can be ascribed to the fatiguing of already recruited predominantly type I motor units, followed by the recruitment of fresh, predominantly type II, motor units.

  1. Solar wind velocity and geomagnetic moment variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, Yu.D.; Rozanova, T.S.

    1982-01-01

    The mean year values of the solar wind velocity have been calculated from the mean-year values of a geomagnetic activity index am according to the Svalgard equation of regression for the pe-- riod from 1930 to 1960. For the same years the values of the geomagnetic moment M and separately of its ''inner'' (causes of which'' are inside the Earth) and ''external'' (causes of which are outside the Earth) parts have been calculated from the mean year data of 12 magnetic observatories. The proof of the presence of the 11-year variation in the moment M has been obtained. It is concluded that the 11-year variations in M result from the variations of the solar wind velocity

  2. Sound Velocity in Soap Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gong-Tao; Lü Yong-Jun; Liu Peng-Fei; Li Yi-Ning; Shi Qing-Fan

    2012-01-01

    The velocity of sound in soap foams at high gas volume fractions is experimentally studied by using the time difference method. It is found that the sound velocities increase with increasing bubble diameter, and asymptotically approach to the value in air when the diameter is larger than 12.5 mm. We propose a simple theoretical model for the sound propagation in a disordered foam. In this model, the attenuation of a sound wave due to the scattering of the bubble wall is equivalently described as the effect of an additional length. This simplicity reasonably reproduces the sound velocity in foams and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experiments. Further measurements indicate that the increase of frequency markedly slows down the sound velocity, whereas the latter does not display a strong dependence on the solution concentration

  3. Settling velocities in batch sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, A.M.; Thompson, B.E.

    1982-10-01

    The sedimentation of mixtures containing one and two sizes of spherical particles (44 and 62 μm in diameter) was studied. Radioactive tracing with 57 Co was used to measure the settling velocities. The ratio of the settling velocity U of uniformly sized particles to the velocity predicted to Stokes' law U 0 was correlated to an expression of the form U/U 0 = epsilon/sup α/, where epsilon is the liquid volume fraction and α is an empirical constant, determined experimentally to be 4.85. No effect of viscosity on the ratio U/U 0 was observed as the viscosity of the liquid medium was varied from 1x10 -3 to 5x10 -3 Pa.s. The settling velocities of particles in a bimodal mixture were fit by the same correlation; the ratio U/U 0 was independent of the concentrations of different-sized particles

  4. Online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righettini, Paolo; Strada, Roberto; KhademOlama, Ehsan; Valilou, Shirin

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a new online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator (WCE) over position and acceleration data gathered from an electro hydraulic servo shaking table. This is a batch estimator type that is based on the wavelet filter banks which extract the high and low resolution of data. The proposed complementary estimator combines these two resolutions of velocities which acquired from numerical differentiation and integration of the position and acceleration sensors by considering a fixed moving horizon window as input to wavelet filter. Because of using wavelet filters, it can be implemented in a parallel procedure. By this method the numerical velocity is estimated without having high noise of differentiators, integration drifting bias and with less delay which is suitable for active vibration control in high precision Mechatronics systems by Direct Velocity Feedback (DVF) methods. This method allows us to make velocity sensors with less mechanically moving parts which makes it suitable for fast miniature structures. We have compared this method with Kalman and Butterworth filters over stability, delay and benchmarked them by their long time velocity integration for getting back the initial position data. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evolution of velocity dispersion along cold collisionless flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banik, Nilanjan; Sikivie, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We found that the infall of cold dark matter onto a galaxy produces cold collisionless flows and caustics in its halo. If a signal is found in the cavity detector of dark matter axions, the flows will be readily apparent as peaks in the energy spectrum of photons from axion conversion, allowing the densities, velocity vectors and velocity dispersions of the flows to be determined. We also discuss the evolution of velocity dispersion along cold collisionless flows in one and two dimensions. A technique is presented for obtaining the leading behaviour of the velocity dispersion near caustics. The results are used to derive an upper limit on the energy dispersion of the Big Flow from the sharpness of its nearby caustic, and a prediction for the dispersions in its velocity components

  6. Novel Volumetric Size and Velocity Measurement of Particles Using Interferometric Laser Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, R.; Zarzecki, M.; Diez, F. J.

    2008-11-01

    Global Sizing Velocimetry (GSV) is a recently developed technique for characterizing the particle size distribution and flow velocity in a plane and in this research we extend this measurement to a volume through a laser scanning system. In GSV, a LASER sheet is used to illuminate translucent particles in a spray or flow field and the camera image is de-focused a known distance to create interference patterns. The diameters of the particles in the flow field are calculated by measuring the inter-fringe spacing in the resulting interferogram. Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) techniques are used to compute velocity by measuring the particle displacement over a known short time interval. Researchers have recently begun applying GSV techniques to characterize sprays in a plane as it offers a larger area of investigation than other well known techniques such as Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). In this paper we extend GSA techniques from the current planar measurements to a volumetric measurement. The approach uses a high speed camera to acquire GSA images by scanning multiple planes in a volume of the flow field within a short period of time and obtain particle size distribution and velocity measurements in the entire volume.

  7. In Vivo Validation of a Blood Vector Velocity Estimator with MR Angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Udesen, Jesper; Thomsen, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Conventional Doppler methods for blood velocity estimation only estimate the velocity component along the ultrasound beam direction. This implies that a Doppler angle under examination close to 90° results in unreliable information about the true blood direction and blood velocity. The novel method...... indicate that reliable vector velocity estimates can be obtained in vivo using the presented angle-independent 2-D vector velocity method. The TO method can be a useful alternative to conventional Doppler systems by avoiding the angle artifact, thus giving quantitative velocity information....

  8. Phase velocity enhancement of linear explosive shock tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Jason; Serge, Matthew; Szirti, Daniel; Higgins, Andrew; Tanguay, Vincent

    2011-06-01

    Strong, high density shocks can be generated by sequentially detonating a hollow cylinder of explosives surrounding a thin-walled, pressurized tube. Implosion of the tube results in a pinch that travels at the detonation velocity of the explosive and acts like a piston to drive a shock into the gas ahead of it. In order to increase the maximum shock velocities that can be obtained, a phase velocity generator can be used to drag an oblique detonation wave along the gas tube at a velocity much higher than the base detonation velocity of the explosive. Since yielding and failure of the gas tube is the primary limitation of these devices, it is desirable to retain the dynamic confinement effects of a heavy-walled tamper without interfering with operation of the phase velocity generator. This was accomplished by cutting a slit into the tamper and introducing a phased detonation wave such that it asymmetrically wraps around the gas tube. This type of configuration has been previously experimentally verified to produce very strong shocks but the post-shock pressure and shock velocity limits have not been investigated. This study measured the shock trajectory for various fill pressures and phase velocities to ascertain the limiting effects of tube yield, detonation obliquity and pinch aspect ratio.

  9. Reliability of force-velocity relationships during deadlift high pull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Boyas, Sébastien; Jubeau, Marc; Rahmani, Abderrahmane

    2017-11-13

    This study aimed to evaluate the within- and between-session reliability of force, velocity and power performances and to assess the force-velocity relationship during the deadlift high pull (DHP). Nine participants performed two identical sessions of DHP with loads ranging from 30 to 70% of body mass. The force was measured by a force plate under the participants' feet. The velocity of the 'body + lifted mass' system was calculated by integrating the acceleration and the power was calculated as the product of force and velocity. The force-velocity relationships were obtained from linear regression of both mean and peak values of force and velocity. The within- and between-session reliability was evaluated by using coefficients of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Results showed that DHP force-velocity relationships were significantly linear (R² > 0.90, p  0.94), mean and peak velocities showed a good agreement (CV reliable and can therefore be utilised as a tool to characterise individuals' muscular profiles.

  10. Burning velocity measurements of nitrogen-containing compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Akifumi; Tokuhashi, Kazuaki; Kondo, Shigeo; Sekiya, Akira

    2008-06-30

    Burning velocity measurements of nitrogen-containing compounds, i.e., ammonia (NH3), methylamine (CH3NH2), ethylamine (C2H5NH2), and propylamine (C3H7NH2), were carried out to assess the flammability of potential natural refrigerants. The spherical-vessel (SV) method was used to measure the burning velocity over a wide range of sample and air concentrations. In addition, flame propagation was directly observed by the schlieren photography method, which showed that the spherical flame model was applicable to flames with a burning velocity higher than approximately 5 cm s(-1). For CH3NH2, the nozzle burner method was also used to confirm the validity of the results obtained by closed vessel methods. We obtained maximum burning velocities (Su0,max) of 7.2, 24.7, 26.9, and 28.3 cm s(-1) for NH3, CH3NH2, C2H5NH2, and C3H7NH2, respectively. It was noted that the burning velocities of NH3 and CH3NH2 were as high as those of the typical hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants difluoromethane (HFC-32, Su0,max=6.7 cm s(-1)) and 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, Su0,max=23.6 cm s(-1)), respectively. The burning velocities were compared with those of the parent alkanes, and it was found that introducing an NH2 group into hydrocarbon molecules decreases their burning velocity.

  11. Numerical modeling of probe velocity effects for electromagnetic NDE methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Y. K.; Lord, W.

    The present discussion of magnetic flux (MLF) leakage inspection introduces the behavior of motion-induced currents. The results obtained indicate that velocity effects exist at even low probe speeds for magnetic materials, compelling the inclusion of velocity effects in MLF testing of oil pipelines, where the excitation level and pig speed are much higher than those used in the present work. Probe velocity effect studies should influence probe design, defining suitable probe speed limits and establishing training guidelines for defect-characterization schemes.

  12. Continuous measurements of in-bore projectile velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, J.R.; Konrad, C.H.; Hall, C.A.; Shahinpoor, M.

    1989-01-01

    The application of velocity interferometry to the continuous measurement of in-bore projectile velocity in a small-bore three-stage railgun is described. These measurements are useful for determining projectile acceleration and for evaluating gun performance. The launcher employed in these studies consists of a two-stage light gas gun used to inject projectiles into a railgun for additional acceleration. Results obtained for projectile velocities to 7.4 km/s with the two-stage injector are reported and potential improvements for railgun applications are discussed

  13. Variational multi-valued velocity field estimation for transparent sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez-Manzanares, Alonso; Rivera, Mariano; Kornprobst, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Motion estimation in sequences with transparencies is an important problem in robotics and medical imaging applications. In this work we propose a variational approach for estimating multi-valued velocity fields in transparent sequences. Starting from existing local motion estimators, we derive...... a variational model for integrating in space and time such a local information in order to obtain a robust estimation of the multi-valued velocity field. With this approach, we can indeed estimate multi-valued velocity fields which are not necessarily piecewise constant on a layer –each layer can evolve...

  14. Rayleigh wave group-velocity across the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico from ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, D.; Pulliam, J.; Polanco Rivera, E.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.

    2017-12-01

    The eastern North America-Caribbean (NA-CAR) plate boundary near the islands of Hispaniola (which is comprised of the Dominican Republic and Haiti) and Puerto Rico is a complex transition zone in which strain is accommodated by two transform fault systems and oblique subduction. In 2013, scientists from Baylor University, the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo, and the Puerto Rico Seismic Network deployed 16 broadband stations on the Dominican Republic to expand the local permanent network. The goal of the Greater Antilles Seismic Program (GrASP) is to combine its data with that from permanent networks in Puerto Rico, Haiti, Cuba, the Cayman Islands, and Jamaica to develop a better understanding of the crust and upper mantle structure in the Northeastern Caribbean (Greater Antilles). One important goal of GrASP is to develop robust velocity models that can be used to improve earthquake location and seismic hazard efforts. In this study, we focus on obtaining Rayleigh wave group velocity maps from ambient noise tomography. By cross-correlating ambient seismic noise recorded at 53 stations between 2010 to present, we obtain Green's functions between 1165 pairs of stations. From these, we obtain dispersion curves by the application of FTAN methods with phase-matched filtering. Selection criteria depend on the signal-to-noise ratio and seasonal variability, with further filtering done by rejecting velocities incompatible with maps produced from overdamped tomographic inversions. Preliminary dispersion maps show strong correlations with large-scale geological and tectonic features for periods between 5 - 20 s, such as the Cordillera Central in both the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, the Mona Passage, and the NA-CAR subduction zone. Ongoing efforts focus on including shorter periods in Puerto Rico as its denser station distribution could allow us to retrieve higher resolution group velocity maps.

  15. Ion distributions at the dayside magnetopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.F.; Rodgers, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present ion phase space distributions, from the AMPTE UKS ion instrument, for a crossing of the dayside magnetopause on October 2, 1984, during typical southward IMF conditions. They observed D-shaped field-aligned phase space distributions of magnetosheath plasma earthward of and hot magnetospheric ions sunward of the magnetopause current layer. The existence of such D-shaped magnetosheath plasma distributions has been predicted as a signature of reconnection. In addition, the observed ion distributions are in stress balance across the magnetopause, and the de Hoffman-Teller frame velocity obtained from the stress balance calculation is in agreement with the observed distribution function cutoff speed. These new observations thus provide further evidence that, at least for southward IMF conditions, reconnection is an important mechanism by which solar wind plasma penetrates into the magnetosphere

  16. Estimation of seismic velocity in the subducting crust of the Pacific slab beneath Hokkaido, northern Japan by using guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, T.; Nakajima, J.; Toyokuni, G.; Kita, S.; Matsuzawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    A subducting crust contains a large amount of water as a form of hydrous minerals (e.g., Hacker et al., 2003), and the crust plays important roles for water transportation and seismogenesis in subduction zones at intermediate depths (e.g., Kirby et al., 1996; Iwamori, 2007). Therefore, the investigation of seismic structure in the crust is important to understand ongoing physical processes with subduction of oceanic lithosphere. A guided wave which propagates in the subducting crust is recorded in seismograms at Hokkaido, northern Japan (Shiina et al., 2014). Here, we estimated P- and S-wave velocity in the crust with guided waves, and obtained P-wave velocity of 6.6-7.3 km/s and S-wave velocity of 3.6-4.2 km/s at depths of 50-90 km. Moreover, Vp/Vs ratio in the crust is calculated to be 1.80-1.85 in that depth range. The obtained P-wave velocity about 6.6km/s at depths of 50-70 km is consistent with those estimated in Tohoku, northeast Japan (Shiina et al., 2013), and this the P-wave velocity is lower than those expected from models of subducting crustal compositions, such as metamorphosed MORB model (Hacker et al., 2003). In contrast, at greater depths (>80 km), the P-wave velocity marks higher velocity than the case of NE Japan and the velocity is roughly comparable to those of the MORB model. The obtained S-wave velocity distribution also shows characteristics similar to P waves. This regional variation may be caused by a small variation in thermal regime of the Pacific slab beneath the two regions as a result of the normal subduction in Tohoku and oblique subduction in Hokkaido. In addition, the effect of seismic anisotropy in the subducting crust would not be ruled out because rays used in the analysis in Hokkaido propagate mostly in the trench-parallel direction, while those in Tohoku are sufficiently criss-crossed.

  17. Velocity Estimate Following Air Data System Failure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLaren, Scott A

    2008-01-01

    .... A velocity estimator (VEST) algorithm was developed to combine the inertial and wind velocities to provide an estimate of the aircraft's current true velocity to be used for command path gain scheduling and for display in the cockpit...

  18. Copernicus observations of Iota Herculis velocity variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, J. B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of Iota Her at 109.61-109.67 nm obtained with the U1 channel of the Copernicus spectrophotometer at resolution 5 pm during 3.6 days in May, 1979, are reported. Radial-velocity variations are detected and analyzed as the sum of two sinusoids with frequencies 0.660 and 0.618 cycles/day and amplitudes 9.18 and 8.11 km/s, respectively. Weak evidence supporting the 13.9-h periodicity seen in line-profile variations by Smith (1978) is found.

  19. Extreme events as foundation of Levy walks with varying velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutner, Ryszard

    2002-01-01

    In this work we study the role of extreme events [E.W. Montroll, B.J. West, in: J.L. Lebowitz, E.W. Montrell (Eds.), Fluctuation Phenomena, SSM, vol. VII, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979, p. 63; J.-P. Bouchaud, M. Potters, Theory of Financial Risks from Statistical Physics to Risk Management, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001; D. Sornette, Critical Phenomena in Natural Sciences. Chaos, Fractals, Selforganization and Disorder: Concepts and Tools, Springer, Berlin, 2000] in determining the scaling properties of Levy walks with varying velocity. This model is an extension of the well-known Levy walks one [J. Klafter, G. Zumofen, M.F. Shlesinger, in M.F. Shlesinger, G.M. Zaslavsky, U. Frisch (Eds.), Levy Flights and Related Topics ion Physics, Lecture Notes in Physics, vol. 450, Springer, Berlin, 1995, p. 196; G. Zumofen, J. Klafter, M.F. Shlesinger, in: R. Kutner, A. Pekalski, K. Sznajd-Weron (Eds.), Anomalous Diffusion. From Basics to Applications, Lecture Note in Physics, vol. 519, Springer, Berlin, 1999, p. 15] introduced in the context of chaotic dynamics where a fixed value of the walker velocity is assumed for simplicity. Such an extension seems to be necessary when the open and/or complex system is studied. The model of Levy walks with varying velocity is spanned on two coupled velocity-temporal hierarchies: the first one consisting of velocities and the second of corresponding time intervals which the walker spends between the successive turning points. Both these hierarchical structures are characterized by their own self-similar dimensions. The extreme event, which can appear within a given time interval, is defined as a single random step of the walker having largest length. By finding power-laws which describe the time-dependence of this displacement and its statistics we obtained two independent diffusion exponents, which are related to the above-mentioned dimensions and which characterize the extreme event kinetics. In this work we show the

  20. Deriving micro- to macro-scale seismic velocities from ice-core c axis orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerch, Johanna; Diez, Anja; Weikusat, Ilka; Eisen, Olaf

    2018-05-01

    One of the great challenges in glaciology is the ability to estimate the bulk ice anisotropy in ice sheets and glaciers, which is needed to improve our understanding of ice-sheet dynamics. We investigate the effect of crystal anisotropy on seismic velocities in glacier ice and revisit the framework which is based on fabric eigenvalues to derive approximate seismic velocities by exploiting the assumed symmetry. In contrast to previous studies, we calculate the seismic velocities using the exact c axis angles describing the orientations of the crystal ensemble in an ice-core sample. We apply this approach to fabric data sets from an alpine and a polar ice core. Our results provide a quantitative evaluation of the earlier approximative eigenvalue framework. For near-vertical incidence our results differ by up to 135 m s-1 for P-wave and 200 m s-1 for S-wave velocity compared to the earlier framework (estimated 1 % difference in average P-wave velocity at the bedrock for the short alpine ice core). We quantify the influence of shear-wave splitting at the bedrock as 45 m s-1 for the alpine ice core and 59 m s-1 for the polar ice core. At non-vertical incidence we obtain differences of up to 185 m s-1 for P-wave and 280 m s-1 for S-wave velocities. Additionally, our findings highlight the variation in seismic velocity at non-vertical incidence as a function of the horizontal azimuth of the seismic plane, which can be significant for non-symmetric orientation distributions and results in a strong azimuth-dependent shear-wave splitting of max. 281 m s-1 at some depths. For a given incidence angle and depth we estimated changes in phase velocity of almost 200 m s-1 for P wave and more than 200 m s-1 for S wave and shear-wave splitting under a rotating seismic plane. We assess for the first time the change in seismic anisotropy that can be expected on a short spatial (vertical) scale in a glacier due to strong variability in crystal-orientation fabric (±50 m s-1 per 10 cm